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Sample records for record design implications

  1. Design, Challenges, and Implications of Quality Improvement Projects Using the Electronic Medical Record: Case Study: A Protocol to Reduce the Burden of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Joseph E; Porten, Brandon R; Strauss, Craig E; Garberich, Ross F; Han, Christopher; Wahl, Sharon K; Sun, Benjamin C; Abdelhadi, Raed H; Henry, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a frequent complication of cardiac surgery, which results in increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and hospital costs. We developed and followed a process map to implement a protocol to decrease POAF: (1) identify stakeholders and form a working committee, (2) formal literature and guideline review, (3) retrospective analysis of current institutional data, (4) data modeling to determine expected effects of change, (4) protocol development and implementation into the electronic medical record, and (5) ongoing review of data and protocol adjustment. Retrospective analysis demonstrated that POAF occurred in 29.8% of all cardiovascular surgery cases. Median length of stay was 2 days longer (P$200 000 annually could be saved. A clinically based electronic medical record tool was implemented into the electronic medical record to aid preoperative clinic providers in identifying patients eligible for prophylactic amiodarone. Initial results during the 9-month period after implementation demonstrated a reduction in POAF in patients using the protocol, compared with those who qualified but did not receive amiodarone and those not evaluated (11.1% versus 38.7% and 38.8%; P=0.022); however, only 17.3% of patients used the protocol. A standardized methodological approach to quality improvement and electronic medical record integration has potential to significantly decrease the incidence of POAF, length of stay, and total variable cost in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgeries. This framework for quality improvement interventions may be adapted to similar clinical problems beyond POAF. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Traumatic hyphaema in Ilorin, Nigeria: implications for designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aim to document the pattern of TH in Ilorin, Nigeria, and draw out implications for the design of appropriate health education messages that will prevent causative eye injuries and ensure early presentation of patients with TH to the eye clinic. A retrospective review of the hospital records of all the 23 patients that had TH ...

  3. Implications of WWW technologies for exchanging medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Dixon

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some of the implications for medical record exchange of very recent developments in technology and tools that support the World Wide Web. It argues that XML (Extensible Mark-up Language is a very good enabling technology for medical record exchange. XML provides a much cheaper way of executing the exchange of medical information that circumvents the need for proprietary software. Use of XML can also simplify solutions to the problems associated with coping with the evolution of medical systems in time. However XML on its own does not resolve all the semantic heterogeneities.

  4. Designing Shared Electronic Records for Chronic Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen Peter; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2010-01-01

    ICDs (implantable cardioverter-defibrillator). These are chronic patients who usually see several different healthcare providers on a regular basis. The main findings so far are: (1) Most of the data produced and recorded as part of the care process are context-specific and often difficult to interpret...

  5. Engineering: Computational design hits record resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelaar, Matthijs

    2017-10-01

    A supercomputer-powered design technique enables the discovery of efficient mechanical structures that have an unprecedented level of detail. The findings provide insights into both physical and biological structures. See Letter p.84

  6. Study of Screen Design Principles for Visualizing Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kenichiro; Takemura, Tadamasa; Kuroda, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    To improve UX of EMR/EHR, the screen design principles for the visualization are required. Through the study of common attributes of medical records, we present four principles and show three screen designs by applying them.

  7. More screen time, less face time - implications for EHR design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur; D Smith, Paul; Montague, Enid

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the impact of health information technology on doctor-patient interaction is vital to designing better electronic health records (EHRs). This article quantitatively examines and compares clinically experienced physicians' interactions with patients using paper or EHRs in ambulatory primary care settings. Clinical encounters using paper or EHRs were recorded with high-resolution video cameras to capture physicians' interactions with the health records and patients. All videos were coded using quantified video coding methodology to understand how physicians interacted with EHRs and patients through measuring eye gaze durations. Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the results of the paper and EHR visits. Eight experienced family medicine physicians and 80 patients participated in the study. A total of 80 visits, 40 with paper and 40 with EHRs were recorded. The proportion of time physicians spent gazing at medical records during EHR visits was significantly more than in paper chart visits (35.2 versus 22.1%, P = 0.001). A significantly smaller proportion of physician time was spent gazing at the patient when using an EHR compared with when using a paper chart (52.6 versus 45.6%, P = 0.041). For this group of family medicine physicians, more time was spent looking at the EHR screen than paper records and a little less time looking at the patient. These findings may negatively affect the patient perception of the visit with the physician and have implications for the design of future EHRs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Design and implementation of an underwater sound recording device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Rohrer, John S.; Caviggia, Kurt A.

    2011-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to design and build two versions of an underwater sound recording device. The device designed is referred to as the Underwater Sound Recorder (USR), which can be connected to one or two hydrophones or other underwater sound sensors. The URS contains a 26 dB preamplifier and a user selectable gain that permits additional amplification of input to the system from 26 dB to 46 dB. Signals within the frequency range up to 15 kHz may be recorded using the USR. Examples of USR applications are monitoring underwater processes that have the potential to create large pressure waves that could potentially harm fish or other aquatic life, such as underwater explosions or pile driving. Additional applications are recording sound generated by vessels or the vocalizations of some marine mammals, such as the calls from many species of whales.

  9. Implications of the law on video recording in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henken, K.R.; Jansen, F.W.; Klein, J.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear

  10. Shift Recording in Residential Child Care: Purposes, Issues and Implications for Policy and Practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Hardy

    2014-01-01

      The ways in which information about children in residential child care is recorded and stored raises important implications for service-users, professionals and organizations but is an area of social...

  11. Impact of electronic health record systems on information integrity: quality and safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Sue

    2013-01-01

    While the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems promises a number of substantial benefits, including better care and decreased healthcare costs, serious unintended consequences from the implementation of these systems have emerged. Poor EHR system design and improper use can cause EHR-related errors that jeopardize the integrity of the information in the EHR, leading to errors that endanger patient safety or decrease the quality of care. These unintended consequences also may increase fraud and abuse and can have serious legal implications. This literature review examines the impact of unintended consequences of the use of EHR systems on the quality of care and proposed solutions to address EHR-related errors. This analysis of the literature on EHR risks is intended to serve as an impetus for further research on the prevalence of these risks, their impact on quality and safety of patient care, and strategies for reducing them.

  12. Future of electronic health records: implications for decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Brian; Leonard, Joan C; Vigoda, Michael M

    2012-01-01

    The potential benefits of the electronic health record over traditional paper are many, including cost containment, reductions in errors, and improved compliance by utilizing real-time data. The highest functional level of the electronic health record (EHR) is clinical decision support (CDS) and process automation, which are expected to enhance patient health and healthcare. The authors provide an overview of the progress in using patient data more efficiently and effectively through clinical decision support to improve health care delivery, how decision support impacts anesthesia practice, and how some are leading the way using these systems to solve need-specific issues. Clinical decision support uses passive or active decision support to modify clinician behavior through recommendations of specific actions. Recommendations may reduce medication errors, which would result in considerable savings by avoiding adverse drug events. In selected studies, clinical decision support has been shown to decrease the time to follow-up actions, and prediction has proved useful in forecasting patient outcomes, avoiding costs, and correctly prompting treatment plan modifications by clinicians before engaging in decision-making. Clinical documentation accuracy and completeness is improved by an electronic health record and greater relevance of care data is delivered. Clinical decision support may increase clinician adherence to clinical guidelines, but educational workshops may be equally effective. Unintentional consequences of clinical decision support, such as alert desensitization, can decrease the effectiveness of a system. Current anesthesia clinical decision support use includes antibiotic administration timing, improved documentation, more timely billing, and postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Electronic health record implementation offers data-mining opportunities to improve operational, financial, and clinical processes. Using electronic health record data

  13. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational approach...to visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  14. Lead User Design: Medication Management in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Weber, Jens H; Davies, Iryna; Bellwood, Paule

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in medication management may lead to a reduction of preventable errors. Usability and user experience issues are common and related to achieving benefits of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs). This paper reports on a novel study that combines the lead user method with a safety engineering review to discover an innovative design for the medication management module in EMRs in primary care. Eight lead users were recruited that represented prescribers and clinical pharmacists with expertise in EMR design, evidence-based medicine, medication safety and medication research. Eight separate medication management module designs were prototyped and validated, one with each lead user. A parallel safety review of medicaiton management was completed. The findings were synthesized into a single common set of goals, activities and one interactive, visual prototype. The lead user method with safety review proved to be an effective way to elicit diverse user goals and synthesize them into a common design. The resulting design ideas focus on meeting the goals of quality, efficiency, safety, reducing the cognitive load on the user, and improving communication wih the patient and the care team. Design ideas are being adapted to an existing EMR product, providing areas for further work.

  15. Design and Implementation of an Underwater Sound Recording Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa M. Woodley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available To monitor the underwater sound and pressure waves generated by anthropogenic activities such as underwater blasting and pile driving, an autonomous system was designed to record underwater acoustic signals. The underwater sound recording device (USR allows for connections of two hydrophones or other dynamic pressure sensors, filters high frequency noise out of the collected signals, has a gain that can be independently set for each sensor, and allows for 2 h of data collection. Two versions of the USR were created: a submersible model deployable to a maximum depth of 300 m, and a watertight but not fully submersible model. Tests were performed on the USR in the laboratory using a data acquisition system to send single-frequency sinusoidal voltages directly to each component. These tests verified that the device operates as designed and performs as well as larger commercially available data acquisition systems, which are not suited for field use. On average, the designed gain values differed from the actual measured gain values by about 0.35 dB. A prototype of the device was used in a case study to measure blast pressures while investigating the effect of underwater rock blasting on juvenile Chinook salmon and rainbow trout. In the case study, maximum positive pressure from the blast was found to be significantly correlated with frequency of injury for individual fish. The case study also demonstrated that the device withstood operation in harsh environments, making it a valuable tool for collecting field measurements.

  16. Designing a medical records review tool: an instructional guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Henry, Tracy; Cooper, Simon; Endacott, Ruth; Porter, Joanne; Missen, Karen; Sparks, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Medical Records Reviews (MRR) are commonly used in research and quality activities in health care, however, there is a paucity of literature offering a step by step guide to devising a reliable, user-friendly tool. This instructional paper focuses on the stages used to design and implement successful MRR using examples from two reviews in Australian rural hospitals investigating the responses of Registered Nurses to patient deterioration, and guided by time series principals. The MRR were conducted in two rural hospitals in conjunction with a simulation learning intervention where nurses rehearsed clinical management of a deteriorating patient. A six-step template is presented to guide practitioners on how to design and use a MRR tool. When well-planned and appropriately used, MRR provides an excellent means for examining patient outcomes in addition to safety and quality of care.

  17. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities.

  18. Magnetic characterisation of recording materials: design, instrumentation and experimental methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samwel, E.O.

    1995-01-01

    The progress being made in the field of magnetic recording is extremely fast. The need to keep this progress going, leads to new types of recording materials which require advanced measurement systems and measurement procedures. Furthermore, the existing measurement methods need to be reviewed as

  19. Implications of perspective in teaching objects first and object design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2005-01-01

    There are an increasing number of books published on the important topics of "object-oriented programming" and "object-oriented design" for use in education. However, object-orientation can be viewed from a number of different perspectives---each perspective having its benefits and liabilities....... A perspective has a strong influence on the kind of designs students can and will produce, the kind of domains that are easy or difficult to analyze, and the kind of frame of reference in which design techniques are understood and applied. In this paper we argue that most books make an implicit choice...... of perspective with the unfortunate effect that our students leave our courses with limited design abilities. We present a coarse-grained classification, discuss implications of perspective in a teaching context, and illustrate consequences using a small case study. Our main point is that teachers should...

  20. Designing an Electronic Personal Health Record for Professional Iranian Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolkhani, Robab; Halabchi, Farzin; Safdari, Reza; Dargahi, Hossein; Shadanfar, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    Background: By providing sports organizations with electronic records and instruments that can be accessed at any time or place, specialized care can be offered to athletes regardless of injury location, and this makes the follow-up from first aid through to full recovery more efficient. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an electronic personal health record for professional Iranian athletes. Patients and Methods: First, a comparative study was carried out on the types of professional athletes’existing handheld and electronic health information management systems currently being used in Iran and leading countries in the field of sports medicine including; Australia, Canada and the United States. Then a checklist was developed containing a minimum dataset of professional athletes’ personal health records and distributed to the people involved, who consisted of 50 specialists in sports medicine and health information management, using the Delphi method. Through the use of data obtained from this survey, a basic paper model of professional athletes' personal health record was constructed and then an electronic model was created accordingly. Results: Access to information in the electronic record was through a web-based, portal system. The capabilities of this system included: access to information at any time and location, increased interaction between the medical team, comprehensive reporting and effective management of injuries, flexibility and interaction with financial, radiology and laboratory information systems. Conclusions: It is suggested that a framework should be created to promote athletes’ medical knowledge and provide the education necessary to manage their information. This would lead to improved data quality and ultimately promote the health of community athletes. PMID:25741410

  1. Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed.

  2. Designing and Implication of Pictograms in Universities of Tehran (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshavarzi Firouzeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pictograms have many implications nowadays and are used for simple and fluent pictorial interpretations. These concepts are usually informative, conductive and warning. These kinds of icons are used in order to simplify the communication in an environment as are used in airports, terminals, railroad stations, parks, zoo, hospitals, drug stores and so on. To provide an efficient contrast, pictograms are often in black and white. Nowadays in different public places and landscape design pictograms are used for perfect communication. By the ways these icons are related to the civilization and tribal culture. Designing pictograms need a permanent search for better plan for better information transfer. In this project researcher designed and executed pictograms for better conduction in some selected Universities in Iran at 2015. The project was done for internal and external places of selected universities. Absence of informative and pictorial icons in universities environments causes wandering about for novices and they are not able to find different places like libraries, restaurant, and offices and so on. This study resulted in better communication in campus environments. Researcher hope pictograms will find their real and proper role in Iranian art area.

  3. Coping with human errors through system design: Implications for ecological interface design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Vicente, Kim J.

    1989-01-01

    Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects of t...... on both the interferences causing error and on the opportunity for error recovery left to the operator.......Research during recent years has revealed that human errors are not stochastic events which can be removed through improved training programs or optimal interface design. Rather, errors tend to reflect either systematic interference between various models, rules, and schemata, or the effects...... of the adaptive mechanisms involved in learning. In terms of design implications, these findings suggest that reliable human-system interaction will be achieved by designing interfaces which tend to minimize the potential for control interference and support recovery from errors. In other words, the focus should...

  4. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  5. 37 CFR 212.5 - Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. 212.5 Section 212.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE... of distinctive identification of vessel hull designer. (a) General. Any owner of a vessel hull may...

  6. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14-19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.

  7. Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS: objectives, design, methodology and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS. The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Amman (Jordan, Mosel (Iraq, Muscat (Oman, Tunisia (Tunisia and Kenitra (Morocco. Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will

  8. Smart applications to track and record physical activity: implications for obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong SS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Siew Sun Wong,1 Yu Meng,1 Paul D Loprinzi,2 Nobuko Hongu3 1School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 2Department of Exercise Science, Donna and Allan Lansing School of Nursing and Health Sciences, Bellarmine University, Louisville, KY, USA; 3Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: The primary purpose of this review is to answer three research questions: 1 What are the most popular features of physical activity (PA tracking and recording mobile applications (apps; 2 what features drive the app cost, peak rank, or gross sales; and 3 to what extent are evidence-based weight loss recommendations used in PA apps? Two hundred top grossing iOS health care and fitness apps were screened using a systematic review method. Fifty-five apps met the criteria as PA tracking and recording apps. Nearly half of these iOS PA apps are also available in Android. Two separate reviewers evaluated each PA app using 48 features. The top three most popular features are the use of behavioral strategies, use of the FITT Principles (frequency, intensity, time, type, and the use of the Principles for Physical Fitness. Free apps contain a mean of nine of the ten most popular features in paid apps, making them good bargains in PA promotion. Better peak rank is associated with the use of Fitness Principles, weight loss goal setting, or training videos. Ten PA apps met at least four of eight of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM recommendations for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. The least popular features were PA safety and workouts for special need populations. Implications for obesity treatment are discussed in relationship to individual end-users, health care providers, and app developers. Because current PA apps still lack validity and compliance to standards for PA safety and data security, medical consultation for weight loss is

  9. A Content Analysis of Instructional Design and Web Design Books: Implications for Inclusion of Web Design in Instructional Design Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obilade, Titilola T.; Burton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This textual content analysis set out to determine the extent to which the theories, principles, and guidelines in 4 standard books of instructional design and technology were also addressed in 4 popular books on web design. The standard books on instructional design and the popular books on web design were chosen by experts in the fields. The…

  10. Discursive Constructions of Design and Implications for Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    Recognition of design discourses at play in professional practice is key when discussing ways to reintroduce designerly ways in engineering education. This paper outlines three design discourses discussed in literature and mirroring contemporary design practice: Viewing ‘design as art’ upholds...... traditional ties to the arts and craft tradition, where individual designers work with tangible form and aesthetics. Perceiving ‘design as problem solving’ focuses on the process viewed as a collective search for solutions. In ‘design as dialogue’ this is extended to a reflective practice where the designer...

  11. Sedimentary record of Tropical Cyclone Pam from Vanuatu: implications for long-term event records in the tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarczyk, Jessica; Kosciuch, Thomas; Hong, Isabel; Fritz, Hermann; Horton, Benjamin; Wallace, Davin; Dike, Clayton; Rarai, Allan; Harrison, Morris; Jockley, Fred

    2017-04-01

    Vanuatu has a history of tropical cyclones impacting its coastlines, including Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam, a rare Category 5 event that made landfall in March 2015. Reliable records of tropical cyclones impacting Vanuatu are limited to the last several decades, with only fragmentary evidence of events extending as far back as the 1890's. Geological investigations are a means for expanding the short historical record of tropical cyclones by hundreds to thousands of years, permitting the study of even the rare, but intense events. However, geological records of past tropical cyclones are limited in their ability to quantify the intensity of past events. Modern analogues of landfalling tropical cyclones present an opportunity to characterize overwash sediments deposited by a storm of known intensity. In this study, we document the sedimentological and micropaleontological characteristics of sediments deposited by TC Pam in order to assess sediment provenance associated with a landfalling Category 5 storm. Within three months of TC Pam making landfall on Vanuatu we surveyed high-water marks associated with the storm surge and documented the foraminiferal assemblages and grain size distributions contained within the overwash sediments from Manuro (mixed-carbonate site on Efate Island) and Port Resolution Bay (volcaniclastic site on Tanna Island). The combined use of foraminiferal taxonomy and taphonomy (surface condition of foraminifera) was most useful in distinguishing the TC Pam sediments from the underlying layer. TC Pam sediments were characterized by an influx of calcareous marine foraminifera that were dominantly unaltered relative to those that were abraded and fragmented. Similar to studies that use mollusk taphonomy to identify overwash deposits, we found that TC Pam sediments were associated with an influx of angular fragments that were broken during transport by the storm surge. A statistical comparison of foraminifera from six modern environments on Efate

  12. Designing an algorithm to preserve privacy for medical record linkage with error-prone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Doyel; Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng; Khethavath, Praveen

    2014-01-20

    Linking medical records across different medical service providers is important to the enhancement of health care quality and public health surveillance. In records linkage, protecting the patients' privacy is a primary requirement. In real-world health care databases, records may well contain errors due to various reasons such as typos. Linking the error-prone data and preserving data privacy at the same time are very difficult. Existing privacy preserving solutions for this problem are only restricted to textual data. To enable different medical service providers to link their error-prone data in a private way, our aim was to provide a holistic solution by designing and developing a medical record linkage system for medical service providers. To initiate a record linkage, one provider selects one of its collaborators in the Connection Management Module, chooses some attributes of the database to be matched, and establishes the connection with the collaborator after the negotiation. In the Data Matching Module, for error-free data, our solution offered two different choices for cryptographic schemes. For error-prone numerical data, we proposed a newly designed privacy preserving linking algorithm named the Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm, that allows the error-prone data to be correctly matched if the distance between the two records is below a threshold. We designed and developed a comprehensive and user-friendly software system that provides privacy preserving record linkage functions for medical service providers, which meets the regulation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. It does not require a third party and it is secure in that neither entity can learn the records in the other's database. Moreover, our novel Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm implemented in this software can work well with error-prone numerical data. We theoretically proved the correctness and security of our Error-Tolerant Linking Algorithm. We have also fully

  13. Design of electronic medical record user interfaces: a matrix-based method for improving usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuqi, Kushtrim; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar; Levin, James E; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2013-01-01

    This study examines a new approach of using the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) modeling technique to improve the design of Electronic Medical Record (EMR) user interfaces. The usability of an EMR medication dosage calculator used for placing orders in an academic hospital setting was investigated. The proposed method captures and analyzes the interactions between user interface elements of the EMR system and groups elements based on information exchange, spatial adjacency, and similarity to improve screen density and time-on-task. Medication dose adjustment task time was recorded for the existing and new designs using a cognitive simulation model that predicts user performance. We estimate that the design improvement could reduce time-on-task by saving an average of 21 hours of hospital physicians' time over the course of a month. The study suggests that the application of DSM can improve the usability of an EMR user interface.

  14. Design of Electronic Medical Record User Interfaces: A Matrix-Based Method for Improving Usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushtrim Kuqi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a new approach of using the Design Structure Matrix (DSM modeling technique to improve the design of Electronic Medical Record (EMR user interfaces. The usability of an EMR medication dosage calculator used for placing orders in an academic hospital setting was investigated. The proposed method captures and analyzes the interactions between user interface elements of the EMR system and groups elements based on information exchange, spatial adjacency, and similarity to improve screen density and time-on-task. Medication dose adjustment task time was recorded for the existing and new designs using a cognitive simulation model that predicts user performance. We estimate that the design improvement could reduce time-on-task by saving an average of 21 hours of hospital physicians’ time over the course of a month. The study suggests that the application of DSM can improve the usability of an EMR user interface.

  15. Automatic QRS complex detection algorithm designed for a novel wearable, wireless electrocardiogram recording device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Egstrup, Kenneth; Branebjerg, Jens

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and optimized an automatic QRS complex detection algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals recorded with the DELTA ePatch platform. The algorithm is able to automatically switch between single-channel and multi-channel analysis mode. This preliminary study includes data from ...

  16. Design and Evaluation of the Electronic Class Record for LPU-Laguna International School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHOWEL M. DELLOSA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available - This study aimed to design, develop, deploy and evaluate an electronic class record (e-class record. Microsoft Excel is used to develop the electronic class record and several Microsoft Excel arithmetic operands and functions like VLOOKUP, IF, AVERAGE, COUNTIF are used. A worksheet template was developed to accept name of teacher, course code, course title, section, schedule, room, student number, student name, grade level, gender, date of each classes, base grade, test items attendance, and performance of the students. These serve as the input of the e-class record. The e-class record automatically computes the grades of the students following the standard grading system. Developmental process and prototyping method were utilized to develop the e-class record. Testing, deployment and evaluation have been initiated to observe its acceptability. It is found out that the e-class record can generate the quarterly and final grade of the students, total number of absences and tardiness of the students, grade sheet with corresponding level of evaluation of each student in the class and summary of the total number of students for each of the level of proficiency. It is recommended that further study may be initiated to utilize the output of this study as an input of an online application such as online grade viewer. Security of previous submitted grades from being changed by the teacher accidentally or intentionally must be also taken into consideration. A report card may be also included in the system.

  17. Implications of Regional Transmission Organization Design for Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes the development of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and assesses the potential implications of market rules for renewable energy technologies. The report focuses on scheduling provisions, as these have proved problematic in some cases for intermittent renewable energy technologies. Market rules of four RTOs-the Pennsylvania-Maryland-New Jersey ISO, the ERCOT ISO, the Midwest ISO and the New York ISO (NYISO)-were examined to determine the impact on intermittent renewable energy projects such as wind energy generators. Also, a more general look was taken at how biomass power may fare in RTOs, specifically whether these technologies can participate in ancillary service markets. Lastly, an assessment was made regarding the implications for renewable energy technologies of a Northeast-wide RTO that would combine the three existing Northeast ISOs (the aforementioned PJM and NYISOs, as well as ISO New England).

  18. Electronic health record usability: analysis of the user-centered design processes of eleven electronic health record vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj M; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Hettinger, A Zachary; Benda, Natalie C

    2015-11-01

    The usability of electronic health records (EHRs) continues to be a point of dissatisfaction for providers, despite certification requirements from the Office of the National Coordinator that require EHR vendors to employ a user-centered design (UCD) process. To better understand factors that contribute to poor usability, a research team visited 11 different EHR vendors in order to analyze their UCD processes and discover the specific challenges that vendors faced as they sought to integrate UCD with their EHR development. Our analysis demonstrates a diverse range of vendors' UCD practices that fall into 3 categories: well-developed UCD, basic UCD, and misconceptions of UCD. Specific challenges to practicing UCD include conducting contextually rich studies of clinical workflow, recruiting participants for usability studies, and having support from leadership within the vendor organization. The results of the study provide novel insights for how to improve usability practices of EHR vendors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Automatic QRS complex detection algorithm designed for a novel wearable, wireless electrocardiogram recording device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsena, Dorthe B; Egstrup, Kenneth; Branebjerg, Jens; Andersen, Gunnar B; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and optimized an automatic QRS complex detection algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals recorded with the DELTA ePatch platform. The algorithm is able to automatically switch between single-channel and multi-channel analysis mode. This preliminary study includes data from 11 patients measured with the DELTA ePatch platform and the algorithm achieves an average QRS sensitivity and positive predictivity of 99.57% and 99.57%, respectively. The algorithm was also evaluated on all 48 records from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database (MITDB) with an average sensitivity and positive predictivity of 99.63% and 99.63%, respectively.

  20. 37 CFR 270.5 - Designated collection and distribution organizations for records of use of sound recordings under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(iii) Current base rate (cable systems) 201.17(h)(1)(i) Date of recordation 201.4(e), 201.26(f) Digital... vessel hulls 212.1 to 212.6 Digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments, Filing of claims....5 Royalty payments for digital audio recording devices and media, Filing of claims to 259.1 to 259.6...

  1. Implications of solar energy alternatives for community design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Steinitz, C.

    1980-06-01

    A graduate-level studio at the Harvard School of Design explored how a policy of solar-based energy independence will influence the design of a new community of approximately 4500 housing units and other uses. Three large sites outside Tucson (a cooling problem), Atlanta (a humidity problem), and Boston (a heating problem) were selected. Each is typical of its region. A single program was assumed and designed for. Each site had two teams, one following a compact approach and one following a more dispersed approach. Each was free to choose the most appropriate mix of (solar) technology and scale, and was free to integrate energy and community in the design as it saw fit. These choice and integration issues are key areas where our experience may be of interest to those involved in community design and solar energy.

  2. Implications of system usability on intermodal facility design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Ensuring good design of intermodal transportation facilities is critical for effective and : satisfactory operation. Passenger use of the facilities is often hindered by inadequate space, a poor : layout, or lack of signage. This project aims to impr...

  3. Adaptive Digital Signature Design and Short-Data-Record Adaptive Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Linear adaptive transmitter-receiver structures for asynchronous CDMA systems ,” European Trans. Telecomm ., vol. 6, pp. 21-28, Jan.-Feb. 1995. [8] T. F...terms of its performance in and application to multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Short data record, adaptive filtering...Design of Minimum PTSC Binary Antipodal Signature Sets . . . 28 Case 1:Underloaded Systems (K ≤ L) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Case 2

  4. OPTIMAL DESIGN ALGORITHM FOR FAULT TOLERANT INFORMATION SYSTEMS USED FOR PROCESSING ELECTRONIC MEDICAL RECORDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Melyushin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on designing of medical information systems and proposes an approach to creation of a highly reliable automated system for processing electronic medical records on the basis of file allocation optimization in the network nodes. A mathematical model has been developed for optimal distribution of the files in the network nodes and an experimental investigation of two schemes of medical information systems has been executed in the paper.

  5. Nitrate records of a shallow ice core from East Antarctica: Atmospheric processes, preservation and climatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Redkar, B.L.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ravindra, R.

    and its comparison with 10Be record from a core collected from South Pole suggest that a reduction in solar activity influenced the NO sub(3) sup(-) accumulation in Antarctica through enhanced production of odd nitrogen species...

  6. Racializing drug design: implications of pharmacogenomics for health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2005-12-01

    Current practices of using "race" in pharmacogenomics research demands consideration of the ethical and social implications for understandings of group difference and for efforts to eliminate health disparities. This discussion focuses on an "infrastructure of racialization" created by current trajectories of research on genetic differences among racially identified groups, the use of race as a proxy for risk in clinical practice, and increasing interest in new market niches by the pharmaceutical industry. The confluence of these factors has resulted in the conflation of genes, disease, and race. I argue that public investment in pharmacogenomics requires careful consideration of current inequities in health status and social and ethical concerns over reifying race and issues of distributive justice.

  7. From Fatigue to Anxiety? Implications for Educational Design in a Web 2.0 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to recognise that as educators moving into, or already in, a Web 2.0 world, we are likely to experience anxiety, and to explore the implications for educational design in a Web 2.0 world. Design/methodology/approach: The objectives are achieved as the result of recent successes with the commissioners for two…

  8. Maintenance implications of critical components in ITER CXRS upper port plug design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.; R. Jaspers,; Doornink, J.; Ouwehand, B.; Klinkhamer, F.; Snijders, B.; Sadakov, S.; Heemskerk, C.

    2009-01-01

    Already in the early phase of a design for ITER, the maintenance aspects should be taken into account, since they might have serious implications. This paper presents the arguments in support of the case for the maintainability of the design, notably if this maintenance is to be performed by

  9. Informal Learning in Professional and Personal Life: Implications for Instructional Design and Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James D.; Moore, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on informal learning and its implications for instructional design and performance improvement. The authors begin by sharing a story of how a novice instructional designer employs informal learning strategies in her professional and personal life. Next, they offer a definition of informal learning that encompasses both…

  10. Focus Group Evidence: Implications for Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…

  11. Embracing additive manufacture: implications for foot and ankle orthosis design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telfer Scott

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The design of foot and ankle orthoses is currently limited by the methods used to fabricate the devices, particularly in terms of geometric freedom and potential to include innovative new features. Additive manufacturing (AM technologies, where objects are constructed via a series of sub-millimetre layers of a substrate material, may present the opportunity to overcome these limitations and allow novel devices to be produced that are highly personalised for the individual, both in terms of fit and functionality. Two novel devices, a foot orthosis (FO designed to include adjustable elements to relieve pressure at the metatarsal heads, and an ankle foot orthosis (AFO designed to have adjustable stiffness levels in the sagittal plane, were developed and fabricated using AM. The devices were then tested on a healthy participant to determine if the intended biomechanical modes of action were achieved. Results The adjustable, pressure relieving FO was found to be able to significantly reduce pressure under the targeted metatarsal heads. The AFO was shown to have distinct effects on ankle kinematics which could be varied by adjusting the stiffness level of the device. Conclusions The results presented here demonstrate the potential design freedom made available by AM, and suggest that it may allow novel personalised orthotic devices to be produced which are beyond the current state of the art.

  12. Paradigms of curriculum design: Implications for South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from course evaluations to illustrate these differences and to question how educators with each of the four worldviews would use student evaluations as a means of course improvement. Key words: Research paradigms, curriculum design, student evaluations, academic development [Jnl for Language Teaching Vol.37(2) ...

  13. Extraneous Information and Graph Comprehension: Implications for Effective Design Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandie M.; Cipolla, Jessica M.; Best, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine if university students could accurately extract information from graphs presented in 2D or 3D formats with different colour hue variations or solid black and white. Design/methodology/approach: Participants are presented with 2D and 3D bar and pie charts in a PowerPoint presentation and are asked to…

  14. Teaching for physical literacy: Implications to instructional design and PETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Silverman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical education teachers play an important role in helping students' development of the motor skills needed to be physically literate individuals. Research suggests that teacher made instructional design decisions can lead to enhanced motor skill learning. After presenting a model of evidence-based research this paper presents information that will help teachers plan and execute lessons designed to improve students' motor skills. Variables that impact motor skill learning in physical education including time, type of practice, content, presentation and organizational strategies, and student skill level are presented and discussed. A brief section on student attitudes, their relation to motor skill learning and to physical literacy is included. Motor skills are needed for physically literate people to enjoy lifelong physical activity. Physical education teachers and the decisions they make contribute to students' learning and whether the goal of physical literacy is met.

  15. Acceptance and Divergence from Engineering Design Procedures Implicating Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    When developing procedures such as tools, methods and frameworks to support the development of new products, one of the challenges is ensuring their successful implementation. This paper describes a study of the development and use of such design-procedures with primary focus on the new product...... development process-model, its supporting methods and handling of knowledge. Semi-structured interviews with 20 participants have been carried out to understand the use of procedures. All the interviews were conducted in a company, which develops large complex equipment for oil rigs. The findings suggest...... of explicit procedures and; 3) implicit procedures supporting needs that are not catered for by the explicit procedures. In this understanding, a procedure can be any kind of method, tool or framework used to support design engineers. Furthermore, the study discusses a variety of recommended actions...

  16. Environmental design implications for two deep space SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter; Imken, Travis; Elliott, John; Sherwood, Brent; Frick, Andreas; Sheldon, Douglas; Lunine, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    The extreme environmental challenges of deep space exploration force unique solutions to small satellite design in order to enable their use as scientifically viable spacecraft. The challenges of implementing small satellites within limited resources can be daunting when faced with radiation effects on delicate electronics that require shielding or unique adaptations for protection, or mass, power and volume limitations due to constraints placed by the carrier spacecraft, or even Planetary Protection compliant design techniques that drive assembly and testing. This paper will explore two concept studies where the environmental constraints and/or planetary protection mitigations drove the design of the Flight System. The paper will describe the key technical drivers on the Sylph mission concept to explore a plume at Europa as a secondary free-flyer as a part of the planned Europa Mission. Sylph is a radiation-hardened smallsat concept that would utilize terrain relative navigation to fly at low altitudes through a plume, if found, and relay the mass spectra data back through the flyby spacecraft during its 24-h mission. The second topic to be discussed will be the mission design constraints of the Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout concept. NEAScout is a 6U cubesat that would utilize an 86 sq. m solar sail as propulsion to execute a flyby with a near-Earth asteroid and help retire Strategic Knowledge Gaps for future human exploration. NEAScout would cruise for 24 months to reach and characterize one Near-Earth asteroid that is representative of Human Exploration targets and telemeter that data directly back to Earth at the end of its roughly 2.5 year mission.

  17. Technical Limitations of Electronic Health Records in Community Health Centers: Implications on Ambulatory Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher E.

    2010-01-01

    Research objectives: This dissertation examines the state of development of each of the eight core electronic health record (EHR) functionalities as described by the IOM and describes how the current state of these functionalities limit quality improvement efforts in ambulatory care settings. There is a great deal of literature describing both the…

  18. Electronic Health Record Adoption as a Function of Success: Implications for Meaningful Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Riyad J.

    2012-01-01

    Successful electronic health records (EHR) implementation has the potential to transform the entire care delivery process across the enterprise. However, the rate of EHR implementation and use among physicians has been slow. Different factors have been reported in the literature that may hinder adoption of EHR. Identifying and managing these…

  19. E-government implications for records management in Africa – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature reviewed showed that if these records are managed well, efficiency in the public sector could be achieved. However, the literature also revealed that African countries are faced with a myriad of challenges that could undermine success of e-government initiatives in the continent. These challenges include the ...

  20. Instrumental record of debris flow initiation during natural rainfall: Implications for modeling slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Montgomery; Kevin M. Schmidt; William E. Dietrich; Jim. McKean

    2009-01-01

    The middle of a hillslope hollow in the Oregon Coast Range failed and mobilized as a debris flow during heavy rainfall in November 1996. Automated pressure transducers recorded high spatial variability of pore water pressure within the area that mobilized as a debris flow, which initiated where local upward flow from bedrock developed into overlying colluvium....

  1. Multimedia Health Records: user-centered design approach for a multimedia uploading service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazzotta, Fernando; Mayan, John C; Storani, Fernando D; Ortiz, Juan M; Lopez, Gastón E; Gimenez, Gastón M; Luna, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia elements add value to text documents by transmitting information difficult to express in words. In healthcare, many professional and services keep this elements in their own repositories. This brings the problem of information fragmentation in different silos which hinder its access to other healthcare professionals. On the other hand patients have clinical data of their own in different formats generated in different healthcare organizations which is not accessible to professionals within our healthcare network. This paper describes the design, development and implementation processes of a service which allows media elements to be loaded in a patient clinical data repository (CDR) either through an electronic health record by professionals (EHR) or through a personal health record (PHR) by patients, in order to avoid fragmentation of the information.

  2. [Design and Implementation of a Mobile Operating Room Information Management System Based on Electronic Medical Record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baozhen; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Xianwen

    2015-06-01

    A mobile operating room information management system with electronic medical record (EMR) is designed to improve work efficiency and to enhance the patient information sharing. In the operating room, this system acquires the information from various medical devices through the Client/Server (C/S) pattern, and automatically generates XML-based EMR. Outside the operating room, this system provides information access service by using the Browser/Server (B/S) pattern. Software test shows that this system can correctly collect medical information from equipment and clearly display the real-time waveform. By achieving surgery records with higher quality and sharing the information among mobile medical units, this system can effectively reduce doctors' workload and promote the information construction of the field hospital.

  3. Reassessment of some Holocene Sedimentary Paleomagnetic Records with Implications for Geomagnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. C.; Korte, M. C.; Constable, C.; Berner, N.; Hayn, M.; Holschneider, M.

    2012-12-01

    Temporally continuous global spherical harmonic models of the Holocene geomagnetic field (e.g., CALS3k.4 and CALS10k.1b) rely on compilations of published sedimentary paleomagnetic records for their construction. In current models all data are initially included regardless of their quality and only extreme outliers are rejected during the fitting procedure. Encouragingly, they can extract globally and regionally consistent signals from the data; however, low quality paleomagnetic data and erroneous age models may distort geomagnetic field structures generated by the models. One particularly interesting non-dipolar feature observed in CALS3k.4 and CALS10k.1b is an undulation of the magnetic equator and associated paired flux patches at the core-mantle boundary under southeast Asia and northern Australasia. We re-examine and reconstruct a number of previously published records that influence this region. Although these records were suitably analyzed for the original aims of the specific studies, for global modeling it is desirable to treat data consistently wherever possible. Four problems commonly plague reconstructions: 1) the data used for modeling are often a smoothed composite from multiple cores, rather than horizon-level inclination, declination or relative intensity data from individual cores; 2) varied methods for correlation and smoothing lead to uneven data consistency; 3) advances in radiocarbon dating have resulted in changes to the calibration curve for atmospheric radiocarbon leading to possible offsets in time series across studies; and 4) age-depth models often do not fully consider the uncertainty distribution of the radiocarbon mixing profile and calibration process, producing implausible results. Reconstruction of a composite record is only possible when an author provides raw core data. This involves two key steps: re-correlation of data between cores and creation of a new age-depth model. In both cases we ultimately attempt a uniform approach

  4. Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Tam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the characteristics and value of designed instruction grounded in the constructivist theory. It also attempts to connect the theory to the prevailing technology paradigms to establish an alignment between pedagogical and technological considerations in support of the assumptions arising from constructivism. Distance learning provides a unique context in which to infuse constructivist principles where learners are expected to function as self-motivated, self-directed, interactive, collaborative participants in their learning experiences by virtue of their physical location. Hence, the aim of this paper is to provide a clear link between the theoretical principles of constructivism, the construction of technology-supported learning environments, and the practice of distance education. The questions driving the argument in this paper include: What do constructivist perspectives offer instructional design and practice? What do computing technologies offer? And what do the two afford in combination? In particular, how do the two combine to transform distance learning from a highly industrialized mass production model to one that emphasizes subjective construction of knowledge and meaning derived from individual experiences.

  5. Visual search asymmetries in heavy clutter: implications for display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2011-06-01

    An experiment aimed to test whether design of symbology to produce visual search asymmetries might facilitate target detection in cluttered displays. A visual search asymmetry exists between two stimuli when a target of one type is found efficiently among distractors of the second type but a target of the second type is found with difficulty among distractors of the first type. Asymmetries have generally been studied within relatively sparse displays. In the present study, the authors tested whether an asymmetry driven by stimulus familiarity persists within heavily cluttered imagery. In this study, 10 participants performed a visual search task using stimuli (canonical vs. reversed Ns) known to produce a search asymmetry. Search stimuli were embedded within geospatial images containing either low or high levels of clutter. A decision theoretic index of sensitivity served as the dependent measure. The search asymmetry was robust against the presence of heavy display clutter. Specifically, sensitivity was greater when the target was a reversed N rather than an N, and this pattern remained within cluttered displays. Time-accuracy analysis revealed that the search asymmetry increased the rate of information accumulation roughly equally within low- and high- clutter images. Search asymmetries are robust against heavy, spatially continuous visual clutter. Design of display symbology to produce visual search asymmetries can offset the costs of visual clutter, maximizing detectability of task-critical information in complex displays.

  6. [The impact of technological change on census taking: some thoughts on implications for the 1990 round of censuses and on the statistical use of administrative records].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackstone, G J

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some general thoughts on the implications of technological change for the 1990 round of censuses and for the statistical use of administrative records. Consideration is also given to alternative methods of obtaining the type of data traditionally collected in a population census, by using these new technologies in association with administrative record systems.

  7. Dolomedes plantarius (Araneae, Pisauridae in Belarus: records, distribution and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov, Vladisalav

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1757 is becoming another iconic species within European conservation programmes. It is commonly accepted that the densest populations of this species are situated in Western Europe and many records confirm this. At the same time Eastern European populations are often not taken into account when assessing future dynamics of species distribution due to climate change. Here we provide data about D. plantarius in Belarus, which includes both an extensive literature survey and our own records in different parts of the country. The evidence provided suggest that Belarus is currently a large refugium for the fen raft spider, which was found during the last 30 years practically everywhere where specialists were interested in its study. We suggest that involvement of international research teams in studies of D. plantarius in Belarus will ensure the most efficient population management in Europe.

  8. Physical Problems, Sonic Implications. A discussion of the ethics of preservation treatments and audio recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Bradley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservators have traditionally operated under a particular set of ethical constraints. The AIC code of ethics, for example, states “The conservation professional should only recommend or undertake treatment that is judged suitable to the preservation of the aesthetic, conceptual, and physical characteristics of the cultural property”. However, when treating sound recordings the situation may well arise where a physical treatment will alter the physical characteristics of the audio carrier, though simultaneously restore or improve the ability of the carrier to reproduce the sound it carries. Where does the responsibility of the sound archivist lie? This paper considers some of the ethical issues surrounding treatments of audio recordings and considers just what it is that we are trying to preserve.

  9. Potential clinical implications of recent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor design strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Sabrina; Fields, Gregg B

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression profiles in various pathologies correlated with their presence in promoting disease progression. Drugs were designed to inhibit MMPs in an extreme manner by chelating the active site zinc ion. This approach did not distinguish between the 24 members of the MMP family and had devastating consequences during clinical trials. Subsequent knockout mouse studies showed that some MMPs are beneficial in regulating tumor growth, metastasis and indirectly stimulating the immune system. The broad-spectrum inhibitor approach was rethought and modified in order to increase specificity by taking into account the non-conserved secondary binding sites or differences in structures within MMPs and also generating antibodies. These showed interesting results in vitro and in vivo. The recent technological advances that allow us to better understand the function and structure of MMPs are aiding in the development of selective inhibitors.

  10. Design implications of high-speed digital PPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Martin J. N.

    1993-11-01

    Work in the area of digital pulse position modulation (digital PPM) has shown that this type of modulation can yield sensitivities that are typically 4 - 5 dB better than an equivalent PCM system. Recent experimental work has shown that the receiver in a digital PPM system does not need to have a wide bandwidth. Instead, the bandwidth can be very low so that the receiver is effectively impulsed by the digital PPM signal. The advent of very high speed Si digital ICs, and fast lasers, means that digital PPM can now be used to code gigabit PCM signals. This paper presents original theoretical results for a digital PPM system coding 1 Gbit/s PCM signals into 8 Gbit/s digital PPM signals. The paper also addresses the difficulties that the system designer is likely to encounter, and discusses some possible solutions.

  11. Designing ETL Tools to Feed a Data Warehouse Based on Electronic Healthcare Record Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to design Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) tools in a clinical data warehouse architecture based on the Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR). This approach takes advantages on the use of this infrastructure as one of the main source of information to feed the data warehouse, taking also into account that clinical documents produced by heterogeneous legacy systems are structured using the HL7 CDA standard. This paper describes the main activities to be performed to map the information collected in the different types of document with the dimensional model primitives.

  12. Sedimentation influx and volcanic interactions in the Fuji Five Lakes: implications for paleoseismological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamair, Laura; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Yamamoto, Shinya; El Ouahabi, Meriam; Garrett, Ed; Shishikura, Masanobu; Schmidt, Sabine; Boes, Evelien; Obrochta, Stephen; Nakamura, Atsunori; Miyairi, Yosuke; Yokoyama, Yusuke; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The Fuji Fives Lakes are located at the foot of Mount Fuji volcano close to the triple junction, where the North American Plate, the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea Plate meet. These lakes are ideally situated to study Mount Fuji volcanism and the interaction between volcanism, changes in lake sedimentation rates and the ability of lakes to record paleoearthquakes. Here, we present newly acquired geological data of Lake Yamanaka and Lake Motosu, including seismic reflection profiles, gravity and piston cores. These two lakes and their respective watersheds were affected by several eruptions of Mount Fuji. Lake Yamanaka, a very shallow lake (max. depth 14 m), was heavily impacted by the scoria fall-out of the A.D. 1707 Hoei eruption of Mount Fuji. A detailed investigation of the effect of the Hoei eruption was conducted on short gravity cores, using high resolution XRD, C/N and 210Pb/137Cs analyses. The preliminary results suggest that the sedimentation rate of Lake Yamanaka drastically reduced after the Hoei eruption, followed by an increase until the present day. Similarly, lacustrine sedimentation in Lake Motosu (max. depth 122 m) was disturbed by Mount Fuji volcanism at a larger scale. The watershed of Lake Motosu was impacted by several lava flows and scoria cones. For example, the Omuro scoria cone reduced the catchment size of Lake Motosu and modified its physiography. The related scoria fall out covered an extensive part of the lake catchment and reduced terrigenous sedimentary influx to Lake Motosu. Within the deep basin of Lake Motosu, seismic reflection data shows two different periods that are distinguished by a major change in the dominant sedimentary processes. During the first period, sublacustrine landslides and turbidity currents were the dominant sedimentation processes. During the second one, the seismic stratigraphy evidences only deposition of numerous turbidites interrupting the hemipelagic sedimentation. Changes in sedimentary processes

  13. How bioethics principles can aid design of electronic health records to accommodate patient granular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, Eric M; Schwartz, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was recently adopted by a team of informaticists who are designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in this process, especially when principles conflict. For instance, while the ethical principle of respect for autonomy supports a robust system of granular control, the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence counsel restraint due to the danger of patients being harmed by restrictions on provider access to data. Conflict between principles has long been recognized by ethicists and has even motivated attacks on approaches that state and apply principles. In this paper, we show how using ethical principles can help in the design of EHRs by first explaining how ethical principles can and should be used generally, and then by discussing how attention to details in specific cases can show that the tension between principles is not as bad as it initially appeared. We conclude by suggesting ways in which the application of these (and other) principles can add value to the ongoing discussion of patient involvement in their health care. This is a new approach to linking principles to informatics design that we expect will stimulate further interest.

  14. 77 FR 9946 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Drug Interaction Studies-Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... on Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and Labeling... entitled ``Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data Analysis, Implications for Dosing, and Labeling... availability of a revised draft guidance for industry entitled ``Drug Interaction Studies--Study Design, Data...

  15. Microelectronics of Recording, Stimulation, and Wireless Telemetry for Neuroprosthetics: Design and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Moo Sung; Yang, Zhi; Liu, Wentai

    This chapter focuses on how to interface biological systems with electronics so as to implement bio-instruments to obtain the in-depth understandings about the animal behavior and human brain activities, and complex neuroprosthetic devices to treat various neurological diseases. The interdisciplinary nature of the system requires a wide range of knowledge on both biology and electronics to build such systems. A unique environment where the system should operate imposes challenging design constraints and system issues, which can be solved only by considering both biology and electronics simultaneously. Fundamental building circuits including amplifiers, filters, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are addressed first and subsystems which consist of those basic circuits are explained with emphasis on trade-offs which should be considered carefully to achieve optimal design. Several state-of-art systems such as integrated wireless neural-recording systems and retinal prostheses are presented to explain how the fundamental knowledge and principles are used in the real applications.

  16. A complete Holocene record of trematode-bivalve infection and implications for the response of parasitism to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, John Warren; Fürsich, Franz T.; Alberti, Matthias; Hethke, Manja; Liu, Chunlian

    2014-12-01

    Increasing global temperature and sea-level rise have led to concern about expansions in the distribution and prevalence of complex-lifecycle parasites (CLPs). Indeed, numerous environmental variables can influence the infectivity and reproductive output of many pathogens. Digenean trematodes are CLPs with intermediate invertebrate and definitive vertebrate hosts. Global warming and sea level rise may affect these hosts to varying degrees, and the effect of increasing temperature on parasite prevalence has proven to be nonlinear and difficult to predict. Projecting the response of parasites to anthropogenic climate change is vital for human health, and a longer term perspective (104 y) offered by the subfossil record is necessary to complement the experimental and historical approaches of shorter temporal duration (10-1 to 103 y). We demonstrate, using a high-resolution 9,600-y record of trematode parasite traces in bivalve hosts from the Holocene Pearl River Delta, that prevalence was significantly higher during the earliest stages of sea level rise, significantly lower during the maximum transgression, and statistically indistinguishable in the other stages of sea-level rise and delta progradation. This stratigraphic paleobiological pattern represents the only long-term high-resolution record of pathogen response to global change, is consistent with fossil and recent data from other marine basins, and is instructive regarding the future of disease. We predict an increase in trematode prevalence concurrent with anthropogenic warming and marine transgression, with negative implications for estuarine macrobenthos, marine fisheries, and human health.

  17. Chemotaxonomy in some Mediterranean plants and implications for fossil biomarker records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Elin; Katrantsiotis, Christos; Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Kouli, Katerina

    2017-12-01

    The increasing utilization of n-alkanes as plant-derived paleo-environmental proxies calls for improved chemotaxonomic control of the modern flora in order to calibrate fossil sediment records to modern analogues. Several recent studies have investigated long-chain n-alkane concentrations and chain-length distributions in species from various vegetation biomes, but up to date, the Mediterranean flora is relatively unexplored in this respect. Here, we analyse the n-alkane concentrations and chain-length distributions in some of the most common species of the modern macchia and phrygana vegetation in south western Peloponnese, Greece. We show that the drought adapted phrygana herbs and shrubs, as well as some of the sclerophyll and gymnosperm macchia components, produce high concentrations of n-alkanes, on average more than double n-alkane production in local wetland reed vegetation. Furthermore, the chain-length distribution in the analysed plants is related to plant functionality, with longer chain lengths associated with higher drought adaptive capacities, probably as a response to long-term evolutionary processes in a moisture limited environment. Furthermore, species with relatively higher average chain lengths (ACL) showed more enriched carbon isotope composition in their tissues (δ13Cplant), suggesting a dual imprint from both physiological and biochemical drought adaptation. The findings have bearings on interpretation of fossil sedimentary biomarker records in the Mediterranean region, which is discussed in relation to a case study from Agios Floros fen, Messenian plain, Peloponnese. The 6000 year long n-alkane record from Agios Floros (ACL, δ13Cwax) is linked to the modern analogue and then evaluated through a comparison with other regional-wide as well as local climate and vegetation proxy-data. The high concentration of long chain n-alkanes in phrygana vegetation suggests a dominating imprint from this vegetation type in sedimentary archives from this

  18. A case study on better iconographic design in electronic medical records' user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasa, Umut Burcu; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Yantac, Asim Evren; Unluer, Ayca

    2008-06-01

    It is a known fact that there is a conflict between what users expect and what user interface designers create in the field of medical informatics along with other fields of interface design. The objective of the study is to suggest, from the 'design art' perspective, a method for improving the usability of an electronic medical record (EMR) interface. The suggestion is based on the hypothesis that the user interface of an EMR should be iconographic. The proposed three-step method consists of a questionnaire survey on how hospital users perceive concepts/terms that are going to be used in the EMR user interface. Then icons associated with the terms are designed by a designer, following a guideline which is prepared according to the results of the first questionnaire. Finally the icons are asked back to the target group for proof. A case study was conducted with 64 medical staff and 30 professional designers for the first questionnaire, and with 30 medical staff for the second. In the second questionnaire 7.53 icons out of 10 were matched correctly with a standard deviation of 0.98. Also, all icons except three were matched correctly in at least 83.3% of the forms. The proposed new method differs from the majority of previous studies which are based on user requirements by leaning on user experiments instead. The study demonstrated that the user interface of EMRs should be designed according to a guideline that results from a survey on users' experiences on metaphoric perception of the terms.

  19. Designing a patient-centered personal health record to promote preventive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krist Alex H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based preventive services offer profound health benefits, yet Americans receive only half of indicated care. A variety of government and specialty society policy initiatives are promoting the adoption of information technologies to engage patients in their care, such as personal health records, but current systems may not utilize the technology's full potential. Methods Using a previously described model to make information technology more patient-centered, we developed an interactive preventive health record (IPHR designed to more deeply engage patients in preventive care and health promotion. We recruited 14 primary care practices to promote the IPHR to all adult patients and sought practice and patient input in designing the IPHR to ensure its usability, salience, and generalizability. The input involved patient usability tests, practice workflow observations, learning collaboratives, and patient feedback. Use of the IPHR was measured using practice appointment and IPHR databases. Results The IPHR that emerged from this process generates tailored patient recommendations based on guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and other organizations. It extracts clinical data from the practices' electronic medical record and obtains health risk assessment information from patients. Clinical content is translated and explained in lay language. Recommendations review the benefits and uncertainties of services and possible actions for patients and clinicians. Embedded in recommendations are self management tools, risk calculators, decision aids, and community resources - selected to match patient's clinical circumstances. Within six months, practices had encouraged 14.4% of patients to use the IPHR (ranging from 1.5% to 28.3% across the 14 practices. Practices successfully incorporated the IPHR into workflow, using it to prepare patients for visits, augment health behavior counseling, explain test results

  20. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo) and Liang Bua (Flores) support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. PMID:24688871

  1. Public trust in health information sharing: implications for biobanking and electronic health record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jodyn; Kardia, Sharon

    2015-02-03

    Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon's MTurk system (n = 447). We found that seeing one's primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust) were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public's trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making.

  2. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: Implications for Biobanking and Electronic Health Record Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodyn Platt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks are made all the more valuable when the biological samples they hold can be linked to health information collected in research, electronic health records, or public health practice. Public trust in such systems that share health information for research and health care practice is understudied. Our research examines characteristics of the general public that predict trust in a health system that includes researchers, health care providers, insurance companies and public health departments. We created a 119-item survey of predictors and attributes of system trust and fielded it using Amazon’s MTurk system (n = 447. We found that seeing one’s primary care provider, having a favorable view of data sharing and believing that data sharing will improve the quality of health care, as well as psychosocial factors (altruism and generalized trust were positively and significantly associated with system trust. As expected, privacy concern, but counterintuitively, knowledge about health information sharing were negatively associated with system trust. We conclude that, in order to assure the public’s trust, policy makers charged with setting best practices for governance of biobanks and access to electronic health records should leverage critical access points to engage a diverse public in joint decision making.

  3. Smartphone Use Among Postpartum Women and Implications for Personal Health Record Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nadira; Copenhaver, Danis J; Vawdrey, David K; Kotchoubey, Helen; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2017-04-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) have the potential to improve incomplete health records. However, internet access through traditional methods may be limited for populations most at risk for fragmented care. A convenience sample of postpartum women at a community hospital and tertiary-care academic center in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Most (75.2%, n = 200) women approached participated. The majority (70.0%) were Latina, 53.5% were Spanish speakers, 23.4% were uninsured, and 41.6% were publicly insured. Smartphone ownership (85.6%) including a data plan (80.0%) was high. While insurance and educational level were associated with decreased odds of internet access at home, access via cellphone only differed by age. Nearly all (94%) women wanted PHR access and interest only differed by language. Even the minority (20.0%) of women with concerns, reported high (93.8%) interest. High smartphone ownership, use of phone for internet access, and interest in PHR access, suggest the potential of optimizing PHR use via mobile technologies.

  4. The avian fossil record in Insular Southeast Asia and its implications for avian biogeography and palaeoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Excavations and studies of existing collections during the last decades have significantly increased the abundance as well as the diversity of the avian fossil record for Insular Southeast Asia. The avian fossil record covers the Eocene through the Holocene, with the majority of bird fossils Pleistocene in age. Fossil bird skeletal remains represent at least 63 species in 54 genera and 27 families, and two ichnospecies are represented by fossil footprints. Birds of prey, owls and swiftlets are common elements. Extinctions seem to have been few, suggesting continuity of avian lineages since at least the Late Pleistocene, although some shifts in species ranges have occurred in response to climatic change. Similarities between the Late Pleistocene avifaunas of Flores and Java suggest a dispersal route across southern Sundaland. Late Pleistocene assemblages of Niah Cave (Borneo and Liang Bua (Flores support the rainforest refugium hypothesis in Southeast Asia as they indicate the persistence of forest cover, at least locally, throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene.

  5. The Västerbotten Intervention Programme: background, design and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Norberg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: In Sweden, mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD increased steadily during the 20th century and in the mid-1980s it was highest in the county of Västerbotten. Therefore, a community intervention programme was launched – the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP – with the aim of reducing morbidity and mortality from CVD and diabetes. Design: The VIP was first developed in the small municipality of Norsjö in 1985. Subsequently, it was successively implemented across the county and is now integrated into ordinary primary care routines. A population-based strategy directed towards the public is combined with a strategy to reach all middle-aged persons individually at ages 40, 50 and 60 years, by inviting them to participate in systematic risk factor screening and individual counselling about healthy lifestyle habits. Blood samples for research purposes are stored at the Umeå University Medical Biobank. Results: Overall, 113,203 health examinations have been conducted in the VIP and 6,500–7,000 examinations take place each year. Almost 27,000 subjects have participated twice. Participation rates have ranged between 48 and 67%. A dropout rate analysis in 1998 indicated only a small social selection bias. Cross-sectional, nested case-control studies and prospective studies have been based on the VIP data. Linkages between the VIP and local, regional and national databases provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research, as well as national and international collaborations on a wide range of disease outcomes. A large number of publications are based on data that are collected in the VIP, many of which also use results from analysed stored blood samples. More than 20 PhD theses have been based primarily on the VIP data. Conclusions: The concept of the VIP, established as a collaboration between politicians and health care providers on the one hand and primary care, functioning as the operating machinery

  6. Design and implementation of a low-cost multichannel seismic noise recorder for array measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Llorens, Juan Luis; Juan Giner-Caturla, Jose; Molina-Palacios, Sergio; Galiana-Merino, Juan Jose; Rosa-Herranz, Julio; Agea-Medina, Noelia

    2017-04-01

    Soil characterization is the starting point for seismic hazard studies. Currently, the methods based on ambient noise measurements are very used because they are non-invasive methods and relatively easy to implement in urban areas. Among these methods, the analysis of array measurements provides the dispersion curve and subsequently the shear-wave velocity profile associated to the site under study. In this case, we need several sensors recording simultaneously and a data acquisition system with one channel by sensor, what can become the complete equipment unaffordable for small research groups. In this work, we have designed and implemented a low-cost multichannel ambient noise recorder for array measurements. The complete system is based on Arduino, an open source electronic development platform, which allows recording 12 differential input channels simultaneously. Besides, it is complemented with a conditioning circuit that includes an anti-aliasing filter and a selectable gain between 0 and 40dB. The data acquisition is set up through a user-friendly graphical user interface. It is important to note that the electronic scheme as well as the programming code are open hardware and software, respectively, so it allows other researchers to suite the system to their particular requirements. The developed equipment has been tested at several sites around the province of Alicante (southeast of Spain), where the soil characteristics are well-known from previous studies. Array measurements have been taken and after that, the recorded data have been analysed using the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) and the extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) methods. The comparison of the obtained dispersion curves with the ones obtained in previous studies shows the suitability of the implemented low-cost system for array measurements.

  7. Hot Spring Microbial Community Composition, Morphology, and Carbon Fixation: Implications for Interpreting the Ancient Rock Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb G. Schuler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in hydrothermal systems exist in a range of macroscopic morphologies including stromatolites, mats, and filaments. The architects of these structures are typically autotrophic, serving as primary producers. Structures attributed to microbial life have been documented in the rock record dating back to the Archean including recent reports of microbially-related structures in terrestrial hot springs that date back as far as 3.5 Ga. Microbial structures exhibit a range of complexity from filaments to more complex mats and stromatolites and the complexity impacts preservation potential. As a result, interpretation of these structures in the rock record relies on isotopic signatures in combination with overall morphology and paleoenvironmental setting. However, the relationships between morphology, microbial community composition, and primary productivity remain poorly constrained. To begin to address this gap, we examined community composition and carbon fixation in filaments, mats, and stromatolites from the Greater Obsidian Pool Area (GOPA of the Mud Volcano Area, Yellowstone National Park, WY. We targeted morphologies dominated by bacterial phototrophs located in close proximity within the same pool which are exposed to similar geochemistry as well as bacterial mat, algal filament and chemotrophic filaments from nearby springs. Our results indicate (i natural abundance δ13C values of biomass from these features (−11.0 to −24.3‰ are similar to those found in the rock record; (ii carbon uptake rates of photoautotrophic communities is greater than chemoautotrophic; (iii oxygenic photosynthesis, anoxygenic photosynthesis, and chemoautotrophy often contribute to carbon fixation within the same morphology; and (iv increasing phototrophic biofilm complexity corresponds to a significant decrease in rates of carbon fixation—filaments had the highest uptake rates whereas carbon fixation by stromatolites was significantly lower

  8. Coping with different roles in intensive care nursing : design implications for digital support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, Marijke; Freudenthal, Adinda; Bouwman, Addie; Snijders, Chris; de Ridder, Huib

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to arrive at design implications for the digital support of intensive care nurses, with a focus on supporting them in their roles as practitioners, as scholars and in their human response to their work. Methods Seventeen nurses from six different Dutch hospitals

  9. Implications of Identity Negotiation Research for the Design of the TRAILER e-Portfolio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Berlanga, Adriana; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Janssen, J., Berlanga, A. J., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Implications of Identity Negotiation Research for the Design of the TRAILER e-Portfolio. In Proceedings of the ePortfolio and Identity Conference (ePIC) 2012 (pp. 78-82). July, 9-11, 2012, London, UK. For the presentation, please see also:

  10. Implications of Identity Negotiation Research for the Design of the TRAILER e-Portfolio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, José; Berlanga, Adriana; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Janssen, J., Berlanga, A. J., & Sloep, P. B. (2012, 9-11 July). Implications of Identity Negotiation Research for the Design of the TRAILER e-Portfolio. Presentation given at the e-Portfolio and Identity Conference (ePIC) 2012, London, United Kingdom. For the paper, please see also:

  11. Rural Households’ Adaptation to Climate Change and its Implications for Policy Designs in Lijiang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan

    . The thesis, carried out in three mountain villages in southwest China, seeks to advance the understanding of local adaptation process and its implications for vulnerability and policy designs. In particular, the research contributes to quantitative assessment of current and forward-looking adaptation...

  12. Modern pollen rain in Canary Island ecosystems and its implications for the interpretation of fossil records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nascimento, Lea; Nogué, Sandra; Fernández-Lugo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation history in the Canary Islands, one of the most biodiverse regions within Europe, has recently and for the first time, been the subject of palaeoecological studies. The interpretation of fossil records may be limited by several uncertainties regarding how well the different vegetation...... indicator taxa of the local occurrence of their source plants by their high fidelity and low dispersibility index scores. Extra-regional types (taxa without potential source plants in the Canary Islands) were not detected in our traps. However, several important floristic elements are either over...... types are represented in the pollen rain. In this study we address this key knowledge gap within Canarian vegetation science, taking the island of Tenerife as a model. Based on quantitative and qualitative data we analysed pollen-vegetation relationships to test whether different vegetation types can...

  13. Multichannel surface recordings on the visual cortex: implications for a neuroprosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelvanayagam, D. K.; Vickery, R. M.; Kirkcaldie, M. T. K.; Coroneo, M. T.; Morley, J. W.

    2008-06-01

    Using a multi-channel platinum surface electrode array, recordings from cat primary visual cortex were obtained in response to visual stimuli, and electrical stimuli delivered using the elements of the array itself. Neural responses to electrical stimuli were consistent, regardless of stimulus polarity or leading phase (biphasic), although thresholds were lower for monophasic than biphasic pulses. Both visual and electrical stimuli reliably evoked responses with characteristic components, which interacted with each other in a nonlinear summation showing first facilitation then suppression during the window of interaction. The chronaxie for eliciting threshold cortical responses was about 100 µs, and the charge density with a pulse width of 50-100 µs was around 55 µC cm-2. These data form the basis of understanding the types of cortical responses to stimuli delivered by devices suitable for chronic implantation.

  14. The design of the Comet streamliner: An electric land speed record motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Ethan Alexander

    The development of the land speed record electric motorcycle streamliner, the Comet, is discussed herein. Its design process includes a detailed literary review of past and current motorcycle streamliners in an effort to highlight the main components of such a vehicle's design, while providing baseline data for performance comparisons. A new approach to balancing a streamliner at low speeds is also addressed, a system henceforth referred to as landing gear, which has proven an effective means for allowing the driver to control the low speed instabilities of the vehicle with relative ease compared to tradition designs. This is accompanied by a dynamic stability analysis conducted on a test chassis that was developed for the primary purpose of understanding the handling dynamics of streamliners, while also providing a test bed for the implementation of the landing gear system and a means to familiarize the driver to the operation and handling of such a vehicle. Data gathered through the use of GPS based velocity tracking, accelerometers, and a linear potentiometer provided a means to validate a dynamic stability analysis of the weave and wobble modes of the vehicle through linearization of a streamliner model developed in the BikeSIM software suite. Results indicate agreement between the experimental data and the simulation, indicating that the conventional recumbent design of a streamliner chassis is in fact highly stable throughout the performance envelope beyond extremely low speeds. A computational fluid dynamics study was also performed, utilized in the development of the body of the Comet to which a series of tests were conducted in order to develop a shape that was both practical to transport and highly efficient. By creating a hybrid airfoil from a NACA 0018 and NACA 66-018, a drag coefficient of 0.1 and frontal area of 0.44 m2 has been found for the final design. Utilizing a performance model based on the proposed vehicle's motor, its rolling resistance, and

  15. Students as co-creators of teaching approaches, course design and curricula: implications for academic developers

    OpenAIRE

    Bovill, C.; Cook-Sather, A.; Felten, P.

    2011-01-01

    Within higher education, students’ voices are frequently overlooked in the design of teaching approaches, courses and curricula. In this paper we outline the theoretical background to arguments for including students as partners in pedagogical planning processes. We present examples where students have worked collaboratively in design processes along with the beneficial outcomes of these examples. Finally we focus on some of the implications and opportunities for academic developers of propos...

  16. Possibilities and Implications of Using the ICF and Other Vocabulary Standards in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Richoz, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    There is now widespread recognition of the powerful potential of electronic health record (EHR) systems to improve the health-care delivery system. The benefits of EHRs grow even larger when the health data within their purview are seamlessly shared, aggregated and processed across different providers, settings and institutions. Yet, the plethora of idiosyncratic conventions for identifying the same clinical content in different information systems is a fundamental barrier to fully leveraging the potential of EHRs. Only by adopting vocabulary standards that provide the lingua franca across these local dialects can computers efficiently move, aggregate and use health data for decision support, outcomes management, quality reporting, research and many other purposes. In this regard, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) is an important standard for physiotherapists because it provides a framework and standard language for describing health and health-related states. However, physiotherapists and other health-care professionals capture a wide range of data such as patient histories, clinical findings, tests and measurements, procedures, and so on, for which other vocabulary standards such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature Of Medicine Clinical Terms are crucial for interoperable communication between different electronic systems. In this paper, we describe how the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards could advance physiotherapy practise and research by enabling data sharing and reuse by EHRs. We highlight how these different vocabulary standards fit together within a comprehensive record system, and how EHRs can make use of them, with a particular focus on enhancing decision-making. By incorporating the ICF and other internationally accepted vocabulary standards into our clinical information systems, physiotherapists will be able to leverage the potent

  17. Microphone variability and degradation: implications for monitoring programs employing autonomous recording units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Turgeon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous recording units (ARUs are emerging as an effective tool for avian population monitoring and research. Although ARU technology is being rapidly adopted, there is a need to establish whether variation in ARU components and their degradation with use might introduce detection biases that would affect long-term monitoring and research projects. We assessed whether microphone sensitivity impacted the probability of detecting bird vocalizations by broadcasting a sequence of 12 calls toward an array of commercially available ARUs equipped with microphones of varying sensitivities under three levels (32 dBA, 42 dBA, and 50 dBA of experimentally induced noise conditions selected to reflect the range of noise levels commonly encountered during avian surveys. We used binomial regression to examine factors influencing probability of detection for each species and used these to examine the impact of microphone sensitivity on the effective detection area (ha for each species. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced detection probability for all species examined, but the magnitude of the effect varied between species and often interacted with distance. Microphone sensitivity loss reduced the effective detection area by an average of 25% for microphones just beyond manufacturer specifications (-5 dBV and by an average of 66% for severely compromised microphones (-20 dBV. Microphone sensitivity loss appeared to be more problematic for low frequency calls where reduction in the effective detection area occurred most rapidly. Microphone degradation poses a source of variation in avian surveys made with ARUs that will require regular measurement of microphone sensitivity and criteria for microphone replacement to ensure scientifically reproducible results. We recommend that research and monitoring projects employing ARUs test their microphones regularly, replace microphones with declining sensitivity, and record sensitivity as a potential covariate in

  18. A comparison of 3 methods of face-bow transfer recording: implications for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateno, J; Forrest, K K; Camp, B

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal plane inclination of models mounted using 3 different systems for face-bow transfer with the actual occlusal plane inclination as measured on a cephalometric radiograph. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in this study. Three alginate impressions of the maxillary dentition were taken, and 3 stone dental models were produced for each subject. Face-bow recordings were obtained on each subject using the SAM Anatomical Face-bow (Great Lakes Orthodontics Products, Ltd, Tonawanda, NY), the Erickson Surgical Face-bow (Great Lakes Orthodontics Products, Ltd) and a new technique developed by one of the authors (J.G.). For each subject, the dental models were mounted on a SAM articulator using each of the 3 face-bow recordings. Finally, a lateral cephalometric radiograph was obtained for each subject. The occlusal plane inclination was measured on the models and on the cephalometric radiographs. Differences among groups were tested using a 1-way analysis of variance. Bonferroni test was used for post hoc comparison between different pairs of groups. The average occlusal plane inclination using the SAM Anatomical Face-bow was 7.8 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees greater than the actual-a difference that was statistically significant. The mean occlusal plane inclination of the models obtained using the Erickson Surgical Face-bow was 4.4 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees greater than the actual-a difference that was also statistically significant. The mean occlusal plane inclination of the models obtained by the new technique was only 0.9 degrees +/- 1.2 degrees greater than the actual; this difference was not statistically significant. The new mounting technique is more accurate than the conventional SAM Face-bow or the Erickson Face-bow for reproducing the actual occlusal plane inclination. Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  19. A 3400 year lacustrine paleoseismic record from the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey: Implications for bimodal recurrence behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas

    2014-01-28

    High-resolution physical, geochemical, and geochronological analyses on the sedimentary sequence of Yeniçağa Lake, located in a fault-bounded basin along the North Anatolian Fault, reveal fingerprints of paleoearthquakes. A robust sediment chronology, spanning the last 3400 years, is constructed by radiocarbon dating and time-stratigraphical correlation with the precisely dated Sofular Cave speleothem record. Yeniçağa sedimentary sequence contains 11 seismically induced event deposits characterized by siliciclastic-enriched intervals. Some of the event deposits are also associated with implications of sudden lake deepening, which may be related to coseismic subsidence. The paleoearthquake series having an average recurrence interval of ca. 260 years are interrupted by two possible seismic gaps of ca. 420 and 540 years.

  20. Advancing cognitive engineering methods to support user interface design for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Dziabiak, Michael P; Johnson, Raymond; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel Humberto; Acharya, Amit; Yabes, Jonathan; Schleyer, Titus K

    2014-04-01

    Despite many decades of research on the effective development of clinical systems in medicine, the adoption of health information technology to improve patient care continues to be slow, especially in ambulatory settings. This applies to dentistry as well, a primary care discipline with approximately 137,000 practitioners in the United States. A critical reason for slow adoption is the poor usability of clinical systems, which makes it difficult for providers to navigate through the information and obtain an integrated view of patient data. In this study, we documented the cognitive processes and information management strategies used by dentists during a typical patient examination. The results will inform the design of a novel electronic dental record interface. We conducted a cognitive task analysis (CTA) study to observe ten general dentists (five general dentists and five general dental faculty members, each with more than two years of clinical experience) examining three simulated patient cases using a think-aloud protocol. Dentists first reviewed the patient's demographics, chief complaint, medical history and dental history to determine the general status of the patient. Subsequently, they proceeded to examine the patient's intraoral status using radiographs, intraoral images, hard tissue and periodontal tissue information. The results also identified dentists' patterns of navigation through patient's information and additional information needs during a typical clinician-patient encounter. This study reinforced the significance of applying cognitive engineering methods to inform the design of a clinical system. Second, applying CTA to a scenario closely simulating an actual patient encounter helped with capturing participants' knowledge states and decision-making when diagnosing and treating a patient. The resultant knowledge of dentists' patterns of information retrieval and review will significantly contribute to designing flexible and task

  1. Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording: Fundamental Limits to Inverse Electromagnetic Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Samarth

    In this dissertation, we address the burgeoning fields of diffractive optics, metals-optics and plasmonics, and computational inverse problems in the engineering design of electromagnetic structures. We focus on the application of the optical nano-focusing system that will enable Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR), a higher density magnetic recording technology that will fulfill the exploding worldwide demand of digital data storage. The heart of HAMR is a system that focuses light to a nano- sub-diffraction-limit spot with an extremely high power density via an optical antenna. We approach this engineering problem by first discussing the fundamental limits of nano-focusing and the material limits for metal-optics and plasmonics. Then, we use efficient gradient-based optimization algorithms to computationally design shapes of 3D nanostructures that outperform human designs on the basis of mass-market product requirements. In 2014, the world manufactured ˜1 zettabyte (ZB), ie. 1 Billion terabytes (TBs), of data storage devices, including ˜560 million magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs). Global demand of storage will likely increase by 10x in the next 5-10 years, and manufacturing capacity cannot keep up with demand alone. We discuss the state-of-art HDD and why industry invented Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) to overcome the data density limitations. HAMR leverages the temperature sensitivity of magnets, in which the coercivity suddenly and non-linearly falls at the Curie temperature. Data recording to high-density hard disks can be achieved by locally heating one bit of information while co-applying a magnetic field. The heating can be achieved by focusing 100 microW of light to a 30nm diameter spot on the hard disk. This is an enormous light intensity, roughly ˜100,000,000x the intensity of sunlight on the earth's surface! This power density is ˜1,000x the output of gold-coated tapered optical fibers used in Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopes

  2. Marine osmium isotopic record of cherts across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary: implications for environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Kuroda, J.; Hori, R. S.; Ohkouchi, N.; Grocke, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Attention has long been focused on relationships between massive volcanisms and major environmental change such as large mass extinctions (e.g., Wignall, 2001). The Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary at c.a. 200 Ma has been regarded as one of the five biggest mass extinction events in the Phanerozoic when a substantial proportion of marine and terrestrial species became extinct. This period also marks extensive magmatic activities associated with the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). These magmatic activities are likely to be a possible forcing mechanism for the climatic changes in the T-J transition. However, the mechanism triggering the T-J mass extinction is still under debate, because there are remarkable difficulties in correlating the timing of the widespread CAMP volcanic activity with the environmental events, and in estimating the environmental impact of large-scale igneous activity. Since seawater Os isotopic composition varies in response to change in balance of Os supply from continental, mantle and extraterrestrial sources, Os isotopic record from hydrogenous fraction of marine sediments is useful to reconstruct secular changes in the relative contribution from these sources (Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, 2003; Tugeon and Creaser, 2008; Tejada et al., 2009). Such information possibly provides us important constraints on the mechanism of the environmental change and mass extinction. Although Cohen and Coe (2007) have reported Os isotopic records across the T-J boundary from southern England, no data have been reported from the Paleo-Pacific (Panthalassa) pelagic basin that covered approximately half of the Earth’s surface. Here we present a high-resolution isotopic record of osmium extracted from bedded chert successions across the T-J boundary in Kurusu section, central Japan, deposited on a Panthalassa deep basin. Our new dataset show a gradual decrease in seawater 187Os/188Os values through the Rhaetian and subsequent

  3. Tephrochronology of a 72 ka-long marine record: implications for the southern Tyrrhenian explosive volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Stella; Insinga, Donatella; Pelosi, Nicola; Kissel, Catherine; Laj, Carlo; Capotondi, Lucilla; Sprovieri, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Several discrete tephra layers occur in a Marion Dufresne 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Major, minor and trace element data (EMPA-WDS and LA-ICP-MS analyses) from fresh micro-pumices and glass shards allow to correlate them with the volcanic activity from Aeolian Islands (Lipari, Vulcano, Salina), Campanian Plain (Ischia), Pantelleria and Mt. Etna. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which places the succession in a time interval spanning the last 72 kyrs BP. According to a detailed proximal-distal and distal-distal correlation, a precise chronological framework is established and some main markers tephras of the central Mediterranean area (Y-1, Y-6, Y-7 and Y-8) are recognised. In additions, the succession is a precious archive to record multiple volcanic events occurred at Ischia volcano and the Aeolian Arc (Lipari and Vulcano). This latter, in particular, erupted several products which exhibits strong compositional variations otherwise non detectable from terrestrial counterparts. The results of the present study, hence, provide new data for a detailed analytical reference database of the Tyrrhenian Sea tephrochronology and may contribute to a better chronostratigraphic reconstruction of the Aeolian arc explosive events.

  4. Oxygen-Dependent Morphogenesis of Modern Clumped Photosynthetic Mats and Implications for the Archean Stromatolite Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R. Walter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Some modern filamentous oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria form macroscopic tufts, laminated cones and ridges that are very similar to some Archean and Proterozoic stromatolites. However, it remains unclear whether microbes that constructed Archean clumps, tufts, cones and ridges also produced oxygen. Here, we address this question by examining the physiology of cyanobacterial clumps, aggregates ~0.5 mm in diameter that initiate the growth of modern mm- and cm-scale cones. Clumps contain more particulate organic carbon in the form of denser, bowed and bent cyanobacterial filaments, abandoned sheaths and non-cyanobacterial cells relative to the surrounding areas. Increasing concentrations of oxygen in the solution enhance the bending of filaments and the persistence of clumps by reducing the lateral migration of filaments away from clumps. Clumped mats in oxic media also release less glycolate, a soluble photorespiration product, and retain a larger pool of carbon in the mat. Clumping thus benefits filamentous mat builders whose incorporation of inorganic carbon is sensitive to oxygen. The morphogenetic sequence of mm-scale clumps, reticulate ridges and conical stromatolites from the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation likely records similar O2-dependent behaviors, preserving currently the oldest morphological signature of oxygenated environments on Early Earth.

  5. The electronic health record as a healthcare management strategy and implications for obstetrics and gynecologic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Matthew; Hom, Jason; Sharp, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    To review the current trends, utilities, impacts and strategy for electronic health records (EHRs) as related to obstetrics and gynecology. Adoption and utilization of EHRs are increasing rapidly but variably, given pressures of financial incentives, policy and technological advancement. Adoption is outpacing published evidence, but there is a growing body of descriptive literature regarding incentives, benefits, risks and costs of adoption and utilization. Further, there is a rising body of evidence that EHRs can bring benefits to processes and outcomes, and that their implementation can be considered as a healthcare management strategy. Obstetrics and gynecology practices have specific needs, which must be addressed in the adoption of such technology. Specialty specific literature is sparse but should be considered as part of any strategy aimed at achieving quality improvement and practice behavior change. Obstetrics and gynecologic practice presents unique challenges to the effective adoption and use of EHR technologies, but there is promise as the technologies, integration and usability are rapidly improving. This technology will have an increasing impact on the practice of obstetrics and gynecology in the coming years.

  6. A framework for evaluating electronic health record vendor user-centered design and usability testing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj M; Zachary Hettinger, A; Kosydar, Allison; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Hodgkins, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there are few resources for electronic health record (EHR) purchasers and end users to understand the usability processes employed by EHR vendors during product design and development. We developed a framework, based on human factors literature and industry standards, to systematically evaluate the user-centered design processes and usability testing methods used by EHR vendors. We reviewed current usability certification requirements and the human factors literature to develop a 15-point framework for evaluating EHR products. The framework is based on 3 dimensions: user-centered design process, summative testing methodology, and summative testing results. Two vendor usability reports were retrieved from the Office of the National Coordinator's Certified Health IT Product List and were evaluated using the framework. One vendor scored low on the framework (5 pts) while the other vendor scored high on the framework (15 pts). The 2 scored vendor reports demonstrate the framework's ability to discriminate between the variabilities in vendor processes and to determine which vendors are meeting best practices. The framework provides a method to more easily comprehend EHR vendors' usability processes and serves to highlight where EHR vendors may be falling short in terms of best practices. The framework provides a greater level of transparency for both purchasers and end users of EHRs. The framework highlights the need for clearer certification requirements and suggests that the authorized certification bodies that examine vendor usability reports may need to be provided with clearer guidance.

  7. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  8. Instrumental record of debris flow initiation during natural rainfall: Implications for modeling slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Dietrich, W.E.; McKean, J.

    2009-01-01

    The middle of a hillslope hollow in the Oregon Coast Range failed and mobilized as a debris flow during heavy rainfall in November 1996. Automated pressure transducers recorded high spatial variability of pore water pressure within the area that mobilized as a debris flow, which initiated where local upward flow from bedrock developed into overlying colluvium. Postfailure observations of the bedrock surface exposed in the debris flow scar reveal a strong spatial correspondence between elevated piezometric response and water discharging from bedrock fractures. Measurements of apparent root cohesion on the basal (Cb) and lateral (Cl) scarp demonstrate substantial local variability, with areally weighted values of Cb = 0.1 and Cl = 4.6 kPa. Using measured soil properties and basal root strength, the widely used infinite slope model, employed assuming slope parallel groundwater flow, provides a poor prediction of hydrologie conditions at failure. In contrast, a model including lateral root strength (but neglecting lateral frictional strength) gave a predicted critical value of relative soil saturation that fell within the range defined by the arithmetic and geometric mean values at the time of failure. The 3-D slope stability model CLARA-W, used with locally observed pore water pressure, predicted small areas with lower factors of safety within the overall slide mass at sites consistent with field observations of where the failure initiated. This highly variable and localized nature of small areas of high pore pressure that can trigger slope failure means, however, that substantial uncertainty appears inevitable for estimating hydrologie conditions within incipient debris flows under natural conditions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Implications of electronic health record downtime: an analysis of patient safety event reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ethan; Fong, Allan; Wernz, Christian; Ratwani, Raj M

    2018-02-01

    We sought to understand the types of clinical processes, such as image and medication ordering, that are disrupted during electronic health record (EHR) downtime periods by analyzing the narratives of patient safety event report data. From a database of 80 381 event reports, 76 reports were identified as explicitly describing a safety event associated with an EHR downtime period. These reports were analyzed and categorized based on a developed code book to identify the clinical processes that were impacted by downtime. We also examined whether downtime procedures were in place and followed. The reports were coded into categories related to their reported clinical process: Laboratory, Medication, Imaging, Registration, Patient Handoff, Documentation, History Viewing, Delay of Procedure, and General. A majority of reports (48.7%, n = 37) were associated with lab orders and results, followed by medication ordering and administration (14.5%, n = 11). Incidents commonly involved patient identification and communication of clinical information. A majority of reports (46%, n = 35) indicated that downtime procedures either were not followed or were not in place. Only 27.6% of incidents (n = 21) indicated that downtime procedures were successfully executed. Patient safety report data offer a lens into EHR downtime-related safety hazards. Important areas of risk during EHR downtime periods were patient identification and communication of clinical information; these should be a focus of downtime procedure planning to reduce safety hazards. EHR downtime events pose patient safety hazards, and we highlight critical areas for downtime procedure improvement.

  10. Typhoon Haiyan's sedimentary record in coastal environments of the Philippines and its palaeotempestological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dominik; May, Simon Matthias; Engel, Max; Reyes, Michelle; Pint, Anna; Opitz, Stephan; Dierick, Manuel; Gonzalo, Lia Anne; Esser, Sascha; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    On 8 November 2013, category 5 Supertyphoon Haiyan made landfall on the Philippines. During a post-typhoon survey in February 2014, Haiyan-related sand deposition and morphological changes were documented at four severely affected sites with different exposure to the typhoon track and different geological and geomorphological settings. Onshore sand sheets reaching 100-250 m inland are restricted to coastal areas with significant inundation due to amplification of surge levels in embayments or due to accompanying long-wave phenomena at the most exposed coastlines of Leyte and Samar. However, localized washover fans with a storm-typical laminated stratigraphy occurred even along coasts with limited inundation due to waves overtopping or breaching coastal barriers. On a recent reef platform off Negros in the Visayan Sea, storm waves entrained coral rubble from the reef slope and formed an intertidal coral ridge several hundreds of metres long when breaking at the reef edge. As these sediments and landforms were generated by one of the strongest storms ever recorded, they not only provide a recent reference for typhoon signatures that can be used for palaeotempestological and palaeotsunami studies in the region but might also increase the general spectrum of possible cyclone deposits. Although a rather atypical example for storm deposition due to the influence of infra-gravity waves, it nevertheless provides a valuable reference for an extreme case that should be considered when discriminating between storm and tsunami deposits in general. Even for sites with low topography and high inundation levels during Supertyphoon Haiyan, the landward extent of the documented sand sheets seems significantly smaller than typical sand sheets of large tsunamis. This criterion may potentially be used to distinguish both types of events.

  11. The isotopic record of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric carbon monoxide since 1950: implications for the CO budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year record of the stable isotopes of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from firn air samples collected under the framework of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM project. CO concentration, δ13C, and δ18O of CO were measured by gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (gc-IRMS from trapped gases in the firn. We applied LGGE-GIPSA firn air models (Witrant et al., 2011 to correlate gas age with firn air depth and then reconstructed the trend of atmospheric CO and its stable isotopic composition at high northern latitudes since 1950. The most probable firn air model scenarios show that δ13C decreased slightly from −25.8‰ in 1950 to −26.4‰ in 2000, then decreased more significantly to −27.2‰ in 2008. δ18O decreased more regularly from 9.8‰ in 1950 to 7.1‰ in 2008. Those same scenarios show CO concentration increased gradually from 1950 and peaked in the late 1970s, followed by a gradual decrease to present day values (Petrenko et al., 2012. Results from an isotope mass balance model indicate that a slight increase, followed by a large reduction, in CO derived from fossil fuel combustion has occurred since 1950. The reduction of CO emission from fossil fuel combustion after the mid-1970s is the most plausible mechanism for the drop of CO concentration during this time. Fossil fuel CO emissions decreased as a result of the implementation of catalytic converters and the relative growth of diesel engines, in spite of the global vehicle fleet size having grown several fold over the same time period.

  12. Design and Implementation of Track Record System Based on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiachen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of losing and missing of vulnerable groups, a track record system is designed. The mobile terminal Android system is used as a platform, with the help of Auto Navi Map Android SDK positioning function, realize the positioning data acquisition of mobile terminals; using Apache Tomcat Server and MySQL database to build a Server which haves C/S(the client and the server server architecture. The mobile terminal interacts with the server through the JSON data transmission mode based on the HTTP protocol, and the server saves the relevant information provided by the mobile terminal through the JDBC to the corresponding table in the database. It can be used to monitor the trace of the family and friends, compared with the PC terminal, it is not only more flexible, convenient and fast, but also has the characteristics of real-time and high efficiency. Through the test, all functions can be used normally.

  13. Object-oriented analysis and design: a methodology for modeling the computer-based patient record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egyhazy, C J; Eyestone, S M; Martino, J; Hodgson, C L

    1998-08-01

    The article highlights the importance of an object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) methodology for the computer-based patient record (CPR) in the military environment. Many OOAD methodologies do not adequately scale up, allow for efficient reuse of their products, or accommodate legacy systems. A methodology that addresses these issues is formulated and used to demonstrate its applicability in a large-scale health care service system. During a period of 6 months, a team of object modelers and domain experts formulated an OOAD methodology tailored to the Department of Defense Military Health System and used it to produce components of an object model for simple order processing. This methodology and the lessons learned during its implementation are described. This approach is necessary to achieve broad interoperability among heterogeneous automated information systems.

  14. The Emergence of an Amplified Mindset of Design: Implications for Postgraduate Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mafalda; Murphy, Emma; McAra-McWilliam, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In a global scenario of complexity, research shows that emerging design practices are changing and expanding, creating a complex and ambiguous disciplinary landscape. This directly impacts on the field of design education, calling for new, flexible models able to tackle future practitioners' needs, unknown markets and emergent societal cultures.…

  15. Designing discovery learning environments: process analysis and implications for designing an information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Julius Marie; Limbach, R.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the design process of authors of (simulation based) discovery learning environments was carried out. The analysis aimed at identifying the design activities of authors and categorising knowledge gaps that they experience. First, five existing studies were systematically

  16. Investigating University Educators' Design Thinking and the Implications for Design Support Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sue; Agostinho, Shirley; Lockyer, Lori

    2016-01-01

    All university educators perform design work as they prepare and plan learning experiences for their students. How such design work is undertaken, conceptualised, and optimally supported is the focus of ongoing research for the authors. The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study that sought to gain a richer…

  17. Bicycle Design : A different approach to improving on the world human powered speed records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Epema, H.K.; Van den Brand, S.; Gregoor, W.; Kooijman, J.D.G.; Pereboom, H.P.; Wielemaker, D.C.; Van der Zweep, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    The current International Human Powered Vehicle Association world records for faired bicycles stand at 133.284km/h for the 200m flying start speed record and 91.562 km for the hour record. Traditionally the recumbent bicycles that have been developed for breaking one of either of these records have

  18. Early to Middle Triassic sedimentary records in the Youjiang Basin, South China: Implications for Indosinian orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liang; Yan, Dan-Ping; Yang, Wen-Xin; Wang, Jibin; Tang, Xiangli; Ariser, Shahnawaz

    2017-06-01

    geochemical data suggest that the clastic rocks were deposited in a continental arc or margin setting. Thus, we infer that Early to Middle Triassic sediments in the Youjiang foreland basin record the transition from late Permian and Early Triassic subduction to Middle Triassic collision at the southwestern margin of the South China Block.

  19. Design patterns for the development of electronic health record-driven phenotype extraction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Thompson, Will K; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Kho, Abel N; Carrell, David S; Pathak, Jyotishman; Peissig, Peggy L; Tromp, Gerard; Denny, Joshua C; Starren, Justin B

    2014-10-01

    Design patterns, in the context of software development and ontologies, provide generalized approaches and guidance to solving commonly occurring problems, or addressing common situations typically informed by intuition, heuristics and experience. While the biomedical literature contains broad coverage of specific phenotype algorithm implementations, no work to date has attempted to generalize common approaches into design patterns, which may then be distributed to the informatics community to efficiently develop more accurate phenotype algorithms. Using phenotyping algorithms stored in the Phenotype KnowledgeBase (PheKB), we conducted an independent iterative review to identify recurrent elements within the algorithm definitions. We extracted and generalized recurrent elements in these algorithms into candidate patterns. The authors then assessed the candidate patterns for validity by group consensus, and annotated them with attributes. A total of 24 electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) phenotypes available in PheKB as of 1/25/2013 were downloaded and reviewed. From these, a total of 21 phenotyping patterns were identified, which are available as an online data supplement. Repeatable patterns within phenotyping algorithms exist, and when codified and cataloged may help to educate both experienced and novice algorithm developers. The dissemination and application of these patterns has the potential to decrease the time to develop algorithms, while improving portability and accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Implications of complex adaptive systems theory for the design of research on health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Lanham, Holly Jordan; Anderson, Ruth A

    2009-01-01

    Because health care organizations (HCOs) are complex adaptive systems (CASs), phenomena of interest often are dynamic and unfold in unpredictable ways, and unfolding events are often unique. Researchers of HCOs may recognize that the subject of their research is dynamic; however, their research designs may not take this into account. Researchers may also know that unfolding events are often unique, but their design may not have the capacity to obtain information from meager evidence. These two concerns led us to examine two ideas from organizational theory: (a) the ideas of K. E. Weick (1993) on organizational design as a verb and (b) the ideas of J. G. March, L. S. Sproull, and M. Tamuz (1991) on learning from samples of one or fewer. In this article, we applied these ideas to develop an enriched perspective of research design for studying CASs. We conducted a theoretical analysis of organizations as CASs, identifying relevant characteristics for research designs. We then explored two ideas from organizational theory and discussed the implications for research designs. Weick's idea of "design as a verb" helps in understanding dynamic and process-oriented research design. The idea of "learning from samples of one or fewer" of March, Sproull, and Tamuz provides strategies for research design that enables learning from meager evidence. When studying HCOs, research designs are likely to be more effective when they (a) anticipate change, (b) include tension, (c) capitalize on serendipity, and (d) use an "act-then-look" mind set. Implications for practice are discussed. Practitioners who understand HCOs as CASs will be cautious in accepting findings from studies that treat HCOs mechanistically. They will consider the characteristics of CAS when evaluating the evidence base for practice. Practitioners can use the strategies proposed in this article to stimulate discussion with researchers seeking to conduct research in their HCO.

  1. A Two-year Record of Daily Rainfall Isotopes from Fiji: Implications for Reconstructing Precipitation from Speleothem δ18O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, M.; Mattey, D.; Stephens, M.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen isotopes in speleothem provide opportunities to construct precisely dated records of palaeoclimate variability, underpinned by an understanding of both the regional climate and local controls on isotopes in rainfall and groundwater. For tropical islands, a potential means to reconstruct past rainfall variability is to exploit the generally high correlation between rainfall amount and δ18O: the 'amount effect'. The GNIP program provides δ18O data at monthly resolution for several tropical Pacific islands but there are few data for precipitation isotopes at daily resolution, for investigating the amount effect over different timescales in a tropical maritime setting. Timescales are important since meteoric water feeding a speleothem has undergone storage and mixing in the aquifer system and understanding how the isotope amount effect is preserved in aquifer recharge has fundamental implications on the interpretation of speleothem δ18O in terms of palaeo-precipitation. The islands of Fiji host speleothem caves. Seasonal precipitation is related to the movement of the South Pacific Convergence Zone, and interannual variations in rainfall are coupled to ENSO behaviour. Individual rainfall events are stratiform or convective, with proximal moisture sources. We have daily resolution isotope data for rainfall collected at the University of the South Pacific in Suva, covering every rain event in 2012 and 2013. δ18O varies between -18‰ and +3‰ with the annual weighted averages at -7.6‰ and -6.8‰ respectively, while total recorded rainfall amount is similar in both years. We shall present analysis of our data compared with GNIP, meteorological data and back trajectory analyses to demonstrate the nature of the relationship between rainfall amount and isotopic signatures over this short timescale. Comparison with GNIP data for 2012-13 will shed light on the origin of the amount effect at monthly and seasonal timescales in convective, maritime, tropical

  2. The effect of electronic health record software design on resident documentation and compliance with evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Torres, Yasaira; Huang, Jordan; Mihlstin, Melanie; Juzych, Mark S; Kromrei, Heidi; Hwang, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of electronic health record software in resident education by evaluating documentation of 30 elements extracted from the American Academy of Ophthalmology Dry Eye Syndrome Preferred Practice Pattern. The Kresge Eye Institute transitioned to using electronic health record software in June 2013. We evaluated the charts of 331 patients examined in the resident ophthalmology clinic between September 1, 2011, and March 31, 2014, for an initial evaluation for dry eye syndrome. We compared documentation rates for the 30 evidence-based elements between electronic health record chart note templates among the ophthalmology residents. Overall, significant changes in documentation occurred when transitioning to a new version of the electronic health record software with average compliance ranging from 67.4% to 73.6% (p 90%) in 13 elements while Electronic Health Record B had high compliance (>90%) in 11 elements. The presence of dialog boxes was responsible for significant changes in documentation of adnexa, puncta, proptosis, skin examination, contact lens wear, and smoking exposure. Significant differences in documentation were correlated with electronic health record template design rather than individual resident or residents' year in training. Our results show that electronic health record template design influences documentation across all resident years. Decreased documentation likely results from "mouse click fatigue" as residents had to access multiple dialog boxes to complete documentation. These findings highlight the importance of EHR template design to improve resident documentation and integration of evidence-based medicine into their clinical notes.

  3. The effect of electronic health record software design on resident documentation and compliance with evidence-based medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaira Rodriguez Torres

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the role of electronic health record software in resident education by evaluating documentation of 30 elements extracted from the American Academy of Ophthalmology Dry Eye Syndrome Preferred Practice Pattern. The Kresge Eye Institute transitioned to using electronic health record software in June 2013. We evaluated the charts of 331 patients examined in the resident ophthalmology clinic between September 1, 2011, and March 31, 2014, for an initial evaluation for dry eye syndrome. We compared documentation rates for the 30 evidence-based elements between electronic health record chart note templates among the ophthalmology residents. Overall, significant changes in documentation occurred when transitioning to a new version of the electronic health record software with average compliance ranging from 67.4% to 73.6% (p 90% in 13 elements while Electronic Health Record B had high compliance (>90% in 11 elements. The presence of dialog boxes was responsible for significant changes in documentation of adnexa, puncta, proptosis, skin examination, contact lens wear, and smoking exposure. Significant differences in documentation were correlated with electronic health record template design rather than individual resident or residents' year in training. Our results show that electronic health record template design influences documentation across all resident years. Decreased documentation likely results from "mouse click fatigue" as residents had to access multiple dialog boxes to complete documentation. These findings highlight the importance of EHR template design to improve resident documentation and integration of evidence-based medicine into their clinical notes.

  4. EDRMS for Academic Records Management: A Design Study in a Malaysian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Shah Jahan; Samsudin, Ahmad Zam Hariro

    2017-01-01

    Higher education institutes such as universities suffer from a range of issues in managing their academic records and relevant digital contents. Many universities nowadays use specific software applications for their effective mechanism in records management. The effective provision of enterprises records management (ERM) software for managing…

  5. 36 CFR 1290.8 - Implementing the JFK Act-Notice of Assassination Record Designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementing the JFK Act... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS GUIDANCE FOR INTERPRETATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.8...

  6. Design and Evaluation of an Application for Recording of Pharmacy Students’ Attendance via Smartphones and Personal Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghakouchakzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attendance management is one of the most important issues in the educational institutions. The traditional method for attendance recording is manually recording by professors in the school or university which is associated with several problems. We proposed the design and utilization of an electronic application for students’ attendance recording via smartphones and PCs.Methods: This study was a cross-sectional and Quasi-experimental study, which held in the department of clinical pharmacy in the school of pharmacy in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences. Group I was assigned to the manually recording of student attendance. Group II was assigned to the design and utilization of an electronic application for registration of attendance. Each of the professors records the students’ attendance in the class by smartphones. Finally, the satisfaction of the professors about the application was assessed with the 6-item questionnaire. Also, the efficacy of the application was evaluated through the comparison of the number of recorded attendance and the number of absent recorded in group I and II.Results: The results of satisfaction survey illustrated that all of the professors found the electronic recording of the attendance was the more useful than the traditional method and lead to the reducing the possibility of errors, the time spent, and the pleasure of students. Also, the comparison between the numbers of students’ recorded attendance and numbers of absence recorded were higher by utilization of the application more than by the traditional method.Conclusion: The students’ attendance recording application can improve performance compared to the manually attendance management system via decreasing the possibility errors and continuous assessing during a semester.

  7. Sediment records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the continental shelf of China: implications for evolving anthropogenic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Wei, Gao-Ling; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-06-19

    Sources, compositions, and historical records of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores collected from the Yellow Sea and the South China Sea were analyzed to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities. The occurrence of PAHs was mainly derived from various combustion sources, especially the combustion of biomass and domestic coal. Uniform composition of sedimentary PAHs (52-62% of phenanthrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene) suggested air-borne mixtures intractable to degradation. The concentrations of the sum of 15 PAHs (16 priority pollutants designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency minus naphthalene; designed as Σ(15)PAH) in Yellow Sea sediment cores were generally higher than those in the South China Sea. The profiles of Σ(15)PAH concentrations recorded in the sediment cores closely followed historical socioeconomic development in China. In general, Σ(15)PAH concentrations started to increase from the background pollution level posed by agricultural economy at the turn of 20th century. In addition, a Σ(15)PAH concentration reduction was observed during the Chinese Civil War (1946-1949) and Great Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), suggesting them as setbacks for economic development in Chinese history. Increasing PAH emissions as a result of increasing coal combustion associated with the rapid urbanization and industrialization since the implementation of the Reform and Open Policy (since 1978) accounted for the fast growth of Σ(15)PAH concentrations in sediment cores. The decline of Σ(15)PAH concentrations from subsurface maximum until sampling time was inconsistent with current-day economic development in China, and may possibly suggest emission reductions due to decreasing proportional use of domestic coal and increasing consumption of cleaner energies (natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas).

  8. Design and measurements of 64-channel ASIC for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmon, P; Zoladz, M; Grybos, P; Szczygiel, R

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and measurements of a low noise multi-channel front-end electronics for recording extra-cellular neuronal signals using microelectrode arrays. The integrated circuit contains 64 readout channels and was fabricated in CMOS 0.18 microm technology. A single readout channel is built of an AC coupling circuit at the input, a low noise preamplifier, a band-pass filter and a second amplifier. In order to reduce the number of output lines, the 64 analog signals from readout channels are multiplexed to a single output by an analog multiplexer. The chip is optimized for low noise and matching performance with the possibility of cut-off frequencies tuning. The low cut-off frequency can be tuned in the 1 Hz-60 Hz range and the high cut-off frequency can be tuned in the 3.5 kHz-15 kHz range. For the nominal gain setting at 44 dB and power dissipation per single channel of 220 microW the equivalent input noise is in the range from 6 microV-11 microV rms depending on the band-pass filter settings. The chip has good uniformity concerning the spread of its electrical parameters from channel to channel. The spread of gain calculated as standard deviation to mean value is about 4.4% and the spread of the low cut-off frequency is on the same level. The chip occupies 5x2.3 mm(2) of silicon area.

  9. SU-E-T-240: Design and Implement of An Electronic Records Function for Treatment Plan Checked Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Beijing Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To replace the paper records, we designed an electronic records function for plan checked meeting in our in-house developed radiotherapy information management system(RTIMS). Methods: Since 2007, the RTIMS has been developed on a database and web service of Apache+PHP+MySQL, and almost all computers and smartphones could access the RTIMS through IE browser, to input, search, count, and print the data. In 2012, we also established an radiation therapy case conference multi-media system(RTCCMMS) based on Windows Remote Desktop feature. Since 2013, we have carried out the treatment plan checked meeting of the physics division in every afternoon for about half an hour. In 2014, we designed an electronic records function, which includes a meeting information record and a checked plan record. And the meeting record includes the following items: meeting date, name, place, length, status, attendee, content, etc. The plan record includes the followings: meeting date, meeting name, patient ID, gender, age, patient name, course, plan, purpose, position, technique, CTsim type, plan type, primary doctor, other doctor, primary physicist, other physicist, difficulty, quality, score, opinion, status, note, etc. Results: In the past year, the electronic meeting records function has been successfully developed and implemented in the division, and it could be accessed from an smartphone. Almost all items have the corresponding pull-down menu selection, and each option would try to intelligently inherit default value from the former record or other form. According to the items, we could do big data mining to the input data. It also has both Chinese and English two versions. Conclusion: It was demonstrated to be user-friendly and was proven to significantly improve the clinical efficiency and quality of treatment plan. Since the RTIMS is an in-house developed system, more functions can be added or modified to further enhance its potentials in research and clinical practice

  10. Sources of variation in primary care clinical workflow: implications for the design of cognitive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Laura G; Arbuckle, Nicole B; Saleem, Jason J; Patterson, Emily; Flanagan, Mindy; Haggstrom, David; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2014-03-01

    This article identifies sources of variation in clinical workflow and implications for the design and implementation of electronic clinical decision support. Sources of variation in workflow were identified via rapid ethnographic observation, focus groups, and interviews across a total of eight medical centers in both the Veterans Health Administration and academic medical centers nationally regarded as leaders in developing and using clinical decision support. Data were reviewed for types of variability within the social and technical subsystems and the external environment as described in the sociotechnical systems theory. Two researchers independently identified examples of variation and their sources, and then met with each other to discuss them until consensus was reached. Sources of variation were categorized as environmental (clinic staffing and clinic pace), social (perception of health information technology and real-time use with patients), or technical (computer access and information access). Examples of sources of variation within each of the categories are described and discussed in terms of impact on clinical workflow. As technologies are implemented, barriers to use become visible over time as users struggle to adapt workflow and work practices to accommodate new technologies. Each source of variability identified has implications for the effective design and implementation of useful health information technology. Accommodating moderate variability in workflow is anticipated to avoid brittle and inflexible workflow designs, while also avoiding unnecessary complexity for implementers and users.

  11. Skull Flexure from Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury with Implications for Helmet Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, W C; King, M J; Blackman, E G

    2009-04-30

    Traumatic brain injury [TBI] has become a signature injury of current military conflicts, with debilitating, costly, and long-lasting effects. Although mechanisms by which head impacts cause TBI have been well-researched, the mechanisms by which blasts cause TBI are not understood. From numerical hydrodynamic simulations, we have discovered that non-lethal blasts can induce sufficient skull flexure to generate potentially damaging loads in the brain, even without a head impact. The possibility that this mechanism may contribute to TBI has implications for injury diagnosis and armor design.

  12. Universal design of workplaces through the use of Poka-Yokes: Case study and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Miralles

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Employment plays an important part in many people’s lives beyond merely providing income, since continued participation in work can have many therapeutic benefits for workers defined as disabled. However, disabled workers face a range of barriers to employment, despite legislation intended to improve workplace accessibility emphasizing adaptations to the workplace, which many employers often find difficult and expensive. The Poka-Yoke approach was developed in the manufacturing industry as a way of improving productivity by reducing errors using often very simple adaptations. This paper argues that, as Poka-Yokes are designed to make life easier and improve the performance of workers without impairments, they are closer to the philosophy of Universal Design than to Accessible Design, and offer an easy and inclusive way of making work more accessible for all kind of workers. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a case study demonstrating the use of the Poka-Yoke approach in a sheltered work centre for disabled; highlighting how they served to improve accessibility to work by fulfilling Universal Design principles. Findings: Our research allows us to demonstrate the great potential of Poka-yokes for gaining accessibility to the workplace. The real application of this approach, both in sheltered work centres and ordinary companies, can contribute to improve the high unemployment rates of disabled people. Research limitations/implications: The proposal is innovative and was applied in one specific company. Thus, a range of customized Poka-yokes would be desirable for different industrial sectors. Practical implications: Managers of sheltered work centres, and also of ordinary companies, can realize about the great potential of Poka-Yokes as an easy means of gaining flexibility and accessibility. Originality/value: There are very few papers relating lean manufacturing tools and disability. Our approach analyzes the benefits of

  13. Design theory for binaural synthesis: Combining microphone array recordings and head-related transfer function datasets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvador, César D; Sakamoto, Shuichi; Treviño, Jorge; Suzuki, Yôiti

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper reviews the current methods and focuses on a promising class of these methods that rely on combining the spatial information available in microphone array recordings and datasets of head...

  14. Patients with heart failure as co-designers of an educational website: implications for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Anne Mette; Svanholm, Jette R; Schjødt, Inge; Mølgaard Jensen, Karsten; Silén, Charlotte; Karlgren, Klas

    2017-02-25

    To identify the learning needs of patients with heart failure between outpatients follow-up visits from their perspective and to ascertain what they emphasize as being important in the design of an educational website for them. We conducted a two-step qualitative study at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty patients with heart failure participated either in focus group interviews, diary writing, or video-recorded design sessions. Data on learning needs were collected in step 1 and analyses, therefore, helped develop the preliminary prototypes of a website. In step 2, patients worked on the prototypes in video-recorded design sessions, employing a think-aloud method. The interviews were transcribed and a content analysis was performed on the text and video data. Patients' learning needs were multifaceted, driven by anxiety, arising from, and often influenced by, such daily situations and contexts as the medical condition, medication, challenges in daily life, and where to get support and how to manage their self-care. They emphasized different ways of adapting the design to the patient group to enable interaction with peers and professionals and specific interface issues. This study provided insights into the different learning needs of patients with heart failure, how managing daily situations is the starting point for these needs and how emotions play a part in patients' learning. Moreover, it showed how patient co-designers proved to be useful for understanding how to design a website that supports patients' learning: insights, which may become important in designing online learning tools for patients.

  15. Institutional Design, Macroeconomic Policy Coordination and Implications for the Financial Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee and the BoE independence.

  16. Implications of the atmosphere-soil interaction for the design of earth retaining structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruge Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of most geotechnical structures is highly governed by environmental factors, particularly in tropical regions where there are very pronounced dry and wet seasons. Design of earth retaining structures generally tend to be too conservative due to the uncertainty generated by the incorporation of environmental variables. Those variables control the soil unsaturated response and in addition to the known insufficiency of the basic models used in traditional designs they are responsible for conservative designs. Rainfall is the main aspect that affects the soil properties of a particular site. It modifies the soil suction potential, according to the degree of saturation caused by the soil-atmosphere interaction. Currently, state-of-the-art numerical tools allow to simulate the influence of those variables in the behaviour of earth retaining structures. This paper analyses the possible implications of the use of numerical simulations for the design, which include, in the mathematical formulation, the suction as a main parameter. The hypoplastic model for unsaturated response was used. Numerical simulations performed with the use of traditional and modern constitutive models obtained encouraging results that reveal the importance of include suction in design processes.

  17. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  18. Detrital Zircon Record of a Dammed River in Texas - Implications for Modern River Provenance Stories and Sediment Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafov, L. N.; Stockli, D. F.; Mohrig, D. C.; Olariu, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Colorado River in Texas is a meandering river that is bisected by a chain of highland lakes and dams that were completed by 1951. Intuitively, dams trap sediment, but how does that disruption of sediment flow affect overall sediment flux and river morphology downstream of the dams? Observations from aerial photographs were combined with detrital zircon (DZ) U-Pb geochronology to quantify the anthropogenic effect of dams on sand generation. DZ U-Pb were collected from modern river channel sands, modern point bar sands, and modern delta sand sample. The U-Pb age data were evaluated in the context of bedrock U-Pb age data from the Llano Uplift Grenville basement above the dams and DZ U-Pb age data from the 30-40 km wide outcrop belt of Paleocene Wilcox Fm., dominated by Mesozoic Western US zircons, below the dams to evaluate possible entrenchment and sediment generation below the dams. While the modern river sediment collected upstream of the dams are dominated by Grenville DZ U-Pb ages, point bars below the dams show an abrupt increase of Wilcox derived zircons with only 1/3 of zircons derived from above the dams. This appears to be at least in part due to significant re-incision and erosion downstream of the dams out of the Paleocene Wilcox Formation. The lack of significant sand bars for 33 river kilometers below the dams and the progressive increase in sand bar size further downstream, combined with new DZ U-Pb data suggest that the modern river is incising into the Paleocene Wilcox below the dams and generating new sand. This is corroborated by the presence of 35 Ma DZ farther downstream, incorporated from Oligocene units. This progressive entrenchment of the river below the dams and incorporation of DZ from stratigraphic units encountered downstream illustrates the short-term response of the river geomorphology and sediment generation in light of anthropogenic perturbations of the river. These data also have interesting implications for sediment budget of

  19. Uncertainty Analysis in the Evaluation of Extreme Rainfall Trends and Its Implications on Urban Drainage System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Notaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Future projections provided by climate models suggest that the occurrence of extreme rainfall events will increase and this is evidence that the climate is changing. Because the design of urban drainage systems is based on the statistical analysis of past events, variations in the intensity and frequency of extreme rainfall represent a critical issue for the estimation of rainfall. For this reason, the design criteria of drainage systems should take into account the trends in the past and the future climate changes projections. To this end, a Bayesian procedure was proposed to update the parameters of depth–duration–frequency (DDF curves to assess the uncertainty related to the estimation of these values, once the evidence of annual maximum rainfall trends was verified. Namely, in the present study, the historical extreme rainfall series with durations of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h for the period of 1950–2008, recorded by the rain gauges located near the Paceco urban area (southern Italy, were analyzed to detect statistically significant trends using the non‐parametric Mann‐Kendall test. Based on the rainfall trends, the parameters of the DDF curves for a five‐year return period were updated to define some climate scenarios. Finally, the implications of the uncertainty related to the DDF parameters estimation on the design of a real urban drainage system was assessed to provide an evaluation of its performance under the assumption of climate change. Results showed that the future increase of annual maximum precipitation in the area of study would affect the analyzed drainage system, which could face more frequent episodes of surcharge.

  20. Design and Redesign of a Multimodal Classroom Task – Implications for Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Öman

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of technology-mediated instruction at the primary-school level including an analysis of the designed task and how the teacher orchestrated the digital resources during three introductory classes. The aim was also to explore the pupils’ redesigning of advertising films based on teacher’s instructions and available digital resources. Sequences of a learning trajectory were video recorded and analysed from a multimodal perspective with a focus on the designed task and the processes of how pupils orchestrate meaning through their selection and configuration of available designs. The findings show a distinction between the selection of design elements in the teacher’s orchestration of the laptop resources during instruction and the pupils’ redesigning of the task. Pupils’ work developed from the linguistic design provided by the teacher towards visual design and the use of images as the central mode of expression in the process of creating advertising films. The findings also indicate a lack of orientation towards subject content due to the teacher’s primary focus on introducing the software.

  1. Developing a Systematic Architecture Approach for Designing an Enhanced Electronic Medical Record (EEMR) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldukheil, Maher A.

    2013-01-01

    The Healthcare industry is characterized by its complexity in delivering care to the patients. Accordingly, healthcare organizations adopt and implement Information Technology (IT) solutions to manage complexity, improve quality of care, and transform to a fully integrated and digitized environment. Electronic Medical Records (EMR), which is…

  2. Using Caspar Creek flow records to test peak flow estimation methods applicable to crossing design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H. Cafferata; Leslie M. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Long-term flow records from sub-watersheds in the Caspar Creek Experimental Watersheds were used to test the accuracy of four methods commonly used to estimate peak flows in small forested watersheds: the Rational Method, the updated USGS Magnitude and Frequency Method, flow transference methods, and the NRCS curve number method. Comparison of measured and calculated...

  3. From stereoscopic recording to virtual reality headsets: Designing a new way to learn surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Trives, J-V; Lonjon, N

    2017-03-01

    To improve surgical practice, there are several different approaches to simulation. Due to wearable technologies, recording 3D movies is now easy. The development of a virtual reality headset allows imagining a different way of watching these videos: using dedicated software to increase interactivity in a 3D immersive experience. The objective was to record 3D movies via a main surgeon's perspective, to watch files using virtual reality headsets and to validate pedagogic interest. Surgical procedures were recorded using a system combining two side-by-side cameras placed on a helmet. We added two LEDs just below the cameras to enhance luminosity. Two files were obtained in mp4 format and edited using dedicated software to create 3D movies. Files obtained were then played using a virtual reality headset. Surgeons who tried the immersive experience completed a questionnaire to evaluate the interest of this procedure for surgical learning. Twenty surgical procedures were recorded. The movies capture a scene which is extended 180° horizontally and 90° vertically. The immersive experience created by the device conveys a genuine feeling of being in the operating room and seeing the procedure first-hand through the eyes of the main surgeon. All surgeons indicated that they believe in pedagogical interest of this method. We succeeded in recording the main surgeon's point of view in 3D and watch it on a virtual reality headset. This new approach enhances the understanding of surgery; most of the surgeons appreciated its pedagogic value. This method could be an effective learning tool in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Design of an Electronic Healthcare Record Server Based on Part 1 of ISO EN 13606

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Austin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ISO EN 13606 is a newly approved standard at European and ISO levels for the meaningful exchange of clinical information between systems. Although conceived as an inter-operability standard to which existing electronic health record (EHR systems will transform legacy data, the requirements met and architectural approach reflected in this standard also make it a good candidate for the internal architecture of an EHR server. The authors have built such a server for the storage of healthcare records and demonstrated that it is possible to use ISO EN 13606 part 1 as the basis of an internal system architecture. The development of the system and some of the applications of the server are described in this paper. It is the first known operational implementation of the standard as an EHR system.

  5. Designing for Underserved Populations: Constraints and Requirements of Personal Health Record Systems

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-02-11

    In this podcast, Dr. Thomas Horan discusses how language, literacy, and access barriers can be overcome with electronic Personal Health Record (PHR) systems to improve health among the most vulnerable, isolated, and underserved populations.  Created: 2/11/2009 by Coordinating Center for Health Information Service (CCHIS), Healthy Healthcare Settings Goal Team, Office of Strategy and Innovation.   Date Released: 9/2/2009.

  6. Design of a Multi-Week Sound and Motion Recording and Telemetry (SMRT) Tag for Behavioral Studies on Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    of the meeting was to establish the feasibility of the SMRT tag project from an engineering and commercial viewpoint. As the design will...products of the project will be commercially available to the research community. RELATED PROJECTS A micro sound recording tag for bats (2014...Telemetry (SMRT) Tag for Behavioral Studies on Whales Mark Johnson & Bernie McConnell University of St. Andrews St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, UK

  7. Design, Fabrication, Simulation and Characterization of a Novel Dual-Sided Microelectrode Array for Deep Brain Recording and Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongya Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel dual-sided microelectrode array is specially designed and fabricated for a rat Parkinson’s disease (PD model to study the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS. The fabricated microelectrode array can stimulate the subthalamic nucleus and simultaneously record electrophysiological information from multiple nuclei of the basal ganglia system. The fabricated microelectrode array has a long shaft of 9 mm and each planar surface is equipped with three stimulating sites (diameter of 100 μm, seven electrophysiological recording sites (diameter of 20 μm and four sites with diameter of 50 μm used for neurotransmitter measurements in future work. The performances of the fabricated microelectrode array were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and cyclic voltammetry. In addition, the stimulating effects of the fabricated microelectrode were evaluated by finite element modeling (FEM. Preliminary animal experiments demonstrated that the designed microelectrode arrays can record spontaneous discharge signals from the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus and the globus pallidus interna. The designed and fabricated microelectrode arrays provide a powerful research tool for studying the mechanisms of DBS in rat PD models.

  8. Multi-objective inverse design of sub-wavelength optical focusing structures for heat assisted magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Samarth; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-09-01

    We report using Inverse Electromagnetic Design to computationally optimize the geometric shapes of metallic optical antennas or near-field transducers (NFTs) and dielectric waveguide structures that comprise a sub-wavelength optical focusing system for practical use in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR). This magnetic data-recording scheme relies on focusing optical energy to locally heat the area of a single bit, several hundred square nanometers on a hard disk, to the Curie temperature of the magnetic storage layer. There are three specifications of the optical system that must be met to enable HAMR as a commercial technology. First, to heat the media at scan rates upward of 10 m/s, ~1mW of light (<1% of typical laser diode output power) must be focused to a 30nm×30nm spot on the media. Second, the required lifetime of many years necessitates that the nano-scale NFT must not over-heat from optical absorption. Third, to avoid undesired erasing or interference of adjacent tracks on the media, there must be minimal stray optical radiation away from the hotspot on the hard disk. One cannot design the light delivery system by tackling each of these challenges independently, because they are governed by coupled electromagnetic phenomena. Instead, we propose multiobjective optimization using Inverse Electromagnetic Design in conjunction with a commercial 3D FDTD Maxwell's equations solver. We computationally generated designs of a metallic NFT and a high-index waveguide grating that meet the HAMR specifications simultaneously. Compared to a mock industry design, our proposed design has a similar optical coupling efficiency, ~3x improved suppression of stray optical radiation, and a 60% (280°C) reduction in NFT temperature rise. We also distributed the Inverse Electromagnetic Design software online so that industry partners can use it as a repeatable design process.

  9. Rural Households’ Adaptation to Climate Change and its Implications for Policy Designs in Lijiang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan

    As challenges and opportunities induced by climate change become increasingly manifested, adaptation strategies to these changes have received growing attention. While earlier studies focus on quantifying impacts of climate change or adaptation potential, empirical studies have been increasingly....... The thesis, carried out in three mountain villages in southwest China, seeks to advance the understanding of local adaptation process and its implications for vulnerability and policy designs. In particular, the research contributes to quantitative assessment of current and forward-looking adaptation...... changes in social-ecological systems. The PhD research demonstrates 1) the interwoven impacts of co-evolving socio-economic, political and environmental changes in shaping livelihood changes and households’ vulnerability; 2) the usefulness to accommodate key cognitive processes, such as risk perception...

  10. Indian summer monsoon variability during the Holocene as recorded in sediments of the Arabian Sea: Timing and implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Kawahata, H.; Rao, V.P.

    . Most of these millennial-to-centennial cycles exist in various monsoon records as well as the tree ring delta sup(14) C data and/or other solar proxy records. It is suggested that throughout the Holocene, externally, small changes in solar activity...

  11. Adaptive Digital Signature Design and Short-Data-Record Adaptive Filtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pados, Dimitiris A

    2008-01-01

    This report covers the research performed to create and develop a digital signature design analysis and development methodology that will support robust multi-user communications in rapidly changing environments...

  12. Within-otolith variability in chemical fingerprints: implications for sampling designs and possible environmental interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Bulleri, Fabio; Pennetta, Antonio; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Clarke, K Robert; Guidetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Largely used as a natural biological tag in studies of dispersal/connectivity of fish, otolith elemental fingerprinting is usually analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). LA-ICP-MS produces an elemental fingerprint at a discrete time-point in the life of a fish and can generate data on within-otolith variability of that fingerprint. The presence of within-otolith variability has been previously acknowledged but not incorporated into experimental designs on the presumed, but untested, grounds of both its negligibility compared to among-otolith variability and of spatial autocorrelation among multiple ablations within an otolith. Here, using a hierarchical sampling design of spatial variation at multiple scales in otolith chemical fingerprints for two Mediterranean coastal fishes, we explore: 1) whether multiple ablations within an otolith can be used as independent replicates for significance tests among otoliths, and 2) the implications of incorporating within-otolith variability when assessing spatial variability in otolith chemistry at a hierarchy of spatial scales (different fish, from different sites, at different locations on the Apulian Adriatic coast). We find that multiple ablations along the same daily rings do not necessarily exhibit spatial dependency within the otolith and can be used to estimate residual variability in a hierarchical sampling design. Inclusion of within-otolith measurements reveals that individuals at the same site can show significant variability in elemental uptake. Within-otolith variability examined across the spatial hierarchy identifies differences between the two fish species investigated, and this finding leads to discussion of the potential for within-otolith variability to be used as a marker for fish exposure to stressful conditions. We also demonstrate that a 'cost'-optimal allocation of sampling effort should typically include some level of within-otolith replication in the

  13. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  14. The fossil record and taphonomy of butterflies and moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera): implications for evolutionary diversity and divergence-time estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C; Davis, Donald R

    2015-02-04

    It is conventionally accepted that the lepidopteran fossil record is significantly incomplete when compared to the fossil records of other, very diverse, extant insect orders. Such an assumption, however, has been based on cumulative diversity data rather than using alternative statistical approaches from actual specimen counts. We reviewed documented specimens of the lepidopteran fossil record, currently consisting of 4,593 known specimens that are comprised of 4,262 body fossils and 331 trace fossils. The temporal distribution of the lepidopteran fossil record shows significant bias towards the late Paleocene to middle Eocene time interval. Lepidopteran fossils also record major shifts in preservational style and number of represented localities at the Mesozoic stage and Cenozoic epoch level of temporal resolution. Only 985 of the total known fossil specimens (21.4%) were assigned to 23 of the 40 extant lepidopteran superfamilies. Absolute numbers and proportions of preservation types for identified fossils varied significantly across superfamilies. The secular increase of lepidopteran family-level diversity through geologic time significantly deviates from the general pattern of other hyperdiverse, ordinal-level lineages. Our statistical analyses of the lepidopteran fossil record show extreme biases in preservation type, age, and taxonomic composition. We highlight the scarcity of identified lepidopteran fossils and provide a correspondence between the latest lepidopteran divergence-time estimates and relevant fossil occurrences at the superfamily level. These findings provide caution in interpreting the lepidopteran fossil record through the modeling of evolutionary diversification and in determination of divergence time estimates.

  15. Availability and quality of coronary heart disease family history in primary care medical records: implications for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Paula; Kai, Joe; Horsfall, Laura; Walters, Kate; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear. To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records. Cross-sectional study. 537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database. Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st) January 1998 and 31(st) December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively. In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25)), however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88)). Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort), age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration. Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.

  16. Availability and quality of coronary heart disease family history in primary care medical records: implications for cardiovascular risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dhiman

    Full Text Available The potential to use data on family history of premature disease to assess disease risk is increasingly recognised, particularly in scoring risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. However the quality of family health information in primary care records is unclear.To assess the availability and quality of family history of CHD documented in electronic primary care records.Cross-sectional study.537 UK family practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network database.Data were obtained from patients aged 20 years or more, registered with their current practice between 1(st January 1998 and 31(st December 2008, for at least one year. The availability and quality of recorded CHD family history was assessed using multilevel logistic and ordinal logistic regression respectively.In a cross-section of 1,504,535 patients, 19% had a positive or negative family history of CHD recorded. Multilevel logistic regression showed patients aged 50-59 had higher odds of having their family history recorded compared to those aged 20-29 (OR:1.23 (1.21 to 1.25, however most deprived patients had lower odds compared to those least deprived (OR: 0.86 (0.85 to 0.88. Of the 140,058 patients with a positive family history recorded (9% of total cohort, age of onset was available in 45%; with data specifying both age of onset and relative affected available in only 11% of records. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression confirmed no statistical association between the quality of family history recording and age, gender, deprivation and year of registration.Family history of CHD is documented in a small proportion of primary care records; and where positive family history is documented the details are insufficient to assess familial risk or populate cardiovascular risk assessment tools. Data capture needs to be improved particularly for more disadvantaged patients who may be most likely to benefit from CHD risk assessment.

  17. Designing of Electronic Health Record Software in the Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Azizi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: much effort was conducted to support the use of electronic record systems in nursing process. Some of the most important reasons for its application are efficiency, security and the quality of the patients’ data registration. The purpose of this study is to present electronic registration software of patients, health assessment and to determine the attitude of nurses towards it. Methods: this is a R&D leading to construction of the patient’s health assessment software. In the beginning, Gordon Model and the daily charts of the patients were prepared to paper. During the next 8 months these charts were converted into the software programs. The databases were implemented using “the SQL server” and “C#Net” programming language. Results: the software used in this study included 4 parts; the first one contained information of Gordon health assessment model in 11 items, the second contained charts of the study, the third part consisted of Lund-Browder table and dummy data table for 4 age groups, and the fourth one was image infor-mation storage part for burn wounds pictures. Conclusion: despite barriers, electronic systems could lead to confidential information, increase the quality of nursing records, and also reduce the amount of expenses.

  18. Mixing console design for telematic applications in live performance and remote recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, David J.

    The development of a telematic mixing console addresses audio engineers' need for a fully integrated system architecture that improves efficiency and control for applications such as distributed performance and remote recording. Current systems used in state of the art telematic performance rely on software-based interconnections with complex routing schemes that offer minimal flexibility or control over key parameters needed to achieve a professional workflow. The lack of hardware-based control in the current model limits the full potential of both the engineer and the system. The new architecture provides a full-featured platform that, alongside customary features, integrates (1) surround panning capability for motorized, binaural manikin heads, as well as all sources in the included auralization module, (2) self-labelling channel strips, responsive to change at all remote sites, (3) onboard roundtrip latency monitoring, (4) synchronized remote audio recording and monitoring, and (5) flexible routing. These features combined with robust parameter automation and precise analog control will raise the standard for telematic systems as well as advance the development of networked audio systems for both research and professional audio markets.

  19. Usability and Safety in Electronic Medical Records Interface Design: A Review of Recent Literature and Guideline Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahabi, Maryam; Kaber, David B; Swangnetr, Manida

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) review electronic medical record (EMR) and related electronic health record (EHR) interface usability issues, (b) review how EMRs have been evaluated with safety analysis techniques along with any hazard recognition, and (c) formulate design guidelines and a concept for enhanced EMR interfaces with a focus on diagnosis and documentation processes. A major impact of information technology in health care has been the introduction of EMRs. Although numerous studies indicate use of EMRs to increase health care quality, there remain concerns with usability issues and safety. A literature search was conducted using Compendex, PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases to find EMR research published since 2000. Inclusion criteria included relevant English-language papers with subsets of keywords and any studies (manually) identified with a focus on EMR usability. Fifty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results revealed EMR and EHR usability problems to include violations of natural dialog, control consistency, effective use of language, effective information presentation, and customization principles as well as a lack of error prevention, minimization of cognitive load, and feedback. Studies focusing on EMR system safety made no objective assessments and applied only inductive reasoning methods for hazard recognition. On the basis of the identified usability problems and structure of safety analysis techniques, we provide EMR design guidelines and a design concept focused on the diagnosis process and documentation. The design guidelines and new interface concept can be used for prototyping and testing enhanced EMRs. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Model Guided Design and Development Process for an Electronic Health Record Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Effective user training is important to ensure electronic health record (EHR) implementation success. Though many previous studies report best practice principles and success and failure stories, current EHR training is largely empirically-based and often lacks theoretical guidance. In addition, the process of training development is underemphasized and underreported. A white paper by the American Medical Informatics Association called for models of user training for clinical information system implementation; existing instructional development models from learning theory provide a basis to meet this call. We describe in this paper our experiences and lessons learned as we adapted several instructional development models to guide our development of EHR user training. Specifically, we focus on two key aspects of this training development: training content and training process.

  1. Traceability of patient records usage: barriers and opportunities for improving user interface design and data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Lapão, Luís; Rodrigues, Pedro Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Although IT governance practices (like ITIL, which recommends on the use of audit logs for proper service level management) are being introduced in many Hospitals to cope with increasing levels of information quality and safety requirements, the standard maturity levels of hospital IT departments is still not enough to reach the level of frequent use of audit logs. This paper aims to address the issues related to the existence of AT in patient records, describe the Hospitals scenario and to produce recommendations. Representatives from four hospitals were interviewed regarding the use of AT in their Hospital IS. Very few AT are known to exist in these hospitals (average of 1 per hospital in an estimate of 21 existing IS). CIOs should to be much more concerned with the existence and maintenance of AT. Recommendations include server clock synchronization and using advanced log visualization tools.

  2. Implications of privacy needs and interpersonal distancing mechanisms for space station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Sommer, Robert; Struthers, Nancy; Hoyt, Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Isolation, confinement, and the characteristics of microgravity will accentuate the need for privacy in the proposed NASA space station, yet limit the mechanism available for achieving it. This study proposes a quantitative model for understanding privacy, interpersonal distancing, and performance, and discusses the practical implications for Space Station design. A review of the relevant literature provided the basis for a database, definitions of physical and psychological distancing, loneliness, and crowding, and a quantitative model of situational privacy. The model defines situational privacy (the match between environment and task), and focuses on interpersonal contact along visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile dimensions. It involves summing across pairs of crew members, contact dimensions, and time, yet also permits separate analyses of subsets of crew members and contact dimensions. The study concludes that performance will benefit when the type and level of contact afforded by the environment align with that required by the task. The key to achieving this is to design a flexible, definable, and redefinable interior environment that provides occupants with a wide array of options to meet their needs for solitude, limited social interaction, and open group activity. The report presents 49 recommendations in five categories to promote a wide range of privacy options despite the space station's volumetric limitations.

  3. Pretesting Mathematical Concepts with the Mobile Phone: Implications for Curriculum Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ndagire Kizito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the neglected elements when teaching at a distance is establishing what learners already know at the beginning of the course or module. Unlike the face-to-face environment, in distance learning there is no opportunity for administering diagnostic activities just before the onset of instruction. This means that both the weak and more advanced students receive the same level of support since there is no mechanism for differentiating their learning needs. This paper describes the characteristics of a diagnostic test aimed at determining student understanding of the basic calculus concepts of the derivative and the integral, using the mobile phone as the method of delivery. As a proof-of-concept exercise, 10 questions designed to test concept attributes and procedural knowledge involving the two basic calculus concepts were given to a sample of 30 students at the beginning of the course. The implications for curriculum design were then analysed in terms of the didactical functionalities and the communication strategy that could be developed with reference to the mobile phone.

  4. Positive display polarity is particularly advantageous for small character sizes: implications for display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrock, Cosima; Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2014-08-01

    To test the display luminance hypothesis of the positive polarity advantage and gain insights for display design, the joint effects of display polarity and character size were assessed with a proofreading task Studies have shown that dark characters on light background (positive polarity) lead to better legibility than do light characters on dark background (negative polarity), presumably due to the typically higher display luminance of positive polarity presentations. Participants performed a proofreading task with black text on white background or white text on black background. Texts were presented in four character sizes (8, 10, 12, and 14 pt; corresponding to 0.22 degrees, 0.25 degrees, 0.31 degrees, and 0.34 degrees of vertical visual angle). A positive polarity advantage was observed in proofreading performance. Importantly, the positive polarity advantage linearly increased with decreasing character size. The findings are in line with the assumption that the typically higher luminance of positive polarity displays leads to an improved perception of detail. Application: The implications seem important for the design of text on such displays as those of computers, automotive control and entertainment systems, and smartphones that are increasingly used for the consumption of text-based media and communication. The sizes of these displays are limited, and it is tempting to use small font sizes to convey as much information as possible. Especially with small font sizes, negative polarity displays should be avoided.

  5. How Can Visual Analytics Assist Investigative Analysis? Design Implications from an Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn-Ah Kang; Görg, Carsten; Stasko, John

    2011-05-01

    Despite the growing number of systems providing visual analytic support for investigative analysis, few empirical studies of the potential benefits of such systems have been conducted, particularly controlled, comparative evaluations. Determining how such systems foster insight and sensemaking is important for their continued growth and study, however. Furthermore, studies that identify how people use such systems and why they benefit (or not) can help inform the design of new systems in this area. We conducted an evaluation of the visual analytics system Jigsaw employed in a small investigative sensemaking exercise, and compared its use to three other more traditional methods of analysis. Sixteen participants performed a simulated intelligence analysis task under one of the four conditions. Experimental results suggest that Jigsaw assisted participants to analyze the data and identify an embedded threat. We describe different analysis strategies used by study participants and how computational support (or the lack thereof) influenced the strategies. We then illustrate several characteristics of the sensemaking process identified in the study and provide design implications for investigative analysis tools based thereon. We conclude with recommendations on metrics and techniques for evaluating visual analytics systems for investigative analysis.

  6. Physiological and biochemical response of plants to engineered NMs: Implications on future design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; García-Castañeda, Concepción; Vázquez-Núñez, Edgar; Alonso-Castro, Ángel Josabad; Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Mendoza, Ángeles; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Molina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) form the basis of a great number of commodities that are used in several areas including energy, coatings, electronics, medicine, chemicals and catalysts, among others. In addition, these materials are being explored for agricultural purposes. For this reason, the amount of ENMs present as nanowaste has significantly increased in the last few years, and it is expected that ENMs levels in the environment will increase even more in the future. Because plants form the basis of the food chain, they may also function as a point-of-entry of ENMs for other living systems. Understanding the interactions of ENMs with the plant system and their role in their potential accumulation in the food chain will provide knowledge that may serve as a decision-making framework for the future design of ENMs. The purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of the current knowledge on the transport and uptake of selected ENMs, including Carbon Based Nanomaterials (CBNMs) in plants, and the implication on plant exposure in terms of the effects at the macro, micro, and molecular level. We also discuss the interaction of ENMs with soil microorganisms. With this information, we suggest some directions on future design and areas where research needs to be strengthened. We also discuss the need for finding models that can predict the behavior of ENMs based on their chemical and thermodynamic nature, in that few efforts have been made within this context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational level travel policies may be required in order to promote commuter walking.

  8. Development of a cognitive framework of patient record summary review in the formative phase of user-centered design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsky, Jan; Ramelson, Harley Z

    2016-12-01

    Excellent usability characteristics allow electronic health record (EHR) systems to more effectively support clinicians providing care and contribute to better quality and safety. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) therefore requires all vendors to follow a User-Centered Design (UCD) process to increase the usability of their products in order to meet certification criteria for the Safety-Enhanced Design part of the Meaningful Use (stage 2) EHR incentive program. This report describes the initial stage of a UCD process in which foundational design concepts were formulated. We designed a functional prototype of an EHR module intended to help clinicians to efficiently complete a summary review of an electronic patient record before an ambulatory visit. Cognitively-based studies were performed and the results used to develop a cognitive framework that subsequently guided design of a prototype. Results showed that clinicians categorized and reasoned with patient data in distinct patterns; they preferred to review relevant history in the assessment and plan section of the most recent note, to search for changes in health and for new episodes of care since the last visit and to look up current-day data such as vital signs. These basic concepts were represented in the design, for instance, by screen division into vertical thirds that had historical content to the left and most recent data to the right. Other characteristics such as visual association of contextual information or direct, one-click access to the assessment and plan section of visit notes were directly informed by our findings and refined in a series of UCD-specific iterative testing. Understanding of tasks and cognitive demands early in the UCD process was critically important for developing a tool optimized for reasoning and workflow preferences of clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The HERA Magnetron: 24 Years Of Experience, A World Record Run And A New Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens

    2009-03-01

    The HERA magnetron is based on a design from FNAL. This technology was developed at the INP in the 70 s, transferred to BNL and from there to FNAL. The DESY magnetron was modified according to the requirements of the HERA collider. During the first years it was the only source connected to the H- LINAC. It was necessary to run the source for long uninterrupted periods with a high reliability and fortunately with a low duty cycle. Many improvements in the design were made, including the development of a vacuum module which could be changed in minutes, the addition of internal cathode heating, and cathode grooving. To study the influence of the cathode temperature a set-up with air temperature stabilization of the cathode was developed. The cesium consumption could be significantly reduced. The source has now been running without cleaning for more than two and a half years after a fine tuning of all parameters.

  10. Embedded or linked learning objects: Implications for content development, course design and classroom use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Kopp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the idea of embedding and linking to existing content in learning object repositories and investigates teacher-designer use of learning objects within one high school mathematics course in an online school. This qualitative case study supports and extends the learning object literature, and brings forward context-specific examples of issues around repository design, autonomy and self-containment, technical support and granularity. Moreover, these findings have implications for building learning objects and repositories that could better support teachers in their instructional design and pedagogical decision-making. Résumé : La présente recherche étudie la possibilité d’effectuer un emboîtement et d’établir des liens avec le contenu existant dans les référentiels sur les objets d’apprentissage et explore l’utilisation par les enseignants-concepteurs des objets d’apprentissage au sein d’un cours de mathématique du secondaire donné dans une école en ligne. Cette étude de cas qualitative appuie et vise la littérature sur les objets d’apprentissage et met en avant plan des exemples de questions touchant la conception de référentiels, l’autonomie et l’indépendance, le soutien technique et la granularité propres au contexte. De plus, ces conclusions ont des répercussions sur l’élaboration d’objets et de référentiels d’apprentissage qui pourraient mieux appuyer les enseignants dans le cadre de leur conception pédagogique et de leur prise de décision touchant l’enseignement.

  11. Patients’ Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda Mold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.

  12. Patients' Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon

    2015-12-04

    Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1) Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2) Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3) Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4) Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1) How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2) The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.

  13. Patients’ Online Access to Their Primary Care Electronic Health Records and Linked Online Services: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Freda; de Lusignan, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1) Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2) Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3) Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4) Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1) How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2) The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems. PMID:26690225

  14. Prompting participation in health: Fostering favorable attitudes toward personal health records through message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) offer many benefits. However, a relatively small amount of individuals take advantage of PHRs. This study examined how message composition influences attitudes toward electronic PHRs. Participants (N=329) were randomly assigned to read one of two fictitious editorials proposing that all patients have PHRs. One version assigned linguistic agency (capacity for action) to PHRs (e.g.,PHRs can guard against long-term health problems) and the other to humans (e.g.,people can guard themselves against long-term health problems). One-way analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of agency on perceptions of PHR benefits. Respondents reported feeling more comfortable using PHRs and perceived them as more effective at protecting patients when agency was assigned to PHRs rather than to humans. Messages with PHRs as the primary acting agents elicited favorable reactions about PHR use. Patients may be more willing to engage with this technology if the emphasis is put on what PHRs can do for patients. Providers and staff can make strategic choices about wording when discussing PHRs and healthcare. Attention to linguistic agency can help providers better engage patients in discussions about this topic and enable patients to become more proactive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of medical records and patient questionnaires as sources for the estimation of costs within research studies and the implications for economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Paddy; O'Shea, Eamon; Smith, Susan M; Cupples, Margaret E; Murphy, Andrew W

    2016-12-01

    Data on health care utilization may be collected using a variety of mechanisms within research studies, each of which may have implications for cost and cost effectiveness. The aim of this observational study is to compare data collected from medical records searches and self-report questionnaires for the cost analysis of a cardiac secondary prevention intervention. Secondary data analysis of the Secondary Prevention of Heart Disease in General Practice (SPHERE) randomized controlled trial (RCT). Resource use data for a range of health care services were collected by research nurse searches of medical records and self-report questionnaires and costs of care estimated for each data collection mechanism. A series of statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean costs for medical records data versus questionnaire data and to conduct incremental analyses for the intervention and control arms in the trial. Data were available to estimate costs for 95% of patients in the intervention and 96% of patients in the control using the medical records data compared to 65% and 66%, respectively, using the questionnaire data. The incremental analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in mean cost of -€796 (95% CI: -1447, -144; P-value: 0.017) for the intervention relative to the control. This compared to no significant difference in mean cost (95% CI: -1446, 860; P-value: 0.619) for the questionnaire analysis. Our findings illustrate the importance of the choice of health care utilization data collection mechanism for the conduct of economic evaluation alongside randomized trials in primary care. This choice will have implications for the costing methodology employed and potentially, for the cost and cost effectiveness outcomes generated. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Within-otolith variability in chemical fingerprints: implications for sampling designs and possible environmental interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Di Franco

    Full Text Available Largely used as a natural biological tag in studies of dispersal/connectivity of fish, otolith elemental fingerprinting is usually analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. LA-ICP-MS produces an elemental fingerprint at a discrete time-point in the life of a fish and can generate data on within-otolith variability of that fingerprint. The presence of within-otolith variability has been previously acknowledged but not incorporated into experimental designs on the presumed, but untested, grounds of both its negligibility compared to among-otolith variability and of spatial autocorrelation among multiple ablations within an otolith. Here, using a hierarchical sampling design of spatial variation at multiple scales in otolith chemical fingerprints for two Mediterranean coastal fishes, we explore: 1 whether multiple ablations within an otolith can be used as independent replicates for significance tests among otoliths, and 2 the implications of incorporating within-otolith variability when assessing spatial variability in otolith chemistry at a hierarchy of spatial scales (different fish, from different sites, at different locations on the Apulian Adriatic coast. We find that multiple ablations along the same daily rings do not necessarily exhibit spatial dependency within the otolith and can be used to estimate residual variability in a hierarchical sampling design. Inclusion of within-otolith measurements reveals that individuals at the same site can show significant variability in elemental uptake. Within-otolith variability examined across the spatial hierarchy identifies differences between the two fish species investigated, and this finding leads to discussion of the potential for within-otolith variability to be used as a marker for fish exposure to stressful conditions. We also demonstrate that a 'cost'-optimal allocation of sampling effort should typically include some level of within

  17. The design and implementation of the DIRK system for dosemeter issue and record keeping

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, G M; Kay, P; Law, D V; Salmon, L; Saw, G M A

    1983-01-01

    DIRK, the computerised system which the National Radiological Protection Board employs for its Personal Monitoring Service, is described. DIRK is also used to store the data for the National Registry for Radiation Workers and could support the Central Index of Dose Information should this be set up. The general principles of the design of DIRK, as well as a detailed description of the system, are included in the report. DIRK is based on a set of interlocked index sequential files manipulated by PL/1 programs. Data compaction techniques are used to reduce by a factor of ten the size of the files stored on magnetic disk. Security of the database is most important and two levels of security have been implemented. Table driven techniques are used for updating the database. A specially designed free-format language is used for specifying changes. Statistics, sorted listings of selected data and summaries are provided by a general purpose program for this type of operation. However, it has still been necessary to w...

  18. Crown ether stereoisomerism: Implications in metal ion extraction and ionic liquid design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Alan J.

    Since their discovery more than four decades ago, crown ethers (CEs) have been the subject of intense investigation in a number of fields. Although many of the structural features that govern the behavior of these compounds have been thoroughly explored, the effect of their stereochemistry has received relatively little attention. In the present work, crown ether stereochemistry is shown to have important implications in both the design of ternary (i.e., three-component) ionic liquids (TILs) and metal ion extraction. Specifically, as a first step toward the development of guidelines for the rational design of ternary ionic liquids employing crown ethers as the neutral extractant, a systematic examination of the effect of crown ether stereochemistry (employing dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) as a representative crown compound), along with ring size, the nature and number of donor atoms, and the presence of functional groups, on the thermal properties (i.e., melting point or glass transition; decomposition or evaporation) of these compounds was carried out. Stereochemistry was found to have no appreciable impact on the onset temperature for mass loss. Rather, molecular weight and aromaticity were found to be more influential. Stereochemistry was, however, found to significantly affect the melting point of a TIL prepared from it; while the metal-CE formation constant, which varies with stereoisomer was observed to determine the onset temperature for mass loss of the TIL. To explore the implications of crown ether stereoisomerism in metal ion extraction, the formation constants for alkaline earth cation complexes with the isomers of DCH18C6 and selected stereoisomers of di-tert-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) were measured. These values were found to vary inversely with the ligand strain (i.e., reorganizational) energy for the isomer, as determined by molecular mechanics calculations. Using this relationship (along with additional identification methods

  19. Achieving E-learning with IMS Learning Design - Workflow Implications at the Open University of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Brouns, Francis; Pannekeet, Kees; Janssen, José; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Please refer to the original article in: Westera, W., Brouns, F., Pannekeet, K., Janssen, J., & Manderveld, J. (2005). Achieving E-learning with IMS Learning Design - Workflow Implications at the Open University of the Netherlands. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (3), 216-225. (URL:

  20. Fitting statistical distributions to sea duck count data: implications for survey design and abundance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Leirness, Jeffery B.; Kinlan, Brian P.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Silverman, Emily D.

    2014-01-01

    Determining appropriate statistical distributions for modeling animal count data is important for accurate estimation of abundance, distribution, and trends. In the case of sea ducks along the U.S. Atlantic coast, managers want to estimate local and regional abundance to detect and track population declines, to define areas of high and low use, and to predict the impact of future habitat change on populations. In this paper, we used a modified marked point process to model survey data that recorded flock sizes of Common eiders, Long-tailed ducks, and Black, Surf, and White-winged scoters. The data come from an experimental aerial survey, conducted by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Division of Migratory Bird Management, during which east-west transects were flown along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida during the winters of 2009–2011. To model the number of flocks per transect (the points), we compared the fit of four statistical distributions (zero-inflated Poisson, zero-inflated geometric, zero-inflated negative binomial and negative binomial) to data on the number of species-specific sea duck flocks that were recorded for each transect flown. To model the flock sizes (the marks), we compared the fit of flock size data for each species to seven statistical distributions: positive Poisson, positive negative binomial, positive geometric, logarithmic, discretized lognormal, zeta and Yule–Simon. Akaike’s Information Criterion and Vuong’s closeness tests indicated that the negative binomial and discretized lognormal were the best distributions for all species for the points and marks, respectively. These findings have important implications for estimating sea duck abundances as the discretized lognormal is a more skewed distribution than the Poisson and negative binomial, which are frequently used to model avian counts; the lognormal is also less heavy-tailed than the power law distributions (e.g., zeta and Yule–Simon), which are

  1. Transient nature of the Earth's climate and the implications for the interpretation of benthic δ18 O records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304023183; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Lourens, L.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103; Bintanja, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/127306757

    2012-01-01

    From the marine benthic δ18O records it is known that the Earth's climate has experienced significant variability over the past 40 million years. In general, a number of assumptions are often needed to disentangle the benthic δ18O data into its temperature and ice-volume contributions. In this

  2. Spatial patterns of recorded mastitis incidence and somatic cell counts in Swedish dairy cows: implications for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Wolff

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical mastitis (CM is the most common veterinary treated disease in Swedish dairy cattle. To investigate if the distribution of veterinary registered cases of CM in Sweden follows that of the spatial distribution of cows with high somatic cell counts (SCCs, the spatial distribution of CM odds was estimated from available records and compared with udder health measures based on measurements of SCC derived from official milk recording. The study revealed areas with significantly lower odds for CM but with a high proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggesting an under-reporting of CM. We also found areas of significantly higher odds for CM despite a low proportion of cows with a poor udder health score, suggestive of over-treatment of mastitis. The results should enable targeted studies of reasons for discrepancies, e.g. farmers’ and veterinarians’ attitudes to mastitis treatment and disease recording in areas with a deficit or excess of registered CM cases. High quality disease records for dairy cattle are of interest not only for the dairy management but also for disease surveillance, monitoring of use of antibiotics and food safety purposes.

  3. Source-specific variability in post-depositional DNA preservation with potential implications for DNA based paleoecological records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, A.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Volkman, J.K.; Coolen, M.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that genotyping preserved plankton DNA in marine and lacustrine sediment records using ancient DNA methods is a promising approach for refining paleoenvironmental information. However, the extent to which the preservation of fossil plankton DNA differs between species is

  4. Dispersal patterns of coastal fish: implications for designing networks of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed "site fidelity" (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas.

  5. Dispersal Patterns of Coastal Fish: Implications for Designing Networks of Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Franco, Antonio; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; De Benedetto, Giuseppe; Pennetta, Antonio; De Leo, Giulio A.; Guidetti, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Information about dispersal scales of fish at various life history stages is critical for successful design of networks of marine protected areas, but is lacking for most species and regions. Otolith chemistry provides an opportunity to investigate dispersal patterns at a number of life history stages. Our aim was to assess patterns of larval and post-settlement (i.e. between settlement and recruitment) dispersal at two different spatial scales in a Mediterranean coastal fish (i.e. white sea bream, Diplodus sargus sargus) using otolith chemistry. At a large spatial scale (∼200 km) we investigated natal origin of fish and at a smaller scale (∼30 km) we assessed “site fidelity” (i.e. post-settlement dispersal until recruitment). Larvae dispersed from three spawning areas, and a single spawning area supplied post-settlers (proxy of larval supply) to sites spread from 100 to 200 km of coastline. Post-settlement dispersal occurred within the scale examined of ∼30 km, although about a third of post-settlers were recruits in the same sites where they settled. Connectivity was recorded both from a MPA to unprotected areas and vice versa. The approach adopted in the present study provides some of the first quantitative evidence of dispersal at both larval and post-settlement stages of a key species in Mediterranean rocky reefs. Similar data taken from a number of species are needed to effectively design both single marine protected areas and networks of marine protected areas. PMID:22355388

  6. Impact of speech presentation level on cognitive task performance: implications for auditory display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Carryl L; Struckman-Johnson, David

    2002-01-15

    Speech displays and verbal response technologies are increasingly being used in complex, high workload environments that require the simultaneous performance of visual and manual tasks. Examples of such environments include the flight decks of modern aircraft, advanced transport telematics systems providing invehicle route guidance and navigational information and mobile communication equipment in emergency and public safety vehicles. Previous research has established an optimum range for speech intelligibility. However, the potential for variations in presentation levels within this range to affect attentional resources and cognitive processing of speech material has not been examined previously. Results of the current experimental investigation demonstrate that as presentation level increases within this 'optimum' range, participants in high workload situations make fewer sentence-processing errors and generally respond faster. Processing errors were more sensitive to changes in presentation level than were measures of reaction time. Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of their application for the design of speech communications displays in complex multi-task environments.

  7. Specific noncovalent interactions at protein-ligand interface: implications for rational drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, P; Huang, J; Tian, F

    2012-01-01

    Specific noncovalent interactions that are indicative of attractive, directional intermolecular forces have always been of key interest to medicinal chemists in their search for the "glue" that holds drugs and their targets together. With the rapid increase in the number of solved biomolecular structures as well as the performance enhancement of computer hardware and software in recent years, it is now possible to give more comprehensive insight into the geometrical characteristics and energetic landscape of certain sophisticated noncovalent interactions present at the binding interface of protein receptors and small ligands based on accumulated knowledge gaining from the combination of two quite disparate but complementary approaches: crystallographic data analysis and quantum-mechanical ab initio calculation. In this perspective, we survey massive body of published works relating to structural characterization and theoretical investigation of three kinds of strong, specific, direct, enthalpy-driven intermolecular forces, including hydrogen bond, halogen bond and salt bridge, involved in the formation of protein-ligand complex architecture in order to characterize their biological functions in conferring affinity and specificity for ligand recognition by host protein. In particular, the biomedical implications of raised knowledge are discussed with respect to potential applications in rational drug design.

  8. Designing for Safety: Implications of a Fifteen Year Review of Swallowed and Aspirated Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. W. Kent

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dentures are worn by around 20% of the population, yet if they become displaced they may enter the gastrointestinal or respiratory system, sometimes with grave consequences. The aim of this study was to review recent published literature in order to identify the epidemiology of patients and characteristics of swallowed and aspirated dental prostheses, and propose strategies to minimise these risks. Material and Methods: A fifteen year retrospective of published case series and case reports was carried out. Photographs, radiographs and descriptions of the dental prostheses were gathered, as well as the patient’s presenting complaint, the anatomical site where the denture was caught and the procedure required to remove the denture. Results: Ninety one separate events of swallowed or aspirated dentures were identified from 83 case reports and series from 28 countries. Average age was 55 years, and these were 74% male. Photographs were retrieved for 49 of these dentures. Clasps were present in 25 of the dentures. There was no significant difference between clasped and unclasped dentures for perforation rates, need for open surgery and spontaneously passed dentures. Conclusions: We discuss the implications of this study regarding denture designs, specifically the importance of using a radiopaque acrylic, using clasps when required even if there is a risk of aspiration, advising patients to return if a denture is loose or damaged, and finally that all patients who wear a denture are at risk of aspiration and swallowing events, and associated morbidity and mortality.

  9. Computational Glycobiology: Mechanistic Studies of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes and Implication for Inhibitor Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Andrew P; Xiao, Kela; Wang, Xingyong; Skropeta, Danielle; Yu, Haibo

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are families of essential and structurally related enzymes, which catalyze the creation, modification, and degradation of glycosidic bonds in carbohydrates to maintain essentially all kingdoms of life. CAZymes play a key role in many biological processes underpinning human health and diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's diseases, AIDS) and have thus emerged as important drug targets in the fight against pathogenesis. The realization of the full potential of CAZymes remains a significant challenge, relying on a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of catalysis. Considering numerous unsettled questions in the literature, while with a large amount of structural, kinetic, and mutagenesis data available for CAZymes, there is a pressing need and an abundant opportunity for collaborative computational and experimental investigations with the aim to unlock the secrets of CAZyme catalysis at an atomic level. In this review, we briefly survey key methodology development in computational studies of CAZyme catalysis. This is complemented by selected case studies highlighting mechanistic insights provided by computational glycobiology. Implication for inhibitor design by mimicking the transition state is also illustrated for both glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases. The challenges for such studies will be noted and finally an outlook for future directions will be provided. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interchangeability among reference insulin analogues and their biosimilars: regulatory framework, study design and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlat, H A; Kuhlmann, M K; Khatami, H; Ampudia-Blasco, F J

    2016-08-01

    Biosimilars are regulated differently from small-molecule generic, chemically derived medicines. The complexity of biological products means that small changes in manufacturing or formulation may result in changes in efficacy and safety of the final product. In the face of this complexity, the regulatory landscape for biosimilars continues to evolve, and global harmonization regarding requirements is currently lacking. It is essential that clinicians and patients are reassured that biosimilars are equally safe and effective as their reference product, and this is particularly important when interchangeability, defined as 'changing one medicine for another one which is expected to achieve the same clinical effect in a given clinical setting in any one patient', is considered. Although the automatic substitution (i.e. substitution without input from the prescribing healthcare provider) of biosimilars for reference products is currently not permitted by the majority of countries, this may change in the future. In order to demonstrate interchangeability between reference products and a biosimilar, more stringent and specific studies of the safety and efficacy of biosimilars are likely to be needed; however, guidance on the design of and the need for any such studies is currently limited. The present article provides an overview of the current regulatory framework around the demonstration of interchangeability with biosimilars, with a specific focus on biosimilar insulin analogues, and details experiences with other biosimilar products. In addition, designs for studies to evaluate interchangeability with a biosimilar insulin analogue product are proposed and a discussion about the implications of interchangeability in clinical practice is included. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Posting behaviour patterns in an online smoking cessation social network: implications for intervention design and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Healey

    Full Text Available Online Cessation Support Networks (OCSNs are associated with increased quit success rates, but few studies have examined their use over time. We identified usage patterns in New Zealand's largest OCSN over two years and explored implications for OCSN intervention design and evaluation.We analysed metadata relating to 133,096 OCSN interactions during 2011 and 2012. Metrics covered aggregate network activity, user posting activity and longevity, and between-user commenting. Binary logistic regression models were estimated to investigate the feasibility of predicting low user engagement using early interaction data.Repeating periodic peaks and troughs in aggregate activity related not only to seasonality (e.g., New Year, but also to day of the week. Out of 2,062 unique users, 69 Highly Engaged Users (180+ interactions each contributed 69% of all OCSN interactions in 2012 compared to 1.3% contributed by 864 Minimally Engaged Users (< = 2 items each. The proportion of Highly Engaged Users increased with network growth between 2011 and 2012 (with marginal significance, but the proportion of Minimally Engaged Users did not decline substantively. First week interaction data enabled identification of Minimally Engaged Users with high specificity and sensitivity (AUROC= 0.94.Results suggest future research should develop and test interventions that promote activity, and hence cessation support, amongst specific user groups or at key time points. For example, early usage information could help identify Minimally Engaged Users for tests of targeted messaging designed to improve their integration into, or re-engagement with, the OCSN. Furthermore, although we observed strong growth over time on varied metrics including posts and comments, this change did not coincide with large gains in first-time user persistence. Researchers assessing intervention effects should therefore examine multiple measures when evaluating changes in network dynamics over time.

  12. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions.1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged <30 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership, employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues with commuter walking.Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49% were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers.A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within

  13. Biological channel modeling and implantable UWB antenna design for neural recording systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hadi; Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Rusch, Leslie A; Gosselin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) short-range communication systems have proved to be valuable in medical technology, particularly for implanted devices, due to their low-power consumption, low cost, small size, and high data rates. Neural activity monitoring in the brain requires high data rate (800 kb/s per neural sensor), and we target a system supporting a large number of sensors, in particular, aggregate transmission above 430 Mb/s (∼512 sensors). Knowledge of channel behavior is required to determine the maximum allowable power to 1) respect ANSI guidelines for avoiding tissue damage, and 2) respect FCC guidelines on unlicensed transmissions. We utilize a realistic model of the biological channel to inform the design of antennas for the implanted transmitter and the external receiver under these requirements. Antennas placement is examined under two scenarios having contrasting power constraints. Performance of the system within the biological tissues is examined via simulation and experiment. Our miniaturized antennas, 12 mm ×12 mm, need worst-case receiver sensitivities of -38 and -30.5 dBm for the first and second scenarios, respectively. These sensitivities allow us to successfully detect signals transmitted through tissues in the 3.1-10.6-GHz UWB band.

  14. Seismic Design Value Evaluation Based on Checking Records and Site Geological Conditions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tienfuan Kerh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved computational neural network model that uses three seismic parameters (i.e., local magnitude, epicentral distance, and epicenter depth and two geological conditions (i.e., shear wave velocity and standard penetration test value as the inputs for predicting peak ground acceleration—the key element for evaluating earthquake response. Initial comparison results show that a neural network model with three neurons in the hidden layer can achieve relatively better performance based on the evaluation index of correlation coefficient or mean square error. This study further develops a new weight-based neural network model for estimating peak ground acceleration at unchecked sites. Four locations identified to have higher estimated peak ground accelerations than that of the seismic design value in the 24 subdivision zones are investigated in Taiwan. Finally, this study develops a new equation for the relationship of horizontal peak ground acceleration and focal distance by the curve fitting method. This equation represents seismic characteristics in Taiwan region more reliably and reasonably. The results of this study provide an insight into this type of nonlinear problem, and the proposed method may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  15. Design and evaluation of a wireless electronic health records system for field care in mass casualty settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, D; Griswold, W G; Buono, C; Lyon, J; Rao, R; Chan, T C

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the use of technology to enhance the tracking and quality of clinical information available for patients in disaster settings. This paper describes the design and evaluation of the Wireless Internet Information System for Medical Response in Disasters (WIISARD). Materials and methods WIISARD combined advanced networking technology with electronic triage tags that reported victims' position and recorded medical information, with wireless pulse-oximeters that monitored patient vital signs, and a wireless electronic medical record (EMR) for disaster care. The EMR system included WiFi handheld devices with barcode scanners (used by front-line responders) and computer tablets with role-tailored software (used by managers of the triage, treatment, transport and medical communications teams). An additional software system provided situational awareness for the incident commander. The WIISARD system was evaluated in a large-scale simulation exercise designed for training first responders. A randomized trial was overlaid on this exercise with 100 simulated victims, 50 in a control pathway (paper-based), and 50 in completely electronic WIISARD pathway. All patients in the electronic pathway were cared for within the WIISARD system without paper-based workarounds. Results WIISARD reduced the rate of the missing and/or duplicated patient identifiers (0% vs 47%, pdevelop but potentially feasible to build and deploy, and likely to improve the quality of information available for the delivery of care during disasters. PMID:21709162

  16. Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records: methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Martin C; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Charlton, Judith; Dregan, Alex

    2014-06-11

    There is growing interest in conducting clinical and cluster randomized trials through electronic health records. This paper reports on the methodological issues identified during the implementation of two cluster randomized trials using the electronic health records of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Two trials were completed in primary care: one aimed to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infection; the other aimed to increase physician adherence with secondary prevention interventions after first stroke. The paper draws on documentary records and trial datasets to report on the methodological experience with respect to research ethics and research governance approval, general practice recruitment and allocation, sample size calculation and power, intervention implementation, and trial analysis. We obtained research governance approvals from more than 150 primary care organizations in England, Wales, and Scotland. There were 104 CPRD general practices recruited to the antibiotic trial and 106 to the stroke trial, with the target number of practices being recruited within six months. Interventions were installed into practice information systems remotely over the internet. The mean number of participants per practice was 5,588 in the antibiotic trial and 110 in the stroke trial, with the coefficient of variation of practice sizes being 0.53 and 0.56 respectively. Outcome measures showed substantial correlations between the 12 months before, and after intervention, with coefficients ranging from 0.42 for diastolic blood pressure to 0.91 for proportion of consultations with antibiotics prescribed, defining practice and participant eligibility for analysis requires careful consideration. Cluster randomized trials may be performed efficiently in large samples from UK general practices using the electronic health records of a primary care database. The geographical dispersal of trial sites presents a difficulty for

  17. Differential record linkage by Hispanic ethnicity and age in linked mortality studies: implications for the epidemiologic paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lariscy, Joseph T

    2011-12-01

    This study examines how the linkage of surveys to death records differs for Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites and how such differences affect estimates of ethnic differences in U.S. adult mortality. I use data from the 1989-2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) linked to the National Death Index (NDI) through 2002. Analyses assess how match score and match class vary by ethnicity, nativity, and age and whether mortality hazard ratios are sensitive to shifts in match criteria. Linkage quality is lower for Hispanic and foreign-born adults than for non-Hispanic White and U.S.-born adults. Modification of the linkage criteria determine whether the Hispanic mortality advantage is observed among middle-aged adults. The accuracy of adult mortality estimates depends on the quality of the linkage between surveys and death records.

  18. The First Occurrence in the Fossil Record of an Aquatic Avian Twig-Nest with Phoenicopteriformes Eggs: Evolutionary Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Grellet-Tinner; Xabier Murelaga; Larrasoaña, Juan C.; Silveira, Luis F.; Maitane Olivares; Luis A Ortega; Trimby, Patrick W.; Ana Pascual

    2012-01-01

    14 p. Background: We describe the first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with five eggs in situ (Early Miocene Tudela Formation, Ebro Basin, Spain). Extensive outcrops of this formation reveal autochthonous avian osteological and oological fossils that represent a single taxon identified as a basal phoenicopterid. Although the eggshell structure is definitively phoenicopterid, the characteristics of both the nest and the eggs are similar to those of modern greb...

  19. Global silica cycle paced by astronomical cycles recorded in the Mesozoic bedded chert: Implications for early Mesozoic extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Ozaki, K.; Tada, R.

    2016-12-01

    The early Mesozoic was a period of severe crisis for the world's biota and biogeochemical cycles with Permian-Triassic, Triassic-Jurassic, and Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) extinctions. Here, we present an 70-Myr-long record of high-resolution biogenic silica (BSi) burial flux in the early Mesozoic deep-sea bedded chert in Japan, which record astronomical cycles of tens of thousands- to multimillion-year periodicity as the rhythmical bedding. The estimated global Bio-Si burial flux is 140% (40-500%) of that in the modern global ocean, assuming the records are representative of low-middle latitude superocean Panthalassa. This suggests that bedded chert was a major sink for dissolved silica (DSi) in the ocean, and that the BSi burial flux was proportional to the DSi input from chemical weathering over timescales longer than the oceanic residence time of DSi (periods would be explained by the increased volcanic degassing flux and enhanced organic carbon burial due to increased nutrient supply by enhanced silicate weathering, which would result in coupling of the silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. We propose the BSi burial flux reconstructed from bedded chert can be used as a semi-quantitative measure of the global chemical weathering intensity to understand the impact of volcanism on biogeochemical cycle dynamics during the mass extinction events.

  20. Use of the mercury record in Red Tarn sediments to reveal air pollution history and the implications of catchment erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Handong; Smyntek, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Red Tarn is a cirque lake with a small ratio of terrestrial area to lake area, surrounded by glacial edges with little soil in the catchment. A sediment core taken from the deepest area of the lake was (210)Pb dated and validated by (137)Cs and (241)Am stratigraphic records. The core was analysed for mercury (Hg) and other elements. The results show Hg pollution before the mid-19th century, and thereafter, a rapid increase in Hg pollution into modern time, followed by a decline in pollution since 1968-1970. This agrees well with the decline in UK Hg emissions since the Clear Air Act of 1968. The results suggest that the core has recorded Hg air pollution history, and it can be used to benchmark Hg changes in the sediments from other lakes in the region up to the late 1980s. However, increased (210)Pb fluxes after the late 1980s indicate enhanced catchment erosion, which has brought more legacy Hg in the catchment into the lake. As a consequence, since 2000, the Hg in the sediment record no longer reflects the atmospheric Hg deposition. The core shows how dominant Hg sources for the lake changed from atmospheric deposition to the catchment inputs, and demonstrates that contaminated catchment inputs have not only increased Hg fluxes to the lake sediments but have also increased Hg concentrations in the sediments.

  1. The Implications of the Differences between Design Research and Instructional Systems Design for Educational Technology Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eunjung; Reeves, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    Design research (DR) has been an emerging research paradigm in the field of educational technology as well as in education generally for two decades. Educational design research integrates design and research into a socially responsible approach to inquiry related to learning and teaching. Given its still relative novelty, design research requires…

  2. Inter-annual precipitation variabiity inferred from late Holocene speleothem records from Fiji: implications for SPCZ localisation and ENSO behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.; Stephens, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Brett, M.

    2015-12-01

    The modern tropical Fiji climate is characterised by seasonal rainfall controlled by the position of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). Interannual rainfall is strongly modulated on decadal timescales by ENSO with higher rainfall associated with La Nina events. Voli Voli cave near Sigatoga (Viti Levu) is a stream passage that has been monitored since 2009. A U-Th dated laminated speleothem spans a 1500 year interval across the transition from the Medieval Warm Period into the Little Ice Age marked by a fabric change from finely laminated calcite with thin clay layers, to white well-laminated calcite. The older record is characterised by rising δ13C values followed by a rapid decrease in δ13C around 1200 AD. Evidence from cave monitoring shows that cave air CO2 levels are strongly seasonal as a result of greater ventilation by winter trade winds and high resolution δ13C record shows regularly spaced peaks correlated with paired laminae and cycles in P and S which provide annual markers driven by rainfall and seasonal ventilation. δ18O values remain relatively unchanged throughout the record but micromilling at sub-annual resolution reveals systematic cycles in δ18O that span groups of paired laminae with an inferred periodicity of 3-7 years i.e. a similar frequency to modern ENSO. The presence of these sub-decadal cycles in δ18O may be a result of a combination of factors. The amplitude of 2-3‰ would be equivalent to an amount-effect related change in annual precipitation of around 50% but an additional smoothing process, perhaps a result of aquifer storage, is required to attenuate interannual variance in precipitation. The Voli Voli record provides evidence of an underlying climatic change to more frequent La Niña conditions from 1200 AD and may be associated with increased conflict, shifts in settlements and changes in subsistence strategies on the island. Coeval speleothem isotope records from tropical Pacific Islands provide a provide a

  3. Understanding perinatal death: a systematic analysis of New York City fetal and neonatal death vital record data and implications for improvement, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica J; Gambatese, Melissa; Begier, Elizabeth; Soto, Antonio; Das, Tara; Madsen, Ann

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to compare demographic, medical, and cause-of-death information reported for third-trimester fetal and neonatal death vital records collected in New York City (NYC) before and after implementation of the revised fetal death certificate to identify: (1) the limitations of combining fetal and neonatal death records for the purpose of perinatal death prevention; and (2) improvement opportunities for fetal death vital records registration. Using Chi squared tests, we compared data completeness and cause-of-death information between third-trimester NYC fetal (n = 1,930) and neonatal deaths (n = 735) from 2007 to 2011. We also compared fetal death data before and after the 2011 implementation of the 2003 United States (US) Standard Report of Fetal Death and an electronic reporting system. Compared with neonatal deaths, fetal death data were generally less complete (P death data much more frequently reported an ill-defined cause of death (67 vs. 5 %). Most ill-defined reported causes of fetal death (73 %) were attributed to stillbirth synonyms (e.g., "fetal demise"). Ill-defined causes of fetal death decreased from 68 to 61 % (P death varied widely by hospital. In NYC, fetal deaths lack demographic, medical, and cause-of-death information compared with neonatal deaths, with implications for research that uses combined perinatal mortality data sets. Electronic implementation of the US Standard Report of Fetal Death minimally improved cause-of-death information. Substantial variability by hospital suggests opportunities for improvement exist.

  4. Variations of the Indian summer monsoon over the Mio-Pliocene recorded in the Bengal Fan (IODP Exp354): implications for the evolution of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Valier; Feakins, Sarah; Karkabi, Elias; Ponton, Camilo; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian

    2017-04-01

    A pressing challenge in climate research is understanding the temporal evolution of the Indian monsoon system; its response to global and regional climatic controls (including warming); as well as implications in terms of vegetation (C4 expansion), erosion of the Himalaya and carbon sequestration in the Bengal Fan. Studies on climate dynamics have recently offered new insights into the mechanistic controls on the monsoon: the tectonic boundary of the Himalaya is implicated as the major control on Indian summer monsoon dynamics today. Since this region has been uplifted since at least the late Oligocene, it is possible to test the response of monsoon precipitation to global and regional climate change, and also understand feedbacks on the climate system via carbon sequestration in the Bengal Fan. The evidence for monsoon intensity changes across the Miocene and Pliocene is currently incomplete given temporal uncertainty and diagenesis in terrestrial records; biases in the records reconstructed from the distal fan; and conflicting evidence from wind speed and aridity metrics for a stronger or weaker monsoon. Our alternative approach is therefore to study the basin-wide hydrological changes recorded in a multi-proxy, multi-site study of the marine sediments of the Bengal Fan recovered during IODP expedition 354. In turbiditic sediments of Himalayan origin, the late Miocene C4 expansion was found in all three long records recovered during expedition 354 (i.e. at sites U1451, U1450 and U1455, from East to West) based on stable carbon isotope composition of terrestrial leaf-wax compounds. Cores from sites U1455 (a reoccupation of DSDP Leg 22 Site 218) provide the highest resolution record of the C4 transition, which appears to occur abruptly within a relatively continuous series of turbiditic sequences. Bio- and magneto-stratigraphic dating of these records by members of Expedition 354 science party is underway and will provide the best stratigraphic constraint of the C4

  5. Using a Patient Portal to Transmit Patient Reported Health Information into the Electronic Record: Workflow Implications and User Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, Barbara; Allen, Amy; Bayleran, Janet; Doore, Stacy; Fathima, Samreen; Sabbagh, Iyad; Newcomb, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This project implemented an integrated patient self-reported screening tool in a patient portal and assessed clinical workflow and user experience in primary care practices. An electronic health risk assessment based on the CMS Annual Wellness Visit (AWV) was developed to integrate self-reported health information into the patient's electronic health record (EHR). Patients enrolled in care coordination tested the implementation. The evaluation plan included quantitative and qualitative measures of patient adoption, provider adoption, workflow impact, financial impact, and technology impact. Seventy-two patients completed the sample AWV, and 80% of the questionnaires had clinical findings that required provider follow-up. Patients expressed satisfaction with the portal, as it enabled them to view their health record and enter information. Implementation did not reduce office staff time. Providers and office staff agreed that an electronic system for adding information to their record would increase patient satisfaction, but they expressed concern with the need to promptly review the information and the time involved to accomplish this prior to an office visit. Despite satisfaction among patients, portal adoption is still low, due to technological limitations and to the lack of adaptability to primary care practice workflow. Notwithstanding those barriers, the use of the portal for completion of repetitive tasks, such as screening tools, should be encouraged. Patients can effectively use portals to complete the patient reported section of the CMS AWV. However, if the information is not completed during the same day of the office visit, the time required to address health findings outside of a regular office visit is uncompensated, and diminished the enthusiasm for this process among primary care practice staff.

  6. Disentangling the Hettangian carbon isotope record: Implications for the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, A.; Guex, J.; Spangenberg, J. E.; Schoene, B.; Taylor, D. G.; Schaltegger, U.; Atudorei, V.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides an organic carbon stable isotope (δ13Corg) record calibrated with detailed ammonite biostratigraphy, following the end-Triassic biological crisis. Precise correlation between this crucial fossil group and the δ13Corg record is key to understanding feedbacks between biological and environmental events following mass extinction. The latest Triassic and Hettangian δ13Corg record shows several negative and positive excursions. The end-Triassic negative shift coinciding with the mass extinction interval is followed by a positive excursion in the earliest Hettangian Psiloceras spelae beds, which marks the onset of recovery in the marine ecosystem. This positive trend is interrupted by a second negative δ13Corg excursion in the P. pacificum beds related to a minor ammonite extinction event. This pattern of the δ13Corg curve culminates in the uppermost Hettangian Angulata Zone major positive excursion. This indicates that both the ecosystem and the carbon cycle remained in a state of perturbation for at least 2 Ma, although the recovery of some pelagic taxa already began at the base of Jurassic. The early and late Hettangian positive δ13Corg excursions have been confused in several recent papers. Here, we show that during the Hettangian there are indeed two distinct positive δ13Corg excursions. Phases of anoxia and further pulses of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province volcanism during the Hettangian might have inhibited the full recovery for that interval of time. The main Liasicus-Angulata organic positive CIE (carbon isotope excursion) during the Late Hettangian might be related to gradual decreasing of pCO2 due to protracted high organic burial, and coincides with a second phase of recovery, as indicated by a pulse of ammonoid diversification.

  7. Fossil cladoceran record from Lake Piramide Inferiore (5067 m asl in the Nepalese Himalayas: biogeographical and paleoecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Nevalainen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 2500 years of community succession in Cladocera from the sediments of a mountain lake (Lake Piramide Inferiore located in the Khumbu Valley close to Mt. Everest in the Nepalese Himalayas. Our objective was to determine late Holocene changes in cladoceran species composition and abundance in a biogeographical context and with respect to previous proxy-based paleolimnological data (algal pigments and organic content. The results suggested that cladoceran fauna of Lake Piramide Inferiore was species-poor and dominated by Chydorus cf. sphaericus throughout the sequence. The sediment profile recorded the occurrence of Alona guttata type individuals, which were attributed to Alona werestschagini Sinev 1999 based on their morphology and the species' current distributional range, and this was the first record of its presence in the Himalayas. In addition, a periodic long-term succession of melanic Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia fusca Gurney, 1907 and non-melanic D. (Daphnia dentifera Forbes 1893 was observed in the sediments. The millennia-long cladoceran community changes, although subtle due to the C. cf. sphaericus dominance, were in general agreement with the previous proxy-data of lake productivity following the regional paleoclimatic development and apparently partly driven by bottom-up mechanisms. The periodic occurrence and success of D. fusca and D. dentifera throughout the late Holocene in Lake Piramide Inferiore, combined with the knowledge of their phenotypic properties (i.e. carapace melanization and previous investigations on their contemporary and past distribution in Khumbu Valley, suggested that they may have responded to altered underwater UV radiation regimes. Furthermore, they may have even periodically excluded each other subsequent to changes in the underwater UV environment. The results indicated the usefulness of fossil cladoceran analysis as a tool in biogeographical research, since the occurrence of species in space and

  8. The Mono Lake geomagnetic excursion recorded in loess: Its application as time marker and implications for its geomagnetic nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, U.; Hark, M.; Zeeden, C.; Reddersen, B.; Zöller, L.; Fuchs, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the youngest and worldwide documented geomagnetic excursions in the Brunhes Chron is the Mono Lake excursion (MLE). It has been detected in marine and terrestrial sedimentary archives as well as in lavas. Recent age determinations and age estimates for the MLE centre around an age interval of approximately 31 - 34 ka. Likewise the Laschamp excursion the MLE goes along with a distinct peak in cosmogenic radionuclides in ice cores and sedimentary archives. It provides therefore an additional geomagnetic time marker for various geoarchives to synchronise different climate archives. Here we report on a detailed record of the MLE from a loess site at Krems, Lower Austria. The site is situated on the southern slope of the Wachtberg hill in the vicinity of the old city centre of Krems. The archive comprises Middle to Upper Würmian (Late Pleistocene) loess in which an Upper Palaeolithic (Early Gravettian) cultural layer is embedded. The most spectacular finds are a double infant burial found in 2005 and a single burial discovered in 2006 (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Generally, archaeological findings show an extraordinarily good preservation due to embedding in rapidly sedimented loess (Händel et al., 2008). The about 10 m thick loess pile consists of calcareous sandy, coarse silt which is rich in mica indicating local sources. It is well stratified with brownish horizons representing embryonic soils pointing to incipient pedogenesis. Some of the pedo-horizons show occasionally indications of minor erosion and bedding-parallel sediment transport, but no linear erosional features. Pale greyish horizons are the result of partial gleying under permafrost conditions. No strong pedogenesis including decalcification and clay formation is present. The cultural layer is still covered by more than 5 m of loess, and dated by radiocarbon to ~27 ka 14C BP (Einwögerer et al., 2006). Below this layer up to 2.5 m of loess resting on Lower Pleistocene fluvial gravels are

  9. Implications of the Turing machine model of computation for processor and programming language design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Geoffrey

    2004-01-01

    A computational process is classified according to the theoretical model that is capable of executing it; computational processes that require a non-predeterminable amount of intermediate storage for their execution are Turing-machine (TM) processes, while those whose storage are predeterminable are Finite Automation (FA) processes. Simple processes (such as traffic light controller) are executable by Finite Automation, whereas the most general kind of computation requires a Turing Machine for its execution. This implies that a TM process must have a non-predeterminable amount of memory allocated to it at intermediate instants of its execution; i.e. dynamic memory allocation. Many processes encountered in practice are TM processes. The implication for computational practice is that the hardware (CPU) architecture and its operating system must facilitate dynamic memory allocation, and that the programming language used to specify TM processes must have statements with the semantic attribute of dynamic memory allocation, for in Alan Turing"s thesis on computation (1936) the "standard description" of a process is invariant over the most general data that the process is designed to process; i.e. the program describing the process should never have to be modified to allow for differences in the data that is to be processed in different instantiations; i.e. data-invariant programming. Any non-trivial program is partitioned into sub-programs (procedures, subroutines, functions, modules, etc). Examination of the calls/returns between the subprograms reveals that they are nodes in a tree-structure; this tree-structure is independent of the programming language used to encode (define) the process. Each sub-program typically needs some memory for its own use (to store values intermediate between its received data and its computed results); this locally required memory is not needed before the subprogram commences execution, and it is not needed after its execution terminates

  10. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  11. Variations of magnetic properties in thin lava flow profiles: Implications for the recording of the Laschamp Excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vérard, Christian; Leonhardt, Roman; Winklhofer, Michael; Fabian, Karl

    2012-06-01

    Two blocks have been cut in two lava flows from the Skalamaelifell Hill (Iceland) known to have recorded the Laschamp magnetic excursion (40.4 ± 2.0 ka). Detailed sampling and analyses have revealed multiple magnetic components. The high temperature/coercivity component corresponds to the primary magnetisation, with corresponding pole position close to the equator in the Pacific Ocean (φ = 251.90°/λ = -06.49°; dp = 0.74°/dm = 2.12°) and palaeo-intensity determinations below 5 μT. The different VGPs, however, vary in relation with the position of samples in the profiles. It could not be firmly established whether this distribution is associated with a change in the Earth magnetic field during lava cooling. In any case, variations are related with zones in the profiles marked, in particular, by the presence of vesicles. Moreover, the other components are interpreted to be linked with alteration inside the rocks, caused by interactions between vesicles content and the surrounding matrix. Secondary component, however, is interpreted as recording an excursional magnetic field, and should be of greater consideration in studies of Earth magnetic field excursions or reversals.

  12. Coroners' records on suicide mortality in Montréal: limitations and implications in suicide prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, J; Guillou-Ouellette, C

    2014-02-01

    In Montréal, the characteristics of suicide cases may vary between different areas. The information collected by coroners during their investigations of suicides could be used to support local suicide-prevention planning actions. This study analyzes all coroners' records on suicide in Montréal from 2007 to 2009 to (1) determine the usefulness of the data available; (2) develop a profile of cases; (3) examine local differences by comparing two areas, one with the highest suicide rate and the other with the lowest. The data collected revealed the lack of a systematic, standardized procedure for recording information about deaths by suicide. The rates of missing data varied, but were very high for antecedents of suicide attempts and recent events that could have precipitated the suicide. We observed differences in the characteristics of suicide cases according to area of residence. By adopting a standardized procedure for collecting information on cases of suicide, coroners could provide local decision makers with a more accurate portrait of the people who die by suicide in their area. Local adjustments may improve suicide prevention strategies.

  13. Complex Permittivity Model of Venus Atmosphere and Implications for Design of Imaging Altimeter and INSAR Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Moghaddam, M.; Smrekar, S.; Wenkert, D.; Jordan, R.

    2008-12-01

    To design altimeter and interferometric SAR (InSAR) systems for measuring Venus' topography, the effects of Venus' atmosphere on the signals need to be investigated. These radar systems are envisioned to operate at X-band, and therefore, a model of Venus atmosphere permittivity profile at X-band is required and has been developed in this work. The effect of signal propagation through this atmosphere and its implication in designing the altimeter and the InSAR instruments are also investigated. The model was constructed for the complex dielectric constant of the atmosphere. Using relations between permittivity and polarization of polar material, the real part of the atmosphere dielectric constant was obtained by calculating the total polarization of the mixture of known atmospheric components including CO2, N2, H2O, SO2, H2SO4, CO, and OCS. The contribution of each atmospheric component to the mixture polarization was calculated based on given temperatures and component densities in the mixture. For each atmospheric component, the polarization was modeled as a function of frequency, temperature, and pressure based on available information in literature. Imaginary part of the atmospheric dielectric constant was calculated by superposing the measured absorptions of mixture components. The temperature and pressure dependences of absorption of each component were modeled according to measurement data and published information. Hence, based on several datasets inferred or directly measured from previous explorations of Venus, the complex dielectric constant profile has been constructed. The validity of the atmosphere permittivity model has been verified by comparing simulation results with measurement data of Venus atmosphere, e.g., from nadir refractivity and absorption measured by the Magellan mission for a portion of the profile. Using this simulated dielectric constant profile, the X-band electromagnetic wave propagation in Venus atmosphere has been modeled, in

  14. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Trathan

    Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  15. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, Philip N; Fretwell, Peter T; Stonehouse, Bernard

    2011-02-28

    In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W), in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952). When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005) that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009) highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  16. Tooth counts through growth in diapsid reptiles: implications for interpreting individual and size-related variation in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb Marshall; VanBuren, Collin S; Larson, Derek W; Brink, Kirstin S; Campione, Nicolás E; Vavrek, Matthew J; Evans, David C

    2015-04-01

    Tooth counts are commonly recorded in fossil diapsid reptiles and have been used for taxonomic and phylogenetic purposes under the assumption that differences in the number of teeth are largely explained by interspecific variation. Although phylogeny is almost certainly one of the greatest factors influencing tooth count, the relative role of intraspecific variation is difficult, and often impossible, to test in the fossil record given the sample sizes available to palaeontologists and, as such, is best investigated using extant models. Intraspecific variation (largely manifested as size-related or ontogenetic variation) in tooth counts has been examined in extant squamates (lizards and snakes) but is poorly understood in archosaurs (crocodylians and dinosaurs). Here, we document tooth count variation in two species of extant crocodylians (Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus) as well as a large varanid lizard (Varanus komodoensis). We test the hypothesis that variation in tooth count is driven primarily by growth and thus predict significant correlations between tooth count and size, as well as differences in the frequency of deviation from the modal tooth count in the premaxilla, maxilla, and dentary. In addition to tooth counts, we also document tooth allometry in each species and compare these results with tooth count change through growth. Results reveal no correlation of tooth count with size in any element of any species examined here, with the exception of the premaxilla of C. porosus, which shows the loss of one tooth position. Based on the taxa examined here, we reject the hypothesis, as it is evident that variation in tooth count is not always significantly correlated with growth. However, growth trajectories of smaller reptilian taxa show increases in tooth counts and, although current samples are small, suggest potential correlates between tooth count trajectories and adult size. Nevertheless, interspecific variation in growth patterns

  17. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Free Surface Interactions and Implications for P and Rg Waves Recorded on the Source Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E.; Yang, X.; Patton, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    A goal of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) is to develop explosion source models expanding monitoring capabilities beyond empirical methods. The SPE project combines field experimentation with numerical modelling. The models take into account non-linear processes occurring from the first moment of the explosion as well as complex linear propagation effects of signals reaching far-field recording stations. The hydrodynamic code CASH is used for modelling high-strain rate, non-linear response occurring in the material near the source. Our development efforts focused on incorporating in-situ stress and fracture processes. CASH simulates the material response from the near-source, strong shock zone out to the small-strain and ultimately the elastic regime where a linear code can take over. We developed an interface with the Spectral Element Method code, SPECFEM3D, that is an efficient implementation on parallel computers of a high-order finite element method. SPECFEM3D allows accurate modelling of wave propagation to remote monitoring distance at low cost. We will present CASH-SPECFEM3D results for SPE1, which was a chemical detonation of about 85 kg of TNT at 55 m depth in a granitic geologic unit. Spallation was observed for SPE1. Keeping yield fixed we vary the depth of the source systematically and compute synthetic seismograms to distances where the P and Rg waves are separated, so that analysis can be performed without concern about interference effects due to overlapping energy. We study the time and frequency characteristics of P and Rg waves and analyse them in regard to the impact of free-surface interactions and rock damage resulting from those interactions. We also perform traditional CMT inversions as well as advanced CMT inversions, developed at LANL to take into account the damage. This will allow us to assess the effect of spallation on CMT solutions as well as to validate our inversion procedure. Further work will aim to validate the developed

  18. The mystery of Bunge Land (New Siberian Archipelago): implications for its formation based on palaeoenvironmental records, geomorphology, and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Grosse, Guido; Kunitsky, Viktor V.; Fuchs, Margret C.; Krbetschek, Matthias; Andreev, Andrei A.; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Babyi, Olga; Siegert, Christine; Meyer, Hanno; Derevyagin, Alexander Y.; Wetterich, Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Multiproxy datasets (geocryology, geochronology, sedimentology, palaeo-ecology) from permafrost exposures were used together with land surface information based on satellite imagery and thematic maps in order to reconstruct the Lateglacial to Holocene landscape and environmental dynamics of Bunge Land (Zemlya Bunge). This area of little relief, situated in the New Siberian Archipelago, connects the geomorphologically well-structured islands of Kotel'ny and Fadeevsky. A buried thermokarst landscape was found in the northwest region of the Bunge Land low terrace sand plain, whereas the Bunge Land high terrace seems to be an exposed residue of a similar late Quaternary thermokarst landscape. That is confirmed especially by radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry and optically stimulated luminescence age determinations, and by pollen analyses. Palaeogeographically, the late Pleistocene periglacial landscape and sedimentation of Bunge Land was closely connected to Kotel'ny and Fadeevsky; only later on seismotectonical block movements resulted in reshaping parts of Bunge Land. The Bunge Land low terrace area first subsided and the original landscape there was destroyed by marine inundation, followed by marine sedimentation. Subsequent block heave of the low terrace region exposed a vast sheet of marine sands which is continuously surficially reworked by aeolian processes, while the original alluvial plain landscape in the high terrace area was preserved and started degrading only by early Holocene thermokarst development. The studied exposures contain one of the northernmost (74.88°N) environmental records for the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the Eurasian Arctic.

  19. An analysis of pterosaurian biogeography: implications for the evolutionary history and fossil record quality of the first flying vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Paul; Andres, Brian; Butler, Richard J; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-08-18

    The biogeographical history of pterosaurs has received very little treatment. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of pterosaurian biogeography based on an event-based parsimony method (Treefitter). This approach was applied to a phylogenetic tree comprising the relationships of 108 in-group pterosaurian taxa, spanning the full range of this clade's stratigraphical and geographical extent. The results indicate that there is no support for the impact of vicariance or coherent dispersal on pterosaurian distributions. However, this group does display greatly elevated levels of sympatry. Although sampling biases and taxonomic problems might have artificially elevated the occurrence of sympatry, we argue that our results probably reflect a genuine biogeographical signal. We propose a novel model to explain pterosaurian distributions: pterosaurs underwent a series of 'sweep-stakes' dispersal events (across oceanic barriers in most cases), resulting in the founding of sympatric clusters of taxa. Examination of the spatiotemporal distributions of pterosaurian occurrences indicates that their fossil record is extremely patchy. Thus, while there is likely to be genuine information on pterosaurian diversity and biogeographical patterns in the current data-set, caution is required in its interpretation.

  20. Design and implementation of a web-based patient portal linked to an electronic health record designed to improve medication safety: the Patient Gateway medications module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Schnipper

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe the background, design, and preliminary results of a medications module within Patient Gateway (PG, a patient portal linked to an electronic health record (EHR. The medications module is designed to improve the accuracy of medication lists within the EHR, reduce adverse drug events and improve patient_provider communication regarding medications and allergies in several primary care practices within a large integrated healthcare delivery network. This module allows patients to view and modify the list of medications and allergies from the EHR, report nonadherence, side effects and other medication-related problems and easily communicate this information to providers, who can verify the information and update the EHR as needed. Usage and satisfaction data indicate that patients found the module easy to use, felt that it led to their providers having more accurate information about them and enabled them to feel more prepared for their forthcoming visits. Further analyses will determine the effects of this module on important medication-related outcomes and identify further enhancements needed to improve on this approach.

  1. The design of financial recording system in industrial bio-briquette of Ramie (Boehmeria nivea) decortication waste with design thinking approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irianto, R.; Purnomo, D.; Prima, S.; Wulandari, A.

    2017-05-01

    The production process of ramie (boehmeria nivea) fibers generates waste which contents 5.95 to 7.83% ash; 1.88 to 2.87% silicate; 30.67 to 31.08% lignin; 33.81 to 35.99% alpha cellulose; 62.95 to 63.78% holoselulosa; 17.43 to 18.14% pentosan, which can be used as raw material of bio-briquette. Those potential can be used to generate a business opportunity, such as industrial bio-briquette of ramie decortication waste. The purpose of this research is to create accounting information which could present an income statement that is easily applied on industrial bio-briquette of ramie decortication waste. This research use descriptive analysis method with design with design thinking approach to gather the information through depth observation on human being as the object to achieve the purpose. The result in this research is financial recording system of industrial bio-briquette of ramie decortication waste in a desktop application. The system is integrated with production activities according to the needs of accounting information particularly at managerial production. The existing applications creates information in the form of financial operations which can be used as a factor in decision-making.

  2. Sampling effects on the identification of roadkill hotspots: Implications for survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara M; Marques, J Tiago; Lourenço, André; Medinas, Denis; Barbosa, A Márcia; Beja, Pedro; Mira, António

    2015-10-01

    Although locating wildlife roadkill hotspots is essential to mitigate road impacts, the influence of study design on hotspot identification remains uncertain. We evaluated how sampling frequency affects the accuracy of hotspot identification, using a dataset of vertebrate roadkills (n = 4427) recorded over a year of daily surveys along 37 km of roads. "True" hotspots were identified using this baseline dataset, as the 500-m segments where the number of road-killed vertebrates exceeded the upper 95% confidence limit of the mean, assuming a Poisson distribution of road-kills per segment. "Estimated" hotspots were identified likewise, using datasets representing progressively lower sampling frequencies, which were produced by extracting data from the baseline dataset at appropriate time intervals (1-30 days). Overall, 24.3% of segments were "true" hotspots, concentrating 40.4% of roadkills. For different groups, "true" hotspots accounted from 6.8% (bats) to 29.7% (small birds) of road segments, concentrating from 60% (lizards, lagomorphs, carnivores) of roadkills. Spatial congruence between "true" and "estimated" hotspots declined rapidly with increasing time interval between surveys, due primarily to increasing false negatives (i.e., missing "true" hotspots). There were also false positives (i.e., wrong "estimated" hotspots), particularly at low sampling frequencies. Spatial accuracy decay with increasing time interval between surveys was higher for smaller-bodied (amphibians, reptiles, small birds, small mammals) than for larger-bodied species (birds of prey, hedgehogs, lagomorphs, carnivores). Results suggest that widely used surveys at weekly or longer intervals may produce poor estimates of roadkill hotspots, particularly for small-bodied species. Surveying daily or at two-day intervals may be required to achieve high accuracy in hotspot identification for multiple species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Implications of differences of echoic and iconic memory for the design of multimodal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Daniel Shields

    It has been well documented that dual-task performance is more accurate when each task is based on a different sensory modality. It is also well documented that the memory for each sense has unequal durations, particularly visual (iconic) and auditory (echoic) sensory memory. In this dissertation I address whether differences in sensory memory (e.g. iconic vs. echoic) duration have implications for the design of a multimodal display. Since echoic memory persists for seconds in contrast to iconic memory which persists only for milliseconds, one of my hypotheses was that in a visual-auditory dual task condition, performance will be better if the visual task is completed before the auditory task than vice versa. In Experiment 1 I investigated whether the ability to recall multi-modal stimuli is affected by recall order, with each mode being responded to separately. In Experiment 2, I investigated the effects of stimulus order and recall order on the ability to recall information from a multi-modal presentation. In Experiment 3 I investigated the effect of presentation order using a more realistic task. In Experiment 4 I investigated whether manipulating the presentation order of stimuli of different modalities improves humans' ability to combine the information from the two modalities in order to make decision based on pre-learned rules. As hypothesized, accuracy was greater when visual stimuli were responded to first and auditory stimuli second. Also as hypothesized, performance was improved by not presenting both sequences at the same time, limiting the perceptual load. Contrary to my expectations, overall performance was better when a visual sequence was presented before the audio sequence. Though presenting a visual sequence prior to an auditory sequence lengthens the visual retention interval, it also provides time for visual information to be recoded to a more robust form without disruption. Experiment 4 demonstrated that decision making requiring the

  4. Structural Basis for Escape of Human Astrovirus from Antibody Neutralization: Broad Implications for Rational Vaccine Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Perez, Edmundo I.; López, Tomás; Arias, Carlos F.; DuBois, Rebecca M.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2017-10-25

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses are recognized as a leading cause of viral diarrhea worldwide in children, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent astrovirus infection; however, antibodies developed by healthy individuals during previous infection correlate with protection from reinfection, suggesting that an effective vaccine could be developed. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which several strains of human astrovirus serotype 2 (HAstV-2) are resistant to the potent HAstV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2 (MAb PL-2). Sequencing of the HAstV-2 capsid genes reveals mutations in the PL-2 epitope within the capsid's spike domain. To understand the molecular basis for resistance from MAb PL-2 neutralization, we determined the 1.35-Å-resolution crystal structure of the capsid spike from one of these HAstV-2 strains. Our structure reveals a dramatic conformational change in a loop within the PL-2 epitope due to a serine-to-proline mutation, locking the loop in a conformation that sterically blocks binding and neutralization by MAb PL-2. We show that mutation to serine permits loop flexibility and recovers MAb PL-2 binding. Importantly, we find that HAstV-2 capsid spike containing a serine in this loop is immunogenic and elicits antibodies that neutralize all HAstV-2 strains. Taken together, our results have broad implications for rational selection of vaccine strains that do not contain prolines in antigenic loops, so as to elicit antibodies against diverse loop conformations.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. In this study, we investigated how several strains of HAstV are resistant to a virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody. We determined the crystal structure of the capsid protein spike domain from one of these HAstV strains and found that

  5. Accumulation variability over a small area in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, as determined from shallow firn cores and snow pits: some implications for ice-core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlöf, Lars; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Gundestrup, Niels; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Mulvaney, Robert; Pourchet, Michel; Hofstede, Coen; Lappegard, Gaute; Pettersson, Rickard; van den Broeke, Michiel; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    We investigate and quantify the variability of snow accumulation rate around a medium-depth firn core (160 m) drilled in east Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica (75°00‧S, 15°00‧E; 3470 m h.a.e. (ellipsoidal height)). We present accumulation data from five snow pits and five shallow (20 m) firn cores distributed within a 3.5 7 km distance, retrieved during the 2000/01 Nordic EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) traverse. Snow accumulation rates estimated for shorter periods show higher spatial variance than for longer periods. Accumulation variability as recorded from the firn cores and snow pits cannot explain all the variation in the ion and isotope time series; other depositional and post-depositional processes need to be accounted for. Through simple statistical analysis we show that there are differences in sensitivity to these processes between the analyzed species. Oxygen isotopes and sulphate are more conservative in their post-depositional behaviour than the more volatile acids, such as nitrate and to some degree chloride and methanesulphonic acid. We discuss the possible causes for the accumulation variability and the implications for the interpretation of ice-core records.

  6. The competition between coastal trace metal fluxes and oceanic mixing from the 10Be/9Be ratio: Implications for sedimentary records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.; Mohtadi, M.; Christl, M.; Bernhardt, A.

    2017-08-01

    At an ocean margin site 37°S offshore Chile, we use the meteoric cosmogenic 10Be/9Be ratio to trace changes in terrestrial particulate composition due to exchange with seawater. We analyzed the marine authigenic phase in surface sediments along a coast-perpendicular transect and compared to samples from their riverine source. We find evidence for growth of authigenic rims through coprecipitation, not via reversible adsorption, that incorporate an open ocean 10Be/9Be signature from a deep water source only 30 km from the coast, overprinting terrestrial 10Be/9Be signatures. Together with increasing 10Be/9Be ratios, particulate-bound Fe concentrations increase, which we attribute to release of Fe-rich pore waters during boundary exchange in the sediment. The implications for the use of 10Be/9Be in sedimentary records for paleodenudation flux reconstructions are the following: in coast-proximal sites the authigenic record will likely preserve local riverine ratios unaffected by exchange with seawater, whereas sites beneath well-mixed seawater will preserve global flux signatures.

  7. Finely laminated 4000 yr sediment record from Lake Bolatau (Bukovina, Romania) - implications for palaeolimnology and erosion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Alexandra; Kern, Zoltán; Mindrescu, Marcel; Grădinaru, Ionela; Bozsó, Gábor; Németh, Tibor; Bihari, Árpád; Fekete, József

    2014-05-01

    Geochemical and sedimentological analyses of lacustrine sediments are a valuable tool for understanding the dynamics of local and regional climate over various time scales. This study focuses on Lake Bolatau located at 1137 m a.s.l. in Obcina Feredeului, one of the flysch nappes at to the Northern Romanian Carpathians. The lake was first mentioned in a scientific study in 1964, whereby the landslide dam origin was initially suggested, but there remained no evidence whatsoever of the age of the lake, albeit the first recorded historical reference to Lake Bolatau was in 1806 (Mindrescu et al. 2013). From this currently eutrophic lake sediment two finely laminated lake sediment cores were extracted (winter 2013), of which one core was over 3 m long. Both cores were subsequently cut into 1 cm-long items of which we selected various batches of samples for specific analyses. Petrographic thin sections from the cores were examined under polarization microscope and BSE microscope. An age-depth model for the Bolatau sediment record was established based on 8 AMS radiocarbon dates from terrestrial macrofossils and the double peaks (i.e. mid-1960s: global fallout maximum; 1986: Chernobyl accident) of the 137Cs flux. The onset of the lacustrine sedimentation is estimated at ~4.6 ka cal BP. There was no abrupt change in the rate of sedimentation, after its onset however the geochemical and sedimentological properties of the sediments changed through time. While vivanite or pyrite doesn't precipitate today XRD results indicated that there were several time intervals when environmental conditions were favorable for that. We identified syn-sedimentary and authigenic form of pyrite based on Wilkin et al. (1996). The presence of syn-sedimentary pyrite means that oxic-anoxic interface was often in the water column. XRF results obtained from the upper 60 cm suggest that Fe actively migrated and precipitated in the organic matter rich layers due to the often anoxic environment. We

  8. The first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with Phoenicopteriformes eggs: evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Grellet-Tinner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with five eggs in situ (Early Miocene Tudela Formation, Ebro Basin, Spain. Extensive outcrops of this formation reveal autochthonous avian osteological and oological fossils that represent a single taxon identified as a basal phoenicopterid. Although the eggshell structure is definitively phoenicopterid, the characteristics of both the nest and the eggs are similar to those of modern grebes. These observations allow us to address the origin of the disparities between the sister taxa Podicipedidae and Phoenicopteridae crown clades, and traces the evolution of the nesting and reproductive environments for phoenicopteriforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multi-disciplinary analyses performed on fossilized vegetation and eggshells from the eggs in the nest and its embedding sediments indicate that this new phoenicopterid thrived under a semi-arid climate in an oligohaline (seasonally mesohaline shallow endorheic lacustine environment. High-end microcharacterizations including SEM, TEM, and EBSD techniques were pivotal to identifying these phoenicopterid eggshells. Anatomical comparisons of the fossil bones with those of Phoenicopteriformes and Podicipediformes crown clades and extinct palaelodids confirm that this avian fossil assemblage belongs to a new and basal phoenicopterid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the Podicipediformes-Phoenicopteriformes sister group relationship is now well supported, flamingos and grebes exhibit feeding, reproductive, and nesting strategies that diverge significantly. Our multi-disciplinary study is the first to reveal that the phoenicopteriform reproductive behaviour, nesting ecology and nest characteristics derived from grebe-like type strategies to reach the extremely specialized conditions observed in modern flamingo crown groups. Furthermore, our study enables us to map ecological and reproductive characters on

  9. The first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with Phoenicopteriformes eggs: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Murelaga, Xabier; Larrasoaña, Juan C; Silveira, Luis F; Olivares, Maitane; Ortega, Luis A; Trimby, Patrick W; Pascual, Ana

    2012-01-01

    We describe the first occurrence in the fossil record of an aquatic avian twig-nest with five eggs in situ (Early Miocene Tudela Formation, Ebro Basin, Spain). Extensive outcrops of this formation reveal autochthonous avian osteological and oological fossils that represent a single taxon identified as a basal phoenicopterid. Although the eggshell structure is definitively phoenicopterid, the characteristics of both the nest and the eggs are similar to those of modern grebes. These observations allow us to address the origin of the disparities between the sister taxa Podicipedidae and Phoenicopteridae crown clades, and traces the evolution of the nesting and reproductive environments for phoenicopteriforms. Multi-disciplinary analyses performed on fossilized vegetation and eggshells from the eggs in the nest and its embedding sediments indicate that this new phoenicopterid thrived under a semi-arid climate in an oligohaline (seasonally mesohaline) shallow endorheic lacustine environment. High-end microcharacterizations including SEM, TEM, and EBSD techniques were pivotal to identifying these phoenicopterid eggshells. Anatomical comparisons of the fossil bones with those of Phoenicopteriformes and Podicipediformes crown clades and extinct palaelodids confirm that this avian fossil assemblage belongs to a new and basal phoenicopterid. Although the Podicipediformes-Phoenicopteriformes sister group relationship is now well supported, flamingos and grebes exhibit feeding, reproductive, and nesting strategies that diverge significantly. Our multi-disciplinary study is the first to reveal that the phoenicopteriform reproductive behaviour, nesting ecology and nest characteristics derived from grebe-like type strategies to reach the extremely specialized conditions observed in modern flamingo crown groups. Furthermore, our study enables us to map ecological and reproductive characters on the Phoenicopteriformes evolutionary lineage. Our results demonstrate that the nesting

  10. Microbe-like inclusions in tree resins and implications for the fossil record of protists in amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, V; Lausmaa, J; Sjövall, P; Ragazzi, E; Seyfullah, L J; Schmidt, A R

    2016-07-01

    During the past two decades, a plethora of fossil micro-organisms have been described from various Triassic to Miocene ambers. However, in addition to entrapped microbes, ambers commonly contain microscopic inclusions that sometimes resemble amoebae, ciliates, microfungi, and unicellular algae in size and shape, but do not provide further diagnostic features thereof. For a better assessment of the actual fossil record of unicellular eukaryotes in amber, we studied equivalent inclusions in modern resin of the Araucariaceae; this conifer family comprises important amber-producers in Earth history. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), we investigated the chemical nature of the inclusion matter and the resin matrix. Whereas the matrix, as expected, showed a more hydrocarbon/aromatic-dominated composition, the inclusions contain abundant salt ions and polar organics. However, the absence of signals characteristic for cellular biomass, namely distinctive proteinaceous amino acids and lipid moieties, indicates that the inclusions do not contain microbial cellular matter but salts and hydrophilic organic substances that probably derived from the plant itself. Rather than representing protists or their remains, these microbe-like inclusions, for which we propose the term 'pseudoinclusions', consist of compounds that are immiscible with the terpenoid resin matrix and were probably secreted in small amounts together with the actual resin by the plant tissue. Consequently, reports of protists from amber that are only based on the similarity of the overall shape and size to extant taxa, but do not provide relevant features at light-microscopical and ultrastructural level, cannot be accepted as unambiguous fossil evidence for these particular groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modern plant-derived terpenoids in an upper Michigan river basin and implications for interpreting the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Lowell, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    DOM may affect terpenoid concentrations in estuarine and marine sediments. Despite the challenges of using terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies, when corrected for plant production, basin-wide terpenoid concentrations are useful in predicting the present plant community composition (based on plant census data) within 10-15%. This study suggests that the sedimentary record of terpenoids can broadly reconstruct paleovegetation, when corrected for differential terpenoid production and transport.

  12. Cluster randomized trials utilizing primary care electronic health records : methodological issues in design, conduct, and analysis (eCRT Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulliford, Martin C; van Staa, Tjeerd P; McDermott, Lisa; McCann, Gerard; Charlton, Judith; Dregan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in conducting clinical and cluster randomized trials through electronic health records. This paper reports on the methodological issues identified during the implementation of two cluster randomized trials using the electronic health records of the Clinical

  13. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  14. Proof-of-concept design and development of an EN13606-based electronic health care record service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Adolfo; Somolinos, Roberto; Pascual, Mario; Fragua, Juan A; González, Miguel A; Monteagudo, Jose Luis; Salvador, Carlos H

    2007-01-01

    The authors present an Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR) server, designed and developed as a proof of concept of the revised prEN13606:2005 European standard concerning EHR communications. The development of the server includes five modules: the libraries for the management of the standard reference model, for the demographic package and for the data types; the permanent storage module, built on a relational database; two communication interfaces through which the clients can send information or make queries; the XML (eXtensible Markup Language) process module; and the tools for the validation of the extracts managed, implemented on a defined XML-Schema. The server was subjected to four phases of trials, the first three with ad hoc test data and processes to ensure that each of the modules complied with its specifications and that the interaction between them provided the expected functionalities. The fourth used real extracts generated by other research groups for the additional purpose of testing the validity of the standard in real-world scenarios. The acceptable performance of the server has made it possible to include it as a middleware service in a platform for the out-of-hospital follow-up and monitoring of patients with chronic heart disease which, at the present time, supports pilot projects and clinical trials for the evaluation of eHealth services.

  15. Design, development and experimental validation of a non-invasive device for recording respiratory events during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, C; Tamilia, E; Massaroni, C; Morbidoni, G; Schena, E; Formica, D; Taffoni, F

    2014-01-01

    In newborns, a poor coordination between sucking, swallowing and breathing may undermine the effectiveness of oral feeding and signal immaturity of Central Nervous System. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a non-invasive device for recording respiratory events of newborns during bottle feeding. The proposed device working principle is based on the convective heat exchanged between two hot bodies and the infants' breathing. The sensing elements are inserted into a duct and the gas exchanged by infants is conveyed into this duct thanks to an ad hoc designed system to be mounted on a commercial feeding bottle. Two sets of experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the discrimination threshold of the device and characterize the sensor response at oscillating flows. The effect of distance and tilt between nostrils and device, and the breathing frequency, have been investigated simulating nostrils and neonatal respiratory pattern. The device has a discrimination threshold lower than 0.5 L/min at both 10° and 20° of tilt. Distance for these two settings does not affect the threshold in the investigated range (10-20 mm). Moreover, the device is able to detect breathing events, and to discriminate the onset of expiratory phase, during a neonatal respiratory task delivered by a lung simulator. The results foster the successful application of this device to the assessment of the temporal breathing pattern of newborns during bottle feeding with a non-invasive approach.

  16. The Missing Data Assumptions of the NEAT Design and Their Implications for Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The Non-Equivalent groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) design involves "missing data" that are "missing by design." Three nonlinear observed score equating methods used with a NEAT design are the "frequency estimation equipercentile equating" (FEEE), the "chain equipercentile equating" (CEE), and the "item-response-theory observed-score-equating" (IRT…

  17. The Changing Nature and Definitions of Industrial Design and Implications for Prospective Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goatman, Mike; Moody, Louise

    2014-01-01

    There are currently a wide range of Higher Education Industrial Design courses available in the UK. In the present era, a wider breadth of narrative has developed within the subject, and as a result the content of industrial design educational offerings varies considerably. The paper assesses the industry view of Industrial Design as a discipline…

  18. A Multilevel Approach for Social Transformations and its Implications on Service Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Götzen, Amalia De

    2017-01-01

    This paper is looking at two parallel transformations -in the methodological approach to service design and in the way new social initiatives are designing new solutions – to suggest a framework to re-organise service design education. The paradigmatic framework for the service design discipline...... be observed in society, with the emergence of new organisational forms, based on collaboration, P2P and sharing concepts, which have a disruptive power over the existing social and economic system. The new initiatives, are often promoted and controlled by citizens, users or constellation of stakeholders...... perspective, in which the designer (and consequently the service provider) was deciding modes and characteristics of value creation, to a perspective in which the designer/service provider is simply mediating the process of co-creation by generating means that support social transformation. This paper...

  19. Needs Analysis of Business English Undergraduates and the Implications to Business English Curriculum Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Needs Analysis is a valuable and irreplaceable tool in the curriculum design of Business English courses. It ensures a focused and efficient curriculum design responsive to the learners' needs. This paper analysis the needs of Business English undergraduates and the information obtained may offer some helpful suggestions to the setting of the teaching goals, selecting textbooks and teaching methods and thus provide reliable guidance for the course designers.

  20. Implication of the dominant design in electronic initiation systems in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, FC

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available of the emerging technology; it is found that the technology is still in the fluid phase and that a dominant design has not yet emerged. Since the dominant design is a very important milestone in the evolvement of the product with regard to both the technical...

  1. High School Students' Compositions of Ranch Designs: Implications for Academic and Personal Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Pettis, Victoria; Reed, Patty

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of two high school students designing horse ranch plans for a course in equine management and production. The investigation focused on understanding the problems driving the design process, the tools through which the students inscribed and encoded meaning in their compositions, and the integration,…

  2. Students as Co-Creators of Teaching Approaches, Course Design, and Curricula: Implications for Academic Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovill, Catherine; Cook-Sather, Alison; Felten, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Within higher education, students' voices are frequently overlooked in the design of teaching approaches, courses and curricula. In this paper we outline the theoretical background to arguments for including students as partners in pedagogical planning processes. We present examples where students have worked collaboratively in design processes,…

  3. Profiling Learning Style Preferences of First-Year University Students: Implications for Course Design and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekiso, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Widening access to higher education has meant an increasing need for flexibility in instruction and course design to accommodate students who utilize a wide range of learning style preferences. The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred learning styles of students and to plan instruction and course design accordingly. In addition, a…

  4. Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards Art and Design Curriculum: Implications for Vocational Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagah, M. O.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Art and Design Curriculum taught in secondary schools in Kenya is intended not only to prepare learners for a vocation in Art and Design industry but also to complement literacy, scientific and factual subjects by awakening creativity in the individual. It is part of the government policy of diversification and vocationalization of the curriculum.…

  5. Needs Analysis of Business English Undergraduates and the Implications to Business English Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Needs Analysis is a valuable and irreplaceable tool in the curriculum design of Business English courses. It ensures a focused and efficient curriculum design responsive to the learners' needs. This paper analyses the needs of Business English undergraduates and the information obtained may offer some helpful suggestions to the setting of the…

  6. The hardware and software implications of hospital birth room design: a midwifery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn; Homer, Caroline S E

    2014-07-01

    to explore the impacts of physical and aesthetic design of hospital birth rooms on midwives. the design of a workplace, including architecture, equipment, furnishings and aesthetics, can influence the experience and performance of staff. Some research has explored the effects of workplace design in health care environments but very little research has examined the impact of design on midwives working in hospital birth rooms. a video ethnographic study was undertaken and the labours of six women cared for by midwives were filmed. Filming took place in one birth centre and two labour wards within two Australian hospitals. Subsequently, eight midwives participated in video-reflexive interviews whilst viewing the filmed labour of the woman for whom they provided care. Thematic analysis of the midwife interviews was undertaken. midwives were strongly affected by the design of the birth room. Four major themes were identified: finding a space amongst congestion and clutter; trying to work underwater; creating ambience in a clinical space and being equipped for flexible practice. Aesthetic features, room layout and the design of equipment and fixtures all impacted on the midwives and their practice in both birth centre and labour ward settings. the current design of many hospital birth rooms challenges the provision of effective midwifery practice. Changes to the design and aesthetics of the hospital birth room may engender safer, more comfortable and more effective midwifery practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Engaging diverse student audiences in contemporary blended learning environments in Australian higher business education: Implications for Design and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Pye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research reports on a student audience engaging in an Australian university’s undergraduate commerce program core unit that is offered across three separate geographic campus locations and online. The research extends upon work undertaken on student engagement in online settings and lies in the domain of blended learning design and practice in the Australian higher education business context. Findings, inter alia, are presented across six major student engagement dimensions as applied to the interplay between online and located/campus learning (i.e. Online Active Learning, Online Social Interaction, Online Collaboration, Online Teaching, Online Assessment, and Online Contact with Staff. Implications for blended learning design, eLearning and practice in such complex environments are examined.

  8. Predicting the yield of spring wheat by weather indices in Finland: implications for designing weather index insurances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PIETOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies the spring wheat yield conditional on temperature- and rainfall-based weather indices in Finland. The estimating equations are standardized and simplified so that they provide information for designing tradable contracts. A simple basket of weather indices, consisting of growing degree days, night frost and rainfall measures, has the potential to hedge about 38% of the wheat grower yield risk, with the remaining 62% being left as uninsured basis risk. Our results have several important implications for the design of simple and tractable weather index-based insurance contracts. The data suggest that the marginal products of weather events have a large variation across time and they are the most significant within certain critical time periods. Therefore, the weather events triggering the indemnity payments should be bounded within certain critical time regimes over their distribution along the growing season.;

  9. Politeness strategies in the job application letter: Implications of Intercultural Rhetoric for designing writing feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Dressen-Hammouda, Dacia

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper makes the case that writing feedback on grammar error alone is ineffective. Designing more effective writing feedback requires drawing on a broader understanding of the writer's cultural context and present situation. The current study explores this context by using an Intercultural Rhetoric approach to examine job application letters written in English by a group of French-speaking undergraduates. A mixed research design was used to investigate the effectiv...

  10. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurns, John M. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bäck, Harald [Sweco Industry AB, P.O. Box 286, 201 22 Malmö (Sweden); Gierow, Martin [Lunds Energikoncernen AB, P.O. Box 25, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  11. God, design, and naturalism: Implications of methodological naturalism in science for science-religion relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bylica

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the implications flowing from adopting methodological naturalism in science, with special emphasis on the relation between science and religion. Methodological naturalism, denying supernatural and teleological explanations, influences the content of scientific theories, and in practice leads to vision of science as compatible with ontological naturalism and in opposition to theism. Ontological naturalism in turn justifies the acceptance of methodological naturalism as the best method to know the reality. If we accept realistic interpretation of scientific theories, then methodological naturalism conflicts science with religion. Theistic evolution does not seem to be a proper way to reconcile Darwinism and methodological naturalism with theism. Many of such propositions are boiled down to deism. Although evolution can be interpreted theistically, it is not the way in which majority of modern scientists and respectable scientific institutions understand it.

  12. Discovery of rare variants via sequencing: implications for the design of complex trait association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that rare variants are involved in complex disease etiology. The first step in implicating rare variants in disease etiology is their identification through sequencing in both randomly ascertained samples (e.g., the 1,000 Genomes Project and samples ascertained according to disease status. We investigated to what extent rare variants will be observed across the genome and in candidate genes in randomly ascertained samples, the magnitude of variant enrichment in diseased individuals, and biases that can occur due to how variants are discovered. Although sequencing cases can enrich for casual variants, when a gene or genes are not involved in disease etiology, limiting variant discovery to cases can lead to association studies with dramatically inflated false positive rates.

  13. Current design of the European TBM systems and implications on DEMO breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito; Calderoni, P. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A. [ENEA, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, Bo (Italy); Ghidersa, B. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Poitevin, Y.; Pacheco, J. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Description of the Helium Cooling Systems of HCLL and HCPB-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the PbLi loop of HCLL-TBS after the Conceptual Design Review. • Description of the possible ROX (Return of Experience) from design and operation of the Test Blanket Systems. • Discussion on the DEBO relevancy of the main technologies adopted in the Helium Cooling Systems and PbLi loop. - Abstract: Europe is committed in developing the design of the two Test Blanket Systems (TBS) based on HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) breeding blanket (BB) concepts. The complexity of the TBS design comes not only from the innovative fabrication technologies and materials adopted for Test Blanket Modules (TBM) but also from the requirements and functions that the TBM ancillary systems have to satisfy and implement. Indeed, the main TBM ancillary systems, namely the Helium Cooling System, the Coolant Purification System and Tritium Extraction System, all belonging to the Safety Important Class (SIC), have to implement fundamental functions, like the transport of the surface and volumetric heat from the TBM to the heat sink, the extraction and processing of the tritium generated in the TBM, the confinement of radioactive inventory, the support to the investment protection and safety functions. On top of the full compliance with the ITER safety principles, the design of the TBM systems is focused on providing high operational reliability and availability not to jeopardize ITER program and, at the same time, also a good operational flexibility to make possible the achievement of the main TBM scientific objectives. This paper gives an overview of the design status of the HCLL and HCPB-TBM (ancillary) systems, updated to the conclusion of the conceptual design phase (CDR). The most relevant technologies, the still open points, the main issues related to the integration in ITER and last relevant results from the on

  14. "The Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" - Meeting report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggiano, Cesar; Eichelberg, Katrin; Ramachandra, Lakshmi; Shea, Jaqueline; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Behar, Samuel; Ernst, Joel D; Porcelli, Steven A; Maeurer, Markus; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2017-06-14

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB. The workshop addressed early infection events, the impact of Mtb evolution on the development and maintenance of an adaptive immune response, and the factors that influence protection against and progression to active disease. Scientific gaps and areas of study to revitalize and accelerate TB vaccine design were discussed and prioritized. These included a comprehensive evaluation of innate and Mtb-specific adaptive immune responses in the lung at different stages of disease; determining the role of B cells and antibodies (Abs) during Mtb infection; development of better assays to measure Mtb burden following exposure, infection, during latency and after treatment, and approaches to improving current animal models to study Mtb immunogenicity, TB disease and transmission. Copyright © 2017.

  15. The cognitive science of visual-spatial displays: implications for design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Mary

    2011-07-01

    This paper reviews cognitive science perspectives on the design of visual-spatial displays and introduces the other papers in this topic. It begins by classifying different types of visual-spatial displays, followed by a discussion of ways in which visual-spatial displays augment cognition and an overview of the perceptual and cognitive processes involved in using displays. The paper then argues for the importance of cognitive science methods to the design of visual displays and reviews some of the main principles of display design that have emerged from these approaches to date. Cognitive scientists have had good success in characterizing the performance of well-defined tasks with relatively simple visual displays, but many challenges remain in understanding the use of complex displays for ill-defined tasks. Current research exemplified by the papers in this topic extends empirical approaches to new displays and domains, informs the development of general principles of graphic design, and addresses current challenges in display design raised by the recent explosion in availability of complex data sets and new technologies for visualizing and interacting with these data. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Evolution of web site design: implications for medical education on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L F; Chan, B K

    1998-09-01

    Since its inception, the world wide web (WWW) has possessed the potential for becoming a 'watershed' medium for conveying complex, structured information across vast temporal and geographical barriers. In 1995, the MedWorld project (http:(/)/medworld.stanford.edu) was created at the Stanford University School of Medicine in an effort to innovate and explore the design process of creating WWW applications specifically for medical education. Until recently, the evolution of WWW applications has been mainly driven by technological advances in client-server technology, enabling or translating traditional modes of collaborative medical education (e.g. voice, presence, print, motion) into WWW devices and applications. Many of these applications, while technologically advanced, lack focused development of interface and interactivity design, which may enhance learning experiences. WWW applications which incorporate design innovation in parity with advances in client-server technology have been termed, 'third generation' web sites and have the potential to improve the quality of WWW applications designed for medical education. This work describes how the MedWorld project has created a 'third generation' WWW application by utilizing innovation in information, interface and interactivity design to create innovative WWW technology for the medical education arena.

  17. Implications of sampling design and sample size for national carbon accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Michael; Lister, Andrew; Scott, Charles T; Baldauf, Thomas; Plugge, Daniel

    2011-11-08

    Countries willing to adopt a REDD regime need to establish a national Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system that provides information on forest carbon stocks and carbon stock changes. Due to the extensive areas covered by forests the information is generally obtained by sample based surveys. Most operational sampling approaches utilize a combination of earth-observation data and in-situ field assessments as data sources. We compared the cost-efficiency of four different sampling design alternatives (simple random sampling, regression estimators, stratified sampling, 2-phase sampling with regression estimators) that have been proposed in the scope of REDD. Three of the design alternatives provide for a combination of in-situ and earth-observation data. Under different settings of remote sensing coverage, cost per field plot, cost of remote sensing imagery, correlation between attributes quantified in remote sensing and field data, as well as population variability and the percent standard error over total survey cost was calculated. The cost-efficiency of forest carbon stock assessments is driven by the sampling design chosen. Our results indicate that the cost of remote sensing imagery is decisive for the cost-efficiency of a sampling design. The variability of the sample population impairs cost-efficiency, but does not reverse the pattern of cost-efficiency of the individual design alternatives. Our results clearly indicate that it is important to consider cost-efficiency in the development of forest carbon stock assessments and the selection of remote sensing techniques. The development of MRV-systems for REDD need to be based on a sound optimization process that compares different data sources and sampling designs with respect to their cost-efficiency. This helps to reduce the uncertainties related with the quantification of carbon stocks and to increase the financial benefits from adopting a REDD regime.

  18. A User-Friendly Design of an Interactive Prototype for the Maintenance and Monitoring of Civilian Training Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    study was based on the concept proposed by Kerlinger called research design [Ref 33: p. 3001. The research design ap- proach involves planning a...strategy of investigation in order to obtain answers to re- search questions. Kerlinger stated that "research designs are invented to enable the...2, 1974, pp. 115-139. 32. Davis, W.S., Systems Analysis and Design. A Structured Approach. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1983. 33. Kerlinger , F

  19. Asymmetric performance in the cocktail party effect: implications for the design of spatial audio displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boila, R S; Nelson, W T; Morley, R M

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the extent to which hemispheric specialization is manifested in the performance of tasks in which listeners are required to attend to one of several simultaneously spoken speech communications. Speech intelligibility and response time were measured under factorial combinations of the number of simultaneous talkers, the target talker hemifield, and the spatial arrangement of talkers. Intelligibility was found to be mediated by all of the independent variables. Results are discussed in terms of the design of adaptive spatial audio interfaces for speech communications. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of adaptive spatial audio interfaces for speech communications.

  20. A Multilevel Approach for Social Transformations and its Implications on Service Design Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Götzen, Amalia De

    2017-01-01

    to have a dominant role in providing solutions for people, supporting new forms of social innovation that happen through new processes both in public and private services. This paper tries to map the new value-creation process in a three level structure, proposing a framework of new competences and tools...... that are being developed in design education and research. The value in use, the infrastructuring and the governance levels are explained with the specific tools and approaches required according to the specific aim of the design activity: that is, wether it is about understanding, transforming or communicating...

  1. The Prekindergarten Age-Cutoff Regression-Discontinuity Design: Methodological Issues and Implications for Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsey, Mark W.; Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Wilson, Sandra Jo; Hofer, Kerry G.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the currently available evidence on the causal effects of public prekindergarten programs on school readiness outcomes comes from studies that use a regression-discontinuity design (RDD) with the age cutoff to enter a program in a given year as the basis for assignment to treatment and control conditions. Because the RDD has high internal…

  2. Species selection in secondary wood products: implications for product design and promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Scott A. Bowe; Scott A. Bowe

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions that people have of several commercially important wood species and determined if word-based and specimen-based evaluations differed. Such knowledge can help secondary wood manufacturers better understand their products and develop more effective design concepts and promotional messages. A sample of more than 250 undergraduate...

  3. Learners' Perceptions of Online Elements in a Beginners' Language Blended Course--Implications for CALL Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulker, Hélène; Vialleton, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been done on blended learning and the design of tasks most appropriate for online environments and computer-mediated communication. Increasingly, language teachers and Second Language Acquisition (SLA) practitioners recognise the different nature of communications in online settings and in face-to-face settings; teachers do not…

  4. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan V Mannige

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies.This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc. that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus.Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  5. The Evolution of Distance Education: Implications for Instructional Design on the Potential of the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Leslie; Foshay, Wellesley R.; Huett, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer the first of a three-part series on distance education. The authors discuss key trends in training and development which have five profound impacts on the field of Instruction Design (ID). These five effects concern: (1) quality; (2) needs assessment, ROI and measurement of outcomes; (3) the influence and fusion…

  6. Public Reactions to Celebrity Cancer Disclosures via Social Media: Implications for Campaign Message Design and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelko, Rachelle L.; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Verghese, Roshni S.; Hester, Joe Bob

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse social media users' reactions to a celebrity's cancer announcement in order to inform future cancer-related campaigns. Design: A content analysis of Facebook users' written responses to the actor Hugh Jackman's 2013 post announcing his skin cancer diagnosis. Setting: Facebook's application…

  7. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannige, Ranjan V; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-03-04

    For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies. This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h)) are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc.) that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus. Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table) provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  8. Implications of groundwater hydrology to buffer design in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; James M. Vose; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin; Steven G. McNulty

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hydrologic processes of shallow groundwater to better define and design forest riparian management zones in headwater streams of two contrasting terrains in the southeastern U.S. We employed two long-term experimental watersheds, WS80 (206 ha) and WS77 (151 ha) at the Santee Experimental Forests in South Carolina, and WS2...

  9. Single-Subject Designs for Client Groups: Implications for Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagles, Kenneth W.; O'Neill, John

    1977-01-01

    The ethical dilemma of (a) desiring a control group for validity purposes in program evaluation strategies and (b) withholding needed services from eligible clients to achieve such control has limited the credibility of many evaluation efforts. A potential solution is suggested by the use of time-series, single-subject designs. (Author)

  10. The Pugh Controlled Convergence method : Model-based evaluation and implications for design theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, D.D.; Herder, P.M.; Wijnia, Y.; Saubrahmanian, E.; Katsikopoulos, K.; Clausing, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the Pugh Controlled Convergence method and its relationship to recent developments in design theory. Computer executable models are proposed simulating a team of people involved in iterated cycles of evaluation, ideation, and investigation. The models suggest that: (1)

  11. Relationship of Prior Knowledge and Working Engineers' Learning Preferences: Implications for Designing Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2017-01-01

    Continuing engineering education (CEE) is important to ensure engineers maintain proficiency over the life of their careers. However, relatively few studies have examined designing effective training for working engineers. Research has indicated that both learner instructional preferences and prior knowledge can impact the learning process, but it…

  12. Educative Curriculum Materials: Uptake, Impact, and Implications for Research and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Smith, P. Sean; Arias, Anna Maria; Kademian, Sylvie M.

    2017-01-01

    The authors synthesize the findings of a research project to extend what is known about educative curriculum materials, or curriculum materials designed with the intent of supporting teacher learning as well as student learning. Drawing on a three-year program of research, including several close observational case studies and a large-scale…

  13. Design implications for digital role-based support in intensive care nursing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, M.; Freudenthal, A.; De Ridder, H.

    2013-01-01

    Medical staff should not only possess excellent clinical skills, but also be proficient in non-clinical, or non-technical, skills. These skills play an important role in, for example, teamwork, task management and coping. Our research investigates how product design can help support medical staff in

  14. The Implications of Alternative Allocation Criteria in Adaptive Design for Panel Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminska Olena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive survey designs can be used to allocate sample elements to alternative data collection protocols in order to achieve a desired balance between some quality measure and survey costs. We compare four alternative methods for allocating sample elements to one of two data collection protocols. The methods differ in terms of the quality measure that they aim to optimize: response rate, R-indicator, coefficient of variation of the participation propensities, or effective sample size. Costs are also compared for a range of sample sizes. The data collection protocols considered are CAPI single-mode and web-CAPI sequential mixed-mode. We use data from a large experiment with random allocation to one of these two protocols. For each allocation method we predict outcomes in terms of several quality measures and costs. Although allocating the whole sample to single-mode CAPI produces a higher response rate than allocating the whole sample to the mixed-mode protocol, we find that two of the targeted allocations achieve a better response rate than single-mode CAPI at a lower cost. We also find that all four of the targeted designs out-perform both single-protocol designs in terms of representativity and effective sample size. For all but the smallest sample sizes, the adaptive designs bring cost savings relative to CAPI-only, though these are fairly modest in magnitude.

  15. Social Representations of Cybersecurity by University Students and Implications for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Suzanne D.; Jung, Yoonhyuk

    2015-01-01

    Cybersecurity has become an essential topic in introductory information systems (IS) core courses. As an aid to course design, the exploratory research in this paper uses a social representations lens to elucidate the perceptions of cybersecurity and cybersecurity threats held by students. Analysis of qualitative survey data from 152 students at a…

  16. Design of the SGML-based electronic patient record system with the use of object-oriented analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuikka, E; Eerola, A; Porrasmaa, J; Miettinen, A; Komulainen, J

    1999-01-01

    Since a patient record is typically a document updated by many users, required to be represented in many different layouts, and transferred from place to place, it is a good candidate to be represented structured and coded using the SGML document standard. The use of the SGML requires that the structure of the document is defined in advance by a Document Type Definition (DTD) and the document follows it. This paper represents a method which derives an SGML DTD by starting from the description of the usage of the patient record in medical care and nursing.

  17. New computing systems, future computing environment, and their implications on structural analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Housner, Jerrold M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in computer technology that are likely to impact structural analysis and design of flight vehicles are reviewed. A brief summary is given of the advances in microelectronics, networking technologies, and in the user-interface hardware and software. The major features of new and projected computing systems, including high performance computers, parallel processing machines, and small systems, are described. Advances in programming environments, numerical algorithms, and computational strategies for new computing systems are reviewed. The impact of the advances in computer technology on structural analysis and the design of flight vehicles is described. A scenario for future computing paradigms is presented, and the near-term needs in the computational structures area are outlined.

  18. Inhibition of neuraminidase by Ganoderma triterpenoids and implications for neuraminidase inhibitor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qinchang; Bang, Tran Hai; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Sawai, Takashi; Sawai, Ken; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors are the dominant antiviral drugs for treating influenza in the clinic. Increasing prevalence of drug resistance makes the discovery of new NA inhibitors a high priority. Thirty-one triterpenoids from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lingzhi were analyzed in an in vitro NA inhibition assay, leading to the discovery of ganoderic acid T-Q and TR as two inhibitors of H5N1 and H1N1 NAs. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the corresponding triterpenoid structure is a potential scaffold for the design of NA inhibitors. Using these triterpenoids as probes we found, through further in silico docking and interaction analysis, that interactions with the amino-acid residues Arg292 and/or Glu119 of NA are critical for the inhibition of H5N1 and H1N1. These findings should prove valuable for the design and development of NA inhibitors. PMID:26307417

  19. Dynamics of knowledge transfer in organizations: implications for design of lessons learned systems\\

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Frank J.; Snider, Keith F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of issues affecting the design of a lessons learned system for defense acquisition professionals. It draws both upon studies of existing lessons learned systems and upon the literature of organizational learning and knowledge management. While the discussion focuses on the enterprise of defense acquisition, the report's conclusions may be extended to lessons learned and knowledge management systems in other areas as well. The exploration of these iss...

  20. Fast Statiscal Model of TIO2 Thin-Film Memristor and Design Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    carried out for various memristor devices, including TiO2 thin- film memristors [9], spintronic memristors [10], and ion con- ductor chalcogenide ...method for modeling and simulation of memristor devices: Ion conductor chalcogenide - based memristor devices. In IEEE/ACM International Symposium on... spintronic memristors. In Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASP-DAC), pages 25–30, 2011. [13] T. Wey and W. Jemison. Variable gain

  1. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators.

  2. Parenting Across the Social Ecology Facilitated by Information and Communications Technology: Implications for Research and Educational Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Walker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform parenting research and aid educators seeking to deliver programs that support effective parenting, this study explored types of information and communications technology (ICT used to fulfill childrearing goals. Mothers’ (N = 1,804 reports of ICT activity frequency were examined from data collected from an online survey. Results suggest that mothers’ ICT use for parenting is less frequent than general use in adulthood. Mothers employ ICT to fulfill parenting goals within and across five domains of the parenting social ecology: (a parent development, (b parent-child relationships, (c child development, (d, family development, and (e culture and community. Several types of ICT activities may strengthen parenting in a single domain, and a single ICT activity may help fulfill multiple domains. Implications for research and for promoting and selecting ICT for effective parent learning and education design are discussed.

  3. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  4. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  5. Intentional research design in implementation science: implications for the use of nomothetic and idiographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Connors, Elizabeth; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Landes, Sara J; Lewis, Cara C; McLeod, Bryce D; Rutt, Christopher; Stanick, Cameo; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-09-01

    The advancement of implementation science is dependent on identifying assessment strategies that can address implementation and clinical outcome variables in ways that are valid, relevant to stakeholders, and scalable. This paper presents a measurement agenda for implementation science that integrates the previously disparate assessment traditions of idiographic and nomothetic approaches. Although idiographic and nomothetic approaches are both used in implementation science, a review of the literature on this topic suggests that their selection can be indiscriminate, driven by convenience, and not explicitly tied to research study design. As a result, they are not typically combined deliberately or effectively. Thoughtful integration may simultaneously enhance both the rigor and relevance of assessments across multiple levels within health service systems. Background on nomothetic and idiographic assessment is provided as well as their potential to support research in implementation science. Drawing from an existing framework, seven structures (of various sequencing and weighting options) and five functions (Convergence, Complementarity, Expansion, Development, Sampling) for integrating conceptually distinct research methods are articulated as they apply to the deliberate, design-driven integration of nomothetic and idiographic assessment approaches. Specific examples and practical guidance are provided to inform research consistent with this framework. Selection and integration of idiographic and nomothetic assessments for implementation science research designs can be improved. The current paper argues for the deliberate application of a clear framework to improve the rigor and relevance of contemporary assessment strategies.

  6. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Leanne M; Zimmerman, Julie B; Plata, Desiree L; Hutchison, James E; Anastas, Paul T

    2015-08-21

    The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry were first published in 1998 and provide a framework that has been adopted not only by chemists, but also by design practitioners and decision-makers (e.g., materials scientists and regulators). The development of the Principles was initially motivated by the need to address decades of unintended environmental pollution and human health impacts from the production and use of hazardous chemicals. Yet, for over a decade now, the Principles have been applied to the synthesis and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the products they enable. While the combined efforts of the global scientific community have led to promising advances in the field of nanotechnology, there remain significant research gaps and the opportunity to leverage the potential global economic, societal and environmental benefits of ENMs safely and sustainably. As such, this tutorial review benchmarks the successes to date and identifies critical research gaps to be considered as future opportunities for the community to address. A sustainable material design framework is proposed that emphasizes the importance of establishing structure-property-function (SPF) and structure-property-hazard (SPH) relationships to guide the rational design of ENMs. The goal is to achieve or exceed the functional performance of current materials and the technologies they enable, while minimizing inherent hazard to avoid risk to human health and the environment at all stages of the life cycle.

  7. Rain Basin Design Implications for Soil Microbial Activity and N-mineralization in a Semi-arid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2014-12-01

    Rain basins have been an increasingly popular Green Infrastructure (GI) solution to the redistribution of water flow caused by urbanization. This study was conducted to examine how different approaches to basin design, specifically mulching (gravel vs. compost and gravel), influence the water availability of rain basins and the effects this has on the soil microbial activity of the basins. Soil microbes are a driving force of biogeochemical process and may impact the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of rain basin GI. In this study we sampled 12 different residential-scale rain basins, differing in design established at Biosphere 2, Arizona in 2013. Soil samples and measurements were collected before and after the onset of the monsoon season in 2014 to determine how the design of basins mediates the transition from dry to wet conditions. Soil abiotic factors were measured, such as moisture content, soil organic matter (SOM) content, texture and pH, and were related to the microbial biomass size within the basins. Field and lab potential N-mineralization and soil respiration were measured to determine how basin design influences microbial activity and N dynamics. We found that pre-monsoon basins with compost had higher moisture contents and that there was a positive correlation between the moisture content and the soil microbial biomass size of the basins. Pre-monsoon data also suggests that N-mineralization rates for basins with compost were higher than those with only gravel. These design influences on basin-scale biogeochemical dynamics and nitrogen retention may have important implications for urban biogeochemistry at neighborhood and watershed scales.

  8. Structures of Two Coronavirus Main Proteases: Implications for Substrate Binding and Antiviral Drug Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hongwei; Yang, Haitao; Xue, Fei; Wu, Zhixin; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Zhou, Zhe; Ding, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Xuejun C.; Liao, Ming; Bartlam, Mark; Rao, Zihe (SCAU); (Tsinghua); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2008-07-21

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) can infect humans and multiple species of animals, causing a wide spectrum of diseases. The coronavirus main protease (M{sup pro}), which plays a pivotal role in viral gene expression and replication through the proteolytic processing of replicase polyproteins, is an attractive target for anti-CoV drug design. In this study, the crystal structures of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) MP{sup pro} and a severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) M{sup pro} mutant (H41A), in complex with an N-terminal autocleavage substrate, were individually determined to elucidate the structural flexibility and substrate binding of M{sup pro}. A monomeric form of IBV M{sup pro} was identified for the first time in CoV M{sup pro} structures. A comparison of these two structures to other available M{sup pro} structures provides new insights for the design of substrate-based inhibitors targeting CoV M{sup pro}s. Furthermore, a Michael acceptor inhibitor (named N3) was cocrystallized with IBV M{sup pro} and was found to demonstrate in vitro inactivation of IBV M{sup pro} and potent antiviral activity against IBV in chicken embryos. This provides a feasible animal model for designing wide-spectrum inhibitors against CoV-associated diseases. The structure-based optimization of N3 has yielded two more efficacious lead compounds, N27 and H16, with potent inhibition against SARS-CoV M{sup pro}.

  9. Colonization of UK coastal realignment sites by mosquitoes: implications for design, management, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, J M; Vaux, A G C

    2013-06-01

    Coastal realignment is now widely instituted in the UK as part of local flood risk management plans to compensate for the loss of European protected habitat and to mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and coastal squeeze. Coastal aquatic habitats have long been known to provide suitable habitats for brackish-water mosquitoes and historically, coastal marshes were considered to support anopheline mosquito populations that were responsible for local malaria transmission. This study surveyed the eight largest managed realignment (MRA) sites in England (Essex and the Humber) for mosquito habitats. The apparent absence of anopheline mosquitoes exploiting aquatic habitats at all of these sites suggests that the risk of malaria associated with MRA sites is currently negligible. However, three of the eight sites supported populations of two nuisance and potential arboviral vector species, Aedes detritus and Aedes caspius. The aquatic habitats that supported mosquitoes resulted from a) specific design aspects of the new sea wall (ballast to mitigate wave action and constructed saline borrow ditches) that could be designed out or managed or b) isolated pools created through silt accretion or expansion of flooded zones to neighbouring pasture. The public health risks and recommendations for management are discussed in this report. This report highlights the need for pro-active public health impact assessments prior to MRA development in consultation with the Health Protection Agency, as well as the need for a case-by-case approach to design and management to mitigate mosquito or mosquito-borne disease issues now and in the future. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies against Zika Virus: Therapeutics and Their Implications for Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihui; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George Fu

    2017-10-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused global concern due to its association with neurological complications in newborns and adults. Although no vaccines or antivirals against ZIKV infection have been approved to date, hundreds of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been developed in a short period. Here, we first present a complete picture of the ZIKV MAbs and then focus on the neutralizing mechanisms and immune hot spots uncovered through structural studies, which provide insight for therapeutics and vaccine design. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Interaction Design for and with the Lived Body: Some Implications of Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, Paul Dourish proposed the term embodied interaction to describe a new paradigm for interaction design that focuses on the physical, bodily, and social aspects of our interaction with digital technology. Dourish used Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology of perception as the theoretical basis...... for his discussion of the bodily nature of embodied interaction. This article extends Dourish’s work to introduce the human-computer interaction community to ideas related to Merleau-Ponty’s concept of the lived body. It also provides a detailed analysis of two related topics: (1) embodied perception...

  12. An Exploration into Framing Effects and Information Preferences: Implications for the Design of Energy Feedback Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Peter

    A recent topic in the energy industry involves developing strategies to reduce the necessary peak production capacity of our future electricity infrastructure. One of these strategies is promoting behavioral change among individual energy consumers. An inherent problem with electricity consumption is that electricity is invisible, intangible, and abstract. Interfaces that provide people with useful feedback on their usage can help with understanding and reduction of consumption. These interfaces intend to empower individuals with ability to adopt less wasteful energy consumption behaviors. Skillful HCI design will include attention to informational preferences, and framing effects due to presentation choices. An online questionnaire was utilized to explore this domain, and the results identified design requirements for a home feedback interface. The final dataset contained responses from 36 male and 49 female United States residents. Cost () was perceived as the most useful metric and kW as the least useful. Respondent preference was expressed for lower levels of automation, which was not attributable to distrust of automation. Further, a test of framings effects showed a higher likelihood to change behavior to save 100 dollars per year than 2 per week (U=1248.5, p=0.001). A feedback interface design based on the questionnaire results was used in the second phase of the research. A 2x2x2 factorial design compared the effects of goal-type (specific vs. open-ended), metric-use ( vs. kWh), and visualization (graphical vs. text-only) on user experience, learning and behavior during a consumption reduction task. Results showed that goal-type affects the amount of diagnostic behavior conducted by participants (U=351.0, p=0.001). Goal-type and metric-use independently affect participant belief that they could reduce their consumption in their real home with the same feedback shown in the task, F(df=1,39)=24.77, p=0.001; F(df=1,39)=5.55, p=0.05. In addition, visualization

  13. Modern drug design: the implication of using artificial neuronal networks and multiple molecular dynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Oleksandr; Jones, Steven J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We report the implementation of molecular modeling approaches developed as a part of the 2016 Grand Challenge 2, the blinded competition of computer aided drug design technologies held by the D3R Drug Design Data Resource (https://drugdesigndata.org/). The challenge was focused on the ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a highly flexible nuclear receptor of the cholesterol derivative chenodeoxycholic acid. FXR is considered an important therapeutic target for metabolic, inflammatory, bowel and obesity related diseases (Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:523-532, 2015), but in the context of this competition it is also interesting due to the significant ligand-induced conformational changes displayed by the protein. To deal with these conformational changes we employed multiple simulations of molecular dynamics (MD). Our MD-based protocols were top-ranked in estimating the free energy of binding of the ligands and FXR protein. Our approach was ranked second in the prediction of the binding poses where we also combined MD with molecular docking and artificial neural networks. Our approach showed mediocre results for high-throughput scoring of interactions.

  14. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers: Implications for Designing Quality Improvement Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Weiss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Colorectal cancer (CRC screening is underutilized. Increasing CRC screening rates requires interventions targeting multiple barriers at each level of the healthcare organization (patient, provider, and system. We examined groups of primary care providers (PCPs based on perceptions of screening barriers and the relationship to CRC screening rates to inform approaches for conducting barrier assessments prior to designing and implementing quality improvement interventions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study linking EHR and survey data. PCPs with complete survey responses for questions addressing CRC screening barriers were included (N=166 PCPs; 39,430 patients eligible for CRC screening. Cluster analysis identified groups of PCPs. Multivariate logistic regression estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for predictors of membership in one of the PCP groups. Results. We found two distinct groups: (1 PCPs identifying multiple barriers to CRC screening at patient, provider, and system levels (N=75 and (2 PCPs identifying no major barriers to screening (N=91. PCPs in the top half of CRC screening performance were more likely to identify multiple barriers than the bottom performers (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.43–7.08. Conclusions. High-performing PCPs can more effectively identify CRC screening barriers. Targeting high-performers when conducting a barrier assessment is a novel approach to assist in designing quality improvement interventions for CRC screening.

  15. Wet granulation in a twin-screw extruder: implications of screw design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R; Sun, J

    2010-04-01

    Wet granulation in twin-screw extrusion machinery is an attractive technology for the continuous processing of pharmaceuticals. The performance of this machinery is integrally tied to its screw design yet little fundamental knowledge exists in this emerging field for granulation to intelligently create, troubleshoot, and scale-up such processes. This study endeavored to systematically examine the influence of different commercially available screw elements on the flow behavior and granulation mechanics of lactose monohydrate saturated at low concentration (5-12%, w/w) with an aqueous polyvinyl-pyrrolidone binder. The results of the work showed that current screw elements could be successfully incorporated into designs for wet granulation, to tailor the particle size as well as particle shape of an agglomerate product. Conveying elements for cohesive granular flows were shown to perform similar to their use in polymer processing, as effective transport units with low specific mechanical energy input. The conveying zones provided little significant change to the particle size or shape, though the degree of channel fill in these sections had a significant influence on the more energy-intensive mixing elements studied. The standard mixing elements for this machine, kneading blocks and comb mixers, were found to be effective for generating coarser particles, though their mechanisms of granulation differed significantly. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  16. High fluid shear strain causes injury in silver shark: Preliminary implications for Mekong hydropower turbine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, L. J. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Narrandera Fisheries Centre, Narrandera NSW Australia; Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Thorncraft, G. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Phonekhampheng, O. [Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, National University of Laos, Vientiane Lao People’s Democratic Republic; Boys, C. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Nelson Bay NSW Australia; Navarro, A. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Robinson, W. [Institute of Land, Water and Society, Charles Sturt University, Albury NSW Australia; Brown, R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-09

    Fluid shear arises when two bodies of water, travelling at different velocities, intersect. Fish entrained at the interface of these two water masses will experience shear stress; which can be harmful. The stress magnitude is dependent on waterbody mass and velocity; with the fish impact largely related to body size. Elevated shear stress occurs where rapidly flowing water passes near spillways, across screens, within turbine draft tubes or other passage routes. A flume was used to determine critical tolerances of silver shark (Balantiocheilos melanopterus) to different shear stress rates generated by a high velocity jet. Fish experienced higher levels of injury and mortality as shear stress was increased. Excessive shear forces had damaging impacts on fish. Mortality occurred at shear levels higher that 600/s. It is important that developers should attempt to model potential shear profiles expected during turbine passage in selected designs. These data will be critical to determine potential impacts on fish. If the likelihood of adverse impact is high, then alternative designs which have lower shear stress could be explored.

  17. Modern drug design: the implication of using artificial neuronal networks and multiple molecular dynamic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Oleksandr; Jones, Steven J. M.

    2017-11-01

    We report the implementation of molecular modeling approaches developed as a part of the 2016 Grand Challenge 2, the blinded competition of computer aided drug design technologies held by the D3R Drug Design Data Resource (https://drugdesigndata.org). The challenge was focused on the ligands of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a highly flexible nuclear receptor of the cholesterol derivative chenodeoxycholic acid. FXR is considered an important therapeutic target for metabolic, inflammatory, bowel and obesity related diseases (Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 4:523-532, 2015), but in the context of this competition it is also interesting due to the significant ligand-induced conformational changes displayed by the protein. To deal with these conformational changes we employed multiple simulations of molecular dynamics (MD). Our MD-based protocols were top-ranked in estimating the free energy of binding of the ligands and FXR protein. Our approach was ranked second in the prediction of the binding poses where we also combined MD with molecular docking and artificial neural networks. Our approach showed mediocre results for high-throughput scoring of interactions.

  18. Deformation of a membrane in a pulsatile flow: implications in heart valve design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.; Guzman, J. E. V.; Zenit, R.

    2011-11-01

    Current designs of heart valves prosthetics have serious disadvantages and health issues for patients who use them. For this reason, a new design that combines durability (mechanical valves) and biocompatibility (biological valves) has to be conceived. Natural valves have very complex geometry because their leaflets have two principal curvatures, one imposed by the holding ring and a second one imposed by the bending of the closing arrangement. The objective of this research is to study the effects of both curvatures on the performance of a leaflet. It is well known that the increase of the curvature results in a larger stiffness, which, in turn, reduces the deflection of a leaflet. We conducted a study to determine the effect of changing the curvature (in two directions) of a flexible membrane when exposed to a steady and pulsatile flows. A study of the flow field that results from this interaction is also conducted by PIV measurements. Preliminary results of the leaflet deflection for many stiffnesses, curvatures and flow conditions will be presented and discussed.

  19. Analytical approach to transforming filter design for sound field recording and reproduction using circular arrays with a spherical baffle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shoichi; Furuya, Ken'ichi; Wakayama, Keigo; Shimauchi, Suehiro; Saruwatari, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    A sound field recording and reproduction method using circular arrays of microphones and loudspeakers with a spherical baffle is proposed. The spherical baffle is an acoustically rigid object on which the microphone array is mounted. The driving signals of the loudspeakers must be obtained from the signals received by the microphones. A transform filter for this signal conversion is analytically derived, which is referred to as the wave field reconstruction filter. The proposed method using a spherical baffle is compared with methods using an array of directional microphones and a microphone array mounted on a cylindrical baffle. Numerical simulations indicated that the proposed method is advantageous for sound field recording and reproduction compared with the other two methods. The results of measurement experiments in a real environment are also demonstrated.

  20. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2013-07-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength measurements in children with CP with the use of HHD and (2) to assess implications for measurement design. A test-retest design was used. Fourteen children with hemiplegic (n=6) or diplegic (n=8) spastic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-III), ages 7 to 13 years, were assessed for isometric strength on 2 separate days (occasions) with the use of HHD, with 3 trials per muscle group. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were calculated for different measurement designs. Intraclass correlation coefficient values of single measurements for all muscle groups ranged from .70 to .90, and the SDD was large (>30%). Regarding measurement error, the largest source of variability was found for occasion. A 2-occasion mean decreased the SDD by 9% to 14%. For trials, a greater improvement in SDD was found when 2 trials were averaged instead of 3. A measurement design of 2 trials-2 occasions was superior to the often-used approach of 3 trials-1 occasion. The small sample size was the major study limitation. Handheld dynamometry is reliable and can be used to detect changes in isometric muscle strength in children with CP when using the mean of at least 2 trials. To further improve reliability, taking the average of 2 occasions on separate days is recommended, depending on group size and muscle group.

  1. Transformational leadership: implications for nursing leaders in facilities seeking magnet designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Diane Brady; Spencer, Tammy; Wilson, Brigitte; Wood, Kim

    2011-06-01

    A perioperative nurse leader's ability to effect positive change and inspire others to higher levels of achievement is related to his or her leadership style in the practice setting and the leadership style that is present across the organization. The American Nurses Credentialing Center's Magnet™ designation and redesignation process requires the demonstration of transformational leadership as one of the components of excellence. Transformational leadership can increase nurses' job satisfaction and commitment to the organization and organizational culture. Engaging staff members in the transition to transformational leadership and developing a common mission, vision, and goals are keys to success in the surgical setting. Bass's four interrelated leadership components-idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration-and associated behaviors were used by surgical services leaders in an East Coast, two-hospital system to successfully achieve redesignation as a Magnet facility. Copyright © 2011 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. LHC beam dump design study; part 2, thermal analysis; implications for abort repetition and cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S

    1996-01-01

    This second part of the LHC beam dump design study is devoted to transient and steady state nonlinear heat transfer analysis. Heat generation loads are imported from Part - I: simulation of energy deposition in the graphite by particle cascades induced by the LHC primary protons, and superposition of identical energy distribution from each bunch along positions defined by the beam sweep profile on the upstream face of the core. A parametric finite element model of the dump including graphite core, aluminium frame, base plate with cooling channels, and shielding blocks, is elaborated and resolved by means of the ANSYS Engineering System, providing the transient evolution of internal temperature fields. Steady state analysis is then performed, by means of numerical approximations using a limited number of ANSYS results as an interpolation -- extrapolation base. Only periodic aborts are considered. The first conclusion is that the dump requires several hours of cooling after each beam abort. Influence of natural...

  3. Adopting a constructivist approach to grounded theory: implications for research design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a popular research methodology that is evolving to account for a range of ontological and epistemological underpinnings. Constructivist grounded theory has its foundations in relativism and an appreciation of the multiple truths and realities of subjectivism. Undertaking a constructivist enquiry requires the adoption of a position of mutuality between researcher and participant in the research process, which necessitates a rethinking of the grounded theorist's traditional role of objective observer. Key issues for constructivist grounded theorists to consider in designing their research studies are discussed in relation to developing a partnership with participants that enables a mutual construction of meaning during interviews and a meaningful reconstruction of their stories into a grounded theory model.

  4. Virtual patients in massive open online courses--design implications and integration strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathakarou, Natalia; Zary, Nabil; Kononowicz, Andrzej A

    2014-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are raising extensive attention across disciplines, while it becomes evident that rethinking of learning designs that work well in these environments is needed. In the field of medical education, where the technology of MOOCs is not widely adopted yet, we wish to investigate the potential offered by virtual patients for the purpose of clinical reasoning skills training. In this paper we describe three use case scenarios employing virtual patients' features in MOOCs: (1) collective evaluation of decision making in the context of uncertainty; (2) collective repurposing of cases and division of discussion into subgroups focusing on local variances in healthcare; (3) division of content in short cases for flexible selection and adaptive learning with virtual patients. We also present technical requirements for implementing the use case scenarios and future work plans.

  5. Immune responses to implants - a review of the implications for the design of immunomodulatory biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sandra; Rammelt, Stefan; Scharnweber, Dieter; Simon, Jan C

    2011-10-01

    A key for long-term survival and function of biomaterials is that they do not elicit a detrimental immune response. As biomaterials can have profound impacts on the host immune response the concept emerged to design biomaterials that are able to trigger desired immunological outcomes and thus support the healing process. However, engineering such biomaterials requires an in-depth understanding of the host inflammatory and wound healing response to implanted materials. One focus of this review is to outline the up-to-date knowledge on immune responses to biomaterials. Understanding the complex interactions of host response and material implants reveals the need for and also the potential of "immunomodulating" biomaterials. Based on this knowledge, we discuss strategies of triggering appropriate immune responses by functional biomaterials and highlight recent approaches of biomaterials that mimic the physiological extracellular matrix and modify cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computational Perspectives into Plasmepsins Structure—Function Relationship: Implications to Inhibitors Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gil L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and selective antimalariais remains a challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. The aspartic proteases plasmepsins, whose inhibition leads to parasite death, are classified as targets for the design of potent drugs. Combinatorial synthesis is currently being used to generate inhibitor libraries for these enzymes, and together with computational methodologies have been demonstrated capable for the selection of lead compounds. The high structural flexibility of plasmepsins, revealed by their X-ray structures and molecular dynamics simulations, made even more complicated the prediction of putative binding modes, and therefore, the use of common computational tools, like docking and free-energy calculations. In this review, we revised the computational strategies utilized so far, for the structure-function relationship studies concerning the plasmepsin family, with special focus on the recent advances in the improvement of the linear interaction estimation (LIE method, which is one of the most successful methodologies in the evaluation of plasmepsin-inhibitor binding affinity.

  7. Quantitative determination of rarity of freshwater fishes and implications for imperiled-species designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J; Frimpong, Emmanuel A

    2010-10-01

    Conserving rare species and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem functioning depends on sound information on the nature of rarity. Rarity is multidimensional and has a variety of definitions, which presents the need for a quantitative classification scheme with which to categorize species as rare or common. We constructed such a classification for North American freshwater fishes to better describe rarity in fishes and provide researchers and managers with a tool to streamline conservation efforts. We used data on range extents, habitat specificities, and local population sizes of North American freshwater fishes and a variety of quantitative methods and statistical decision criteria, including quantile regression and a cost-function algorithm to determine thresholds for categorizing a species as rare or common. Species fell into eight groups that conform to an established framework for rarity. Fishes listed by the American Fisheries Society (AFS) as endangered, threatened, or vulnerable were most often rare because their local population sizes were low, ranges were small, and they had specific habitat needs, in that order, whereas unlisted species were most often considered common on the basis of these three factors. Species with large ranges generally had few specific habitat needs, whereas those with small ranges tended to have narrow habitat specificities. We identified 30 species not designated as imperiled by AFS that were rare along all dimensions of rarity and may warrant further study or protection, and we found three designated species that were common along all dimensions and may require a review of their imperilment status. Our approach could be applied to other taxa to aid conservation decisions and serve as a useful tool for future revisions of listings of fish species. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Monocytes and macrophages in tissue repair: Implications for immunoregenerative biomaterial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Molly E; Segar, Claire E; Sridhar, Sraeyes; Botchwey, Edward A

    2016-05-01

    Monocytes and macrophages play a critical role in tissue development, homeostasis, and injury repair. These innate immune cells participate in guiding vascular remodeling, stimulation of local stem and progenitor cells, and structural repair of tissues such as muscle and bone. Therefore, there is a great interest in harnessing this powerful endogenous cell source for therapeutic regeneration through immunoregenerative biomaterial engineering. These materials seek to harness specific subpopulations of monocytes/macrophages to promote repair by influencing their recruitment, positioning, differentiation, and function within a damaged tissue. Monocyte and macrophage phenotypes span a continuum of inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory or pro-regenerative cells (M2), and their heterogeneous functions are highly dependent on microenvironmental cues within the injury niche. Increasing evidence suggests that division of labor among subpopulations of monocytes and macrophages could allow for harnessing regenerative functions over inflammatory functions of myeloid cells; however, the complex balance between necessary functions of inflammatory versus regenerative myeloid cells remains to be fully elucidated. Historically, biomaterial-based therapies for promoting tissue regeneration were designed to minimize the host inflammatory response; although, recent appreciation for the roles that innate immune cells play in tissue repair and material integration has shifted this paradigm. A number of opportunities exist to exploit known signaling systems of specific populations of monocytes/macrophages to promote repair and to better understand the biological and pathological roles of myeloid cells. This review seeks to outline the characteristics of distinct populations of monocytes and macrophages, identify the role of these cells within diverse tissue injury niches, and offer design criteria for immunoregenerative biomaterials given the intrinsic inflammatory response to their

  9. From conditioning to learning communities: implications of fifty years of research in e-learning interaction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ravenscroft

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider e-learning in terms of the underlying learning processes and interactions that are stimulated, supported or favoured by new media and the contexts or communities in which it is used. We will review and critique a selection of research and development from the past fifty years that has linked pedagogical and learning theory to the design of innovative e-learning systems and activities, and discuss their implications. It will include approaches that are, essentially, behaviourist (Skinner and Gagné, cognitivist (Pask, Piaget and Papert, situated (Lave, Wenger and Seely-Brown, socioconstructivist (Vygotsky, socio-cultural (Nardi and Engestrom and community-based (Wenger and Preece. Emerging from this review is the argument that effective elearning usually requires, or involves, high-quality educational discourse, that leads to, at the least, improved knowledge, and at the best, conceptual development and improved understanding. To achieve this I argue that we need to adopt a more holistic approach to design that synthesizes features of the included approaches, leading to a framework that emphasizes the relationships between cognitive changes, dialogue processes and the communities, or contexts for e-learning.

  10. Pearls and perils of an implantable defibrillator trial using a common control: implications for the design of future studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallstrom Alfred P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Implantable defibrillators are considered life-saving therapy in heart failure (CHF patients. Surprisingly, the recent Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT reached an opposing conclusion from that of numerous other trials about their survival benefit in patients with advanced CHF. A critical analysis of common control trial design may explain this paradoxical finding, with important implications for future studies. Methods and Results Common control trials compare several intervention groups to a single rather than separate control groups. Though potentially requiring fewer patients than trials using separate controls, variation in the common control group will influence all comparisons and creates correlations between findings. During subgroup analyses, this dependency of outcomes may increase belief in the presence of a real subgroup effect when, in fact, it should increase skepticism. For example, a high (r = 0.92, statistically unlikely (p = 0.052 correlation between comparisons was observed across the subgroups reported in SCD-HeFT. Such concordance between amiodarone and a defibrillator across subgroups was unexpected, given how much the effects of these treatments significantly differed from one another in the main study. This suggests the study's subgroup findings (specifically the absence of benefit from defibrillators in advanced CHF were not necessarily a consequence of treatment; more likely, they resulted from variation in what the treatments were compared against, the common control. Conclusion Common control trials can be more efficient than other designs, but induce dependence between treatment comparisons and require cautious interpretation.

  11. Mobile health applications to assist patients with diabetes: lessons learned and design implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årsand, Eirik; Frøisland, Dag Helge; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Chomutare, Taridzo; Tatara, Naoe; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Tufano, James T

    2012-09-01

    Self-management is critical to achieving diabetes treatment goals. Mobile phones and Bluetooth® can supportself-management and lifestyle changes for chronic diseases such as diabetes. A mobile health (mHealth) research platform--the Few Touch Application (FTA)--is a tool designed to support the self-management of diabetes. The FTA consists of a mobile phone-based diabetes diary, which can be updated both manually from user input and automatically by wireless data transfer, and which provides personalized decision support for the achievement of personal health goals. Studies and applications (apps) based on FTAs have included: (1) automatic transfer of blood glucose (BG) data; (2) short message service (SMS)-based education for type 1diabetes (T1DM); (3) a diabetes diary for type 2 diabetes (T2DM); (4) integrating a patient diabetes diary with health care (HC) providers; (5) a diabetes diary for T1DM; (6) a food picture diary for T1DM; (7) physical activity monitoring for T2DM; (8) nutrition information for T2DM; (9) context sensitivity in mobile self-help tools; and (10) modeling of BG using mobile phones. We have analyzed the performance of these 10 FTA-based apps to identify lessons for designing the most effective mHealth apps. From each of the 10 apps of FTA, respectively, we conclude: (1) automatic BG data transfer is easy to use and provides reassurance; (2) SMS-based education facilitates parent-child communication in T1DM; (3) the T2DM mobile phone diary encourages reflection; (4) the mobile phone diary enhances discussion between patients and HC professionals; (5) the T1DM mobile phone diary is useful and motivational; (6) the T1DM mobile phone picture diary is useful in identifying treatment obstacles; (7) the step counter with automatic data transfer promotes motivation and increases physical activity in T2DM; (8) food information on a phone for T2DM should not be at a detailed level; (9) context sensitivity has good prospects and is possible to

  12. Mobile Health Applications to Assist Patients with Diabetes: Lessons Learned and Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årsand, Eirik; Frøisland, Dag Helge; Skrøvseth, Stein Olav; Chomutare, Taridzo; Tatara, Naoe; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Tufano, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Self-management is critical to achieving diabetes treatment goals. Mobile phones and Bluetooth® can supportself-management and lifestyle changes for chronic diseases such as diabetes. A mobile health (mHealth) research platform—the Few Touch Application (FTA)—is a tool designed to support the self-management of diabetes. The FTA consists of a mobile phone-based diabetes diary, which can be updated both manually from user input and automatically by wireless data transfer, and which provides personalized decision support for the achievement of personal health goals. Studies and applications (apps) based on FTAs have included: (1) automatic transfer of blood glucose (BG) data; (2) short message service (SMS)-based education for type 1diabetes (T1DM); (3) a diabetes diary for type 2 diabetes (T2DM); (4) integrating a patient diabetes diary with health care (HC) providers; (5) a diabetes diary for T1DM; (6) a food picture diary for T1DM; (7) physical activity monitoring for T2DM; (8) nutrition information for T2DM; (9) context sensitivity in mobile self-help tools; and (10) modeling of BG using mobile phones. We have analyzed the performance of these 10 FTA-based apps to identify lessons for designing the most effective mHealth apps. From each of the 10 apps of FTA, respectively, we conclude: (1) automatic BG data transfer is easy to use and provides reassurance; (2) SMS-based education facilitates parent-child communication in T1DM; (3) the T2DM mobile phone diary encourages reflection; (4) the mobile phone diary enhances discussion between patients and HC professionals; (5) the T1DM mobile phone diary is useful and motivational; (6) the T1DM mobile phone picture diary is useful in identifying treatment obstacles; (7) the step counter with automatic data transfer promotes motivation and increases physical activity in T2DM; (8) food information on a phone for T2DM should not be at a detailed level; (9) context sensitivity has good prospects and is possible to

  13. Mechanisms of Communicating Health Information Through Facebook: Implications for Consumer Health Information Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menefee, Hannah K; Thompson, Morgan J; Guterbock, Thomas M; Williams, Ishan C; Valdez, Rupa S

    2016-08-11

    Consumer health information technology (IT) solutions are designed to support patient health management and have the ability to facilitate patients' health information communication with their social networks. However, there is a need for consumer health IT solutions to align with patients' health management preferences for increased adoption of the technology. It may be possible to gain an understanding of patients' needs for consumer health IT supporting their health information communication with social networks by explicating how they have adopted and adapted social networking sites, such as Facebook, for this purpose. Our aim was to characterize patients' use of all communication mechanisms within Facebook for health information communication to provide insight into how consumer health IT solutions may be better designed to meet patients' communication needs and preferences. This study analyzed data about Facebook communication mechanisms use from a larger, three-phase, sequential, mixed-methods study. We report here on the results of the study's first phase: qualitative interviews (N=25). Participants were over 18, used Facebook, were residents or citizens of the United States, spoke English, and had a diagnosis consistent with type 2 diabetes. Participants were recruited through Facebook groups and pages. Participant interviews were conducted via Skype or telephone between July and September 2014. Data analysis was grounded in qualitative content analysis and the initial coding framework was informed by the findings of a previous study. Participants' rationales for the use or disuse of a particular Facebook mechanism to communicate health information reflected six broad themes: (1) characteristics and circumstances of the person, (2) characteristics and circumstances of the relationship, (3) structure and composition of the social network, (4) content of the information, (5) communication purpose, and (6) attributes of the technology. The results of this

  14. Persistent parasites and immunologic memory in cutaneous leishmaniasis: implications for vaccine designs and vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Despite a plethora of publications on the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis and their contribution to our understanding of the factors that regulate the development of CD4+ T cell immunity in vivo, there is still no effective vaccine against the human disease. While recovery from natural or experimental infection with Leishmania major, the causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, results in persistence of parasites at the primary infection site and the development of long-lasting immunity to reinfection, vaccination with killed parasites or recombinant proteins induces only short-term protection. The reasons for the difference in protective immunity following recovery from live infection and vaccination with heat-killed parasites are not known. This may in part be related to persistence of live parasites following healing of primary cutaneous lesions, because complete clearance of parasites leads to rapid loss of infection-induced immunity. Recent reports indicate that in addition to persistent parasites, IL-10-producing natural regulatory T cells may also play critical roles in the maintenance and loss of infection-induced immunity. This review focuses on current understanding of the factors that regulate the development, maintenance and loss of anti-Leishmania memory responses and highlights the role of persistent parasites and regulatory T cells in this process. Understanding these factors is crucial for designing effective vaccines and vaccination strategies against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  15. Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M; Fairén, Alberto G; Baker, Victor R; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G

    2005-12-01

    Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability.

  16. Accuracy or precision: Implications of sample design and methodology on abundance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Lucas K.; Chizinski, Christopher J.; Powell, Larkin A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Pegg, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Sampling by spatially replicated counts (point-count) is an increasingly popular method of estimating population size of organisms. Challenges exist when sampling by point-count method, and it is often impractical to sample entire area of interest and impossible to detect every individual present. Ecologists encounter logistical limitations that force them to sample either few large-sample units or many small sample-units, introducing biases to sample counts. We generated a computer environment and simulated sampling scenarios to test the role of number of samples, sample unit area, number of organisms, and distribution of organisms in the estimation of population sizes using N-mixture models. Many sample units of small area provided estimates that were consistently closer to true abundance than sample scenarios with few sample units of large area. However, sample scenarios with few sample units of large area provided more precise abundance estimates than abundance estimates derived from sample scenarios with many sample units of small area. It is important to consider accuracy and precision of abundance estimates during the sample design process with study goals and objectives fully recognized, although and with consequence, consideration of accuracy and precision of abundance estimates is often an afterthought that occurs during the data analysis process.

  17. Recent crosse designs increase ball velocity: implications for injury in women's lacrosse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, L A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to describe the kinematics of ball release from 24 different lacrosse stick models during the performance of an overhand pass. Multiple trials (N=120) of an overhand lacrosse pass, performed by an elite female lacrosse athlete, were captured in the sagittal plane using two-dimensional videography and analysed using motion analysis software. On average, there was a tendency for balls to release earlier from wood crosses (180.8+/-16.0 degrees ) than from synthetic crosses (183.6+/-6.0 degrees ) (p>0.15) and earlier from non-planar linear (179.7+/-6.7 degrees ) and non-planar curvilinear (182.5+/-9.5 degrees ) crosse heads than from traditional, planar-headed sticks (185.6+/-11.7 degrees ). Peak angular velocities of the stick shaft were lower for the wood as compared to the synthetic crosses (pwood crosses (13.9+/-0.8ms(-1)) as compared to the synthetic crosses (14.8+/-0.6ms(-1)). These results indicate that changes in the material composition and design of lacrosse sticks are changing the timing and rate at which balls release from the crosse pocket. Strict rule enforcement, good coaching, the mandatory use of protective equipment and continuous monitoring of changes in stick technology will be required if the frequency and severity of ocular, head and facial injuries are to be controlled.

  18. A microdissection study of perforating vessels in the perineum: implication in designing perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bai; Hasi, Wulan; Yang, Chao; Song, Jianxing

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the quantity, position, and caliber of perforating vessels in the perineum, and to provide an anatomic basis for designing perineal perforator flaps. Eleven adult cadavers (22 sides) were dissected under an operating microscope (x10). Microstructures, including perforating arteries, vena comitantes, vascular anastomoses, and cutaneous nerves, were measured with a sliding caliper (accurate to 0.2 mm). There were 4 relatively constant perforating arteries in the perineum: inguinal and perineal perforating branches of the superficial external pudendal artery, a perforating branch of the anterior cutaneous branch of the obturator artery, and a perforating branch of the lateral branch of the posterior scrotal (pudendal) artery. All 4 arteries were direct perforating branches. These perforating arteries and accompanying veins overlapped with each other and formed the upper, middle, and lower parts of the vascular anastomosis in deep fascia above the adductor wall. There were 4 important cutaneous nerves in the region originating from the following nerves: the genitofemoral nerve, ilioinguinal nerve, posterior scrotum (labium) major nerve, and rami perineales nervi cutanei femoris posterioris. The perineum has abundant blood supply, venous return, and innervation. Due to its covert location and manoeuvrability, perforator flaps from this region are good sources of donor tissue for perineal reconstruction.

  19. Drug Partitioning in Micellar Media and its Implications in Rational Drug Design: Insights with Streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Eva; Pagariya, Darshna; Kishore, Nand

    2018-02-26

    Oral bioavailability of a drug molecule requires its effective delivery to the target site. In general, majority of synthetically developed molecular entities have high hydrophobic nature as well as low bioavailability, therefore the need for suitable delivery vehicles arises. Self-assembled structures such as micelles, niosomes, and liposomes have been used as effective delivery vehicles and studied extensively. However, the information available in literature is mostly qualitative in nature. We have quantitatively investigated the partitioning of antibiotic drug streptomycin into cationic, non-ionic and mixture of cationic and non-ionic surfactant micelles and its interaction with the transport protein serum albumin upon subsequent delivery. A combination of calorimetry and spectroscopy has been used to obtain the thermodynamic signatures associated with partitioning and interaction with the protein, and the resulting conformational changes in the latter. The results have been correlated with other class of drugs of different nature to understand the role of molecular features in the partitioning process. These studies are oriented towards understanding the physical chemistry of partitioning of a variety of drug molecules into suitable delivery vehicles and hence establishing structure-property-energetics relationships. Such studies provide general guidelines towards a broader goal of rational drug design.

  20. Structure and Mechanism of the Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Implications for Drug Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabelli,S.; McLellan, J.; Montalvetti, A.; Oldfield, E.; Docampo, R.; Amzel, L.

    2006-01-01

    Typanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has recently been shown to be sensitive to the action of the bisphosphonates currently used in bone resorption therapy. These compounds target the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, FPPS), the enzyme that condenses the diphosphates of C{sub 5} alcohols (isopentenyl and dimethylallyl) to form C{sub 10} and C{sub 15} diphosphates (geranyl and farnesyl). The structures of the T. cruzi FPPS (TcFPPS) alone and in two complexes with substrates and inhibitors reveal that following binding of the two substrates and three Mg2+ ions, the enzyme undergoes a conformational change consisting of a hinge-like closure of the binding site. In this conformation, it would be possible for the enzyme to bind a bisphosphonate inhibitor that spans the sites usually occupied by dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and the homoallyl moiety of isopentenyl diphosphate. This observation may lead to the design of new, more potent anti-trypanosomal bisphosphonates, because existing FPPS inhibitors occupy only the DMAPP site. In addition, the structures provide an important mechanistic insight: after its formation, geranyl diphosphate can swing without leaving the enzyme, from the product site to the substrate site to participate in the synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate.

  1. Design of operating rules in complex water resources systems using historical records, expert criteria and fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Macian-Sorribes, Hector; María Benlliure-Moreno, Jose; Fullana-Montoro, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Water resources systems in areas with a strong tradition in water use are complex to manage by the high amount of constraints that overlap in time and space, creating a complicated framework in which past, present and future collide between them. In addition, it is usual to find "hidden constraints" in system operations, which condition operation decisions being unnoticed by anyone but the river managers and users. Being aware of those hidden constraints requires usually years of experience and a degree of involvement in that system's management operations normally beyond the possibilities of technicians. However, their impact in the management decisions is strongly imprinted in the historical data records available. The purpose of this contribution is to present a methodology capable of assessing operating rules in complex water resources systems combining historical records and expert criteria. Both sources are coupled using fuzzy logic. The procedure stages are: 1) organize expert-technicians preliminary meetings to let the first explain how they manage the system; 2) set up a fuzzy rule-based system (FRB) structure according to the way the system is managed; 3) use the historical records available to estimate the inputs' fuzzy numbers, to assign preliminary output values to the FRB rules and to train and validate these rules; 4) organize expert-technician meetings to discuss the rule structure and the input's quantification, returning if required to the second stage; 5) once the FRB structure is accepted, its output values must be refined and completed with the aid of the experts by using meetings, workshops or surveys; 6) combine the FRB with a Decision Support System (DSS) to simulate the effect of those management decisions; 7) compare its results with the ones offered by the historical records and/or simulation or optimization models; and 8) discuss with the stakeholders the model performance returning, if it's required, to the fifth or the second stage

  2. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation (RecordAF) is the first worldwide, 1-year observational, longitudinal study of the management of paroxysmal/persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) in recently diagnosed patients. The study was conducted at 532 sites......-control patients mainly received beta blockers (72%), except for sotalol, or cardiac glycosides (34%). Patients receiving a rhythm-control strategy were younger, had a lower resting heart rate, were more frequently symptomatic, and were more likely to have recently diagnosed AF or paroxysmal AF compared...

  3. Analysis of scale effect in compressive ice failure and implications for design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rocky Scott

    was observed. The pressure-thickness behavior was found to be well modeled by the power law relationships Pavg = 0.278 h-0.408 MPa and Pstd = 0.172h-0.273 MPa for the mean and standard deviation of pressure, respectively. To study theoretical aspects of spalling fracture and the pressure-thickness scale effect, probabilistic failure models have been developed. A probabilistic model based on Weibull theory (tensile stresses only) was first developed. Estimates of failure pressure obtained with this model were orders of magnitude higher than the pressures observed from benchmark data due to the assumption of only tensile failure. A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model including both tensile and compressive (shear) cracks was developed. Criteria for unstable fracture in tensile and compressive (shear) zones were given. From these results a clear theoretical scale effect in peak (spalling) pressure was observed. This scale effect followed the relationship Pp,th = 0.15h-0.50 MPa which agreed well with the benchmark data. The PFM model was applied to study the effect of ice edge shape (taper angle) and hpz eccentricity. Results indicated that specimens with flat edges spall at lower pressures while those with more tapered edges spall less readily. The mean peak (failure) pressure was also observed to decrease with increased eccentricity. It was concluded that hpzs centered about the middle of the ice thickness are the zones most likely to create the peak pressures that are of interest in design. Promising results were obtained using the PFM model, which provides strong support for continued research in the development and application of probabilistic fracture mechanics to the study of scale effects in compressive ice failure and to guide the development of methods for the estimation of design ice pressures.

  4. Versatile, modular 3D microelectrode arrays for neuronal ensemble recordings: from design to fabrication, assembly, and functional validation in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, F.; Livi, A.; Lanzilotto, M.; Maranesi, M.; Bonini, L.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Application-specific designs of electrode arrays offer an improved effectiveness for providing access to targeted brain regions in neuroscientific research and brain machine interfaces. The simultaneous and stable recording of neuronal ensembles is the main goal in the design of advanced neural interfaces. Here, we describe the development and assembly of highly customizable 3D microelectrode arrays and demonstrate their recording performance in chronic applications in non-human primates. Approach. System assembly relies on a microfabricated stacking component that is combined with Michigan-style silicon-based electrode arrays interfacing highly flexible polyimide cables. Based on the novel stacking component, the lead time for implementing prototypes with altered electrode pitches is minimal. Once the fabrication and assembly accuracy of the stacked probes have been characterized, their recording performance is assessed during in vivo chronic experiments in awake rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) trained to execute reaching-grasping motor tasks. Main results. Using a single set of fabrication tools, we implemented three variants of the stacking component for electrode distances of 250, 300 and 350 µm in the stacking direction. We assembled neural probes with up to 96 channels and an electrode density of 98 electrodes mm-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the shank alignment is accurate to a few µm at an angular alignment better than 1°. Three 64-channel probes were chronically implanted in two monkeys providing single-unit activity on more than 60% of all channels and excellent recording stability. Histological tissue sections, obtained 52 d after implantation from one of the monkeys, showed minimal tissue damage, in accordance with the high quality and stability of the recorded neural activity. Significance. The versatility of our fabrication and assembly approach should significantly support the development of ideal interface geometries for a broad

  5. PI3K inhibitors as new cancer therapeutics: implications for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massacesi C

    2016-01-01

    AKT–mTOR pathway, patient selection, biomarkers, PI3K inhibitors, clinical trial design

  6. Interface Design Implications for Recalling the Spatial Configuration of Virtual Auditory Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kyla A.

    study also found that the presence of visual reference frames significantly increased recall accuracy. Additionally, the incorporation of drastic attenuation significantly improved environment recall accuracy. Through investigating the aforementioned concerns, the present study made initial footsteps guiding the design of virtual auditory environments that support spatial configuration recall.

  7. Substrate binding mode and its implication on drug design for botulinum neurotoxin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desigan Kumaran

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The seven antigenically distinct serotypes of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins, the causative agents of botulism, block the neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has declared them as Category A biowarfare agents. The most potent among them, botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A, cleaves its substrate synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25. An efficient drug for botulism can be developed only with the knowledge of interactions between the substrate and enzyme at the active site. Here, we report the crystal structures of the catalytic domain of BoNT/A with its uncleavable SNAP-25 peptide (197QRATKM(202 and its variant (197RRATKM(202 to 1.5 A and 1.6 A, respectively. This is the first time the structure of an uncleavable substrate bound to an active botulinum neurotoxin is reported and it has helped in unequivocally defining S1 to S5' sites. These substrate peptides make interactions with the enzyme predominantly by the residues from 160, 200, 250 and 370 loops. Most notably, the amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of P1 residue (Gln197 chelate the zinc ion and replace the nucleophilic water. The P1'-Arg198, occupies the S1' site formed by Arg363, Thr220, Asp370, Thr215, Ile161, Phe163 and Phe194. The S2' subsite is formed by Arg363, Asn368 and Asp370, while S3' subsite is formed by Tyr251, Leu256, Val258, Tyr366, Phe369 and Asn388. P4'-Lys201 makes hydrogen bond with Gln162. P5'-Met202 binds in the hydrophobic pocket formed by the residues from the 250 and 200 loop. Knowledge of interactions between the enzyme and substrate peptide from these complex structures should form the basis for design of potent inhibitors for this neurotoxin.

  8. Cardiac health knowledge and misconceptions among nursing students: implications for nursing curriculum design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Susan Ka Yee; Chan, Yuen Yee; Ho, Sin Kuen; Ng, Ka Chun

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac misconceptions are common among healthcare professionals. The development of professional knowledge is considered an essential component of nursing education. Nurses, regardless of their grade, skills, and experience, should be updated with information so as to be able to rectify their misconceptions, as these could affect patient health outcomes. As the literature evaluating the cardiac knowledge and misconceptions of nursing students is sparse, a study of the subject seems warranted. A cross-sectional sample survey was used to study the cardiac knowledge and cardiac misconceptions of nursing students in Hong Kong. The study sample included 385 senior nursing students from three universities. Their level of knowledge of cardiac disease was assessed using the modified Coronary Heart Disease Knowledge Test. The York Cardiac Beliefs Questionnaire (YCBQv1) was used to examine cardiac misconceptions. The scores for the nursing students' level of knowledge were diverse. Their mean score in the Cardiac Knowledge Test was 12.27 out of 18 (SD 2.38), with a range of 2-17. For cardiac misconceptions, their mean score in the YCBQv1 was 6.98 out of 20 (SD 2.84), with a range of 0-14. A negative correlation, r = -0.33 was found among students with more knowledge and fewer misconceptions. (p misconceptions about stress and physiology. The results of our analyses indicate a diversity in levels of knowledge among the nursing students. Students with higher scores in cardiac knowledge did not necessarily have fewer misconceptions. There were associations between the students' misbeliefs and their caregiving experiences with cardiac patients. This study presents a framework for designing the contents of cardiac nursing programmes and is a starting point for promoting research on misconceptions held by undergraduate nursing students. A new paradigm of teaching should include inputs from both perspectives to help students to make critical use of theoretical knowledge to

  9. A Synthesis of Relevant Literature on the Development of Emotional Competence: Implications for Design of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ji Young; Wilkinson, Krista; Karny, Meredith; Blackstone, Sarah; Stifter, Cynthia

    2016-08-01

    Emotional competence refers to the ability to identify, respond to, and manage one's own and others' emotions. Emotional competence is critical to many functional outcomes, including making and maintaining friends, academic success, and community integration. There appears to be a link between the development of language and the development of emotional competence in children who use speech. Little information is available about these issues in children who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). In this article, we consider how AAC systems can be designed to support communication about emotions and the development of emotional competence. Because limited research exists on communication about emotions in a context of aided AAC, theory and research from other fields (e.g., psychology, linguistics, child development) is reviewed to identify key features of emotional competence and their possible implications for AAC design and intervention. The reviewed literature indicated that the research and clinical attention to emotional competence in children with disabilities is encouraging. However, the ideas have not been considered specifically in the context of aided AAC. On the basis of the reviewed literature, we offer practical suggestions for system design and AAC use for communication about emotions with children who have significant disabilities. Three key elements of discussing emotions (i.e., emotion name, reason, and solution) are suggested for inclusion in order to provide these children with opportunities for a full range of discussion about emotions. We argue that supporting communication about emotions is as important for children who use AAC as it is for children who are learning speech. This article offers a means to integrate information from other fields for the purpose of enriching AAC supports.

  10. Trial of a mobile phone method for recording dietary intake in adults with type 2 diabetes: evaluation and implications for future applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, Megan E; Ash, Susan; Lyons-Wall, Philippa; Russell, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated a mobile phone application (Nutricam) for recording dietary intake. It allowed users to capture a photograph of food items before consumption and store a voice recording to explain the contents of the photograph. This information was then sent to a website where it was analysed by a dietitian. Ten adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI 24.1-47.9 kg/m(2)) recorded their intake over a three-day period using both Nutricam and a written food diary. Compared to the food diary, energy intake was under-recorded by 649 kJ (SD 810) using the mobile phone method. However, there was no trend in the difference between dietary assessment methods at levels of low or high energy intake. All subjects reported that the mobile phone system was easy to use. Six subjects found that the time taken to record using Nutricam was shorter than recording using the written diary, while two reported that it was about the same. The level of detail provided in the voice recording and food items obscured in photographs reduced the quality of the mobile phone records. Although some modifications to the mobile phone method will be necessary to improve the accuracy of self-reported intake, the system was considered an acceptable alternative to written records and has the potential to be used by adults with type 2 diabetes for monitoring dietary intake by a dietitian.

  11. Proctitis 1 Week after Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Implications for Clinical Trial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydar, Ima; Cyr, Robyn A; Yung, Thomas M; Lei, Siyuan; Collins, Brian Timothy; Chen, Leonard N; Suy, Simeng; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Lynch, John H; Collins, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Proctitis following prostate cancer radiation therapy is a primary determinant of quality of life (QOL). While previous studies have assessed acute rectal morbidity at 1 month after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), little data exist on the prevalence and severity of rectal morbidity within the first week following treatment. This study reports the acute bowel morbidity 1 week following prostate SBRT. Between May 2013 and August 2014, 103 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with 35-36.25 Gy in five fractions using robotic SBRT delivered on a prospective clinical trial. Bowel toxicity was graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAEv.4). Bowel QOL was assessed using the EPIC-26 questionnaire bowel domain at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Time-dependent changes in bowel symptoms were statistically compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinically significant change was assessed by the minimally important difference (MID) in EPIC score. This was defined as a change of 1/2 standard deviation (SD) from the baseline score. One-hundred and three patients with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of acute grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was 23%. There were no acute ≥ grade 3 bowel toxicities. EPIC bowel summary scores maximally declined at 1 week after SBRT (-13.9, p big problem. This increased to 28.4% (p < 0.0001) 1 week after SBRT and returned to baseline at 3 months after SBRT (0.0%, p = 0.66). Only the bowel summary and bowel bother score declines at 1 week met the MID threshold for clinically significant change. The rate and severity of acute proctitis following prostate SBRT peaked at 1 week after treatment and returned to baseline by 3 months. Toxicity assessment at 1 week can therefore minimize recall bias and should aid in the design of future clinical trials focused on accurately capturing

  12. PROCTITIS ONE WEEK AFTER STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIATION THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Paydar

    2016-07-01

    treatment and returned to baseline by 3 months. Toxicity assessment at one week can therefore minimize recall bias and should aid in the design of future clinical trials focused on accurately capturing and minimizing acute morbidity following SBRT.

  13. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) legislation and its implication on speech privacy design in health care facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocci, Gregory C.; Storch, Christopher A.

    2005-09-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 (104th Congress, H.R. 3103, January 3, 1986), among many things, individual patient records and information be protected from unnecessary issue. This responsibility is assigned to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) which has issued a Privacy Rule most recently dated August 2002 with a revision being proposed in 2005 to strengthen penalties for inappropriate breaches of patient privacy. Despite this, speech privacy, in many instances in health care facilities need not be guaranteed by the facility. Nevertheless, the regulation implies that due regard be given to speech privacy in both facility design and operation. This presentation will explore the practical aspects of implementing speech privacy in health care facilities and make recommendations for certain specific speech privacy situations.

  14. The RecordAF study: design, baseline data, and profile of patients according to chosen treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    in 21 countries across Europe, America, and Asia; recruitment was completed in April 2008. The primary objectives were to prospectively assess the therapeutic success and clinical outcomes in rhythm- and rate-control strategies. The study design and patient baseline data are reported. A total of 5...

  15. How Do Patrons Search the Online Catalog When No One's Looking? Transaction Log Analysis and Implications for Bibliographic Instruction and Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that electronically monitored 11 public access terminals at the University of Colorado libraries to produce transaction logs that were used to gather statistics and analyze users' behavior when searching online catalogs. Implications for search instruction and systems design are suggested. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)

  16. Facing Challenges in Differential Classical Conditioning Research: Benefits of a Hybrid Design for Simultaneous Electrodermal and Electroencephalographic Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, M Carmen; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Junghöfer, Markus; Poy, Rosario; López, Raul; Moltó, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges make it difficult to simultaneously investigate central and autonomous nervous system correlates of conditioned stimulus (CS) processing in classical conditioning paradigms. Such challenges include, for example, the discrepant requirements of electroencephalography (EEG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) recordings with regard to multiple repetitions of conditions and sufficient trial duration. Here, we propose a MultiCS conditioning set-up, in which we increased the number of CSs, decreased the number of learning trials, and used trials of short and long durations for meeting requirements of simultaneous EEG-EDA recording in a differential aversive conditioning task. Forty-eight participants underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which four neutral faces (CS+) were paired four times each with aversive electric stimulation (unconditioned stimulus) during acquisition, while four different neutral faces (CS-) remained unpaired. When comparing after relative to before learning measurements, EEG revealed an enhanced centro-posterior positivity to CS+ vs. CS- during 368-600 ms, and subjective ratings indicated CS+ to be less pleasant and more arousing than CS-. Furthermore, changes in CS valence and arousal were strong enough to bias subjective ratings when faces of CS+/CS- identity were displayed with different emotional expression (happy, angry) in a post-experimental behavioral task. In contrast to a persistent neural and evaluative CS+/CS- differentiation that sustained multiple unreinforced CS presentations, electrodermal differentiation was rapidly extinguished. Current results suggest that MultiCS conditioning provides a promising paradigm for investigating pre-post-learning changes under minimal influences of extinction and overlearning of simple stimulus features. Our data also revealed methodological pitfalls, such as the possibility of occurring artifacts when combining different acquisition systems for central and peripheral

  17. Community perceptions of health insurance and their preferred design features: implications for the design of universal health coverage reforms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulupi, Stephen; Kirigia, Doris; Chuma, Jane

    2013-11-12

    Health insurance is currently being considered as a mechanism for promoting progress to universal health coverage (UHC) in many African countries. The concept of health insurance is relatively new in Africa, it is hardly well understood and remains unclear how it will function in countries where the majority of the population work outside the formal sector. Kenya has been considering introducing a national health insurance scheme (NHIS) since 2004. Progress has been slow, but commitment to achieve UHC through a NHIS remains. This study contributes to this process by exploring communities' understanding and perceptions of health insurance and their preferred designs features. Communities are the major beneficiaries of UHC reforms. Kenyans should understand the implications of health financing reforms and their preferred design features considered to ensure acceptability and sustainability. Data presented in this paper are part of a study that explored feasibility of health insurance in Kenya. Data collection methods included a cross-sectional household survey (n = 594 households) and focus group discussions (n = 16). About half of the household survey respondents had at least one member in a health insurance scheme. There was high awareness of health insurance schemes but limited knowledge of how health insurance functions as well as understanding of key concepts related to income and risk cross-subsidization. Wide dissatisfaction with the public health system was reported. However, the government was the most preferred and trusted agency for collecting revenue as part of a NHIS. People preferred a comprehensive benefit package that included inpatient and outpatient care with no co-payments. Affordability of premiums, timing of contributions and the extent to which population needs would be met under a contributory scheme were major issues of concern for a NHIS design. Possibilities of funding health care through tax instead of NHIS were raised and preferred

  18. Design, functionality, and validity of the SWInCaRe, a web-based application used to administer cancer registry records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Giovanni; Prima, Alessia Di; Sciacca, Salvatore; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We described the design of a web-based application (the Software Integrated Cancer Registry-SWInCaRe) used to administer data in a cancer registry and tested its validity and usability. A sample of 11,680 records was considered to compare the manual and automatic procedures. Sensibility and specificity, the Health IT Usability Evaluation Scale, and a cost-efficiency analysis were tested. Several data sources were used to build data packages through text-mining and record linkage algorithms. The automatic procedure showed small yet measurable improvements in both data linkage process and cancer cases estimation. Users perceived the application as useful to improve the time of coding and difficulty of the process: both time and cost-analysis were in favor of the automatic procedure. The web-based application resulted in a useful tool for the cancer registry, but some improvements are necessary to overcome limitations observed and to further automatize the process.

  19. Emerging importance of geographical indications and designations of origin - authenticating geo-authentic botanicals and implications for phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann, J A

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacopoeial monographs providing specifications for composition, identity, purity, quality, and strength of a botanical are developed based on analysis of presumably authenticated botanical reference materials. The specimens should represent the quality traditionally specified for the intended use, which may require different standards for medicinal versus food use. Development of quality standards monographs may occur through collaboration between a sponsor company or industry association and a pharmacopoeial expert committee. The sponsor may base proposed standards and methods on their own preferred botanical supply which may, or may not, be geo-authentic and/or correspond to qualities defined in traditional medicine formularies and pharmacopoeias. Geo-authentic botanicals are those with specific germplasm, cultivated or collected in their traditional production regions, of a specified biological age at maturity, with specific production techniques and processing methods. Consequences of developing new monographs that specify characteristics of an 'introduced' cultivated species or of a material obtained from one unique origin could lead to exclusion of geo-authentic herbs and may have therapeutic implications for clinical practice. In this review, specifications of selected medicinal plants with either a geo-authentic or geographical indication designation are discussed and compared against official pharmacopoeial standards for same genus and species regardless of origin. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Implications of sensor design for coral reef detection: Upscaling ground hyperspectral imagery in spatial and spectral scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caras, Tamir; Hedley, John; Karnieli, Arnon

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing offers a potential tool for large scale environmental surveying and monitoring. However, remote observations of coral reefs are difficult especially due to the spatial and spectral complexity of the target compared to sensor specifications as well as the environmental implications of the water medium above. The development of sensors is driven by technological advances and the desired products. Currently, spaceborne systems are technologically limited to a choice between high spectral resolution and high spatial resolution, but not both. The current study explores the dilemma of whether future sensor design for marine monitoring should prioritise on improving their spatial or spectral resolution. To address this question, a spatially and spectrally resampled ground-level hyperspectral image was used to test two classification elements: (1) how the tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolutions affects classification; and (2) how a noise reduction by majority filter might improve classification accuracy. The studied reef, in the Gulf of Aqaba (Eilat), Israel, is heterogeneous and complex so the local substrate patches are generally finer than currently available imagery. Therefore, the tested spatial resolution was broadly divided into four scale categories from five millimeters to one meter. Spectral resolution resampling aimed to mimic currently available and forthcoming spaceborne sensors such as (1) Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) that is characterized by 25 bands of 6.5 nm width; (2) VENμS with 12 narrow bands; and (3) the WorldView series with broadband multispectral resolution. Results suggest that spatial resolution should generally be prioritized for coral reef classification because the finer spatial scale tested (pixel size distribution and choice could improve the sensor suitability for the marine environment task. This in mind, while the focus in this study was on the technologically limited spaceborne design

  1. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: Key principles and implications for research design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina eRippon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, neuroimaging (NI technologies have had an increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which s/he develops and functions. The study of the relationship between sex and gender could offer a valuable example of such research. We identify here four main principles that should inform NI research. First, the principle of overlap, arising from evidence of significant overlap of female/male distributions on measures of many gendered behaviours. Second, the principle of mosaicism, arising from evidence that for both behaviour and brain, each individual manifests a complex and idiosyncratic combination of feminine and masculine characteristics. Third, the principle of contingency, arising from evidence that female/male behavioural differences are contingent on time, place, social group and context. Fourth, the principle of entanglement, arising from an awareness that the neural phenotypes that NI techniques measure are a function of the interactive and reciprocal influence of biology and environment. These important principles have emerged and become well-established over the past few decades, but their implications are often not reflected in the design and interpretation of NI sex/gender research. We therefore offer a set of guidelines for researchers to ensure that NI sex/gender research is appropriately designed and interpreted. We hope this ‘toolkit’ will also be of use to editorial boards and journal reviewers, as well as those who view, communicate and interpret such research.

  2. A mobile/web app for long distance caregivers of older adults: functional requirements and design implications from a user centered design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Steven S; Gorman, Paul N; Jimison, Holly B

    2014-01-01

    Recent trends of population aging and globalization have required an increasing number of individuals to act as long distance caregivers (LDCs) to aging family members. Information technology solutions may ease the burden placed on LDCs by providing remote monitoring, easier access to information and enhanced communication. While some technology tools have been introduced, the information and technology needs of LDCs in particular are not well understood. Consequently, a needs assessment was performed by using video conferencing software to conduct semi-structured interviews with 10 LDCs. Interviews were enriched through the use of stimulus materials that included the demonstration of a prototype LDC health management web/mobile app. Responses were recorded, transcribed and then analyzed. Subjects indicated that information regarding medication regimens and adherence, calendaring, and cognitive health were most needed. Participants also described needs for video calling, activity data regarding sleep and physical exercise, asynchronous communication, photo sharing, journaling, access to online health resources, real-time monitoring, an overall summary of health, and feedback/suggestions to help them improve as caregivers. In addition, all respondents estimated their usage of a LDC health management website would be at least once per week, with half indicating a desire to access the website from a smartphone. These findings are being used to inform the design of a LDC health management website to promote the meaningful involvement of distant family members in the care of older adults.

  3. Using Rich Data on Comorbidities in Case-Control Study Design with Electronic Health Record Data Improves Control of Confounding in the Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenroth, Daniel; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol; Wei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, performs poorly in controlling confounding in the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from administrative claims and electronic health record (EHR) data, resulting in biased estimates of the causal effects of drugs on health outcomes of interest (HOI) and inaccurate confidence intervals. Here we show that using rich data on comorbidities and automatic variable selection strategies for selecting confounders can better control confounding within a case-control study design and provide a more solid basis for inference regarding the causal effects of drugs on HOIs. Four HOIs are examined: acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, acute myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal ulcer hospitalization. For each of these HOIs we use a previously published reference set of positive and negative control drugs to evaluate the performance of our methods. Our methods have AUCs that are often substantially higher than the AUCs of a baseline method that only uses demographic characteristics for confounding control. Our methods also give confidence intervals for causal effect parameters that cover the expected no effect value substantially more often than this baseline method. The case-control study design, unlike the self-controlled study design, can be used in the fairly typical setting of EHR databases without longitudinal information on patients. With our variable selection method, these databases can be more effectively used for the detection of ADRs.

  4. Design of a high-bandwidth data recording and quicklook display system for a photon-counting speckle camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Guenther; Hege, E. Keith

    1990-08-01

    The computer system described in this paper is designed to capture event data from a photon-counting speckle camera at photon event rates of up to 1 MHz continuously. The display and quicklook computer uses several single board computers (SBC's) to display the photon events in real-time, calculate the centroid of the data for autoguiding of the telescope, and calculate the autocorrelation function. The system is based on the VMEbus architecture. The SBC's operate under the VxWorks real-time operating system. A Sun workstation is used for code development. the SBC's are mostly selected for speed since the computational requirements are very high. Eventually a Sun workstation for near-real-time image processing and image reconstruction will be used to receive quicklook data from the control computer.

  5. Assessing the process of designing and implementing electronic health records in a statewide public health system: the case of Colima, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofia; Lara-Esqueda, Agustín; Silvestre, Eva; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Diana, Mark L; Hotchkiss, David R; Plaza, Beatriz; Sanchez Parbul, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The findings of a case study assessing the design and implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) in the public health system of Colima, Mexico, its perceived benefits and limitations, and recommendations for improving the implementation process are presented. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to examine the experience of the actors and stakeholders participating in the design and implementation of EHRs. Results indicate that the main driving force behind the use of EHRs was to improve reporting to the two of the main government health and social development programs. Significant challenges to the success of the EHR include resistance by physicians to use the ICD-10 to code diagnoses, insufficient attention to recurrent resources needed to maintain the system, and pressure from federal programs to establish parallel information systems. Operating funds and more importantly political commitment are required to ensure sustainability of the EHRs in Colimaima.

  6. Design of a medical record review study on the incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring a higher level of care in Belgian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlayen Annemie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are unintended patient injuries that arise from healthcare management resulting in disability, prolonged hospital stay or death. Adverse events that require intensive care admission imply a considerable financial burden to the healthcare system. The epidemiology of adverse events in Belgian hospitals has never been assessed systematically. Findings A multistage retrospective review study of patients requiring a transfer to a higher level of care will be conducted in six hospitals in the province of Limburg. Patient records are reviewed starting from January 2012 by a clinical team consisting of a research nurse, a physician and a clinical pharmacist. Besides the incidence and the level of causation and preventability, also the type of adverse events and their consequences (patient harm, mortality and length of stay will be assessed. Moreover, the adequacy of the patient records and quality/usefulness of the method of medical record review will be evaluated. Discussion This paper describes the rationale for a retrospective review study of adverse events that necessitate a higher level of care. More specifically, we are particularly interested in increasing our understanding in the preventability and root causes of these events in order to implement improvement strategies. Attention is paid to the strengths and limitations of the study design.

  7. Trace fossils and substrates of the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian transition: implications for the record of early bilaterians and sediment mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droser, Mary L; Jensen, Sören; Gehling, James G

    2002-10-01

    The trace fossil record is important in determining the timing of the appearance of bilaterian animals. A conservative estimate puts this time at approximately equal 555 million years ago. The preservational potential of traces made close to the sediment-water interface is crucial to detecting early benthic activity. Our studies on earliest Cambrian sediments suggest that shallow tiers were preserved to a greater extent than typical for most of the Phanerozoic, which can be attributed both directly and indirectly to the low levels of sediment mixing. The low levels of sediment mixing meant that thin event beds were preserved. The shallow depth of sediment mixing also meant that muddy sediments were firm close to the sediment-water interface, increasing the likelihood of recording shallow-tier trace fossils in muddy sediments. Overall, trace fossils can provide a sound record of the onset of bilaterian benthic activity.

  8. Antarctic climate variability during the past few centuries based on ice core records from coastal Dronning Maud Land and its implications on the Recent warming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thamban, M.; Naik, S.S.; Laluraj, C.M.; Chaturvedi, A.; Ravindra, R.

    records in two cores correspond to changes in low and mid latitude climatic modes like the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The estimated surface air temperatures using the delta sup(18) O profiles of two ice cores...

  9. Distal tephra record for the last ca 105,000 years from core PRAD 1-2 in the central Adriatic Sea: implications for marine tephrostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, A. J.; Lowe, J. J.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Wulf, S.; Matthews, I. P.; Piva, A.; Vigliotti, L.

    2010-11-01

    Core PRAD 1-2, located on the western flank of the Mid-Adriatic Deep, contains a continuous sediment record extending back to upper MIS-11. The upper part of the record which spans the mid Holocene to MIS 5-4 (the last ca 105,000 years) has been investigated for tephra content. A total of 25 discrete tephra layers were discovered, only one of which was visible in the core sequence. The other 24 are not visible to the naked eye, nor were the majority detected by routine down-core scanning methods. A total of 625 geochemical measurements obtained from individual glass shards using WDS-EPMA enabled 21 of the 25 tephras to be assigned to known volcanic events emanating from the Campanian Province (Campi Flegrei, Somma-Vesuvius and Ischia Island). The results provide an independent basis for establishing an age-depth profile for the upper part of the PRAD 1-2 record. This study demonstrates that the number of non-visible tephra layers can significantly exceed the number of visible layers in some deep marine sequences. Routine testing for the presence of non-visible tephra layers can therefore prove rewarding, leading to the detection of additional isochrons for dating and correlating marine sequences, and for their synchronisation with terrestrial records.

  10. Rock magnetic and geochemical record in a sediment core from the eastern Arabian Sea: Diagenetic and environmental implications during the late quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Patil, S.K.; Ahmad, S.M.

    core collected at 1380 m depth off Mangalore, southwestern margin of India. The top 290 cm sediments of the core correspond to the last 18 kaBP. The delta sup(18) and magnetic records exhibit major events at approx. 16 kaBP, 14.5 kaBP, 11.5 kaBP and 9...

  11. Characteristics and sources of tephra layers in the EPICA-Dome C ice record (East Antarctica): Implications for past atmospheric circulation and ice core stratigraphic correlations [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narcisi, B.; Petit, J. R.; Delmonte, B.; Basile-Doelsch, I.; Maggi, V.

    2005-11-01

    Thirteen discrete air-fall tephra layers were identified in the last 200,000-yr section of the EPICA-Dome C ice record drilled in the East Antarctic plateau (75°06'S, 123°21'E). Quantitative grain size, glass particle morphology, and the grain-discrete major element composition of the glass fraction of these layers were investigated. Through comparison with literature data on the rock composition of Quaternary volcanic centres located within and around Antarctica, five tephra layers were attributed to South Sandwich volcanoes in the South Atlantic Ocean, two to South Shetland volcanoes (northern Antarctic Peninsula), two to Andean volcanoes, and four to Antarctic (Marie Byrd Land and Melbourne) provinces. The abundance of layers originating in the southern part of the Atlantic confirms that westerly atmospheric circulation spiralling towards East Antarctica prevailed over the last 200 ka. Moreover, the record of events from Antarctic centres suggests that atmospheric trajectories from West to East Antarctica can also be significant. A few ash layers are geochemically distinct and appear equivalent to levels from Vostok and Dome Fuji deep ice records, located ca. 600 km and ca. 2000 km, respectively, from Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. These layers provide unambiguous markers for future correlation with other Antarctic ice cores and circumpolar marine climatic records. They also provide reliable constraints to get a common timescale by glaciological modelling, and represent a first step towards absolute ice core dating.

  12. Records Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  13. Exploring a clinically friendly web-based approach to clinical decision support linked to the electronic health record: design philosophy, prototype implementation, and framework for assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Perry; Phipps, Michael; Chatterjee, Sharmila; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Levin, Forrest; Frawley, Sandra; Tokuno, Hajime

    2014-07-01

    Computer-based clinical decision support (CDS) is an important component of the electronic health record (EHR). As an increasing amount of CDS is implemented, it will be important that this be accomplished in a fashion that assists in clinical decision making without imposing unacceptable demands and burdens upon the provider's practice. The objective of our study was to explore an approach that allows CDS to be clinician-friendly from a variety of perspectives, to build a prototype implementation that illustrates features of the approach, and to gain experience with a pilot framework for assessment. The paper first discusses the project's design philosophy and goals. It then describes a prototype implementation (Neuropath/CDS) that explores the approach in the domain of neuropathic pain and in the context of the US Veterans Administration EHR. Finally, the paper discusses a framework for assessing the approach, illustrated by a pilot assessment of Neuropath/CDS. The paper describes the operation and technical design of Neuropath/CDS, as well as the results of the pilot assessment, which emphasize the four areas of focus, scope, content, and presentation. The work to date has allowed us to explore various design and implementation issues relating to the approach illustrated in Neuropath/CDS, as well as the development and pilot application of a framework for assessment.

  14. A new bipolar ice core record of volcanism from WAIS Divide and NEEM and implications for climate forcing of the last 2000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joseph R.; Layman, Lawrence; Maselli, Olivia; McGwire, Ken; Pasteris, Daniel; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Vinther, Bo; Edwards, Ross; Mulvaney, Robert; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2013-02-01

    Volcanism is a natural climate forcing causing short-term variations in temperatures. Histories of volcanic eruptions are needed to quantify their role in climate variability and assess human impacts. We present two new seasonally resolved, annually dated non-sea-salt sulfur records from polar ice cores—WAIS Divide (WDC06A) from West Antarctica spanning 408 B.C.E. to 2003 C.E. and NEEM (NEEM-2011-S1) from Greenland spanning 78 to 1997 C.E.—both analyzed using high-resolution continuous flow analysis coupled to two mass spectrometers. The high dating accuracy allowed placing the large bi-hemispheric deposition event ascribed to the eruption of Kuwae in Vanuatu (previously thought to be 1452/1453 C.E. and used as a tie-point in ice core dating) into the year 1458/1459 C.E. This new age is consistent with an independent ice core timescale from Law Dome and explains an apparent delayed response in tree rings to this volcanic event. A second volcanic event is detected in 1453 C.E. in both ice cores. We show for the first time ice core signals in Greenland and Antarctica from the strong eruption of Taupo in New Zealand in 232 C.E. In total, 133 volcanic events were extracted from WDC06A and 138 from NEEM-2011-S1, with 50 ice core signals—predominantly from tropical source volcanoes—identified simultaneously in both records. We assess the effect of large bipolar events on temperature-sensitive tree ring proxies. These two new volcanic records, synchronized with available ice core records to account for spatial variability in sulfate deposition, provide a basis for improving existing time series of volcanic forcing.

  15. Calcification and Silicification: Fossilization Potential of Cyanobacteria from Stromatolites of Niuafo‘ou's Caldera Lakes (Tonga) and Implications for the Early Fossil Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Józef; Łukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Kempe, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Calcification and silicification processes of cyanobacterial mats that form stromatolites in two caldera lakes of Niuafo‘ou Island (Vai Lahi and Vai Si‘i) were evaluated, and their importance as analogues for interpreting the early fossil record are discussed. It has been shown that the potential for morphological preservation of Niuafo‘ou cyanobacteria is highly dependent on the timing and type of mineral phase involved in the fossilization process. Four main modes of mineralization of cyanobacteria organic parts have been recognized: (i) primary early postmortem calcification by aragonite nanograins that transform quickly into larger needle-like crystals and almost totally destroy the cellular structures, (ii) primary early postmortem silicification of almost intact cyanobacterial cells that leave a record of spectacularly well-preserved cellular structures, (iii) replacement by silica of primary aragonite that has already recrystallized and obliterated the cellular structures, (iv) occasional replacement of primary aragonite precipitated in the mucopolysaccharide sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances by Al-Mg-Fe silicates. These observations suggest that the extremely scarce earliest fossil record may, in part, be the result of (a) secondary replacement by silica of primary carbonate minerals (aragonite, calcite, siderite), which, due to recrystallization, had already annihilated the cellular morphology of the mineralized microbiota or (b) relatively late primary silicification of already highly degraded and no longer morphologically identifiable microbial remains. Key Words: Stromatolites—Cyanobacteria—Calcification—Silicification—Niuafo‘ou (Tonga)—Archean. Astrobiology 12, 535–548. PMID:22794297

  16. Calcification and silicification: fossilization potential of cyanobacteria from stromatolites of Niuafo'ou's Caldera Lakes (Tonga) and implications for the early fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara; Kazmierczak, Józef; Lukomska-Kowalczyk, Maja; Kempe, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Calcification and silicification processes of cyanobacterial mats that form stromatolites in two caldera lakes of Niuafo'ou Island (Vai Lahi and Vai Si'i) were evaluated, and their importance as analogues for interpreting the early fossil record are discussed. It has been shown that the potential for morphological preservation of Niuafo'ou cyanobacteria is highly dependent on the timing and type of mineral phase involved in the fossilization process. Four main modes of mineralization of cyanobacteria organic parts have been recognized: (i) primary early postmortem calcification by aragonite nanograins that transform quickly into larger needle-like crystals and almost totally destroy the cellular structures, (ii) primary early postmortem silicification of almost intact cyanobacterial cells that leave a record of spectacularly well-preserved cellular structures, (iii) replacement by silica of primary aragonite that has already recrystallized and obliterated the cellular structures, (iv) occasional replacement of primary aragonite precipitated in the mucopolysaccharide sheaths and extracellular polymeric substances by Al-Mg-Fe silicates. These observations suggest that the extremely scarce earliest fossil record may, in part, be the result of (a) secondary replacement by silica of primary carbonate minerals (aragonite, calcite, siderite), which, due to recrystallization, had already annihilated the cellular morphology of the mineralized microbiota or (b) relatively late primary silicification of already highly degraded and no longer morphologically identifiable microbial remains.

  17. Superior control of HIV-1 replication by CD8+ T cells targeting conserved epitopes: implications for HIV vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Kunwar

    Full Text Available A successful HIV vaccine will likely induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, however, the enormous diversity of HIV has hampered the development of a vaccine that effectively elicits both arms of the adaptive immune response. To tackle the problem of viral diversity, T cell-based vaccine approaches have focused on two main strategies (i increasing the breadth of vaccine-induced responses or (ii increasing vaccine-induced responses targeting only conserved regions of the virus. The relative extent to which set-point viremia is impacted by epitope-conservation of CD8(+ T cell responses elicited during early HIV-infection is unknown but has important implications for vaccine design. To address this question, we comprehensively mapped HIV-1 CD8(+ T cell epitope-specificities in 23 ART-naïve individuals during early infection and computed their conservation score (CS by three different methods (prevalence, entropy and conseq on clade-B and group-M sequence alignments. The majority of CD8(+ T cell responses were directed against variable epitopes (p<0.01. Interestingly, increasing breadth of CD8(+ T cell responses specifically recognizing conserved epitopes was associated with lower set-point viremia (r = - 0.65, p = 0.009. Moreover, subjects possessing CD8(+ T cells recognizing at least one conserved epitope had 1.4 log10 lower set-point viremia compared to those recognizing only variable epitopes (p = 0.021. The association between viral control and the breadth of conserved CD8(+ T cell responses may be influenced by the method of CS definition and sequences used to determine conservation levels. Strikingly, targeting variable versus conserved epitopes was independent of HLA type (p = 0.215. The associations with viral control were independent of functional avidity of CD8(+ T cell responses elicited during early infection. Taken together, these data suggest that the next-generation of T-cell based HIV-1 vaccines should focus

  18. Scale-Up of World Record 16.5% CdTe Cell Design for a 50 MWp Production Facility: September 27, 2007 - March 26, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour, F. H.

    2011-05-01

    This final report covers progress made on subcontract NAT-7-77015-07 by PrimeStar Solar Inc. for the 18 month period from September 27, 2007 through March 26, 2009. The project objectives were to accelerate the commercialization of the world record 16.5% efficiency cadmium telluride photovoltaic technology. This was done by developing high performance 6"x6" prototype mini-modules and by designing and commissioning a pilot line for manufacturing of commercial sized 60cmx120cm modules. This subcontract aligns with the SAI program by accelerating the development of high efficiency low cost CdTe solar PV module manufacturing. This will contribute to the goal of PV grid parity by 2015. Progress with the deliverables and milestones in this subcontract constitutes progress towards the KPP and milestone objectives for the SAI program.

  19. A millennial-long record of warm season precipitation and flood frequency for the North-western Alps inferred from varved lake sediments: implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Benjamin; Szidat, Sönke; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The recent warming of the global climate is well recognized. However, does a warmer climate also mean a moister climate? Does dry get drier and wet get wetter? There are important questions as they relate to changes in the water cycle and impacts the water resources as well as the frequency and intensity of storms and floods in the near future. In Europe, regional climate models do not show consistent and robust results for future hydroclimatic changes and how extreme events will evolve in response to future climate change. Paleo-hydroclimatic data from natural archives are one of the few means to assess such changes in the longer context. Here, we present an annually-resolved record of warm season (MJJA) precipitation and summer flood frequency from the varved (annually laminated) sediments of proglacial Lake Oeschinen (46°30‧N-7°44‧E, 1580 m, NW Swiss Alps) back to AD 884. These data sets are inferred from the thickness of annual sediment deposits and the occurrence of flood event layers in the sediments. The chronology of the sediment record is based on multiple varve counts and validated with historical floods chronicled in written documents (back to the 14th century) and 14C AMS dates. The precipitation record shows pronounced interannual to centennial variability with humid warm season phases between AD 920-950, AD 1100-1180, AD 1300-1400, AD 1590-1650, AD 1700-1790, AD 1820-1880, and AD 1960-2008. Driest conditions are reconstructed for AD 960-1080, AD 1250-1300 and for AD 1880-1900. Our precipitation record is consistent with the few multi-centennial warm-season precipitation records available for Europe. We did not find a persistent relationship between warm-season precipitation and temperature. In contrast, results show that the relation between precipitation and temperature has oscillated between positive correlations (warmer gets wetter, cooler gets drier) and negative correlations (warmer gets drier, cooler gets wetter) with a highly significant

  20. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  1. A content analysis of the consumer-facing online information about My Health Record: Implications for increasing knowledge and awareness to facilitate uptake and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Louisa; Hill, Sophie; Allan, Meredith; Balandin, Susan; Georgiou, Andrew; Higgins, Isabel; Kraal, Ben; McCarthy, Shaun; Hemsley, Bronwyn

    2017-01-01

    Low health literacy, low levels of positive belief and privacy and security concerns have been identified as a significant barrier to personal electronic health record uptake and use. An important tool for overcoming these barriers is the consumer-facing information which accompanies the system. My Health Record (MyHR) is the Australian national e-health record system, for which a large suite of online resources exists to facilitate consumer registration and use. This study uses a number of different measures of health resource quality to assess the MyHR online consumer-facing information and identify any gaps or areas for improvement. To analyse the quality and content of the online consumer-facing resources which support the uptake and use of MyHR. Australian information resources aimed at healthcare consumers about the MyHR were included in this study. A comprehensive search using Internet search engines was conducted to locate all online consumer-facing resources about MyHR from both government and non-government sources. Readability (measured by Flesch-Kincaid grade level), year of publication/review, publishing organisation type, presentation style, linked websites, target audience, and themes were identified as important measures of health information quality, and these were recorded and reported on for each resource. Eighty resources met the inclusion criteria. The mean Flesch-Kincaid grade level was 11.8. Most resources were created by Australian government sources ( n = 55), and the most common target audience was the general public ( n = 65). Registration ( n = 51), privacy/security ( n = 49), and benefits of use ( n = 46) were the most common resource themes. The authors identified a number of gaps and areas for improvement in the provision of consumer-facing information about MyHR. Readability is too high for the general Australian population, and there are few translated resources, which means that the information provided does not cater to people

  2. Design challenges and gaps in standards in developing an interoperable zero footprint DI thin client for use in image-enabled electronic health record solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arun; Koff, David; Bak, Peter; Bender, Duane; Castelli, Jane

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of regional and national Electronic Health Record solutions has been a focus of many countries throughout the past decade. A major challenge for these deployments has been support for ubiquitous image viewing. More specifically, these deployments require an imaging solution that can work over the Internet, leverage any point of service device: desktop, tablet, phone; and access imaging data from any source seamlessly. Whereas standards exist to enable ubiquitous image viewing, few if any solutions exist that leverage these standards and meet the challenge. Rather, most of the currently available web based DI viewing solutions are either proprietary solutions or require special plugins. We developed a true zero foot print browser based DI viewing solution based on the Web Access DICOM Objects (WADO) and Cross-enterprise Document Sharing for Imaging (XDS-I.b) standards to a) demonstrate that a truly ubiquitous image viewer can be deployed; b) identify the gaps in the current standards and the design challenges for developing such a solution. The objective was to develop a viewer, which works on all modern browsers on both desktop and mobile devices. The implementation allows basic viewing functionalities of scroll, zoom, pan and window leveling (limited). The major gaps identified in the current DICOM WADO standards are a lack of ability to allow any kind of 3D reconstruction or MPR views. Other design challenges explored include considerations related to optimization of the solution for response time and low memory foot print.

  3. Human-centered design of a personal health record system for metabolic syndrome management based on the ISO 9241-210:2010 standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinango, Charic D; Benavides, Juan S; Cerón, Jesús D; López, Diego M; Álvarez, Rosa E

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of information and communication technologies to support healthy lifestyle interventions. In particular, personal health record systems (PHR-Ss) empower self-care, essential to support lifestyle changes. Approaches such as the user-centered design (UCD), which is already a standard within the software industry (ISO 9241-210:2010), provide specifications and guidelines to guarantee user acceptance and quality of eHealth systems. However, no single PHR-S for metabolic syndrome (MS) developed following the recommendations of the ISO 9241-210:2010 specification has been found in the literature. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a PHR-S for the management of MS according to the principles and recommendations of the ISO 9241-210 standard. The proposed PHR-S was developed using a formal software development process which, in addition to the traditional activities of any software process, included the principles and recommendations of the ISO 9241-210 standard. To gather user information, a survey sample of 1,187 individuals, eight interviews, and a focus group with seven people were performed. Throughout five iterations, three prototypes were built. Potential users of each system evaluated each prototype. The quality attributes of efficiency, effectiveness, and user satisfaction were assessed using metrics defined in the ISO/IEC 25022 standard. The following results were obtained: 1) a technology profile from 1,187 individuals at risk for MS from the city of Popayan, Colombia, identifying that 75.2% of the people use the Internet and 51% had a smartphone; 2) a PHR-S to manage MS developed (the PHR-S has the following five main functionalities: record the five MS risk factors, share these measures with health care professionals, and three educational modules on nutrition, stress management, and a physical activity); and 3) usability tests on each prototype obtaining the following results: 100

  4. Human-centered design of a personal health record system for metabolic syndrome management based on the ISO 9241-210:2010 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farinango CD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Charic D Farinango,1 Juan S Benavides,1 Jesús D Cerón,1 Diego M López,1 Rosa E Álvarez2 1Telematics Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, Colombia; 2Human Genetics Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, Colombia Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of information and communication technologies to support healthy lifestyle interventions. In particular, personal health record systems (PHR-Ss empower self-care, essential to support lifestyle changes. Approaches such as the user-centered design (UCD, which is already a standard within the software industry (ISO 9241-210:2010, provide specifications and guidelines to guarantee user acceptance and quality of eHealth systems. However, no single PHR-S for metabolic syndrome (MS developed following the recommendations of the ISO 9241-210:2010 specification has been found in the literature.Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the development of a PHR-S for the management of MS according to the principles and recommendations of the ISO 9241-210 standard.Methods: The proposed PHR-S was developed using a formal software development process which, in addition to the traditional activities of any software process, included the principles and recommendations of the ISO 9241-210 standard. To gather user information, a survey sample of 1,187 individuals, eight interviews, and a focus group with seven people were performed. Throughout five iterations, three prototypes were built. Potential users of each system evaluated each prototype. The quality attributes of efficiency, effectiveness, and user satisfaction were assessed using metrics defined in the ISO/IEC 25022 standard.Results: The following results were obtained: 1 a technology profile from 1,187 ­individuals at risk for MS from the city of Popayan, Colombia, identifying that 75.2% of the people

  5. Novel Highly Branched Isoprenoid Biomarkers as Indicators of Sea-Ice Diatoms: Implications for Historical Sea-Ice Records and Future Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, G.; Belt, S. T.; Rowland, S. J.; Poulin, M.; Sicre, M.; Michel, C.

    2006-12-01

    Polar oceans are important contributors to the Earth's climate systems. In particular, sea-ice influences the exchanges of heat and moisture between polar oceans and atmosphere, and its high albedo means that it reflects much of incoming solar radiation. In addition, when melting, the outflow of low-salinity surface water impacts on the global deep oceanic circulation, which can influence the climate to a large extent. Therefore, increasing our knowledge about how changes in past sea-ice extent contributes to our understanding of the actual changes in climate is critical if we aim to succeed in predicting future changes. Direct global estimates of sea-ice cover derived from remote sensing observations are now routine but have only been possible since the 1970's. Previously, analysis of data derived from early ship records have been carried out, providing an observed sea ice record for the 20th century and earlier. Such records have been based on archive materials including lighthouse diaries, ships logs, travellers journals and newspaper reports. However, only the most recent direct estimations of sea-ice cover are believed to be reliable and therefore, longer time scales studies are only possible using proxy data sources. In the current project, we are investigating the potential to use chemical biomarkers of sea-ice associated diatoms to serve as a proxy of sea-ice cover in the Arctic. To date, our investigations have revealed that a restricted number of diatoms biosynthesise a class of secondary metabolite chemicals termed highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs). These chemicals are ubiquitous to marine sediments, but only one structural form of the HBIs exists in Arctic sea-ice. In turn, this chemical (a C25 HBI mono-unsaturated alkene) can almost certainly be associated with some Haslea spp. which are known to occur in Arctic sea-ice. Indeed, we have identified three such species in our work and now have them in culture. In order for the HBI biomarker to be useful

  6. A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat

    2013-04-01

    Past atmospheric CO2 concentrations reconstructed from polar ice cores [Monnin et al., 2004] combined with its Δ14C signature as conserved in tree-rings [Reimer et al., 2009] provide important information both on the cycling of carbon as well as the production of radiocarbon in the atmosphere. As the 14C production rate (Q) is modulated by changes in the strength of the magnetic field enclosed in solar wind, it serves as a valuable proxy for past changes in solar activity. Using the Bern3D-LPX, a fully featured Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) with a 3D ocean and a dynamic vegetation model component, we perform transient carbon-cycle simulations spanning the past 21 kyr. By solving the atmospheric 14C budget, the radiocarbon production rate over the Holocene is reconstructed. Applying different deglacial forcings, as well as a control-simulation with constant climate, the sensitivity of Q to carbon-cycle changes is discussed. The error in the terrestrial 14C record is translated into an uncertainty in Q using a Monte-Carlo approach. In addition, uncertainties in the global carbon inventory, GPP and air-sea gas-exchange are taken into account. The estimated modern (1950-2005) production rate of 1.55±0.20 atoms/cm2/s is close to a recent theoretical calculations by Kovaltsov et al. (2012) yielding a modern production rate of 1.64 atoms/cm2/s but considerably lower than the estimated 2 atoms/cm2/s by Masarik and Beer (2009). The newly produced production rate record is then interpreted as a proxy for solar activity changes in the past 10 kyrs. To do so, we use published results from particle simulations [Masarik and Beer, 1999] together with the latest reconstruction of the geomagnetic dipole moment [Knudsen et al., 2008] to calculate the past history of the so-called solar modulation potential (Φ). The 14C based Φ is extended to 2005 A.D. with instrumental data [Usoskin et al., 2011]. In a subsequent step, Φ is translated into past

  7. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trabecular architecture in the thumb of Pan and Homo: implications for investigating hand use, loading, and hand preference in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nicholas B; Kivell, Tracy L; Gross, Thomas; Pahr, Dieter H; Lazenby, Richard A; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Hershkovitz, Israel; Skinner, Matthew M

    2016-12-01

    Humans display an 85-95% cross-cultural right-hand bias in skilled tasks, which is considered a derived behavior because such a high frequency is not reported in wild non-human primates. Handedness is generally considered to be an evolutionary byproduct of selection for manual dexterity and augmented visuo-cognitive capabilities within the context of complex stone tool manufacture/use. Testing this hypothesis requires an understanding of when appreciable levels of right dominant behavior entered the fossil record. Because bone remodels in vivo, skeletal asymmetries are thought to reflect greater mechanical loading on the dominant side, but incomplete preservation of external morphology and ambiguities about past loading environments complicate interpretations. We test if internal trabecular bone is capable of providing additional information by analyzing the thumb of Homo sapiens and Pan. We assess trabecular structure at the distal head and proximal base of paired (left/right) first metacarpals using micro-CT scans of Homo sapiens (n = 14) and Pan (n = 9). Throughout each epiphysis we quantify average and local bone volume fraction (BV/TV), degree of anisotropy (DA), and elastic modulus (E) to address bone volume patterning and directional asymmetry. We find a right directional asymmetry in H. sapiens consistent with population-level handedness, but also report a left directional asymmetry in Pan that may be the result of postural and/or locomotor loading. We conclude that trabecular bone is capable of detecting right/left directional asymmetry, but suggest coupling studies of internal structure with analyses of other skeletal elements and cortical bone prior to applications in the fossil record. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. El Niño impact on mollusk biomineralization-implications for trace element proxy reconstructions and the paleo-archeological record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pérez-Huerta

    Full Text Available Marine macroinvertebrates are ideal sentinel organisms to monitor rapid environmental changes associated with climatic phenomena. These organisms build up protective exoskeletons incrementally by biologically-controlled mineralization, which is deeply rooted in long-term evolutionary processes. Recent studies relating potential rapid environmental fluctuations to climate change, such as ocean acidification, suggest modifications on carbonate biominerals of marine invertebrates. However, the influence of known, and recurrent, climatic events on these biological processes during active mineralization is still insufficiently understood. Analysis of Peruvian cockles from the 1982-83 large magnitude El Niño event shows significant alterations of the chemico-structure of carbonate biominerals. Here, we show that bivalves modify the main biomineralization mechanism during the event to continue shell secretion. As a result, magnesium content increases to stabilize amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC, inducing a rise in Mg/Ca unrelated to the associated increase in sea-surface temperature. Analysis of variations in Sr/Ca also suggests that this proxy should not be used in these bivalves to detect the temperature anomaly, while Ba/Ca peaks are recorded in shells in response to an increase in productivity, or dissolved barium in seawater, after the event. Presented data contribute to a better understanding of the effects of abrupt climate change on shell biomineralization, while also offering an alternative view of bivalve elemental proxy reconstructions. Furthermore, biomineralization changes in mollusk shells can be used as a novel potential proxy to provide a more nuanced historical record of El Niño and similar rapid environmental change events.

  10. Exploring the clinical decision-making used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists: A mixed method qualitative design of simulation, video recording and think aloud techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Debbie; Roberts, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    The ability of physiotherapists to make clinical decisions is a vital component of being an autonomous practitioner, yet this complex phenomenon has been under-researched in cardiorespiratory physiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to explore clinical decision-making (CDM) by experienced physiotherapists in a scenario of a simulated patient experiencing acute deterioration of their respiratory function. The main objective of this observational study was to identify the actions, thoughts, and behaviours used by experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists in their clinical decision-making processes. A mixed-methods (qualitative) design employing observation and think-aloud, was adopted using a computerised manikin in a simulated environment. The participants clinically assessed the manikin programmed with the same clinical signs, under standardised conditions in the clinical skills practice suite, which was set up as a ward environment. Experienced cardiorespiratory physiotherapists, recruited from clinical practice within a 50-mile radius of the University(*). Participants were video-recorded throughout the assessment and treatment and asked to verbalise their thought processes using the 'think-aloud' method. The recordings were transcribed verbatim and managed using a Framework approach. Eight cardiorespiratory physiotherapists participated (mean 7years clinical experience, range 3.5-16years. CDM was similar to the collaborative hypothetico-deductive model, five-rights nursing model, reasoning strategies, inductive reasoning and pattern recognition. However, the CDM demonstrated by the physiotherapists was complex, interactive and iterative. Information processing occurred continuously throughout the whole interaction with the patient, and the specific cognitive skills of recognition, matching, discriminating, relating, inferring, synthesising and prediction were identified as being used sequentially. The findings from this study were used to develop a new

  11. Slipstream: an early Holocene slump and turbidite record from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge off western Canada and paleoseismic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, Randolph J.; Riedel, Michael; Rogers, Gary C.; Pohlman, John W.; Benway, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Slipstream Slump, a well-preserved 3 km wide sedimentary failure from the frontal ridge of the Cascadia accretionary wedge 85 km off Vancouver Island, Canada, was sampled during Canadian Coast Guard Ship (CCGS) John P. Tully cruise 2008007PGC along a transect of five piston cores. Shipboard sediment analysis and physical property logging revealed 12 turbidites interbedded with thick hemipelagic sediments overlying the slumped glacial diamict. Despite the different sedimentary setting, atop the abyssal plain fan, this record is similar in number and age to the sequence of turbidites sampled farther to the south from channel systems along the Cascadia Subduction Zone, with no extra turbidites present in this local record. Given the regional physiographic and tectonic setting, megathrust earthquake shaking is the most likely trigger for both the initial slumping and subsequent turbidity currents, with sediments sourced exclusively from the exposed slump face of the frontal ridge. Planktonic foraminifera picked from the resedimented diamict of the underlying main slump have a disordered cluster of 14C ages between 12.8 and 14.5 ka BP. For the post-slump stratigraphy, an event-free depth scale is defined by removing the turbidite sediment intervals and using the hemipelagic sediments. Nine14C dates from the most foraminifera-rich intervals define a nearly constant hemipelagic sedimentation rate of 0.021 cm/year. The combined age model is defined using only planktonic foraminiferal dates and Bayesian analysis with a Poisson-process sedimentation model. The age model of ongoing hemipelagic sedimentation is strengthened by physical property correlations from Slipstream events to the turbidites for the Barkley Canyon site 40 km south. Additional modelling addressed the possibilities of seabed erosion or loss and basal erosion beneath turbidites. Neither of these approaches achieves a modern seabed age when applying the commonly used regional marine 14C reservoir age of

  12. The isotope record of short- and long-term dietary changes in sheep tooth enamel: Implications for quantitative reconstruction of paleodiets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzo, A.; Balasse, M.; Passey, B. H.; Moloney, A. P.; Monahan, F. J.; Schmidt, O.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative reconstruction of paleodiet by means of sequential sampling and carbon isotope analysis in hypsodont tooth enamel requires a precise knowledge of the isotopic enrichment between dietary carbon and carbon from enamel apatite ( ɛD-E), as well as of the timing and duration of the enamel mineralization process (amelogenesis). To better constrain these parameters, we performed a series of controlled feeding experiments on sheep ranging in age from 6 to 24 months-old. Twenty-eight lambs and 14 ewes were fed isotopically distinct diets for different periods of time, and then slaughtered, allowing the timing and rate of molar growth to be determined. High resolution sampling and stable carbon isotope analysis of breath CO 2 performed on six individuals following a diet-switch showed that 70-90% of dietary carbon had turned over in less than 24 h. Sequential sampling and carbon isotopic analysis was performed on the first (M 1) and second (M 2) lower molars of four lambs as well as on the third lower molar (M 3) of 11 ewes. The changes in diet were recorded in all molars. We found that the length of enamel matrix apposition is approximately one-quarter of the final tooth length during crown extension, and that enamel maturation spans slightly less than 3 months in M 1, and 4 months in M 2 and M 3. Portions of enamel in equilibrium with dietary carbon were used to calculate ɛD-E values. Animals on grass silage diets had values similar to previous observations, whereas animal switched to pelleted corn diets had values ca. 4‰ lower, a pattern consistent with lower methane production observed for animals fed concentrate diets. The tooth enamel forward model of Passey and Cerling (2002) closely predicted the amplitude of isotope changes recorded in tooth enamel, but slightly underestimated the rate of isotope change, suggesting that the rate of accumulation of carbonate during maturation may not be constant over time. Although stable isotope profiles in tooth

  13. Integrating data from an online diabetes prevention program into an electronic health record and clinical workflow, a design phase usability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishuris, Rebecca Grochow; Yoder, Jordan; Wilson, Dan; Mann, Devin

    2016-07-11

    Health information is increasingly being digitally stored and exchanged. The public is regularly collecting and storing health-related data on their own electronic devices and in the cloud. Diabetes prevention is an increasingly important preventive health measure, and diet and exercise are key components of this. Patients are turning to online programs to help them lose weight. Despite primary care physicians being important in patients' weight loss success, there is no exchange of information between the primary care provider (PCP) and these online weight loss programs. There is an emerging opportunity to integrate this data directly into the electronic health record (EHR), but little is known about what information to share or how to share it most effectively. This study aims to characterize the preferences of providers concerning the integration of externally generated lifestyle modification data into a primary care EHR workflow. We performed a qualitative study using two rounds of semi-structured interviews with primary care providers. We used an iterative design process involving primary care providers, health information technology software developers and health services researchers to develop the interface. Using grounded-theory thematic analysis 4 themes emerged from the interviews: 1) barriers to establishing healthy lifestyles, 2) features of a lifestyle modification program, 3) reporting of outcomes to the primary care provider, and 4) integration with primary care. These themes guided the rapid-cycle agile design process of an interface of data from an online diabetes prevention program into the primary care EHR workflow. The integration of external health-related data into the EHR must be embedded into the provider workflow in order to be useful to the provider and beneficial for the patient. Accomplishing this requires evaluation of that clinical workflow during software design. The development of this novel interface used rapid cycle iterative

  14. Record Keeping Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  15. The Utility of Rural and Underserved Designations in Geospatial Assessments of Distance Traveled to Healthcare Services: Implications for Public Health Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Wendel, Monica L.; Ahn, SangNam; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Drake, Kelly N.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities research in rural populations is based on several common taxonomies identified by geography and population density. However, little is known about the implications of different rurality definitions on public health outcomes. To help illuminate the meaning of different rural designations often used in research, service delivery, or policy reports, this study will (1) review the different definitions of rurality and their purposes; (2) identify the overlap of various rural designations in an eight-county Brazos Valley region in Central Texas; (3) describe participant characteristic profiles based on distances traveled to obtain healthcare services; and (4) examine common profile characteristics associated with each designation. Data were analyzed from a random sample from 1,958 Texas adults participating in a community assessment. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify natural groupings of individuals based on distance traveled to obtain three healthcare services: medical care, dental care, and prescription medication pick-up. Significant variation in cluster representation and resident characteristics was observed by rural designation. Given widely used taxonomies for designating areas as rural (or provider shortage) in health-related research, this study highlights differences that could influence research results and subsequent program and policy development based on rural designation. PMID:23843803

  16. Sediment record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Liaohe River Delta wetland, Northeast China: Implications for regional population migration and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuanliang; Lin, Tian; Ye, Siyuan; Ding, Xigui; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of a 210Pb-dated sediment core extracted from the Liaohe River Delta wetland were measured to reconstruct the sediment record of PAHs and its response to human activity for the past 300 years in Northeast China. The concentrations of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority PAHs (∑16PAHs) ranged from 46 to 1167 ng g-1 in this sediment core. The concentrations of the 16 PAHs (especially 4- and 5+6-ring PAHs) after the 1980s (surface sediments 0-6 cm) were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than those of the down-core samples. The exponential growth of 4-ring and 5+6-ring PAH concentrations after the 1980s responded well to the increased energy consumption and number of civil vehicles resulting from the rapid economic development in China. Prior to 1950, relatively low levels of the 16 PAHs and a high proportion of 2+3-ring PAHs was indicative of biomass burning as the main source of the PAHs. A significant increase in the 2 + 3 ring PAH concentration from the 1860s-1920s was observed and could be attributed to a constant influx of population migration into Northeast China. It was suggested that the link between historical trend of PAHs and population or energy use involves two different economic stages. Typically, in an agricultural economy, the greater the population size, the greater the emission of PAHs from biomass burning, while in an industrial economy, the increase in sedimentary PAH concentrations is closely related to increasing energy consumption of fossil fuels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction of compositional and hydration information of sulfates from laser-induced plasma spectra recorded under Mars atmospheric conditions - Implications for ChemCam investigations on Curiosity rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobron, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.sobron@asc-csa.gc.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Wang, Alian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sobron, Francisco [Unidad Asociada UVa-CSIC a traves del Centro de Astrobiologia, Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo, Parcela 203, Boecillo (Valladolid), 47151 (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Given the volume of spectral data required for providing accurate compositional information and thereby insight in mineralogy and petrology from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements, fast data processing tools are a must. This is particularly true during the tactical operations of rover-based planetary exploration missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, which will carry a remote LIBS spectrometer in its science payload. We have developed: an automated fast pre-processing sequence of algorithms for converting a series of LIBS spectra (typically 125) recorded from a single target into a reliable SNR-enhanced spectrum; a dedicated routine to quantify its spectral features; and a set of calibration curves using standard hydrous and multi-cation sulfates. These calibration curves allow deriving the elemental compositions and the degrees of hydration of various hydrous sulfates, one of the two major types of secondary minerals found on Mars. Our quantitative tools are built upon calibration-curve modeling, through the correlation of the elemental concentrations and the peak areas of the atomic emission lines observed in the LIBS spectra of standard samples. At present, we can derive the elemental concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, S, O, and H in sulfates, as well as the hydration degrees of Ca- and Mg-sulfates, from LIBS spectra obtained in both Earth atmosphere and Mars atmospheric conditions in a Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACh). In addition, structural information can be potentially obtained for various Fe-sulfates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routines for LIBS spectral data fast automated processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of elements and determination of the elemental composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration curves for sulfate samples in Earth and Mars atmospheric conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe curves probably related to the crystalline

  18. Classification of modern and old Río Tinto sedimentary deposits through the biomolecular record using a life marker biochip: implications for detecting life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5 g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar

  19. Ice core records of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers from Aurora Peak in Alaska since 1660s: Implication for climate change variability in the North Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Ono, Kaori; Seki, Osamu; Fu, Pingqing; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Monoterpene and isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers are reported for the first time in an Alaskan ice core to better understand the biological source strength before and after the industrial revolution in the Northern Hemisphere. We found significantly high concentrations of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers (e.g., pinic, pinonic, and 2-methylglyceric acids, 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) in the ice core, which show historical trends with good correlation to each other since 1660s. They show positive correlations with sugar compounds (e.g., mannitol, fructose, glucose, inositol and sucrose), and anti-correlations with α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) and fatty acids (e.g., C18:1) in the same ice core. These results suggest similar sources and transport pathways for monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers. In addition, we found that concentrations of C5-alkene triols (e.g., 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene, cis-2-methyl 1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene and trans-2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene) in the ice core have increased after the Great Pacific Climate Shift (late 1970s). They show positive correlations with α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids (e.g., C18:1) in the ice core, suggesting that enhanced oceanic emissions of biogenic organic compounds through the marine boundary layer are recorded in the ice core from Alaska. Photochemical oxidation process for these monoterpene- and isoprene-/sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are suggested to be linked with the periodicity of multi-decadal climate oscillations and retreat of sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere.

  20. Kinematics and paleoseismology of the Vernon Fault, Marlborough Fault System, New Zealand: Implications for contractional fault bend deformation, earthquake triggering, and the record of Hikurangi subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Timothy D.; Little, Timothy A.; Clark, Kate J.; Van Dissen, Russ; Barnes, Philip M.

    2014-07-01

    The ~40 km long Vernon Fault, in the Marlborough Fault System of New Zealand, is characterized by dextral slip with subordinate reverse slip and exhibits abrupt variations in strike of up to 90°. Onshore fieldwork, paleoseismic trenching, and offshore high-frequency seismic reflection data are integrated together to identify the kinematics and paleoseismic history of three sections of the fault: (1) the NNE striking Vernon Hills section which branches off from the Awatere Fault; (2) the NE striking Big Lagoon section which borders Big Lagoon to the south and extends ~9 km offshore to the east; and (3) the E-W striking Wairau Basin section, which is entirely submarine. The Vernon Fault can be shown to have a dextral slip rate of 0.8-4.9 mm/yr with a preferred estimate of 0.9 mm/yr (on the Big Lagoon section). We infer that a further unrecognized 3-4 mm/yr of dextral slip has been accommodated off fault as a result of accumulated slip on small and/or blind reverse faults adjacent to a 6 km wide restraining bend in the main fault. The onshore and offshore paleoseismic records are in good agreement. These indicate three to five events at eight sites and a mean recurrence interval of 3.9 ± 1.2 ka over the past ~16 kyr, with the last event taking place at ~3.3 ka. Earthquakes on the Vernon Fault are responsible for Holocene subsidence rate of Big Lagoon over the last ~13 ka. Most of the subsidence of this lagoon has been the result of surface deformation related with southern Hikurangi megathrust earthquakes.

  1. SNC Oxygen Fugacity Recorded in Pyroxenes and its Implications for the Oxidation State of the Martian Interior: An Experimental and Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanta, M. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation state of a magma is critical as it is one of the parameters which controls the nature and composition of the resulting crystals. In terrestrial magmatic systems, oxygen fugacity (fo2) is known to vary by over nine orders of magnitude. With variations of this magnitude, understanding the compositional differences, phase changes, and crystallization sequence variations, caused by the magma fo2, is essential in deciphering the origin of all igneous rocks. Magmatic oxidation state is of great importance in that it reflects the degree of oxidation of the source region and can provide insight into magmatic processes, such as metasomatism, degassing, and assimilation, which may have changed them. Carmichael [1991] argues that most magmas are unlikely to have their redox states altered from those of their source region. This assumption allows for estimation of the oxidation state of planetary interiors. Conversely, it is known that the fo2 of the magma can be affected by other processes, which occur outside of the source region and therefore, the oxidation state may record those too. Processes which could overprint source region fugacities include melt dehydrogenation or other volatile loss, water or melt infiltration, or assimilation of oxidized or reduced wallrock. Understanding which of these processes is responsible for the redox state of a magma can provide crucial information regarding igneous processes and other forces active in the region. The composition of the SNC basalts and their widely varying proposed oxidation states raise some interesting questions. Do the SNC meteorites have an oxidized or reduced signature? What was the oxygen fugacity of the SNC source region at the time of melt generation? Is the fugacity calculated for the various SNC samples the fugacity of the magma source region or was it overprinted by later events? Are there different oxidation states in the Martian interior or a single one? This proposal seeks to

  2. Atmospheric Pb deposition in Spain during the last 4600 years recorded by two ombrotrophic peat bogs and implications for the use of peat as archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Cortiza, A; García-Rodeja, E; Pontevedra Pombal, X; Nóvoa Muñoz, J C; Weiss, D; Cheburkin, A

    2002-06-20

    Two ombrotrophic peat bogs in Northwestern Spain provided a history of 4600 years of Pb accumulation. Highest Pb concentrations (84-87 microg g(-1)) were found near the bogs' surface, but there were also other significant peaks (6-14 microg g(-1)), indicating pre-industrial atmospheric pollution. The enrichment factors (EFs) in both cores show a remarkably similar record. Atmospheric Pb pollution dates back to at least approximately 2500 years ago, reaching a first maximum during the Roman period. For the last 300 years, Pb EFs significantly increased due to industrial development, but the uppermost samples of the bogs show decreasing Pb EFs, probably due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. These results are also supported by 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios, as they continuously decrease from ca. 3000 BP until 2000 BP (from 1.275 at 4070 14C years BP to 1.182), indicating the growing importance of nonradiogenic Pb released from Iberian ores by ancient mining. Peat samples at a 3-5-cm depth are even less radiogenic (206Pb/107Pb = 1.157), indicating the strong influence of leaded gasoline. Despite the common history shared by the two bogs, striking differences were found for Pb enrichment, whether this was calculated by normalising to the Pb/Ti ratio of the upper continental crust or to the Pb/Ti ratios of peats from pre-anthropogenic times. This effect seems to be related to differences in Ti accumulation in both bogs, possibly due to physical fractionation of the airborne dust during wind transport. Enrichment has to be carefully considered when comparing the results obtained for different bogs, since our results suggest that normalising to crustal proportions is meaningless when the bulk of the deposition in an area is strongly influenced by short- and medium-range dust transport.

  3. Atmospheric Pb deposition in Spain during the last 4600 years recorded by two ombrotrophic peat bogs and implications for the use of peat as archive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Cortizas, A.; Garcia-Rodeja, E.; Pontevedra Pombal, X.; Novoa Munoz, J.C. [Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola, Faculdad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago, Campus Sur E-15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Weiss, D. [T.H. Huxley School, Imperial College, Prince Consort Road, SW7 2BP London (United Kingdom); Cheburkin, A. [EMMA Analytical Inc Canada, ON Elmvale (Canada)

    2002-06-20

    Two ombrotrophic peat bogs in Northwestern Spain provided a history of 4600 years of Pb accumulation. Highest Pb concentrations (84-87 {mu}g g{sup -1}) were found near the bogs' surface, but there were also other significant peaks (6-14 {mu}g g{sup -1}), indicating pre-industrial atmospheric pollution. The enrichment factors (EFs) in both cores show a remarkably similar record. Atmospheric Pb pollution dates back to at least approximately 2500 years ago, reaching a first maximum during the Roman period. For the last 300 years, Pb EFs significantly increased due to industrial development, but the uppermost samples of the bogs show decreasing Pb EFs, probably due to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. These results are also supported by 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios, as they continuously decrease from ca. 3000 BP until 2000 BP (from 1.275 at 4070 14C years BP to 1.182), indicating the growing importance of non-radiogenic Pb released from Iberian ores by ancient mining. Peat samples at a 3-5-cm depth are even less radiogenic (206Pb/107Pb=1.157), indicating the strong influence of leaded gasoline. Despite the common history shared by the two bogs, striking differences were found for Pb enrichment, whether this was calculated by normalising to the Pb/Ti ratio of the upper continental crust or to the Pb/Ti ratios of peats from pre-anthropogenic times. This effect seems to be related to differences in Ti accumulation in both bogs, possibly due to physical fractionation of the airborne dust during wind transport. Enrichment has to be carefully considered when comparing the results obtained for different bogs, since our results suggest that normalising to crustal proportions is meaningless when the bulk of the deposition in an area is strongly influenced by short- and medium-range dust transport.

  4. Design of an electronic medical record (EMR-based clinical decision support system to alert clinicians to the onset of severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fountain S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to design an electronic medical record ­based alert system to detect the onset of severe sepsis with sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV above 50%. Methods: The PPV for each of seven potential criteria for suspected infection (white blood cell count (WBCC >12 or 0.1 K/uL or immature granulocyte % >1%, temperature >38 C. or 50%, the charts of sixty consecutive patients who met CMS criteria for severe sepsis were reviewed to calculate the sensitivity of organ dysfunction plus any one of the suspected infection criteria. Results: Four proposed criteria for suspected infection had PPV >50%: WBCC >12 x 10 9 /L (69%; 95%CI:53­84%, Temperature >38C. (84%; 95%CI:68­100%, Temperature <36C. (57% 95%CI:36­78%, and initiation of antibiotics (70% 95%CI:56­84%. These four criteria were present in 53/60 of the patients with severe sepsis by CMS criteria, yielding a sensitivity of 88.3% (95%CI: 80.2­96.4%. Alert criteria were satisfied before the onset of severe sepsis in 25/53 cases, and within 90 minutes afterwards in 28/53 cases. Conclusions: Our criteria for suspected infection plus organ dysfunction yields reasonable sensitivity and PPV for the detection of severe sepsis in real­time.

  5. Electronic medical record system at an opioid agonist treatment programme: study design, pre-implementation results and post-implementation trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, Steven; Brown, Lawrence S.; Chu, Melissa; John-Hull, Carlota; Madray, Charles; Zavala, Roberto; Louie, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are commonly included in health care reform discussions. However, their embrace by the health care community has been slow. Methods At Addiction Research and Treatment Corporation, an outpatient opioid agonist treatment programme that also provides primary medical care, HIV medical care and case management, substance abuse counselling and vocational services, we studied the implementation of an EMR in the domains of quality, productivity, satisfaction, risk management and financial performance utilizing a prospective pre- and post-implementation study design. Results This report details the research approach, pre-implementation findings for all five domains, analysis of the pre-implementation findings and some preliminary post-implementation results in the domains of quality and risk management. For quality, there was a highly statistically significant improvement in timely performance of annual medical assessments (P < 0.001) and annual multidiscipline assessments (P < 0.0001). For risk management, the number of events was not sufficient to perform valid statistical analysis. Conclusions The preliminary findings in the domain of quality are very promising. Should the findings in the other domains prove to be positive, then the impetus to implement EMR in similar health care facilities will be advanced. PMID:21414112

  6. Implications of the problem orientated medical record (POMR) for research using electronic GP databases: a comparison of the Doctors Independent Network Database (DIN) and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Iain M; Cook, Derek G; De Wilde, Stephen; Bremner, Stephen A; Richards, Nicky; Caine, Steve; Strachan, David P; Hilton, Sean R

    2003-09-30

    The General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and Doctor's Independent Network Database (DIN), are large electronic primary care databases compiled in the UK during the 1990s. They provide a valuable resource for epidemiological and health services research. GPRD (based on VAMP) presents notes as a series of discrete episodes, whereas DIN is based on a system (MEDITEL) that used a Problem Orientated Medical Record (POMR) which links prescriptions to diagnostic problems. We have examined the implications for research of these different underlying philosophies. Records of 40,183 children from 141 practices in DIN and 76,310 from 464 practices in GRPD who were followed to age 5 were used to compare the volume of recording of prescribing and diagnostic codes in the two databases. To assess the importance and additional value of the POMR within DIN, the appropriateness of diagnostic linking to skin emollient prescriptions was investigated. Variation between practices for both the number of days on which prescriptions were issued and diagnoses were recorded was marked in both databases. Mean number of "prescription days" during the first 5 years of life was similar in DIN (19.5) and in GPRD (19.8), but the average number of "diagnostic days" was lower in DIN (15.8) than in GPRD (22.9). Adjustment for linkage increased the average "diagnostic days" to 23.1 in DIN. 32.7% of emollient prescriptions in GPRD appeared with an eczema diagnosis on the same day compared to only 19.4% in DIN; however, 86.4% of prescriptions in DIN were linked to an earlier eczema diagnosis. More specifically 83% of emollient prescriptions appeared under a problem heading of eczema in the 121 practices that were using problem headings satisfactorily. Prescribing records in DIN and GPRD are very similar, but the usage of diagnostic codes is more parsimonious in DIN because of its POMR structure. Period prevalence rates will be underestimated in DIN unless this structure is taken into account. The

  7. Implications of the problem orientated medical record (POMR for research using electronic GP databases: a comparison of the Doctors Independent Network Database (DIN and the General Practice Research Database (GPRD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caine Steve

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Practice Research Database (GPRD and Doctor's Independent Network Database (DIN, are large electronic primary care databases compiled in the UK during the 1990s. They provide a valuable resource for epidemiological and health services research. GPRD (based on VAMP presents notes as a series of discrete episodes, whereas DIN is based on a system (MEDITEL that used a Problem Orientated Medical Record (POMR which links prescriptions to diagnostic problems. We have examined the implications for research of these different underlying philosophies. Methods Records of 40,183 children from 141 practices in DIN and 76,310 from 464 practices in GRPD who were followed to age 5 were used to compare the volume of recording of prescribing and diagnostic codes in the two databases. To assess the importance and additional value of the POMR within DIN, the appropriateness of diagnostic linking to skin emollient prescriptions was investigated. Results Variation between practices for both the number of days on which prescriptions were issued and diagnoses were recorded was marked in both databases. Mean number of "prescription days" during the first 5 years of life was similar in DIN (19.5 and in GPRD (19.8, but the average number of "diagnostic days" was lower in DIN (15.8 than in GPRD (22.9. Adjustment for linkage increased the average "diagnostic days" to 23.1 in DIN. 32.7% of emollient prescriptions in GPRD appeared with an eczema diagnosis on the same day compared to only 19.4% in DIN; however, 86.4% of prescriptions in DIN were linked to an earlier eczema diagnosis. More specifically 83% of emollient prescriptions appeared under a problem heading of eczema in the 121 practices that were using problem headings satisfactorily. Conclusion Prescribing records in DIN and GPRD are very similar, but the usage of diagnostic codes is more parsimonious in DIN because of its POMR structure. Period prevalence rates will be underestimated

  8. Riverine discharges to Chesapeake Bay: Analysis of long-term (1927–2014) records and implications for future flows in the Chesapeake Bay basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Moyer, Douglas; Mills, Aaron L.

    2017-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay (CB) basin is under a total maximum daily load (TMDL) mandate to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loads to the bay. Identifying shifts in the hydro-climatic regime may help explain observed trends in water quality. To identify potential shifts, hydrologic data (1927–2014) for 27 watersheds in the CB basin were analyzed to determine the relationships among long-term precipitation and stream discharge trends. The amount, frequency, and intensity of precipitation increased from 1910 to 1996 in the eastern U.S., with the observed increases greater in the northeastern U.S. than the southeastern U.S. The CB watershed spans the north-to-south gradient in precipitation increases, and hydrologic differences have been observed in watersheds north relative to watersheds south of the Pennsylvania—Maryland (PA-MD) border. Time series of monthly mean precipitation data specific to each of 27 watersheds were derived from the Precipitation-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) dataset, and monthly mean stream-discharge data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey streamgage records. All annual precipitation trend slopes in the 18 watersheds north of the PA-MD border were greater than or equal to those of the nine south of that border. The magnitude of the trend slopes for 1927–2014 in both precipitation and discharge decreased in a north-to-south pattern. Distributions of the monthly precipitation and discharge datasets were assembled into percentiles for each year for each watershed. Multivariate correlation of precipitation and discharge within percentiles among the groups of northern and southern watersheds indicated only weak associations. Regional-scale average behaviors of trends in the distribution of precipitation and discharge annual percentiles differed between the northern and southern watersheds. In general, the linkage between precipitation and discharge was weak, with the linkage weaker in the northern watersheds

  9. A reconstruction of radiocarbon production and total solar irradiance from the Holocene 14C and CO2 records: implications of data and model uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R.; Joos, F.

    2013-08-01

    Radiocarbon production, solar activity, total solar irradiance (TSI) and solar-induced climate change are reconstructed for the Holocene (10 to 0 kyr BP), and TSI is predicted for the next centuries. The IntCal09/SHCal04 radiocarbon and ice core CO2 records, reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole, and instrumental data of solar activity are applied in the Bern3D-LPJ, a fully featured Earth system model of intermediate complexity including a 3-D dynamic ocean, ocean sediments, and a dynamic vegetation model, and in formulations linking radiocarbon production, the solar modulation potential, and TSI. Uncertainties are assessed using Monte Carlo simulations and bounding scenarios. Transient climate simulations span the past 21 thousand years, thereby considering the time lags and uncertainties associated with the last glacial termination. Our carbon-cycle-based modern estimate of radiocarbon production of 1.7 atoms cm-2 s-1 is lower than previously reported for the cosmogenic nuclide production model by Masarik and Beer (2009) and is more in-line with Kovaltsov et al. (2012). In contrast to earlier studies, periods of high solar activity were quite common not only in recent millennia, but throughout the Holocene. Notable deviations compared to earlier reconstructions are also found on decadal to centennial timescales. We show that earlier Holocene reconstructions, not accounting for the interhemispheric gradients in radiocarbon, are biased low. Solar activity is during 28% of the time higher than the modern average (650 MeV), but the absolute values remain weakly constrained due to uncertainties in the normalisation of the solar modulation to instrumental data. A recently published solar activity-TSI relationship yields small changes in Holocene TSI of the order of 1 W m-2 with a Maunder Minimum irradiance reduction of 0.85 ± 0.16 W m-2. Related solar-induced variations in global mean surface air temperature are simulated to be within 0.1 K. Autoregressive

  10. Corrosion of Embedded Metals in Wood: An Overview of Recent Research with Implications for building moisture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    ASHRAE Standard 160, Criteria for Moisture-Control Design Analysis in Buildings, specifies moisture design criteria in buildings to prevent moisture damage such as fungal activity and corrosion. While there has been much research on mold and decay fungi in wood buildings, it is often overlooked that wet wood is corrosive to the metal screws...

  11. Properties of leaky waves supported by grounded dielectric super-layers and implications on the design of reflector feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Llombart, N.; Gerini, G.; Bonnedal, M.; Maagt, P. de

    2007-01-01

    The design strategy that uses dielectric super-layers with neighboring wave-guides closed in matched loads constitutes a worst case scenario as far as the performance enhancement is concerned and finds applicability in radiometric imaging arrays. On the other side the design strategy that uses

  12. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes...

  13. Predicting Allosteric Effects from Orthosteric Binding in Hsp90-Ligand Interactions: Implications for Fragment-Based Drug Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A key question in mapping dynamics of protein-ligand interactions is to distinguish changes at binding sites from those associated with long range conformational changes upon binding at distal sites. This assumes a greater challenge when considering the interactions of low affinity ligands (dissociation constants, KD, in the μM range or lower. Amide hydrogen deuterium Exchange mass spectrometry (HDXMS is a robust method that can provide both structural insights and dynamics information on both high affinity and transient protein-ligand interactions. In this study, an application of HDXMS for probing the dynamics of low affinity ligands to proteins is described using the N-terminal ATPase domain of Hsp90. Comparison of Hsp90 dynamics between high affinity natural inhibitors (KD ~ nM and fragment compounds reveal that HDXMS is highly sensitive in mapping the interactions of both high and low affinity ligands. HDXMS reports on changes that reflect both orthosteric effects and allosteric changes accompanying binding. Orthosteric sites can be identified by overlaying HDXMS onto structural information of protein-ligand complexes. Regions distal to orthosteric sites indicate long range conformational changes with implications for allostery. HDXMS, thus finds powerful utility as a high throughput method for compound library screening to identify binding sites and describe allostery with important implications for fragment-based ligand discovery (FBLD.

  14. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  15. Self-monitoring practices, attitudes, and needs of individuals with bipolar disorder: implications for the design of technologies to manage mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, Elizabeth L; Cosley, Dan; Chang, Pamara; Guha, Shion; Frank, Ellen; Gay, Geri; Matthews, Mark

    2016-05-01

    To understand self-monitoring strategies used independently of clinical treatment by individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), in order to recommend technology design principles to support mental health management. Participants with BD (N = 552) were recruited through the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance, the International Bipolar Foundation, and WeSearchTogether.org to complete a survey of closed- and open-ended questions. In this study, we focus on descriptive results and qualitative analyses. Individuals reported primarily self-monitoring items related to their bipolar disorder (mood, sleep, finances, exercise, and social interactions), with an increasing trend towards the use of digital tracking methods observed. Most participants reported having positive experiences with technology-based tracking because it enables self-reflection and agency regarding health management and also enhances lines of communication with treatment teams. Reported challenges stem from poor usability or difficulty interpreting self-tracked data. Two major implications for technology-based self-monitoring emerged from our results. First, technologies can be designed to be more condition-oriented, intuitive, and proactive. Second, more automated forms of digital symptom tracking and intervention are desired, and our results suggest the feasibility of detecting and predicting emotional states from patterns of technology usage. However, we also uncovered tension points, namely that technology designed to support mental health can also be a disruptor. This study provides increased understanding of self-monitoring practices, attitudes, and needs of individuals with bipolar disorder. This knowledge bears implications for clinical researchers and practitioners seeking insight into how individuals independently self-manage their condition as well as for researchers designing monitoring technologies to support mental health management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  16. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  17. Designing cellulosic and nanocellulosic sensors for interface with a protease sequestrant wound-dressing prototype: implications of material selection for dressing and protease sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intelligent dressing is a self-adjusting material with multifunctional properties and/or a biosensor-interface designed to treat specific pathological issues of wounds at a molecular or cellular level. The ability to detect and treat excessive protease levels in wounds, one indicator of chronic w...

  18. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  19. Evaluating the Usability and Perceived Impact of an Electronic Medical Record Toolkit for Atrial Fibrillation Management in Primary Care: A Mixed-Methods Study Incorporating Human Factors Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Leblanc, Kori; Valentinis, Alissia; Kavanagh, Doug; Zahr, Nina; Ivers, Noah M

    2016-02-17

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common and preventable cause of stroke. Barriers to reducing stroke risk through appropriate prescribing have been identified at the system, provider, and patient levels. To ensure a multifaceted initiative to address these barriers is effective, it is essential to incorporate user-centered design to ensure all intervention components are optimized for users. To test the usability of an electronic medical record (EMR) toolkit for AF in primary care with the goal of further refining the intervention to meet the needs of primary care clinicians. An EMR-based toolkit for AF was created and optimized through usability testing and iterative redesign incorporating a human factors approach. A mixed-methods pilot study consisting of observations, semi-structured interviews, and surveys was conducted to examine usability and perceived impact on patient care and workflow. A total of 14 clinicians (13 family physicians and 1 nurse practitioner) participated in the study. Nine iterations of the toolkit were created in response to feedback from clinicians and the research team; interface-related changes were made, additional AF-related resources were added, and functionality issues were fixed to make the toolkit more effective. After improvements were made, clinicians expressed that the toolkit improved accessibility to AF-related information and resources, served as a reminder for guideline-concordant AF management, and was easy to use. Most clinicians intended to continue using the toolkit for patient care. With respect to impact on care, clinicians believed the toolkit increased the thoroughness of their assessments for patients with AF and improved the quality of AF-related care received by their patients. The positive feedback surrounding the EMR toolkit for AF and its perceived impact on patient care can be attributed to the adoption of a user-centered design that merged clinically important information about AF management with user needs

  20. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of an electronic health record integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR randomized trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnivesky Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs represent well-validated but underutilized evidence-based medicine tools at the point-of-care. To date, an inability to integrate these rules into an electronic health record (EHR has been a major limitation and we are not aware of a study demonstrating the use of CPR's in an ambulatory EHR setting. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR trial integrates two CPR's in an EHR and assesses both the usability and the effect on evidence-based practice in the primary care setting. Methods A multi-disciplinary design team was assembled to develop a prototype iCPR for validated streptococcal pharyngitis and bacterial pneumonia CPRs. The iCPR tool was built as an active Clinical Decision Support (CDS tool that can be triggered by user action during typical workflow. Using the EHR CDS toolkit, the iCPR risk score calculator was linked to tailored ordered sets, documentation, and patient instructions. The team subsequently conducted two levels of 'real world' usability testing with eight providers per group. Usability data were used to refine and create a production tool. Participating primary care providers (n = 149 were randomized and intervention providers were trained in the use of the new iCPR tool. Rates of iCPR tool triggering in the intervention and control (simulated groups are monitored and subsequent use of the various components of the iCPR tool among intervention encounters is also tracked. The primary outcome is the difference in antibiotic prescribing rates (strep and pneumonia iCPR's encounters and chest x-rays (pneumonia iCPR only between intervention and control providers. Discussion Using iterative usability testing and development paired with provider training, the iCPR CDS tool leverages user-centered design principles to overcome pervasive underutilization of EBM and support evidence-based practice at the point-of-care. The ongoing trial will determine if this collaborative

  1. Service users' perspectives in the design of an online tool for assisted self-help in mental health: a case study of implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Deede; Strand, Monica; Eng, Lillian Sofie

    2014-01-09

    The involvement of persons with lived experiences of mental illness and service use is increasingly viewed as key to improving the relevance and utility of mental health research and service innovation. Guided by the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research we developed an online tool for assisted self-help in mental health. The resulting tool, PsyConnect, is ready for testing in two communities starting 2014. This case study reports from the design phase which entailed clarifying very basic questions: Who is the primary target group? What are the aims? What functions are priorities? Roles and responsibilities? What types of evidence can legitimize tool design decisions? Here we highlight the views of service users as a basis for discussing implications of user involvement for service design and research. PsyConnect has become a tool for those who expect to need assistance over long periods of time regardless of their specific condition(s). The aim is to support service users in gaining greater overview and control, legitimacy, and sense of continuity in relationships. It has a personalized "my control panel" which depicts status → process → goals. Functionality includes support for: mapping life domains; medication overview; crisis management; coping exercises; secure messaging; and social support. While the types of evidence that can legitimize design decisions are scattered and indirectly relevant, recent trends in recovery research will be used to guide further refinements. PsyConnect has undoubtedly become something other than it would have been without careful attention to the views of service users. The tool invites a proactive approach that is likely to challenge treatment cultures that are reactive, disorder-focused and consultation-based. Service user representatives will need to play central roles in training peers and clinicians in order to increase the likelihood of tool usage in line with intentions. Similarly, their influence on tool

  2. A data mining technique for discovering distinct patterns of hand signs: implications in user training and computer interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Nong; Li, Xiangyang; Farley, Toni

    2003-01-15

    Hand signs are considered as one of the important ways to enter information into computers for certain tasks. Computers receive sensor data of hand signs for recognition. When using hand signs as computer inputs, we need to (1) train computer users in the sign language so that their hand signs can be easily recognized by computers, and (2) design the computer interface to avoid the use of confusing signs for improving user input performance and user satisfaction. For user training and computer interface design, it is important to have a knowledge of which signs can be easily recognized by computers and which signs are not distinguishable by computers. This paper presents a data mining technique to discover distinct patterns of hand signs from sensor data. Based on these patterns, we derive a group of indistinguishable signs by computers. Such information can in turn assist in user training and computer interface design.

  3. Convergent and sequential synthesis designs: implications for conducting and reporting systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Quan Nha; Pluye, Pierre; Bujold, Mathieu; Wassef, Maggy

    2017-03-23

    Systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence can provide a rich understanding of complex phenomena. This type of review is increasingly popular, has been used to provide a landscape of existing knowledge, and addresses the types of questions not usually covered in reviews relying solely on either quantitative or qualitative evidence. Although several typologies of synthesis designs have been developed, none have been tested on a large sample of reviews. The aim of this review of reviews was to identify and develop a typology of synthesis designs and methods that have been used and to propose strategies for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence. A review of systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence was performed. Six databases were searched from inception to December 2014. Reviews were included if they were systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence. The included reviews were analyzed according to three concepts of synthesis processes: (a) synthesis methods, (b) sequence of data synthesis, and (c) integration of data and synthesis results. A total of 459 reviews were included. The analysis of this literature highlighted a lack of transparency in reporting how evidence was synthesized and a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Two main types of synthesis designs were identified: convergent and sequential synthesis designs. Within the convergent synthesis design, three subtypes were found: (a) data-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed together using the same synthesis method, (b) results-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed separately using different synthesis methods and results of both syntheses are integrated during a final synthesis, and (c) parallel-results convergent synthesis design consisting of independent syntheses of qualitative and quantitative evidence and an

  4. Design and Characterization of a Human Monoclonal Antibody that Modulates Mutant Connexin 26 Hemichannels Implicated in Deafness and Skin Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mutations leading to changes in properties, regulation, or expression of connexin-made channels have been implicated in 28 distinct human hereditary diseases. Eight of these result from variants of connexin 26 (Cx26, a protein critically involved in cell-cell signaling in the inner ear and skin. Lack of non-toxic drugs with defined mechanisms of action poses a serious obstacle to therapeutic interventions for diseases caused by mutant connexins. In particular, molecules that specifically modulate connexin hemichannel function without affecting gap junction channels are considered of primary importance for the study of connexin hemichannel role in physiological as well as pathological conditions. Monoclonal antibodies developed in the last three decades have become the most important class of therapeutic biologicals. Recombinant methods permit rapid selection and improvement of monoclonal antibodies from libraries with large diversity.Methods: By screening a combinatorial library of human single-chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies expressed in phage, we identified a candidate that binds an extracellular epitope of Cx26. We characterized antibody action using a variety of biochemical and biophysical assays in HeLa cells, organotypic cultures of mouse cochlea and human keratinocyte-derived cells.Results: We determined that the antibody is a remarkably efficient, non-toxic, and completely reversible inhibitor of hemichannels formed by connexin 26 and does not affect direct cell-cell communication via gap junction channels. Importantly, we also demonstrate that the antibody efficiently inhibits hyperative mutant Cx26 hemichannels implicated in autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing impairment accompanied by keratitis and hystrix-like ichthyosis-deafness (KID/HID syndrome. We solved the crystal structure of the antibody, identified residues that are critical for binding and used molecular dynamics to uncover its mechanism of action

  5. Transitioning Design and Technology Education from Physical Classrooms to Virtual Spaces: Implications for Pre-Service Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Marnie; MacGregor, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Technology-mediated teaching and learning enables access to educational opportunities, irrespective of locality, ruruality or remoteness. The design, development and delivery of technology enhanced learning in pre-service teacher education programs is therefore gaining momentum, both in Australia and internationally. Much research regarding…

  6. EVALUATION OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT PROSTHESES - REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FROM 1946 TO 1994 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE PROSTHESIS DESIGNS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLOON, JP; DEBONT, LGM; BOERING, G

    Purpose: This article describes the useful elements of applied temporomandibular joint (TMJ) prostheses and discusses the factors necessary to be addressed in an appropriate TMJ prosthesis design. Materials and Methods: Information about TMJ prostheses was gathered by a literature search, Only

  7. Design and Implementation of a Web-Based Collaborative Spatial Decision Support System: Organizational and Managerial Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Iftikhar U.; Gangopadhyay, Aryya

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of collaborative spatial support systems and identifies research issues on the design and implementation of a Web-based collaborative spatial decision-making system, in the specific context of distributed environmental planning. Demonstrates the use of GEO-ELCA for decision-making tasks by urban or municipal planning…

  8. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  9. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report contains the results of a study describing the development of resistance factors for use : with the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) Engineering News Record (ENR) formula for driven : piles. KDOT has verified driven pile resista...

  10. Designing cellulosic and nanocellulosic sensors for interface with a protease sequestrant wound-dressing prototype: Implications of material selection for dressing and protease sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Krystal R; Edwards, J Vincent; Haldane, David; Pircher, Nicole; Liebner, Falk; Condon, Brian D; Qureshi, Huzaifah; Yager, Dorne

    2017-11-01

    Interfacing nanocellulosic-based biosensors with chronic wound dressings for protease point of care diagnostics combines functional material properties of high specific surface area, appropriate surface charge, and hydrophilicity with biocompatibility to the wound environment. Combining a protease sensor with a dressing is consistent with the concept of an intelligent dressing, which has been a goal of wound-dressing design for more than a quarter century. We present here biosensors with a nanocellulosic transducer surface (nanocrystals, nanocellulose composites, and nanocellulosic aerogels) immobilized with a fluorescent elastase tripeptide or tetrapeptide biomolecule, which has selectivity and affinity for human neutrophil elastase present in chronic wound fluid. The specific surface area of the materials correlates with a greater loading of the elastase peptide substrate. Nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion studies revealed gas permeable systems with different porosities (28-98%) and pore sizes (2-50 nm, 210 µm) respectively, which influence water vapor transmission rates. A correlation between zeta potential values and the degree of protease sequestration imply that the greater the negative surface charge of the nanomaterials, the greater the sequestration of positively charged neutrophil proteases. The biosensors gave detection sensitivities of 0.015-0.13 units/ml, which are at detectable human neutrophil elastase levels present in chronic wound fluid. Thus, the physical and interactive biochemical properties of the nano-based biosensors are suitable for interfacing with protease sequestrant prototype wound dressings. A discussion of the relevance of protease sensors and cellulose nanomaterials to current chronic wound dressing design and technology is included.

  11. CIS6/413: Design of a Computer-Based Patient Record System (ARISTOPHANES) for Medical Departments: Implementation for Surgery Wards

    OpenAIRE

    Lazakidou, A; Braun, J.; Tolxdorff, T

    1999-01-01

    Introduction Today, the demand for computer-based patient records to improve the quality of patient care and to reduce costs in health services is generally recognized. The new electronic patient record system (ARISTOPHANES) is based on a self-developed relational data model with a star-shaped topology. An hierarchical structure has been chosen for the user interface. ARISTOPHANES has been developed for use in clinical workstations taking into account varied requirements, user acceptance, and...

  12. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  13. New perspectives on the computational characterization of the kinetics of binding-unbinding in drug design: implications for novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. Moreno-Vargas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and the propensity of a drug to be bound to its target protein have been inseparable concepts for decades now. The correlation between the pharmacological activity and the binding affinity has been the first rule to design and optimize a new drug rationally. However, this argument does not prove to be infallible when the results of in vivo assays have to be confronted. Only recently, we understand that other magnitudes as the kinetic rates of binding and unbinding, or the mean residence time of the complex drug-protein, are equally relevant to draw a more accurate model of the mechanism of action of a drug. It is in this scenario where new computational techniques to simulate the all-atom dynamics of the biomolecular system find its valuable place on the challenge of designing new molecules for more effective and less toxic therapies.

  14. Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Han; Stolk, Egbert; Tan, Ekim

    2012-01-01

    Today, our cities are an embodiment of the complex, historical evolution of knowledge, desires and technology. Our planned and designed activities co-evolve with our aspirations, mediated by the existing technologies and social structures.  The city represents the accretion and accumulation of successive layers of collective activity, structuring and being structured by other, increasingly distant cities, reaching now right around the globe. This historical and structural development cannot therefore be understood or captured by any set of fixed quantitative relations. Structural changes imply that the patterns of growth, and their underlying reasons change over time, and therefore that any attempt to control the morphology of cities and their patterns of flow by means of planning and design, must be dynamical, based on the mechanisms that drive the changes occurring at a given moment. This carefully edited post-proceedings volume gathers a snapshot view by leading researchers in field, of current complexity...

  15. Student perceptions of influences on their study experiences in a distance learning accounting course and implications for course design

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Alan Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is located in the arena of a distance learning accounting course of a vocational nature delivered to working managers. It is concerned with identifying and exploring students' perceptions of influences upon their study experiences. The influences are drawn from elements of the course design, characteristics of the students, and their inter-action. Data is collected through semi-structured interviews from thirty eight past students. The data are explor...

  16. The implications of cross-regional differences for the design of In-vehicle Information Systems: a comparison of Australian and Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G; Williamson, Amy R

    2012-05-01

    The increasing global distribution of automobiles necessitates that the design of In-vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) is appropriate for the regions to which they are being exported. Differences between regions such as culture, environment and traffic context can influence the needs, usability and acceptance of IVIS. This paper describes two studies aimed at identifying regional differences in IVIS design needs and preferences across drivers from Australia and China to determine the impact of any differences on IVIS design. Using a questionnaire and interaction clinics, the influence of cultural values and driving patterns on drivers' preferences for, and comprehension of, surface- and interaction-level aspects of IVIS interfaces was explored. Similarities and differences were found between the two regional groups in terms of preferences for IVIS input control types and labels and in the comprehension of IVIS functions. Specifically, Chinese drivers preferred symbols and Chinese characters over English words and were less successful (compared to Australians) at comprehending English abbreviations, particularly for complex IVIS functions. Implications in terms of the current trend to introduce Western-styled interfaces into other regions with little or no adaptation are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Recombinant and epitope-based vaccines on the road to the market and implications for vaccine design and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Patricio; Kobe, Bostjan

    2016-03-03

    Novel vaccination approaches based on rational design of B- and T-cell epitopes - epitope-based vaccines - are making progress in the clinical trial pipeline. The epitope-focused recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine (termed RTS,S) is a next-generation approach that successfully reached phase-III trials, and will potentially become the first commercial vaccine against a human parasitic disease. Progress made on methods such as recombinant DNA technology, advanced cell-culture techniques, immunoinformatics and rational design of immunogens are driving the development of these novel concepts. Synthetic recombinant proteins comprising both B- and T-cell epitopes can be efficiently produced through modern biotechnology and bioprocessing methods, and can enable the induction of large repertoires of immune specificities. In particular, the inclusion of appropriate CD4+ T-cell epitopes is increasingly considered a key vaccine component to elicit robust immune responses, as suggested by results coming from HIV-1 clinical trials. In silico strategies for vaccine design are under active development to address genetic variation in pathogens and several broadly protective "universal" influenza and HIV-1 vaccines are currently at different stages of clinical trials. Other methods focus on improving population coverage in target populations by rationally considering specificity and prevalence of the HLA proteins, though a proof-of-concept in humans has not been demonstrated yet. Overall, we expect immunoinformatics and bioprocessing methods to become a central part of the next-generation epitope-based vaccine development and production process.

  18. Predicting dropout in dietary weight loss trials using demographic and early weight change characteristics: Implications for trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Marijka; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    Attrition causes analytical and efficacy issues in weight loss trials. Consistent predictors of attrition in weight loss trials have not been identified. Trial design could be improved if factors predicting attrition are accounted for. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of easily measured pre study and early study variables to determine their relationship with attrition in dietary weight loss trials. Data was pooled from four previous dietary weight loss trials. Mixed effects logistic regression, Receiver Operator Curves and decision trees (classification and regression trees) were used to determine which of the variables (percent weight loss at 1 month, age, gender and baseline BMI) predicted dropout and to determine cutoffs useful for future trial design. The sample included 289 subjects, 73% female, with a mean age of 46.68±9.27years and average dropout of 25%. Percent weight loss at 1 month was the strongest predictor of dropout, those with a weight loss ≤2% were 4.99 times (95% CI 2.71, 9.18) more likely to drop out than those with a weight loss >2% in the first month (P50 (P=0.006). Early weight loss and age were identified as significant variables for predicting attrition in weight loss trials. Trial designs maybe improved by incorporating these variables and developing interventions targeting these factors may improve participant retention. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  20. Models of models: filtering and bias rings in depiction of knowledge structures and their implications for design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Kirsten M A; Stanton, Neville A

    2012-01-01

    Mental models are poorly specified in three ways: in their defining criteria, their source and the bias to which they have been subjected. Literature from psychology, HCI and human factors sources was reviewed to determine the utility of 'mental models' as a design tool. The definitions and theories offered by key contributors to the notion of mental models were compared. Schematics, representing both the knowledge structures proposed in cognitive processing, as well as the layers of bias evident when forming or accessing mental models, were constructed. Fundamental similarities and differences in the use of this notion, as well as ambiguities in definition, were highlighted graphically. The need for specificity in the use of mental models was emphasised as essential for pragmatic application in design. The use of graphical comparison was proposed as a means of identifying the risk of bias and a means to categorise approaches to mental model research. Practitioner Summary: Mental models are considered significant in user centred design. To apply this notion pragmatically, its definition and methods of construction and access need to be sufficiently specified. This article offers a graphical method to compare existing research in mental models, highlighting similarities, differences and ambiguities.

  1. Implications of the Dependence of Neuronal Activity on Neural Network States for the Design of Brain-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzeri, Stefano; Safaai, Houman; De Feo, Vito; Vato, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state) that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brain. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately.

  2. Implications of the dependence of neuronal activity on neural network states for the design of brain-machine interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano ePanzeri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs can improve the quality of life of patients with sensory and motor disabilities by both decoding motor intentions expressed by neural activity, and by encoding artificially sensed information into patterns of neural activity elicited by causal interventions on the neural tissue. Yet, current BMIs can exchange relatively small amounts of information with the brain. This problem has proved difficult to overcome by simply increasing the number of recording or stimulating electrodes, because trial-to-trial variability of neural activity partly arises from intrinsic factors (collectively known as the network state that include ongoing spontaneous activity and neuromodulation, and so is shared among neurons. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the state dependence of neural responses, and in particular of how neural responses depend on endogenous slow fluctuations of network excitability. We then elaborate on how this knowledge may be used to increase the amount of information that BMIs exchange with brains. Knowledge of network state can be used to fine-tune the stimulation pattern that should reliably elicit a target neural response used to encode information in the brain, and to discount part of the trial-by-trial variability of neural responses, so that they can be decoded more accurately.

  3. Cell-matrix mechanical interaction in electrospun polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering: Implications for scaffold design and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2017-03-01

    Engineered scaffolds produced by electrospinning of biodegradable polymers offer a 3D, nanofibrous environment with controllable structural, chemical, and mechanical properties that mimic the extracellular matrix of native tissues and have shown promise for a number of tissue engineering applications. The microscale mechanical interactions between cells and electrospun matrices drive cell behaviors including migration and differentiation that are critical to promote tissue regeneration. Recent developments in understanding these mechanical interactions in electrospun environments are reviewed, with emphasis on how fiber geometry and polymer structure impact on the local mechanical properties of scaffolds, how altering the micromechanics cues cell behaviors, and how, in turn, cellular and extrinsic forces exerted on the matrix mechanically remodel an electrospun scaffold throughout tissue development. Techniques used to measure and visualize these mechanical interactions are described. We provide a critical outlook on technological gaps that must be overcome to advance the ability to design, assess, and manipulate the mechanical environment in electrospun scaffolds toward constructs that may be successfully applied in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering requires design of scaffolds that interact with cells to promote tissue development. Electrospinning is a promising technique for fabricating fibrous, biomimetic scaffolds. Effects of electrospun matrix microstructure and biochemical properties on cell behavior have been extensively reviewed previously; here, we consider cell-matrix interaction from a mechanical perspective. Micromechanical properties as a driver of cell behavior has been well established in planar substrates, but more recently, many studies have provided new insights into mechanical interaction in fibrillar, electrospun environments. This review provides readers with an overview of how electrospun scaffold mechanics and

  4. Clozapine N-Oxide Administration Produces Behavioral Effects in Long-Evans Rats: Implications for Designing DREADD Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Duncan A A; Browne, Richard W; Shaw, Jessica K; Krishnan Radhakrishnan, Sandhya; Khare, Prachi; España, Rodrigo A; Clark, Stewart D

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine N-oxide (CNO) is a ligand for a powerful chemogenetic system that can selectively inhibit or activate neurons; the so-called Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD) system. This system consists of synthetic G-protein-coupled receptors, which are not believed to be activated by any endogenous ligand, but are activated by the otherwise inert CNO. However, it has previously been shown that the administration of CNO in humans and rats leads to detectable levels of the bioactive compounds clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine (N-Des). As a follow-up, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CNO in male Long-Evans rats. It was found that 1 mg/kg CNO reduced the acoustic startle reflex but had no effect on prepulse inhibition (PPI; a measure of sensorimotor gating). CNO (2 and 5 mg/kg) had no effect on the disruption to PPI induced by the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine or the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. In locomotor studies, CNO alone (at 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg) had no effect on spontaneous locomotion, but 5 mg/kg CNO pretreatment significantly attenuated d-amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. In line with the behavioral results, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry found that 5 mg/kg CNO significantly attenuated the d-amphetamine-induced increase in evoked dopamine. However, the effects seen after CNO administration cannot be definitively ascribed to CNO because biologically relevant levels of clozapine and N-Des were found in plasma after CNO injection. Our results show that CNO has multiple dose-dependent effects in vivo and is converted to clozapine and N-Des emphasizing the need for a CNO-only DREADD-free control group when designing DREADD-based experiments.

  5. The Australian longitudinal study on male health sampling design and survey weighting: implications for analysis and interpretation of clustered data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittal, Matthew J; Carlin, John B; Currier, Dianne; Downes, Marnie; English, Dallas R; Gordon, Ian; Pirkis, Jane; Gurrin, Lyle

    2016-10-31

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men) used a complex sampling scheme to identify potential participants for the baseline survey. This raises important questions about when and how to adjust for the sampling design when analyzing data from the baseline survey. We describe the sampling scheme used in Ten to Men focusing on four important elements: stratification, multi-stage sampling, clustering and sample weights. We discuss how these elements fit together when using baseline data to estimate a population parameter (e.g., population mean or prevalence) or to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome (e.g., an odds ratio). We illustrate this with examples using a continuous outcome (weight in kilograms) and a binary outcome (smoking status). Estimates of a population mean or disease prevalence using Ten to Men baseline data are influenced by the extent to which the sampling design is addressed in an analysis. Estimates of mean weight and smoking prevalence are larger in unweighted analyses than weighted analyses (e.g., mean = 83.9 kg vs. 81.4 kg; prevalence = 18.0 % vs. 16.7 %, for unweighted and weighted analyses respectively) and the standard error of the mean is 1.03 times larger in an analysis that acknowledges the hierarchical (clustered) structure of the data compared with one that does not. For smoking prevalence, the corresponding standard error is 1.07 times larger. Measures of association (mean group differences, odds ratios) are generally similar in unweighted or weighted analyses and whether or not adjustment is made for clustering. The extent to which the Ten to Men sampling design is accounted for in any analysis of the baseline data will depend on the research question. When the goals of the analysis are to estimate the prevalence of a disease or risk factor in the population or the magnitude of a population-level exposure-outcome association, our advice is to adopt an analysis that respects the

  6. The Australian longitudinal study on male health sampling design and survey weighting: implications for analysis and interpretation of clustered data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Spittal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men used a complex sampling scheme to identify potential participants for the baseline survey. This raises important questions about when and how to adjust for the sampling design when analyzing data from the baseline survey. Methods We describe the sampling scheme used in Ten to Men focusing on four important elements: stratification, multi-stage sampling, clustering and sample weights. We discuss how these elements fit together when using baseline data to estimate a population parameter (e.g., population mean or prevalence or to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome (e.g., an odds ratio. We illustrate this with examples using a continuous outcome (weight in kilograms and a binary outcome (smoking status. Results Estimates of a population mean or disease prevalence using Ten to Men baseline data are influenced by the extent to which the sampling design is addressed in an analysis. Estimates of mean weight and smoking prevalence are larger in unweighted analyses than weighted analyses (e.g., mean = 83.9 kg vs. 81.4 kg; prevalence = 18.0 % vs. 16.7 %, for unweighted and weighted analyses respectively and the standard error of the mean is 1.03 times larger in an analysis that acknowledges the hierarchical (clustered structure of the data compared with one that does not. For smoking prevalence, the corresponding standard error is 1.07 times larger. Measures of association (mean group differences, odds ratios are generally similar in unweighted or weighted analyses and whether or not adjustment is made for clustering. Conclusions The extent to which the Ten to Men sampling design is accounted for in any analysis of the baseline data will depend on the research question. When the goals of the analysis are to estimate the prevalence of a disease or risk factor in the population or the magnitude of a population-level exposure

  7. Principles of mucin structure: implications for the rational design of cancer vaccines derived from MUC1-glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sáez, Nuria; Peregrina, Jesús M; Corzana, Francisco

    2017-11-27

    Cancer is currently one of the world's most serious public health problems. Significant efforts are being made to develop new strategies that can eradicate tumours selectively without detrimental effects to healthy cells. One promising approach is focused on the design of vaccines that contain partially glycosylated mucins in their formulation. Although some of these vaccines are in clinical trials, a lack of knowledge about the molecular basis that governs the antigen presentation, and the interactions between antigens and the elicited antibodies has limited their success thus far. This review focuses on the most significant milestones achieved to date in the conformational analysis of tumour-associated MUC1 derivatives both in solution and bound to antibodies. The effect that the carbohydrate scaffold has on the peptide backbone structure and the role of the sugar in molecular recognition by antibodies are emphasised. The outcomes summarised in this review may be a useful guide to develop new antigens for the design of cancer vaccines in the near future.

  8. Molecular dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis KasA: implications for inhibitor and substrate binding and consequences for drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Benjamin; Kisker, Caroline; Sotriffer, Christoph A.

    2011-11-01

    Inhibition of the production of fatty acids as essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall has been an established way of fighting tuberculosis for decades. However, increasing resistances and an outdated medical treatment call for the validation of new targets involved in this crucial pathway. In this regard, the β-ketoacyl ACP synthase KasA is a promising enzyme. In this study, three molecular dynamics simulations based on the wildtype crystal structures of inhibitor bound and unbound KasA were performed in order to investigate the flexibility and conformational space of this target. We present an exhaustive analysis of the binding-site flexibility and representative pocket conformations that may serve as new starting points for structure-based drug design. We also revealed a mechanism which may account for the comparatively low binding affinity of thiolactomycin. Furthermore, we examined the behavior of water molecules within the binding pocket and provide recommendations how to handle them in the drug design process. Finally, we analyzed the dynamics of a channel that accommodates the long-chain fatty acid substrates and, thereby, propose a mechanism of substrate access to this channel and how products are most likely released.

  9. The impact of home care nurses' numeracy and graph literacy on comprehension of visual display information: implications for dashboard design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowding, Dawn; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Onorato, Nicole; Barrón, Yolanda; Rosati, Robert J; Russell, David

    2018-02-01

    To explore home care nurses' numeracy and graph literacy and their relationship to comprehension of visualized data. A multifactorial experimental design using online survey software. Nurses were recruited from 2 Medicare-certified home health agencies. Numeracy and graph literacy were measured using validated scales. Nurses were randomized to 1 of 4 experimental conditions. Each condition displayed data for 1 of 4 quality indicators, in 1 of 4 different visualized formats (bar graph, line graph, spider graph, table). A mixed linear model measured the impact of numeracy, graph literacy, and display format on data understanding. In all, 195 nurses took part in the study. They were slightly more numerate and graph literate than the general population. Overall, nurses understood information presented in bar graphs most easily (88% correct), followed by tables (81% correct), line graphs (77% correct), and spider graphs (41% correct). Individuals with low numeracy and low graph literacy had poorer comprehension of information displayed across all formats. High graph literacy appeared to enhance comprehension of data regardless of numeracy capabilities. Clinical dashboards are increasingly used to provide information to clinicians in visualized format, under the assumption that visual display reduces cognitive workload. Results of this study suggest that nurses' comprehension of visualized information is influenced by their numeracy, graph literacy, and the display format of the data. Individual differences in numeracy and graph literacy skills need to be taken into account when designing dashboard technology.

  10. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    G. W. L. Gresik; S. Siebe; R. Drewello

    2013-01-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence...

  11. Investigating students’ mental models and knowledge construction of microscopic friction. II. Implications for curriculum design and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar D. Corpuz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research showed that students’ mental models of friction at the atomic level are significantly influenced by their macroscopic ideas. For most students, friction is due to the meshing of bumps and valleys and rubbing of atoms. The aforementioned results motivated us to further investigate how students can be helped to improve their present models of microscopic friction. Teaching interviews were conducted to study the dynamics of their model construction as they interacted with the interviewer, the scaffolding activities, and/or with each other. In this paper, we present the different scaffolding activities and the variation in the ideas that students generated as they did the hands-on and minds-on scaffolding activities. Results imply that through a series of carefully designed scaffolding activities, it is possible to facilitate the refinement of students’ ideas of microscopic friction.

  12. Investigating students' mental models and knowledge construction of microscopic friction. II. Implications for curriculum design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpuz, Edgar D.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Our previous research showed that students’ mental models of friction at the atomic level are significantly influenced by their macroscopic ideas. For most students, friction is due to the meshing of bumps and valleys and rubbing of atoms. The aforementioned results motivated us to further investigate how students can be helped to improve their present models of microscopic friction. Teaching interviews were conducted to study the dynamics of their model construction as they interacted with the interviewer, the scaffolding activities, and/or with each other. In this paper, we present the different scaffolding activities and the variation in the ideas that students generated as they did the hands-on and minds-on scaffolding activities. Results imply that through a series of carefully designed scaffolding activities, it is possible to facilitate the refinement of students’ ideas of microscopic friction.

  13. Test-retest reliability of pulse amplitude tonometry measures of vascular endothelial function: implications for clinical trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Cindy E; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Chow, Mosuk; West, Sheila G

    2012-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an important outcome for assessing vascular health in intervention studies. However, reliability of the standard non-invasive method (flow-mediated dilation) is a significant challenge for clinical applications and multicenter trials. We evaluated the repeatability of pulse amplitude tonometry (PAT) to measure change in pulse wave amplitude during reactive hyperemia (Itamar Medical Ltd, Caesarea, Israel). Twenty healthy adults completed two PAT tests (mean interval = 19.5 days) under standardized conditions. PAT-derived measures of endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index, AI) showed strong repeatability (intra-class correlations = 0.74 and 0.83, respectively). To guide future research, we also analyzed sample size requirements for a range of effect sizes. A crossover design powered at 0.90 requires 28 participants to detect a 15% change in RHI. Our study is the first to show that PAT measurements are repeatable in adults over an interval greater than 1 week.

  14. Designing new UK-WHO growth charts: implications for health staff use and understanding of charts and growth monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Charlotte M; Sachs, Magda; Short, John; Sharp, Laura; Cameron, Kirsty; Moy, Robert J

    2012-07-01

    New pre-school UK charts have been produced incorporating the new World Health Organization growth standards based on healthy breastfed infants. This paper describes the process by which the charts and evidence-based instructions were designed and evaluated, and what it revealed about professional understanding of charts and growth monitoring. A multidisciplinary expert group drew on existing literature, new data analyses and parent focus groups as well as two series of chart-plotting workshops for health staff. The first series explored possible design features and general chart understanding. The second evaluated an advanced prototype with instructions, using plotting and interpretation of three separate scenarios on the old charts, compared with the new charts. The first plotting workshops (46 participants) allowed decisions to be made about the exact chart format, but it also revealed widespread confusion about use of adjustment for gestation and the plotting of birthweight. In the second series (78 participants), high levels of plotting inaccuracy were identified on both chart formats, with 64% of respondents making at least one major mistake. Significant neonatal weight loss was poorly recognized. While most participants recognized abnormal and normal growth patterns, 13-20% did not. Many respondents had never received any formal training in chart use. Growth charts are complex clinical tools that are, at present, poorly understood and inconsistently used. The importance of clear guidelines and formal training has now been recognized and translated into supporting educational materials (free to download at http://www.growthcharts.rcpch.ac.uk). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Can the 'Assessment Drives Learning' effect be detected in clinical skills training? - Implications for curriculum design and resource planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Beate; Krautter, Markus; Möltner, Andreas; Weyrich, Peter; Werner, Anne; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The acquisition of clinical-technical skills is of particular importance for the doctors of tomorrow. Procedural skills are often trained for the first time in skills laboratories, which provide a sheltered learning environment. However, costs to implement and maintain skills laboratories are considerably high. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate students’ patterns of attendance of voluntary skills-lab training sessions and thereby answer the following question: Is it possible to measure an effect of the theoretical construct related to motivational psychology described in the literature – ‘Assessment drives learning’ – reflected in patterns of attendance at voluntary skills-lab training sessions? By answering this question, design recommendations for curriculum planning and resource management should be derived. Method: A retrospective, descriptive analysis of student skills-lab attendance related to voluntary basic and voluntary advanced skills-lab sessions was conducted. The attendance patterns of a total of 340 third-year medical students in different successive year groups from the Medical Faculty at the University of Heidelberg were assessed. Results: Students showed a preference for voluntary basic skills-lab training sessions, which were relevant to clinical skills assessment, especially at the beginning and at the end of the term. Voluntary advanced skills-lab training sessions without reference to clinical skills assessment were used especially at the beginning of the term, but declined towards the end of term. Conclusion: The results show a clear influence of assessments on students’ attendance at skills-lab training sessions. First recommendations for curriculum design and resource management will be described. Nevertheless, further prospective research studies will be necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors impacting students’ utilisation of voluntary skills

  16. Can the 'assessment drives learning' effect be detected in clinical skills training?--implications for curriculum design and resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Beate; Krautter, Markus; Möltner, Andreas; Weyrich, Peter; Werner, Anne; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The acquisition of clinical-technical skills is of particular importance for the doctors of tomorrow. Procedural skills are often trained for the first time in skills laboratories, which provide a sheltered learning environment. However, costs to implement and maintain skills laboratories are considerably high. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate students' patterns of attendance of voluntary skills-lab training sessions and thereby answer the following question: Is it possible to measure an effect of the theoretical construct related to motivational psychology described in the literature--'Assessment drives learning'--reflected in patterns of attendance at voluntary skills-lab training sessions? By answering this question, design recommendations for curriculum planning and resource management should be derived. A retrospective, descriptive analysis of student skills-lab attendance related to voluntary basic and voluntary advanced skills-lab sessions was conducted. The attendance patterns of a total of 340 third-year medical students in different successive year groups from the Medical Faculty at the University of Heidelberg were assessed. Students showed a preference for voluntary basic skills-lab training sessions, which were relevant to clinical skills assessment, especially at the beginning and at the end of the term. Voluntary advanced skills-lab training sessions without reference to clinical skills assessment were used especially at the beginning of the term, but declined towards the end of term. The results show a clear influence of assessments on students' attendance at skills-lab training sessions. First recommendations for curriculum design and resource management will be described. Nevertheless, further prospective research studies will be necessary to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors impacting students' utilisation of voluntary skills-lab training in order to reach a sufficient concordance

  17. Damage control orthopaedics: Variability of construct design for external fixation of the lower extremity and implications on cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Catherine; Hess, Arthur; Kwon, John Y

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate relative cost of external fixator constructs applied for damage control purposes in a cohort of advanced orthopaedic trainees and orthopaedic staff traumatologists. We also sought to evaluate physicians' understanding of component cost. Participants were asked to apply an external fixator for three separate fracture patterns in damage control fashion. A total of 19 physicians (nine PGY-4 residents, five PGY-5 residents, two orthopaedic trauma fellows and three orthopaedic staff traumatologists) participated. Total construct cost was calculated. Participants provided an estimate of the cost of each component in a fill-in format survey. Main outcome measures included cost of external fixator construct applied and the estimated cost of external fixator components. Average whole sale cost of an external fixator construct was $5252 (±$1798). Of the three fracture types examined, the tibial plafond fracture external fixator construct on average cost the most, followed by the tibial plateau fracture and the femur fracture construct. The large ex-fix combination clamp was the major contributor to cost for each construct. The combination clamp may be substituted for a multi-pin clamp, resulting in significant cost savings. The self-drilling Schanz pin and the large ex-fix combination clamp were most highly underestimated (25% and 22% of their actual cost, respectively). Innumerous construct designs exist and even small changes can significantly impact cost. Knowledge of component cost is low among staff and trainees. Education of component cost is vital to allow adequate consideration of construct design prior to fixator application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Air pollution and health implications of regional electricity transfer at generational centre and design of compensation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relhan, Nemika

    India's electricity generation is primarily from coal. As a result of interconnection of grid and establishment of pithead power plants, there has been increased electricity transfer from one region to the other. This results in imbalance of pollution loads between the communities located in generation vis-a-vis consumption region. There may be some states, which are major power generation centres and hence are facing excessive environmental degradation. On the other hand, electricity importing regions are reaping the benefits without paying proper charges for it because present tariff structure does not include the full externalities in it. The present study investigates the distributional implications in terms of air pollution loads between the electricity generation and consumption regions at the state level. It identifies the major electricity importing and exporting states in India. Next, as a case study, it estimates the health damage as a result of air pollution from thermal power plants (TPPs) located in a critically polluted region that is one of the major generator and exporter of electricity. The methodology used to estimate the health damage is based on impact pathway approach. In this method, air pollution modelling has been performed in order to estimate the gridded Particulate Matter (PM) concentration at various receptor locations in the study domain. The air quality modeling exercise helps to quantify the air pollution concentration in each grid and also apportion the contribution of power plants to the total concentration. The health impacts as a result of PM have been estimated in terms of number of mortality and morbidity cases using Concentration Response Function (CRF's) available in the literature. Mortality has been converted into Years of Life Lost (YOLL) using life expectancy table and age wise death distribution. Morbidity has been estimated in terms of number of cases with respect to various health end points. To convert this health

  19. Reducing Parental Uncertainty Around Childhood Cancer: Implementation Decisions and Design Trade-Offs in Developing an Electronic Health Record-Linked Mobile App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolo, Keith; Shuman, William; Nix, Jeremy; Morrison, Caroline F; Mullins, Larry L; Pai, Ahna Lh

    2017-06-26

    Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer are confronted with multiple stressors that place them at risk for significant psychological distress. One strategy that has been shown to help reduce uncertainty is the provision of basic information; however, families of newly diagnosed cancer patients are often bombarded with educational material. Technology has the potential to help families manage their informational needs and move towards normalization. The aim of this study was to create a mobile app that pulls together data from both the electronic health record (EHR) and vetted external information resources to provide tailored information to parents of newly diagnosed children as one method to reduce the uncertainty around their child's illness. This app was developed to be used by families in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed at decreasing uncertainty and the subsequent psychological distress. A 2-phase qualitative study was conducted to elicit the features and content of the mobile app based on the needs and experience of parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer and their providers. Example functions include the ability to view laboratory results, look up appointments, and to access educational material. Educational material was obtained from databases maintained by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as well as from groups like the Children's Oncology Group (COG) and care teams within Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC). The use of EHR-based Web services was explored to allow data like laboratory results to be retrieved in real-time. The ethnographic design process resulted in a framework that divided the content of the mobile app into the following 4 sections: (1) information about the patient's current treatment and other data from the EHR; (2) educational background material; (3) a calendar to view upcoming appointments at their medical center; and (4) a section where

  20. Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet-mediated university studies: implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Internet-mediated research has offered substantial advantages over traditional laboratory-based research in terms of efficiently and affordably allowing for the recruitment of large samples of participants for psychology studies. Core technical, ethical, and methodological issues have been addressed in recent years, but the important issue of participant dropout has received surprisingly little attention. Specifically, web-based psychology studies often involve undergraduates completing lengthy and time-consuming batteries of online personality questionnaires, but no known published studies to date have closely examined the natural course of participant dropout during attempted completion of these studies. The present investigation examined participant dropout among 1,963 undergraduates completing one of six web-based survey studies relatively representative of those conducted in university settings. Results indicated that 10% of participants could be expected to drop out of these studies nearly instantaneously, with an additional 2% dropping out per 100 survey items included in the study. For individual project investigators, these findings hold ramifications for study design considerations, such as conducting a priori power analyses. The present results also have broader ethical implications for understanding and improving voluntary participation in research involving human subjects. Nonetheless, the generalizability of these conclusions may be limited to studies involving similar design or survey content.

  1. Norms for parental ratings on Conners' Abbreviated Parent-Teacher Questionnaire: implications for the design of behavioral rating inventories and analyses of data derived from them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, K S; Rowe, K J

    1997-12-01

    Despite the wide usage of Conners' 10-item Abbreviated Parent-Teacher Questionnaire (APTQ), normative data for parental ratings on the APTQ are rare. Moreover, its psychometric properties as a "stand alone" behavioral rating instrument have yet to be examined in detail. Using data from parental ratings for 6,841 children aged 5 to 14 years, this paper reports the psychometric properties of the APTQ and provides normative and prevalence estimates for four age cohorts (5 to 6, 7 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12 to 14 years) by gender. In presenting the findings, the paper highlights key methodological issues endemic to the design of behavioral rating inventories like the APTQ and the analysis of data derived from them. These issues are illustrated and discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement and determination of prevalence estimates of problem behaviors in child psychology and child psychiatry. The need to revise the design, content, and response formats of child behavior rating inventories is stressed.

  2. Design of a myo-seismic transducer for non-invasive transcutaneous vectorial recording of locally fast muscle-fibre micro-contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journée, H L; de Jonge, A B

    1995-01-01

    Mechanical recording usually concerns the analysis of movements in bio-mechanical research projects. Mechanical recording of locally fast muscle-fibre micro-contractions, however, is a little-developed and rarely-applied myographic technique. In the last decade, acoustic or myophonic measurements came increasingly into the picture when they were also applied to research on general muscle activity, such as in muscle fatigue studies. In this paper, a new micro-seismic recording technique is introduced. The technique registers extremely local activity in the velocity and force vector of skin movement as a function in time. The recording method is sensitive to micro excursions caused by muscle fibres under the skin. The resolution in time is at least 100 us, which is demonstrated in an experiment where a mechanical contraction is provoked by electrical stimulation of the median nerve. This indicates a seismic variant, refered to as seismic-myography (SMG), of surface EMG's, and offers complementary features. The most important features are: 1. Insensitivity to low frequent, large movement artefacts. 2. Sensitivity to fast mechanical micro-excursions and velocities. 3. Fast and precise discrimination of local mechanical events. 4. Vectorial reconstruction of superficial mechanic activity which can be used for the identification and functional behaviour of subcutaneous muscle fibres and, in addition, for the localisation of motor endplate zones. 5. The method is easy to use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Load and resistance factor design calibration to determine a resistance factor for the modification of the Kansas Department of Transportation-Engineering News Record formula : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) has, in recent years, used a : variation of the Engineering News Record (ENR) formula to determine the capacity of : piles in the field. It was a concern that the KDOT-ENR formula was under-predicting : ...

  4. AE Recorder Characteristics and Development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partridge, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curtis, Shane Keawe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGrogan, David Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Anomalous Environment Recorder (AE Recorder) provides a robust data recording capability for multiple high-shock applications including earth penetrators. The AE Recorder, packaged as a 2.4" di ameter cylinder 3" tall, acquires 12 accelerometer, 2 auxiliary, and 6 discrete signal channels at 250k samples / second. Recording depth is 213 seconds plus 75ms of pre-trigger data. The mechanical, electrical, and firmware are described as well as support electro nics designed for the first use of the recorder.

  5. Evaluating greater sage-grouse seasonal space use relative to leks: Implications for surface use designations in sagebrush ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The development of anthropogenic structures, especially those related to energy resources, in sagebrush ecosystems is an important concern among developers, conservationists, and land managers in relation to greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations. Sage-grouse are dependent on sagebrush ecosystems to meet their seasonal life-phase requirements, and research indicates that anthropogenic structures can adversely affect sage-grouse populations. Land management agencies have attempted to reduce the negative effects of anthropogenic development by assigning surface use (SU) designations, such as no surface occupancy, to areas around leks (breeding grounds). However, rationale for the size of these areas is often challenged. To help inform this issue, we used a spatial analysis of sage-grouse utilization distributions (UDs) to quantify seasonal (spring, summer and fall, winter) sage-grouse space use in relation to leks. We sampled UDs from 193 sage-grouse (11,878 telemetry locations) across 4 subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS, bordering California and Nevada) during 2003–2009. We quantified the volume of each UD (vUD) within a range of areas that varied in size and were centered on leks, up to a distance of 30 km from leks. We also quantified the percentage of nests within those areas. We then estimated the diminishing gains of vUD as area increased and produced continuous response curves that allow for flexibility in land management decisions. We found nearly 90% of the total vUD (all seasons combined) was contained within 5 km of leks, and we identified variation in vUD for a given distance related to season and migratory status. Five kilometers also represented the 95th percentile of the distribution of nesting distances. Because diminishing gains of vUD was not substantial until distances exceeded 8 km, managers should consider the theoretical optimal distances for SU designation

  6. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via enta...

  7. Automotive technicians' training as a community-of-practice: implications for the design of an augmented reality teaching aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassova, Margarita; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie

    2009-07-01

    The paper presents an ergonomic analysis carried out in the early phases of an R&D project. The purpose was to investigate the functioning of today's Automotive Service Technicians (ASTs) training in order to inform the design of an Augmented Reality (AR) teaching aid. The first part of the paper presents a literature review of some major problems encountered by ASTs today. The benefits of AR as technological aid are also introduced. Then, the methodology and the results of two case studies are presented. The first study is based on interviews with trainers and trainees; the second one on observations in real training settings. The results support the assumption that today's ASTs' training could be regarded as a community-of-practice (CoP). Therefore, AR could be useful as a collaboration tool, offering a shared virtual representation of real vehicle's parts, which are normally invisible unless dismantled (e.g. the parts of a hydraulic automatic transmission). We conclude on the methods and the technologies to support the automotive CoP.

  8. Geophysical assessment of near-field ground motion and the implications for the design of nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-09-30

    This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the various methodologies currently available to predict the near-field ground motion from an earthquake. The limitations of the various methods are discussed in some detail in light of recently available data. It is shown that, (at least for California earthquakes) for an earthquake with a given magnitude a wide variation in the peak ground motion can occur. The change in the spectral content of the ground motion is given as a function of earthquake magnitude and peak ground acceleration. It is shown that the large g values associated with small earthquakes are relatively unimportant in the design provided the structures have a modest amount of ductility. Data recently obtained from the Friuli earthquake are also examined. Although not all the geophysical data are currently available, the provisional conclusion is reached that the relation between the strong ground motion from this earthquake and its source parameters is the same as for the western United States.

  9. Genetic Diversity Underlying the Envelope Glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus: Structural and Functional Consequences and the Implications for Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Tarr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 26 years since the discovery of Hepatitis C virus (HCV a major global research effort has illuminated many aspects of the viral life cycle, facilitating the development of targeted antivirals. Recently, effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA regimens with >90% cure rates have become available for treatment of chronic HCV infection in developed nations, representing a significant advance towards global eradication. However, the high cost of these treatments results in highly restricted access in developing nations, where the disease burden is greatest. Additionally, the largely asymptomatic nature of infection facilitates continued transmission in at risk groups and resource constrained settings due to limited surveillance. Consequently a prophylactic vaccine is much needed. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are located on the surface of viral lipid envelope, facilitate viral entry and are the targets for host immunity, in addition to other functions. Unfortunately, the extreme global genetic and antigenic diversity exhibited by the HCV glycoproteins represents a significant obstacle to vaccine development. Here we review current knowledge of HCV envelope protein structure, integrating knowledge of genetic, antigenic and functional diversity to inform rational immunogen design.

  10. Efficient designs of gene-environment interaction studies: implications of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and gene-environment independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinbo; Kang, Guolian; Vanderweele, Tyler; Zhang, Cuilin; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2012-09-28

    It is important to investigate whether genetic susceptibility variants exercise the same effects in populations that are differentially exposed to environmental risk factors. Here, we assess the power of four two-stage case-control design strategies for assessing multiplicative gene-environment (G-E) interactions or for assessing genetic or environmental effects in the presence of G-E interactions. We considered a di-allelic single nucleotide polymorphism G and a binary environmental variable E under the constraints of G-E independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and used the Wald statistic for all tests. We concluded that (i) for testing G-E interactions or genetic effects in the presence of G-E interactions when data for E are fully available, it is preferable to ascertain data for G in a subsample of cases with similar numbers of exposed and unexposed and a random subsample of controls; and (ii) for testing G-E interactions or environmental effects in the presence of G-E interactions when data for G are fully available, it is preferable to ascertain data for E in a subsample of cases that has similar numbers for each genotype and a random subsample of controls. In addition, supplementing external control data to an existing case-control sample leads to improved power for assessing effects of G or E in the presence of G-E interactions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Spatial patterns and movements of red king and Tanner crabs: Implications for the design of marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, S. James; Mondragon, Jennifer; Andrews, A.G.; Nielsen, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most examples of positive population responses to marine protected areas (MPAs) have been documented for tropical reef species with very small home ranges; the utility of MPAs for commercially harvested temperate species that have large movement patterns remains poorly tested. We measured the distribution and abundance of red king Paralithodes camtschaticus and Tanner Chionoecetes bairdi crabs inside and outside of MPAs in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA. By tagging a sub-sample of crabs with sonic tags, we estimated the movement of adult crabs from one of the MPAs (Muir Inlet) into the central portion of Glacier Bay where fishing still occurs. Tanner crabs and red king crabs moved similar average distances per day, although Tanner crabs had a higher transfer out of the Muir Inlet MPA into the central bay. Tanner crab movements were characterized by large variation among individual crabs, both in distance and direction traveled, while red king crabs migrated seasonally between 2 specific areas. Although Tanner crabs exhibited relatively large movements, distribution and abundance data suggest that they may be restricted at large spatial scales by habitat barriers. MPAs that are effective at protecting king and especially Tanner crab brood stock from fishing mortality will likely need to be larger than is typical of MPAs worldwide. However, by incorporating information on the seasonal movements of red king crabs and the location of habitat barriers for Tanner crabs, MPAs could likely be designed that would effectively protect adults from fishing mortality. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  12. Near-shore Antarctic pH variability has implications for the design of ocean acidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsenberg, Lydia; Kelley, Amanda L.; Shaw, Emily C.; Martz, Todd R.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how declining seawater pH caused by anthropogenic carbon emissions, or ocean acidification, impacts Southern Ocean biota is limited by a paucity of pH time-series. Here, we present the first high-frequency in-situ pH time-series in near-shore Antarctica from spring to winter under annual sea ice. Observations from autonomous pH sensors revealed a seasonal increase of 0.3 pH units. The summer season was marked by an increase in temporal pH variability relative to spring and early winter, matching coastal pH variability observed at lower latitudes. Using our data, simulations of ocean acidification show a future period of deleterious wintertime pH levels potentially expanding to 7–11 months annually by 2100. Given the presence of (sub)seasonal pH variability, Antarctica marine species have an existing physiological tolerance of temporal pH change that may influence adaptation to future acidification. Yet, pH-induced ecosystem changes remain difficult to characterize in the absence of sufficient physiological data on present-day tolerances. It is therefore essential to incorporate natural and projected temporal pH variability in the design of experiments intended to study ocean acidification biology.

  13. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  14. Optimization of Life Cycle Extension of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures in regard to Material Properties, Structural Design, and Economic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mikolaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of ACM life cycle is defined with respect to traffic load acting on the pavement and road class for a period of about 20 years. In practice, reconstruction is usually pending until the end of the life cycle after which the reconstruction takes place and the original materials are replaced by new materials. Life cycle of the pavement construction in road structure is significantly longer than that of the ACM; it is therefore necessary to consider ACM from a long term viewpoint, that is, exceeding their life expectancy. This paper describes a methodology which consists of analytical calculations, experimental measurements, and optimization of the ACM life cycle with the use of a rehabilitation action to provide new physical properties of pavement surfacing in different periods of the original life cycle. The aim is to attain maximal economic effectiveness, by minimizing financial costs for rehabilitation and maintenance and economic costs of road user. Presented method allows deriving optimal life cycle from various rehabilitation alternatives for particular ACM with the fact that all the necessary parameters are derived from specific experimental measurements and calculations. The method is applicable to all types of ACM materials; however, for each material, it is necessary to carry out the necessary measurements and tests. The article describes the methodology and case study results for a particular type of ACM material.

  15. Mechanical properties of laser cut poly(L-lactide) micro-specimens: implications for stent design, manufacture, and sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Niels; Schlun, Martin; Sternberg, Katrin; Hakansson, Nico; Kramer, Sven; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter

    2005-02-01

    The development of endoluminal stents from polymeric materials requires an understanding of the basic mechanical properties of the polymer and the effects of manufacturing and sterilization on those properties. Pure poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and PLLA containing varying amounts of triethylcitrate (TEC) as a plasticizer (5-10-15%) were studied. The specimens were solution-cast and CO2 laser-cut. Specimen dimensions were adapted to the strut size of polymeric vascular stents. The properties of the PLLA micro-specimens were assessed before and after sterilization (EtO cold gas, H2O2-plasma, beta- and gamma-irradiation). Tensile tests, and creep and recovery tests were carried out at 37 degrees C. Additionally the thermal and thermo-mechanical characteristics were investigated using dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed the dramatic influence of the plasticizer content and sterilization procedure on the mechanical properties of the material. Laser cutting had a lesser effect. Hence the effects of processing and sterilization must not be overlooked in the material selection and design phases of the development process leading to clinical use. Altogether, the results of these studies provide a clearer understanding of the complex interaction between the laser machining process and terminal sterilization on the primary mechanical properties of PLLA and PLLA plasticized with TEC.

  16. Promoting positive youth development by examining the career and educational aspirations of African American males: implications for designing educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Felecia A; Lewis, Rhonda K; Sly, Jamilia R; Carmack, Chakema; Roberts, Shani R; Basore, Polly

    2011-01-01

    African American males experience poor academic performance, high absenteeism at school, and are at increased risk of being involved in violence than other racial groups. Given that the educational outlook for African American males appears bleak, it is important to assess the aspirations of these adolescent males in order to find the gap between aspirations and educational attainment. In order to promote positive development within this population, it is essential that factors that affect African American males be identified. A survey was administered to male students attending elementary, middle, and high schools in a local school district. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the career and educational aspirations of African American males. A total of 473 males were surveyed: 45% African American, 22% Caucasian, 13% biracial, and 19% Other (including Asian American, Hispanic, Native American). The results revealed that African American males aspired to attend college at the same rate as other ethnic groups. Also, African American males were more likely to aspire to be professional athletes than males from other ethnic groups. Important factors to consider when designing a program are discussed as well as future research and limitations.

  17. Results of Applying Cultural Domain Analysis Techniques and Implications for the Design of Complementary Feeding Interventions in Northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Stephanie; Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Wittenbrink, Brittney; Milani, Peiman; Diallo, Abdoulaye Moussa; Ndoye, Tidiane; Wone, Issa; Parker, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Designing effective nutrition interventions for infants and young children requires knowledge about the population to which the intervention is directed, including insights into the cognitive systems and values that inform caregiver feeding practices. To apply cultural domain analysis techniques in the context of implementation research for the purpose of understanding caregivers' knowledge frameworks in Northern Senegal with respect to infant and young child (IYC) feeding. This study was intended to inform decisions for interventions to improve infant and young child nutrition. Modules from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were employed in interviews with a sample of 126 key informants and caregivers from rural and peri-urban sites in the Saint-Louis region of northern Senegal. Descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and qualitative thematic analysis were used to analyze the data. Cluster analysis showed that caregivers identified 6 food clusters: heavy foods, light foods, snack foods, foraged foods, packaged foods, and foods that are good for the body. The study also revealed similarities and differences between the 2 study sites in caregivers' knowledge frameworks. The demonstration of differences between biomedical concepts of nutrition and the knowledge frameworks of northern Senegalese women with regard to IYC feeding highlights the value of knowledge about emic perspectives of local communities to help guide decisions about interventions to improve nutrition.

  18. Preliminary Characterization of the Altair Lunar Lander Slosh Dynamics and Some Implications for the Thrust Vector Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Strahan, Alan; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Casillas, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system and preliminary modeling of propellant slosh, for the Altair Lunar Lander. Altair is a vehicle element of the NASA Constellation Program aimed at returning humans to the moon. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is the measurement and control of spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude in support of mission objectives. One key GN&C function is the commanding of effectors that control attitude and impart delta V on the vehicle, utilizing both reaction control system (RCS) thrusters and throttling and TVC gimbaling of the vehicle main engine. Both the Altair descent and ascent modules carry fuel tanks. During thrusting maneuvers, the sloshing of liquid fuels in partially filled tanks can interact with the controlled system in such a way as to cause the overall system to be unstable. These fuel tanks must be properly placed, relative to the spacecraft's c.m., to avoid any unstable interactions. Following this will be a discussion of propellant slosh modeling work performed for the present vehicle configuration, including slosh frequency and participatory fluid mass predictions. Knowing the range of slosh mode frequencies over mission phases, the TVC bandwidth must be carefully selected so as not to excite the slosh modes at those frequencies. The likely need to increase the damping factor of slosh modes via baffles will also be discussed. To conclude, a discussion of operations procedures aimed at minimizing TVC-slosh interactions will be given.

  19. Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS): Memory Representation and Procedural Implications for Airborne Communication Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Pisanich, Gregory M.; Lebacqz, Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The Man-Machine Interaction Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) has been under development for the past ten years through a joint US Army and NASA cooperative agreement. MIDAS represents multiple human operators and selected perceptual, cognitive, and physical functions of those operators as they interact with simulated systems. MIDAS has been used as an integrated predictive framework for the investigation of human/machine systems, particularly in situations with high demands on the operators. Specific examples include: nuclear power plant crew simulation, military helicopter flight crew response, and police force emergency dispatch. In recent applications to airborne systems development, MIDAS has demonstrated an ability to predict flight crew decision-making and procedural behavior when interacting with automated flight management systems and Air Traffic Control. In this paper we describe two enhancements to MIDAS. The first involves the addition of working memory in the form of an articulatory buffer for verbal communication protocols and a visuo-spatial buffer for communications via digital datalink. The second enhancement is a representation of multiple operators working as a team. This enhanced model was used to predict the performance of human flight crews and their level of compliance with commercial aviation communication procedures. We show how the data produced by MIDAS compares with flight crew performance data from full mission simulations. Finally, we discuss the use of these features to study communications issues connected with aircraft-based separation assurance.

  20. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  1. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  2. In Silico Analysis of L1/L2 Sequences of Human Papillomaviruses: Implication for Universal Vaccine Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorban Hosseini, Nazila; Tebianian, Majid; Farhadi, Ayoub; Hossein Khani, Ali; Rahimi, Arian; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Rezaei, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design a multiepitope universal vaccine for major human papillomavirus (HPV) structural proteins, L1/L2, by bioinformatics models. For this purpose, we predicted the most probable immunogenic epitopes of L1 and L2 from common high-risk HPV 16, 18, 31, and 45 beside high prevalent type 6 and 11 based on BCPREDS defaulted model, while solvent accessibility of structure was extrapolated. The three-dimensional molecular model of L1 protein was constructed by Swiss Model server, whereas sequence alignment provided model for prediction of L2 protein epitopes. After that, N-glycosylation sites were excluded from estimated epitope regions. Then, by other bioinformatics analyses, 20 epitopes were selected and fused in tandem repeats, reverse translated, and codon optimized to relevant sequence. The final protein parameters such as antigenicity were analyzed by protean program. Evaluation of new recombinant protein sequence indicated a molecular weight of 41.8 kDa with 400 amino acids beside positive charge. The computed isoelectric point (pI) value indicated the acidic nature of final product. The aliphatic index showed low thermal stability of this construct and the Grand Average Hydropathicity value was negative (-0.494). Analyzed plot showed that major parts of new protein construct had hydrophilic property, thus harboring antigenic potency. After all, sequence of final construct reverse translated to DNA and this codon-optimized sequence showed Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) of >0.8 for expression in Escherichia coli. Finally, this sequence ligated into pET28a bacterial expression vector. The new recombinant proteins harboring 20 B cell epitope seem to be suitable antigens based on computational methods as a universal vaccine candidate for HPVs.

  3. Hierarchies and cliques in the social networks of health care professionals: implications for the design of dissemination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E; Barron, D N; Dowsett, J; Newton, J N

    1999-03-01

    Interest in how best to influence the behaviour of clinicians in the interests of both clinical and cost effectiveness has rekindled concern with the social networks of health care professionals. Ever since the seminal work of Coleman et al. [Coleman, J.S., Katz, E., Menzel, H., 1966. Medical Innovation: A Diffusion Study. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis.], networks have been seen as important in the process by which clinicians adopt (or fail to adopt) new innovations in clinical practice. Yet very little is actually known about the social networks of clinicians in modern health care settings. This paper describes the professional social networks of two groups of health care professionals, clinical directors of medicine and directors of nursing, in hospitals in England. We focus on network density, centrality and centralisation because these characteristics have been linked to access to information, social influence and social control processes. The results show that directors of nursing are more central to their networks than clinical directors of medicine and that their networks are more hierarchical. Clinical directors of medicine tend to be embedded in much more densely connected networks which we describe as cliques. The hypotheses that the networks of directors of nursing are better adapted to gathering and disseminating information than clinical directors of medicine, but that the latter could be more potent instruments for changing, or resisting changes, in clinical behaviour, follow from a number of sociological theories. We conclude that professional socialisation and structural location are important determinants of social networks and that these factors could usefully be considered in the design of strategies to inform and influence clinicians.

  4. Biased representation of disturbance rates in the roadside sampling frame in boreal forests: implications for monitoring design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Van Wilgenburg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS is the principal source of data to inform researchers about the status of and trend for boreal forest birds. Unfortunately, little BBS coverage is available in the boreal forest, where increasing concern over the status of species breeding there has increased interest in northward expansion of the BBS. However, high disturbance rates in the boreal forest may complicate roadside monitoring. If the roadside sampling frame does not capture variation in disturbance rates because of either road placement or the use of roads for resource extraction, biased trend estimates might result. In this study, we examined roadside bias in the proportional representation of habitat disturbance via spatial data on forest "loss," forest fires, and anthropogenic disturbance. In each of 455 BBS routes, the area disturbed within multiple buffers away from the road was calculated and compared against the area disturbed in degree blocks and BBS strata. We found a nonlinear relationship between bias and distance from the road, suggesting forest loss and forest fires were underrepresented below 75 and 100 m, respectively. In contrast, anthropogenic disturbance was overrepresented at distances below 500 m and underrepresented thereafter. After accounting for distance from road, BBS routes were reasonably representative of the degree blocks they were within, with only a few strata showing biased representation. In general, anthropogenic disturbance is overrepresented in southern strata, and forest fires are underrepresented in almost all strata. Similar biases exist when comparing the entire road network and the subset sampled by BBS routes against the amount of disturbance within BBS strata; however, the magnitude of biases differed. Based on our results, we recommend that spatial stratification and rotating panel designs be used to spread limited BBS and off-road sampling effort in an unbiased fashion and that new BBS routes

  5. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Young

    Full Text Available Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc. done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network.

  6. Assessment of habitat representation across a network of marine protected areas with implications for the spatial design of monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary; Carr, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) are being adopted globally to protect ecosystems and supplement fisheries management. The state of California recently implemented a coast-wide network of MPAs, a statewide seafloor mapping program, and ecological characterizations of species and ecosystems targeted for protection by the network. The main goals of this study were to use these data to evaluate how well seafloor features, as proxies for habitats, are represented and replicated across an MPA network and how well ecological surveys representatively sampled fish habitats inside MPAs and adjacent reference sites. Seafloor data were classified into broad substrate categories (rock and sediment) and finer scale geomorphic classifications standard to marine classification schemes using surface analyses (slope, ruggedness, etc.) done on the digital elevation model derived from multibeam bathymetry data. These classifications were then used to evaluate the representation and replication of seafloor structure within the MPAs and across the ecological surveys. Both the broad substrate categories and the finer scale geomorphic features were proportionately represented for many of the classes with deviations of 1-6% and 0-7%, respectively. Within MPAs, however, representation of seafloor features differed markedly from original estimates, with differences ranging up to 28%. Seafloor structure in the biological monitoring design had mismatches between sampling in the MPAs and their corresponding reference sites and some seafloor structure classes were missed entirely. The geomorphic variables derived from multibeam bathymetry data for these analyses are known determinants of the distribution and abundance of marine species and for coastal marine biodiversity. Thus, analyses like those performed in this study can be a valuable initial method of evaluating and predicting the conservation value of MPAs across a regional network.

  7. A Miniature Recording Cardiotachometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsombor-Murray, Paul J; Vroomen, Louis J.; Hendriksen, Nils Thedin

    1981-01-01

    The design of a miniature, recording cardiotachometer is described. It is simple and can store digital data. Bench and field tests, using a hand-held display, are presented. Construction and principles of operation are discussed. Applications, with performing athlete subjects, are outlined....

  8. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Steven Goldfarb; Mitch McLachlan; Homer A. Neal

    Web Archives of ATLAS Plenary Sessions, Workshops, Meetings, and Tutorials from 2005 until this past month are available via the University of Michigan portal here. Most recent additions include the Trigger-Aware Analysis Tutorial by Monika Wielers on March 23 and the ROOT Workshop held at CERN on March 26-27.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal.Feedback WelcomeOur group is making arrangements now to record plenary sessions, tutorials, and other important ATLAS events for 2007. Your suggestions for potential recording, as well as your feedback on existing archives is always welcome. Please contact us at wlap@umich.edu. Thank you.Enjoy the Lectures!

  9. Validation of protein intake assessed from weighed dietary records against protein estimated from 24 h urine samples in children, adolescents and young adults participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokhof, Beate; Günther, Anke L B; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To date, only a few nutritional assessment methods have been validated against the biomarker of urinary-N excretion for use in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to validate protein intake from one day of a weighed dietary record against protein intake estimated...... from a simultaneously collected 24 h urine sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses including 439 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study from four age groups (3-4, 7-8, 11-13 and 18-23 years). Mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), cross...

  10. High Affinity vs. Native Fibronectin in the Modulation of αvβ3 Integrin Conformational Dynamics: Insights from Computational Analyses and Implications for Molecular Design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Paladino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how binding events modulate functional motions of multidomain proteins is a major issue in chemical biology. We address several aspects of this problem by analyzing the differential dynamics of αvβ3 integrin bound to wild type (wtFN10, agonist or high affinity (hFN10, antagonist mutants of fibronectin. We compare the dynamics of complexes from large-scale domain motions to inter-residue coordinated fluctuations to characterize the distinctive traits of conformational evolution and shed light on the determinants of differential αvβ3 activation induced by different FN sequences. We propose an allosteric model for ligand-based integrin modulation: the conserved integrin binding pocket anchors the ligand, while different residues on the two FN10's act as the drivers that reorganize relevant interaction networks, guiding the shift towards inactive (hFN10-bound or active states (wtFN10-bound. We discuss the implications of results for the design of integrin inhibitors.

  11. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Affan, I A M; Hugtenburg, R P; Bari, D S; Al-Saleh, W M; Piliero, M; Evans, S; Al-Hasan, M; Al-Zughul, B; Al-Kharouf, S; Ghaith, A

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose. © 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  12. Dose reduction of scattered photons from concrete walls lined with lead: Implications for improvement in design of megavoltage radiation therapy facility mazes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I. A. M., E-mail: info@medphys-environment.co.uk; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Piliero, M. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bari, D. S. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom and University of Zakho, Duhok (Iraq); Al-Saleh, W. M. [Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom and King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, Hofuf (Saudi Arabia); Evans, S. [Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Al-Hasan, M.; Al-Zughul, B. [College of Sciences, Zarqa University, Zarqa (Jordan); Al-Kharouf, S. [The Royal Scientific Society, Amman (Jordan); Ghaith, A. [Association of Arab Universities, Amman (Jordan)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: This study explores the possibility of using lead to cover part of the radiation therapy facility maze walls in order to absorb low energy photons and reduce the total dose at the maze entrance of radiation therapy rooms. Methods: Experiments and Monte Carlo simulations were utilized to establish the possibility of using high-Z materials to cover the concrete walls of the maze in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. The dose of the backscattered photons from a concrete wall was measured for various scattering angles. The dose was also calculated by the FLUKA and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes. The FLUKA code was also used to simulate an existing radiotherapy room to study the effect of multiple scattering when adding lead to cover the concrete walls of the maze. Monoenergetic photons were used to represent the main components of the x ray spectrum up to 10 MV. Results: It was observed that when the concrete wall was covered with just 2 mm of lead, the measured dose rate at all backscattering angles was reduced by 20% for photons of energy comparable to Co-60 emissions and 70% for Cs-137 emissions. The simulations with FLUKA and EGS showed that the reduction in the dose was potentially even higher when lead was added. One explanation for the reduction is the increased absorption of backscattered photons due to the photoelectric interaction in lead. The results also showed that adding 2 mm lead to the concrete walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 90%. Conclusions: This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimeters of lead would have a direct implication for the design of radiation therapy facilities and would assist in upgrading the design of some mazes, especially those in facilities with limited space where the maze length cannot be extended to sufficiently reduce the dose.

  13. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club November  Selections Just in time for the holiday season, we have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then Nov 2011. New films include the all 5 episodes of Fast and Furious, many of the most famous films starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and those of Louis de Funes and some more recent films such as The Lincoln Lawyer and, according to some critics, Woody Allen’s best film for years – Midnight in Paris. For the younger generation there is Cars 2 and Kung Fu Panda 2. New CDs include the latest releases by Adele, Coldplay and the Red Hot Chili Peppers. We have also added the new Duets II CD featuring Tony Bennett singing with some of today’s pop stars including Lady Gaga, Amy Winehouse and Willy Nelson. The Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday ...

  14. ATLAS Recordings

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeremy Herr; Homer A. Neal; Mitch McLachlan

    The University of Michigan Web Archives for the 2006 ATLAS Week Plenary Sessions, as well as the first of 2007, are now online. In addition, there are a wide variety of Software and Physics Tutorial sessions, recorded over the past couple years, to chose from. All ATLAS-specific archives are accessible here.Viewing requires a standard web browser with RealPlayer plug-in (included in most browsers automatically) and works on any major platform. Lectures can be viewed directly over the web or downloaded locally.In addition, you will find access to a variety of general tutorials and events via the portal. Shaping Collaboration 2006The Michigan group is happy to announce a complete set of recordings from the Shaping Collaboration conference held last December at the CICG in Geneva.The event hosted a mix of Collaborative Tool experts and LHC Users, and featured presentations by the CERN Deputy Director General, Prof. Jos Engelen, the President of Internet2, and chief developers from VRVS/EVO, WLAP, and other tools...

  15. Record club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record club

    2010-01-01

      Bonjour a tous, Voici les 24 nouveaux DVD de Juillet disponibles depuis quelques jours, sans oublier les 5 CD Pop musique. Découvrez la saga du terroriste Carlos, la vie de Gainsbourg et les aventures de Lucky Luke; angoissez avec Paranormal Activity et évadez vous sur Pandora dans la peau d’Avatar. Toutes les nouveautés sont à découvrir directement au club. Pour en connaître la liste complète ainsi que le reste de la collection du Record Club, nous vous invitons sur notre site web: http://cern.ch/crc. Toutes les dernières nouveautés sont dans la rubrique « Discs of the Month ». Rappel : le club est ouvert les Lundis, Mercredis, Vendredis de 12h30 à 13h00 au restaurant n°2, bâtiment 504. A bientôt chers Record Clubbers.  

  16. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club Nouveautés été 2011 Le club de location de CDs et de DVDs vient d’ajouter un grand nombre de disques pour l’été 2011. Parmi eux, Le Discours d’un Roi, oscar 2011 du meilleur film et Harry Potter les reliques de la mort (1re partie). Ce n’est pas moins de 48 DVDs et 10 CDs nouveaux qui vous sont proposés à la location. Il y en a pour tous les genres. Alors n’hésitez pas à consulter notre site http://cern.ch/record.club, voir Disc Catalogue, Discs of the month pour avoir la liste complète. Le club est ouvert tous les Lundi, Mercredi, Vendredi de 12h30 à 13h dans le bâtiment du restaurent N°2 (Cf. URL: http://www.cern.ch/map/building?bno=504) A très bientôt.  

  17. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  18. Certified records manager exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Certified Records Managers (ICRM) is a non-profit, certifying organization of professional records managers and administrators. ICRM members are experienced in information requirements, records and information systems, and the related office systems and technologies. All members have met certification requirements and have received the Certified Records Manager (CRM) designation. As the field of information and records management moves toward standardization, and as the application of new technologies and technicalities complicate the measurement and demonstration of professional competence, the need for a means of identifying persons who have basic competency increases. The ICRM is providing such a means by testing and certifying basic knowledge. More and more job announcements are requiring this evidence of competency. Unfortunately, as an organization, NIRMA has a relatively small number of CRMs. The goal of the ICRM Development Group is two-fold; (1) to encourage NIRMA members to obtain their certification by providing basic information and support and; (2) to develop the Nuclear Specialist test module which will demonstrate that bearers have demonstrated expertise in nuclear records management as well as basic competencies. This report covers the examination process.

  19. Optical sedimentation recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2014-05-06

    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  20. Product Implications of Design Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact offshoring of product development has on the product and suggest possible ways the negative impacts can be avoided.......This paper investigates the impact offshoring of product development has on the product and suggest possible ways the negative impacts can be avoided....

  1. Record dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robe, Dominic M.; Boettcher, Stefan; Sibani, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When quenched rapidly beyond their glass transition, colloidal suspensions fall out of equilibrium. The pace of their dynamics then slows down with the system age, i.e., with the time elapsed after the quench. This breaking of time translational invariance is associated with dynamical observables...... which depend on two time-arguments. The phenomenology is shared by a broad class of aging systems and calls for an equally broad theoretical description. The key idea is that, independent of microscopic details, aging systems progress through rare intermittent structural relaxations that are de......-facto irreversible and become increasingly harder to achieve. Thus, a progression of record-sized dynamical barriers are traversed in the approach to equilibration. Accordingly, the statistics of the events is closely described by a log-Poisson process. Originally developed for relaxation in spin glasses...

  2. RECORD CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2010-01-01

    DVD James Bond – Series Complete To all Record Club Members, to start the new year, we have taken advantage of a special offer to add copies of all the James Bond movies to date, from the very first - Dr. No - to the latest - Quantum of Solace. No matter which of the successive 007s you prefer (Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan or Daniel Craig), they are all there. Or perhaps you have a favourite Bond Girl, or even perhaps a favourite villain. Take your pick. You can find the full selection listed on the club web site http://cern.ch/crc; use the panel on the left of the page “Discs of the Month” and select Jan 2010. We remind you that we are open on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 12:30 to 13:00 in Restaurant 2 (Bldg 504).

  3. Record breakers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the sixties, CERN’s Fellows were but a handful of about 50 young experimentalists present on site to complete their training. Today, their number has increased to a record-breaking 500. They come from many different fields and are spread across CERN’s different activity areas.   “Diversifying the Fellowship programme has been the key theme in recent years,” comments James Purvis, Head of the Recruitment, Programmes and Monitoring group in the HR Department. “In particular, the 2005 five-yearly review introduced the notion of ‘senior’ and ‘junior’ Fellowships, broadening the target audience to include those with Bachelor-level qualifications.” Diversification made CERN’s Fellowship programme attractive to a wider audience but the number of Fellows on site could not have increased so much without the support of EU-funded projects, which were instrumental in the growth of the programme. ...

  4. First record of Toxorhynchites rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, J J; Livdahl, T

    1999-09-01

    The 1st recorded capture of Toxorhynchites rutilus in Massachusetts, USA, is reported. This capture represents the northernmost record of Tx. rutilus. The implications of this capture are discussed in the context of range expansion, evolution, and climatic change.

  5. Records Control Schedules Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Records Control Schedules (RCS) repository provides access to scanned versions of records schedules, or Standard Form 115, Request for Records Disposition...

  6. Attaining surgical competency and its implications in surgical clinical trial design: a systematic review of the learning curve in laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Jenifer; Jayne, David G; Wright, Judy; Murray, Carolyn J Czoski; Collinson, Fiona J; Pavitt, Sue H

    2014-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is increasingly used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and more recently robotic assistance has been advocated. However, the learning curve to achieve surgical proficiency in laparoscopic surgery is ill-defined and subject to many influences. The aim of this review was to comprehensively appraise the literature on the learning curve for laparoscopic and robotic colorectal cancer surgery, and to quantify attainment of surgical proficiency and its implications in surgical clinical trial design. A systematic review using a defined search strategy was performed. Included studies had to state an explicit numerical value of the learning curve evaluated by a single parameter or multiple parameters. Thirty-four studies were included, 28 laparoscopic and 6 robot assisted. Of the laparoscopic studies, nine defined the learning curve on the basis of a single parameter. Nine studies used more than one parameter to define learning, and 11 used a cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis. One study used both a multiparameter and CUSUM analysis. The definition of proficiency was subjective, and the number of operations to achieve it ranged from 5 to 310 cases for laparoscopic and 15-30 cases for robotic surgery. The learning curve in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is multifaceted and often ill-defined, with poor descriptions of mentorship/supervision. Further, the quantification to attain proficiency is variable. The use of a single parameter to quantify this is simplistic. Multidimensional assessment is recommended; as part of this, the CUSUM model, which assesses trends in multiple surgical outcomes, is useful and appropriate when assessing the learning curve in a clinical setting.

  7. Antibody Immunity Induced by H7N9 Avian Influenza Vaccines: Evaluation Criteria, Affecting Factors, and Implications for Rational Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenglei Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV infections in humans have public health authorities around the world on high alert for the potential development of a human influenza pandemic. Currently, the newly-emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9 virus poses a dual challenge for public health and poultry industry. Numerous H7N9 vaccine candidates have been generated using various platforms. Immunization trials in animals and humans showed that H7N9 vaccines are apparently poorly immunogenic because they induced low hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralizing antibody titers. However, H7N9 vaccines elicit comparable levels of total hemagglutinin (HA-reactive IgG antibody as the seasonal influenza vaccines, suggesting H7N9 vaccines are as immunogenic as their seasonal counterparts. A large fraction of overall IgG antibody is non-neutralizing antibody and they target unrecognized epitopes outside of the traditional antigenic sites in HA. Further, the Treg epitope identified in H7 HA may at least partially contribute to regulation of antibody immunity. Here, we review the latest advances for the development of H7N9 vaccines and discuss the influence of serological criteria on evaluation of immunogenicity of H7N9 vaccines. Next, we discuss factors affecting antibody immunity induced by H7N9 vaccines, including the change in antigenic epitopes in HA and the presence of the Treg epitope. Last, we present our perspectives for the unique features of antibody immunity of H7N9 vaccines and propose some future directions to improve or modify antibody response induced by H7N9 vaccines. This perspective would provide critical implications for rational design of H7N9 vaccines for human and veterinary use.

  8. Biomechanical model of batoid (skates and rays) pectoral fins predicts the influence of skeletal structure on fin kinematics: implications for bio-inspired design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R S; Blemker, S S; Fish, F E; Bart-Smith, H

    2015-06-16

    Growing interest in the development of bio-inspired autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) has motivated research in understanding the mechanisms behind the propulsion systems of marine animals. For example, the locomotive behavior of rays (Batoidea) by movement of the pectoral fins is of particular interest due to their superior performance characteristics over contemporary AUV propulsion systems. To better understand the mechanics of pectoral fin propulsion, this paper introduces a biomechanical model that simulates how batoid skeletal structures function to achieve the swimming locomotion observed in nature. Two rays were studied, Dasyatis sabina (Atlantic ray), and Rhinoptera bonasus (cownose ray). These species were selected because they exhibit very different swimming styles (undulation versus oscillation), but all use primarily their pectoral fins for propulsion (unlike electric rays or guitarfishes). Computerized tomography scans of each species were taken to image the underlying structure, which reveal a complex system of cartilaginous joints and linkages. Data collected from these images were used to quantify the complete skeletal morphometry of each batoid fin. Morphological differences were identified in the internal cartilage arrangement between each species including variations in the orientation of the skeletal elements, or radials, and the joint patterns between them, called the inter-radial joint pattern. These data were used as the primary input into the biomechanical model to couple a given ray skeletal structure with various swimming motions. A key output of the model is an estimation of the uniaxial strain that develops in the skeletal connective tissue in order for the structure to achieve motions observed during swimming. Tensile load tests of this connective tissue were conducted to further investigate the implications of the material strain predictions. The model also demonstrates that changes in the skeletal architecture (e.g., joint

  9. A health record integrated clinical decision support system to support prescriptions of pharmaceutical drugs in patients with reduced renal function: design, development and proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemeikka, Tero; Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Vég, Anikó; Törnqvist, Elisabeth; Cornelius, Birgitta; Korkmaz, Seher

    2015-06-01

    To develop and verify proof of concept for a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to support prescriptions of pharmaceutical drugs in patients with reduced renal function, integrated in an electronic health record system (EHR) used in both hospitals and primary care. A pilot study in one geriatric clinic, one internal medicine admission ward and two outpatient healthcare centers was evaluated with a questionnaire focusing on the usefulness of the CDSS. The usage of the system was followed in a log. The CDSS is considered to increase the attention on patients with impaired renal function, provides a better understanding of dosing and is time saving. The calculated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the dosing recommendation classification were perceived useful while the recommendation texts and background had been used to a lesser extent. Few previous systems are used in primary care and cover this number of drugs. The global assessment of the CDSS scored high but some elements were used to a limited extent possibly due to accessibility or that texts were considered difficult to absorb. Choosing a formula for the calculation of eGFR in a CDSS may be problematic. A real-time CDSS to support kidney-related drug prescribing in both hospital and outpatient settings is valuable to the physicians. It has the potential to improve quality of drug prescribing by increasing the attention on patients with renal insufficiency and the knowledge of their drug dosing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2012-01-01

      March  Selections By the time this appears, we will have added a number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club. You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club; select the "Discs of the Month" button on the left panel of the web page and then Mar 2012. New films include recent releases such as Johnny English 2, Bad Teacher, Cowboys vs Aliens, and Super 8. We are also starting to acquire some of the classic films we missed when we initiated the DVD section of the club, such as appeared in a recent Best 100 Films published by a leading UK magazine; this month we have added Spielberg’s Jaws and Scorsese’s Goodfellas. If you have your own ideas on what we are missing, let us know. For children we have no less than 8 Tin-Tin DVDs. And if you like fast moving pop music, try the Beyonce concert DVD. New CDs include the latest releases from Paul McCartney, Rihanna and Amy Winehouse. There is a best of Mylene Farmer, a compilation from the NRJ 201...

  11. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis treated with medical therapy alone: temporal trends and implications for risk assessment and the design of future studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Nira; Raman, Gowri; Moorthy, Denish; O'Donnell, Thomas F; Thaler, David E; Feldmann, Edward; Lau, Joseph; Kitsios, Georgios D; Dahabreh, Issa J

    2014-01-01

    The rate of adverse clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone can be used to guide clinical decision-making and to inform future research. We aimed to investigate temporal changes in the incidence rate of clinical outcomes among patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis receiving medical therapy alone and to explore the implications of these changes for the design of future comparative studies. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, US Food and Drug Administration documents, and reference lists of included studies (last search: December 31, 2012). We selected prospective cohort studies of medical therapy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and we extracted information on study characteristics, risk of bias, and outcomes. We performed meta-analyses to estimate summary incidence rates, meta-regressions to assess trends over time, and simulations to explore sample size requirements for the design of future studies comparing new treatments against medical therapy. The main outcomes of interest were ipsilateral stroke, any stroke, cardiovascular death, death, and myocardial infarction. We identified 41 studies of medical therapy for patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis (last recruitment year: 1978-2009). The summary incidence rate of ipsilateral carotid territory stroke (25 studies) was 1.7 per 100 person-years. This incidence rate was significantly lower in recent studies (last recruitment year from 2000 onwards) as compared to studies that ended recruitment earlier (1.0 vs. 2.3 events per 100 person-years; p studies), cardiovascular death (6 studies), death (13 studies), and myocardial infarction (5 studies) were 2.7, 4.1, 4.6, and 1.8 per 100 person-years, respectively. Simulations showed that future studies would need to enroll large numbers of patients with a relatively high incidence rate under medical therapy, and evaluate interventions with large effect

  12. Personal health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn

    2012-01-01

    in the distributed heterogeneous network of chronic patients and the healthcare professionals that take care of them. An interactive personal health record (PHR) has been designed as part of the project. As such it is part of a trend to find ways to include patients in their own care process. This has been motivated...... by expected health benefits for the patients as well as promises to lead to reduced costs for a burdened healthcare system....

  13. Artificial Intelligence Controls Tape-Recording Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Otamura, Roy M.; Zottarelli, Lawrence J.

    1989-01-01

    Developmental expert-system computer program intended to schedule recording of large amounts of data on limited amount of magnetic tape. Schedules recording using two sets of rules. First set incorporates knowledge of locations for recording of new data. Second set incorporates knowledge about issuing commands to recorder. Designed primarily for use on Voyager Spacecraft, also applicable to planning and sequencing in industry.

  14. Privacy Act of 1974; report of altered systems--HCFA. Notice of the global addition of three new routine uses to designated HCFA systems of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-16

    HCFA is adding three additional routine uses to the Systems of Records specified in Appendix A. These routine uses will permit HCFA to disclose individual-specific information for the purpose of combating fraud or abuse in the health benefit programs administered by HCFA and for other compatible purposes. These new routine uses will permit HCFA to make disclosures as follows: (1) To a HCFA contractor, including but not necessarily limited to fiscal intermediaries and carriers under title XVIII of the Social Security Act, to administer some aspect of a HCFA-administered health benefits program, or to a grantee of a HCFA-administered grant program, which program is or could be affected by fraud or abuse, for the purpose of preventing, deterring, discovering, detecting, investigating, examining, prosecuting, suing with respect to, defending against, correcting, remedying, or otherwise combating such fraud or abuse in such program; (2) To another Federal agency or to an instrumentality of any governmental jurisdiction within or under the control of the United States, including any state or local government agency, for the purpose of preventing, deterring, discovering, detecting, investigating, examining, prosecuting, suing with respect to, defending against, correcting, remedying, or otherwise combating fraud or abuse in a health benefits program funded in whole or in part by Federal funds; and, (3) To any entity that makes payment for or oversees the administration of health care services, for the purpose of preventing, deterring, discovering, detecting, investigating, examining, prosecuting, suing with respect to, defending against, correcting, remedying, or otherwise combating fraud or abuse against such entity or the program or services administered by such entity, subject to certain conditions.

  15. Labyrinth: A Detective Investigates the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G., the Implication of Death Row Records' Suge Knight, and the Origins of the Los Angeles Police Scandal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Rotella; Sarah F Gold; Lynn Andriani; Michael Scharf

    2002-01-01

    ... industry: mafioso-style music label management; the unsolved murders of rap superstars Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G.; and a dizzying series of binary oppositions-Crips vs. Bloods; West Coast rappers vs. East Coast rappers; Death Row Records' exec Suge Knight vs. Puffy Combs of Bad Boy Records, etc. Unfortunately, the basic material isn't exactly ...

  16. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...... threefold theme: (1) core issues in organization design, (2) emerging perspectives in OD, and (3) new developments and directions in organizational design. A special feature of each chapter is: 1) implications for theory, and 2) implications for practice. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches...

  17. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books......Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... threefold theme: (1) core issues in organization design, (2) emerging perspectives in OD, and (3) new developments and directions in organizational design. A special feature of each chapter is: 1) implications for theory, and 2) implications for practice. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches...

  18. Design, Development and Testing of a Low-Cost sEMG System and Its Use in Recording Muscle Activity in Human Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Grujic Supuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface electromyography (sEMG is an important measurement technique used in biomechanical, rehabilitation and sport environments. In this article the design, development and testing of a low-cost wearable sEMG system are described. The hardware architecture consists of a two-cascade small-sized bioamplifier with a total gain of 2,000 and band-pass of 3 to 500 Hz. The sampling frequency of the system is 1,000 Hz. Since real measured EMG signals are usually corrupted by various types of noises (motion artifacts, white noise and electromagnetic noise present at 50 Hz and higher harmonics, we have tested several denoising techniques, both on artificial and measured EMG signals. Results showed that a wavelet—based technique implementing