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Sample records for reconstructing peak discharges

  1. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  2. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver; Tuttenuj, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Part I: Dr. Oliver Wetter. (Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) Part II: PhD student Daniel Tuttenuj (Oeschger Centre of Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Switzerland) The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet

  3. Reconstruction of peak water levels, peak discharges and long-term occurrence of extreme- as well as smaller pre-instrumental flood events of river Aare, Limmat, Reuss, Rhine and Saane in Switzerland. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttenuj, Daniel; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The methodology developed by Wetter et al. (2011) combines different documentary and instrumental sources, retaining relevant information for the reconstruction of extreme pre-instrumental flood events. These include hydrological measurements (gauges), historic river profiles (cross and longitudinal profiles), flood marks, historic city maps, documentary flood evidence (reports in chronicles and newspapers) as well as paintings and drawings. It has been shown that extreme river Rhine flood events of the pre-instrumental period can be reconstructed in terms of peak discharges for the last 750 years by applying this methodology to the site of Basel. Pfister & Wetter (2011) furthermore demonstrated that this methodology is also principally transferable to other locations and rivers in Switzerland. Institutional documentary evidence has not been systematically analysed in the context of historical hydrology in Switzerland so far. The term institutional documentary evidence generally outlines sources that were produced by governments or other (public) bodies including the church, hospitals, and the office of the bridge master. Institutional bodies were typically not directly interested in describing climate or hydrological events but they were obliged to document their activities, especially if they generated financial costs (bookkeeping), and in doing so they often indirectly recorded climatologic or hydrological events. The books of weekly expenditures of Basel ("Wochenausgabenbücher der Stadt Basel") were first analysed by Fouquet (1999). He found recurring records of wage expenditures for a squad of craftsmen that was called up onto the bridge with the task of preventing the bridge from being damaged by fishing out drifting logs from the flood waters. Fouquet systematically analysed the period from 1446-1542 and could prove a large number of pre-instrumental flood events of river Rhine, Birs, Birsig and Wiese in Basel. All in all the weekly led account books

  4. Estimation of peak discharges of historical floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Herget

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt, that the hazard assessment of future floods especially under consideration of the recent environmental change can be significantly improved by the consideration of historic flood events. While flood frequency inventories on local, regional and even European scale are already developed and published, the estimation of their magnitudes indicated by discharges is still challenging. Such data are required due to significant human impact on river channels and floodplains though historic flood levels cannot be related to recent ones or recent discharges. Based on own experiences from single local key studies the general outline of an approach to estimate the discharge of the previous flood based on handed down flood level and topographic data is presented. The model for one-dimensional steady flow is based on the empirical Manning equation for the mean flow velocity. Background and potential sources of information, acceptable simplifications and data transformation for each element of the model-equation are explained and discussed. Preliminary experiences on the accuracy of ±10% are documented and potential approaches for the validation of individual estimations given. A brief discussion on benefits and limitations including a generalized statement on alternative approaches closes the review presentation of the approach.

  5. Analysis of the Magnitude and Frequency of Peak Discharge and Maximum Observed Peak Discharge in New Mexico and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges are necessary for the reliable design of bridges, culverts, and open-channel hydraulic analysis, and for flood-hazard mapping in New Mexico and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Department of Transportation, updated estimates of peak-discharge magnitude for gaging stations in the region and updated regional equations for estimation of peak discharge and frequency at ungaged sites. Equations were developed for estimating the magnitude of peak discharges for recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years at ungaged sites by use of data collected through 2004 for 293 gaging stations on unregulated streams that have 10 or more years of record. Peak discharges for selected recurrence intervals were determined at gaging stations by fitting observed data to a log-Pearson Type III distribution with adjustments for a low-discharge threshold and a zero skew coefficient. A low-discharge threshold was applied to frequency analysis of 140 of the 293 gaging stations. This application provides an improved fit of the log-Pearson Type III frequency distribution. Use of the low-discharge threshold generally eliminated the peak discharge by having a recurrence interval of less than 1.4 years in the probability-density function. Within each of the nine regions, logarithms of the maximum peak discharges for selected recurrence intervals were related to logarithms of basin and climatic characteristics by using stepwise ordinary least-squares regression techniques for exploratory data analysis. Generalized least-squares regression techniques, an improved regression procedure that accounts for time and spatial sampling errors, then were applied to the same data used in the ordinary least-squares regression analyses. The average standard error of prediction, which includes average sampling error and average standard error of regression, ranged from 38 to 93 percent

  6. Corona discharge ionization of paracetamol molecule: Peak assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, H.; Farrokhpour, H.

    2015-01-01

    Ionization of paracetamol was investigated using ion mobility spectrometry equipped with a corona discharge ionization source. The measurements were performed in the positive ion mode and three peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations were used to correlate the peaks to related ionic species of paracetamol. Two peaks were attributed to protonated isomers of paracetamol and the other peak was attributed to paracetamol fragment ions formed by dissociation of the N-C bond after protonation of the nitrogen atom. It was observed that three sites of paracetamol compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depending on the sample concentration. The ratio of ion products could be predicted from the internal proton affinity of the protonation sites at each concentration.

  7. Choice of routing scheme considerably influences peak river discharge simulation in global hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Veldkamp, Ted; Schauberger, Bernhard; Willner, Sven; Yamazaki, Dai

    2017-04-01

    Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards. However, their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge—which is crucial in flood simulations—has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood. The simulated daily discharges were compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, probably induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For most river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over more than 60% of the basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not present in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.

  8. The critical role of the routing scheme in simulating peak river discharge in global hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Frieler, Katja; Schewe, Jacob; Ostberg, Sebastian; Willner, Sven; Schauberger, Bernhard; Gosling, Simon N.; Müller Schmied, Hannes; Portmann, Felix T.; Leng, Gobias; Huang, Maoyi; Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Hanasaki, Naota; Biemans, Hester; Gerten, Dieter; Satoh, Yusuke; Pokhrel, Yadu; Stacke, Tobias; Ciais, Philippe; Chang, Jinfeng; Ducharne, Agnes; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun; Yamazaki, Dai

    2017-07-01

    Global hydrological models (GHMs) have been applied to assess global flood hazards, but their capacity to capture the timing and amplitude of peak river discharge—which is crucial in flood simulations—has traditionally not been the focus of examination. Here we evaluate to what degree the choice of river routing scheme affects simulations of peak discharge and may help to provide better agreement with observations. To this end we use runoff and discharge simulations of nine GHMs forced by observational climate data (1971-2010) within the ISIMIP2a project. The runoff simulations were used as input for the global river routing model CaMa-Flood. The simulated daily discharge was compared to the discharge generated by each GHM using its native river routing scheme. For each GHM both versions of simulated discharge were compared to monthly and daily discharge observations from 1701 GRDC stations as a benchmark. CaMa-Flood routing shows a general reduction of peak river discharge and a delay of about two to three weeks in its occurrence, likely induced by the buffering capacity of floodplain reservoirs. For a majority of river basins, discharge produced by CaMa-Flood resulted in a better agreement with observations. In particular, maximum daily discharge was adjusted, with a multi-model averaged reduction in bias over about 2/3 of the analysed basin area. The increase in agreement was obtained in both managed and near-natural basins. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of routing scheme choice in peak discharge simulation, where CaMa-Flood routing accounts for floodplain storage and backwater effects that are not represented in most GHMs. Our study provides important hints that an explicit parameterisation of these processes may be essential in future impact studies.

  9. Estimation of peak discharge quantiles for selected annual exceedance probabilities in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas; Saito, Riki J.; Veilleux, Andrea; Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.; Ishii, Audrey

    2016-06-28

    This report provides two sets of equations for estimating peak discharge quantiles at annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of 0.50, 0.20, 0.10, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 (recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years, respectively) for watersheds in Illinois based on annual maximum peak discharge data from 117 watersheds in and near northeastern Illinois. One set of equations was developed through a temporal analysis with a two-step least squares-quantile regression technique that measures the average effect of changes in the urbanization of the watersheds used in the study. The resulting equations can be used to adjust rural peak discharge quantiles for the effect of urbanization, and in this study the equations also were used to adjust the annual maximum peak discharges from the study watersheds to 2010 urbanization conditions.The other set of equations was developed by a spatial analysis. This analysis used generalized least-squares regression to fit the peak discharge quantiles computed from the urbanization-adjusted annual maximum peak discharges from the study watersheds to drainage-basin characteristics. The peak discharge quantiles were computed by using the Expected Moments Algorithm following the removal of potentially influential low floods defined by a multiple Grubbs-Beck test. To improve the quantile estimates, generalized skew coefficients were obtained from a newly developed regional skew model in which the skew increases with the urbanized land use fraction. The drainage-basin characteristics used as explanatory variables in the spatial analysis include drainage area, the fraction of developed land, the fraction of land with poorly drained soils or likely water, and the basin slope estimated as the ratio of the basin relief to basin perimeter.This report also provides the following: (1) examples to illustrate the use of the spatial and urbanization-adjustment equations for estimating peak discharge quantiles at

  10. Multi-peaked analytically extended function representing electrostatic discharge (ESD) currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundengârd, Karl; Rančić, Milica; Javor, Vesna; Silvestrov, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    A multi-peaked analytically extended function (AEF), previously applied by the authors to modeling of lightning discharge currents, is used in this paper for representation of the electrostatic discharge (ESD) currents. In order to estimate its non-linear parameters, the Marquardt least-squares method (MLSM) is used. ESD currents' modelling is illustrated through an essential example corresponding to approximation of the IEC Standard 61000-4-2 waveshape.

  11. Quantitative analysis of overlapping XPS peaks by spectrum reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, Peter C.J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1998-01-01

    parameters. The values obtained for the oxide film thickness were compared with thickness values determined from the intensity of the corresponding O 1s spectra and with thickness values resulting from ellipsometric analysis. The sensitivity of the reconstruction procedure with regard to film thickness...

  12. Suspended particle and pathogen peak discharge buffering by a surface-flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been shown to improve the water quality of treated wastewater. The capacity of CWs to reduce nutrients, pathogens and organic matter and restore oxygen regime under normal operating conditions cannot be extrapolated to periods of incidental peak discharges. The

  13. Methods for estimating peak discharge and flood boundaries of streams in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B.E.; Lindskov, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for estimating 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year peak discharges and flood depths at ungaged sites in Utah were developed using multiple-regression techniques. Ratios of 500- to 100-year values also were determined. The peak discharge equations are applicable to unregulated streams and the flood depth equations are applicable to the unregulated flow in natural stream channels. The flood depth data can be used to approximate flood prone areas. Drainage area and mean basin elevation are the two basin characteristics needed to use these equations. The standard error of estimate ranges from 38% to 74% for the 100-year peak discharge and from 23% to 33% for the 100-year flood depth. Five different flood mapping methods are described. Streams are classified into four categories as a basis for selecting a flood mapping method. Procedures for transferring flood depths obtained from the regression equations to a flood boundary map are outlined. Also, previous detailed flood mapping by government agencies and consultants is summarized to assist the user in quality control and to minimize duplication of effort. Methods are described for transferring flood frequency data from gaged to ungaged sites on the same stream. Peak discharge and flood depth frequency relations and selected basin characteristics data, updated through the 1980 water year, are tabulated for more than 300 gaging stations in Utah and adjoining states. In addition, weighted estimates of peak discharge relations based on the station data and the regression estimates are provided for each gaging station used in the regression analysis. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Adjusting annual maximum peak discharges at selected stations in northeastern Illinois for changes in land-use conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Saito, Riki J.; Soong, David T.

    2016-06-30

    The effects of urbanization on annual maximum peak discharges in northeastern Illinois and nearby areas from 1945 to 2009 were analyzed with a two-step longitudinal-quantile linear regression approach. The peak discharges were then adjusted to 2010 land-use conditions. The explanatory variables used were daily precipitation at the time of the peak discharge event and a housing density-based measure of developed land use. The effect of the implementation of stormwater detention was assessed indirectly. Peak discharge records affected by the construction of large reservoirs that affect channel routing were identified and were split into segments at the time of completion of the reservoir. Longitudinal regressions of the peak discharge records on linear and logarithmic transformations of the selected measures of urbanization and precipitation were tested, and the best fitting model was selected for quantile regression and adjustment of the peak discharges.

  15. Experimental evaluation of the effect of storm movement on peak discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Liang; Charles S. Melching

    2015-01-01

    abstract The hypothesis that downstream moving storms with storm length less than watershed length (Ls/L o 1.0) magnify the peak discharges as indicated by kinematic-wave models in previous studies was evaluated in an analysis of the dimensionless peak discharge and dimensionless storm velocity. Previously unpublished experimental data collected for a V-shaped watershed in the Watershed Experimentation System (WES) at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, were used in comparison with the simulation results of a kinematic-wave model. It is found that downstream moving storms with Ls/L o 1.0 increase the peak discharges to a limited extent compared to stationary storms, and the kinematic-wave model overstates the increase in the peak flows resulting from downstream moving storms with Ls/L o 1.0. To evaluate the importance of the backwater effects in the experimental watershed, the accuracy of kinematic-wave and dynamic-wave models for the simulation of surface runoff resulting from upstream and downstream moving storms was evaluated utilizing the same experimental data. The kinematic-wave model simulates the upstream moving storms pretty well, i.e. Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of model fit efficiency equal to 0.948 and 0.831 for storms lengths equal to and not equal to the watershed length, respectively. Whereas, the kinematic wave model substantially overestimates the peak discharge of downstream moving storms, and yields generally poorer fits than for upstream moving storm, i.e. NSE equal to 0.867 and 0.674 for storms with lengths equal to and not equal to the watershed length, respectively. The dynamic-wave model simulates the downstream moving storms pretty well, i.e. NSE equal to 0.843 and 0.879 for storms with lengths equal to and not equal to the watershed length, respectively, indicating backwater significantly affects runoff for even this simple experimental watershed. Considering that storm movement did not substantially magnify peak discharge

  16. Estimates of Flow Duration, Mean Flow, and Peak-Discharge Frequency Values for Kansas Stream Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.; Wolock, David M.; Artman, Joshua C.

    2004-01-01

    Streamflow statistics of flow duration and peak-discharge frequency were estimated for 4,771 individual locations on streams listed on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. These statistics included the flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent, as well as the mean flow value. Peak-discharge frequency values were estimated for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods. Least-squares multiple regression techniques were used, along with Tobit analyses, to develop equations for estimating flow-duration values of 90, 75, 50, 25, and 10 percent and the mean flow for uncontrolled flow stream locations. The contributing-drainage areas of 149 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Kansas and parts of surrounding States that had flow uncontrolled by Federal reservoirs and used in the regression analyses ranged from 2.06 to 12,004 square miles. Logarithmic transformations of climatic and basin data were performed to yield the best linear relation for developing equations to compute flow durations and mean flow. In the regression analyses, the significant climatic and basin characteristics, in order of importance, were contributing-drainage area, mean annual precipitation, mean basin permeability, and mean basin slope. The analyses yielded a model standard error of prediction range of 0.43 logarithmic units for the 90-percent duration analysis to 0.15 logarithmic units for the 10-percent duration analysis. The model standard error of prediction was 0.14 logarithmic units for the mean flow. Regression equations used to estimate peak-discharge frequency values were obtained from a previous report, and estimates for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods were determined for this report. The regression equations and an interpolation procedure were used to compute flow durations, mean flow, and estimates of peak-discharge frequency for locations along uncontrolled flow streams on the 1999 Kansas Surface Water Register. Flow durations, mean

  17. Peaked density profiles in neon and lithium doped discharges on FTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzotta, C., E-mail: cristina.mazzotta@enea.it [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Apicella, M.L.; Botrugno, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Marinucci, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pucella, G. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Istituto di Fisica dei Plasmi, CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Tudisco, O. [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Peaked density profiles are observed in FTU discharges when the recycling condition of the chamber is influenced by the action of the liquid lithium limiter (LLL). Turbulence analysis of lithium doped FTU plasmas has shown that the presence of the light impurity modifies the phase between fluctuating fields responsible for transport and consequently leads to an inward deuterium pinch and outward impurity flux. Analogous peaked discharges were produced by Ne-gas puffing in different L mode plasma scenarios that have been recently obtained on FTU with following plasma parameters: I = 360 kA, B = 5–6.5 T, n{sub e0} = 0.2–1 × 10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, T{sub e0} = 1–4 keV, as well as in similar experiments on other machines. In fact the Ne seeded plasmas show an increase of the peaking factor around 30%. UV spectroscopy measurements confirm that the electron-density peaking arises from a convective flow and cannot be attributed to the contribution of the injected Ne alone. The Ne doped discharges analysis together with lithium conditioned ones is useful to extend the interpretative framework of the particle transport. In this work a comparison of the diffusion coefficient and of the pinch velocity of the two cases is conducted. By using a two-colors scanning interferometer providing very high spatial and time resolution, it is indeed possible to estimate the D and U coefficients of a simple model for the particle flux.

  18. Using observed postconstruction peak discharges to evaluate a hydrologic and hydraulic design model, Boneyard Creek, Champaign and Urbana, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Soong, David T.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Boneyard Creek—which drains an urbanized watershed in the cities of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois, including part of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) campus—has historically been prone to flooding. Using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), a hydrologic and hydraulic model of Boneyard Creek was developed for the design of the projects making up the first phase of a long-term plan for flood control on Boneyard Creek, and the construction of the projects was completed in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cities of Champaign and Urbana and UIUC, installed and operated stream and rain gages in order to obtain data for evaluation of the design-model simulations. In this study, design-model simulations were evaluated by using observed postconstruction precipitation and peak-discharge data. Between May 2003 and September 2008, five high-flow events on Boneyard Creek satisfied the study criterion. The five events were simulated with the design model by using observed precipitation. The simulations were run with two different values of the parameter controlling the soil moisture at the beginning of the storms and two different ways of spatially distributing the precipitation, making a total of four simulation scenarios. The simulated and observed peak discharges and stages were compared at gaged locations along the Creek. The discharge at one of these locations was deemed to be critical for evaluating the design model. The uncertainty of the measured peak discharge was also estimated at the critical location with a method based on linear regression of the stage and discharge relation, an estimate of the uncertainty of the acoustic Doppler velocity meter measurements, and the uncertainty of the stage measurements. For four of the five events, the simulated peak discharges lie within the 95-percent confidence interval of the observed peak discharges at the critical location; the fifth was just outside the upper end of

  19. Using observed postconstruction peak discharges to evaluate a hydrologic and hydraulic design model, Boneyard Creek, Champaign and Urbana, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Thomas M.; Soong, David T.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Boneyard Creek—which drains an urbanized watershed in the cities of Champaign and Urbana, Illinois, including part of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) campus—has historically been prone to flooding. Using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM), a hydrologic and hydraulic model of Boneyard Creek was developed for the design of the projects making up the first phase of a long-term plan for flood control on Boneyard Creek, and the construction of the projects was completed in May 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cities of Champaign and Urbana and UIUC, installed and operated stream and rain gages in order to obtain data for evaluation of the design-model simulations. In this study, design-model simulations were evaluated by using observed postconstruction precipitation and peak-discharge data. Between May 2003 and September 2008, five high-flow events on Boneyard Creek satisfied the study criterion. The five events were simulated with the design model by using observed precipitation. The simulations were run with two different values of the parameter controlling the soil moisture at the beginning of the storms and two different ways of spatially distributing the precipitation, making a total of four simulation scenarios. The simulated and observed peak discharges and stages were compared at gaged locations along the Creek. The discharge at one of these locations was deemed to be critical for evaluating the design model. The uncertainty of the measured peak discharge was also estimated at the critical location with a method based on linear regression of the stage and discharge relation, an estimate of the uncertainty of the acoustic Doppler velocity meter measurements, and the uncertainty of the stage measurements. For four of the five events, the simulated peak discharges lie within the 95-percent confidence interval of the observed peak discharges at the critical location; the fifth was just outside the upper end of

  20. High-pressure (>1-bar) dielectric barrier discharge lamps generating short pulses of high-peak power vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carman, R J; Mildren, R P; Ward, B K; Kane, D M [Short Wavelength Interactions with Materials (SWIM), Physics Department, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2004-09-07

    We have investigated the scaling of peak vacuum ultraviolet output power from homogeneous Xe dielectric barrier discharges excited by short voltage pulses. Increasing the Xe fill pressure above 1-bar provides an increased output pulse energy, a shortened pulse duration and increases in the peak output power of two to three orders of magnitude. High peak power pulses of up to 6 W cm{sup -2} are generated with a high efficiency for pulse rates up to 50 kHz. We show that the temporal pulse characteristics are in good agreement with results from detailed computer modelling of the discharge kinetics.

  1. Phase reconstruction of digital holography with the peak of the two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Zhong, Jingang; Hu, Cuiying

    2009-06-20

    We describe a numerical reconstruction technique for digital holography by means of the two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (2D-GWT). Applying the 2D-GWT to digital holography, the object wave can be reconstructed by calculating the wavelet coefficients of the hologram at the peak of the 2D-GWT automatically. At the same time the effect of the zero-order diffraction image and the twin image are eliminated without spatial filtering. Comparing the numerical reconstruction of a holographic image by the analysis of the one-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (1D-GWT) with the 2D-GWT, we show that the 2D-GWT method is superior to the 1D-GWT method, especially when the fringes of the hologram are not just along the y direction. The theory and the results of a simulation and experiments are shown.

  2. Influence of Curve Number variation on peak discharge of small catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, Kazimierz; Hejduk, Leszek; Banasik, Jerzy; Rutkowska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have examined the impact of Curve Number variability on peak discharge, estimated with the use of lumped parametric model SEGMO. Analysis has been conducted for a small (82 km2) agro-forested lowland catchment, located in the center of Poland. Both, the curve number, which is determining runoff depth from rainfall depth, and the IUH characteristics (such as lag time, time to peak, maximum ordinate), which are used to transform the runoff depth into direct runoff hydrograph, have been estimated on the base of recorded in the catchment rainfall-runoff events (Banasik et al. 2011, Banasik et al. 2013). All of them include some stochastic variables, however IUH has been approximated, and used in computation as deterministic. A big variability in CNs has been found, when they were computed from recorded rainfall-runoff data. Next, using the 40 rainfall-runoff data set, the curve numbers were computed again, for each of the ordered pairs, and finally plotted against rainfall depth. Curve numbers were found to approximate an exponential function, varying with storm depth (i.e. decreasing with rainfall increase), and approaches a constant value (CN∞=69.8, which was very close to that value estimated on the base of soil type and land use) at higher rainfalls, what is call a standard behavior (Van Mullem et al. 2002). Standard error of estimation of CN was 1.54. The examination indicated high sensitivity of the flood discharge, estimated as catchment response to 100-year rainfall, to CN changes. Banasik K., Hejduk L. & Oygarden L., 2011. Prediction and reduction of diffuse pollution, solid emission and extreme flows from rural areas - case study of small agricultural catchments. Warsaw University of Life Sciences Press, Warsaw. Banasik K., Hejduk L., Banasik J., 2013. Variation of IUH shapes with size of rainfall-runoff events in a small agricultural catchment. EGU General Assembly, Abstract & Poster. Van Mullem J.A., Woodward D.E., Hawkins R

  3. Diagnosing peak-discharge power laws observed in rainfall runoff events in Goodwin Creek experimental watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Peter R.; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2007-11-01

    Observations from the Goodwin Creek experimental watershed (GCEW), Mississippi show that peak-discharge Q( A) and drainage area A are related, on average, by a power law or scaling relationship, Q( A) = αAθ, during single rainfall-runoff events. Observations also show that α and θ change between events, and, based on a recent analysis of 148 events, observations indicate that α and θ change because of corresponding changes in the depth, duration, and spatial variability of excess-rainfall. To improve our physical understanding of these observations, a 5-step framework for diagnosing observed power laws, or other space-time patterns in a basin, is articulated and applied to GCEW using a combination of analysis and numerical simulations. Diagnostic results indicate how the power laws are connected to physical conditions and processes. Derived expressions for α and θ show that if excess-rainfall depth is fixed then there is a decreasing concave relationship between α and excess-rainfall duration, and an increasing and slightly convex relationship between θ and excess rainfall duration. These trends are consistent with observations only when hillslope velocity vh is given a physically realistic value near 0.1 m/s. If vh ≫ 0.1 m/s, then the predicted trends deviate from observed trends. Results also suggest that trends in α and θ can be impacted by the dependence of vh and link velocity vl on excess-rainfall rate.

  4. Determinants of peak discharge in steep mountain catchments - Case of the Rift Valley escarpment of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Tesfaalem G.; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Zenebe, Amanuel; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Peak discharge is an important hydrological parameter of mountain torrents. However, due to the flashy and destructive nature of their stream flows, it is usually difficult to understand the hydrological behavior of steep mountain catchments through direct measurements of discharges. In this study, 332 daily peak discharge events from 11 steep (0.27-0.65 m m-1) catchments (0.4-25 km2) were measured in three rainy seasons (2012-2014) with the objective of analyzing runoff response of steep mountain catchments in the western Rift Valley escarpment of Northern Ethiopia. Seven rain gauges were installed at different altitudes (1623-2851 m a.s.l.) in and nearby the catchments. Event peak discharges were calculated using the Manning's equation from daily measurements of maximum discharge height at 11 crest stage gauges. Percentages of land cover classes were detected from high resolution (0.6 m) Google Earth Imagery (February 1, 2014). Morphometric characteristics of the catchments were computed both from ASTER digital elevation model (DEM) and topographic maps. Correlation analysis between average daily precipitation (Pd) and peak discharge (Qp) showed strong positive relation (R2 = 0.32-0.94, P concentration (R2 = 0.43, P < 0.05). It was correlated positively with catchment slope gradient (R2 = 0.37, P < 0.05) and index of vegetation distribution (R2 = 0.45, P < 0.05). A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 99% (P < 0.01) of the variability of catchment-specific peak discharge coefficient in the catchments can be predicted by vegetation cover and infiltration number. Overall, this study demonstrates that in reforesting steep mountain catchments, where direct measurement of discharges using the conventional methods is difficult due to the flashy and destructive nature of the stream flows, hydrological variability can easily be understood using simple measurements of daily precipitation and peak discharges. Further, runoff response is determined by

  5. Quantifying the hydrological impact of simulated changes in land use on peak discharge in a small catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Lyon, Steve W; Folkeson, Lennart; French, Helen K; Stolte, Jannes; Jansson, Per-Erik; Sassner, Mona

    2014-01-01

    A physically-based, distributed hydrological model (MIKE SHE) was used to quantify overland runoff in response to four extreme rain events and four types of simulated land use measure in a catchment in Norway. The current land use in the catchment comprises arable lands, forest, urban areas and a stream that passes under a motorway at the catchment outlet. This model simulation study demonstrates how the composition and configuration of land use measures affect discharge at the catchment outlet differently in response to storms of different sizes. For example, clear-cutting on 30% of the catchment area produced a 60% increase in peak discharge and a 10% increase in total runoff resulting from a 50-year storm event in summer, but the effects on peak discharge were less pronounced during smaller storms. Reforestation of 60% of the catchment area was the most effective measure in reducing peak flows for smaller (2-, 5- and 10-year) storms. Introducing grassed waterways reduced water velocity in the stream and resulted in a 28% reduction in peak flow at the catchment outlet for the 50-year storm event. Overall, the results indicate that the specific effect of land use measures on catchment discharge depends on their spatial distribution and on the size and timing of storm events.

  6. Analyzing the relationship between peak runoff discharge and land-use pattern – a spatial optimization approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.-Y. Yeo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of land-use patterns on watershed hydrology and characterizes the nature of this relationship. The approach combines a spatially explicit, process-based hydrological simulation model, a land-use optimization model, the Integrated Hydrological and Land-Use Optimization (IHLUO model, and an extensive GIS database. Numerical experiments are conducted to assess changes in the peak discharge rate under various spatial land-use arrangements, and to delineate the optimal land distribution that minimizes the peak discharge. The area of application is a catchment of the Old Woman Creek watershed in the southwestern coastal area of Lake Erie, OH. The global optimality of the delineated land pattern at a 30-m resolution is evaluated using a combinatorial statistical method. A large number of solutions has been generated from clearly different initial solutions, and these solutions turn out to be very close to each other, strongly supporting the case for a convex relationship between peak discharge and land-use pattern. The Weibull distribution is used to generate a point estimate of the global optimal value and its confidence interval. The peak discharge function is further examined in light of the underlying physics used in the simulation model.

  7. "A not completely satisfactory attempt": peak discharges and rainfall-runoff relations for Javanese rivers between 1880 and 1940

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    In the early 19th century, the Dutch colonial power started to build irrigation works. A main problem for Dutch irrigation engineers on Java was how to ensure that the structures they built remained intact. The peak discharge regime of a river was an issue closely related to dam safety. Modifying th

  8. Use of reconstructed 3D VMEC equilibria to match effects of toroidally rotating discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, A.; Wilcox, R. S.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Seal, S. K.; Unterberg, E. A.; Hanson, J. M.; Hirshman, S. P.; Lao, L. L.; Logan, N. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Shafer, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for tokamak equilibrium reconstructions is used for multiple DIII-D discharges, including L-mode and H-mode cases when weakly 3D fields ≤ft(δ B/B˜ {{10}-3}\\right) are applied. The technique couples diagnostics to the non-linear, ideal MHD equilibrium solver VMEC, using the V3FIT code, to find the most likely 3D equilibrium based on a suite of measurements. It is demonstrated that V3FIT can be used to find non-linear 3D equilibria that are consistent with experimental measurements of the plasma response to very weak 3D perturbations, as well as with 2D profile measurements. Observations at DIII-D show that plasma rotation larger than 20 krad s-1 changes the relative phase between the applied 3D fields and the measured plasma response. Discharges with low averaged rotation (10 krad s-1) and peaked rotation profiles (40 krad s-1) are reconstructed. Similarities and differences to forward modeled VMEC equilibria, which do not include rotational effects, are shown. Toroidal phase shifts of up to {{30}\\circ} are found between the measured and forward modeled plasma responses at the highest values of rotation. The plasma response phases of reconstructed equilibra on the other hand match the measured ones. This is the first time V3FIT has been used to reconstruct weakly 3D tokamak equilibria.

  9. Reconstruction of Ob River, Russia, discharge from ring widths of floodplain trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, Leonid I.; Meko, David M.; Panyushkina, Irina P.

    2016-12-01

    The Ob is the third largest Eurasian river supplying heat and freshwater to the Arctic Ocean. These inputs influence water salinity, ice coverage, ocean temperatures and ocean circulation, and ultimately the global climate system. Variability of Ob River flow on long time scales is poorly understood, however, because gaged flow records are short. Eleven tree-ring width chronologies of Pinus sibirica and Larix sibirica are developed from the floodplain of the Lower Ob River, analyzed for hydroclimatic signal and applied as predictors in a regression model to reconstruct 8-month average (December-July) discharge of the Ob River at Salekhard over the interval 1705-2012 (308 yrs). Correlation analysis suggests the signal for discharge comes through air temperature: high discharge and floodplain water levels favor cool growing-season air temperature, which limits tree growth for the sampled species at these high latitudes. The reconstruction model (R2 = 0.31, 1937-2009 calibration period) is strongly supported by cross-validation and analysis of residuals. Correlation of observed with reconstructed discharge improves with smoothing. The long-term reconstruction correlates significantly with a previous Ob River reconstruction from ring widths of trees outside the Ob River floodplain and extends that record by another century. Results suggest that large multi-decadal swings in discharge have occurred at irregular intervals, that variations in the 20th and 21st centuries have been within the envelope of natural variability of the past 3 centuries, and that discharge data for 1937-2009 underestimate both the variability and persistence of discharge in the last 3 centuries. The reconstruction gives ecologists, climatologists and water resource planners a long-term context for assessment of climate change impacts.

  10. Application of time-lagged ensemble approach with auto-regressive processors to reduce uncertainties in peak discharge and timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jin Kim

    2017-02-01

    An accuracy evaluation using observations from 2002 to 2009 found that the time-lagged ensemble approach alone produced significant bias but the AR processor reduced the relative error percentage of the peak discharge from 60% to 10% and also decreased the peak timing error from more than 10 h to less than 3 h, on average. The proposed methodology is easy and inexpensive to implement with the existing products and models and thus can be immediately activated until a new product for forecasted meteorological ensembles is officially issued in Korea.

  11. A Quantified Reconstruction of Amazon River Discharge for the Last 40 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettwein, V.; Maslin, M.; Burns, S.; Leng, M.; Weyhenmeyer, C.

    2003-04-01

    The glacial moisture history of the Amazon Basin is comparatively poorly known. Previous estimates have been inferred from highly localised and qualitative indicators of effective moisture, and debate exists as to whether the glacial Amazon Basin was humid or dry. Reconstructing glacial Amazon aridity is essential for three main reasons: 1) Aridity is a key physiological control on the distribution of vegetation and therefore provides a means of testing the Pleistocene tropical rainforest refuge hypothesis; 2) Amazonian wetlands represent a major source of atmospheric methane and may exert a primary control on the ice core methane records; 3) the Amazon Basin is a major source of tropical atmospheric water vapour, another important greenhouse gas. Here we present unequivocal evidence to suggest widespread aridity within the Amazon Basin during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and also the Younger Dryas (YD). We have used δ18O of planktonic foraminifera from ODP Site 942 on the Amazon Fan to quantify Amazon River discharge for the last 40 kyr, employing an age model constructed around 35 14C AMS dates. Our calculations suggest outflow to have been c. 70% relative to modern during the LGM (i.e. c. 30% reduced), and c. 60% relative to modern during the YD. Sedimentation rates are relatively more elevated during the YD with two distinct peaks around 11200 and 13500 Cal yr BP. Centennial and millennial-scale variability in the data are most likely climate-driven.

  12. Uncertainty of the peak flow reconstruction of the 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bellet, Josep Lluís; Castelltort, Xavier; Balasch, J. Carles; Tuset, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    There is no clear, unified and accepted method to estimate the uncertainty of hydraulic modelling results. In historical floods reconstruction, due to the lower precision of input data, the magnitude of this uncertainty could reach a high value. With the objectives of giving an estimate of the peak flow error of a typical historical flood reconstruction with the model HEC-RAS and of providing a quick, simple uncertainty assessment that an end user could easily apply, the uncertainty of the reconstructed peak flow of a major flood in the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) was calculated with a set of local sensitivity analyses on six input variables. The peak flow total error was estimated at ±31% and water height was found to be the most influential variable on peak flow, followed by Manning's n. However, the latter, due to its large uncertainty, was the greatest contributor to peak flow total error. Besides, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation; all three methods gave similar peak flows. Manning's equation gave almost the same result than HEC-RAS. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed.

  13. Fast calcium and voltage-sensitive dye imaging in enteric neurones reveal calcium peaks associated with single action potential discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, K; Michaelis, M; Mazzuoli, G; Mueller, K; Vanden Berghe, P; Schemann, M

    2011-12-15

    Slow changes in [Ca(2+)](i) reflect increased neuronal activity. Our study demonstrates that single-trial fast [Ca(2+)](i) imaging (≥200 Hz sampling rate) revealed peaks each of which are associated with single spike discharge recorded by consecutive voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging in enteric neurones and nerve fibres. Fast [Ca(2+)](i) imaging also revealed subthreshold fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Nicotine-evoked [Ca(2+)](i) peaks were reduced by -conotoxin and blocked by ruthenium red or tetrodotoxin. Fast [Ca(2+)](i) imaging can be used to directly record single action potentials in enteric neurones. [Ca(2+)](i) peaks required opening of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels as well as Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores.

  14. Online Reliable Peak Charge/Discharge Power Estimation of Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs. It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet the requirement of acceleration, gradient climbing and regenerative braking while achieving a high energy efficiency. A novel online peak power estimation method for series-connected lithium-ion battery packs is proposed, which considers the influence of cell difference on the peak power of the battery packs. A new parameter identification algorithm based on adaptive ratio vectors is designed to online identify the parameters of each individual cell in a series-connected battery pack. The ratio vectors reflecting cell difference are deduced strictly based on the analysis of battery characteristics. Based on the online parameter identification, the peak power estimation considering cell difference is further developed. Some validation experiments in different battery aging conditions and with different current profiles have been implemented to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the ratio vector-based identification algorithm can achieve the same accuracy as the repetitive RLS (recursive least squares based identification while evidently reducing the computation cost, and the proposed peak power estimation method is more effective and reliable for series-connected battery packs due to the consideration of cell difference.

  15. Flood modeling using WMS model for determining peak flood discharge in southwest Iran case study: Simili basin in Khuzestan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Yaser; Azari, Arash; Pilpayeh, Alireza

    2016-10-01

    It is of high importance to determine the flood discharge of different basins, in studies on water resources. However, it is necessary to use new models to determine flood hydrograph parameters. Therefore, it will be beneficial to conduct studies to calibrate the models, keeping in mind the local conditions of different regions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the peak flood discharge of a basin located in Southwest Iran, using the TR-20, TR55, and HEC-1 methods of the WMS model (watershed modeling system). The obtained results were compared with empirical values, as well as those of the soil conservation service (SCS) approach. Based on the results obtained, the TR55 method of the WMS model recorded the highest agreement with empirical values in Southwest Iran.

  16. Magnetic Susceptibility Signals to Reconstruct Lena River Freshwater Discharge Events in the Laptev Sea and Neelov Bay, Russian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J.; Williams, D. F.; Karabanov, E. B.; Kuzmin, M.; Buchinskyi, V.

    2004-12-01

    River discharge into the Arctic is known to cause changes in sea ice production and consecutively affect global climate. The Russian Lena River is one of the major contributors into the Arctic Ocean, delivering approximately 770 km3/year of freshwater and about 21 x106/year tons of suspended material. Here we present preliminary evidence of fresh water discharge events from the Lena River into the Laptev Sea, Russian Arctic. During two separate coring-oceanographic expeditions in July and September, 2003, over 25 piston, gravity and vibro cores were collected from Neelov Bay and along a transect that extends from the delta floodplain onto the Laptev shelf. Preliminary results from our cores demonstrate that high magnetic susceptibility signals are a good indicator of river sediments deposition and provide an estimate of the number and magnitude of the river discharge. Sedigraph analyses in combination with Wet Sieving analysis (grain size > 3phi) reveal changes in grain size distributions and accurate grain size compositions along the core, which are well correlated with high magnetic susceptibility peaks. Based on lithostratigraphic interpretations and magnetic susceptibility correlations, at least 6 major sections are identified as possible discharge events in two transects that extends from the Lena River Delta into the Laptev Sea Shelf. The magnitude of the magnetic susceptibility peaks appears to reflect the strength of flow and the resulting spatial distribution of sediments during each deposition event associated with each unit. In Neelov Bay, cores in Transect 2 show the possibility that terrestrial material may be from a different source than Bykovskaya channel in the south-east part of the bay. This terrestrial material may be transported from coastal sources by wave refraction or by wind, and/or submarine currents. Future work will help us to understand and reconstruct the chronology of observed sedimentological events.

  17. "A not completely satisfactory attempt" - peak discharges and rainfall-runoff relations for Javanese rivers between 1880 and 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, M. W.

    2011-02-01

    In the early 19th century, the Dutch colonial power started to build irrigation works. A main problem for Dutch irrigation engineers on Java was how to ensure that the structures they built remained intact. The peak discharge regime of a river was an issue closely related to dam safety. Modifying the approach of Swiss engineer Lauterburg (1877), Dutch irrigation engineer Melchior developed a methodology to determine design peak flows of Javanese rivers. The Melchior methodology has been the standard method throughout the colonial period, despite sometimes severe criticisms on its appropriateness. In independent Indonesia, the approach developed by Melchior continues to be applied. This paper discusses and explains the endurance of the method developed by Melchior. The focus is on the scientific interaction between different participants. The paper shows how participants from these circles debated and which arguments they exchanged.

  18. THE MID - TERM EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING ON PEAK POWER OF QUADRICEPS AND HAMSTRING MUSCLES AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Khabazan Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess mid- term effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles after ACL reconstruction 24 hours after taping. Material: Thirty six men who had undergone ACL reconstruction and completed physiotherapy periods (6 months were assigned to no taping, placebo and taping groups. Peak power was tested before and 24 hours after taping by Isokinetic dynamometry. Data was analyzed by SPSS software 19. ANOVA and post hoc test (LSD were used for interpretive analysis. Results: The results showed that the effect of Kinesio tape on peak power of quadriceps muscles at velocities of 180°/s and 300°/s was significant. In the hamstring muscles, significant effects were obtained at velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s & 300°/s. Conclusion: Positive impacts of Kinesio tape on muscular peak power among athletes who had ACL reconstruction were observed. Regardless of psychological effect and reducing re - injury fear, Kinesio - tape causes to stabilize and increase effective range of motion of the knee, so it is recommended that in the explosive training, athletes who have ACL reconstruction should use tape to reduce the probability of re-injury and increase muscle power.

  19. Reconstruction of North American drainage basins and river discharge since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew D.

    2016-11-01

    Over the last glacial cycle, ice sheets and the resultant glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) rearranged river systems. As these riverine threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea were stretched, severed, and restructured, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and time-varying drainage basin areas, and sometimes delivered enough meltwater to the oceans in the right places to influence global climate. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges, by combining models of past ice sheets, glacial isostatic adjustment, and climate. The result is a time series of synthetic paleohydrographs and drainage basin maps from the Last Glacial Maximum to present for nine major drainage basins - the Mississippi, Rio Grande, Colorado, Columbia, Mackenzie, Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence, Hudson, and Susquehanna/Chesapeake Bay. These are based on five published reconstructions of the North American ice sheets. I compare these maps with drainage reconstructions and discharge histories based on a review of observational evidence, including river deposits and terraces, isotopic records, mineral provenance markers, glacial moraine histories, and evidence of ice stream and tunnel valley flow directions. The sharp boundaries of the reconstructed past drainage basins complement the flexurally smoothed GIA signal that is more often used to validate ice-sheet reconstructions, and provide a complementary framework to reduce nonuniqueness in model reconstructions of the North American ice-sheet complex.

  20. Distribution and air–sea exchange of nitrous oxide in the coastal Bay of Bengal during peak discharge period (southwest monsoon)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, G.D.; Rao, V.D.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    In order to examine the impact of river discharge from the Indian subcontinent on the concentration and air–sea exchange of nitrous oxide (N sub(2)O) a study was conducted during peak discharge period in the coastal Bay of Bengal, The study revealed...

  1. A 3-10 GHz IR-UWB CMOS Pulse Generator With 6-mW Peak Power Dissipation Using A Slow-Charge Fast-Discharge Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Yin, Ying-Zheng; Jiang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This letter proposes a UWB pulse generator topology featuring low peak power dissipation for applications with stringent instantaneous power requirements. This is accomplished by employing a new slow-charge fast-discharge approach to extend the time duration of the generator's peak current so...

  2. 1.5 kW high-peak-power vacuum ultraviolet flash lamp using a pulsed silent discharge of krypton gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, J.; Shirai, T.; Kubodera, S.; Sasaki, W.

    2001-12-01

    A 1.5 kW high-peak-power discharge lamp with short emission duration of 140 ns has been developed in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Our numerical calculation ensured that the peak emission at 147 nm was due to singlet excimers (1Σ), which were mainly produced via electron-collisional mixing of triplet excimers (3Σ).

  3. Estimates of peak flood discharge for 21 sites in the Front Range in Colorado in response to extreme rainfall in September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.

    2016-03-21

    Extreme rainfall in September 2013 caused destructive floods in part of the Front Range in Boulder County, Colorado. Erosion from these floods cut roads and isolated mountain communities for several weeks, and large volumes of eroded sediment were deposited downstream, which caused further damage of property and infrastructures. Estimates of peak discharge for these floods and the associated rainfall characteristics will aid land and emergency managers in the future. Several methods (an ensemble) were used to estimate peak discharge at 21 measurement sites, and the ensemble average and standard deviation provided a final estimate of peak discharge and its uncertainty. Because of the substantial erosion and deposition of sediment, an additional estimate of peak discharge was made based on the flow resistance caused by sediment transport effects.Although the synoptic-scale rainfall was extreme (annual exceedance probability greater than 1,000 years, about 450 millimeters in 7 days) for these mountains, the resulting peak discharges were not. Ensemble average peak discharges per unit drainage area (unit peak discharge, [Qu]) for the floods were 1–2 orders of magnitude less than those for the maximum worldwide floods with similar drainage areas and had a wide range of values (0.21–16.2 cubic meters per second per square kilometer [m3 s-1 km-2]). One possible explanation for these differences was that the band of high-accumulation, high-intensity rainfall was narrow (about 50 kilometers wide), oriented nearly perpendicular to the predominant drainage pattern of the mountains, and therefore entire drainage areas were not subjected to the same range of extreme rainfall. A linear relation (coefficient of determination [R2]=0.69) between Qu and the rainfall intensity (ITc, computed for a time interval equal to the time-of-concentration for the drainage area upstream from each site), had the form: Qu=0.26(ITc-8.6), where the coefficient 0.26 can be considered to be an

  4. Joint modeling of flood peak discharges, volume and duration: a case study of the Danube River in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bačová Mitková Veronika

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on the analysis and statistical evaluation of the joint probability of the occurrence of hydrological variables such as peak discharge (Q, volume (V and duration (t. In our case study, we focus on the bivariate statistical analysis of these hydrological variables of the Danube River in Bratislava gauging station, during the period of 1876-2013. The study presents the methodology of the bivariate statistical analysis, choice of appropriate marginal distributions and appropriate copula functions in representing the joint distribution. Finally, the joint return periods and conditional return periods for some hydrological pairs (Q-V, V-t, Q-t were calculated. The approach using copulas can reproduce a wide range of correlation (nonlinear frequently observed in hydrology. Results of this study provide comprehensive information about flood where a devastating effect may be increased in the case where its three basic components (or at least two of them Q, V and t have the same significance.

  5. Time-resolved measurement of emission profiles in pulsed radiofrequency glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy: Investigation of the pre-peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, D. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Horvath, P. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Nelis, Th. [LAPLACE, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, Bat3R2, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); CU Jean Francois Champollion, Place de Verdun 81012 Albi Cedex 9 (France); Pereiro, R. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Bordel, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Michler, J. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Feuerwerkerstrasse 39, 3602 Thun (Switzerland); Sanz-Medel, A., E-mail: asm@uniovi.e [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Radiofrequency glow discharge coupled to optical emission spectroscopy has been used in pulsed mode in order to perform a detailed study of the measured temporal emission profiles for a wide range of copper transitions. Special attention has been paid to the early emission peak (or so-called pre-peak), observed at the beginning of the emission pulse profile. The effects of the important pulse parameters such as frequency, duty cycle, pulse width and power-off time, have been studied upon the Cu pulse emission profiles. The influence of discharge parameters, such as pressure and power, was studied as well. Results have shown that the intensity observed in the pre-peak can be 10 times as large as the plateau value for resonant lines and up to 5 times in case of transitions to the metastable levels. Increasing pressure or power increased the pre-peak intensity while its appearance in time changed. The pre-peak decreased when the discharge off-time was shorter than 100 {mu}s. According to such results, the presence of the pre-peak could be probably due to the lack of self-absorption during the first 50 {mu}s, and not to the ignition of the plasma. Under the selected operation conditions, the use of the pre-peak emission as analytical signals increases the linearity of calibration curves for resonant lines subjected to self-absorption at high concentrations.

  6. Determining the Probability Distribution of Hillslope Peak Discharge Using an Analytical Solution of Kinematic Wave Time of Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiamonte, Giorgio; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-04-01

    Hillslope hydrology is fundamental for understanding the flood phenomenon and for evaluating the time of concentration. The latter is a key variable for predicting peak discharge at the basin outlet and for designing urban infrastructure facilities. There have been a multitude of studies on the hydrologic response at the hillslope scale, and the time of concentration has been derived for different approaches. One approach for deriving hillslope response utilizes, in a distributed form, the differential equations of unsteady overland flow, specifically developed at the hydrodynamic scale, in order to account for the spatial heterogeneity of soil characteristics, topography, roughness and vegetation cover on the hillslope. Therefore, this approach seemingly mimics the complete hydraulics of flow. However, the very complex patterns generated by spatial heterogeneity can cause considerable error in the prediction even by very sophisticated models. Another approach that directly operates at the hillslope scale is by averaging over the hillslope the soil hydraulics, the topography, and the roughness characteristics. A physically-based lumped model of hillslope response was first proposed by Horton (1938), under the assumption that the flow regime is intermediate between laminar and turbulent regimes (transitional flow regime), by applying the mass conservation equation to the hillslope as a whole and by using the kinematic wave assumption for the friction slope (Singh, 1976, 1996). Robinson et al. (1995) and Robinson and Sivapalan (1996) generalized Horton's approach, suggesting an approximate solution of the overland flow equation that is valid for all flow regimes. Agnese et al. (2001) derived an analytical solution of a nonlinear storage model of hillslope response that is valid for all flow regimes, and the associated time of concentration. Recently, the well-known kinematic wave equation for computing the time of concentration for impervious surfaces has been

  7. Peak discharges in steep mountain catchments in relation to rainfall variability, vegetation cover and geomorphology of the Rift Valley Escarpment of Northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Tesfaalem; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Abraha, Amanuel; Monsieurs, Elise; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The hydrological characteristics of steep mountain streams are often considered to be mainly influenced by rainfall distribution and topography. In this study, with the objective of analyzing the runoff response of mountain catchments, a total of 340 peak stage discharges were recorded in three rainy seasons (2012-2014) in 11 sloping (27-65%) mountain catchments (0.4 - 25 km²) of the marginal western Rift Valley escarpment of Northern Ethiopia. Daily rainfall data were collected using 7 rain gauges installed at different altitudes (1623 - 2851 m a.s.l) in and nearby the catchments, and used to calculate weighted average daily rain depths over the catchments. Event peak discharges were calculated from daily measurements by 11 crest stage gauges using the Manning's equation. Percentages of land use and cover classes were detected from high resolution (0.6 m) Google Earth imagery (February 1, 2014). Morphometric characteristics of the catchments were computed from ASTER digital elevation model and topographic maps. Correlation analysis between daily rainfall and peak discharge showed direct relationship (R² = 0.5-0.94, Pfloods in mountain catchments is not only influenced by the morphometric characteristics of the catchments and by rainfall, but more importantly even by vegetation cover (forest and grasses).

  8. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 by using copper electrode at higher peak current and pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Lajis, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    This experimental work is an attempt to investigate the performance of Copper electrode when EDM of Nickel Based Super Alloy, Inconel 718 is at higher peak current and pulse duration. Peak current, Ip and pulse duration (pulse on-time), ton are selected as the most important electrical pulse parameters. In addition, their influence on material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) are experimentally investigated. The ranges of 10 mm diameter of Copper electrode are used to EDM of Inconel 718. After the experiments, MRR, EWR, and Ra of the machined surfaces need to be measured in order to evaluate the performance of the EDM process. In order to obtain high MRR, higher peak current in range of 20A to 40A and pulse duration in range of 200μs to 400μs were used. Experimental results have shown that machining at a highest peak current used of 40A and the lowest pulse duration of 200μs used for the experiment yields the highest material removal rate (MRR) with value 34.94 mm3/min, whereas machining at a peak current of 20A and pulse duration of 400μs yields the lowest electrode wear rate (EWR) with value -0.0101 mm3/min. The lowest surface roughness (Ra) is 8.53 μm achieved at a lowest peak current used of 20A and pulse duration of 200μs.

  9. 2-D reconstruction of atmospheric concentration peaks from horizontal long path DOAS tomographic measurements: parametrisation and geometry within a discrete approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hartl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we theoretically investigate the reconstruction of 2-D cross sections through Gaussian concentration distributions, e.g. emission plumes, from long path DOAS measurements along a limited number of light paths. This is done systematically with respect to the extension of the up to four peaks and for six different measurement setups with 2–4 telescopes and 36 light paths each. We distinguish between cases with and without additional background concentrations. Our approach parametrises the unknown distribution by local piecewise constant or linear functions on a regular grid and solves the resulting discrete, linear system by a least squares minimum norm principle. We show that the linear parametrisation not only allows better representation of the distributions in terms of discretisation errors, but also better inversion of the system. We calculate area integrals of the concentration field (i.e. total emissions rates for non-vanishing perpendicular wind speed components and show that reconstruction errors and reconstructed area integrals within the peaks for narrow distributions crucially depend on the resolution of the reconstruction grid. A recently suggested grid translation method for the piecewise constant basis functions, combining reconstructions from several shifted grids, is modified for the linear basis functions and proven to reduce overall reconstruction errors, but not the uncertainty of concentration integrals. We suggest a procedure to subtract additional background concentration fields before inversion. We find large differences in reconstruction quality between the geometries and conclude that, in general, for a constant number of light paths increasing the number of telescopes leads to better reconstruction results. It appears that geometries that give better results for negligible measurement errors and parts of the geometry that are better resolved are also less sensitive to increasing measurement errors.

  10. 2-D reconstruction of atmospheric concentration peaks from horizontal long path DOAS tomographic measurements: parametrisation and geometry within a discrete approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hartl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we theoretically investigate the reconstruction of 2-D cross sections through Gaussian concentration distributions, e.g. emission plumes, from long path DOAS measurements along a limited number of light paths. This is done systematically with respect to the extension of the up to four peaks and for six different measurement setups with 2-4 telescopes and 36 light paths each. We distinguish between cases with and without additional background concentrations. Our approach parametrises the unknown distribution by local piecewise constant or linear functions on a regular grid and solves the resulting discrete, linear system by a least squares minimum norm principle. We show that the linear parametrisation not only allows better representation of the distributions in terms of discretisation errors, but also better inversion of the system. We calculate area integrals of the concentration field (i.e. total emissions rates for non-vanishing perpendicular wind speed components and show that reconstruction errors and reconstructed area integrals within the peaks for narrow distributions crucially depend on the resolution of the reconstruction grid. A recently suggested grid translation method for the piecewise constant basis functions, combining reconstructions from several shifted grids, is modified for the linear basis functions and proven to reduce overall reconstruction errors, but not the uncertainty of concentration integrals. We suggest a procedure to subtract additional background concentration fields before inversion. We find large differences in reconstruction quality between the geometries and conclude that, in general, for a constant number of light paths increasing the number of telescopes leads to better reconstruction results. It appears that geometries that give better results for negligible measurement errors and parts of the geometry that are better resolved are also less sensitive to increasing measurement errors.

  11. High-pressure dielectric barrier discharge Xenon lamps generating short pulses of high-peak-power VUV radiation (172nm) with high pulse-to-pulse reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Robert; Ward, Barry; Mildren, Richard; Kane, Deborah

    2003-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are used to efficiently generate radiation in the ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions (88nm-350nm) by forming rare-gas and rare-gas halide excimers in a transient plasma. Usually, DBD lamps generate the light output quasi-continuously or in bursts with a high degree of stochastic or random variability in the instantaneous UV/VUV intensity. However, regular pulses of high-peak-power UV/VUV, with high pulse-to-pulse reproducibility, are of interest for applications in biology, surface treatment and cleaning, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Such pulses can be generated from spatially homogeneous plasmas in a Xe DBD when the discharge is driven by uni-polar voltage pulses of short duration ( 100ns)^1. In the present study, we will report Xe DBD lamp performance and VUV output pulse characteristics for gas pressures up to 2.5bar and excitation conditions tailored for high-peak-power output. The experimental results will be compared to theoretical results from a detailed 1-D computer model of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma kinetics and Xe species population densities. ^1R.P.Mildren and R.J.Carman, J.Phys.D, 34, L1-L6, (2001)

  12. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  13. Assessing the variability of glacier lake bathymetries and potential peak discharge based on large-scale measurements in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian; Salazar, Cesar; Haeberli, Wilfried; Frey, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Over timescales of hundreds to thousands of years ice masses in mountains produced erosion in bedrock and subglacial sediment, including the formation of overdeepenings and large moraine dams that now serve as basins for glacial lakes. Satellite based studies found a total of 8355 glacial lakes in Peru, whereof 830 lakes were observed in the Cordillera Blanca. Some of them have caused major disasters due to glacial lake outburst floods in the past decades. On the other hand, in view of shrinking glaciers, changing water resources, and formation of new lakes, glacial lakes could have a function as water reservoirs in the future. Here we present unprecedented bathymetric studies of 124 glacial lakes in the Cordillera Blanca, Huallanca, Huayhuash and Raura in the regions of Ancash, Huanuco and Lima. Measurements were carried out using a boat equipped with GPS, a total station and an echo sounder to measure the depth of the lakes. Autocad Civil 3D Land and ArcGIS were used to process the data and generate digital topographies of the lake bathymetries, and analyze parameters such as lake area, length and width, and depth and volume. Based on that, we calculated empirical equations for mean depth as related to (1) area, (2) maximum length, and (3) maximum width. We then applied these three equations to all 830 glacial lakes of the Cordillera Blanca to estimate their volumes. Eventually we used three relations from the literature to assess the peak discharge of potential lake outburst floods, based on lake volumes, resulting in 3 x 3 peak discharge estimates. In terms of lake topography and geomorphology results indicate that the maximum depth is located in the center part for bedrock lakes, and in the back part for lakes in moraine material. Best correlations are found for mean depth and maximum width, however, all three empirical relations show a large spread, reflecting the wide range of natural lake bathymetries. Volumes of the 124 lakes with bathymetries amount to 0

  14. The effectiveness of polder systems on peak discharge capping of floods along the middle reaches of the Elbe River in Germany

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    S. Huang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In flood modelling, many one-dimensional (1-D hydrodynamic models are too restricted in capturing the spatial differentiation of processes within a polder or system of polders and two-dimensional (2-D models are very demanding in data requirements and computational resources. The latter is an important consideration when uncertainty analyses using the Monte Carlo techniques are to complement the modelling exercises. This paper describes the development of a quasi-2-D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1-D but the discretisation of the computational units is in 2-D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in polders and avoiding large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. The model DYNHYD (1-D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations and extended to incorporate the quasi-2-D approach. A local sensitive analysis shows the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions on the filling volume of polders and capping of the peak discharge in the main river system. Two flood events on the Elbe River, Germany were used to calibrate and test the model. The results show a good capping effect on the flood peak by the proposed systems. The effect of capping reduces as the flood wave propagates downstream from the polders (up to 0.5 cm of capping is lost for each additional kilometer from the polders.

  15. Helical core reconstruction of a DIII-D hybrid scenario tokamak discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciosa, M.; Wingen, A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Seal, S. K.; Unterberg, E. A.; Wilcox, R. S.; Piovesan, P.; Lao, L.; Turco, F.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the first fully 3-dimensional (3D) equilibrium reconstruction of a helical core in a tokamak device. Using a new parallel implementation of the Variational Moments Equilibrium Code (PARVMEC) coupled to V3FIT, 3D reconstructions can be performed at resolutions necessary to produce helical states in nominally axisymmetric tokamak equilibria. In a flux pumping experiment performed on DIII-D, an external n  =  1 field was applied while a 3/2 neoclassical tearing mode was suppressed using ECCD. The externally applied field was rotated past a set of fixed diagnostics at a 20 Hz frequency. The modulation, observed to be strongest in the core SXR and MSE channels, indicates a localized rotating 3D structure locked in phase with the applied field. Signals from multiple time slices are converted to a virtual rotation of modeled diagnostics adding 3D signal information. Starting from an axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction solution, the reconstructed broader current profile flattens the q-profile, resulting in an m  =  1, n  =  1 perturbation of the magnetic axis that is ∼ 50× larger than the applied n  =  1 deformation of the edge. Error propagation confirms that the displacement of the axis is much larger than the uncertainty in the axis position validating the helical equilibrium. ).

  16. Dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy reconstructed from continuous impedance measurement of single frequency during charging/discharging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel implementation of dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) is proposed. The method first measures the impedance continuously at a single frequency during one charging/discharging cycle, then repeats the measurement at a number of other selected frequencies. The impedance spectrum at a specific SOC is obtained by interpolating and collecting the impedance at all of the selected frequencies. The charge transfer resistance, Rct, from the DEIS is smaller than that from the steady EIS in a wide state-of-charge (SOC) range from 0.4 to 1.0, the Rct during charging is generally smaller than that during discharging for the battery chemistry used in this study.

  17. USING REMOTE SENSING MULTI-TEMPORAL IMAGE TO ANALYSE THE LAND USE CHANGES AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PEAK DISCHARGE IN GARANG WATERSHED CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Cahyadi

    2013-03-01

    during 1994 and 2001, and (2 determine the impact of land use changes on the size of the peak discharge occurring in the Garang watershed. The data used in this study were the 1994 Landsat TM, Landsat ETM 2001, and Citra Alos AVNIR 2008, Garang watershed soil map, slope map of Garang watershed stream network, and daily rainfall data at Ungaran Station of 1952 until 2009. It was found that developed land has been increasing more than doubled from 2001 to 2008, agricultural land increased by nearly 50% and the forest area were decreased from year to year. However, the peak discharge at the Garang watershed has not increased to the extreme though there was a slight change.

  18. Reconstruction of January–April discharge of Zemu Chuu – A first stage of Teesta River North Sikkim Eastern Himalaya based on tree-ring data of fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shekhar

    2015-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The explored strong relationship between tree ring records and instrumental data enable to develop mean January–April months (premonsoon river discharge of Zemu Chuu from remote area of Sikkim. Reconstructed data reveals high stream-flow when it is more than the mean plus one standard deviation and as low when flow is less than the mean minus one standard deviation. There were such 23 high discharge and 21 extremely low years over the past AD 1775–1996. This premonsoon reconstruction of river flow would be of great significance when scarcity of water is acute in the North East Himalaya.

  19. Development of a contour map showing generalized skew coefficients of annual peak discharges of rural, unregulated streams in New York, excluding Long Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumia, Richard; Baevsky, Yvonne H.

    2000-01-01

    Flood-frequency relations that are developed by fitting the logarithms of annual peak discharges to a Pearson Type-III distribution are sensitive to skew coefficients. Estimates of population skew for a site are improved when computed from the weighted average of (1) the sample (station) skew, and (2) an unbiased, generalized skew estimate. A weighting technique based on the number of years of record at each of 226 sites was used to develop a contour map of unbiased, generalized skew coefficients for New York. An attempt was made to group (regionalize) the station skew coefficients into five hydrologically similar areas of New York, but the statewide version proved to be as accurate as the regionalized version and therefore was adopted as the final generalized skew-coefficient map for New York. An error analysis showed the statewide contour map to have lower MSE?s (mean square errors) than those computed from (1) the five regional skewcoefficient contour maps, (2) a previously used (1982) nationwide skew coefficient map, and (3) the weighted mean of skew coefficients for sites within each of five hydrologically uniform, but distinct areas of New York.

  20. Towards prediction of suspended sediment yield from peak discharge in small erodible mountainous catchments (0.45-22 km2) of France, Mexico and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Nord, G.; Gratiot, N.; Navratil, O.; Nadal-Romero, E.; Mathys, N.; Némery, J.; Regüés, D.; García-Ruiz, J. M.; Gallart, F.; Esteves, M.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryThe erosion and transport of fine-grained sediment in small mountainous catchments involve complex processes occurring at different scales. The suspended sediment yields (SSYs) delivered downstream are difficult to accurately measure and estimate because they result from the coupling of all these processes. Using high frequency discharge and suspended sediment data collected in eight small mountainous catchments (0.45-22 km2) from four distinct regions, we studied the relationships between event-based SSY and a set of other variables. In almost all the catchments, the event peak discharge (Qmax) proved to be the best descriptor of SSY, and the relations were approximated by single power laws of the form SSY=αQmaxβ. The β exponents ranged between 0.9 and 1.9 across the catchments, while variability in α was much higher, with coefficients ranging between 25 and 5039. The broad distribution of α was explained by a combination of site-specific physical factors, such as the percentage of degraded areas and hillslope gradient. Further analysis of the factors responsible for data dispersion in each catchment was carried out. Seasonality had a significant influence on variability; but overall, most of the scattering in the SSY-Qmax regressions was explained by the short-lasting memory effects occurring between successive events (i.e. in-channel temporary storage and remobilization of sediment; antecedent moisture conditions). The predictability of SSY-Qmax models was also assessed. Simulations of SSY per event and of annual SSY were conducted by using the computed regressions and the measured Qmax. Estimates of SSY per event were very uncertain. In contrast, annual SSY estimates based on the site-specific models were reasonably accurate in all the catchments, with interquartile ranges remaining in the ±50% error interval. The prediction quality of SSY-Qmax relations was partly attributed to the statistical compensation that likely occurred between extreme

  1. Peak Discharge, Flood Profile, Flood Inundation, and Debris Movement Accompanying the Failure of the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Facility near Lesterville, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric power plant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, uses turbines that operate as pumps and hydraulic head generated by discharging water from an upper to a lower reservoir to produce electricity. A 55-acre upper reservoir with a 1.5- billion gallon capacity was built on top of Proffit Mountain, approximately 760 feet above the floodplain of the East Fork Black River. At approximately 5:16 am on December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment failed suddenly, sending water rushing down the western side of Proffit Mountain and emptying into the floodplain of East Fork Black River. Flood waters from the upper reservoir flowed downstream through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the lower reservoir of the East Fork Black River. Floods such as this present unique challenges and opportunities to analyze and document peak-flow characteristics, flood profiles, inundation extents, and debris movement. On December 16, 2005, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were collected and used to support hydraulic analyses, forensic failure analyses, damage extent, and mitigation of future disasters. To evaluate the impact of sedimentation in the lower reservoir, a bathymetric survey conducted on December 22 and 23, 2005, was compared to a previous bathymetric survey conducted in April, 2005. Survey results indicated the maximum reservoir capacity difference of 147 acre-feet existed at a pool elevation of 730 feet. Peak discharge estimates of 289,000 cubic feet per second along Proffit Mountain and 95,000 cubic feet per second along the East Fork Black River were determined through indirect measurement techniques. The magnitude of the embankment failure flood along the East Fork Black River was approximately 4 times greater than the 100-year flood frequency estimate of 21,900 cubic feet per second, and approximately 3 times greater than the 500-year flood frequency estimate of 30,500 cubic feet per second

  2. On Dark Peaks and Missing Mass: A Weak-Lensing Mass Reconstruction of the Merging Cluster System A520

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowe, Douglas; Markevitch, Maxim; Bradac, Marusa; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Chung, Sun Mi

    2012-01-01

    Merging clusters of galaxies are unique in their power to directly probe and place limits on the self-interaction cross-section of dark matter. Detailed observations of several merging clusters have shown the intracluster gas to be displaced from the centroids of dark matter and galaxy density by ram pressure, while the latter components are spatially coincident, consistent with collisionless dark matter. This has been used to place upper limits on the dark matter particle self-interaction cross-section of order 1 sq cm/g. The cluster A520 has been seen as a possible exception. We revisit A520 presenting new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys mosaic images and a Magellan image set. We perform a detailed weak-lensing analysis and show that the weak-lensing mass measurements and morphologies of the core galaxy-filled structures are mostly in good agreement with previous works. There is, however, one significant difference: We do not detect the previously claimed "dark core" that contains excess mass with no significant galaxy overdensity at the location of the X-ray plasma. This peak has been suggested to be indicative of a large self-interaction cross-section for dark matter (at least approx 5alpha larger than the upper limit of 0.7 sq cm/g determined by observations of the Bullet Cluster). We find no such indication and instead find that the mass distribution of A520, after subtraction of the X-ray plasma mass, is in good agreement with the luminosity distribution of the cluster galaxies.We conclude that A520 shows no evidence to contradict the collisionless dark matter scenario.

  3. Use of Sequent Peak Algorithm Drought Severity Index and Hydroclimatic Reconstructions from Tree-Rings to Inform Water Supply Reliability Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, B. S.; Palhegyi, G.

    2015-12-01

    California is in the midst of a severe drought with below average runoff since WY 2012. Within this context, many water resource managers are scrutinizing water supply reliability assumptions for planning studies. Severe droughts represent a relatively rare phenomenon, occurring only a handful of times within our limited 100-year period of watershed runoff records. Furthermore, droughts may have different runoff magnitudes and durations that inherently present a challenge for direct comparisons of one drought with another. We use the sequent peak algorithm as a drought severity index (SPADSI) that accounts for both drought magnitude and duration relative to an assumed minimum release policy and fixed level-of-development (LOD) demand modeling framework. The SPADSI allows direct, quantitative evaluation of different policy options for lessening drought severity where, for example, layering a customer rationing policy onto model results reduced the SPADSI for the historical 1976-77 drought from 520 to 450 thousand acre-feet (TAF) and 1987-92 drought from 650 to 415 TAF for 2015 LOD. A strong correlation (R2 = 0.96) between Mokelumne River watershed runoff and tree-ring hydroclimate reconstructions for neighboring American and Stanislaus watersheds from Meko et al. (2014) was the basis for an extended 1100-year historical reconstruction of Mokelumne Watershed annual runoff. The reconstructed runoff timeseries is used to investigate extended historical drought durations for the Mokelumne Watershed where shorter one- to three-year droughts are most probable durations (>90%) whereas longer duration droughts lasting as long as 10 years such as occurred in 1776-85 are also possible, though much less likely. Applying the SPADSI to the reconstructed runoff timeseries showed that recent droughts e.g. 1929-34, 1976-77, and 1987-92 are all relatively severe within this millennial context, falling on the distribution tail of the extended SPADSI dataset. These findings are

  4. The use of compressive sensing and peak detection in the reconstruction of microtubules length time series in the process of dynamic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrooghy, Majid; Yarahmadian, Shantia; Menon, Vineetha; Rezania, Vahid; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are intra-cellular cylindrical protein filaments. They exhibit a unique phenomenon of stochastic growth and shrinkage, called dynamic instability. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical framework for applying Compressive Sensing (CS) to the sampled data of the microtubule length in the process of dynamic instability. To reduce data density and reconstruct the original signal with relatively low sampling rates, we have applied CS to experimental MT lament length time series modeled as a Dichotomous Markov Noise (DMN). The results show that using CS along with the wavelet transform significantly reduces the recovery errors comparing in the absence of wavelet transform, especially in the low and the medium sampling rates. In a sampling rate ranging from 0.2 to 0.5, the Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE) decreases by approximately 3 times and between 0.5 and 1, RMSE is small. We also apply a peak detection technique to the wavelet coefficients to detect and closely approximate the growth and shrinkage of MTs for computing the essential dynamic instability parameters, i.e., transition frequencies and specially growth and shrinkage rates. The results show that using compressed sensing along with the peak detection technique and wavelet transform in sampling rates reduces the recovery errors for the parameters.

  5. Slope-Area Computation Program Graphical User Interface 1.0—A Preprocessing and Postprocessing Tool for Estimating Peak Flood Discharge Using the Slope-Area Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The slope-area method is a technique for estimating the peak discharge of a flood after the water has receded (Dalrymple and Benson, 1967). This type of discharge estimate is called an “indirect measurement” because it relies on evidence left behind by the flood, such as high-water marks (HWMs) on trees or buildings. These indicators of flood stage are combined with measurements of the cross-sectional geometry of the stream, estimates of channel roughness, and a mathematical model that balances the total energy of the flow between cross sections. This is in contrast to a “direct” measurement of discharge during the flood where cross-sectional area is measured and a current meter or acoustic equipment is used to measure the water velocity. When a direct discharge measurement cannot be made at a gage during high flows because of logistics or safety reasons, an indirect measurement of a peak discharge is useful for defining the high-flow section of the stage-discharge relation (rating curve) at the stream gage, resulting in more accurate computation of high flows. The Slope-Area Computation program (SAC; Fulford, 1994) is an implementation of the slope-area method that computes a peak-discharge estimate from inputs of water-surface slope (from surveyed HWMs), channel geometry, and estimated channel roughness. SAC is a command line program written in Fortran that reads input data from a formatted text file and prints results to another formatted text file. Preparing the input file can be time-consuming and prone to errors. This document describes the SAC graphical user interface (GUI), a crossplatform “wrapper” application that prepares the SAC input file, executes the program, and helps the user interpret the output. The SAC GUI is an update and enhancement of the slope-area method (SAM; Hortness, 2004; Berenbrock, 1996), an earlier spreadsheet tool used to aid field personnel in the completion of a slope-area measurement. The SAC GUI reads survey data

  6. Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Zurrida

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Primary treatment is surgery, with mastectomy as the main treatment for most of the twentieth century. However, over that time, the extent of the procedure varied, and less extensive mastectomies are employed today compared to those used in the past, as excessively mutilating procedures did not improve survival. Today, many women receive breast-conserving surgery, usually with radiotherapy to the residual breast, instead of mastectomy, as it has been shown to be as effective as mastectomy in early disease. The relatively new skin-sparing mastectomy, often with immediate breast reconstruction, improves aesthetic outcomes and is oncologically safe. Nipple-sparing mastectomy is newer and used increasingly, with better acceptance by patients, and again appears to be oncologically safe. Breast reconstruction is an important adjunct to mastectomy, as it has a positive psychological impact on the patient, contributing to improved quality of life.

  7. Peak discharge evaluation of five exceptional winter flash floods of 2004-2008 in Central-East Sardinian karst areas and their geomorphological effectiveness (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Q. A.; de Waele, J.; Bodini, A.; Sanna, L.; Cabras, S.

    2009-04-01

    In five subsequent winters (2004-2008) extreme meteorological events have occurred in karst areas of Central East Sardinia, leading to flash floods in several watersheds. Codula Ilune and Flumineddu experienced the most severe flash flood in December 2004, Codula Fuili in December 2006 and Codula Sisine in December 2008. The scars of these flash floods are still well visible in the river bed morphology, caused by the huge quantities of water that have passed the river reaches during these extreme floods. Since no gauges are present in none of these watersheds, the only possible way of estimating the peak flow is a combination of geomorphological and hydraulic observations. Three different methods for the estimation of peak flow velocity have been applied in several river reaches of 4 karstic watersheds (Codula Ilune, Codula Fuili and Codula Sisine in the Gulf of Orosei and Riu Flumineddu in Supramonte), using the Manning's equation, the similar Jarrett's formula and the Costa's method (1983) that make use of the mean diameter of the biggest by the flood water transported boulders. These estimates allow to quantify the peak flow of the floods in different river reaches, and also to have an idea of where and how much water penetrates into the karst aquifer, thus feeding the underground karst river network. Based on measurements from raingauges close to the study area, a statistical analysis of the rainfalls that have caused these flash floods has been also carried out. Total volume of water has been estimated for these four watersheds in the 5 events.

  8. Peakfitter — an integrated Excel-based Visual Basic program for processing multiple skewed and shifting Gaussian-like spectral peaks simultaneously: application to radio frequency glow discharge ion trap mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eanes, Ritchie C.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2000-04-01

    This article is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), a section of Spectrochimica Acta Part B (SAB). The hardcopy text is accompanied by an electronic archive, stored on the SAE homepage at (http://www.elsevier.nl/locate/sabe). The archive contains program and data files. The main article discusses the scientific spectroscopic and instrumental aspects of the subject and explains the purpose of the program and data files. The work deals with a Microsoft Excel Visual Basic program, Peakfitter, which can process multiple Gaussian-shaped spectral peaks quickly and easily. The program employs Microsoft Excel Solver to process any Gaussian-like spectra that can be opened in Microsoft Excel 97. Up to three peaks in one to 225 spectra, each containing up to 2000 data points can be processed per data file to give background corrected peak areas for both raw data and its associated fit data as calculated by the trapezoidal method or by simple successive addition of channel intensities across each peak. Concurrently output also includes fit peak heights for Gaussian-shaped spectral peaks. Use of other statistical distributions such as the Lorentzian model requires only slight modification to a template file. Hence, Peakfitter was actually written as two application programs, 'Gaussfitter' and 'Lorenfitter' to accommodate spectra of Gaussian or Lorentzian character, respectively. Written initially to process data from a radio frequency glow discharge ion trap mass spectrometer (rf-GD/ITMS), the program is useful for processing sequentially acquired spectra, which have a limited number of data points across each peak. The user may examine and manipulate program variables in cases where the raw data is skewed with respect to the fit data. An assessment of Peakfitter is given using rf-GD/ITMS elemental analysis and ion-molecule reaction data. Peakfitter's (i.e. 'Gaussfitter's) utility in processing rf-GD/ITMS spectra is characterized by a slight

  9. An unrecognised Holocene palaeo-lake at the terminus of the Murray-Darling Basin: a palaeo-discharge record and implications for current climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.; Penny, D.; Petley, D. N.; Clarke, S. L.; Hamilton, R. J.; Gadd, P.; Brand, H.

    2015-12-01

    The 1.073 million km2 Murray-Darling River Basin (MDB) drains 14% of Australia's landmass, incorporates Australia's most economically important agricultural region, and presents one of Australia's most important and contentious water security challenges. The twin Murray and Darling catchments extend from the sub-tropics to the mid latitudes, with catchment precipitation driven by synoptic-scale oceanic-atmospheric processes that include the Australian Monsoon, SAM, IPO, PDO, IOD and ENSO. In this study we report the discovery of a hitherto unrecognised terminal palaeo-lake system 'Lake Mannum' that existed during the middle to late Holocene, as evidenced by an extensive sequence of laminated muds. The deposit contains gray laminae enriched in smectite and Nd/Ti, diagnostic of palaeo-discharges originating from the Darling catchment. These gray laminae are set within olive-black background muds enriched in illite, K and Rb, diagnostic of palaeo-discharges originating from the Murray Catchment. The deposit reflects the hydrological regime of the MDB, representing the first in-situ palaeo-discharge record for the MDB and a proxy record for south-eastern Australia's precipitation and hydroclimate. Given the strong influence of major oceanic-atmospheric synoptic circulation over the river system, variability in MDB discharge and delivery of suspended sediment flux to the continental shelf have been used as proxy indicators for south-eastern Australia's palaeo-climate during the Holocene. The existence of palaeo-lake Mannum at the terminus of the MDB suggests that discharge of terrigenous sediment to the Southern Ocean was strongly suppressed during this time, meaning that Holocene climate reconstructions which rely on the marine sediment record require re-evaluation.

  10. Why do patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in Brazil stay in hospital for longer periods than in other countries? Prospective evaluation of 30 patients and presentation of possible discharge criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate a better moment by the medical team and patient to be discharged and relate to possible medical discharge criteria. METHODS: 31 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients under similar conditions prospectively evaluated about the possibility of discharge with 24 and 48 hours after surgery and possibles discharges criteria such as pain, range of motion and capacity quadriceps contraction, besides the use of a validated scale to measure the patient's functional independence. RESULTS: 50% and 6.4% of patients prefer remain hospitalized after 24 and 48 hours of surgery, respectively. The average of the visual analogue scale of pain was 2.63 and 1.76 points, and the range of motion of 79º and 86,7º after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. 100% of patients were able to quadriceps contraction in every evaluated moments. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, possible discharged criteria as pain, range of motion, quad contraction and motor independence motor function scale show that anterior cruciate reconstruction reconstructed patients could be discharged after 24 hours of surgery. However, 50% of patients still prefer to remain hospitalized for longer periods.

  11. Assessing groundwater residence time in a highly anthropized unconfined aquifer using bomb peak 14C and reconstructed irrigation water 3H of irrigation water

    OpenAIRE

    Baudron, Paul; Barbecot, Florent; Gillon, Marina; Garcia Arostegui, Jose Luis; Travi, Yves; Leduc, Christian; Gomariz Castillo, Francisco; Martinez-Vicente, David

    2013-01-01

    Radiocarbon decay is rarely used to assess the residence time of modern groundwater due to the low resolution of its long half-life in comparison to the expected range of ages. Nonetheless, the modern 14C peak induced by the nuclear bomb tests traces efficiently the impacts of recent human activities on groundwater recharge, as well as for tritium. A simple lumped parameter model (LPM) was implemented in order to assess the interest of 14C and 3H nuclear peaks in a highly anthropized aquifer ...

  12. Simulação do deflúvio e vazão de pico em microbacia hidrográfica com escoamento efêmero Surface runoff and peak discharge simulation in ephemeral watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A predição da resposta hidrológica em microbacias hidrográficas a partir de diferentes usos do solo é de fundamental importância para nortear ações de manejo ambiental, razão por que se objetivou, neste trabalho, desenvolver, em primeira mão, uma modelagem hidrológica para predizer o deflúvio total e a vazão de pico em uma microbacia hidrográfica experimental, de escoamento efêmero, ocupada por eucalipto e pastagem, e após esta etapa, aplicá-la a diferentes cenários de ocupação da microbacia por ambas as coberturas vegetais, estimando-se as respostas hidrológicas das situações simuladas. O monitoramento hidrológico foi realizado entre novembro/02 e abril/03, por meio de estação meteorológica e calha Parshall, conjugada a linígrafo automático. A umidade do solo foi monitorada a cada 2 dias, em 3 profundidades (20, 50 e 80 cm, em 8 pontos na área ocupada por pastagem e 4 na área com eucalipto. A modelagem mostrou-se precisa e eficaz aos objetivos propostos de predição em diferentes cenários de uso e ocupação do solo. Verificou-se que, se a microbacia for ocupada por 80% de eucalipto, haverá redução do deflúvio em 29%, constatando-se ainda, redução substancial da vazão de pico; verificou-se também que a umidade do solo é fundamental no processo, especialmente para pequenas vazões, no início e no final do período chuvoso e após veranicos e que, para vazões mais elevadas, as características da precipitação são determinantes.The prediction of hydrological responses in a microbasin from different soil uses is of fundamental importance to develop actions to minimize environmental impacts. This work aimed to develop and to apply hydrological modeling for predicting surface runoff and peak discharge in experimental tropical ephemeral watershed occupied by eucalyptus and grasses, creating different soil use scenarios. Hydrological monitoring was performed between November/2002 and April/2003, using

  13. A statistical model for estimation of peak flood discharge in Italian rivers; Un modello statistico per la stima indiretta delle portate di piena dei corsi d'acqua italiani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maione, U.; Pessarelli, N.; Tomirotti, M. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria, Idraulica, Ambientale e del Rilevamento

    1999-08-01

    In this paper a regional model for the estimation of peak flood discharges of the Italian rivers is presented. Assuming a two parameter distribution for such variable, formulas for the regional estimation of the average and standard deviation of the distribution are obtained as functions of suitable geomorphoclimatic parameters of the river basins. The regions of validity of the formulas cover a relevant part of the territory of the Italian country: Po basin, Emilia and Marches, Liguria and Tuscany, Campania, Calabria, Basilicata and Puglia. The bounds of applicability of the model are then defined, picking out the river basins which for their specificity need particular investigations. [Italian] Viene presentato un modello di stima regionale delle portate al colmo di piena per i corsi d'acqua italiani. Assumendo che la funzione di distribuzione di tale variabile sia a due parametri, vengono ricavate formule di stima regionale della media e dello scarto quadratico medio della distribuzione in funzione di opportuni indici geomorfologici dei bacini. Le regioni di validita' delle formule coprono una parte rilevante del territorio nazionale: bacino del Po, Umbria, Marche, Liguria, Toscana, Emilia, Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Puglia. Vengono poi discussi i limiti di applicabilita' del modello, individuando le caratteristiche dei bacini che per la loro specificita' necessitano di indagini particolari.

  14. Modelo de Transformador de Distribución Trifásico para Estudios de Máximos de Tensión (Peaks Ocasionados por Descargas Atmosféricas Model of a Three-Phase Transformer for Studies of Voltage Surges (Peaks due to Lighting Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G Kanashiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se presenta una metodología para modelar transformadores de distribución trifásico para el estudio de los máximos (peaks de tensión transferidos al secundario, en el caso de descargas atmosféricas directas o indirectas. La validación del modelo fue realizada a través de comparaciones entre simulaciones computacionales y resultados de ensayos obtenidos en el laboratorio. Los resultados mostraron que las tensiones transferidas presentadas por el modelo y por el transformador son mucho más próximas cuando se consideran los impulsos de tensión con formas de onda normalizada (1.2/40m s y típicas de tensiones inducidas. El modelo es simple y representa razonablemente bien el transformador, permitiendo el análisis de las tensiones transferidas en las redes secundarias.This paper presents a methodology for modeling three-phase distribution transformers for the analysis of the voltage surges transferred to the secondary networks when direct or indirect lightning discharges occur. The validation of the model was reached through comparisons between computer simulations and results of tests performed in the laboratory. The results showed that the voltages transferred presented by the model and by the transformer are quite similar when the voltage impulses with both standard (1.2/50m s and typical waveforms of induced voltages are considered. The model is simple and represents the transformer reasonably well, permitting the analysis of the voltages transferred in the secondary networks.

  15. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  16. Stereotactic radiosurgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma knife - discharge; Cyberknife - discharge; Stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy - discharge; Cyclotrons - discharge; Linear accelerator - discharge; Lineacs - ...

  17. YANGTZE DISCHARGE MEMORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Fraedrich; Xiuhua Zhu

    2009-01-01

    We present a review on studies focusing on memories in hydrological time series in the Yangtze Basin based on observational and reconstructed historical data.Memory appears as scaling of power spectra,S(f)~f-β,with 0 <β≤ 1.The presence of scaling is noteworthy in daily river discharge time series:1)from weeks to a couple of years,power spectra follow flicker noise,that is β≈ 1;2)beyond years,spectral scaling appraaclTes β≈0.3.In historical time series of floods and draughts,power spectra also shows scaling with β≈ 0.38 ~0.52.Furthermore,a 70-year peak is detected in historical maritime events series,which also appears in other past climate indicators.Presence of memory in these hydrological time series implies clustering of extremes and scaling of their recurrence times,therefore,probabilistic forecast potential for extremes can be derived.On the other hand,although several physical processes,for example,soil moisture storage and high intermittency of precipitation,have been suggested to be the possible candidates contributing to the presence of long term memory,they remain open for future research.

  18. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, J. W.; McGuire, L. A.; Rengers, F. K.; Smith, J. B.; Staley, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  19. On the trail of double peak hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; Gourdol, Laurent; Klaus, Julian; Juilleret, Jérôme; François Iffly, Jean; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    A double peak hydrograph features two peaks as a response to a unique rainfall pulse. The first peak occurs at the same time or shortly after the precipitation has started and it corresponds to a fast catchment response to precipitation. The delayed peak normally starts during the recession of the first peak, when the precipitation has already ceased. Double peak hydrographs may occur for various reasons. They can occur (i) in large catchments when lag times in tributary responses are large, (ii) in urban catchments where the first peak is often caused by direct surface runoff on impervious land cover, and the delayed peak to slower subsurface flow, and (iii) in non-urban catchments, where the first and the delayed discharge peaks are explained by different runoff mechanisms (e.g. overland flow, subsurface flow and/or deep groundwater flow) that have different response times. Here we focus on the third case, as a formal description of the different hydrological mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across catchments with diverse physiographic characteristics is still needed. Based on a review of studies documenting double peak events we have established a formal classification of catchments presenting double peak events based on their regolith structure (geological substratum and/or its weathered products). We describe the different hydrological mechanisms that trigger these complex hydrological dynamics across each catchment type. We then use hydrometric time series of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture and groundwater levels collected in the Weierbach (0.46 km2) headwater catchment (Luxembourg) to better understand double peak hydrograph generation. Specifically, we aim to find out (1) if the generation of a double peak hydrograph is a threshold process, (2) if the hysteretic relationships between storage and discharge are consistent during single and double peak hydrographs, and (3) if different functional landscape units (the hillslopes

  20. Bronchiolitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV bronchiolitis - discharge; Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis - discharge ... Your child has bronchiolitis , which causes swelling and mucus to build up in the smallest air passages of the lungs. In the hospital, ...

  1. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  2. PeakWorks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-30

    The PeakWorks software is designed to assist in the quantitative analysis of atom probe tomography (APT) generated mass spectra. Specifically, through an interactive user interface, mass peaks can be identified automatically (defined by a threshold) and/or identified manually. The software then provides a means to assign specific elemental isotopes (including more than one) to each peak. The software also provides a means for the user to choose background subtraction of each peak based on background fitting functions, the choice of which is left to the users discretion. Peak ranging (the mass range over which peaks are integrated) is also automated allowing the user to chose a quantitative range (e.g. full-widthhalf- maximum). The software then integrates all identified peaks, providing a background-subtracted composition, which also includes the deconvolution of peaks (i.e. those peaks that happen to have overlapping isotopic masses). The software is also able to output a 'range file' that can be used in other software packages, such as within IVAS. A range file lists the peak identities, the mass range of each identified peak, and a color code for the peak. The software is also able to generate 'dummy' peak ranges within an outputted range file that can be used within IVAS to provide a means for background subtracted proximity histogram analysis.

  3. Paniek over Peak Food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Het kon niet uitblijven. De groei van de voedselproductie stagneert en na Peak Oil dreigt nu Peak Food. Onzin, vindt Niek Koning, die zogenaamde peak is een van de toppen in een langjarige golfbeweging op de landbouwmarkten. Toch zijn er genoeg redenen om je zorgen te maken over de wereldvoedselvoor

  4. Modes of Homogeneous Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure in Helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Hui; WANG De-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    @@ The discharge modes of a homogeneous barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure in helium are investigated with a one-dimensional fluid model It is found that, either in single peak discharge or in multipeak discharge, there are two discharge modes: glow and Townsend modes. The structure and features of the two modes are compared.The conditions forming the two modes are discussed.

  5. Are Bragg Peaks Gaussian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Boualem

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to assume that Bragg scattering peaks have Gaussian shape. The Gaussian shape function is used to perform most instrumental smearing corrections. Using Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation, the resolution of a realistic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument is generated reliably. Including a single-crystal sample with large d-spacing, Bragg peaks are produced. Bragg peaks contain contributions from the resolution function and from spread in the sample structure. Results show that Bragg peaks are Gaussian in the resolution-limited condition (with negligible sample spread) while this is not the case when spread in the sample structure is non-negligible. When sample spread contributes, the exponentially modified Gaussian function is a better account of the Bragg peak shape. This function is characterized by a non-zero third moment (skewness) which makes Bragg peaks asymmetric for broad neutron wavelength spreads. PMID:26601025

  6. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  7. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  8. Peak Experience Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  9. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...

  10. The impact of overland flow on the variation of discharge and hydroehemistry of karst spring in peak cluster%峰丛洼地岩溶泉流量和水化学变化过程中地面径流的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常勇; 吴吉春; 姜光辉; 于奭

    2012-01-01

    峰丛洼地地区分布大量封闭洼地,暴雨过程中洼地内产生的地面径流通过落水洞进入岩溶管道,最终组成岩溶泉的一部分。本文选取典型的峰丛洼地地貌区——桂林丫吉试验场为研究区,通过修建径流小区监测地面径流量,结合示踪试验等手段探讨暴雨期间岩溶泉S31流量和水化学变化过程中这部分地面径流的作用。2010年径流小区监测结果显示当日降雨量大于64.4mm/d时研究区才产生地面径流,地面径流系数在O.48%-0.71%之间。选取5月19日降雨径流过程进行水均衡分析和离子质量守恒计算。S31泉域水均衡分析显示地面径流仅占S31泉总流量0.65%,不能显著影响S31泉流量变化。离子质量守恒模型结果表明暴雨期间S31泉电导率变化主要由裂隙水造成,虽然地面径流含有大量雨水,但对S31泉电导率影响有限。因地面径流的产生条件高和比例小,在适当降雨条件下可以忽略岩溶泉流量和水化学变化中地面径流的作用。%Many closed depressions distribute in peak cluster area. The overland flow occurring in the closed depression enters the conduit though sink holes during storms and finally becomes a part of karst spring. In this paper, the typical peak cluster depression landscape-Yaji experimental site was selected to study the role of overland flow in discharge and hydrochemistry of karst spring though monitoring the quantity of overland flow and tracer experiment. The monitoring results of runoff plot show that overland flow occurred when rainfall was more than 64.4mm/day with low discharge in 2010. The overland flow coefficients were between 0.48% and 0.71%. The rainfall-runoff process of 19 May was chose to do water balance and ions mass conservation. Though the water balance analysis of catchment of Spring $31, overland flow only accounted for 0.63% of total discharge of spring. Overland flow could hardly

  11. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  12. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  13. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods that may block your stoma are raw pineapple, nuts and seeds, celery, popcorn, corn, dried fruits ( ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  14. Gallstones - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000196.htm Gallstones - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have gallstones. These are hard, pebble-like deposits that formed ...

  15. The central peak revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirane, G.

    1995-10-27

    The central peak in SrTiO{sub 3} was first observed by Riste and his collaborators in 1971. This was one of the key discoveries leading to an understanding of the dynamics of phase transitions. The most recent discovery of two length scales in SrTiO{sub 3} motivated a reinvestigation of the soft phonon and associated central peak by neutron scattering. These recent experiments shed new light on the nature of the central peak. It is now well established to be strongly sample dependent and it originates from defects in bulk crystals.

  16. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - discharge; Hypoxia - interstitial lung - discharge

  17. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  18. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  19. Peak of Achievement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s first inland research station on the highest peak of Antarctic progresses smoothly China will complete the construction of its first inland Antarctic research station at Dome A,the highest polar icecap peak at 4,093 meters above sea level,next year,according to a south pole scientist involved in the project. "The preparatory work for the new sta-

  20. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...

  1. Correlation-Peak Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A.; Metzler, A.; Köckenberger, W.; Izquierdo, M.; Komor, E.; Haase, A.; Décorps, M.; von Kienlin, M.

    1996-08-01

    Identification and quantitation in conventional1H spectroscopic imagingin vivois often hampered by the small chemical-shift range. To improve the spectral resolution of spectroscopic imaging, homonuclear two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy has been combined with phase encoding of the spatial dimensions. From the theoretical description of the coherence-transfer signal in the Fourier-transform domain, a comprehensive acquisition and processing strategy is presented that includes optimization of the width and the position of the acquisition windows, matched filtering of the signal envelope, and graphical presentation of the cross peak of interest. The procedure has been applied to image the spatial distribution of the correlation peaks from specific spin systems in the hypocotyl of castor bean (Ricinus communis) seedlings. Despite the overlap of many resonances, correlation-peak imaging made it possible to observe a number of proton resonances, such as those of sucrose, β-glucose, glutamine/glutamate, lysine, and arginine.

  2. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  3. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  4. Impact Crater with Peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 14 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a classic example of a martian impact crater with a central peak. Central peaks are common in large, fresh craters on both Mars and the Moon. This peak formed during the extremely high-energy impact cratering event. In many martian craters the central peak has been either eroded or buried by later sedimentary processes, so the presence of a peak in this crater indicates that the crater is relatively young and has experienced little degradation. Observations of large craters on the Earth and the Moon, as well as computer modeling of the impact process, show that the central peak contains material brought from deep beneath the surface. The material exposed in these peaks will provide an excellent opportunity to study the composition of the martian interior using THEMIS multi-spectral infrared observations. The ejecta material around the crater can is well preserved, again indicating relatively little modification of this landform since its initial creation. The inner walls of this approximately 18 km diameter crater show complex slumping that likely occurred during the impact event. Since that time there has been some downslope movement of material to form the small chutes and gullies that can be seen on the inner crater wall. Small (50-100 m) mega-ripples composed of mobile material can be seen on the floor of the crater. Much of this material may have come from the walls of the crater itself, or may have been blown into the crater by the wind. The Story When a meteor smacked into the surface of Mars with extremely high energy, pow! Not only did it punch an 11-mile-wide crater in the smoother terrain, it created a central peak in the middle of the crater. This peak forms kind of on the 'rebound.' You can see this same effect if you drop a single drop of milk into a glass of milk. With craters, in the heat and fury of the impact, some of the land material can even liquefy. Central peaks like the one

  5. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  6. ACL reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007208.htm ACL reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. ACL reconstruction is surgery to reconstruct the ligament in ...

  7. Discharge processes of UV pre-ionized electric-discharge pulsed DF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qikun; Xie, Jijiang; Shao, Chunlei; Wang, Chunrui; Shao, Mingzhen; Guo, Jin

    2016-03-01

    The discharge processes of ultraviolet (UV) pre-ionized electric-discharge pulsed DF laser operating with a SF6-D2 gas mixture are studied. A mathematical model based on continuity equation of electrons and Kirchhoff equations for discharge circuit is established to describe the discharge processes. Voltage and current waveforms of main discharge and voltage waveforms of pre-ionization are solved numerically utilizing the model. The calculations correctly display some physical processes, such as the delay time between pre-ionization and main discharge, breakdown of the main electrode and self-sustained volume discharge (SSVD). The results of theory are consistent with the experiments, which are performed in our non-chain pulsed DF laser. Then the delay inductance and peak capacitance are researched to analyze their influences on discharge processes, and the circuit parameters of DF laser are given which is useful to improve the discharge stability.

  8. Glow and pseudo-glow discharges in a surface discharge generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xue-Chen; Dong Li-Fang; Wang Long

    2005-01-01

    The glow discharge in flowing argon at one atmospheric pressure is realized in a surface discharge generator. The discharge current presents one peak per half-cycle of the applied voltage. The duration of the discharge pulse is more than 1μs when the frequency of the applied voltage is 60kHz. For the glow discharge in argon, the power consumption increases with the increase of voltage or the decrease of gas pressure.This relation is explained qualitatively based on the theory of the Townsend breakdown mechanism. In contrast, the discharge current in one atmospheric pressure air gives many spikes in each half-cycle, and correspondingly this kind of discharge is called pseudo-glow discharge. Every current spike oscillates with high-frequency damping. The pseudo-glow discharge in one atmospheric pressure air might result from the streamer breakdown mechanism.

  9. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis. This is a swelling of the inner lining ...

  10. Microhollow Cathode Discharge Excimer Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.

    1999-11-01

    character. Reducing the diameter of the cathode hole in a hollow cathode discharge geometry to values on the order of 100 μm has allowed us to extend the pressure range of stable, direct current hollow cathode gas discharges up to atmospheric pressure. The large concentration of high-energy electrons generated in the cathode fall, in combination with the high neutral gas density favors three-body processes such as excimer formation. Excimer emission in xenon discharges peaking at 172 nm, was observed with efficiencies between 6% and 9% at pressures of several hundred Torr. Typical forward voltages are 200 V at dc currents up to 8 mA. Pulsed operation allowed us to extend the current range to 80 mA with corresponding linear increase in optical power. Spatially resolved measurements showed that the source of the excimer radiation at atmospheric pressure and currents of less than 8 mA is confined to the cathode opening. The radiative emittance at 8 mA and atmospheric pressure is approximately 20 W/cm^2. With reduced pressure and increased current, respectively, the excimer source extends into the area outside the cathode hole. Besides in xenon, excimer emission in argon at a peak wavelength of 128 nm has been recorded. In addition to operating the discharge in rare gases, we have also explored its use as rare gas-halide excimer source. In a gas mixture containing 1% ArF we were able to generate stable dc discharges in flowing gas at pressures ranging from 100 Torr to atmospheric pressure. The spectra of the high-pressure ArF discharges are dominated by excimer radiation peaking at 193 nm. The excimer emission of a single ArF discharge at 700 Torr was measured as 150 mW at an efficiency of 3%. Parallel operation of these discharges by means of a resistive anode, which has recently been demonstrated for argon discharges, offers the possibility to use microhollow cathode discharge arrays as dc-excimer lamps, with estimated power densities exceeding 10 W/cm^2. abstract

  11. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  12. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  13. Refractive corneal surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearsightedness surgery - discharge; Refractive surgery - discharge; LASIK - discharge; PRK - discharge ... You had refractive corneal surgery to help improve your vision. This surgery uses a laser to reshape your cornea. It corrects mild-to-moderate nearsightedness, ...

  14. Relação entre a lesão condral e o pico de torque após reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho: estudo de casos Relationship between chondral lesion and peak torque following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RF Traete

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A associação entre lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA e desenvolvimento de osteoartrite (OA secundária tem sido objeto de vários estudos. A lesão ligamentar predispõe a lesões da cartilagem articular, influenciando, assim, o controle motor e o pico de torque. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do grau de lesão condral no pico de torque da musculatura anterior e posterior da coxa após lesão e reconstrução do LCA. MÉTODO: Seis sujeitos do sexo masculino com lesão total e unilateral do LCA foram avaliados pré-cirurgia (24 horas antes da cirurgia e pós-cirurgia em dois momentos distintos, 4,66 ± 1,03 e 15,83 ± 2,63 meses, respectivamente. As avaliações isocinéticas foram realizadas no modo concêntrico de flexão e extensão do joelho, nas velocidades de 60º/s e 180º/s, em que foram a analisadas as variáveis PT dos isquiotibiais (PTI, PT do quadríceps (PTQ e a relação entre eles (I/Q. A escala histológica de Mankin modificada foi utilizada para avaliar o grau macroscópico de lesão condral. O teste estatístico ANOVA (pCONTEXT: The association between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury and the development of secondary osteoarthritis has been the subject of several studies. Ligament injury predisposes joint cartilage lesions, thus influencing motor control and peak torque. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the degree of chondral lesion on peak torque of the anterior and posterior musculature of the thigh following ACL injury and reconstruction. METHOD: Six male subjects with total unilateral ACL injury were evaluated 24 hours before surgery and at two times after surgery (4.66 ± 1.03 and 15.83 ± 2.63 months, respectively. Isokinetic evaluations of knee flexion and extension were made in concentric mode, at velocities of 60º/s and 180º/s, and the variables of hamstring peak torque (HPT and quadriceps peak torque (QPT and hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q were analyzed. The modified

  15. Geyser Peak Cabernet Sauvignon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>年份:2000产地:美国加州Sonoma County售价:$196 Geyser Peak(盖世峰)成立于1880年,是美国军有的过百岁葡萄酒庄。可惜美国酿制葡萄酒的技术在近三四十年才有突破,历史再悠久也没有太多帮助近二十年Geyser Peak就努力改进,希望迎头赶上其它加州新秀的水平,1989年,他们就聘请了澳洲Penfolds酒庄的酿酒师Daryl Groom,让旗下出品多了一份澳洲式的"霎眼娇"风格。2003年,Geyser Peak更在International Wine & Spirit Competition赢得"最佳美国葡萄酒生产商"大奖。

  16. Peak mass and dynamical friction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A

    1995-01-01

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock \\& Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  17. Peak capacity in unidimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neue, Uwe Dieter

    2008-03-14

    The currently existing knowledge about peak capacity in unidimensional separations is reviewed. The majority of the paper is dedicated to reversed-phase gradient chromatography, covering specific techniques as well as the subject of peak compression. Other sections deal with peak capacity in isocratic chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. An important topic is the limitation of the separation power and the meaning of the concept of peak capacity for real applications.

  18. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rebuild the shape of the breast. Instead of breast reconstruction, you could choose to wear a breast form ... one woman may not be right for another. Breast reconstruction may be done at the same time as ...

  19. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    thunderstorms in the southwestern United States (US). The events occurred at altitudes between 8 and 11 km above mean sea level (MSL). Radar reflectivity data from two of the storms showed that CIDS occurred in close spatial proximity to thunderstorm cores with peak radar reflectivities of 47 to 58 dBZ. Over one hundred CIDS were also recorded from tropical cyclone Fausto off the coast of Mexico. These events occurred at altitudes between 15 and 17 km MSL. CIDS are singular discharges that usually occur in temporal isolation from other thunderstorm radio emissions on time scales of at least a few milliseconds. Calculations show that the discharges are vertically oriented and 300 to 1000 m in spatial extent. They produce average currents of several tens to a couple hundred kA for time periods of approximately 15 ps. Based on the results of a charge distribution model, the events occur in thunderstorm regions with charge densities on the order of several tens of nC/m3 and peak electric fields that are greater than 1 x 106 V/m. Both of these values are an order of magnitude greater than values previously measured orinfemed frominsitu thunderstom measurements. Theunique radio emissions from CIDS, in combination with their unprecedented physical characteristics, clearly distinguish the events from other types of previously observed thunderstorm electrical processes.

  20. Concussion - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain injury - concussion - discharge; Traumatic brain injury - concussion - discharge; Closed head injury - concussion - discharge ... Getting better from a concussion takes days to weeks or even months. ... have trouble concentrating, or be unable to remember things. ...

  1. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  2. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  3. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  4. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radical neck dissection - discharge; Modified radical neck dissection - discharge; Selective neck dissection - discharge ... 659-665. Robbins KT, Samant S, Ronen O. Neck dissection. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et ...

  5. Self-pulsing in a low-current hollow cathode discharge: From Townsend to glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yu [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, Kan, E-mail: xiekan@bit.edu.cn [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Yu; Ouyang, Jiting [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of a low current cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in pure argon. The waveforms of pulsed current and voltage are measured, and the time-averaged and time-resolved images of hollow cathode discharge are recorded by using high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera. The results show that the self-pulsing is a mode transition between low-current stage of Townsend discharge and high-current stage of glow discharge. During the self-pulsing, the current rising time relates to the dissipation of space charges, and the decay time relates to the reconstruction of the virtual anode by the accumulation of positive ions. Whether or not space charges can form and keep the virtual anode is responsible for the discharge mode and hence plays an important role in the self-pulsing phenomenon in low current hollow cathode discharge.

  6. Fuzzifying historical peak water levels: case study of the river Rhine at Basel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Kiss, Andrea; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological information comes from a variety of sources, which in some cases might be non-precise. In particular, this is an important issue for the available information on water stages during historical floods. An accurate estimation of the water level profile, together with an elevation model of the riverbed and floodplain areas is fundamental for the hydraulic reconstruction of historical flood events, allowing the back calculation of flood peak discharges, velocity and erosion fields, damages, among others. For the greatest floods during the last 1700 years, Wetter et al. (2011) reconstructed the water levels and historical discharges at different locations in the old city centre from a variety of historical sources (stone marks, official documents, paintings, etc). This work presents a model for the inherent unpreciseness of these historical water levels. This is, with the arithmetics of fuzzy numbers, described by their membership functions, in a similar fashion as the probability density function describes the uncertainty of a random variable. Additional to the in-site collected water stages from floodmarks and other documentary evidence (e.g. preserved in narratives and newspaper flood reports) are prone to be modeled in a fuzzy way. This study presents the use of fuzzy logic to transform historical information from different sources, in this case of flood water stages, into membership functions. This values might then introduced in the mathematical framework of Fuzzy Bayesian Inference to perform the statistical analyses with the rules of fuzzy numbers algebra. The results of this flood frequency analysis, as in the traditional non-fuzzy way, link discharges with exceedance probabilities or return periods. The main difference is, that the modeled discharge quantiles are not precise values, but fuzzy numbers instead, represented by their membership functions explicitly including the unpreciseness of the historical information used. Wetter, O., Pfister, C

  7. PEAK SHAVING CONSIDERING STREAMFLOW UNCERTAINTIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of ... Fuel cost at a conventional hydro plant is nil. On the other hand, the ... s(k) = spill at the hydro plant in period k. I(k) = loss due to ...

  8. Discharge analysis and electrical modeling for the development of efficient dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U. N.; Kumar, M.; Tyagi, M. S.; Meena, B. L.; Khatun, H.; Sharma, A. K.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) are characterized by the presence of at least one insulating layer in contact with the discharge between two planar or cylindrical electrodes connected to an AC/pulse power supply. The dielectric layers covering the electrodes act as current limiters and prevent the transition to an arc discharge. DBDs exist usually in filamentary mode, based on the streamer nature of the discharges. The main advantage of this type of electrical discharges is that nonequilibrium and non-thermal plasma conditions can be established at atmospheric pressure. VUV/UV sources based on DBDs are considered as promising alternatives of conventional mercury-based discharge plasmas, producing highly efficient VUV/UV radiation. The experiments have been performed using two coaxial quartz double barrier DBD tubes, which are filled with Xe/Ar at different pressures. A sinusoidal voltage up to 2.4 kV peak with frequencies from 20 to 100 kHz has been applied to the discharge electrodes for the generation of microdischarges. A stable and uniform discharge is produced in the gas gap between the dielectric barrier electrodes. By comparisons of visual images and electrical waveforms, the filamentary discharges for Ar tube while homogeneous discharge for Xe tube at the same conditions have been confirmed. The electrical modeling has been carried out to understand DBD phenomenon in variation of applied voltage waveforms. The simulated discharge characteristics have been validated by the experimental results.

  9. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... If your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can ...

  10. Penile reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulio Garaffa; Salvatore Sansalone; David J Ralph

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years,a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature.This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma,excision of benign and malignant disease,in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique,cosmetic and functional outcome.

  11. Doppler peaks from active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Coulson, D; Ferreira, P; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Coulson, David; Ferreira, Pedro

    1995-01-01

    We examine how the qualitative structure of the Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy depends on the fundamental nature of the perturbations which produced them. The formalism of Hu and Sugiyama is extended to treat models with cosmic defects. We discuss how perturbations can be ``active'' or ``passive'' and ``incoherent'' or ``coherent'', and show how causality and scale invariance play rather different roles in these various cases. We find that the existence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak unambiguously reflect these basic properties.

  12. Make peak flow a habit!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma - peak flow References Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  13. Equivalence Principle and the Baryon Acoustic Peak

    CERN Document Server

    Baldauf, Tobias; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation $\\delta(\\lambda_L)$ on short distance physics. In the non-relativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at $l_{\\rm BAO}$, this naive expectation breaks down for $\\lambda_Lpeak, and is calculable to all orders in the long modes. This can be used to improve the result of perturbative calculations - a technique known as "infra-red resummation"- and is explicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of power spectrum. Finally, the success of BAO reconstruction schemes is argue...

  14. Ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  15. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks-Chimeras without substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian, E-mail: marian@radetzki.bi [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth.

  16. Peak Oil and other threatening peaks. Chimeras without substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radetzki, Marian [Luleaa University of Technology (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The Peak Oil movement has widely spread its message about an impending peak in global oil production, caused by an inadequate resource base. On closer scrutiny, the underlying analysis is inconsistent, void of a theoretical foundation and without support in empirical observations. Global oil resources are huge and expanding, and pose no threat to continuing output growth within an extended time horizon. In contrast, temporary or prolonged supply crunches are indeed plausible, even likely, on account of growing resource nationalism denying access to efficient exploitation of the existing resource wealth. (author)

  17. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  18. Thermally induced atmospheric pressure gas discharges using pyroelectric crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J.; Linczer, John; Go, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Using a heated pyroelectric crystal, an atmospheric pressure gas discharge was generated through the input of heat. When put through a change in temperature, the polarization of a pyroelectric can change significantly, creating a substantial electric potential at its surface. When configured with a grounded sharp counter electrode, a large inhomogeneous electric field forms in the interstitial gas to initiate a corona-like discharge. Under constant heating conditions, gaseous ions drifting to the pyroelectric accumulate and screen the electric field, extinguishing the discharge. By thermally cycling the pyroelectric, negative and positive discharges are generated during heating and cooling, respectively, with peak currents on the order of 80 nA. Time-integrated visualization confirmed the generation of both a corona-like discharge and a surface discharge on the pyroelectric. Parametric studies identified that thermal cycling conditions significantly influence discharge formation for this new atmospheric pressure discharge approach.

  19. How important are sediments in the flood peaks generated by a Mediterranean catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertes, Cristina; Francés, Félix

    2016-04-01

    Currently, soil erosion and sediment yield have increased their importance because of their impact on the increase in flood peaks, in addition to the sedimentation in reservoirs, channels and flooded urban areas. Hence, this research wants to be a contribution in that sense. The aim was to evaluate the importance of the incorporation of sediment cycle to hydrological models in order to improve the reliability of the simulated floods. It was focused on the flood that took place in Valencia, Spain, in 1957. This flood produced two straight floods, of 2700 and 3700 m3/s peak flows, as a consequence of two heavy rainy days (above 100mm precipitations in 24h), preceded by two rainy days. As a result, it caused 81 dead, thousands homeless and high material damage. The amount of sediments deposited in the city was slightly lower than 2 hm3. Cleaning up tasks lasted more than a month and, although less than one seventh of the sediments volume were removed, public expenditures exceed 23.500.000€ (2015 currency value). In order to carry out this study, it was necessary to make a reconstruction of the event. The first step was to calibrate a distributed hydrological model in the Turia River basin. The total catchment area is 6350 km2, but only the catchment downstream the Benagéber Reservoir was active during the flood. The parameters needed for the calibration were obtained from a 100x100 m Digital Elevation Model, the land use map and the physical characteristics of the basin. The model was calibrated using a time step of one hour and the observed discharge in the outlet point from the period 1990-2013. Previously, a daily model was calibrated and used for the computation of the initial conditions of the hourly model. Once calibrated, a reconstruction of precipitation at hourly discretization for the 1957 event was made. Finally, the sedimentological sub-model was calibrated using only data from the amount of sediments deposited in the city during the overflowing. All

  20. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could not save ...

  1. Breast Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... senos Preguntas Para el Médico Datos Para la Vida Komen El cuidado de sus senos:Consejos útiles ... can help . Cost Federal law requires most insurance plans cover the cost of breast reconstruction. Learn more ...

  2. Climate Reconstructions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  3. Simulation of Peak Flows Using Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña Hernández, F.; Ba, K. M.; Guerra-Cobián, V.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we utilized remotely sensed data (radar and satellite precipitation products) to simulate the peak discharges of some storm events of the Escondido River. This is a poorly gauged watershed located in Northern Mexico, in the State of Coahuila and is a sub-basin of Rio Bravo, known also as Río Grande. The radar data are from NOAA (Radar KDFX located in Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas). We used two satellite product estimates PERSIANN and CMORPH. These three estimated precipitation products have been compared using the hydrologic model HEC-HMS to simulate the peak discharge. The results of the simulations show the importance of the use of this type of data in hydrologic modeling.

  4. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  5. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  6. Hubbert's Peak -- A Physicist's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2011-04-01

    Oil, as used in agriculture and transportation, is the lifeblood of modern society. It is finite in quantity and will someday be exhausted. In 1956, Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on the finite nature of oil and its production peak and depletion. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. Central to these analyses are estimates of total ``oil in place'' obtained from engineering studies of oil reservoirs as this quantity determines the area under the Hubbert's Peak. Knowing the production history and the total oil in place allows us to make estimates of reserves, and therefore future oil availability. We will then examine reserves data for various countries, in particular OPEC countries, and see if these data tell us anything about the future availability of oil. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  7. Discriminate Modelling of Peak and Off-Peak Motorway Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic theory is concerned with the movement of discrete objects in real time over a finite network in 2 Dimensions. It is compatible with or dependent on fundamental diagram of traffic. Without question traffic flow is an essential quantitative parameter that is used in planning, designs and roadway improvements.  Road capacity is significant because it is an important indicator of road performance and can point road managers in the right road maintenance and traffic management direction. In this paper four direct empirical capacity measurement methods have been considered. To test the efficacy of each method, data for peak period, off-peak and transition to peak have been used. The headway and the volume methods lack predictive capability and are suitable only for current assessment of flow rates.  The product limit method is weak in its predictive capability in view of the arbitrariness in the selection of the capacity value. It is also an extreme value method; hence not all volume data can be used with this method. The fundamental diagram method has good predictive capability and furnishes capacity values consistent with the standard of the facility. Unlike other methods, it does not rely on bottleneck conditions to deliver the capacity value.  The paper concluded that each method is uniquely suited to prevailing conditions and can be so employed.

  8. Numerical investigation of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    1997-12-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a transient discharge occurring between two electrodes in coaxial or planar arrangements separated by one or two layers of dielectric material. The charge accumulated on the dielectric barrier generates a field in a direction opposite to the applied field. The discharge is quenched before an arc is formed. It is one of the few non-thermal discharges that operates at atmospheric pressure and has the potential for use in pollution control. In this work, a numerical model of the dielectric barrier discharge is developed, along with the numerical approach. Adaptive grids based on the charge distribution is used. A self-consistent method is used to solve for the electric field and charge densities. The Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in a non-uniform grid spacing is used to solve the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate. The Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) method is modified to solve the continuity equations in the non-uniform grid spacing. Parametric studies of dielectric barrier discharges are conducted. General characteristics of dielectric barrier discharges in both anode-directed and cathode-directed streamer are studied. Effects of the dielectric capacitance, the applied field, the resistance in external circuit and the type of gases (O2, air, N2) are investigated. We conclude that the SOR method in an adaptive grid spacing for the solution of the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate is convergent and effective. The dielectric capacitance has little effect on the g-factor of radical production, but it determines the strength of the dielectric barrier discharge. The applied field and the type of gases used have a significant role on the current peak, current pulse duration and radical generation efficiency, discharge strength, and microstreamer radius, whereas the external series resistance has very little effect on the streamer properties. The results are helpful in

  9. Longitudinal peak detected Schottky spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, E

    2009-01-01

    The "peak detected Schottky" spectrum is a diagnostic used since the late seventies for beam observation in the SPS and now already applied to the LHC. This tool was always believed, however without proof, to give a good picture of the particle distribution in synchrotron frequencies similar to the longitudinal Schottky spectrum of unbunched beam for revolution frequencies.In this paper an analysis of this measurement technique is presented both in a general form and for the particular realisation in the SPS. In addition the limitations of the present experimental set-up are discussed together with possible improvements. The analysis shows that for an optimised experimental set-up the spectrum of the peak detected signal is very close to the synchrotron frequency distribution inside the bunch - much closer than that given by the traditional longitudinal bunched-beam Schottky spectrum.

  10. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive airways disease - adults - discharge; Chronic obstructive lung disease - adults - discharge; Chronic bronchitis - adults - discharge; Emphysema - adults - discharge; Bronchitis - ...

  12. Data-parallel tomographic reconstruction : A comparison of filtered backprojection and direct Fourier reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Westenberg, Michel A.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the parallelization of two standard 2D reconstruction algorithms, filtered backprojection and direct Fourier reconstruction, using the data-parallel programming style. The algorithms are implemented on a Connection Machine CM-5 with 16 processors and a peak performance of 2 Gflop/s. (C)

  13. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  14. Investigation of Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge and Its Audio Characteristics in Atmospheric-pressure Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Chengyan; RAN Huijuan; WANG Jue; WANG Tao; YAN Ping

    2013-01-01

    There was no well-resolved mechanism of audible noise caused by corona discharge on UHV transmission lines.Hence we measured the sound pressure of pulsed discharges between needle-plane electrodes under different discharge conditions in air,for revealing the intrinsic relationship between discharge and its audible noise(AN).The relationship between discharge parameters and audio characteristics was drawn from the analysis of the electric and sound signals obtained in experiments.Experiment results showed that nanosecond pulsed discharges produce the sound pressure with a microsecond pulse lagging behind the discharge pulse in their waveforms.The peak value of the sound pulse decreases and its high frequency component gradually attenuates,when the measuring distance from discharges increases.The sound pulses correlate with the discharge current and voltage significantly,especially the current.The audible noise produced by repetitive pulsed discharge increases with the strength,duration,and pulse repetition rate of discharge.

  15. Discharging dynamics in an electrolytic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feicht, Sarah E.; Frankel, Alexandra E.; Khair, Aditya S.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a discharging electrolytic cell comprised of a binary symmetric electrolyte between two planar, parallel blocking electrodes. When a voltage is initially applied, ions in the electrolyte migrate towards the electrodes, forming electrical double layers. After the system reaches steady state and the external current decays to zero, the applied voltage is switched off and the cell discharges, with the ions eventually returning to a uniform spatial concentration. At voltages on the order of the thermal voltage VT=kBT /q ≃25 mV, where kB is Boltzmann's constant, T is temperature, and q is the charge of a proton, experiments on surfactant-doped nonpolar fluids observe that the temporal evolution of the external current during charging and discharging is not symmetric [V. Novotny and M. A. Hopper, J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 925 (1979), 10.1149/1.2129195; P. Kornilovitch and Y. Jeon, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 064509 (2011), 10.1063/1.3554445]. In fact, at sufficiently large voltages (several VT), the current during discharging is no longer monotonic: it displays a "reverse peak" before decaying in magnitude to zero. We analyze the dynamics of discharging by solving the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations governing ion transport via asymptotic and numerical techniques in three regimes. First, in the "linear regime" when the applied voltage V is formally much less than VT, the charging and discharging currents are antisymmetric in time; however, the potential and charge density profiles during charging and discharging are asymmetric. The current evolution is on the R C timescale of the cell, λDL /D , where L is the width of the cell, D is the diffusivity of ions, and λD is the Debye length. Second, in the (experimentally relevant) thin-double-layer limit ɛ =λD/L ≪1 , there is a "weakly nonlinear" regime defined by VT≲V ≲VTln(1 /ɛ ) , where the bulk salt concentration is uniform; thus the R C timescale of the evolution of the current magnitude

  16. The effects of electrode size and discharged power on micro-electro-discharge machining drilling of stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca D’Urso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the measurement of actual micro-electro-discharge machining parameters and the statistical analysis of their influence on the process performances. In particular, the discharged power was taken into account as a comprehensive variable able to represent the effect of peak current and voltage on the final result. Thanks to the dedicated signal acquisition system, a correlation among the discharged power and the indexes representing the process parameters was shown. Finally, linear and non-linear regression approaches were implemented in order to obtain predictive equations for the most important aspects of micro-electro-discharge machining, such as the machining time and the electrode wear.

  17. Breast Reconstruction Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Breast Reconstruction Alternatives Some women who have had a ... chest. What if I choose not to get breast reconstruction? Some women decide not to have any ...

  18. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes;

    of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were......More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  19. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  20. EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE CALCULATION GUIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S.BIEDENHARN; C.R.THORNE; P.J.SOAR; R.D.HEY; C.C.WATSON

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for calculating the effective discharge for rivers with alluvial channels.An alluvial river adjusts the bankfull shape and dimensions of its channel to the wide range of flows that mobilize the boundary sediments. It has been shown that time-averaged river morphology is adjusted to the flow that, over a prolonged period, transports most sediment. This is termed the effective discharge.The effective discharge may be calculated provided that the necessary data are available or can be synthesized. The procedure for effective discharge calculation presented here is designed to have general applicability, have the capability to be applied consistently, and represent the effects of physical processes responsible for determining the channel, dimensions. An example of the calculations necessary and applications of the effective discharge concept are presented.

  1. Smooth Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Eighty percent of the reconstruction projects in Sichuan Province will be completed by the end of the year Despite ruins still seen everywhere in the earthquake-hit areas in Sichuan (Province, new buildings have been completed, and many people have moved into new houses. Through cameras of the media, the faces, once painful and melancholy after last year’s earthquake, now look confident and firm, gratifying people all over the

  2. Early Stage of Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新培; 潘垣; 刘克富; 刘明海; 张寒虹

    2001-01-01

    The bubble radius at the early stage of discharge in water is investigated using high-speed photography. Some simulation results on the bubble radius are presented, which are in agreement with the experimental results, with a maximum difference of about 10%. The reasons why the peak pressure of the first shock wave is only related to the energy released in the bubble during the first half period are addressed. The energy released in the bubble after the first half period increases the bubble pulsation period, but it produces no more than 10% under the peak pressure of the second shock wave.

  3. Maxillary reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown James

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the various defects that occur with maxillectomy with a full review of the literature and discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques described. Reconstruction of the maxilla can be relatively simple for the standard low maxillectomy that does not involve the orbital floor (Class 2. In this situation the structure of the face is less damaged and the there are multiple reconstructive options for the restoration of the maxilla and dental alveolus. If the maxillectomy includes the orbit (Class 4 then problems involving the eye (enopthalmos, orbital dystopia, ectropion and diplopia are avoided which simplifies the reconstruction. Most controversy is associated with the maxillectomy that involves the orbital floor and dental alveolus (Class 3. A case is made for the use of the iliac crest with internal oblique as an ideal option but there are other methods, which may provide a similar result. A multidisciplinary approach to these patients is emphasised which should include a prosthodontist with a special expertise for these defects.

  4. Filament Discharge Phenomena in Fingerprint Acquisition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Ming; XU Weijun; LIU Qiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric barrier discharge fingerprint acquisition technique is introduced. The filament discharge phenomena were observed in the process of fingerprint acquisition. The filament discharge reduced the quality of fingerprint images. Obviously, it was necessary to eliminate streamer discharges in order to get good fingerprint images. The streamer discharge was considered to be the cause of the filament discharge in the experiment. The relationship between the critical electric field and the discharge gap was calculated with the Raether's model of streamer discharge. The calculated results and our experiment proved that it would be difficult for the streamer discharge to occur when the discharge gap was narrow. With a narrow discharge gap, the discharge was homogeneous, and the fingerprint images were clear and large in area. The images obtained in the experiment are very suitable for fingerprint identification as they contain more information.

  5. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  6. Afghanistan Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Karzai regime has made some progress over the past four years and a half in the post-war reconstruction.However, Taliban's destruction and drug economy are still having serious impacts on the security and stability of Afghanistan.Hence the settlement of the two problems has become a crux of affecting the country' s future.Moreover, the Karzai regime is yet to handle a series of hot potatoes in the fields of central government' s authority, military and police building-up and foreign relations as well.

  7. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  8. Peak Detection Using Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daoud

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new work based-wavelet transform is designed to o vercome one of the main drawbacks that found in the present new technologies. Orthogonal Frequency Divi sion Multiplexing (OFDMis proposed in the literature to enhance the multimedia resolution. Ho wever, the high peak power (PAPR values will obstr uct such achievements. Therefore, a new proposition is found in this work, making use of the wavelet transforms methods, and it is divided into three ma in stages; de-noising stage, thresholding stage and then the replacement stage. In order to check the system stages validity; a mat hematical model has been built and its checked afte r using a MATLAB simulation. A simulated bit error ra te (BER achievement will be compared with our previously published work, where an enhancement fro m 8×10 -1 to be 5×10 -1 is achieved. Moreover, these results will be compared to the work found in the l iterature, where we have accomplished around 27% PAPR extra reduction. As a result, the BER performance has been improved for the same bandwidth occupancy. Moreover and due to the de-noise stage, the verification rate ha s been improved to reach 81%. This is in addition t o the noise immunity enhancement.

  9. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  10. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  11. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  12. Corneal transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000243.htm Corneal transplant - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a corneal transplant. Most of the tissue of your cornea (the ...

  13. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  14. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  15. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  16. Inguinal hernia - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000274.htm Inguinal hernia repair - discharge To use the sharing features on ... your child had surgery to repair an inguinal hernia caused by a weakness in the abdominal wall ...

  17. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  18. Pectus excavatum - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000298.htm Pectus excavatum - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... You or your child had surgery to correct pectus excavatum. This is a deformity of the front of ...

  19. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000168.htm Hip fracture - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hip fracture surgery is done to repair a break in ...

  20. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - pelvic radiation

  1. Identifying discharge practice training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, L; Emmerson, K

    A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.

  2. Joint modelling of flood peaks and volumes: A copula application for the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood frequency analysis is usually performed as a univariate analysis of flood peaks using a suitable theoretical probability distribution of the annual maximum flood peaks or peak over threshold values. However, other flood attributes, such as flood volume and duration, are necessary for the design of hydrotechnical projects, too. In this study, the suitability of various copula families for a bivariate analysis of peak discharges and flood volumes has been tested. Streamflow data from selected gauging stations along the whole Danube River have been used. Kendall’s rank correlation coefficient (tau quantifies the dependence between flood peak discharge and flood volume settings. The methodology is applied to two different data samples: 1 annual maximum flood (AMF peaks combined with annual maximum flow volumes of fixed durations at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 days, respectively (which can be regarded as a regime analysis of the dependence between the extremes of both variables in a given year, and 2 annual maximum flood (AMF peaks with corresponding flood volumes (which is a typical choice for engineering studies. The bivariate modelling of the extracted peak discharge - flood volume couples is achieved with the use of the Ali-Mikhail-Haq (AMH, Clayton, Frank, Joe, Gumbel, Hüsler-Reiss, Galambos, Tawn, Normal, Plackett and FGM copula families. Scatterplots of the observed and simulated peak discharge - flood volume pairs and goodness-of-fit tests have been used to assess the overall applicability of the copulas as well as observing any changes in suitable models along the Danube River. The results indicate that for the second data sampling method, almost all of the considered Archimedean class copula families perform better than the other copula families selected for this study, and that for the first method, only the upper-tail-flat copulas excel (except for the AMH copula due to its inability to model stronger relationships.

  3. Electric-discharge-pumped nitrogen ion laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J.; Wittig, C.

    1976-01-01

    The routine operation is described of an N2(+) laser oscillating on the first negative band system of N2(+) which is produced in a preionized transverse discharge device. The discharge design incorporates features which favor the efficient production of the excitation transfer reaction of He2(+) with N2. A capacitive discharge switched by means of a high-current grounded grid thyratron is used to meet the design requirement of a volumetric discharge in high-pressure gas mixtures where the electric discharge need not have an ultrafast rise time (greater than 10 nsec) but should be capable of transferring large quantities of stored electric energy to the gas. A peak power of 180 kW in an 8-nsec laser pulse was obtained with a 0.1% mixture of N2 in helium at a total pressure of 3 atm. The most intense laser oscillations were observed on the (0,1) vibrational transition at 427.8 microns.

  4. Surface micro-discharges on spacecraft dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, K. G.; Cuchanski, M.; Kremer, P. C.

    1977-01-01

    Extensive measurements on Teflon and Kapton in a scanning electron microscope indicate the existence of a well-defined family of surface micro-discharges characteristic of the dielectric material. For a given small region exposed to the 16-20 kV electron beam, the strongest discharge pulses are similar in shape and amplitude. For Teflon, typical pulse durations are 2-3 ns, rise and fall times are sometimes as low as 0.2 ns, current amplitudes are approximately 100 mA flowing down to the pedestal and the pulses are unidirectional with no ringing. The use of a rapid-scan electron microscope with a secondary-electron imaging system reveals complex charge distributions resembling Lichtenberg figures on a supposedly flat homogeneous dielectric surface. These patterns undergo extensive alteration at each micro-discharge pulse and indicate that both the charging and discharging processes are highly nonuniform over the dielectric surface. The use of floodbeam causes the occurrence of a large-scale macro-discharges, in which a typical peak current is 40 A with a duration of 120 ns.

  5. Providing peak river flow statistics and forecasting in the Niger River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet C. M.; Ali, Abdou; Arheimer, Berit; Gustafsson, David; Minoungou, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    Flooding is a growing concern in West Africa. Improved quantification of discharge extremes and associated uncertainties is needed to improve infrastructure design, and operational forecasting is needed to provide timely warnings. In this study, we use discharge observations, a hydrological model (Niger-HYPE) and extreme value analysis to estimate peak river flow statistics (e.g. the discharge magnitude with a 100-year return period) across the Niger River basin. To test the model's capacity of predicting peak flows, we compared 30-year maximum discharge and peak flow statistics derived from the model vs. derived from nine observation stations. The results indicate that the model simulates peak discharge reasonably well (on average + 20%). However, the peak flow statistics have a large uncertainty range, which ought to be considered in infrastructure design. We then applied the methodology to derive basin-wide maps of peak flow statistics and their associated uncertainty. The results indicate that the method is applicable across the hydrologically active part of the river basin, and that the uncertainty varies substantially depending on location. Subsequently, we used the most recent bias-corrected climate projections to analyze potential changes in peak flow statistics in a changed climate. The results are generally ambiguous, with consistent changes only in very few areas. To test the forecasting capacity, we ran Niger-HYPE with a combination of meteorological data sets for the 2008 high-flow season and compared with observations. The results indicate reasonable forecasting capacity (on average 17% deviation), but additional years should also be evaluated. We finish by presenting a strategy and pilot project which will develop an operational flood monitoring and forecasting system based in-situ data, earth observations, modelling, and extreme statistics. In this way we aim to build capacity to ultimately improve resilience toward floods, protecting lives and

  6. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agents’ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...

  7. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...... pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the implementation of the pathway. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathway included preoperative high-dose steroid, daily assessment...... of revised discharge criteria and an aggressive approach to restore bowel function (chewing gum and enema on postoperative day two). Patients who followed the enhanced recovery after surgery pathway reported low scores of pain, nausea and fatigue, and were discharged significantly faster than patients...

  8. Improving analytical tomographic reconstructions through consistency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces and characterizes a fast parameterless filter based on the Helgason-Ludwig consistency conditions, used to improve the accuracy of analytical reconstructions of tomographic undersampled datasets. The filter, acting in the Radon domain, extrapolates intermediate projections between those existing. The resulting sinogram, doubled in views, is then reconstructed by a standard analytical method. Experiments with simulated data prove that the peak-signal-to-noise ratio of the results computed by filtered backprojection is improved up to 5-6 dB, if the filter is used prior to reconstruction.

  9. 27 CFR 9.140 - Atlas Peak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Atlas Peak. 9.140 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.140 Atlas Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Atlas Peak.”...

  10. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with implants Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone ...

  11. Microwave Discharge Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, L

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the basic principles, design features and characteristics of microwave discharge ion sources. A suitable source for the production of intense beams for high-power accelerators must satisfy the requirements of high brightness, stability and reliability. The 2.45 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge sources are ideal devices to generate the required beams, as they produce multimilliampere beams of protons, deuterons and singly charged ions. A description of different technical designs will be given, analysing their performance, with particular attention being paid to the quality of the beam, especially in terms of its emittance.

  12. Reconstructive Urology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Fatih Önol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of urethral stricture, Buccal Mucosa Graft (BMG and reconstruction is applied with different patch techniques. Recently often prefered, this approach is, in bulber urethra strictures of BMG’s; by “ventral onley”, in pendulous urethra because of thinner spingiosis body, which provides support and nutrition of graft; by means of “dorsal inley” being anastomosis. In the research that Cordon et al. did, they compared conventional BMJ “onley” urethroplast and “pseudo-spongioplasty” which base on periurethral vascular tissues to be nourished by closing onto graft. In repairment of front urethras that spongiosis supportive tissue is insufficient, this method is defined as peripheral dartos [çevre dartos?] and buck’s fascia being mobilized and being combined on BMG patch. Between the years 2007 and 2012, assessment of 56 patients with conventional “ventral onley” BMG urethroplast and 46 patients with “pseudo-spongioplasty” were reported to have similar success rates (80% to 84% in 3.5 year follow-up on average. While 74% of the patients that were applied pseudo-spongioplasty had disease present at distal urethra (pendulous, bulbopendulous, 82% of the patients which were applied conventional onley urethroplast had stricture at proximal (bulber urethra yet. Also lenght of the stricture at the pseudo-spongioplasty group was longer in a statistically significant way (5.8 cm to 4.7 cm on average, p=0.028. This study which Cordon et al. did, shows that conditions in which conventional sponjiyoplasti is not possible, periurethral vascular tissues are adequate to nourish BMG. Even it is an important technique in terms of bringing a new point of view to today’s practice, data especially about complications that may show up after pseudo-spongioplasty usage on long distal strictures (e.g. appearance of urethral diverticulum is not reported. Along with this we think that, providing an oppurtinity to patch directly

  13. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of energy transfer and utilization efficiency of azo dye removal by different pulsed electrical discharge modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN YongJun; LEI LeCheng; ZHANG XingWang

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of an azo dye, acid orange 7 (AO7), caused by different high voltage pulsed electrical discharge modes (spark, streamer and corona discharge) induced by the various initial conductivities was investigated. A new type of pulsed high voltage source with thyratron switch and Blumlein pulse forming net (BPFN) was used. The typical discharge waveforms of voltage, current, power, pulse en-ergy and the pictures of spark, streamer and corona discharge modes were presented. The results in-dicated that pulsed electrical discharges led to complete decolorization and substantial decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the dye solution. The main intermediate products were monitored by GC-MS. The discharge modes changed from spark to streamer and to corona discharge, and the streamer length decreased with the liquid conductivity increasing. At a constant input power, the peak voltage, peak current, peak power and energy per pulse of the three discharge modes ranked in the following order: spark > streamer > corona. The effective energy transfer efficiency of AO7 removal was higher for spark discharge (57.2%) than for streamer discharge (40.4%) and corona discharge (27.6%). Moreover, the energy utilization efficiency of AO7 removal for spark discharge was 1.035×109 mol/J, and for streamer and corona discharge they were 0.646×10-8 and 0.589×10-9mol/J. Both the energy transfer efficiency and the energy utilization efficiency of spark discharge were the highest.

  15. Excimer emission from cathode boundary layer discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselhy, Mohamed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2004-02-01

    The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring-shaped anode of 0.75 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively, separated by a gap of 250 μm, was studied in xenon and argon in a pressure range from 75 to 760 Torr. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" plasma, in the 100 μm range, and a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. The radiant excimer emittance at 172 nm increases with pressure and reaches a value of 4 W/cm2 for atmospheric pressure operation in xenon. The maximum internal efficiency, however, decreases with pressure having highest values of 5% for 75 Torr operation. When the discharge current is reduced below a critical value, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing self-organization of the plasma. Also, the excimer spectrum changes from one with about equal contributions from the first and second continuum to one that is dominated by the second continuum emission. The xenon excimer emission intensity peaks at this discharge mode transition. In the case of argon, self-organization of the plasma was not seen, but the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum at the transition from abnormal to normal glow. As was observed with xenon, the radiant emittance of argon increases with pressure, and the efficiency decreases. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm2 for argon at 600 Torr. The maximum internal efficiency is 2.5% at 200 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission in both cases indicates the possibility of generating intense, large area, flat excimer lamps.

  16. Simple DCM or CRM analog peak current controller for HV capacitor charge-discharge applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple analog current controller suitable for buck and boost converter topologies. The controller operates in DCM or CRM, depending on the setup. The experimental results are presented to validate the proposed controller functionality for a high voltage capacitor charge...

  17. 76 FR 35215 - Notice of EPA Workshop on Sanitary Sewer Overflows and Peak Wet Weather Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Pennsylvania Avenue, NW. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For further information about this notice, contact... or e-mail: schaner.greg@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Properly designed..., line breaks, sewer defects that allow storm water and groundwater to overload the system, lapses in...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Vaginal infection is one of the top 25 reasons for women to consult doctors in the. USA. The 3 most common ... VAGINAL DISCHARGE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN. In this age group, the .... More than one host fac- tor may be involved and ...

  19. Novel Molecular Discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerber, A.; Schwan, S.; Hayashi, D.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation into halides and ~oxides showed the high potential of transition metal oxides as visible radiators for highly efficient gas discharge light sources. Zirconium monoxide (ZrO) has been identified as most promising candidate combining highly attractive green and red emission

  20. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  1. Flight Model Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Dielectric Sensor ................................... 12 5 ESA S/N 001 ......................................... 24 6 Preliminary Test Sequence...71 28 Optical Transmission Loss of Contamination "Witness" Slide 3 .................................. 72 29 Apparatus used in FMDS Spectroscopic...Monitor ( TPU ). This sensor detects the electromagnetic pulses generated by the onset of arcing. (2) An active discharge device (plasma source). (3) A

  2. Estimating ground water discharge by hydrograph separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Steven R; Esposito, Kenneth J; Chermak, John A; Runnells, Donald D; Keith, David C; Hall, Larry E

    2003-01-01

    Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

  3. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  4. An experimental system for controlled exposure of biological samples to electrostatic discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovič, Igor; Kotnik, Tadej

    2013-12-01

    Electrostatic discharges occur naturally as lightning strokes, and artificially in light sources and in materials processing. When an electrostatic discharge interacts with living matter, the basic physical effects can be accompanied by biophysical and biochemical phenomena, including cell excitation, electroporation, and electrofusion. To study these phenomena, we developed an experimental system that provides easy sample insertion and removal, protection from airborne particles, observability during the experiment, accurate discharge origin positioning, discharge delivery into the sample either through an electric arc with adjustable air gap width or through direct contact, and reliable electrical insulation where required. We tested the system by assessing irreversible electroporation of Escherichia coli bacteria (15 mm discharge arc, 100 A peak current, 0.1 μs zero-to-peak time, 0.2 μs peak-to-halving time), and gene electrotransfer into CHO cells (7 mm discharge arc, 14 A peak current, 0.5 μs zero-to-peak time, 1.0 μs peak-to-halving time). Exposures to natural lightning stroke can also be studied with this system, as due to radial current dissipation, the conditions achieved by a stroke at a particular distance from its entry are also achieved by an artificial discharge with electric current downscaled in magnitude, but similar in time course, correspondingly closer to its entry.

  5. Temporal modulation of plasma species in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature and the moment of maximum species densities is almost consistent with peak discharge current density. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to investigate the temporal structure of plasma species in an atmospheric He-N{sub 2} dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It is demonstrated that there exist microsecond delays of the moments of the maximum electron and ion densities from the peak of discharge current density. These time delays are caused by a competition between the electron impact and Penning ionizations, modulated by the N{sub 2} level in the plasma-forming gas. Besides, significant electron wall losses lead to the DBD being more positively charged and, with a distinct temporal separation in the peak electron and cation densities, the plasma is characterized with repetitive bursts of net positive charges. The temporal details of ionic and reactive plasma species may provide a new idea for some biological processes.

  6. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian

    2014-09-01

    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  7. Localized bedrock aquifer distribution explains discharge from a headwater catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Fujimoto, Masamitsu; Katsura, Shin'ya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sando, Yoshiki; Mizuyama, Takahisa

    2011-07-01

    Understanding a discharge hydrograph is one of the leading interests in catchment hydrology. Recent research has provided credible information on the importance of bedrock groundwater on discharge hydrographs from headwater catchments. However, intensive monitoring of bedrock groundwater is rare in mountains with steep topography. Hence, how bedrock groundwater controls discharge from a steep headwater catchment is in dispute. In this study, we conducted long-term hydrological observations using densely located bedrock wells in a headwater catchment underlain by granitic bedrock. The catchment has steep topography affected by diastrophic activities. Results showed a fairly regionalized distribution of bedrock aquifers within a scale of tens of meters, consisting of upper, middle, and lower aquifers, instead of a gradual and continuous decline in water level from ridge to valley bottom. This was presumably attributable to the unique bedrock structure; fault lines developed in the watershed worked to form divides between the bedrock aquifers. Spatial expanse of each aquifer and the interaction among aquifers were key factors to explain gentle and considerable variations in the base flow discharge and triple-peak discharge responses of the observed hydrograph. A simple model was developed to simulate the discharge hydrograph, which computed each of the contributions from the soil mantle groundwater, from the lower aquifer, and from the middle aquifer to the discharge. The modeling results generally succeeded in reproducing the observed hydrograph. Thus, this study demonstrated that understanding regionalized bedrock aquifer distribution is pivotal for explaining discharge hydrograph from headwater catchments that have been affected by diastrophic activities.

  8. Discharge pulse phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    A model was developed which places radiation induced discharge pulse results into a unified conceptual framework. Only two phenomena are required to interpret all space and laboratory results: (1) radiation produces large electrostatic fields inside insulators via the trapping of a net space charge density; and (2) the electrostatic fields initiate discharge streamer plasmas similar to those investigated in high voltage electrical insulation materials; these streamer plasmas generate the pulsing phenomena. The apparent variability and diversity of results seen is an inherent feature of the plasma streamer mechanism acting in the electric fields which is created by irradiation of the dielectrics. The implications of the model are extensive and lead to constraints over what can be done about spacecraft pulsing.

  9. A numerical study of planar discharge motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkhaldoun F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper describes a numerical study of discharge plasma motion. This non-stationary phenomenon with steep gradients and sharp peaks in unknowns is described as a coupled problem of convection-diffusion equation with source term for electron, ion densities and Poisson’s equation for electric potential. The numerical method is 2nd order of accuracy in space and time and it uses dynamical adaptation of unstructured triangular mesh. Results of numerical studies included size of computational domain, type of boundary conditions and numerical convergence test are presented.

  10. Analysis of radiofrequency discharges in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Devendra; McGlynn, Sean P.

    1992-01-01

    Separation of laser optogalvanic signals in plasma into two components: (1) an ionization rate change component, and (2) a photoacoustic mediated component. This separation of components may be performed even when the two components overlap in time, by measuring time-resolved laser optogalvanic signals in an rf discharge plasma as the rf frequency is varied near the electrical resonance peak of the plasma and associated driving/detecting circuits. A novel spectrometer may be constructed to make these measurements. Such a spectrometer would be useful in better understanding and controlling such processes as plasma etching and plasma deposition.

  11. Electrostatic Discharge Training Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    NAVSEA SE 003-AA-TRN-OO LEYE V ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE TRAINING MANUAL s DTIC ,T OF I!ELECTE, ,4MA 0W\\R 9 981 E PUBLISHED BY DIRECTION OF COMMANDER...AS: F (QIQ2 . . . ................................................. (1) WHERE: F = FORCE ( NEWTONS ) Q, AND Q2 = MAGNITUDES OF THE CHARGES (COULOMB) R...RATIONALIZED MKS UNITS IN EQUATION (1), WE HAVE: & I 9(5 X 1 - )(lO ř I ’ 32 I I I I. & I = .5 NEWTON

  12. Modeling annual discharge of six Mexico’s northern rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Navar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this report was to understand river discharge variability to improve conventional water management practices of Mexico’s northern subtropical rivers. This report addresses whether: a river discharge tendencies, patterns and cycles can be detected with proxy and instrumental records; and b annual discharge can be forecasted by stochastic models. Eleven gauging stations of six major rivers; three lowland rivers discharging into the Pacific Ocean (Rios Santa Cruz, Acaponeta, and San Pedro; five upland rivers draining into the Pacific Ocean (Rio San Pedro: Peña del Aguila, Refugio Salcido, San Felipe, Vicente Guerrero and Saltito, one river flowing across the interior Basin (Rio Nazas: Salomé Acosta and two more rivers discharging into the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Rio San Juan: El Cuchillo and Rio Ramos: Pablillos were statistically analyzed. Instrumental recorded daily discharge data (1940-1999 and reconstructed time series data (1860-1940 using dendrochronological analysis delivered annual discharge data to be modeled using autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA models. Spectral density analysis, autocorrelation functions and the standardized annual discharge data evaluated annual discharge frequency cycles. Results showed ARIMA models with two autoregressive and one moving average coefficient adequately project river discharge for all gauging stations with four of them showing significant declining patterns since 1860. ARIMA models in combination with autocorrelation and spectral density techniques as well as standardized departures, in agreement with present (2002-2010 observations, forecast a wet episode that may last between 9 and 12 years thereafter entering again into a dry episode. Three dry-wet spell cycles with different time scales (1-2 years; 4-7 years; 9-12 years could be discerned from these analyses that are consistent for all three northern Mexico’s river clusters that emerged from a multivariate

  13. Electrochemical Discharge Machining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali V. Kulkarni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical discharge machining process is evolving as a promising micromachiningprocess. The experimental investigations in the present work substantiate this trend. In the presentwork, in situ, synchronised, transient temperature and current measurements have been carriedout. The need for the transient measurements arose due to the time-varying nature of the dischargeformation and time varying circuit current. Synchronised and transient measurements revealedthe discrete nature of the process. It also helped in formulating the basic mechanism for thedischarge formation and the material removal in the process. Temperature profile on workpieceand in electrochemical discharge machining cell is experimentally measured using pyrometer,and two varieties of K-type thermocouples. Surface topography of the discharge-affected zoneson the workpiece has been carried out using scanning electron microscope. Measurements andsurface topographical studies reveal the potential use of this process for machining in micronregime. With careful experimental set-up design, suitable supply voltage and its polarity, theprocess can be applied for both micromachining and micro-deposition. It can be extended formachining and or deposition of wide range of materials.

  14. Microhollow cathode discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Moselhy, M.; Shi, W.; Bentley, R.

    2003-07-01

    By reducing the dimensions of hollow cathodes into the hundred micrometer range, stable, direct current, high (atmospheric) pressure glow discharges in rare gases, rare gas-halide mixtures and in air could be generated. The electron energy distribution in these microdischarges is non-Maxwellian, with a pronounced high-energy tail. The high electron energy together with the high gas density, which favors three-body collisions, is the reason for an efficient excimer generation in these microplasmas. Excimer efficiencies from 1% to 9% have been measured for argon, xenon, argon fluoride, and xenon chloride direct current excimer emitters, with a radiant excimer emittance of up to 2 W/cm2 for xenon. Adding small amounts of oxygen to argon has allowed us to generate vacuum ultraviolet line radiation at 130.5 nm with an efficiency approaching 1%. Pulsing xenon discharges with nanosecond electrical pulses has led to an increase in intensity to 15 W/cm2 and to a simultaneous increase in efficiency to more than 20%. Operating the discharges in an abnormal glow mode has allowed us to generate microdischarge arrays without individual ballast. Applications of these plasma arrays are excimer lamps and plasma reactors.

  15. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  16. Chaos Analysis of Discharge Current Based on Tracking Test of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Boxue; ZHENG Xiaolei; DONG Dianshuai

    2009-01-01

    In tracking test,discharge is a complicated process and comparative tracking index(CTI)has wide variation.To evaluate tracking resistance,the chaos analysis of discharge current is presented based on the tracking test ofphenolic resin in accordance with IEC601 12.According to the characteristics of statistical self-similarity and complexity of discharge current,the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated,and the 2-dimensional attractor ofdischarge current is reconstructed.Moreover,the attractors of discharge current and recurrence plots of different discharge states are reconstructed.The results indicate that the chaos attractors have different characteristics in evolutionary tracks,the topological structure and grain direction of recurrence plots show significant differences.The chaos attractor can describe the tracking process,the recurrence plot can identify the tracking state clearly,while its arithmetic is simple.

  17. Spleen removal - open - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splenectomy - adult - discharge; Spleen removal - adult - discharge ... You had surgery to remove your spleen. This operation is called splenectomy . The surgeon made a cut (incision) in the middle of your belly or on the left side ...

  18. Theory of gas discharge plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the theory of gas discharge plasmas in a didactical way. It explains the processes in gas discharge plasmas. A gas discharge plasma is an ionized gas which is supported by an external electric field. Therefore its parameters are determined by processes in it. The properties of a gas discharge plasma depend on its gas component, types of external fields, their geometry and regimes of gas discharge. Fundamentals of a gas discharge plasma include elementary, radiative and transport processes which are included in its kinetics influence. They are represented in this book together with the analysis of simple gas discharges. These general principles are applied to stationary gas discharge plasmas of helium and argon. The analysis of such plasmas under certain conditions is theoretically determined by numerical plasma parameters for given regimes and conditions.

  19. Quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface conditions over the last ~150 yr in the Beaufort Sea based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages: the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Durantou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst assemblages have been widely used over the Arctic Ocean to reconstruct sea-surface parameters on a quantitative basis. Such reconstructions provide insights into the role of anthropogenic vs natural forcings in the actual climatic trend. Here, we present the palynological analysis of a 36 cm-long core collected from the Mackenzie Through in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Dinocyst assemblages were used to quantitatively reconstruct the evolution of sea surface conditions (temperature, salinity, sea ice and freshwater palynomorphs influxes were used as local paleo-river discharge indicators over the last ~150 yr. Dinocyst assemblages are dominated by autotrophic taxa (68 to 96 %. Pentapharsodinium dalei is the dominant specie throughout most of the core, except at the top where the assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum. Quantitative reconstructions of sea surface parameters display a serie of relatively warm, lower sea ice and saline episodes in surface waters, alternately with relatively cool and low salinity episodes. The warm episodes are characterized with high dinocyst productivity. Variations of dinocyst influxes and reconstructed sea surface conditions are closely linked to large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and to a lesser degree, the Arctic Oscillation (AO. Positive phases of the PDO correspond to increases of dinocyst influxes, warmer and saltier surface waters, which we associate with upwelling events of warm and relatively saline water from Pacific origin. Freshwater palynomorph influxes increased in three phases from AD 1857 until reaching maximum values in AD 1991, suggesting that the Mackenzie River discharge followed the same trend when its discharge peaked between AD 1989 and AD 1992. The PDO mode seems to dominate the climatic variations at multi-annual to decadal timescales in the Western Canadian Arctic and Beaufort

  20. Quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface conditions over the last 150 yr in the Beaufort Sea based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages: the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Durantou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst assemblages have been widely used over the Arctic Ocean to reconstruct sea-surface parameters on a quantitative basis. Such reconstructions provide insights into the role of anthropogenic vs natural forcings in the actual climatic trend. Here, we present the palynological analysis of a dated 36 cm-long core collected from the Mackenzie Trough in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Dinocyst assemblages were used to quantitatively reconstruct the evolution of sea-surface conditions (temperature, salinity, sea ice and freshwater palynomorphs fluxes were used as local paleo-river discharge indicators over the last ~ 150 yr. Dinocyst assemblages are dominated by autotrophic taxa (68 to 96%. Cyst of Pentapharsodinium dalei is the dominant species throughout most of the core, except at the top where the assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum. Quantitative reconstructions of sea-surface parameters display a series of relatively warm, lower sea ice and saline episodes in surface waters, alternately with relatively cool and low salinity episodes. Variations of dinocyst fluxes and reconstructed sea-surface conditions may be closely linked to large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and to a lesser degree, the Arctic Oscillation (AO. Positive phases of the PDO correspond to increases of dinocyst fluxes, warmer and saltier surface waters, which we associate with upwelling events of warm and relatively saline water from Pacific origin. Freshwater palynomorph fluxes increased in three phases from AD 1857 until reaching maximum values in AD 1991, suggesting that the Mackenzie River discharge followed the same trend when its discharge peaked between AD 1989 and AD 1992. The PDO mode seems to dominate the climatic variations at multi-annual to decadal timescales in the western Canadian Arctic and Beaufort Sea areas.

  1. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 important cosmological information in N-body data, as shown in previous studies, but Camelus constrains cosmology almost exclusively from high significance peaks (S /N >3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigations of submarine groundwater discharge to a coastal lagoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Kinza

    The main goal of this study is to understand and estimate the amount of submarine groundwater discharge into Ringkøbing Fjord from shallow and deep aquifer systems at the Eastern shoreline from Ringkøbing catchment in Western Denmark. In order to accomplish this objective, the study was initiated...... of the groundwater discharge occurred near the shoreline of the lagoon, but also off-shore discharge from deep confined aquifers system occurred at places where confining clay layers are eroded by buried valleys. The simulated fresh groundwater discharge was a non-negligible component, 59 % of recharge on the lagoon...... discharge pattern and brackish water – freshwater interface movement on the same transects. Groundwater discharge distribution showed a non-exponential pattern from shoreline to offshore with a small peak around the shoreline and two larger peaks farther offshore, contrary to existing literature...

  3. Electrocapillary instability of magnetic fluid peak

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Levon; Dikansky, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of the capillary electrostatic instability occurring under effect of a constant electric field on a magnetic fluid individual peak. The peaks under study occur at disintegration of a magnetic fluid layer applied on a flat electrode surface under effect of a perpendicular magnetic field. The electrocapillary instability shows itself as an emission of charged drops jets from the peak point in direction of the opposing electrode. The charged drops emission repeats periodically and results in the peak shape pulsations. It is shown that a magnetic field affects the electrocapillary instability occurrence regularities and can stimulate its development. The critical electric and magnetic field strengths at which the instability occurs have been measured; their dependence on the peak size is shown. The hysteresis in the system has been studied; it consists in that the charged drops emission stops at a lesser electric (or magnetic) field strength than that of the initial occurr...

  4. Plasma Discharge Process in a Pulsed Diaphragm Discharge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jianjin; Hu, Jue; Zhang, Chao; Wen, Yuanbin; Meng, Yuedong; Zhang, Chengxu

    2014-12-01

    As one of the most important steps in wastewater treatment, limited study on plasma discharge process is a key challenge in the development of plasma applications. In this study, we focus on the plasma discharge process of a pulsed diaphragm discharge system. According to the analysis, the pulsed diaphragm discharge proceeds in seven stages: (1) Joule heating and heat exchange stage; (2) nucleated site formation; (3) plasma generation (initiation of the breakdown stage); (4) avalanche growth and plasma expansion; (5) plasma contraction; (6) termination of the plasma discharge; and (7) heat exchange stage. From this analysis, a critical voltage criterion for breakdown is obtained. We anticipate this finding will provide guidance for a better application of plasma discharges, especially diaphragm plasma discharges.

  5. Measurement of radiation and temperature of cathod spots in excimer laser discharge; Ekishima reza reiki hodennai ni fukumareru inkyoku kiten no kogakuteki kansoku to ondo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitani, Y.; Nakatani, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Excimer laser is used in various fields such as luminous source for steppers, annealing treatment, ablation process, nuclear fusion and so on. In this paper, the radiation timing and gas temperature of cathode spots, streamer discharges and glow discharges in KrF excimer are measured by observing the radiating spectra thereof. The following conclusions are obtained from the results of the present study. Cathode spots begin to radiate at about 20ns after the discharge initiation, then the first and second radiation peaks are observed respectively when the discharge current reversing after passing zero point and the reserved discharged current approaching zero point. Streamer discharge makes flashover between electrodes at the second radiation peak of cathode spots, while the glow discharges almost disappear when streamer discharges occurring. The temperatures of cathode spots and glow discharge as 5500K and 2600K respectively are almost constant and independent upon the discharging voltage of laser. 14 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  7. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  8. Ordinary High Flows and the Stage-Discharge Relationship in the Arid West Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    20
 Figure 12. Daily instantaneous peak discharge percent greater than the daily mean discharge at Agua Fria...45
 Figure 35. Agua Fria...Moenkopi Wash, Dry Beaver Creek, Agua Fria River, and New River Semiarid; Potential evaporation exceeds precipitation; Temperature above

  9. The Origin of Weak Lensing Convergence Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on $\\Omega_m$ and $\\sigma_8$ are improved by a factor of up to ~ 2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg$^2$ Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height $\\kappa$ >3.5 $\\sigma_\\kappa$, where $\\sigma_\\kappa$ is the r.m.s. of the convergence $\\kappa$) are typically due to one single massive halo of ~$10^{15}M_\\odot$, low peaks ($\\kappa$ ~ their virial radii), compared with ~0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our fi...

  10. Continuous pile discharging machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  11. Peak load arrangements : Assessment of Nordel guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Two Nordic countries, Sweden and Finland, have legislation that empowers the TSO to acquire designated peak load resources to mitigate the risk for shortage situations during the winter. In Denmark, the system operator procures resources to maintain a satisfactory level of security of supply. In Norway the TSO has set up a Regulation Power Option Market (RKOM) to secure a satisfactory level of operational reserves at all times, also in winter with high load demand. Only the arrangements in Finland and Sweden fall under the heading of Peak Load Arrangements defined in Nordel Guidelines. NordREG has been invited by the Electricity Market Group (EMG) to evaluate Nordel's proposal for 'Guidelines for transitional Peak Load Arrangements'. The EMG has also financed a study made by EC Group to support NordREG in the evaluation of the proposal. The study has been taken into account in NordREG's evaluation. In parallel to the EMG task, the Swedish regulator, the Energy Markets Inspectorate, has been given the task by the Swedish government to investigate a long term solution of the peak load issue. The Swedish and Finnish TSOs have together with Nord Pool Spot worked on finding a harmonized solution for activation of the peak load reserves in the market. An agreement accepted by the relevant authorities was reached in early January 2009, and the arrangement has been implemented since 19th January 2009. NordREG views that the proposed Nordel guidelines have served as a starting point for the presently agreed procedure. However, NordREG does not see any need to further develop the Nordel guidelines for peak load arrangements. NordREG agrees with Nordel that the market should be designed to solve peak load problems through proper incentives to market players. NordREG presumes that the relevant authorities in each country will take decisions on the need for any peak load arrangement to ensure security of supply. NordREG proposes that such decisions should be

  12. Impact of discharge data uncertainty on nutrient load uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Ida; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sonesten, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the rating-curve model of the stage-discharge relationship leads to uncertainty in discharge time series. These uncertainties in turn affect many other analyses based on discharge data, such as nutrient load estimations. It is important to understand how large the impact of discharge data uncertainty is on such analyses, since they are often used as the basis to take important environmental management decisions. In the Baltic Sea basin, nutrient load estimates from river mouths are a central information basis for managing and reducing eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. In this study we investigated rating curve uncertainty and its propagation to discharge data uncertainty and thereafter to uncertainty in the load of phosphorous and nitrogen for twelve Swedish river mouths. We estimated rating curve uncertainty using the Voting Point method, which accounts for random and epistemic errors in the stage-discharge relation and allows drawing multiple rating-curve realisations consistent with the total uncertainty. We sampled 40,000 rating curves, and for each sampled curve we calculated a discharge time series from 15-minute water level data for the period 2005-2014. Each discharge time series was then aggregated to daily scale and used to calculate the load of phosphorous and nitrogen from linearly interpolated monthly water samples, following the currently used methodology for load estimation. Finally the yearly load estimates were calculated and we thus obtained distributions with 40,000 load realisations per year - one for each rating curve. We analysed how the rating curve uncertainty propagated to the discharge time series at different temporal resolutions, and its impact on the yearly load estimates. Two shorter periods of daily water quality sampling around the spring flood peak allowed a comparison of load uncertainty magnitudes resulting from discharge data with those resulting from the monthly water quality sampling.

  13. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations reconstruction with pixels

    CERN Document Server

    Obuljen, Andrej; Castorina, Emanuele; Viel, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational non-linear evolution induces a shift in the position of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak together with a damping and broadening of its shape that bias and degrades the accuracy with which the position of the peak can be determined. BAO reconstruction is a technique developed to undo part of the effect of non-linearities. We present a new reconstruction method that consists in displacing pixels instead of galaxies and whose implementation is easier than the standard reconstruction method. We show that our method is equivalent to the standard reconstruction technique in the limit where the number of pixels becomes very large. This method is particularly useful in surveys where individual galaxies are not resolved, as in 21cm intensity mapping observations. We validate our method by reconstructing mock pixelated maps, that we build from the distribution of matter and halos in real- and redshift-space, from a large set of numerical simulations. We find that our method is able to decrease ...

  14. Palaeoglacial lake and outburst flood reconstructions along the southern late-glacial Cordilleran Ice Sheet margin: implications for ice sheet reconstruction and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Jonathan; Brennand, Tracy

    2016-04-01

    this direction. Investigations within these outlets reveal outburst flood sediments and landforms, including recessional cataracts, boulder bars and terraces, trough- and antidune cross-bedded sand and gravel, and slackwater sediments. Estimated peak discharge for these floods, using empirical and time-step models, range from 104 to 106 m3s-1 depending on lake volume and outflow dimensions. For the largest flood, peak velocity of 5 ms-1, peak shear stress of 1000 Pa and peak stream power at 5,000 Wm-2, have been estimated using empirical models for flood-transported boulders. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of gLN support recent reinterpretations of systematic CIS recession to the northwest over the southern interior of British Columbia. Further, catastrophic outburst floods from this lake were a major process in post-glacial landscape and drainage system evolution.

  15. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A. [Universidad Nacional del Centro, Pladema-CNEA-Conicet, Tandil (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10{sup 3} neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)

  16. Bayesian peak picking for NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yichen; Gao, Xin; Liang, Faming

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  17. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Publication available in: ... drug products. NIH Pub. No. 15-7891 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 ...

  18. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen

    2014-02-01

    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  19. Peak Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  20. Peak Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  1. Peak Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  2. Peak Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  3. Peak Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  4. Peak Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  5. Peak Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  6. Peak Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  7. Peak Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  8. Peak Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  9. Peak Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  10. Peak Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  11. Peak Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  12. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  13. Cosmic Microwave Background Acoustic Peak Locations

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Zhen; Mulroe, Brigid; Narimani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Planck collaboration has measured the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background well enough to determine the locations of eight peaks in the temperature (TT) power spectrum, five peaks in the polarization (EE) power spectrum and twelve extrema in the cross (TE) power spectrum. The relative locations of these extrema give a striking, and beautiful, demonstration of what we expect from acoustic oscillations in the plasma; e.g., that EE peaks fall half way between TT peaks. We expect this because the temperature map is predominantly sourced by temperature variations in the last scattering surface, while the polarization map is predominantly sourced by gradients in the velocity field, and the harmonic oscillations have temperature and velocity 90 degrees out of phase. However, there are large differences in expectations for extrema locations from simple analytic models vs. numerical calculations. Here we quantitatively explore the origin of these differences in gravitational potential tr...

  14. Reconstructing non-ideal-bordered field by simple self-correlative algebraic reconstruction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yi-zhong; ZHANG Bin; FU Lin; HE An-zhi

    2006-01-01

    A new algorithm for iterative reconstruction is suggested.It is named simple self-correlative algebraic reconstruction technique (SSART).With numerical simulation experiments,SSART was applied in reconstructing a non-ideal-bordered field in order to test its reconstructive effect.For contrast,three current representative algebraic reconstruction(ARTs) including basic ART,simultaneous ART (SART) and modified SART (MSART) were simulated simultaneously.The calculated results and reconstructive accuracy are discussed with three kinds of error indexes,namely mean-square error (MSE),absolute value error (AVE) and peak error (PE).As the results,the indexes of reconstructive accuracy are much improved by the proposed SSART.The MSE and PE have been decreased by 63.6% on the order of magnitude 10-4 and 88.9% on the order of magnitude 0-2,respectively,compared to that of ART.It is concluded that SSART is one of the most super iterative reconstructing techniques.

  15. Breast reconstruction after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchmauss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction, as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue, the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction.

  16. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  17. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear auto-adjusting iterative reconstruction technique for interferometric tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yizhong; Sun, Tao; Qu, Peishu

    2013-07-01

    A new algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), nonlinear auto-adjusting iterative reconstruction technique (NAIRT), is proposed and applied to reconstruct a section of an actual thermal air flow field. With numerical simulation, NAIRT was tested to reconstruct a complicated field to demonstrate its superior reconstructive capability. In contrast, three typical ARTs, the basic ART, simultaneous ART (SART), and a modified SART (MSART), were simulated to demonstrate the reconstructive capability improvement attained through the use of the proposed NAIRT. The calculated results were discussed with mean square error (MSE) and peak error (PE). A thermal air flow field was produced with an alcohol burner and was detected by a laser beam. With laser beam projections, a cross-section of the field was reconstructed by NAIRT. As a result, the reconstructive capability was improved much by NAIRT. The MSE decreased by 95.5%, and PE by 97.2% from that of the basic ART. Only NAIRT converged without filters while its reconstructive accuracy improved. By increasing the projections from 42 to 84, the accuracy of NAIRT without filters was improved significantly. NAIRT could effectively reconstruct the section of the thermal field. The proposed NAIRT needed no filter for its convergence and it had the highest reconstructive accuracy and simplest iterative expression of those analyzed.

  19. Surfaces, Digitisations and Reconstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new digital reconstruction of r-regular sets in three-dimensional Euclidean space. We introduce a vector field and analyse the relation between the topologies of the boundaries of the r-regular set and its reconstruction. This reconstruction can be carried out faster than prior models...... based on the same digitisation, making it attractive for computing....

  20. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  1. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River to flow and sediment factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suzhen Hou; Ping Wang; Yan Guo; Ting Li

    2014-08-01

    Bankfull discharge is a comprehensive factor reflecting the channel-forming capability of water flow and the flood and sediment transport capacity of a river channel. It is based on the interaction of the flow, sediment, and river channel, of which flow and sediment conditions play crucial roles. Using data recorded since the 1950s, this paper analyses statistically, the characteristics and variations of bankfull discharge at two stations on the Inner Mongolian reaches of the upper Yellow River. Results indicate that flood season variations in bankfull discharge are nonlinear and are governed by flood peak discharge, mean discharge, and the mean incoming sediment coefficients. Variation in bankfull discharge is related not only to the flow and sediment conditions of the current year but also to those of previous years. The 10-year moving average of flow and sediment conditions can be representative of present and previous years. By considering flood season peak discharge and incoming sediment coefficients as independent impact factors, a formula is derived to determine bankfull discharge. The results can be used to predict the bankfull discharge of the Yellow River channel in Inner Mongolia under specific flow and sediment conditions and provide reference for the purpose of further study related to restoring and maintaining the basic functions of the river channel regarding flood discharge and sediments.

  2. Trends in peak flows of selected streams in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T.J.; Perry, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of a systematic change in flood potential led to an investigation of trends in the magnitude of annual peak flows in Kansas. Efficient design of highway bridges and other flood-plain structures depends on accurate understanding of flood characteristics. The Kendall's tau test was used to identify trends at 40 stream-gaging stations during the 40-year period 1958-97. Records from 13 (32 percent) of the stations showed significant trends at the 95-percent confidence level. Only three of the records (8 percent) analyzed had increasing trends, whereas 10 records (25 percent) had decreasing trends, all of which were for stations located in the western one-half of the State. An analysis of flow volume using mean annual discharge at 29 stations in Kansas resulted in 6 stations (21 percent) with significant trends in flow volumes. All six trends were decreasing and occurred in the western one-half of the State. The Kendall's tau test also was used to identify peak-flow trends over the entire period of record for 54 stream-gaging stations in Kansas. Of the 23 records (43 percent) showing significant trends, 16 (30 percent) were decreasing, and 7 (13 percent) were increasing. The trend test then was applied to 30-year periods moving in 5-year increments to identify time periods within each station record when trends were occurring. Systematic changes in precipitation patterns and long-term declines in ground-water levels in some stream basins may be contributing to peak-flow trends. To help explain the cause of the streamflow trends, the Kendall's tau test was applied to total annual precipitation and ground-water levels in Kansas. In western Kansas, the lack of precipitation and presence of decreasing trends in ground-water levels indicated that declining water tables are contributing to decreasing trends in peak streamflow. Declining water tables are caused by ground-water withdrawals and other factors such as construction of ponds and terraces. Peak

  3. On ULF Signatures of Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösinger, T.; Shalimov, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Recent works on magnetic signatures due to distant lightning discharges are reviewed. Emphasis is laid on magnetic signatures in the ULF range (in the old definition from less than 1 mHz up to 1 Hz), that is in the frequency range below the Schumann resonance. These signatures are known to be of importance for the excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) which works only at night time conditions. This emphasizes the difference between night and day time ULF signatures of lightning. The IAR forms a link between the atmosphere and magnetosphere. Similarities and differences of this link in the VLF (Trimpi effect) and ULF range are worked out. A search for a unique signature of sprite-associated positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges ended with a negative result. In this context, however, a new model of lightning-associated induced mesospheric currents was built. Depending on mesospheric condition it can produce magnetic signatures in the entire frequency range from VLF, ELF to ULF. In the latter case it can explain signatures known as the Ultra Slow Tail of +CG lightning discharges. A current problem on the magnetic background noise intensity has been solved by taking more seriously the contribution of +CG lightning discharges to the overall background noise. Their low occurrence rate is more than compensated by their large and long lasting continuing currents. By superposed epoch analysis it could be shown that the ULF response to -CG is one to two orders smaller that in case of +CG with similar peak current values of the return stroke.

  4. Should I Have Breast Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reconstruction Surgery Breast Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Should I Get Breast Reconstruction Surgery? Women who have surgery ... It usually responds well to treatment. What if I choose not to have breast reconstruction? Many women ...

  5. Chronology, sedimentology, and microfauna of groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert, Valley Wells, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Miller, David M.; Bright, Jordon E.; Mahan, Shannon; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Paces, James B.

    2011-01-01

    During the late Pleistocene, emergent groundwater supported persistent and long-lived desert wetlands in many broad valleys and basins in the American Southwest. When active, these systems provided important food and water sources for local fauna, supported hydrophilic and phreatophytic vegetation, and acted as catchments for eolian and alluvial sediments. Desert wetlands are represented in the geologic record by groundwater discharge deposits, which are also called spring or wetland deposits. Groundwater discharge deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, thus, are a source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. Here, we present the results of an investigation of extensive groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert at Valley Wells, California. We used geologic mapping and stratigraphic relations to identify two distinct wetland sequences at Valley Wells, which we dated using radiocarbon, luminescence, and uranium-series techniques. We also analyzed the sediments and microfauna (ostracodes and gastropods) to reconstruct the specific environments in which they formed. Our results suggest that the earliest episode of high water-table conditions at Valley Wells began ca. 60 ka (thousands of calendar yr B.P.), and culminated in peak discharge between ca. 40 and 35 ka. During this time, cold (4–12 °C) emergent groundwater supported extensive wetlands that likely were composed of a wet, sedge-rush-tussock meadow mixed with mesic riparian forest. After ca. 35 ka, the water table dropped below the ground surface but was still shallow enough to support dense stands of phreatophytes through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The water table dropped further after the LGM, and xeric conditions prevailed until modest wetlands returned briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event (13.0–11.6 ka). We did not observe any evidence of wet conditions during the Holocene at Valley Wells. The timing

  6. CORRELATION INVESTIGATION BETWEEN CONTACT APPROACH SPEED OF HANDHELD METAL ROD AND DISCHARGE PARAMETERS FROM CHARGED HUMAN BODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Fangming; Fujiwara Osamu; Gao Yougang

    2008-01-01

    Characteristic measurement of contact discharge currents are made through a hand-held metal rod from charged human body. Correlation coefficients are obtained, through Statistic Package for Social Science (SPSS), for various charge voltages, which is based on the effect test of electrode contact approach speeds on discharge current parameters of current peaks, maximum rising slope and spark lengths. Discharge parameters at charge voltage 300V are independent on approach speed. For charge voltages equal to and higher than 500V, the contact approach speed has strong positive correlation with discharge parameters of the peak current and the maximum rising slope, whereas has strong negative correlation with the spark length.

  7. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction.

  8. The PEAK experience in South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The PEAK Institute was developed to provide a linkage for formal (schoolteachers) and nonformal educators (extension agents) with agricultural scientists of Clemson University`s South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station System. The goal of the Institute was to enable teams of educators and researchers to develop and provide PEAK science and math learning experiences related to relevant agricultural and environmental issues of local communities for both classroom and 4-H Club experiences. The Peak Institute was conducted through a twenty day residential Institute held in June for middle school and high school teachers who were teamed with an Extension agent from their community. These educators participated in hands-on, minds-on sessions conducted by agricultural researchers and Clemson University Cooperative Extension specialists. Participants were given the opportunity to see frontier science being conducted by scientists from a variety of agricultural laboratories.

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production in multicusp volume source with a pulsed discharge (abstract)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Belchenko, Yu. I.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed operation of a negative ion volume source has been investigated, both with a magnetic filter present and without it, under conditions of full-scale acceleration of the extracted negative hydrogen ion beam. We report the observation of three afterglow negative ion peaks. As the negative ion current during the discharge pulse, each of the afterglow peaks can be optimized by varying the pressure, the plasma electrode bias and the extraction voltage. Under optimum conditions, the negative ion current during the discharge pulse exceeds the afterglow peaks.

  10. Elbe river flood peaks and postwar agricultural land use in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R R; Schweigert, P

    2001-12-01

    Collectivization of farmland since the 1950s has changed the agricultural land use in former East Germany. Single fields on the collective farms became increasingly large and were cultivated with increasingly heavy farm equipment. This led to large-scale physical degradation of arable soils, enhancing the formation of surface runoff in periods with prolonged and excessive precipitation. The extent to which this development may have affected the discharge behavior of the main East German river, the Elbe, has so far not been studied. We analyzed the flood peaks of the Elbe during the past century (1900-2000). The flood discharge behavior of the Elbe has apparently changed significantly since the 1950s. Although climate changes may be involved, we conclude that the Elbe flood peaks, recorded since 1950, are related to the changes in postwar agricultural land use in former East Germany. To restore the degraded farmland soils, a change in agricultural land use may be necessary.

  11. "Politically-Incorrect" Electron Behavior in Low Pressure RF Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godyak, Valery; Kolobov, Vladimir

    1996-10-01

    The main interaction of plasma electrons with electromagnetic fields for bounded plasma of an rf discharge occurs in the vicinity of its boundaries (in the rf sheath of a capacitive rf discharge and in the skin layer of an inductive one). On the other hand, due to plasma inhomogeneity, a dc ambipolar field is always present in the bounded plasma. in low pressure discharges the ambipolar potential well captures low energy electrons within the discharge center while high energy electrons freely overcome the ambipolar potential and reach the plasma boundaries where heating takes place. Being segregated in space, low energy electrons are discriminated from participation in the heating process. When Coulomb interaction between low and high energy electron groups is weak, their temperatures appear to be essentially different ( a low energy peak on the EEDF). In this presentation we present theoretical and experimental evidence of such an apartheid in the low and high energy electron populations of the EEDF in rf discharge and we outline discharge conditions where such abnormal EEDF behavior is possible.

  12. Electrosurgical Plasma Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, K. R.; Woloszko, J.

    2002-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments employing plasmas to volumetrically ablate tissue are now enjoying widespread use in medical applications. We have studied several commercially available instruments in which luminous plasma discharges are formed near electrodes immersed in saline solutions when sufficiently large amplitude bipolar voltage waveforms are applied. Different aqueous salt solutions have been investigated, including isotonic NaCl solution as well as solutions of KCl, and BaCl_2. With strong driving voltage applied, a vapor layer is formed as well as visible and UV optical emissions. Spectroscopic measurements reveal the predominant emissions are from the low ionization potential salt species, but significant emissions from electron impact dissociated water fragments such as OH and H-atoms also are observed. The emissions also coincide with negative bias on the active electrode. These optical emissions are consistent with an electron density of about 10^12cm-3 and an electron temperature of about 4 eV. Experimental results and model calculations of the vapor layer formation process and plasma formation in the high-field region will be discussed.

  13. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  14. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris

    1976-01-01

    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  15. Real estate price peaks: a comparative overview

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2006-01-01

    First, we emphasize that the real estate price peaks which are currently under way in many industrialized countries (one important exception is Japan) share many of the characteristics of previous historical price peaks. In particular, we show that: (i) In the present episode real price increases are, at least for now, of the same order of magnitude as in previous episodes, typically of the order of 80 percent to 100 percent. (ii) Historically, price peaks turned out to be symmetrical with respect to the peak; soft landing, i.e. an upgoing phase followed by a plateau, has rarely (if ever) been observed. (iii) The inflated demand is mainly boosted by investors and high-income buyers. (iv) In the present as well as in previous episodes, the main engines in the upgoing phase have been the hot markets which developed in major cities such as London, Los Angeles, New York, Paris, San Francisco or Sydney. In our conclusion, we propose a prediction for real estate prices in the West of the United States over the peri...

  16. Modelling Discharge Inception in Thunderstorms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjes, Casper; Dubinova, Anna; Ebert, Ute; Buitink, Stijn; Scholten, Olaf; Trinh, Gia Thi Ngoc

    2015-01-01

    The electric fields in thunderstorms can exceed the breakdown value locally near hydrometeors. But are fields high enough and the regions large enough to initiate a streamer discharge? And where would a sufficient density of free electrons come from to start the discharge in the humid air that rapid

  17. [Redesigning the hospital discharge process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, M; Flores-Pardo, E; Uris-Sellés, J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show that the redesign and planning process of hospital discharge advances the departure time of the patient from a hospital environment. Quasi-experimental study conducted from January 2011 to April 2013, in a local hospital. The cases analysed were from medical and surgical nursing units. The process was redesigned to coordinate all the professionals involved in the process. The hospital discharge improvement process improvement was carried out by forming a working group, the analysis of retrospective data, identifying areas for improvement, and its redesign. The dependent variable was the time of patient administrative discharge. The sample was classified as pre-intervention, inter-intervention, and post-intervention, depending on the time point of the study. The final sample included 14,788 patients after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The mean discharge release time decreased significantly by 50 min between pre-intervention and post-intervention periods. The release time in patients with planned discharge was one hour and 25 min less than in patients with unplanned discharge. Process redesign is a useful strategy to improve the process of hospital discharge. Besides planning the discharge, it is shown that the patient leaving the hospital before 12 midday is a key factor. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: Sangres.com: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  19. FIRST: Fast Iterative Reconstruction Software for (PET) tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Herraiz, J L; Vaquero, J J; Desco, M; Udias, J M

    2006-01-01

    Small animal PET scanners require high spatial resolution and good sensitivity. To reconstruct high-resolution images in 3D-PET, iterative methods, such as OSEM, are superior to analytical reconstruction algorithms, although their high computational cost is still a serious drawback. The higher performance of modern computers could make iterative image reconstruction fast enough to be viable, provided we are able to deal with the large number of probability coefficients for the system response matrix in high-resolution PET scanners, which is a difficult task that prevents the algorithms from reaching peak computing performance. Considering all possible axial and in-plane symmetries, as well as certain quasi-symmetries, we have been able to reduce the memory requirements to store the system response matrix (SRM) well below 1 GB, which allows us to keep the whole response matrix of the system inside RAM of ordinary industry-standard computers, so that the reconstruction algorithm can achieve near peak performanc...

  20. The practice of terminal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha Krishna, Lalit Kumar; Murugam, Vengadasalam; Quah, Daniel Song Chiek

    2017-01-01

    'Terminal discharges' are carried out in Singapore for patients who wish to die at home. However, if due diligence is not exercised, parallels may be drawn with euthanasia. We present a theoretical discussion beginning with the definition of terminal discharges and the reasons why they are carried out in Singapore. By considering the intention behind terminal discharges and utilising a multidisciplinary team to deliberate on the clinical, social and ethical intricacies with a patient- and context-specific approach, euthanasia is avoided. It is hoped that this will provide a platform for professionals in palliative medicine to negotiate challenging issues when arranging a terminal discharge, so as to avoid the pitfall of committing euthanasia in a country such as Singapore where euthanasia is illegal. It is hoped that a set of guidelines for terminal discharges may someday be realised to assist professionals in Singapore and around the world.

  1. Photo-triggering and secondary electron produced ionization in electric discharge ArF* excimer lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-10-01

    Electric discharge excimer lasers are sustained in multi-atmosphere attaching gas mixtures that are typically preionized to enable a reproducible, uniform glow, which maximizes optical quality and gain. This preionization is often accomplished using UV light produced by a corona discharge within the plasma cavity. To quantify the relationship between corona discharge properties and those of the laser discharge, the triggering of electron avalanche by preionizing UV light in an electric discharge-pumped ArF* excimer laser was numerically investigated using a two-dimensional model. The preionizing UV fluxes were generated by a corona-bar discharge driven by the same voltage pulse as the main discharge sustained in a multi-atmospheric Ne/Ar/Xe/F2 gas mixture. The resulting peak photo-electron density in the inter-electrode spacing is around 108 cm-3, and its distribution is biased toward the UV source. The preionization density increases with increasing dielectric constant and capacitance of the corona bar. The symmetry and uniformity of the discharge are, however, improved significantly once the main avalanche develops. In addition to bulk electron impact ionization, the ionization generated by sheath accelerated secondary electrons was found to be important in sustaining the discharge current at experimentally observed values. At peak current, the magnitude of the ionization by sheath accelerated electrons is comparable to that from bulk electron impact in the vicinity of the cathode.

  2. Comparison of atmospheric air plasmas excited by high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge and sinusoidal alternating current discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Wang, Wen-chun; Jiang, Peng-chao; Yang, De-zheng; Jia, Li; Wang, Sen

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure air discharge plasma in quartz tube is excited by 15 ns high-voltage nanosecond pulsed discharge (HVNPD) and sinusoidal alternating current discharge (SACD), respectively, and a comparison study of these two kinds of discharges is made through visual imaging, electrical characterization, optical detection of active species, and plasma gas temperature. The peak voltage of the power supplies is kept at 16 kV while the pulse repetition rate of nanosecond pulse power supply is 100 Hz, and the frequency of sinusoidal power supply is 10 kHz. Results show that the HVNPD is uniform while the SACD presents filamentary mode. For exciting the same cycles of discharge, the average energy consumption in HVNPD is about 1/13 of the SACD. However, the chemical active species generated by the HVNPD is about 2-9 times than that excited by the SACD. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures have been obtained via fitting the simulated spectrum of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg, 0-2) with the measured one, and the results show that the plasma gas temperature in the HVNPD remains close to room temperature whereas the plasma gas temperature in the SACD is about 200 K higher than that in HVNPD in the initial phase and continually increases as discharge exposure time goes on.

  3. Cosmic Tidal Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Yu, Yu; Er, Xinzhong; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational coupling of a long wavelength tidal field with small scale density fluctuations leads to anisotropic distortions of the locally measured small scale matter correlation function. Since the local correlation function is statistically isotropic in the absence of such tidal interactions, the tidal distortions can be used to reconstruct the long wavelength tidal field and large scale density field in analogy with the cosmic microwave background lensing reconstruction. In this paper we present in detail a formalism for the cosmic tidal reconstruction and test the reconstruction in numerical simulations. We find that the density field on large scales can be reconstructed with good accuracy and the cross correlation coefficient between the reconstructed density field and the original density field is greater than 0.9 on large scales ($k\\lesssim0.1h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$). This is useful in the 21cm intensity mapping survey, where the long wavelength radial modes are lost due to foreground subtraction proces...

  4. Combustion Enhancement with a Silent Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis

    2003-10-01

    It is well known that the application of an external electric field to a flame can affect its propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry (Lawton & Weinberg 1969). External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been employed to allow combustible gas mixtures to operate outside their flammability limits by gas heating, injection of free radicals, and field-promoted flame stabilization (Yagodnikov & Voronetskii 1994). Other investigators have carried out experiments with silent electrical discharges applied to propagating flames (Inomata et al 1983, Kim et al 2003). These have demonstrated that the flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when a silent discharge is applied directly to the flame region, but that the flame propagation velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when a silent discharge is applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. Two other recent works have considered the possibility of combustion enhancement in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers by using a plasma-generating fuel nozzle, that employs an electric-arc or microwave plasma generator, to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel (Johnson et al 2001); and pulsed corona-enhanced detonation of fuel-air mixtures in jet engines (Wang et al 2003). In contrast to these prior works, we have employed a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals or other active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. In experiments reported here, a cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks are observed (e.g., propane fragments decrease and water and carbon dioxide increase). This indicates that the combustion process is

  5. Ptychographic ultrafast pulse reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Spangenberg, D; Brügmann, M H; Feurer, T

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a new ultrafast pulse reconstruction modality which is somewhat reminiscent of frequency resolved optical gating but uses a modified setup and a conceptually different reconstruction algorithm that is derived from ptychography. Even though it is a second order correlation scheme it shows no time ambiguity. Moreover, the number of spectra to record is considerably smaller than in most other related schemes which, together with a robust algorithm, leads to extremely fast convergence of the reconstruction.

  6. Characteristics of pellet injected discharges in TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finken, K.H. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sato, K.N. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860 (Japan); Fuchs, G.; Jaspers, R. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Kogoshi, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Noda 278 (Japan); Koslowski, H.R.; Mank, G. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sakakita, H.; Sakamoto, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Sander, M.; Soltwisch, H. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Assocition Euratom-KFA, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Pellets injected into the TEXTOR tokamak lead to a density profile peaking which is strongest at low plasma current and weakest at high current independent of {ital B}{sub {ital T}}. After the injection two types of density oscillations are excited, the first type follows immediately the injection and the second one is excited with a delay of more than ten milliseconds. The oscillations are also observed in runaway discharges; the synchrotron light from the relativistic electrons drops after the pellet injection and is subsequently modulated due to a trapping of the runaways in magnetic islands. First Faraday measurements have been performed indicating that the distribution of the plasma current is not measurably modified by the pellet. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Sheet Plasma Produced by Hollow Cathode Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 张厚先; 杨宣宗; 冯春华; 乔宾; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    A sheet plasma is produced by a hollow cathode discharge under an axial magnetic field.The plasma is about 40cm in length,4 cm in width and 1cm in thickness.The electron density is about 108cm-3.The hollow cathode is made to be shallow with a large opening,which is different from the ordinary deep hollow cathode.A Langmuir probe is used to detect the plasma.The electron density and the spatial distribution of the plasma change when voltage,pressure and the magnetic field vary.A peak and a data fluctuation at about 200 G-300 G are observed in the variation of electron density(or thickness of the sheet plasma)with the magnetic field.Our work will be helpful in characterizing the sheet plasma and will make the production of dense sheet plasma more controllable.

  8. Methods for accurate estimation of net discharge in a tidal channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M.R.; Bland, R.

    2000-01-01

    sets of calibration data differed by less than an average of 4 cubic meters per second, or less than 0.5% of a typical peak tidal discharge rate of 750 cubic meters per second.

  9. Electronic Excitation Temperature in DC Positive Streamer Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaochen; WANG Ninghui; DING Zhenfeng

    2007-01-01

    The electronic excitation temperature in a direct current positive streamer discharge based on ultra-thin sheet electrodes was measured by optical emission spectrometry in order to deposit materials for potential future applications. It was remarkable that the electronic excitation temperature (Texc) did not vary monotonically with the discharge current, but demonstrated a peak at a certain position. In a mixture of oxygen and argon (80% oxygen), the maximum Texc reached about 6300 K at an average current of 600 μA. Both the positive ions accumulation in the discharge region and the increase of the local temperature around the streamer channel caused by Joule heating are considered to be the main reasons for the variations of Texc.

  10. Discharges of past flood events based on historical river profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sudhaus

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on the estimation of peak discharges of extreme flood events during the 19th century of the Neckar River located in south-western Germany. It was carried out as part of the BMBF (German Federal Ministry of Education and Research research project RIMAX (Risk Management of Extreme Flood Events. The discharge estimations were made for the 1824 and 1882 flood events, and are based on historical cross profiles. The 1-D model Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS was applied with different roughness coefficients to determine these estimations. The results are compared (i with contemporary historical calculations for the 1824 and 1882 flood events and (ii in the case of the flood event in 1824, with the discharge simulation by the water balance model LARSIM (Large Area Runoff Simulation Model. These calculations are matched by the HEC-RAS simulation based on the standard roughness coefficients.

  11. Discharge Planning in Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronically ill people experience frequent changes in health status accompanied by multiple transitions between care settings and care providers. Discharge planning provides support services, follow-up activities, and other interventions that span pre-hospital discharge to post-hospital settings. Objective To determine if discharge planning is effective at reducing health resource utilization and improving patient outcomes compared with standard care alone. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2004, until December 13, 2011. Review Methods Reports, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up and limited to specified chronic conditions were examined. Outcomes included mortality/survival, readmissions and emergency department (ED) visits, hospital length of stay (LOS), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient satisfaction. Results One meta-analysis compared individualized discharge planning to usual care and found a significant reduction in readmissions favouring individualized discharge planning. A second meta-analysis compared comprehensive discharge planning with postdischarge support to usual care. There was a significant reduction in readmissions favouring discharge planning with postdischarge support. However, there was significant statistical heterogeneity. For both meta-analyses there was a nonsignificant reduction in mortality between the study arms. Limitations There was difficulty in distinguishing the relative contribution of each element within the terms “discharge planning” and “postdischarge support.” For most studies, “usual care” was not explicitly described. Conclusions Compared with usual care, there was moderate quality evidence that individualized discharge planning is more effective at reducing readmissions or hospital LOS but not mortality, and very low quality evidence that it is more

  12. Predicting VO2peak from Submaximal- and Peak Exercise Models: The HUNT 3 Fitness Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Loe

    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak is seldom assessed in health care settings although being inversely linked to cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to develop VO2peak prediction models for men and women based on directly measured VO2peak from a large healthy population.VO2peak prediction models based on submaximal- and peak performance treadmill work were derived from multiple regression analysis. 4637 healthy men and women aged 20-90 years were included. Data splitting was used to generate validation and cross-validation samples.The accuracy for the peak performance models were 10.5% (SEE = 4.63 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 11.5% (SEE = 4.11 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 for men and women, respectively, with 75% and 72% of the variance explained. For the submaximal performance models accuracy were 14.1% (SEE = 6.24 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 14.4% (SEE = 5.17 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 for men and women, respectively, with 55% and 56% of the variance explained. The validation and cross-validation samples displayed SEE and variance explained in agreement with the total sample. Cross-classification between measured and predicted VO2peak accurately classified 91% of the participants within the correct or nearest quintile of measured VO2peak.Judicious use of the exercise prediction models presented in this study offers valuable information in providing a fairly accurate assessment of VO2peak, which may be beneficial for risk stratification in health care settings.

  13. Effect of gear ratio on peak power and time to peak power in BMX cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain if gear ratio selection would have an effect on peak power and time to peak power production in elite Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cyclists. Eight male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider performed three, 10-s maximal sprints on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The riders' bicycles were fitted with a portable SRM power meter. Each rider performed the three sprints using gear ratios of 41/16, 43/16 and 45/16 tooth. The results from the 41/16 and 45/16 gear ratios were compared to the current standard 43/16 gear ratio. Statistically, significant differences were found between the gear ratios for peak power (F(2,14) = 6.448; p = .010) and peak torque (F(2,14) = 4.777; p = .026), but no significant difference was found for time to peak power (F(2,14) = 0.200; p = .821). When comparing gear ratios, the results showed a 45/16 gear ratio elicited the highest peak power,1658 ± 221 W, compared to 1436 ± 129 W and 1380 ± 56 W, for the 43/16 and 41/16 ratios, respectively. The time to peak power showed a 41/16 tooth gear ratio attained peak power in -0.01 s and a 45/16 in 0.22 s compared to the 43/16. The findings of this study suggest that gear ratio choice has a significant effect on peak power production, though time to peak power output is not significantly affected. Therefore, selecting a higher gear ratio results in riders attaining higher power outputs without reducing their start time.

  14. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S; Aneesh, K; Navathe, C P; Gupta, P D

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ∼4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  15. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  16. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ˜4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  17. Mask effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing peak statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Qiao, E-mail: fanzuhui@pku.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-03-20

    With numerical simulations, we analyze in detail how the bad data removal, i.e., the mask effect, can influence the peak statistics of the weak-lensing convergence field reconstructed from the shear measurement of background galaxies. It is found that high peak fractions are systematically enhanced because of the presence of masks; the larger the masked area is, the higher the enhancement is. In the case where the total masked area is about 13% of the survey area, the fraction of peaks with signal-to-noise ratio ν ≥ 3 is ∼11% of the total number of peaks, compared with ∼7% of the mask-free case in our considered cosmological model. This can have significant effects on cosmological studies with weak-lensing convergence peak statistics, inducing a large bias in the parameter constraints if the effects are not taken into account properly. Even for a survey area of 9 deg{sup 2}, the bias in (Ω {sub m}, σ{sub 8}) is already intolerably large and close to 3σ. It is noted that most of the affected peaks are close to the masked regions. Therefore, excluding peaks in those regions in the peak statistics can reduce the bias effect but at the expense of losing usable survey areas. Further investigations find that the enhancement of the number of high peaks around the masked regions can be largely attributed to the smaller number of galaxies usable in the weak-lensing convergence reconstruction, leading to higher noise than that of the areas away from the masks. We thus develop a model in which we exclude only those very large masks with radius larger than 3' but keep all the other masked regions in peak counting statistics. For the remaining part, we treat the areas close to and away from the masked regions separately with different noise levels. It is shown that this two-noise-level model can account for the mask effect on peak statistics very well, and the bias in cosmological parameters is significantly reduced if this model is applied in the parameter

  18. The Doppler peaks from a generic defect

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    1996-01-01

    We investigate which of the exotic Doppler peak features found for textures and cosmic strings are generic novelties pertaining to defects. We find that the ``out of phase'' texture signature is an accident. Generic defects, when they generate a secondary peak structure similar to inflation, apply to it an additive shift. It is not necessary for this shift to be ``out of phase''. We also show which factors are responsible for the absence of secondary oscillations found for cosmic strings. Within this general analysis we finally consider the conditions under which topological defects and inflation can be confused. It is argued that only \\Omega=1 inflation and a defect with a horizon size coherence length have a chance to be confused. Any other inflationary or defect model always differ distinctly. (To appear in the proceedings of the XXXIth Moriond meeting, ``Microwave Background Anisotropies'')

  19. Solar Cycle 24: is the peak coming?

    CERN Document Server

    Sello, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle activity forecasting, mainly its magnitude and timing, is an essential issue for numerous scientific and technological applications: in fact, during an active solar period, many strong eruptions occur on the Sun with increasing frequency, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, high velocity solar wind photons and particles, which can severely affect the Earth's ionosphere and the geomagnetic field, with impacts on the low atmosphere. Thus it is very important to develop reliable solar cycle prediction methods for the incoming solar activity. The current solar cycle 24 appeared unusual from many points of view: an unusually extended minimum period, and a global low activity compared to those of the previous three or four cycles. Currently, there are many different evidences that the peak in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 but not yet in the southern hemisphere. In this brief note we update the peak prediction and its timing, based on the most recent observations.

  20. Peak oil, food systems, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  1. Excursion set peaks: the role of shear

    CERN Document Server

    Castorina, Emanuele; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K

    2016-01-01

    Recent analytical work on the modelling of dark halo abundances and clustering has demonstrated the advantages of combining the excursion set approach with peaks theory. We extend these ideas and introduce a model of excursion set peaks that incorporates the role of initial tidal effects or shear in determining the gravitational collapse of dark haloes. The model -- in which the critical density threshold for collapse depends on the tidal influences acting on protohaloes -- is well motivated from ellipsoidal collapse arguments and is also simple enough to be analytically tractable. We show that the predictions of this model are in very good agreement with measurements of the halo mass function and traditional scale dependent halo bias in N-body simulations across a wide range of masses and redshift. The presence of shear in the collapse threshold means that halo bias is naturally predicted to be nonlocal, and that protohalo densities at fixed mass are naturally predicted to have Lognormal-like distributions. ...

  2. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge & Elimination System) Minor Dischargers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources...

  3. Reducing Peak Power in Automated Weapon Laying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The values used are determined based on a number of factors including available power, maximum motor speed , maximum safe slewing speeds , peak...METHODS, ASSUMPTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Conventions and Variable Definitions Before describing the formulas to solve the aforementioned problems, it is...These two formulas are set equal to each other in equation 9 and then solved for t2 in equation 10. Note that the negative value of α2 results in a

  4. Hanford Site peak gust wind speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1998-09-29

    Peak gust wind data collected at the Hanford Site since 1945 are analyzed to estimate maximum wind speeds for use in structural design. The results are compared with design wind speeds proposed for the Hanford Site. These comparisons indicate that design wind speeds contained in a January 1998 advisory changing DOE-STD-1020-94 are excessive for the Hanford Site and that the design wind speeds in effect prior to the changes are still appropriate for the Hanford Site.

  5. Decoupled Changes in Western Niger Delta Primary Productivity and Niger River Discharge Across the Last Deglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A. O.; Schmidt, M. W.; Slowey, N. C.; Jobe, Z. R.; Marcantonio, F.

    2014-12-01

    Abrupt droughts in West Africa impart significant socio-economic impacts on the developing countries of this region, and yet a comprehensive understanding of the causes and duration of such droughts remains elusive. Much of the summertime rainfall associated with the West African Monsoon (WAM) falls within the Niger River basin and eventually drains into the eastern Gulf of Guinea, contributing to the low sea-surface salinity of this region. Of the limited number of studies that reconstruct Gulf of Guinea salinity through the deglacial, the most comprehensive of those is located ~ 400 km east of the Niger delta and may not be solely influenced by WAM runoff. Here, we present XRF and foraminiferal trace metal data from two new cores located less than 100 km from the Western Niger Delta. Radiocarbon dating of cores Grand 21 (4.72oN, 4.48oE) and Fan 17 (4.81oN, 4.41oE) produced near linear sedimentation rates of 20 cm/kyr and 15 cm/kyr respectively. Elemental sediment compositions from XRF core scanning reveal an abrupt 50% increase in SiO2 between 17-15 ka during Heinrich Event 1. This increase, coeval with increases of CaCO3 (+12%) content and Ba/Ti ratios suggests a large increase in primary productivity during H1. Values then decrease at the onset of the Bolling-Allerod (~14.6 kyr) until a similar, albeit smaller increase is recorded during the Younger Dryas beginning at 12.7 kyr. In contrast, FeO2 and TiO2 are thought to be a proxies of Niger River discharge strength and suggest a more gradual change in riverine discharge across the deglacial that is most likely driven by precession. These proxies suggest Niger River runoff was low from the LGM through Heinrich 1, gradually increasing around 13 ka. FeO2 and TiO2 values then peak between 11.5-7.5 kyr, consistent with the African Humid Period, before gradually decreasing through the mid-late Holocene. This deglacial pattern of riverine input is markedly different from previous reconstructions of WAM variability and

  6. METing SUSY on the Z peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, G.; Bernabeu, J.; Vives, O. [Universitat de Valencia, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot (Spain); Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain); Mitsou, V.A.; Romero, E. [Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Parc Cientific U.V., IFIC, Paterna (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Recently the ATLAS experiment announced a 3 σ excess at the Z-peak consisting of 29 pairs of leptons together with two or more jets, E{sub T}{sup miss} > 225 GeV and HT > 600 GeV, to be compared with 10.6 ± 3.2 expected lepton pairs in the Standard Model. No excess outside the Z-peak was observed. By trying to explain this signal with SUSY we find that only relatively light gluinos, m{sub g} or similar 400 GeV decaying predominantly to Z-boson plus a light gravitino, such that nearly every gluino produces at least one Z-boson in its decay chain, could reproduce the excess. We construct an explicit general gauge mediation model able to reproduce the observed signal overcoming all the experimental limits. Needless to say, more sophisticated models could also reproduce the signal, however, any model would have to exhibit the following features: light gluinos, or heavy particles with a strong production cross section, producing at least one Z-boson in its decay chain. The implications of our findings for the Run II at LHC with the scaling on the Z peak, as well as for the direct search of gluinos and other SUSY particles, are pointed out. (orig.)

  7. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  8. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  9. Snowfall induced by corona discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Ju, Jingjing; Li, Ruxin; Du, Shengzhe; Sun, Haiyi; Liu, Yonghong; Tian, Ye; Bai, Yafeng; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Wang, Jingwei; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, S L; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated for the first time the condensation and precipitation (or snowfall) induced by a corona discharge inside a cloud chamber. Ionic wind was found to have played a more significant role than ions as extra Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). 2.25 g of net snow enhancement was measured after applying a 30 kV corona discharge for 25 min. In comparison with another newly emerging femtosecond laser filamentation method, the snow precipitation induced by the corona discharge has about 4 orders of magnitude higher wall-plug efficiency under similar conditions.

  10. Will peak oil accelerate carbon dioxide emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K.; Davis, S. J.; Cao, L.

    2008-12-01

    The relative scarcity of oil suggests that oil production is peaking and will decline thereafter. Some have suggested that this represents an opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. However, in the absence of constraints on carbon dioxide emission, "peak oil" may drive a shift towards increased reliance on coal as a primary energy source. Because coal per unit energy, in the absence of carbon capture and disposal, releases more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than oil, "peak oil" may lead to an acceleration of carbon dioxide emissions. We will never run out of oil. As oil becomes increasingly scarce, prices will rise and therefore consumption will diminish. As prices rise, other primary energy sources will become increasingly competitive with oil. The developed world uses oil primarily as a source of transportation fuels. The developing world uses oil primarily for heat and power, but the trend is towards increasing reliance on oil for transportation. Liquid fuels, including petroleum derivatives such as gasoline and diesel fuel, are attractive as transportation fuels because of their relative abundance of energy per unit mass and volume. Such considerations are especially important for the air transport industry. Today, there is little that can compete with petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Future CO2 emissions from the transportation sector largely depend on what replaces oil as a source of fuel. Some have suggested that biomass-derived ethanol, hydrogen, or electricity could play this role. Each of these potential substitutes has its own drawbacks (e.g., low power density per unit area in the case of biomass, low power density per unit volume in the case of hydrogen, and low power density per unit mass in the case of battery storage). Thus, it is entirely likely that liquefaction of coal could become the primary means by which transportation fuels are produced. Since the burning of coal produces more CO2 per unit energy than does the burning of

  11. Electron density and electron temperature measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges over liquid water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeni Simeni, M.; Roettgen, A.; Petrishchev, V.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved electron density, electron temperature, and gas temperature in nanosecond pulse discharges in helium and O2-He mixtures near liquid water surface are measured using Thomson/pure rotational Raman scattering, in two different geometries, (a) ‘diffuse filament’ discharge between a spherical high-voltage electrode and a grounded pin electrode placed in a reservoir filled with distilled water, with the tip exposed, and (b) dielectric barrier discharge between the high-voltage electrode and the liquid water surface. A diffuse plasma filament generated between the electrodes in helium during the primary discharge pulse exhibits noticeable constriction during the secondary discharge pulse several hundred ns later. Adding oxygen to the mixture reduces the plasma filament diameter and enhances constriction during the secondary pulse. In the dielectric barrier discharge, diffuse volumetric plasma occupies nearly the entire space between the high voltage electrode and the liquid surface, and extends radially along the surface. In the filament discharge in helium, adding water to the container results in considerable reduction of plasma lifetime compared to the discharge in dry helium, by about an order of magnitude, indicating rapid electron recombination with water cluster ions. Peak electron density during the pulse is also reduced, by about a factor of two, likely due to dissociative attachment to water vapor during the discharge pulse. These trends become more pronounced as oxygen is added to the mixture, which increases net rate of dissociative attachment. Gas temperature during the primary discharge pulse remains near room temperature, after which it increases up to T ~ 500 K over 5 µs and decays back to near room temperature before the next discharge pulse several tens of ms later. As expected, electron density and electron temperature in diffuse DBD plasmas are considerably lower compared to peak values in the filament discharge. Use of Thomson

  12. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events and transitions among the different types of discharges, were investigated using simultaneously optical and electrical diagnostics. The glow-type discharge shows sinusoidal-like voltage and current waveforms with a peak current of hundreds of milliamperes. The frequency of the emission intensity variation of the glow-type discharge is the same as that of the electronic power dissipated in the plasma column. The glow-type discharge can transfer into a spark discharge characterized by a sharp peak current of several amperes and a sudden increase of the brightness in the plasma column. Transitions can also be found to take place from spark-type discharges to glow-type discharges. Short-cutting events were often observed as the intermediate states formed during the spark-glow transition. Three different types of short-cutting events have been observed to generate new current paths between two plasma channel segments, and between two electrodes, as well as between the channel segment and the electrodes, respectively. The short-cut upper part of the plasma column that was found to have no current passing through can be detected several hundreds of microseconds after the short-cutting event. The voltage recovery rate, the period of AC voltage-driving signal, the flow rates and the rated input powers were found to play an important role in affecting the transitions among the different types of discharges.

  13. 3-D flame temperature field reconstruction with multiobjective neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Wan(万雄); Yiqing Gao(高益庆); Yuanmei Wang(汪元美)

    2003-01-01

    A novel 3-D temperature field reconstruction method is proposed in this paper, which is based on multi-wavelength thermometry and Hopfield neural network computed tomography. A mathematical modelof multi-wavelength thermometry is founded, and a neural network algorithm based on multiobjectiveoptimization is developed. Through computer simulation and comparison with the algebraic reconstructiontechnique (ART) and the filter back-projection algorithm (FBP), the reconstruction result of the newmethod is discussed in detail. The study shows that the new method always gives the best reconstructionresults. At last, temperature distribution of a section of four peaks candle flame is reconstructed with thisnovel method.

  14. Effect of Rainfall on Traffic Stream Characteristics during Peak and Non-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Mohammed Alhassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of rainfall on traffic stream behaviour during  peak and non-peak periods on a basic highway section. Data on this section which is located on the J5 was collected for four months during which 99 rainfall events occurred. The traffic consisted of 75.80% cars, 10.23% motorcycles, 3.51% trucks and 10.46%  of other vehicles. Traffic was observed for both rain and no-rain conditions and the data was analysed to see the effect of the rain. The results showed decreases in the speed as the rain intensity increased. Similarly, the traffic flow rates decreased as the rain intensity increased. This trend was observed for both peak and non-peak periods and for both directions. It is concluded that the effect of rain during peak period could have more serious consequences on the traffic flow than during non-peak periods because of the higher flow rates and the constrained nature of the flow. Consequently, capacity degradations up to 30% during peak periods would require resources to be employed to manage the traffic.

  15. Research on the Optical Properties of Transformers Partial Discharge Based on Different Discharge Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bengang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the different types of discharge in transformer were simulated based on the real transformer fault model. The optical partial discharge detection system was established based on optical sensors which were capturing partial discharge accompanied by optical effects. In this research, surface discharge and suspended discharge defect model was pressurized to generate partial discharge signal. The results showed that: Partial discharge optical signals could effectively respond the production and development process of transformer partial discharge. It was able to assess discharge level also. When the discharge phenomenon stabilized, the phase of surface discharge mainly between 60°~150°and 240°~330°, the phase of suspended discharge mainly between 260°~320°. According to the phase characteristic of discharge pattern, the creeping discharge and suspended discharge phenomenon of transformer can be distinguished. It laid the foundation for the application of transformer optical partial discharge detection technology.

  16. DONOR HEART VALVES RECONSTRUCTION BEFORE TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The demonstration of our own experience in heart transplantation after valve reconstruction. Methods and results. From May 2012 to March 2013 3 mitral valve annuloplasties were performed to recipi- ents, requiring urgent HT and having extremely unfavorable prognosis of survival without HT. The recipients were classified as United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS IB, and all of them were on inotropic support. In one case, HT was performed after reconstruction of rheumatic mitral stenosis, in two other cases – after dege- nerative mitral regurgitation. The technical aspects are reviewed of ex-vivo mitral and tricuspid valves repair with concomitant heart transplantation. All patients were discharged from the hospital having excellent postope- rative recovery. Conclusion. Taking into consideration the demonstrated satisfactory result of surveillance and presence of significant experience in performing of reconstructive valve surgery among no-HT cardiosurgical patients, an increase in the pool of suitable donor organs is expected due to the liberalization of the selection criteria and the possibility of the innovative valve reconstruction procedures ex vivo. 

  17. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  18. Breast reconstruction - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100156.htm Breast reconstruction - series—Indication, part 1 To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Reconstruction A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  19. Pulsed discharge production Ar* metastables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiande; Heaven, Michael C.; Emmons, Daniel; Perram, Glen P.; Weeks, David E.; Bailey, William F.

    2016-03-01

    The production of relatively high densities of Ar* metastables (>1012 cm-3) in Ar/He mixtures, at total pressures close to 1 atm, is essential for the efficient operation of an optically pumped Ar* laser. We have used emission spectroscopy and diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurements to observe the production and decay of Ar* in a parallel plate pulsed discharge. With discharge pulses of 1 μs duration we find that metastable production is dominated by processes occurring within the first 100 ns of the gas break-down. Application of multiple, closely spaced discharge pulses yields insights concerning conditions that favor metastable production. This information has been combined with time-resolved measurements of voltage and current. The experimental results and preliminary modeling of the discharge kinetics are presented.

  20. Circle Points Discharge Tube Current Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Jinjia; Meng Lisheng

    2005-01-01

    Circle points discharge tube current controller is a new type device to limit theoutput of high voltage discharge current. Circle points uniform corona discharge to form airionization current in the discharge tube. On the outside, even if the discharge electrode is sparkdischarging or the two discharge electrodes are short circuited, the air ionization current in the tuberemains within a stable range, and there is no spark discharge. In this case, when the dischargecurrent only increases slightly, the requirement to limited current is obtained. By installing thecontroller at a discharge pole with a small power but high voltage supply, we can realize the shiftbetween the continuous spark line discharge and corona discharge. This provides a new simpledevice for spark discharge research and is a supplement to the Townsend discharge experiment.

  1. Effect of Measurement Errors on Predicted Cosmological Constraints from Shear Peak Statistics with LSST

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, D; Chang, C; May, M; Kahn, S M; AlSayyad, Y; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Connolly, A; Gibson, R R; Gilmore, K; Grace, E; Haiman, Z; Hannel, M; Huffenberger, K M; Jernigan, J G; Jones, L; Krughoff, S; Lorenz, S; Marshall, S; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Peng, E; Peterson, J; Rasmussen, A P; Shmakova, M; Sylvestre, N; Todd, N; Young, M

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of peak counts in reconstructed shear maps contain information beyond the power spectrum, and can improve cosmological constraints from measurements of the power spectrum alone if systematic errors can be controlled. We study the effect of galaxy shape measurement errors on predicted cosmological constraints from the statistics of shear peak counts with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use the LSST image simulator in combination with cosmological N-body simulations to model realistic shear maps for different cosmological models. We include both galaxy shape noise and, for the first time, measurement errors on galaxy shapes. We find that the measurement errors considered have relatively little impact on the constraining power of shear peak counts for LSST.

  2. Peak power prediction of a vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, V. K.; Chen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising grid-scale energy storage technology, but future widespread commercialization requires a considerable reduction in capital costs. Determining the appropriate battery size for the intended power range can help minimize the amount of materials needed, thereby reducing capital costs. A physics-based model is an essential tool for predicting the power range of large scale VRFB systems to aid in the design optimization process. This paper presents a modeling framework that accounts for the effects of flow rate on the pumping losses, local mass transfer rate, and nonuniform vanadium concentration in the cell. The resulting low-order model captures battery performance accurately even at high power densities and remains computationally practical for stack-level optimization and control purposes. We first use the model to devise an optimal control strategy that maximizes battery life during discharge. Assuming optimal control is implemented, we then determine the upper efficiency limits of a given VRFB system and compare the net power and associated overpotential and pumping losses at different operating points. We also investigate the effects of varying the electrode porosity, stack temperature, and total vanadium concentration on the peak power.

  3. Simulation of the discharge propagation in a capillary tube in air at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansky, Jaroslav; Tholin, Fabien; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Bourdon, Anne, E-mail: jaroslav.jansky@em2c.ecp.f [Ecole Centrale Paris, EM2C Laboratory, UPR 288 CNRS, Grande voie des vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France)

    2010-10-06

    This paper presents simulations of an air plasma discharge at atmospheric pressure initiated by a needle anode set inside a dielectric capillary tube. We have studied the influence of the tube inner radius and its relative permittivity {epsilon}{sub r} on the discharge structure and dynamics. As a reference, we have used a relative permittivity {epsilon}{sub r} = 1 to study only the influence of the cylindrical constraint of the tube on the discharge. For a tube radius of 100 {mu}m and {epsilon}{sub r} = 1, we have shown that the discharge fills the tube during its propagation and is rather homogeneous behind the discharge front. When the radius of the tube is in the range 300-600 {mu}m, the discharge structure is tubular with peak values of electric field and electron density close to the dielectric surface. When the radius of the tube is larger than 700 {mu}m, the tube has no influence on the discharge which propagates axially. For a tube radius of 100 {mu}m, when {epsilon}{sub r} increases from 1 to 10, the discharge structure becomes tubular. We have noted that the velocity of propagation of the discharge in the tube increases when the front is more homogeneous and then, the discharge velocity increases with the decrease in the tube radius and {epsilon}{sub r}. Then, we have compared the relative influence of the value of the tube radius and {epsilon}{sub r} on the discharge characteristics. Our simulations indicate that the geometrical constraint of the cylindrical tube has more influence than the value of {epsilon}{sub r} on the discharge structure and dynamics. Finally, we have studied the influence of photoemission processes on the discharge structure by varying the photoemission coefficient. As expected, we have shown that photoemission, as it increases the number of secondary electrons close to the dielectric surface, promotes the tubular structure of the discharge.

  4. Masked areas in shear peak statistics. A forward modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Dawson, W.

    2016-03-09

    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.

  5. Yield of Ozone, Nitrite Nitrogen and Hydrogen Peroxide Versus Discharge Parameter Using APPJ Under Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhu, Changping; Fei, Juntao; He, Xiang; Yin, Cheng; Wang, Yuan; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Yongfeng; Wen, Wen; Chen, Longwei

    2016-03-01

    Discharge plasma in and in contact with water can be accompanied with ultraviolet radiation and electron impact, thus can generate hydroxyl radicals, ozone, nitrite nitrogen and hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, a non-equilibrium plasma processing system was established by means of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet immersed in water. The hydroxyl intensities and discharge energy waveforms were tested. The results show that the positive and negative discharge energy peaks were asymmetric, where the positive discharge energy peak was greater than the negative one. Meanwhile, the yield of ozone and nitrite nitrogen was enhanced with the increase of both the treatment time and the discharge energy. Moreover, the pH value of treated water was reduced rapidly and maintained at a lower level. The residual concentration of hydrogen peroxide in APPJ treated water was kept at a low level. Additionally, both the efficiency energy ratio of the yield of ozone and nitrite nitrogen and that of the removal of p-nitrophenol increased as a function of discharge energy and discharge voltage. The experimental results were fully analyzed and the chemical reaction equations and the physical processes of discharges in water were given. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11274092, 11404092, 61401146), the Nantong Science and Technology Project, Nantong, China (No. BK2014024), the Open Project of Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Nanjing, China (No. KF2014001), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2014B11414)

  6. Breast reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi flap after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højvig, Jens B; Bonde, Christian Torsten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap has long been regarded as the second choice flap for autologous breast reconstruction following a mastectomy in our department. Despite uncertainty about donor-site morbidity, it is regarded as a relatively safe procedure; moreover......, in contrast to our first choice, the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap, no microsurgical expertise is needed. METHODS: This is a systematic review of patient files for all LD breast reconstructions performed in the 2004-2013 period, at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 135...... unilateral LD breast reconstructions were performed in 126 women during the ten-year period. The median age of the women was 48.5 years, and they mainly had secondary reconstruction (90%). The average time to removal of the last drain was 6.3 days, and the average time to discharge was 6.9 days. A total...

  7. When did HIV incidence peak in Harare, Zimbabwe? Back-calculation from mortality statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence has recently begun to decline in Zimbabwe, a result of both high levels of AIDS mortality and a reduction in incident infections. An important component in understanding the dynamics in HIV prevalence is knowledge of past trends in incidence, such as when incidence peaked and at what level. However, empirical measurements of incidence over an extended time period are not available from Zimbabwe or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Using mortality data, we use a back-calculation technique to reconstruct historic trends in incidence. From AIDS mortality data, extracted from death registration in Harare, together with an estimate of survival post-infection, HIV incidence trends were reconstructed that would give rise to the observed patterns of AIDS mortality. Models were fitted assuming three parametric forms of the incidence curve and under nine different assumptions regarding combinations of trends in non-AIDS mortality and patterns of survival post-infection with HIV. HIV prevalence was forward-projected from the fitted incidence and mortality curves. Models that constrained the incidence pattern to a cubic spline function were flexible and produced well-fitting, realistic patterns of incidence. In models assuming constant levels of non-AIDS mortality, annual incidence peaked between 4 and 5% between 1988 and 1990. Under other assumptions the peak level ranged from 3 to 8% per annum. However, scenarios assuming increasing levels of non-AIDS mortality resulted in implausibly low estimates of peak prevalence (11%, whereas models with decreasing underlying crude mortality could be consistent with the prevalence and mortality data. HIV incidence is most likely to have peaked in Harare between 1988 and 1990, which may have preceded the peak elsewhere in Zimbabwe. This finding, considered alongside the timing and location of HIV prevention activities, will give insight into the decline of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe.

  8. Study on the transition from filamentary discharge to diffuse discharge by using a dielectric barrier surface discharge device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Discharge characteristics have been investigated in different gases under different pressures using a dielectric barrier surface discharge device. Electrical measurements and optical emission spectroscopy are used to study the discharge,and the results obtained show that the discharges in atmospheric pressure helium and in low-pressure air are diffuse,while that in high-pressure air is filamentary. With decreasing pressure, the discharge in air can transit from filamentary to diffuse one. The results also indicate that corona discharge around the stripe electrode is important for the diffuse discharge. The spectral intensity of N2+ (391.4 nm) relative to N2 (337.1 nm) is measured during the transition from diffuse to filamentary discharge. It is shown that relative spectral intensity increases during the discharge transition. This phenomenon implies that the averaged electron energy in diffuse discharge is higher than that in the filamentary discharge.

  9. Electromechanical Peak Devices of Distributed Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Konstantinova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The power world crises (1973, 1979 have demonstrated that mankind entered the expensive energy epoch. More and more attitude is given to power saving problem by including renewable power sources in energy balance of the countries. The paper analyzes a power system inBelarusand a typical chart of the active load is cited in the paper. Equalization of load chart is considered as one of measures directed on provision of higher operational efficiency of power system and power saving.  This purpose can be obtained while including electromechanical peak devices of the distributed generation in the energy balance.

  10. LARAMIE PEAK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Weisner, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, most of the Laramie Peak Wilderness study area in Wyoming was concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Only three small areas in the northern part, one extending outside the study area to Esterbrook, were found to have probable mineral-resource potential for copper and lead. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil-fuel resources in the study area. There are no surface indications that geothermal energy could be developed within or near the study area.

  11. Forecasting peaks of seasonal influenza epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsoesie, Elaine; Mararthe, Madhav; Brownstein, John

    2013-06-21

    We present a framework for near real-time forecast of influenza epidemics using a simulation optimization approach. The method combines an individual-based model and a simple root finding optimization method for parameter estimation and forecasting. In this study, retrospective forecasts were generated for seasonal influenza epidemics using web-based estimates of influenza activity from Google Flu Trends for 2004-2005, 2007-2008 and 2012-2013 flu seasons. In some cases, the peak could be forecasted 5-6 weeks ahead. This study adds to existing resources for influenza forecasting and the proposed method can be used in conjunction with other approaches in an ensemble framework.

  12. Peak oil, economic growth, and wildlife conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, J Edward; Czech, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The proposed book focuses on one of the most important issues affecting humankind in this century - Peak Oil or the declining availability of abundant, cheap energy-and its effects on our industrialized economy and wildlife conservation. Energy will be one of the defining issues of the 21st Century directly affecting wildlife conservation wherever energy extraction is a primary economic activity and indirectly through deepening economic recessions. Since cheap, abundant energy has been at the core of our industrial society, and has resulted in the technological advancements we enjoy today, the

  13. Particle creation by peak electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Adorno, T C; Gitman, D M

    2016-01-01

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially-increasing and another exponentially-decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered.

  14. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-15

    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  15. Breast Reconstruction with Flap Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast reconstruction with flap surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Breast reconstruction is a surgical procedure that restores shape to ... breast tissue to treat or prevent breast cancer. Breast reconstruction with flap surgery is a type of breast ...

  16. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi, E-mail: sruban.stephens@gmail.com [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Deb, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Rajan, Rehim N. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kishore, N.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2016-08-11

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  17. Classification of electrical discharges in DC Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srutarshi; Deb, A. K.; Rajan, Rehim N.; Kishore, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Controlled electrical discharge aids in conditioning of the system while uncontrolled discharges damage its electronic components. DC Accelerator being a high voltage system is no exception. It is useful to classify electrical discharges according to the severity. Experimental prototypes of the accelerator discharges are developed. Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) are used to detect the signals from these discharges. Time and Frequency domain characteristics of the detected discharges are used to extract features. Machine Learning approaches like Fuzzy Logic, Neural Network and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) are employed to classify the discharges. This aids in detecting the severity of the discharges.

  18. Beyond the Peak - Tactile Temporal Discrimination Does Not Correlate with Individual Peak Frequencies in Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The human sensory systems constantly receive input from different stimuli. Whether these stimuli are integrated into a coherent percept or segregated and perceived as separate events, is critically determined by the temporal distance of the stimuli. This temporal distance has prompted the concept of temporal integration windows or perceptual cycles. Although this concept has gained considerable support, the neuronal correlates are still discussed. Studies suggested that neuronal oscillations might provide a neuronal basis for such perceptual cycles, i.e., the cycle lengths of alpha oscillations in visual cortex and beta oscillations in somatosensory cortex might determine the length of perceptual cycles. Specifically, recent studies reported that the peak frequency (the frequency with the highest spectral power) of alpha oscillations in visual cortex correlates with subjects' ability to discriminate two visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether peak frequencies in somatosensory cortex might serve as the correlate of perceptual cycles in tactile discrimination. Despite several different approaches, we were unable to find a significant correlation between individual peak frequencies in the alpha- and beta-band and individual discrimination abilities. In addition, analysis of Bayes factor provided evidence that peak frequencies and discrimination thresholds are unrelated. The results suggest that perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain are not necessarily to be found in the peak frequency, but in other frequencies. We argue that studies based solely on analysis of peak frequencies might thus miss relevant information.

  19. PeakVizor: Visual Analytics of Peaks in Video Clickstreams from Massive Open Online Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Chen, Yuanzhe; Liu, Dongyu; Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Qu, Huamin

    2016-10-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) aim to facilitate open-access and massive-participation education. These courses have attracted millions of learners recently. At present, most MOOC platforms record the web log data of learner interactions with course videos. Such large amounts of multivariate data pose a new challenge in terms of analyzing online learning behaviors. Previous studies have mainly focused on the aggregate behaviors of learners from a summative view; however, few attempts have been made to conduct a detailed analysis of such behaviors. To determine complex learning patterns in MOOC video interactions, this paper introduces a comprehensive visualization system called PeakVizor. This system enables course instructors and education experts to analyze the "peaks" or the video segments that generate numerous clickstreams. The system features three views at different levels: the overview with glyphs to display valuable statistics regarding the peaks detected; the flow view to present spatio-temporal information regarding the peaks; and the correlation view to show the correlation between different learner groups and the peaks. Case studies and interviews conducted with domain experts have demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of PeakVizor, and new findings about learning behaviors in MOOC platforms have been reported.

  20. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  1. Microwave peak absorption frequency of liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is a new effective method which has practical ap-plications in many fields. Microwave heating is one of its physical mechanisms,and it also has the characteristic of selectivity. When the applied microwave fre-quency equals a certain absorption frequency of the material (or specific compo-nent),the material will intensively absorb microwave energy. This is also known as resonant absorption,and the frequency is called the peak absorption frequency which depends on the physical structure of the material. In this work,dynamic hy-drogen bond energy was included in molecular activation energy; with the liquid cell model,the expression of interaction energy between dipolar molecules was derived. The rotational relaxation time was gotten from the Eyring viscosity formula. Then based on the relationship between dielectric dissipation coefficient and re-laxation time,the expression of microwave peak absorption frequency as a func-tion of the material physical structure,rotational inertia and electrical dipole mo-ment of molecules was established. These theoretical formulas were applied to water and benzene,and the calculated results agree fairly well with the experi-mental data. This work can not only deepen the study of the interaction between microwave and material,but also provide a possible guide for the experiment of microwave-assisted extraction.

  2. Microwave peak absorption frequency of liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN GuangZe; CHEN MingDong

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is a new effective method which has practical ap-plications in many fields. Microwave heating is one of its physical mechanisms, and it also has the characteristic of selectivity. When the applied microwave fre-quency equals a certain absorption frequency of the material (or specific compo-nent), the material will intensively absorb microwave energy. This is also known as resonant absorption, and the frequency is called the peak absorption frequency which depends on the physical structure of the material. In this work, dynamic hy-drogen bond energy was included in molecular activation energy; with the liquid cell model, the expression of interaction energy between dipolar molecules was derived. The rotational relaxation time was gotten from the Eyring viscosity formula. Then based on the relationship between dielectric dissipation coefficient and re-laxation time, the expression of microwave peak absorption frequency as a func-tion of the material physical structure, rotational inertia and electrical dipole mo-ment of molecules was established. These theoretical formulas were applied to water and benzene, and the calculated results agree fairly well with the experi-mental data. This work can not only deepen the study of the interaction between microwave and material, but also provide a possible guide for the experiment of microwave-assisted extraction.

  3. A comparative study on continuous and pulsed RF argon capacitive glow discharges at low pressure by fluid modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Liu, Yue; Jia, Wenzhu; Zhou, Yanwen

    2017-01-01

    Based on the plasma fluid theory and using the drift-diffusion approximation, a mathematical model for continuous and pulsed radial frequency (RF) argon capacitive glow discharges at low pressure is established. The model is solved by a finite difference method and the numerical results are reported. Based on the systematic analysis of the results, plasma characteristics of the continuous and pulsed RF discharges are comparatively investigated. It is shown that, under the same condition for the peak value of the driving potential, the cycle-averaged electron density, the current density, and other essential physical quantities in the continuous RF discharge are higher than those from the pulsed RF discharge. On the other hand, similar plasma characteristics are obtained with two types of discharges, by assuming the same deposited power. Consequently, higher driving potential is needed in pulsed discharges in order to maintain the same effective plasma current. Furthermore, it is shown that, in the bulk plasma region, the peak value of the bipolar electric field from the continuous RF discharge is greater than that from the pulsed RF discharge. In the sheath region, the ionization rate has the shape of double-peaking and the explanation is given. Because the plasma input power depends on the driving potential and the plasma current phase, the phase differences between the driving potential and the plasma current are compared between the continuous and the pulsed RF discharges. It is found that this phase difference is smaller in the pulsed RF discharge compared to that of the continuous RF discharge. This means that the input energy coupling in the pulsed RF discharge is less efficient than the continuous counterpart. This comparative study, carried out also under other conditions, thus can provide instructive ideas in applications using the continuous and pulsed RF capacitive glow discharges.

  4. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  5. Combined corona discharge and UV photoionization source for ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Hamed; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2012-08-15

    An ion mobility spectrometer is described which is equipped with two non-radioactive ion sources, namely an atmospheric pressure photoionization and a corona discharge ionization source. The two sources cannot only run individually but are additionally capable of operating simultaneously. For photoionization, a UV lamp was mounted parallel to the axis of the ion mobility cell. The corona discharge electrode was mounted perpendicular to the UV radiation. The total ion current from the photoionization source was verified as a function of lamp current, sample flow rate, and drift field. Simultaneous operation of the two ionization sources was investigated by recording ion mobility spectra of selected samples. The design allows one to observe peaks from either the corona discharge or photoionization individually or simultaneously. This makes it possible to accurately compare peaks in the ion mobility spectra from each individual source. Finally, the instrument's capability for discriminating two peaks appearing in approximately identical drift times using each individual ionization source is demonstrated.

  6. , Recorded at Ladron Peak, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Kelley, S.; Read, A. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ladron Peak, situated on the western flank of the Rio Grande rift ~30 miles NW of Socorro, NM, is composed of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic assemblages that have been faulted and uplifted during the late Tertiary formation of the rift. The area is bounded on three sides by normal faults, including the anomalously low-angle (~26°) Jeter fault to the east, which places Precambrian rocks in the footwall against Paleozoic and Mesozoic fault slivers, and mainly Cenozoic Santa Fe Group basin fill in the hanging wall. New apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronological data collected at 22 locations along the NE and SE margins of Ladron Peak give a range of ages from 10.9 ± 1.9 to 20.4 ± 8.6 Ma. Samples within the footwall include granitic and metasedimentary rocks that have mean track lengths of 13.1 to 14.1 μm; one quartzite sample has a mean track length of 12.5 μm, suggesting time in the partial annealing zone. Within the hanging wall block, new AFT ages from the Permian Bursum and Abo Formations give cooling ages of 23.1 ± 3.3 Ma. and 59.9 ± 12.4 Ma., respectively. The Bursum Formation sample, with a track length of 13.7 μm, cooled below the 110°C isotherm during the Miocene, while the Abo Formation sample, with a track length of 11.2 μm, was only partially reset prior to rift-related deformation. Mylonitized granitic and metamorphic rocks in the immediate footwall preserve dip-slip lineations that are parallel to slip on the Jeter fault. This suggests that strain associated with exhumation was recorded by both brittle and ductile deformation. Although this type of deformation is common within metamorphic core complexes in highly extended terranes, ductile normal faulting has not been recognized within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, though there is some suggestion of ductile deformation around Blanca Peak in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. These observations imply one or both of the following: (1) Ductile deformation at Ladron Peak was

  7. APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY OF RECONSTRUCTION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    WWTPs fail to perform proper treatment due to their being worn-out and obsolete. However a tougher legislation accelerates their reconstruction. Approaches to the WWTP reconstruction should demonstrate a strong economic and technological base. The author proposes a new algorithm for their reconstruction. A sensible combination of the principles of WWTP restructuring, development of new fine wastewater cleaning methods, and assimilation of new materials and chemical agents will help resolve the vital problem of waste water discharge into Russia's water bodies. This is the first methodology of reconstruction of WWTPs developed on the basis of the above concept and supported by practical implementation.

  8. Scaling of the Density Peak with Pellet Injection in ITER*%Scaling of the Density Peak with Pellet Injection in ITER*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. KLAYWITTAPHAT; T. ONJUN

    2012-01-01

    Scalings of the density peak and pellet penetration length in ITER are developed based on simulations using 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations , the pellet ablation is described by the Neutral Gas Shielding (NGS) model with grad-B drift effect taken into account. The NGS pellet model is coupled with a plasma core transport model, which is a combination of an MMM95 anomalous transport model and an NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The BALDUR code with a combination of MMM95 and NCLASS models, together with the NGS model, is used to simulate the time evolution of plasma current, ion and electron temperatures, and density profiles for ITER standard type I ELMy H-mode discharges during the pellet injection. As a result, the scaling of the density peak and pellet penetration length at peak density can be established using this set of predictive simulations that covers a wide range of ITER plasma conditions and pellet parameters. The multiple regression technique is utilized in the development of the scalings. It is found that the scaling for density at center is sensitive to both the plasma and pellet parameters; whereas the scalings for density and location of the additional peak are sensitive to the pellet parameters only.

  9. Response of foraminifera to a reverse osmosis briny discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Richard Eustace Aiken

    Reverse osmosis water treatment plants are becoming the preferred means of generating potable water for many eastern North Carolina communities. At these facilities, reject brine solutions---sometimes containing up to 10 times the initial concentration of dissolved solids---are created and often discharged into estuarine waters. Several state and federal agencies have expressed concern over the potential ecological impacts this wastewater could have on these sensitive environments. Monitoring of a brine discharge site in Currituck County, North Carolina revealed significantly higher conductivity values within ~50 m of the point source. One group of organisms that have proven useful in other studies for monitoring impact of anthropogenic pollution in estuaries is Foraminifera. Foraminifera are abundant microorganisms that are widespread in most marginal-marine and marine environments; nevertheless, individual taxa are highly selective of their habitat. Nearly all species build shells (tests) that are preserved in coastal sediments, allowing for reconstruction of previous marine conditions. Species abundance data was collected from surface and sub-surface samples taken in the area surrounding the brine point source. Two taxa (Ammobaculites spp. and Ammotium sp.) accounted for 98.5% of all normalized specimens. Abundance is significantly less in the sub-surface samples (Student's t-test, p<0.0001), likely due to taphonomic effects. Abundance does not appear correlated with discharge of the wastewater; instead, natural parameters appear to affect abundance in an assemblage to a greater degree. Species distribution is similar in surface and sub-surface samples. Foraminiferal diversity is significantly less near the discharge based on one sample collected within 5 m of the discharge site; samples at greater distances do not appear affected. Loss of diversity within a few meters of the discharge site is consistent with previous studies, but more data would be needed to

  10. Water purification by electrical discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Ghaffar, Abdul; Akbar Malik, Salman

    2001-02-01

    There is a continuing need for the development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for the disinfection and degradation of organic pollutants from water. Ozonation processes are now replacing conventional chlorination processes because ozone is a stronger oxidizing agent and a more effective disinfectant without any side effects. However, the fact that the cost of ozonation processes is higher than chlorination processes is their main disadvantage. In this paper recent developments targeted to make ozonation processes cheaper by improving the efficiency of ozone generation, for example, by incorporation of catalytic packing in the ozone generator, better dispersion of ozone in water and faster conversion of dissolved ozone to free radicals are described. The synthesis of ozone in electrical discharges is discussed. Furthermore, the generation and plasma chemical reactions of several chemically active species, such as H2O2, Obullet, OHbullet, HO2bullet, O3*, N2*, e-, O2-, O-, O2+, etc, which are produced in the electrical discharges are described. Most of these species are stronger oxidizers than ozone. Therefore, water treatment by direct electrical discharges may provide a means to utilize these species in addition to ozone. Much research and development activity has been devoted to achieve these targets in the recent past. An overview of these techniques and important developments that have taken place in this area are discussed. In particular, pulsed corona discharge, dielectric barrier discharge and contact glow discharge electrolysis techniques are being studied for the purpose of cleaning water. The units based on electrical discharges in water or close to the water level are being tested at industrial-scale water treatment plants.}

  11. Reconstructing Step by Step

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On May 22,10 days after the Wenchuan earthquake in Sichuan Province,the State Council formed the Post-earthquake Reconstruction Planning Group,deciding to work out a general recon- struction plan within a period of three months. Sichuan was the worst-hit area of China,so reconstruction work there will have a direct influence on how plans proceed in other areas.On July 18,Beijing Review reporter Feng Jianhua interviewed Wang Guangsi,Vice Director of the Sichuan Development and Reform Commission,about Sichuan’s reconstruction plan.

  12. Discharge estimation from planform characters of the Shedhi River, Gujarat alluvial plain: Present and past

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alpa Sridhar

    2007-08-01

    In the absence of long-term hydrologic and streamflow records an understanding of river morphology (present and past) can help delineate changes in magnitudes of water and sediment discharges. The relict drainage system of Gujarat alluvial plain provides an opportunity to reconstruct the palaeochannel morphology-related discharge estimations. In this paper, based on the geomorphological evidence and channel geometry, an attempt has been made to reconstruct the palaeohydrological condition in the Shedhi River during the Holocene. A comparison of the present day channel of the Shedhi River with that of its palaeo counterpart reveals that the former was carrying much higher bankfull discharge (∼5500m3s−1) as compared to the present (∼200m3s−1). This is attributed to a larger drainage area and enhanced precipitation in the Shedhi River basin.

  13. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  14. Resilience of developing brain networks to interictal epileptiform discharges is associated with cognitive outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, George M; Cassel, Daniel; Morgan, Benjamin R; Smith, Mary Lou; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Ochi, Ayako; Taylor, Margot; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter; Doesburg, Sam

    2014-10-01

    The effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurocognitive development in children with medically-intractable epilepsy are poorly understood. Such discharges may have a deleterious effect on the brain's intrinsic connectivity networks, which reflect the organization of functional networks at rest, and in turn on neurocognitive development. Using a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-magnetoencephalography approach, we examine the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on intrinsic connectivity networks and neurocognitive outcome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the location of regions comprising various intrinsic connectivity networks in 26 children (7-17 years), and magnetoencephalography data were reconstructed from these locations. Inter-regional phase synchronization was then calculated across interictal epileptiform discharges and graph theoretical analysis was applied to measure event-related changes in network topology in the peri-discharge period. The magnitude of change in network topology (network resilience/vulnerability) to interictal epileptiform discharges was associated with neurocognitive outcomes and functional magnetic resonance imaging networks using dual regression. Three main findings are reported: (i) large-scale network changes precede and follow interictal epileptiform discharges; (ii) the resilience of network topologies to interictal discharges is associated with stronger resting-state network connectivity; and (iii) vulnerability to interictal discharges is associated with worse neurocognitive outcomes. By combining the spatial resolution of functional magnetic resonance imaging with the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography, we describe the effects of interictal epileptiform discharges on neurophysiological synchrony in intrinsic connectivity networks and establish the impact of interictal disruption of functional networks on cognitive outcome in children with epilepsy. The

  15. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  16. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  17. Breast Reconstruction After Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It also does not involve cutting of the abdominal muscle and is a free flap. This type of ... NCI fact sheet Mammograms . What are some new developments in breast reconstruction after mastectomy? Oncoplastic surgery. In ...

  18. Prairie Reconstruction Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Advisory Team (PRIAT) is to identify and take steps to resolve uncertainties in the process of prairie...

  19. Head and face reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work together. Head and neck surgeons also perform craniofacial reconstruction operations. The surgery is done while you are deep asleep and pain-free (under general anesthesia ). The surgery may take ...

  20. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  1. On TPC cluster reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Dydak, F; Nefedov, Y; Wotschack, J; Zhemchugov, A

    2004-01-01

    For a bias-free momentum measurement of TPC tracks, the correct determination of cluster positions is mandatory. We argue in particular that (i) the reconstruction of the entire longitudinal signal shape in view of longitudinal diffusion, electronic pulse shaping, and track inclination is important both for the polar angle reconstruction and for optimum r phi resolution; and that (ii) self-crosstalk of pad signals calls for special measures for the reconstruction of the z coordinate. The problem of 'shadow clusters' is resolved. Algorithms are presented for accepting clusters as 'good' clusters, and for the reconstruction of the r phi and z cluster coordinates, including provisions for 'bad' pads and pads next to sector boundaries, respectively.

  2. Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Prairie Reconstruction Initiative Advisory Team (PRIAT) is to identify and take steps to resolve uncertainties in the process of prairie...

  3. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moroder, Tobias; Hyllus, Philipp; Tóth, Géza;

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large-scale opti......Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a nonlinear large...... likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex...

  4. Permutationally invariant state reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Moroder, Tobias; Toth, Geza; Schwemmer, Christian; Niggebaum, Alexander; Gaile, Stefanie; Gühne, Otfried; Weinfurter, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Feasible tomography schemes for large particle numbers must possess, besides an appropriate data acquisition protocol, also an efficient way to reconstruct the density operator from the observed finite data set. Since state reconstruction typically requires the solution of a non-linear large-scale optimization problem, this is a major challenge in the design of scalable tomography schemes. Here we present an efficient state reconstruction scheme for permutationally invariant quantum state tomography. It works for all common state-of-the-art reconstruction principles, including, in particular, maximum likelihood and least squares methods, which are the preferred choices in today's experiments. This high efficiency is achieved by greatly reducing the dimensionality of the problem employing a particular representation of permutationally invariant states known from spin coupling combined with convex optimization, which has clear advantages regarding speed, control and accuracy in comparison to commonly employed n...

  5. The evolving breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to give an update on the use of the propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap (TAP/TDAP-flap) within the field of breast reconstruction. The TAP-flap can be dissected by a combined use of a monopolar cautery and a scalpel. Microsurgical instruments are generally...... not needed. The propeller TAP-flap can be designed in different ways, three of these have been published: (I) an oblique upwards design; (II) a horizontal design; (III) an oblique downward design. The latissimus dorsi-flap is a good and reliable option for breast reconstruction, but has been criticized...... for oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery and will certainly become an invaluable addition to breast reconstructive methods....

  6. The abnormal electrostatic discharge of a no-connect metal cover in a ceramic packaging device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Song; Zeng Chuanbin; Luo Jiajun; Han Zhengsheng

    2013-01-01

    The human body model (HBM) stress of a no-connect metal cover is tested to obtain the characteristics of abnormal electrostatic discharge,including current waveforms and peak current under varied stress voltage and device failure voltage.A new discharge model called the "sparkover-induced model" is proposed based on the results.Then,failure mechanism analysis and model simulation are performed to prove that the transient peak current caused by a sparkover of low arc impedance will result in the devices' premature damage when the potential difference between the no-connect metal cover and the chip exceeds the threshold voltage of sparkover.

  7. Radial Evolution of the Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge in Helium Controlled by Dielectric Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan-Tao; WANG De-Zhen; WANG Yan-Hui; LIU Cheng-Sen

    2005-01-01

    @@ The radial evolution of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium is presented by numerical simulation. The calculations reveal the mechanism of two current peaks per half cycle. The first breakdown occurs firstly in the central region of the electrode, and then spreads to the edge, while the second breakdown ignites at the periphery firstly, and then propagates toward the discharge central region. The simulations indicate that radial electric fields and radial sheath play an important role in the evolution of the second peak. These results agree fundamentally with the experimental observations.

  8. Reconstruction Setting Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake-hit Yushu shifts its focus from rescuing survivors to post-quake reconstruction The first phase of earthquake relief, in which rescuing lives was the priority, finished 12 days after a 7.1-magnitude earthquake struck the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in northwest China’s Qinghai Province on April 14, and reconstruction of the area is now ready to begin.

  9. Methods and equations for estimating peak streamflow per square mile in Virginia’s urban basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    Models are presented that describe Virginia urban area annual peak streamflow per square mile based on basin percent urban area and basin drainage area. Equations are provided to estimate Virginia urban peak flow per square mile of basin drainage area in each of the following annual exceedance probability categories: 0.995, 0.99, 0.95, 0.9, 0.8, 0.67, 0.5, 0.43, 0.2, 0.1, 0.04, 0.02, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.002 (recurrence intervals of 1.005, 1.01, 1.05, 1.11, 1.25, 1.49, 2.0, 2.3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years, respectively). Equations apply to Virginia drainage basins ranging in size from no less than 1.2 mi2 to no more than 2,400 mi2 containing at least 10 percent urban area, and not more than 96 percent urban area. A total of 115 Virginia drainage basins were analyzed. Actual-by-predicted plots and leverage plots for response variables and explanatory variables in each peak-flow annual exceedance probability category indicate robust model fits and significant explanatory power. Equations for 8 of 15 urban peak-flow response surface models yield R-square values greater than 0.8. Relations identified in statistical models, describing significant increases in urban peak stream discharges as basin urban area increases, affirm empirical relations reported in past studies of change in stream discharge, lag times, and physical streamflow processes, most notably those detailed for urban areas in northern Virginia.

  10. Helicon plasma thruster discharge model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, T., E-mail: trevor.lafleur@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France and ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-04-15

    By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.

  11. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nevrkla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  12. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland.

  13. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  14. Peak, multi-peak and broadband absorption in graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloua, R.; Kebbab, Z.; Chiker, F.; Khadraoui, M.; Sahraoui, K.; Bouzidi, A.; Medles, M.; Mathieu, C.; Benramdane, N.

    2014-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of enhancing light absorption in graphene-based one dimensional photonic crystal. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve total light absorption at technologically important wavelengths using one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystals. By means of the transfer matrix method, we investigate the effect of refractive indices and layer numbers on the optical response of the structure. We found that it is possible to achieve one peak, multi-peak or broadband, and complete optical absorption. As a result, the proposed photonic structures enable myriad potential applications such as photodetection, shielding and optical sensing.

  15. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  16. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  17. Emission of excimer radiation from direct current, high-pressure hollow cathode discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Habachi, Ahmed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    1998-01-01

    A novel, nonequilibrium, high-pressure, direct current discharge, the microhollow cathode discharge, has been found to be an intense source of xenon and argon excimer radiation peaking at wavelengths of 170 and 130 nm, respectively. In argon discharges with a 100 μm diam hollow cathode, the intensity of the excimer radiation increased by a factor of 5 over the pressure range from 100 to 800 mbar. In xenon discharges, the intensity at 170 nm increased by two orders of magnitude when the pressure was raised from 250 mbar to 1 bar. Sustaining voltages were 200 V for argon and 400 V for xenon discharges, at current levels on the order of mA. The resistive current-voltage characteristics of the microdischarges indicate the possibility to form arrays for direct current, flat panel excimer lamps.

  18. Effect of Ne Glow Discharge on Ion Density Control in LHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Morita; M. Goto; S. Masuzaki; H. Suzuki; K. Tanaka; H. Nozato; Y. Takeiri; J. Miyazawa; LHD esperimental group

    2004-01-01

    Neon glow discharge cleaning was firstly attempted in Large Helical Device (LHD) instead of He glow discharge to remove hydrogen neutrals and to control the ion density, ni. The Ne glow discharge continued for 8 hours overnight after a three-day experiment. At the second night Halpha emission became weaker than the emission usually observed in the He glow discharge. A clear reduction of the hydrogen influx was also observed in neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges with Ne puff, whereas the neon recycling was strongly enhanced with appearance of a flat density profile. As a result, the lowest density limit was further reduced down to 0.2 times10 13 ,cm-3. The use of Ar puff formed a peaked density profile with a high Ti of 7 keV.

  19. Reconstruction of Intensity From Covered Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, Rozaliya [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meisner, Roberta Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rosseel, Thomas M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The safe handling of activated samples requires containment and covering the sample to eliminate any potential for contamination. Subsequent characterization of the surface with x-rays ideally necessitates a thin film. While many films appear visually transparent, they are not necessarily x-ray transparent. Each film material has a unique beam attenuation and sometimes have amorphous peaks that can superimpose with those of the sample. To reconstruct the intensity of the underlying activated sample, the x-ray attenuation and signal due to the film needs to be removed from that of the sample. This requires the calculation of unique deconvolution parameters for the film. The development of a reconstruction procedure for a contained/covered sample is described.

  20. Discharge cleaning and wall conditioning in a Novillo Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia, R; Camps, E; Contreras, G; Muhl, S

    2002-01-01

    Our Novillo Tokamak is a small toroidal device magnetically confined defined by the main design parameters: R sub o =0.23 m, a sub v =0.08 m, a sub p =0.06 m, B sub T =0.05-0.47 T, I sub p =1-12 kA, n sub e =1-2x10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 3 , T sub e =150 eV, T sub i =50 eV. For the initial discharge chamber cleaning we have often used vacuum baking up to 100 deg. C and then conditioning using Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC) in H sub 2 and He. In this work we report that vacuum baking is effective for obtaining a final total pressure of the order of 1.6x10 sup - sup 7 Torr. We have found that a single parameter, the performance parameter (PP), can be used to optimize the TDC method. This parameter represents the quantity of electron and ion energy incident on the chamber wall during the Taylor discharge, it is equal to (I sub p tau), where I sub p is the peak-to-peak plasma current and tau is the plasma current duration. In graphs of PP versus the gas pressure for different oscillator powers, the maximum val...

  1. Cold-cathode, pulsed-power plasma discharge switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Dan M.

    1996-09-01

    CROSSATRONTMmodulator switches are cold-cathode, grid-controlled, plasma-discharge devices that are used for thyratron and hard-tube replacement in high-voltage, pulsed-power applications. CROSSATRON modulator switches have been used to produce square pulses of up to 100 kV and 1000 A, and CROSSATRON laser-discharge switches have switched peak discharge currents of up to 10 kA at 40 kV. The major advantage that CROSSATRON switches offer over other plasma switches is a rapid deionization time that permits high pulse-repetition frequencies (103 to 106 pulses per second depending on the application), and a long life associated with the cold-cathode plasma production mechanism. Compared to hard tubes, CROSSATRON switches have a relatively low forward voltage drop (500 V), the ability to close and open up to 1 kA of peak current, and lower grid-drive power requirements. In this article, we describe the physical mechanisms for how the switch works based on simple models and experimental data. The design of CROSSATRON switches is explained, and characteristic performance in closing and opening applications is described and explained.

  2. The role of MHD in causing impurity peaking in JET Hybrid plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hender, T C; Casson, F J; Alper, B; Baranov, Yu; Baruzzo, M; Challis, C D; Koechl, F; Marchetto, C; Nave, M F F; Pütterich, T; Cortes, S Reyes; Contributors, JET

    2015-01-01

    In Hybrid plasma operation in JET with its ITER-like wall (JET-ILW) it is found that n>1 tearing activity can significantly enhance the rate of on-axis peaking of tungsten impurities, which in turn significantly degrades discharge performance. Core n=1 instabilities can be beneficial in removing tungsten impurities from the plasma core (e.g. sawteeth or fishbones), but can conversely also degrade core confinement (particularly in combination with simultaneous n=3 activity). The nature of MHD instabilities in JET Hybrid discharges, with both its previous Carbon wall and subsequent JET-ILW, is surveyed statistically and the character of the instabilities is examined. Possible qualitative models for how the n>1 islands can enhance on-axis tungsten transport accumulation processes are presented.

  3. Investigation of electrolyte electric discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirko, D. L.; Savjolov, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    The most important electrical characteristics of electrolyte electric discharge were investigated. The electric burning discharge was obtained with the help of different electrolytes. The spectral composition of the electric discharge electromagnetic radiation was determined, the plasma temperature was determined. The spectrum of the electric discharge high-frequency oscillations was calculated in the region v=10 kHz-80 MHz. The most appropriate modes of the electric burning discharge in different electrolytes were proposed.

  4. Norwegian hydropower a valuable peak power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, Hermod

    2010-07-01

    given on a possible increase of the Norwegian hydropower peak power production to meet the growing the European demand for peak power caused by the growing non stationary production from wind mills and ocean energy from waves and sea current. Also building of reversible pump turbine power plants will be discussed even if approximately 10% power will be consumed by loss in the pumping phase compared to direct use of the water from reservoirs. (Author)

  5. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak...

  6. Peak phosphorus - peak food? The need to close the phosphorus cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    The peak in the world production of phosphorus has been predicted to occur in 2033, based on world reserves of rock phosphate (URR) reckoned at around 24,000 million tonnes (Mt), with around 18,000 Mt remaining. This figure was reckoned-up to 71,000 Mt, by the USGS, in 2012, but a production maximum during the present century is still highly probable. There are complex issues over what the demand will be for phosphorus in the future, as measured against a rising population (from 7 billion to over 9 billion in 2050), and a greater per capita demand for fertiliser to grow more grain, in part to feed animals and meet a rising demand for meat by a human species that is not merely more populous but more affluent. As a counterweight to this, we may expect that greater efficiencies in the use of phosphorus - including recycling from farms and of human and animal waste - will reduce the per capita demand for phosphate rock. The unseen game changer is peak oil, since phosphate is mined and recovered using machinery powered by liquid fuels refined from crude oil. Hence, peak oil and peak phosphorus might appear as conjoined twins. There is no unequivocal case that we can afford to ignore the likelihood of a supply-demand gap for phosphorus occurring sometime this century, and it would be perilous to do so.

  7. Analysis of the Peak Resistance Frequency Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boshuo; Weiland, James D

    2016-10-01

    This study analyzes the peak resistance frequency (PRF) method described by Mercanzini et al., a method that can easily extract the tissue resistance from impedance spectroscopy for many neural engineering applications but has no analytical description thus far. Mathematical analyses and computer simulations were used to explore underlying principles, accuracy, and limitations of the PRF method. The mathematical analyses demonstrated that the PRF method has an inherent but correctable deviation dependent on the idealness of the electrode-tissue interface, which is validated by simulations. Further simulations show that both frequency sampling and noise affect the accuracy of the PRF method, and in general, it performs less accurately than least squares methods. However, the PRF method achieves simplicity and reduced measurement and computation time at the expense of accuracy. From the qualitative results, the PRF method can work with reasonable precision and simplicity, although its limitation and the idealness of the electrode-tissue interface involved should be taken into consideration. This paper provides a mathematical foundation for the PRF method and its practical implementation.

  8. Z-peaked excess in goldstini scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Seng Pei; Mawatari, Kentarou; Sakurai, Kazuki; Vereecken, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We study a possible explanation of a 3.0 $\\sigma$ excess recently reported by the ATLAS Collaboration in events with Z-peaked same-flavour opposite-sign lepton pair, jets and large missing transverse momentum in the context of gauge-mediated SUSY breaking with more than one hidden sector, the so-called goldstini scenario. In a certain parameter space, the gluino two-body decay chain $\\tilde g\\to g\\tilde\\chi^0_{1,2}\\to gZ\\tilde G'$ becomes dominant, where $\\tilde\\chi^0_{1,2}$ and $\\tilde G'$ are the Higgsino-like neutralino and the massive pseudo-goldstino, respectively, and gluino pair production can contribute to the signal. We find that a mass spectrum such as $m_{\\tilde g}\\sim 900$ GeV, $m_{\\tilde\\chi^0_{1,2}}\\sim 700$ GeV and $m_{\\tilde G'}\\sim 600$ GeV demonstrates the rate and the distributions of the excess, without conflicting with the stringent constraints from jets plus missing energy analyses and with the CMS constraint on the identical final state.

  9. Z-peaked excess in goldstini scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Pei Liew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study a possible explanation of a 3.0 σ excess recently reported by the ATLAS Collaboration in events with Z-peaked same-flavour opposite-sign lepton pair, jets and large missing transverse momentum in the context of gauge-mediated SUSY breaking with more than one hidden sector, the so-called goldstini scenario. In a certain parameter space, the gluino two-body decay chain g˜→gχ˜1,20→gZG˜′ becomes dominant, where χ˜1,20 and G˜′ are the Higgsino-like neutralino and the massive pseudo-goldstino, respectively, and gluino pair production can contribute to the signal. We find that a mass spectrum such as mg˜∼1000 GeV, mχ˜1,20∼800 GeV and mG˜′∼600 GeV demonstrates the rate and the distributions of the excess, without conflicting with the stringent constraints from jets plus missing energy analyses and with the CMS constraint on the identical final state.

  10. Asymmetry parameter of peaked Fano line shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierott, S.; Hotz, T.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J.

    2016-10-01

    The spectroscopic line shape of electronic and vibrational excitations is ubiquitously described by a Fano profile. In the case of nearly symmetric and peaked Fano line shapes, the fit of the conventional Fano function to experimental data leads to difficulties in unambiguously extracting the asymmetry parameter, which may vary over orders of magnitude without degrading the quality of the fit. Moreover, the extracted asymmetry parameter depends on initially guessed values. Using the spectroscopic signature of the single-Co Kondo effect on Au(110) the ambiguity of the extracted asymmetry parameter is traced to the highly symmetric resonance profile combined with the inevitable scattering of experimental data. An improved parameterization of the conventional Fano function is suggested that enables the nonlinear optimization in a reduced parameter space. In addition, the presence of a global minimum in the sum of squared residuals and thus the independence of start parameters may conveniently be identified in a two-dimensional plot. An angular representation of the asymmetry parameter is suggested in order to reliably determine uncertainty margins via linear error propagation.

  11. Assimilation of SWOT Observations for the Creation of Spatially and Temporally Consistent Discharge Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C. K.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission is designed to provide global estimates of water surface elevation, slope and discharge from space. This mission will provide increased spatial and temporal coverage compared to current altimeters. However, the temporal sampling is less frequent than current in-situ discharge observations. Thus, there is a need for methods that can utilize spatially and temporally inconsistent observations of discharge to reconstruct fields that are consistent in time and space. Using the Inverse Streamflow Routing (ISR) model of Pan and Wood [2013], discharge records are derived for the Ohio River basin using data assimilation with a fixed interval Kalman smoother. ISR utilizes observed (or SWOT retrieved) discharge values at discrete (gauge) locations to generate spatially and temporally distributed fields of runoff by inverting a linear routing model. These runoff fields are then routed to produce river discharge estimates throughout the basin. Three experiments have been carried out to evaluate assimilating SWOT observations. The experiments are: (1) assimilating 75 in-situ gauges only, (2) using 50 in-situ gauges and 25 SWOT-retrieved "gauges", and (3) using 75 SWOT-retrieved "gauges" only. The estimated discharges are compared to in-situ USGS gauge data from 2006 to 2009. Results show that the ISR assimilation method can be used to effectively reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of discharge in each of the experiments. In particular, the results of the SWOT-only data experiment indicate that despite the coarse temporal SWOT overpasses (0 to 3 over a 22 day period) significant discharge information throughout the entire basin can be retrieved. The ISR-SWOT assimilation approach will provide extremely useful discharge estimates, especially in sparsely gauged regions where spatially and temporally consistent discharge records are most valuable. Pan, M; Wood, E F 2013 Inverse streamflow routing, HESS 17(11):4577-4588

  12. Primordial density and BAO reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Xuelei

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method to reconstruct the primordial (linear) density field using the estimated nonlinear displacement field. The divergence of the displacement field gives the reconstructed density field. We solve the nonlinear displacement field in the 1D cosmology and show the reconstruction results. The new reconstruction algorithm recovers a lot of linear modes and reduces the nonlinear damping scale significantly. The successful 1D reconstruction results imply the new algorithm should also be a promising technique in the 3D case.

  13. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  14. Plasma Characteristics of Electrosurgical Discharges*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-01

    Surgical devices utilizing electrical discharges of ever increasing sophistication have been used for decades for numerous procedures. Cushing and Bovie in 1928, for example, developed high-frequency spark generators to cauterize blood vessels and remove unwanted tissue by a thermal ablation processes. Modern Bovies (named after their inventor) use a high-frequency discharge from an electrode to nearby tissue to thermally ablate tissue. Spectroscopic analysis shows that these discharges are hot and are well represented by a thermal equilibrium model, and temperatures near 2000 K are easily achieved. New electrosurgical devices utilizing repetitive electrical discharges in a conducting saline environment have recently been developed. Electron emission from an active electrode during certain portions of the voltage waveform causes the formation of a vapor layer surrounding the electrode and the subsequent ionization and dissociation of species in this region. Electron temperatures of approximately 4 eV are achieved during the plasma phase. Water molecules are dissociated into reactive fragments, and the salt species are also excited and ionized in this nonequilibrium plasma. It is thought that the reactive species interact with nearby tissue, causing localized tissue removal (ablation) which surgeons can exploit during surgical procedures. Flowing saline surrounding the plasma region cools untargeted tissue and removes the reaction products. This presentation will focus on experimental results of the plasma conditions and discuss our current efforts to understand the complex reactions of the various plasma species with tissue structures such as collagen. A short clip showing tissue removal will also be shown.

  15. Electrical discharge machining in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roekel, N B

    1992-01-01

    A brief history of electrical discharge machining (EDM) is given and the process is discussed. A description of the application of EDM for fabricating precision attachment removable partial dentures, fixed-removable implant prostheses, and titanium-ceramic crowns is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the EDM process for the dental profession are evaluated. Although expensive, the procedure has merit.

  16. Discharge current and current of supershort avalanche E-beam at volume nanosecond discharge in non-uniform electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Rybka, Dmitrii V.; Baksht, Evgenii H.; Kostyrya, Igor'D.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2008-01-01

    The gas diode current-voltage characteristics at the voltage pulses applied from the RADAN and SM-3NS pulsers, and generation of an supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) have been studied experimentally in an inhomogeneous electric field upon a nanosecond breakdown in an air gap at atmospheric pressure. Displacement currents with amplitude over 1 kA have been observed and monitored. It is shown that the displacement current amplitude gets increased due to movement of the dense plasma front and charging of a "capacitor" formed between plasma and anode. The SAEB generation time relatively to the discharge current pulses and the gap voltage were determined in the experiments. It is shown that the SAEB current maximum at the pulser voltages of hundreds kV is registered on the discharge current pulse front, before the discharge current peak of the gas diode capacitance, and the delay time of these peaks is determined by the value of an interelectrode spacing. The delay time in case of a gap of 16 mm and air breakdown at atmospheric pressure was ~100 ps, and in case of 10 mm it was less than 50 ps.

  17. A Transformer Partial Discharge Measurement System Based on Fluorescent Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the physical phenomena of optical effects produced by the partial discharge (PD and on the characteristics of fluorescent fiber sensing of weak fluorescent signals, a PD measurement system using a fluorescent fiber sensor was designed. The main parameters of the sensing system were calculated, an experimental testing platform for PD simulation in the lab was established, and PD signals were then detected through ultra-high frequency (UHF and optical methods under a needle-plate discharge model. PD optical pulses in transformer oil contained signal-peak and multi-peak pulse waveforms. Compared with UHF detection results, the number of PD pulses and the elapsed PD pulse phase time revealed a good corresponding relationship. However, PD signal amplitudes presented the opposite, thus indicating that PD UHF signals reflected pulse amplitude value, whereas PD optical signals reflected pulse energy magnitude. The n-u-φ three-dimensional distributions indicated that most of the PD signals concentrated in the nearby industrial frequency voltage peak value. Overall, the proposed fluorescent fiber sensing system design can be used successfully in transformer PD signal detection.

  18. Aluminum-Enhanced Underwater Electrical Discharges for Steam Explosion Triggering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOGELAND, STEVE R.; NELSON, LLOYD S.; ROTH, THOMAS CHRISTOPHER

    1999-07-01

    For a number of years, we have been initiating steam explosions of single drops of molten materials with pressure and flow (bubble growth) transients generated by discharging a capacitor bank through gold bridgewires placed underwater. Recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field of steam explosions, however, have made it important to substantially increase these relatively mild transients in water without using high explosives, if possible. To do this with the same capacitor bank, we have discharged similar energies through tiny strips of aluminum foil submerged in water. By replacing the gold wires with the aluminum strips, we were able to add the energy of the aluminum-water combustion to that normally deposited electrically by the bridgewire explosion in water. The chemical enhancement of the explosive characteristics of the discharges was substantial: when the same electrical energies were discharged through the aluminum strips, peak pressures increased as much as 12-fold and maximum bubble volumes as much as 5-fold above those generated with the gold wires. For given weights of aluminum, the magnitudes of both parameters appeared to exceed those produced by the underwater explosion of equivalent weights of high explosives.

  19. Plasma-density evolution in compact polyacetal capillary discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasel, F.G.; Rocca, J.J.; Cortazar, O.D.; Szapiro, B.T. (Electrical Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)); Lee, R.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-05-01

    We have measured the temporal evolution of the electron density of plasmas produced in polyacetal capillaries with diameters between 0.5 and 1.5 mm excited by 110-ns full-width-at-half-maximum discharge pulses with currents between 13 and 42 kA. The electron density was determined from Stark-broadened line profiles of the 4[ital f]-3[ital d] O VI transition taking into account opacity effects. The electron density was found to increase continuously during the rise of the current pulse, and to decrease near the end of the current pulse, when a drop in plasma temperature causes the degree of ionization of the plasma to decrease. The peak plasma density in a 1-mm capillary excited by a 24-kA pulse was measured to be 5[times]10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3]. The plasma density was observed to increase linearly with discharge energy from 7.5[times]10[sup 18] cm[sup [minus]3] for a 5-J discharge to 5[times]10[sup 19] cm[sup [minus]3] for a 30-J discharge in a 1.5-mm-diam. capillary.

  20. Augmented Likelihood Image Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2016-01-01

    The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.

  1. Reconstruction of three-dimensional occluded object using optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Hyun; Hong, Keehoon; Park, Gilbae; Chung, Indeok; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lee, Byoungho

    2010-12-06

    We proposed a reconstruction method for the occluded region of three-dimensional (3D) object using the depth extraction based on the optical flow and triangular mesh reconstruction in integral imaging. The depth information of sub-images from the acquired elemental image set is extracted using the optical flow with sub-pixel accuracy, which alleviates the depth quantization problem. The extracted depth maps of sub-image array are segmented by the depth threshold from the histogram based segmentation, which is represented as the point clouds. The point clouds are projected to the viewpoint of center sub-image and reconstructed by the triangular mesh reconstruction. The experimental results support the validity of the proposed method with high accuracy of peak signal-to-noise ratio and normalized cross-correlation in 3D image recognition.

  2. Discharge current distribution in stratified soil under impulse discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniola Fajingbesi, Fawwaz; Shahida Midi, Nur; Elsheikh, Elsheikh M. A.; Hajar Yusoff, Siti

    2017-06-01

    The mobility of charge particles traversing a material defines its electrical properties. Soil (earth) have long been the universal grounding before and after the inception of active ground systems for electrical appliance purpose due to it semi-conductive properties. The soil can thus be modelled as a single material exhibiting semi-complex inductive-reactive impedance. Under impulse discharge such as lightning strikes to soil this property of soil could result in electric potential level fluctuation ranging from ground potential rise/fall to electromagnetic pulse coupling that could ultimately fail connected electrical appliance. In this work we have experimentally model the soil and lightning discharge using point to plane electrode setup to observe the current distribution characteristics at different soil conductivity [mS/m] range. The result presented from this research indicate above 5% shift in conductivity before and after discharge which is significant for consideration when dealing with grounding designs. The current distribution in soil have also be successfully observed and analysed from experimental result using mean current magnitude in relation to electrode distance and location, current density variation with depth all showing strong correlation with theoretical assumptions of a semi-complex impedance material.

  3. Iterative initial condition reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

  4. A new model to predict weak-lensing peak counts II. Parameter constraint strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chieh-An

    2015-01-01

    Peak counts have been shown to be an excellent tool to extract the non-Gaussian part of the weak lensing signal. Recently, we developped a fast stochastic forward model to predict weak-lensing peak counts. Our model is able to reconstruct the underlying distribution of observables for analyses. In this work, we explore and compare various strategies for constraining parameter using our model, focusing on the matter density $\\Omega_\\mathrm{m}$ and the density fluctuation amplitude $\\sigma_8$. First, we examine the impact from the cosmological dependency of covariances (CDC). Second, we perform the analysis with the copula likelihood, a technique which makes a weaker assumption compared to the Gaussian likelihood. Third, direct, non-analytic parameter estimations are applied using the full information of the distribution. Fourth, we obtain constraints with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), an efficient, robust, and likelihood-free algorithm based on accept-reject sampling. We find that neglecting the CDC ...

  5. Upper Eyelid Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Gabriela Mabel; Prost, Angela Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Reconstruction of the upper eyelid is complicated because the eyelid must retain mobility, flexibility, function, and a suitable mucosal surface over the delicate cornea. Defects of the upper eyelid may be due to congenital defects or traumatic injury or follow oncologic resection. This article focuses on reconstruction due to loss of tissue. Multiple surgeries may be needed to reach the desired results, addressing loss of tissue and then loss of function. Each defect is unique and the laxity and availability of surrounding tissue vary. Knowing the most common techniques for repair assists surgeons in the multifaceted planning that takes place.

  6. Vertex Reconstruction in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Chabanat, E; D'Hondt, J; Vanlaer, P; Prokofiev, K; Speer, T; Frühwirth, R; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Because of the high track multiplicity in the final states expected in proton collisions at the LHC experiments, novel vertex reconstruction algorithms are required. The vertex reconstruction problem can be decomposed into a pattern recognition problem ("vertex finding") and an estimation problem ("vertex fitting"). Starting from least-square methods, ways to render the classical algorithms more robust are discussed and the statistical properties of the novel methods are shown. A whole set of different approaches for the vertex finding problem is presented and compared in relevant physics channels.

  7. Reconstruction of inflation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Zerbini, Sergio [Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, Trento (Italy); TIFPA, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trento (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we reconstruct viable inflationary models by starting from spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio from Planck observations. We analyze three different kinds of models: scalar field theories, fluid cosmology, and f(R)-modified gravity. We recover the well-known R{sup 2} inflation in Jordan-frame and Einstein-frame representation, the massive scalar inflaton models and two models of inhomogeneous fluid. A model of R{sup 2} correction to Einstein's gravity plus a ''cosmological constant'' with an exact solution for early-time acceleration is reconstructed. (orig.)

  8. Instant Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Biologic Mesh following Resection of Locally Advanced Colonic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskay Kaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of immediate abdominal wall reconstruction with biologic mesh following the resection of locally advanced colonic cancer. The tumor in the right colon did not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Surgical enbloc excision, including excision of the invasion in the abdominal wall, was achieved, and the defect was reconstructed with porcine dermal collagen mesh. The patient was discharged with no complication, and adaptation of the mesh was excellent at the six-month followup.

  9. Model-based cap thickness and peak cap stress prediction for carotid MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Annette M; van der Lugt, Aad; Verhagen, Hence J M; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Gijsen, Frank J H

    2017-07-26

    A rupture-prone carotid plaque can potentially be identified by calculating the peak cap stress (PCS). For these calculations, plaque geometry from MRI is often used. Unfortunately, MRI is hampered by a low resolution, leading to an overestimation of cap thickness and an underestimation of PCS. We developed a model to reconstruct the cap based on plaque geometry to better predict cap thickness and PCS. We used histological stained plaques from 34 patients. These plaques were segmented and served as the ground truth. Sections of these plaques contained 93 necrotic cores with a cap thickness Caps below the MRI resolution (n=31) were (digitally removed and) reconstructed according to the geometry-based model. Cap thickness and PCS were determined for the ground truth, readers, and reconstructed geometries. Cap thickness was 0.07mm for the ground truth, 0.23mm for the readers, and 0.12mm for the reconstructed geometries. The model predicts cap thickness significantly better than the readers. PCS was 464kPa for the ground truth, 262kPa for the readers and 384kPa for the reconstructed geometries. The model did not predict the PCS significantly better than the readers. The geometry-based model provided a significant improvement for cap thickness estimation and can potentially help in rupture-risk prediction, solely based on cap thickness. Estimation of PCS estimation did not improve, probably due to the complex shape of the plaques. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Dependence of Electron Peak Current on Hollow Cathode Dimensions and Seed Electron Energy in a Pseudospark Discharge (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-18

    backlighted- thyratron BLT.8,18,19 Experiments have shown that the number13 of seed electrons needed to initiate a dis- charge is of the order of...superemissive state. The physical model for the latteraElectronic mail: socetiner@yahoo.com. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 103, 023304 2008 0021-8979/2008/1032...sustained sputtering,23 and is not being modeled here; our attention is focused on the triggering and avalanche processes, which can be identi- fied

  11. Dependence of Electron Peak Current on Hollow Cathode Dimensions and Seed Electron Energy in a Pseudospark Discharge (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-03

    photo-emission. The optically-triggered method is usually referred to as the backlighted- thyratron (BLT). Experiments have shown that the number10...emissive state. The physical model for the latter phase (also called “super-dense glow”) is not yet well understood, albeit likely to involve a self...sustained sputtering18, and is not being modeled here; our attention is focused on the triggering and avalanche processes, which can be identified here as

  12. Can we reconstruct meltwater supplies from ice-sheet to the ocean from proxies ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vernal, A.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2006-12-01

    The transfer of water from ice sheets to the ocean occurs through iceberg or meltwater discharge. In the first case, sedimentary tracers provide information on source areas and dispersal patterns, but do not permit quantifying the volume of freshwater release. In the second case, sedimentary tracers can help identifying catastrophic discharge that are accompanied by turbulent flow and gravity currents on sea-floor. Otherwise, continuous input of freshwater from ice margins (or from river) into the ocean results in stratification in upper waters that is controlled by discharge rates up to some threshold of turbulence. In this situation, sedimentary tracers are not much helpful informative, but biogenic remains, their isotopic and elemental contents can provide relevant information. They allow identifying salinity anomalies related to the mixing of freshwater in surface water layers. However, the associated changes in the upper water mass structure have an impact on pelagic ecosystems. Most stenohaline organisms are affected and decrease in abundance unless they are able to migrate along the halocline to find suitable salinity conditions. In theory, the analysis of fossil assemblage permits to infer changes in salinity and/or in the stratification of the upper water masses, and through transfer function, to make quantitative reconstructions. This exercise has been tempted with biological tracers such as dinocysts. Other proxies should also reveal informative, notably diatoms that occur in all salinity domains. In theory also, if a given species is able to keep its depth habitat despite changes in salinity and/or water mass structure, isotopic or geochemical tracers allow identifying changes in water-mass properties. This assumption is however debatable. Thus, reconstructing freshwater discharge is a challenge and requires combining complementary tracers. Here, we examine records of the last deglaciation with special attention to the Younger Dryas (YD) and "8.2 ka

  13. Microhollow cathode discharge excimer lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; El-Habachi, Ahmed; Moselhy, Mohamed M.; Shi, Wenhui; Stark, Robert H.

    2000-05-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges are high-pressure, nonequilibrium gas discharges between a hollow cathode and a planar or hollow anode with electrode dimensions in the 100 μm range. The large concentration of high-energy electrons, in combination with the high-gas density favors excimer formation. Excimer emission was observed in xenon and argon, at wavelengths of 128 and 172 nm, respectively, and in argon fluoride and xenon chloride, at 193 and 308 nm. The radiant emittance of the excimer radiation was found to increase monotonically with pressure. However, due to the decrease in source size with pressure, the efficiency (ratio of excimer radiant power to input electrical power), has for xenon and argon fluoride a maximum at ˜400 Torr. The maximum efficiency is between 6% and 9% for xenon, and ˜2% for argon fluoride.

  14. Current-induced membrane discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M B; Mani, A; Bruus, H; Biesheuvel, P M; Bazant, M Z

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for over-limiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability (EOI) have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge" (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow. Salt depletion leads to a large electric field which expels water co-ions, causing the membrane to discharge and lose its selectivity. Since salt co-ions and water ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counter-ion removal) but could be exploited for current-assisted ion exchange and pH control. CIMD also suppresses the extended space charge that leads to EOI, so it should be reconsidered in both models and experiments on OLC.

  15. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Possible mechanisms for overlimiting current (OLC) through aqueous ion-exchange membranes (exceeding diffusion limitation) have been debated for half a century. Flows consistent with electro-osmotic instability have recently been observed in microfluidic experiments, but the existing theory...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length....... Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...

  16. [Ductoscopy for pathologic nipple discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Laurien; van Diest, Paul J; van der Pol, Carmen C; Verolme, Berna; Hennink, Annelies; Witkamp, Arjen J

    2013-01-01

    Pathologic nipple discharge is a symptom that frequently causes female patients to visit the outpatient breast clinic. In the vast majority of cases, the symptom is caused by a benign intraductal laesion. The options for diagnosis and treatment have long been limited; surgery was not infrequently the treatment of choice. With the advent of breast ductoscopy, a micro-endoscopic procedure, it is possible to visualise abnormalities in the ductal system. Tissue for histopathological investigation can be retrieved from the duct and the condition can be treated. The patient with nipple discharge is consequently prevented from having to undergo an invasive and fairly 'blindly' executed procedure under general anaesthesia. The miniscule dimensions of the duct in which the technique is carried out pose the greatest challenge to the further development of the ductoscope.

  17. Discharge under the Combined Influence of DC and RF Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    For pulsed operation two Epsco Model PG5KB generators are available which give a peak output of about 4.5 kilo- watts. While the CW sources are fixed...0.005 for rated power. The Epsco has a coaxial output. Any combination of the microwave sources can be used at once. The most uniform discharges, however...load. The third port of this circulator-dummy load has a waveguide to coax adapter that is connected to the Epsco generator for pulsed microwave

  18. Hydroclimatology of Dual-Peak Annual Cholera Incidence: Insights from a Spatially Explicit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera incidence in some regions of the Indian subcontinent may exhibit two annual peaks although the main environmental drivers that have been linked to the disease (e.g. sea surface temperature, zooplankton abundance, river discharge) peak once per year during the summer. An empirical hydroclimatological explanation relating cholera transmission to river flows and to the disease spatial spreading has been recently proposed. We specifically support and substantiate mechanistically such hypothesis by means of a spatially explicit model of cholera transmission. Our framework directly accounts for the role of the river network in transporting and redistributing cholera bacteria among human communities as well as for spatial and temporal annual fluctuations of precipitation and river flows. To single out the single out the hydroclimatologic controls on the prevalence patterns in a non-specific geographical context, we first apply the model to Optimal Channel Networks as a general model of hydrological networks. Moreover, we impose a uniform distribution of population. The model is forced by seasonal environmental drivers, namely precipitation, temperature and chlorophyll concentration in the coastal environment, a proxy for Vibrio cholerae concentration. Our results show that these drivers may suffice to generate dual-peak cholera prevalence patterns for proper combinations of timescales involved in pathogen transport, hydrologic variability and disease unfolding. The model explains the possible occurrence of spatial patterns of cholera incidence characterized by a spring peak confined to coastal areas and a fall peak involving inland regions. We then proceed applying the model to the specific settings of Bay of Bengal accounting for the actual river networks (derived from digital terrain map manipulations), the proper distribution of population (estimated from downscaling of census data based on remotely sensed features) and precipitation patterns. Overall our

  19. Axial light emission and Ar metastable densities in a parallel plate dc micro discharge in steady state and transient regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuschel, T; Stefanović, I; Böke, M; Skoro, N; Marić, D; Petrović, Z Lj; Winter, J

    2011-01-01

    Axial emission profiles in a parallel plate dc micro discharge (feedgas: argon; discharge gap d=1mm; pressure p=10Torr) were studied by means of time resolved imaging with a fast ICCD camera. Additionally, volt-ampere (V-A) characteristics were recorded and Ar* metastable densities were measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). Axial emission profiles in the steady state regime are similar to corresponding profiles in standard size discharges (d=1cm, p=1Torr). For some discharge conditions relaxation oscillations are present when the micro discharge switches periodically between low current Townsend-like mode and normal glow. At the same time the axial emission profile shows transient behavior, starting with peak distribution at the anode, which gradually moves towards the cathode during the normal glow. The development of argon metastable densities highly correlates with the oscillating discharge current. Gas temperatures in the low current Townsend-like mode (T= 320-400K) and the high...

  20. Internal Electrostatic Discharge Monitor - IESDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wousik; Goebel, Dan M.; Jun, Insoo; Garrett, Henry B.

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses an innovation designed to effectively monitor dielectric charging in spacecraft components to measure the potential for discharge in order to prevent damage from internal electrostatic discharge (IESD). High-energy electrons penetrate the structural materials and shielding of a spacecraft and then stop inside dielectrics and keep accumulating. Those deposited charges generate an electric field. If the electric field becomes higher than the breakdown threshold (approx. =2 x 10(exp 5) V/cm), discharge occurs. This monitor measures potentials as a function of dielectric depth. Differentiation of potential with respect to the depth yields electric field. Direct measurement of the depth profile of the potential in a dielectric makes real-time electronic field evaluation possible without simulations. The IESDM has been designed to emulate a multi-layer circuit board, to insert very thin metallic layers between the dielectric layers. The conductors serve as diagnostic monitoring locations to measure the deposited electron-charge and the charge dynamics. Measurement of the time-dependent potential of the metal layers provides information on the amount of charge deposited in the dielectrics and the movement of that charge with time (dynamics).

  1. Flow reconstructions in the Upper Missouri River Basin using riparian tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, Derek M.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Rathburn, Sara L.

    2016-10-01

    River flow reconstructions are typically developed using tree rings from montane conifers that cannot reflect flow regulation or hydrologic inputs from the lower portions of a watershed. Incorporating lowland riparian trees may improve the accuracy of flow reconstructions when these trees are physically linked to the alluvial water table. We used riparian plains cottonwoods (Populus deltoides ssp. monilifera) to reconstruct discharge for three neighboring rivers in the Upper Missouri River Basin: the Yellowstone (n = 389 tree cores), Powder (n = 408), and Little Missouri Rivers (n = 643). We used the Regional Curve Standardization approach to reconstruct log-transformed discharge over the 4 months in early summer that most highly correlated to tree ring growth. The reconstructions explained at least 57% of the variance in historical discharge and extended back to 1742, 1729, and 1643. These are the first flow reconstructions for the Lower Yellowstone and Powder Rivers, and they are the furthest downstream among Rocky Mountain rivers in the Missouri River Basin. Although mostly free-flowing, the Yellowstone and Powder Rivers experienced a shift from early-summer to late-summer flows within the last century. This shift is concurrent with increasing irrigation and reservoir storage, and it corresponds to decreased cottonwood growth. Low-frequency flow patterns revealed wet conditions from 1870 to 1980, a period that includes the majority of the historical record. The 1816-1823 and 1861-1865 droughts were more severe than any recorded, revealing that drought risks are underestimated when using the instrumental record alone.

  2. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    Urogenital reconstructive surgery Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen1 Professor Henning Olsen1 Overlæge Gitte Hvistendahl1 Professor Karl-Erik Andersson2 1 – Dept. of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital 2 – Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University hospital Background: Congenital obstruction...

  3. Reconstruction Setting Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first phase of earthquake relief,in which rescuing lives was the priority,finished 12 days after a 7.1-magnitude earthquake struck the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in northwest China's Qinghai Province on April 14,and reconstruction of the area is now ready to begin.

  4. Pangloss: Reconstructing lensing mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Mason, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Pangloss reconstructs all the mass within a light cone through the Universe. Understanding complex mass distributions like this is important for accurate time delay lens cosmography, and also for accurate lens magnification estimation. It aspires to use all available data in an attempt to make the best of all mass maps.

  5. Effect of the rate of rise in discharge current on the output of a 46.9-nm soft X-ray laser based on capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, S.; Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Naik, P. A.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2016-06-01

    The rate of rise in discharge current (d I/d t) is an important parameter in an X-ray laser pumped by fast capillary discharge. The effect of this parameter on the energy of an argon plasma-based 46.9-nm soft X-ray laser pulse has been experimentally studied. It was found that an X-ray laser pulse with ~2 μJ energy, which can be obtained at a discharge current of ~40 kA with d I/d t value of ~7.1 × 1011 A/s, can also be obtained at a much lower peak current of ~26 kA if the quarter period ( T/4) of the discharge current is made shorter to achieve a comparable d I/d t value. For a fixed T/4, the laser energy could be enhanced from 2 to 4 μJ for an increase in the d I/d t value from 7.1 × 1011 to 1.3 × 1012 A/s by increasing the peak current from 26 to 44 kA. It was also observed that for a fixed d I/d t, mere increase in the discharge current does not increase the laser energy.

  6. Equation of Energy Injection to a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuiliang; Weng, Shan; Jin, Qi; Han, Jingyi; Jiang, Boqiong; Wu, Zuliang

    2016-08-01

    The electric energy injection from a pulsed power supply to a planar type of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor at atmospheric pressure was studied. Relations of the energy injection with barrier materials, barrier thickness, peak voltage, gap distance, electrode area, and operation temperature were experimentally investigated. The energy injection is a function of relative permittivity, barrier thickness, peak voltage, gap distance, and electrode area. The influence of operation temperature on energy injection is slight in the range of 27-300 °C but becomes obvious in the range of 300-500 °C. A model was established using which the energy injection can be easily predicted. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11575159), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY13B070004), Program for Zhejiang Leading Team of S&T Innovation (No. 2013TD07), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51206146)

  7. 42 CFR 32.89 - Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PERSONS WITH HANSEN'S DISEASE AND OTHER PERSONS IN EMERGENCIES Persons with Hansen's Disease § 32.89 Discharge. Patients with Hansen's disease will be discharged when, in the opinion of the medical staff of...

  8. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal...

  9. Impact on the aquatic environment of hydro-peaking in hydroelectric plants; Impact sur le milieu aquatique de la gestion par eclusees des usines hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaton, C.; Lauters, F.; Valentin, S.

    1996-12-31

    There are a number of types of hydroelectric installations on French rivers. Some of these intermittently turbine water stored in dammed reservoirs, in order to use available reserves at the most opportune moment for power generation. These plants, run under `hydro-peaking` management procedures, cause variations in discharge in river sections downstream of the restitution, on a daily or weekly scale. To answer questions concerning the impact of such variations in discharge on the aquatic environment, EDF launched a research program aimed at describing and better understanding the physical and biological phenomena related to hydro-peaking and assessing the possible impact of this type of plant management on French streams. Seven sites subjects to hydro-peaking were studied on rivers with mean flow rates lower than 20 m{sup 3}/s (which corresponds to over 65 % of EDF hydro-peaking sites). Four themes in particular were examined: hydraulic characterization of hydro-peaking, modifications in thermal regime and water quality, response of benthic invertebrates and response of fish populations to hydro-peaking. For fish as well as for invertebrates, the role of the base discharge - in the absence of peaking flow - and that of the morphology of the river bed (and, in particular, the presence of shelter for fish) during periods of strong discharge were clearly highlighted. Impact assessment requires a precise diagnosis of the state of biocenoses. To carry out such a diagnosis, one must reason in terms of species, life phase (particularly the most sensitive phases) and population structure as well as the type of stream and the faunizone involved. A risk assessment is possible by means of simultaneous study of the morphology of the river bed and the response of the signal generated by hydro-peaking in terms of hydrology and physical characteristics downstream of the restitution. (authors). 25 refs.

  10. Temporal evolution of electron density and temperature in capillary discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seong Y.; Uhm, Han S.; Kang, Hoonsoo; Lee, In W.; Suk, Hyyong

    2010-05-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a capillary discharge plasma of helium gas were carried out to obtain detailed information about dynamics of the discharge plasma column, where the fast plasma dynamics is determined by the electron density and temperature. Our measurements show that the electron density of the capillary plasma column increases sharply after gas breakdown and reaches its peak of the order of 1018 cm-3 within less than 100 ns, and then it decreases as time goes by. The result indicates that a peak electron density of 2.3×1018 cm-3 occurs about 65 ns after formation of the discharge current, which is ideal for laser wakefield acceleration experiments reported by Karsch et al. [New J. Phys. 9, 415 (2007)].

  11. CMB Lensing Beyond the Power Spectrum: Cosmological Constraints from the One-Point PDF and Peak Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia; Sherwin, Blake D; Petri, Andrea; Böhm, Vanessa; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedentedly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) data are expected from ongoing and near-future CMB Stage-III and IV surveys, which will yield reconstructed CMB lensing maps with effective resolution approaching several arcminutes. The small-scale CMB lensing fluctuations receive non-negligible contributions from nonlinear structure in the late-time density field. These fluctuations are not fully characterized by traditional two-point statistics, such as the power spectrum. Here, we use $N$-body ray-tracing simulations of CMB lensing maps to examine two higher-order statistics: the lensing convergence one-point probability distribution function (PDF) and peak counts. We show that these statistics contain significant information not captured by the two-point function, and provide specific forecasts for the ongoing Stage-III Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope (AdvACT) experiment. Considering only the temperature-based reconstruction estimator, we forecast 30$\\sigma$ (PDF) and 10$\\sigma$ (peaks) detec...

  12. Discharge Oscillations in a Permanent Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the discharge current in a cylindrical Hall thruster are presented to quantify plasma oscillations and instabilities without introducing an intrusive probe into the plasma. The time-varying component of the discharge current is measured using a current monitor that possesses a wide frequency bandwidth and the signal is Fourier transformed to yield the frequency spectra present, allowing for the identification of plasma oscillations. The data show that the discharge current oscillations become generally greater in amplitude and complexity as the voltage is increased, and are reduced in severity with increasing flow rate. The breathing mode ionization instability is identified, with frequency as a function of discharge voltage not increasing with discharge voltage as has been observed in some traditional Hall thruster geometries, but instead following a scaling similar to a large-amplitude, nonlinear oscillation mode recently predicted in for annular Hall thrusters. A transition from lower amplitude oscillations to large relative fluctuations in the oscillating discharge current is observed at low flow rates and is suppressed as the mass flow rate is increased. A second set of peaks in the frequency spectra are observed at the highest propellant flow rate tested. Possible mechanisms that might give rise to these peaks include ionization instabilities and interactions between various oscillatory modes.

  13. Breast reconstruction: Correlation between different procedures, reconstruction timing and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelkov Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Improved psychophysical condition after breast reconstruction in women has been well documented Objective. To determine the most optimal technique with minimal morbidity, the authors examined their results and complications based on reconstruction timing (immediate and delayed reconstruction and three reconstruction methods: TRAM flap, latissimus dorsi flap and reconstruction with tissue expanders and implants. Methods. Reconstruction was performed in 60 women of mean age 51.1 years. We analyzed risk factors: age, body mass index (BMI, smoking history and radiation therapy in correlation with timing and method of reconstruction. Complications of all three methods of reconstruction were under 1.5-2-year follow-up after the reconstruction. All data were statistically analyzed. Results. Only radiation had significant influence on the occurrence of complications both before and after the reconstruction, while age, smoking and BMI had no considerable influence of the development of complications. There were no statistically significant correlation between the incidence of complications, time and method of reconstruction. Conclusion. Any of the aforementioned breast reconstruction techniques can yield good results and a low rate of re-operations. To choose the best method, the patient needs to be as well informed as possible about the options including the risks and benefits of each method.

  14. Characteristics of a micro-gap argon barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Zhang, Qi; Jia, Pengying; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Dong, Lifang

    2017-03-01

    Using two water electrodes, a micro-gap dielectric barrier discharge excited by a saw-tooth voltage is investigated in atmospheric pressure argon. Through electrical and optical measurements, it is found that, at a lower driving frequency, a stepped discharge mode is obtained per half voltage cycle. Moreover, the duration and amplitude of the current plateau increase with the increase in the applied peak voltage. With the increase in the driving frequency, the stepped discharge mode transits into a pulsed one after a multi-peak mode. During this process, a diffuse discharge at a lower frequency transits into a filamentary one at a higher frequency. Temporal evolutions of the discharges are investigated axially based on fast photography. It is found that the stepped mode is in atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge (APTD) regime. However, there is a transition from APTD to atmospheric pressure glow discharge for the pulsed mode. Spectral intensity ratio of 391.4 nm to 337.1 nm is used to determine the averaged electron energy, which decreases with increasing peak voltage or driving frequency.

  15. Spatial mask filtering algorithm for partial discharge pulse extraction of large generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A spatial mask filter algorithm (SMF) for partial discharge (PD) pulse extraction is proposed in this then direct multiplication of coefficients at two adjacent scales is used to detect singularity points of the signal tain the last spatial mask filter. By multiplication of wavelet coefficients with the final mask filter and wavelet reconstruction process, partial discharge pulses are extracted. The results of digital simulation and practical experiment show that this method is superior to traditional wavelet shrinkage method (TWS). This algorithm not only can increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR), but also can preserve the energy and pulse amplitude.

  16. ASSESSING PEAK AEROBIC CAPACITY IN DUTCH LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report norm

  17. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. I.

    1972-01-01

    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  18. Reconstructing mercury contamination of a steep, gravel-bed river using reservoir theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    We address a frequently encountered but largely unsolved problem: how to chronologically order geological samples without relative or absolute age dating. Mercury was released into the South River, Virginia, between 1930 and 1950 from a manufacturing process related to nylon production. 187 samples from 21 fine-grained deposits that formed in the lee of woody debris along a 20 km study reach record past mercury concentrations on suspended sediment carried by the South River. Only 15 radiometric dates are available, however, so concentrations cannot be ordered in time. Conceptually, we treat all of the deposits as a single reservoir exchanging contaminated sediments with the adjacent water column, and assume that the total sediment mass in storage and the distribution of sediment ages are time invariant. Using reservoir theory, our approach completely defines timescales of sediment and mercury reworking, allowing us to compute the preserved distribution of mercury concentrations in deposits from any time series of suspended sediment mercury concentrations. Reconstructed concentrations can be used to compute historic mercury fluxes if the discharge is known. Trial mercury concentration time series are considered to be consistent with our observational data if the predicted distribution of preserved concentrations is within ~ 1% (rms error) of the distribution observed in 2007. Many different histories fit our data, so we assume that peak contamination occurred sometime during the period of mercury use at the plant. Our model results demonstrate that concentrations have decreased by approximately 2 orders of magnitude since 1950. During years of peak contamination, a maximum of 900-1100 kg of mercury was stored in the deposits, compared to only 80 kg today. Simulations of future Hg removal suggest that 100-yr timescales will be needed for the South River to cleanse its channel perimeter of Hg-contaminated sediments through natural processes.

  19. Modeling High Pressure Micro Hollow Cathode Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    cathode discharge excimer lamps , Phys. Plasmas 7, 286 (2000). [3] RH Stark and KH Schoenbach, Direct high pressure glow discharges, J. Appl. Phys...temperature profiles in argon glow discharges, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2234 (2000) [8] M. Moselhy, W. Shi, R. Stark, A flat glow discharge excimer radiation...MHCD acts as a plasma cathode for a third electrode (anode). Some experimental results in this geometry are available for argon and for air from the

  20. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  1. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B, and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. We reveal in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that are significant and consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of consistent significant change calculatesd relative to both the natural variability and the inter-model spread. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases are large for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube. While discharge of Monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  2. Global patterns of change in discharge regimes for 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Sperna Weiland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study makes a thorough global assessment of the effects of climate change on hydrological regimes and their accompanying uncertainties. Meteorological data from twelve GCMs (SRES scenarios A1B and control experiment 20C3M are used to drive the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. This reveals in which regions of the world changes in hydrology can be detected that have a high likelihood and are consistent amongst the ensemble of GCMs. New compared to existing studies is: (1 the comparison of spatial patterns of regime changes and (2 the quantification of notable consistent changes calculated relative to the GCM specific natural variability. The resulting consistency maps indicate in which regions the likelihood of hydrological change is large.

    Projections of different GCMs diverge widely. This underscores the need of using a multi-model ensemble. Despite discrepancies amongst models, consistent results are revealed: by 2100 the GCMs project consistent decreases in discharge for southern Europe, southern Australia, parts of Africa and southwestern South-America. Discharge decreases strongly for most African rivers, the Murray and the Danube while discharge of monsoon influenced rivers slightly increases. In the Arctic regions river discharge increases and a phase-shift towards earlier peaks is observed. Results are comparable to previous global studies, with a few exceptions. Globally we calculated an ensemble mean discharge increase of more than ten percent. This increase contradicts previously estimated decreases, which is amongst others caused by the use of smaller GCM ensembles and different reference periods.

  3. Early discharge hospital at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Iliffe, Steve; Doll, Helen A; Broad, Joanna; Gladman, John; Langhorne, Peter; Richards, Suzanne H; Shepperd, Sasha

    2017-06-26

    Early discharge hospital at home is a service that provides active treatment by healthcare professionals in the patient's home for a condition that otherwise would require acute hospital inpatient care. This is an update of a Cochrane review. To determine the effectiveness and cost of managing patients with early discharge hospital at home compared with inpatient hospital care. We searched the following databases to 9 January 2017: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and EconLit. We searched clinical trials registries. Randomised trials comparing early discharge hospital at home with acute hospital inpatient care for adults. We excluded obstetric, paediatric and mental health hospital at home schemes.   DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the body of evidence for the most important outcomes. We included 32 trials (N = 4746), six of them new for this update, mainly conducted in high-income countries. We judged most of the studies to have a low or unclear risk of bias. The intervention was delivered by hospital outreach services (17 trials), community-based services (11 trials), and was co-ordinated by a hospital-based stroke team or physician in conjunction with community-based services in four trials.Studies recruiting people recovering from strokeEarly discharge hospital at home probably makes little or no difference to mortality at three to six months (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 1.48, N = 1114, 11 trials, moderate-certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the risk of hospital readmission (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.66, N = 345, 5 trials, low-certainty evidence). Hospital at home may lower the risk of living in institutional setting at six months (RR 0.63, 96% CI

  4. Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Breast Reconstruction Surgery Preparing for Breast Reconstruction Surgery Your surgeon can help you know what to ... The plan for follow-up Costs Understanding your surgery costs Health insurance policies often cover most or ...

  5. A General Thermal Equilibrium Discharge Flow Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Min-fu; ZHANG; Dong-xu; LV; Yu-feng

    2015-01-01

    In isentropic and thermal equilibrium assumptions,a discharge flow model was derived,which unified the rules of normal temperature water discharge,high temperature and high pressure water discharge,two-phase critical flow,saturated steam and superheated steam critical

  6. 32 CFR 724.117 - Discharge review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge review. 724.117 Section 724.117 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NAVAL DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD Definitions § 724.117 Discharge review. A nonadversary administrative reappraisal at the level...

  7. Continuous optical discharge in a laser cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivel', Yu. A.

    2016-08-01

    Optical discharge in a laser cavity is experimentally studied. A significant increase in the absorption of laser radiation (up to total absorption) is revealed. Optical schemes for initiation and maintaining of optical discharge in the cavity are proposed for technological applications of the optical discharge.

  8. Predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Paez; Maria Lucia Tiellet Nunes; Vânia Naomi Hirakata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This empirical study was based on the analysis of the results of a study about dropout predictors among in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy. The objectives were to characterize the sample of children discharged from psychoanalytic psychotherapy, examine the association between sociodemographic/ clinical variables and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy discharge, and determine predictors of discharge in child psychoanalytic psychotherapy.Method: This quantitative, descriptive a...

  9. Economic and safety analysis of unconventional peak regulation on power unit of peak shifting start-stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Zhao, J. F.; Duan, X. Q.; Jin, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    Tthe capacity difference of peak regulation between the power gird and the actual demand has become a serious problem considering the growth in the difference between electricity supply and demand. Therefore, peak regulation of power grid needs to be deeply studied. Unconventional peak regulation on unit of peak shifting start-stop is a way that can broaden the range of power regulation, as well as benefit safe operation of the power grid. However, it requires frequent and fast unit start-stop, complex operation, and more staff labor. By carrying out unconventional thermal power unit load test, the start-stop mode of peak auxiliary equipment is studied in this paper, indicating that it has a positive effect on safety and economic of load-peaking operation. The best working conditions of the peak units is found by analysing consumption cost, safety specifications, and life lost of the start-stop peak regulation mode.

  10. Bankfull characteristics of Ohio streams and their relation to peak streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.

    2005-01-01

    statistical techniques. The logarithms of the annual peak discharges for the 40 gaged study sites were fit by a Pearson Type III frequency distribution to develop flood-peak discharges associated with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. The peak-frequency data were related to geomorphic, basin, and climatic variables by multiple-regression analysis. Simple-regression equations were developed to estimate 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year flood-peak discharges of rural, unregulated streams in Ohio from bankfull channel cross-sectional area. The average standard errors of prediction are 31.6, 32.6, 35.9, 41.5, 46.2, and 51.2 percent, respectively. The study and methods developed are intended to improve understanding of the relations between geomorphic, basin, and flood characteristics of streams in Ohio and to aid in the design of hydraulic structures, such as culverts and bridges, where stability of the stream and structure is an important element of the design criteria. The study was done in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

  11. Predicting the Discharge Rate Contribution of the Binuwang Watershed to the Agos River, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Dakila; Paningbatan, Eduardo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In 2004, Typhoon Winnie brought torrential rains which triggered massive landslides and floods which devastated the provinces of Infanta, Real and General Nakar in the Philippines. Winnie inflicted USD 111.14 million worth of damage to crops, livestock and infrastructure and left thousands dead or homeless. The Binuwang River is a sub-tributary of the Agos River, but the extent to which it contributes to flooding has not yet been determined. This study measures the depth of the Binuwang River to estimate the discharge rate contribution of the Binuwang River Watershed to the Agos River using an automatic rain gauge recorder and water level loggers set to record at 5-minute intervals. Flood-generating rainfall events were monitored during the onset of Typhoon Nesat (locally called 'Pedring') September 26-27, 2011. The automated rain gauge recorded 227 mm cumulative rainfall over a 6-hour and 41-minute period. It reached a peak rainfall intensity of 17.5 mm per 5-minute interval that generated a discharge height increase of 1.8 m at the monitoring station and a total discharge volume of 99,823 m3 over a 35-hour duration. An 8.81-hour lag time from the peak rainfall to the peak discharge concentration was recorded. A PCRaster-based hydrologic model was used to predict the total discharge hydrograph of the Binuwang River Watershed. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and soil and land use maps were prepared to parameterize the model. The observed and predicted discharge hydrographs were found to be highly correlated. Among the parameters used to calibrate the model hydrologic output, most sensitive are the infiltration saturation coefficient and Manning's roughness coefficient. An increase in the infiltration saturation coefficient resulted in a decreased discharge height, while an increase of Manning's roughness coefficient lengthened the lag time. The predicted discharge volume and height were used to simulate the impact of reforestation and land conversion to cultivated

  12. FIRST: Fast Iterative Reconstruction Software for (PET) tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J L [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J J [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital GU Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital GU Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); UdIas, J M [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2006-09-21

    Small animal PET scanners require high spatial resolution and good sensitivity. To reconstruct high-resolution images in 3D-PET, iterative methods, such as OSEM, are superior to analytical reconstruction algorithms, although their high computational cost is still a serious drawback. The higher performance of modern computers could make iterative image reconstruction fast enough to be viable, provided we are able to deal with the large number of probability coefficients for the system response matrix in high-resolution PET scanners, which is a difficult task that prevents the algorithms from reaching peak computing performance. Considering all possible axial and in-plane symmetries, as well as certain quasi-symmetries, we have been able to reduce the memory requirements to store the system response matrix (SRM) well below 1 GB, which allows us to keep the whole response matrix of the system inside RAM of ordinary industry-standard computers, so that the reconstruction algorithm can achieve near peak performance. The elements of the SRM are stored as cubic spline profiles and matched to voxel size during reconstruction. In this way, the advantages of 'on-the-fly' calculation and of fully stored SRM are combined. The on-the-fly part of the calculation (matching the profile functions to voxel size) of the SRM accounts for 10-30% of the reconstruction time, depending on the number of voxels chosen. We tested our approach with real data from a commercial small animal PET scanner. The results (image quality and reconstruction time) show that the proposed technique is a feasible solution.

  13. Is There an Association Between Markers of Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction at Discharge From Rehabilitation and Participation 1 and 5 Years Later in Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, H. J. (Rianne); de Groot, Sonja; Post, Marcel W.; Bongers-Janssen, Helma M.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Claydon, Victoria E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether physical activity and participation 1 and 5 years after discharge are associated with measures of cardiovascular autonomic function: prevalence of hypotension and reduced peak heart rate at discharge from initial inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Des

  14. CMB lensing beyond the power spectrum: Cosmological constraints from the one-point probability distribution function and peak counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Hill, J. Colin; Sherwin, Blake D.; Petri, Andrea; Böhm, Vanessa; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-11-01

    Unprecedentedly precise cosmic microwave background (CMB) data are expected from ongoing and near-future CMB stage III and IV surveys, which will yield reconstructed CMB lensing maps with effective resolution approaching several arcminutes. The small-scale CMB lensing fluctuations receive non-negligible contributions from nonlinear structure in the late-time density field. These fluctuations are not fully characterized by traditional two-point statistics, such as the power spectrum. Here, we use N -body ray-tracing simulations of CMB lensing maps to examine two higher-order statistics: the lensing convergence one-point probability distribution function (PDF) and peak counts. We show that these statistics contain significant information not captured by the two-point function and provide specific forecasts for the ongoing stage III Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope (AdvACT) experiment. Considering only the temperature-based reconstruction estimator, we forecast 9 σ (PDF) and 6 σ (peaks) detections of these statistics with AdvACT. Our simulation pipeline fully accounts for the non-Gaussianity of the lensing reconstruction noise, which is significant and cannot be neglected. Combining the power spectrum, PDF, and peak counts for AdvACT will tighten cosmological constraints in the Ωm-σ8 plane by ≈30 %, compared to using the power spectrum alone.

  15. The formation of peak rings in large impact craters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joanna V; Gulick, Sean P S; Bralower, Timothy; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles; Collins, Gareth S; Coolen, Marco J L; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Jones, Heather; Kring, David A; Le Ber, Erwan; Lofi, Johanna; Long, Xiao; Lowery, Christopher; Mellett, Claire; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén; Osinski, Gordon R; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie; Poelchau, Michael; Rae, Auriol; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Schmitt, Douglas R; Smit, Jan; Tikoo, Sonia; Tomioka, Naotaka; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Whalen, Michael; Wittmann, Axel; Yamaguchi, Kosei E; Zylberman, William

    2016-11-18

    Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks. The peak-ring rocks are cross-cut by dikes and shear zones and have an unusually low density and seismic velocity. Large impacts therefore generate vertical fluxes and increase porosity in planetary crust. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. The formation of peak rings in large impact craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joanna V.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Bralower, Timothy; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles; Collins, Gareth S.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Jones, Heather; Kring, David A.; Le Ber, Erwan; Lofi, Johanna; Long, Xiao; Lowery, Christopher; Mellett, Claire; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén; Osinski, Gordon R.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie; Poelchau, Michael; Rae, Auriol; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Smit, Jan; Tikoo, Sonia; Tomioka, Naotaka; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Whalen, Michael; Wittmann, Axel; Yamaguchi, Kosei E.; Zylberman, William

    2016-11-01

    Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks. The peak-ring rocks are cross-cut by dikes and shear zones and have an unusually low density and seismic velocity. Large impacts therefore generate vertical fluxes and increase porosity in planetary crust.

  17. Double discharges in unipolar-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred

    2003-07-01

    Excitation of dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps by unipolar short square pulses is studied in this paper. Two discharges with different polarity are excited by each voltage pulse (double discharge phenomenon). The primary discharge occurs at the top or at the rising flank of the applied unipolar square pulse, which is directly energized by the external circuit. The secondary discharge with the reversed polarity occurs at the falling flank or shortly after the falling flank end (zero external voltage) depending on the pulse width, which is energized by the energy stored by memory charges deposited by the primary discharge. Fast-speed ICCD imaging shows the primary discharge has a conic discharge appearance with a channel broadening on the anode side. This channel broadening increases with increasing the pulse top level. Only the anode-side surface discharge is observed in the primary discharge. The surface discharge on the cathode side which is present in bipolar sine voltage excitation is not observed. On the contrary, the secondary discharge has only the cathode-side surface discharge. The surface discharge on the anode side is not observed. The secondary discharge is much more diffuse than the primary discharge. Time-resolved emission measurement of double discharges show the secondary discharge emits more VUV xenon excimer radiation but less infrared (IR) xenon atomic emission than the primary discharge. It was found that the IR xenon atomic emission from the secondary discharge can be reduced by shortening the pulse width. The energy efficiency of unipolar-pulsed xenon excimer lamps (the overall energy efficiency of double discharges) is much higher than that obtained under bipolar sine wave excitation. The output VUV spectrum under unipolar pulse excitation is found to be identical to that under sine wave excitation and independent of injected electric power.

  18. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  19. Impact of Ganges–Brahmaputra interannual discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during 1992–1999 period

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fabien Durand; Fabrice Papa; Atiqur Rahman; Sujit Kumar Bala

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the impact of monthly Ganges–Brahmaputra river discharge variations on Bay of Bengal salinity and temperature during the period 1992–1999. The Ganges–Brahmaputra river discharge is characterized by a well-defined seasonal cycle with strong interannual variations. The highest/lowest yearly peak discharge occurs in summer 1998/summer 1992, with 1998 value amounting to twice that of 1992. This river discharge is then used to force an ocean general circulation model. Our main result is that the impact of these rivers on the variability of Bay of Bengal sea surface salinity is strong in the northern part, with excess run-off forcing fresh anomalies, and vice versa. Most of the years, the influence of the interannual variability of river discharge on the Bay salinity does not extend south of ∼10° N. This stands in contrast with the available observations and is probably linked to the relatively coarse resolution of our model. However, the extreme discharge anomaly of 1998 is exported through the southern boundary of the Bay and penetrates the south-eastern Arabian Sea a few months after the discharge peak. In response to the discharge anomalies, the model simulates significant mixed-layer temperature anomalies in the northern Bay of Bengal. This has the potential to influence the climate of the area. From our conclusions, it appears necessary to use a numerical model with higher resolution (both on the horizontal and vertical) to quantitatively investigate the upper Bay of Bengal salinity structure.

  20. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Enhanced performance of a dielectric barrier discharge lamp using short-pulsed excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, R. P.; Carman, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    We observe marked increases in the time-averaged intensity, peak intensity, efficiency and spectral purity of the VUV output from an Xe excimer barrier discharge lamp when using short-pulse (~150 ns FWHM (full width half maximum)) excitation. Intensity increases with Xe pressure up to 600 Torr with a maximum output 2.6 times higher and an efficiency 3.2 times higher than the same lamp excited by conventional ac excitation (i.e. sinusoidal voltage waveform). The output occurs in regular short pulses (pulsed discharge appears diffuse (i.e. glow-like), even at the higher pressures at which the ac discharge is filamentary. It is concluded that the enhanced performance results largely from the ability for pulsed excitation to generate a discharge at near atmospheric pressures with a much lower electron density than that possible using ac.

  1. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed

    2013-01-07

    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013

  2. Automatic peak selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-based algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abbas

    Full Text Available A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into [Formula: see text]-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx.

  3. Elementary processes in gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Bronold, Franz X

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents, from a quantum-mechanical point of view, a tutorial discussion of elementary collision processes in the bulk of a gas discharge. Instead of merely listing kitchen-made cross section formulae and unrelated cross section data, emphasis has been given on an unified description of elementary processes based on general principles of quantum-mechanical multi-channel scattering theory. By necessity, the presentation is rather dense. Technical details left out, as well as cross section data, can be found, respectively, in the quoted original papers and the review articles, monographs, and web-sites mentioned in the introductory remarks to this chapter.

  4. Arctic Sea Level Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Peter Limkilde

    Reconstruction of historical Arctic sea level is very difficult due to the limited coverage and quality of tide gauge and altimetry data in the area. This thesis addresses many of these issues, and discusses strategies to help achieve a stable and plausible reconstruction of Arctic sea level from...... 1950 to today.The primary record of historical sea level, on the order of several decades to a few centuries, is tide gauges. Tide gauge records from around the world are collected in the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) database, and includes data along the Arctic coasts. A reasonable...... amount of data is available along the Norwegian and Russian coasts since 1950, and most published research on Arctic sea level extends cautiously from these areas. Very little tide gauge data is available elsewhere in the Arctic, and records of a length of several decades,as generally recommended for sea...

  5. Autologous Costochondral Microtia Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sapna A; Bhrany, Amit D; Murakami, Craig S; Sie, Kathleen C Y

    2016-04-01

    Reconstruction with autologous costochondral cartilage is one of the mainstays of surgical management of congenital microtia. We review the literature, present our current technique for microtia reconstruction with autologous costochondral graft, and discuss the evolution of our technique over the past 20 years. We aim to minimize donor site morbidity and create the most durable and natural appearing ear possible using a stacked framework to augment the antihelical fold and antitragal-tragal complex. Assessment of outcomes is challenging due to the paucity of available objective measures with which to evaluate aesthetic outcomes. Various instruments are used to assess outcomes, but none is universally accepted as the standard. The challenges we continue to face are humbling, but ongoing work on tissue engineering, application of 3D models, and use of validated questionnaires can help us get closer to achieving a maximal aesthetic outcome.

  6. Stochastic reconstruction of sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwart; Torquato; Hilfer

    2000-07-01

    A simulated annealing algorithm is employed to generate a stochastic model for a Berea sandstone and a Fontainebleau sandstone, with each a prescribed two-point probability function, lineal-path function, and "pore size" distribution function, respectively. We find that the temperature decrease of the annealing has to be rather quick to yield isotropic and percolating configurations. A comparison of simple morphological quantities indicates good agreement between the reconstructions and the original sandstones. Also, the mean survival time of a random walker in the pore space is reproduced with good accuracy. However, a more detailed investigation by means of local porosity theory shows that there may be significant differences of the geometrical connectivity between the reconstructed and the experimental samples.

  7. Interaction between Adjacent Lightning Discharges in Clouds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanhui; ZHANG Guangshu; ZHANG Tong; LI Yajun; WU Bin; ZHANG Tinglong

    2013-01-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS),three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed,and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed.All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region).Moreover,at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges.Identified from electric field changes,the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges.However,it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge.The third case provided evidence of this possibility.Together,the results suggested that,if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions,lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced,on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  8. Electromagnetic fields produced by simulated spacecraft discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonevicz, J. E.; Adamo, R. C.; Beers, B. L.; Delmer, T. N.

    1980-01-01

    The initial phase of a broader, more complete program for the characterization of electrical breakdowns on spacecraft insulating materials is described which consisted of the development of a discharge simulator and characterization facility and the performance of a limited number of discharge measurements to verify the operation of the laboratory setup and to provide preliminary discharge transient field data. A preliminary model of the electromagnetic characteristics of the discharge was developed. It is based upon the "blow off" current model of discharges, with the underlying assumption of a propagating discharge. The laboratory test facility and discharge characterization instrumentation are discussed and the general results of the "quick look" tests are described on quartz solar reflectors aluminized Kapton and silver coated Teflon are described.

  9. Reconstructing the Tengger calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Proudfoot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an Indic calendar among the Tengger people of the Brama highlands in east Java opens a window on Java’s calendar history. Its hybrid form reflects accommodations between this non-Muslim Javanese group and the increasingly dominant Muslim Javanese culture. Reconstruction is challenging because of this hybridity, because of inconsistencies in practice, and because the historical evidence is sketchy and often difficult to interpret.

  10. Adaptive wavelet tight frame construction for accelerating MRI reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genjiao Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The sparsity regularization approach, which assumes that the image of interest is likely to have sparse representation in some transform domain, has been an active research area in image processing and medical image reconstruction. Although various sparsifying transforms have been used in medical image reconstruction such as wavelet, contourlet, and total variation (TV etc., the efficiency of these transforms typically rely on the special structure of the underlying image. A better way to address this issue is to develop an overcomplete dictionary from the input data in order to get a better sparsifying transform for the underlying image. However, the general overcomplete dictionaries do not satisfy the so-called perfect reconstruction property which ensures that the given signal can be perfectly represented by its canonical coefficients in a manner similar to orthonormal bases, resulting in time consuming in the iterative image reconstruction. This work is to develop an adaptive wavelet tight frame method for magnetic resonance image reconstruction. The proposed scheme incorporates the adaptive wavelet tight frame approach into the magnetic resonance image reconstruction by solving a l0-regularized minimization problem. Numerical results show that the proposed approach provides significant time savings as compared to the over-complete dictionary based methods with comparable performance in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

  11. Feasibility of wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tristo, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of real time wear compensation in micro EDM milling based on discharge counting and discharge population characterization. Experiments were performed involving discharge counting and tool electrode wear measurement in a wide range of process parameters...... settings involving different current pulse shapes. A strong correlation is found between average discharge energy of the populations and wear and material removal per discharge. A validation was carried out showing the feasibility of the proposed approach....

  12. [Chest Wall Reconstruction Using Titanium Plates Sandwiched Between Sheets after Resection of Chest Wall Chondrosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Makoto; Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Jun; Watarai, Hikaru; Hamada, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Takahashi, Ai; Nakahashi, Kenta; Sugawara, Masato; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2016-07-01

    Extensive chest wall resection carries the risk of difficult reconstruction and surgical complications. We report our experience on chest wall reconstruction using titanium plates for a wide thoracic defect after tumor resection. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with chondrosarcoma of the 6th rib on the right. He needed extensive chest wall resection because of skip lesions on 4th rib noted on operative inspection, leaving a defect measuring 33 × 20 cm. Reconstruction using 5 transverse titanium plates sandwiched between an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch and a polypropylene mesh sheet stabilized the chest wall. This reconstruction allowed successful separation from ventilatory support after operation. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged on postoperative day 20. The advantages of this form of reconstruction over conventional prostheses are rigidity, and stability and usability.

  13. Reference Values for Peak Exercise Cardiac Output in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Vignati, Carlo; Gentile, Piero; Boiti, Costanza; Farina, Stefania; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Mapelli, Massimo; Magrì, Damiano; Paolillo, Stefania; Corrieri, Nicoletta; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Cattadori, Gaia

    2017-06-01

    Cardiac output (Q˙) is a key parameter in the assessment of cardiac function, its measurement being crucial for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of all heart diseases. Until recently, Q˙ determination at peak exercise has been possible through invasive methods, so that normal values were obtained in studies based on small populations. Nowadays, peak Q˙ can be measured noninvasively by means of the inert gas rebreathing (IGR) technique. The present study was undertaken to provide reference values for peak Q˙ in the normal general population and to obtain a formula able to estimate peak exercise Q˙ from measured peak oxygen uptake (V˙o2). We studied 500 normal subjects (age, 44.9 ± 1.5 years; range, 18-77 years; 260 men, 240 women) who underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with peak Q˙ measurement by IGR. In the overall study sample, peak Q˙ was 13.2 ± 3.5 L/min (men, 15.3 ± 3.3 L/min; women, 11.0 ± 2.0 L/min; P exercise was (4.4 × peak V˙o2) + 4.3 in the overall study cohort, (4.3 × peak V˙o2) + 4.5 in men, and (4.9 × peak V˙o2) + 3.6 in women. The simultaneous measurement of Q˙ and V˙o2 at peak exercise in a large sample of healthy subjects provided an equation to predict peak Q˙ from peak V˙o2 values. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of photoconductivity on the study of trap levels in polyimide films by photo-stimulated discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Juan; Yang, Xiong; Niu, Hui-Qin; Yuan, Zhen-Hua; Li, Da-Wei; Chen, Chun-Tian

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the distribution of the charge trap levels in polyimide (PI) films was investigated by using photo-stimulated discharge (PSD) technique, which was to explore the effect of photoconductivity on photo-stimulated discharge current. The PSD spectra show that the photo-stimulated discharge current of the PI films is mainly distributed in the range of 649-320 nm, but there are two significant current peaks when the wavelength is 300 nm and 244 nm, respectively. By studying the reason of generating two current peaks, it is concluded that the two current peaks are not generated by trapped charge de-trapping but generated by photoconductivity of charge-transfer complex in the PI films. According to the research, it is concluded that the trap levels in PI films are mainly distributed in the range of 1.92 eV-3.88 eV.

  15. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

    2014-07-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

  16. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d' Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 μm thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 μm thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 μs long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few μs relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  17. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Kulsreshath, M K; Schwaederle, L; Dufour, T; Overzet, L J; Lefaucheux, P; Dussart, R

    2016-01-01

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250 m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8 m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*(3S1) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2 s long current peak as high as 24 mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400 Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the ext...

  18. Evaluation on Flow Discharge of Grassed Swale in Lowland Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaffa Nurhazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grassed swale is an open vegetated channel designed specifically in attenuating stormwater runoff to decrease the velocity, to reduce the peak flows, and minimize the causes of flood. Therefore, the fundamental of this study is to evaluate the flow discharge of swale in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM, which has flat land surface area. There are two sites of study were involved to assess the performance of swale as stormwater quantity control, named as swale 1 and swale 2. Data collection was conducted on 100 meters of length for each swale. The velocity of swale was measured thrice by using a current meter according to the six-tenths depth method, after a rainfall event. The discharge of drainage area in UTHM was determined by the Rational Method (Qpeak, and the discharge of swales (Qswale was evaluated by the Mean-Section Method. Manning’s roughness coefficient and the infiltration rate were also determined in order to describe the characteristics of swale, which contributing factors for the effectiveness of swale. The results shown that Qswale is greater than Qpeak at swale 1 and swale 2, which according to the Second Edition of MSMA, the swales are efficient as stormwater quantity control in preventing flash flood at the campus area of UTHM.

  19. Combustion Enhancement Using a Silent Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis; Platts, David; Coates, Don; Stange, Sy

    2003-10-01

    Electric fields affect flame propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry. External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been used to combust gas mixtures outside their flammability limits. Experiments with silent electrical discharges (SEDs) and propagating flames have shown that flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when an SED is applied directly to the flame region, but velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. More recent work has proposed electric arc/microwave-driven plasma-generating fuel nozzles to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel for aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers. In contrast to prior works, we have used a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals/active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. A cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks for fuel and combustion products are observed (i.e., combustion is enhanced). Results of changes in the degree of combustion will be discussed in terms of variations in the plasma specific energy.

  20. The electrical characteristics of the dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yehia, Ashraf, E-mail: yehia30161@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies at Alkharj, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 83, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    The electrical characteristics of the dielectric barrier discharges have been studied in this paper under different operating conditions. The dielectric barrier discharges were formed inside two reactors composed of electrodes in the shape of two parallel plates. The dielectric layers inside these reactors were pasted on the surface of one electrode only in the first reactor and on the surfaces of the two electrodes in the second reactor. The reactor under study has been fed by atmospheric air that flowed inside it with a constant rate at the normal temperature and pressure, in parallel with applying a sinusoidal ac voltage between the electrodes of the reactor. The amount of the electric charge that flows from the reactors to the external circuit has been studied experimentally versus the ac peak voltage applied to them. An analytical model has been obtained for calculating the electrical characteristics of the dielectric barrier discharges that were formed inside the reactors during a complete cycle of the ac voltage. The results that were calculated by using this model have agreed well with the experimental results under the different operating conditions.

  1. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University, S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Luo, L. [IBM Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80308 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  2. Silo Collapse under Granular Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, G.; Colonnello, C.; Boltenhagen, P.; Darias, J. R.; Peralta-Fabi, R.; Brau, F.; Clément, E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate, at a laboratory scale, the collapse of cylindrical shells of radius R and thickness t induced by a granular discharge. We measure the critical filling height for which the structure fails upon discharge. We observe that the silos sustain filling heights significantly above an estimation obtained by coupling standard shell-buckling and granular stress distribution theories. Two effects contribute to stabilize the structure: (i) below the critical filling height, a dynamical stabilization due to granular wall friction prevents the localized shell-buckling modes to grow irreversibly; (ii) above the critical filling height, collapse occurs before the downward sliding motion of the whole granular column sets in, such that only a partial friction mobilization is at play. However, we notice also that the critical filling height is reduced as the grain size d increases. The importance of grain size contribution is controlled by the ratio d /√{R t }. We rationalize these antagonist effects with a novel fluid-structure theory both accounting for the actual status of granular friction at the wall and the inherent shell imperfections mediated by the grains. This theory yields new scaling predictions which are compared with the experimental results.

  3. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  4. Effects of Gas Flow Rate on the Discharge Characteristics of a DC Excited Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Jia, Pengying; Di, Cong; Bao, Wenting; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-09-01

    A direct current (DC) source excited plasma jet consisting of a hollow needle anode and a plate cathode has been developed to form a diffuse discharge plume in ambient air with flowing argon as the working gas. Using optical and electrical methods, the discharge characteristics are investigated for the diffuse plasma plume. Results indicate that the discharge has a pulse characteristic, under the excitation of a DC voltage. The discharge pulse corresponds to the propagation process of a plasma bullet travelling from the anode to the cathode. It is found that, with an increment of the gas flow rate, both the discharge plume length and the current peak value of the pulsed discharge decrease in the laminar flow mode, reach their minima at about 1.5 L/min, and then slightly increase in the turbulent mode. However, the frequency of the pulsed discharge increases in the laminar mode with increasing the argon flow rate until the argon flow rate equals to about 1.5 L/min, and then slightly decreases in the turbulent mode. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10805013, 11375051), Funds for Distinguished Young Scientists of Hebei Province, China (No. A2012201045), Department of Education for Outstanding Youth Project of China (No. Y2011120), and Youth Project of Hebei University of China (No. 2011Q14)

  5. Posteromedial Corner Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Gonzalo; Leon, Agustín; Wirth, Hans; Mena, Adolfo; Tuca, María José; Espinoza, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Report the experience, after 1-year follow-up, of 30 patients who underwent anatomical knee reconstruction of posteromedial corner (PMC) injuries, using La Prade´s Technique. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 30 consecutive patients with PMC injuries operated between November 2010 and May 2014 by the same surgical team. Inclusion criteria: patients with clinical presentation and images (stress radiographs and MRI) compatible with PMC injury, who maintained a grade III chronic instability in spite of at least 3 months of orthopedic treatment, who were reconstructed using La Prade’s anatomical technique, and completed at least 12 months of follow-up. Exclusion criteria: discordance between clinical and image studies, grade I or II medial instability, and surgery performed through a different technique. Data was collected by reviewing the electronic files and images. Functional scores (IKDC and Lysholm) were applied and registered in the preoperative evaluation, and then 6 and 12 months after surgery. Results: Thirty patients (28 men and 2 women) met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 43 years (24-69). The vast majority (28 patients) had a high-energy mechanism of injury. Twenty patients were diagnosed in the acute setting, while 10 had a delayed diagnosis after poor results of concomitant ligament reconstructions. With the exception of 2 patients, who presented with isolated PMC injury, the majority had associated injuries as detailed: 11 cases had PMC + anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, 3 patients had PMC + posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury, 3 patients had PMC + meniscal tears, 9 patients had PMC + ACL + PCL injuries, and there were 2 cases of PMC + ACL + PCL + lateral collateral ligament injuries. Mean time for PMC reconstruction surgery was 5 months (range 2-32). Lysholm and IKDC scores were 18,2 (2-69) and 24,3 (9,2-52,9) respectively in the preoperative setting, improving to 76,7 (44-94) and 70,7 (36,8-95,4) after 1-year follow

  6. Canal Wall Reconstruction Mastoidectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the advantages of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) mastoidectomy, a single-stage technique for cholesteatoma removal and posterior external canal wall reconstruction, over the open and closed procedures in terms of cholesteatoma recurrence. Methods: Between June 2002 and December 2005, 38 patients (40 ears) with cholesteatoma were admited to Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital and received surgical treatments. Of these patients, 25 were male with ages ranging between 11 and 60 years (mean = 31.6 years) and 13 were female with ages ranging between 20 and 65 years (mean = 38.8 years). Canal wall reconstruction (CWR)mastoidectomy was performed in 31 ears and canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy in 9 ears. Concha cartilage was used for ear canal wall reconstruction in 22 of the 31 CWR procedures and cortical mastoid bone was used in the remaining 9 cases. Results At 0.5 to 4 years follow up, all but one patients remained free of signs of cholesteatoma recurrence, i.e., no retraction pocket or cholesteatoma matrix. One patient, a smoker, needed revision surgery due to cholesteatoma recurrence 1.5 year after the initial operation. The recurrence rate was therefore 3.2% (1/31). Cholesteatoma recurrence was monitored using postoperative CT scans whenever possible. In the case that needed a revision procedure, a retraction pocket was identified by otoendoscopy in the pars flacida area that eventually evolved into a cholesteatoma. A pocket extending to the epitympanum filled with cholesteatoma matrix was confirmed during the revision operation, A decision to perform a modified mastoidectomy was made as the patient refused to quit smoking. The mean air-bone gap in pure tone threshold was 45 dB before surgery and 25 dB after (p < 0.05). There was no difference between using concha cartilage and cortical mastoid bone for the reconstruction regarding air-bone gap improvement, CT findings and otoendoscopic results. Conclusion CWR mastoidectomy can be used for

  7. Evaluation of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia anode degradation during discharge operation and redox cycles operation by electrochemical calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimura, Takaaki; Jiao, Zhenjun; Shikazono, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Degradation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode during discharge operation and redox cycles operation were evaluated by three-dimensional electrochemical calculations using a Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Three dimensional microstructures were obtained by Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) reconstruction. In the electrochemical calculations, changes in exchange current density and ionic conductivity of Yttria stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) during the operations were assumed and their values were calculated by fitting the calculated overpotential values to the experimental ones. Changes in triple phase boundary density calculated from the reconstructed microstructures were inconsistent with the gradual degradation observed during repeated redox-discharge cycles. Changes of the fitted exchange current density and YSZ ionic conductivity values in both discharge operation and redox cycle operation showed same tendency as the experimental results. Change in exchange current density or YSZ ionic conductivity should be considered as an essential factor which governs the cell performance change regardless of the redox treatment.

  8. Could peak proteinuria determine whether patient with dengue fever develop dengue hemorrhagic/dengue shock syndrome? - A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Sufi M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is a need to develop simple effective predictors that can distinguish whether a patient will progress from dengue fever (DF to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic (DHF or dengue shock syndrome (DSS. We explored whether proteinuria could be used as such a marker. Methods We included patients admitted to hospital with suspected dengue fever. Starting at enrollment until discharge, each patient's daily spot urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR was measured. We classified those with confirmed dengue infection as DF or DHF (including DSS based on WHO criteria. Peak and day of onset of proteinuria was compared between both groups. Results Compared to those with DF, patients with DHF had significantly higher median peak proteinuria levels (0.56 versus 0.08 g/day; p Conclusions Peak UPCR could potentially predict DHF in patients with dengue requiring close monitoring and treatment.

  9. Do asthma patients prefer to monitor symptoms or peak flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harver, Andrew; Humphries, C Thomas; Kotses, Harry

    2009-11-01

    We administered a 65-item survey to patients to assess preference of symptoms and peak flow to detect worsening asthma and to collect information about asthma triggers, asthma knowledge sources, and barriers to peak flow meter use. It was completed by 139 asthma patients. Survey responses were comparable for adult and pediatric patients and for those who owned peak flow meters and those who did not. But patients who owned a peak flow meter reported more severe asthma than others. On average, the patients preferred symptoms to peak flow for assessing worsening asthma. It is likely that the preference for symptom over peak flow monitoring was effort related: Patients preferred symptom monitoring because it was the easier of the two to conduct.

  10. Gamma-ray peak shapes from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, M.N.; Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.

    1996-09-01

    We report the results of a study of the peak shapes in the gamma spectra measured using several 5 x 5 x 5 mm{sup 3} cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. A simple parameterization involving a Gaussian and an exponential low energy tail describes the peak shapes sell. We present the variation of the parameters with gamma energy. This type of information is very useful in the analysis of complex gamma spectra consisting of many peaks.

  11. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  12. Efficient Reconstruction of Linear Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in Galaxy Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Burden, Angela; Manera, Marc; Cuesta, Antonio J; Magana, Mariana Vargas; Ho, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing an estimate of linear Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) from an evolved galaxy field has become a standard technique in recent analyses. By partially removing non-linear damping caused by bulk motions, the real-space BAO peak in the correlation function is sharpened, and oscillations in the power spectrum are visible to smaller scales. In turn these lead to stronger measurements of the BAO scale. Future surveys are being designed assuming that this improvement has been applied, and this technique is therefore of critical importance for future BAO measurements. A number of reconstruction techniques are available, but the most widely used is a simple algorithm that decorrelates large-scale and small-scale modes approximately removing the bulk-flow displacements by moving the overdensity field (Eisenstein et al. 2007; Padmanabhan, White & Cohn 2009). We consider the practical implementation of this algorithm, looking at the efficiency of reconstruction as a function of the assumptions made fo...

  13. Some nonlinear parameters of PP intervals of pulse main peaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The PP intervals of pulse main peaks from healthy and unhealthy people (arrhythmia) have different nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, the extraction of PP intervals of pulse main peaks is achieved by picking up P peaks of pulse wave with wavelet transform. Furthermore, several nonlinear parameters (correlative dimensions, maximum Lyapunov exponents, complexity and approximate entropy) of the PP intervals of pulse main peaks extracted from normal and unhealthy pulse signals are calculated, with the results showing that these nonlinear parameters calculated from the main wave interval signals are helpful for analyzing human's health state and diagnosing heart diseases.

  14. Peak load pricing in the electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenders, J.T.

    In the electric utility industry, cost minimization requires that heterogeneous electric generation technologies be used to produce electricity demands of different durations. In contrast to the conclusions of traditional peak-load pricing theory, the existence of a heterogeneous capital stock means that off-peak marginal cost prices almost always should include some marginal capacity costs, and that the profit maximizing regulated electric utility may set peak price above marginal cost and off-peak price below marginal cost in order to encourage the expansion of capital-intensive base load generating capacity. (auth)

  15. Nonlinear preprocessing method for detecting peaks from gas chromatograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hyeyoung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The problem of locating valid peaks from data corrupted by noise frequently arises while analyzing experimental data. In various biological and chemical data analysis tasks, peak detection thus constitutes a critical preprocessing step that greatly affects downstream analysis and eventual quality of experiments. Many existing techniques require the users to adjust parameters by trial and error, which is error-prone, time-consuming and often leads to incorrect analysis results. Worse, conventional approaches tend to report an excessive number of false alarms by finding fictitious peaks generated by mere noise. Results We have designed a novel peak detection method that can significantly reduce parameter sensitivity, yet providing excellent peak detection performance and negligible false alarm rates from gas chromatographic data. The key feature of our new algorithm is the successive use of peak enhancement algorithms that are deliberately designed for a gradual improvement of peak detection quality. We tested our approach with real gas chromatograms as well as intentionally contaminated spectra that contain Gaussian or speckle-type noise. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve near perfect peak detection performance while maintaining very small false alarm probabilities in case of gas chromatograms. Given the fact that biological signals appear in the form of peaks in various experimental data and that the propose method can easily be extended to such data, our approach will be a useful and robust tool that can help researchers highlight valid signals in their noisy measurements.

  16. Adaptive Peak Frequency Estimation Using a Database of PARCOR Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iiguni Youji

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive peak frequency estimation method using a database that stores PARCOR coefficients as key attributes and the corresponding peak frequencies as nonkey attributes. The least-square lattice algorithm is used to recursively estimate the PARCOR coefficients to adapt to changing circumstances. The nearest neighbor to the current PARCOR coefficient is retrieved from the database, and the corresponding peak frequency is regarded as the estimation. A simultaneous execution of database construction and peak estimation with database update is performed to accelerate the processing time and to improve the estimation accuracy.

  17. Peak compression technique in high-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI YuXia; WANG Lin; XlAO ShengYuan; QING Hong; ZHU Yong; HU GaoFei; DENG YuLin

    2009-01-01

    Peak compression technique based on the difference of the solute migration velocity in two different mobile phases was described theoretically and confirmed using benzaldehyde and 4-hydroxyquinoline (4-HQ) as model compounds.After peak compression,the peak compression factors (the ratio of peak width at half-height under non-compression and that under compression condition) of benzaldehyde and 4-HQ were 0.19 and 0.13,respectively.By this application of the peak compression technique to the mixture,both enhanced peak height and good separation were obtained in one run cycle.This peak compression technique was introduced to determine benzaldehyde from semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase-catalyzed enzymetic reaction in order to illustrate the applicability of this technique to the real sample.As a result,the peak was compressed effectively,and 4.94-fold,19.3-fold and 5.74-fold enhancement in peak height,plate number and signal to noise ratio were also achieved,respectively.

  18. Zener Relaxation Peak in an Fe-Cr-Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正存; 程和法; 宫晨利; 魏健宁; 韩福生

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the temperature spectra of internal friction and relative dynamic modulus of the Fe-(25 wt%)Cr-(5wt%)Al alloy with different grain sizes. It is found that a peak appears in the internal friction versus temperature plot at about 550°C. The peak is of a stable relaxation and is reversible, which occurs not only during heating but also during cooling. Its activation energy is 2.5 (± 0.15) eV in terms of the Arrhenius relation. In addition, the peak is not obvious in specimens with a smaller grain size. It is suggested that the peak originates from Zener relaxation.

  19. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and growth of garnet spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  20. Momentum transport studies in JET H-mode discharges with an enhanced toroidal field ripple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, P C; Howell, D H; Giroud, C; Parail, V [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Versloot, T W [FOM institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, PO Box 1207, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Hua, M-D [Imperial College, SW7 2BY, London (United Kingdom); Saibene, G [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, 0819 Barcelona (Spain); Tala, T, E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.efda.or [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-06-15

    In this study, enhancement of the toroidal field (TF) ripple has been used as a tool in order to reveal the impact of the momentum pinch on the rotation profiles in H-mode JET discharges. The analysis showed that flatter rotation profiles were obtained in discharges with a high TF ripple, attributed to a smaller inward momentum convection. An average inward momentum pinch of approximately V{sub p} {approx} 3.4 m s{sup -1} and a normalized pinch value of RV{sub p}/{chi} {approx} 6.6 could explain the observation. The data show that the momentum at the edge affects the peaking of the rotation and momentum density profiles. Under the assumption that the heat and momentum diffusivities are equal, an estimate of the levels of the momentum pinch in all discharges in the JET rotation database was made. For H-mode discharge these ranged from 0.3 m s{sup -1} < V{sub p} < 17 m s{sup -1}, with 2 < RV{sub p}/{chi} < 10. A larger momentum pinch was found in discharges with a smaller density profile gradient length, i.e. a more peaked density profile.