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Sample records for reconquista river province

  1. Effect of a reservoir in the water quality of the Reconquista River, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigacci, Laura N; Giorgi, Adonis D N; Vilches, Carolina S; Ossana, Natalia Alejandra; Salibián, Alfredo

    2013-11-01

    The lower portion of the Reconquista River is highly polluted. However, little is known about the state of the high and middle basins. The aims of this work were to assess the water quality on the high and middle Reconquista River basins and to determinate if the presence of a reservoir in the river has a positive effect on the water quality. We conducted a seasonal study between August 2009 and November 2010 at the mouth of La Choza, Durazno, and La Horqueta streams at the Roggero reservoir--which receives the water from the former streams--at the origin of the Reconquista River and 17 km downstream from the reservoir. We measured 25 physical and chemical parameters, including six heavy metal concentrations, and performed a multivariate statistical analysis to summarize the information and allow the interpretation of the whole data set. We found that the Durazno and La Horqueta streams had better water quality than La Choza, and the presence of the reservoir contributed to the improvement of the water quality, allowing oxygenation of the water body and processing of organic matter and ammonia. The water quality of the Reconquista River at its origin is good and similar to the reservoir, but a few kilometers downstream, the water quality declines as a consequence of the presence of industries and human settlements. Therefore, the Roggero reservoir produces a significant improvement of water quality of the river, but the discharge of contaminants downstream quickly reverses this effect.

  2. Effects of pollution and bioleaching process on the mineral composition and texture of contaminated sediments of the Reconquista River, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufo, Ana E; Porzionato, Natalia F; Curutchet, Gustavo

    2017-10-31

    In this work, we report on the structural and textural changes in fluvial sediments from Reconquista River´s basin, Argentina, due to processes of contamination with organic matter and remediation by bioleaching. The original uncontaminated matrix showed quartz and phyllosilicates as the main primary mineral constituents and phases of interstratified illite-montmorillonite as secondary minerals. It was found that in contaminated sediments, the presence of organic matter in high concentration causes changes in the specific surface area, particle size distribution, size and distribution of micro and meso, and the morphology of the particles with respect to the uncontaminated sediment. After the bioleaching process, there were even greater changes in these parameters at the level of secondary mineral formation and the appearance of nanoparticles, which were confirmed by SEM. Especially, we found the formation of cementing substances such as gypsum, promoting the formation of macroporous aggregates and the weathering of clay components. Our results indicate that the bioleaching not only decreases the content of metals but also favors the formation of a material with improved characteristics for potential future applications.

  3. Effects of urbanization on river morphology of the Talar River, Mazandarn Province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousefi, Saleh; Moradi, Hamid Reza; Keesstra, Saskia; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Navratil, Oldrich; Hooke, Janet

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate the effects of urbanization growth on river morphology in the downstream part of Talar River, east of Mazandaran Province, Iran. Morphological and morphometric parameters in 10 equal sub-reaches were defined along a 11.5 km reach of the Talar River after land

  4. CLEAN RIVER PROGRAM AT KALIGARANG CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

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    Harihanto Harihanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaligarang River that located n Central Java Province represents one of the rivers in Indonesia which water quality was proved very bad. Since 1989 Clean River Program has been executed in this river. Nevertheless, untul 1998 there have not yet independent evaluation towards this program. To Know wether of this program successful a survey has been conducted from November 1998 to November 1999. The success of this program investigated by: (1 reducing of pollutant loads, (2 target of pollution loads that reached, and (3 improving of river water quality. It was foujd that this program has been successfully reducing pollutant loads of waste of all factories as target froups. Nevertheless, the quality of water of Kaligarang River was still relatively bad. This condition porbably was cause by domestic waste partivularly from hospital, hotel, restaurant dan small factories that was not included as tartet group in this program. Thus it was conclude at the implementation of the Clean River Program in Kaligarang has not been succesful to im[rove water quality of this river.

  5. La Transición militar en la revista Reconquista (1978-1981

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    Juan Manuel González Sáez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Reconquista, revista fundada en 1950, fue uno de los principales órganos de expresión de las fuerzas armadas durante la transición española. En este artículo se analiza la tercera época de la publicación entre 1978 y 1981 cuando ésta se refundó con el objetivo de transmitir a la sociedad civil el pensamiento y la voz del ejército. El estudio de Reconquista contribuye a entender el impacto del cambio social y político en el ámbito castrense y a completar el conocimiento de la gestación y el desarrollo del malestar militar que condujo al intento de golpe de estado en febrero de 1981. Palabras claves: Transición, fuerzas armadas, prensa militar, Reconquista.Abstract: Reconquista, magazine founded in 1950, was one of the main voices of the armed forces along the spanish transition. This article describes the third age of the publication, between 1978 and 1981, when the magazine was refounded with the aim of transmitting the thoughts and voices of the army to the civil society. The study of Reconquista contributes to understand the impact of the social and political change in the military environment and to complete the knowledge about the development of the military anger which led to the failed coup d’état in February 1981.

  6. An Evaluation of River Health for the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province, China

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    Jinxi Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive socioeconomic activities in the Weihe River region have caused severe ecosystem degradation, and the call for the recovery and maintenance of the river health has drawn great attention. Based on the connotation of river health, previous research findings, and status quo of the Weihe River ecosystem, in this study, we developed a novel health evaluation index system to quantitatively determine the health of the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province. The river in the study area was divided into five reaches based on the five hydrological gauging stations, and appropriate evaluation indices for each river section were selected according to the ecological environmental functions of that section. A hybrid approach integrating analytic hierarchy process (AHP and a fuzzy synthetic evaluation method was applied to measure the river health. The results show that Linjiancun-Weijiabao reach and Weijiabao-Xianyang reach are in the “moderate” level of health and Lintong-Huaxian reach and downstream of Huaxian reach are in the “poor” health rating, whereas Xianyang-Lintong reach is in the “sick” rating. Moreover, the most sensitive factors were determined, respectively, for each reach from upper stream to lower stream in the study area.

  7. The Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: Insights from Project Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Jean, M. M.; Duncan, R. A.; Champion, D. E.; Vetter, S.; Glen, J. M. G.; Christiansen, E. H.; Miggins, D. P.; Nielson, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP) Volcanic Province is the best modern example of a time-transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. The SRP began 17 Ma with massive eruptions of Columbia River basalt and rhyolite. After 12 Ma volcanism progressed towards Yellowstone, with early rhyolite overlain by basalts that may exceed 2 km thick. The early rhyolites are anorogenic with dry phenocryst assemblages and eruption temperatures up to 950C. Tholeiitic basalts have major and trace element compositions similar to ocean island basalts (OIB). Project Hotspot cored three deep holes in the central and western Snake River Plain: Kimama (mostly basalt), Kimberly (mostly rhyolite), and Mountain Home (lake sediments and basaslt). The Kimberly core documents rhyolite ash flows up to 700 m thick, possibly filling a caldera or sag. Chemical stratigraphy in Kimama and other basalt cores document fractional crystallization in relatively shallow magma chambers with episodic magma recharge. Age-depth relations in the Kimama core suggest accumulation rates of roughly 305 m/Ma. Surface and subsurface basalt flows show systematic variations in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes with distance from Yellowstone interpreted to reflect changes in the proportion of plume source and the underlying heterogeneous cratonic lithosphere, which varies in age, composition, and thickness from west to east. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes suggest <5% lithospheric input into a system dominated by OIB-like plume-derived basalts. A major flare-up of basaltic volcanism occurred 75-780 ka throughout the entire SRP, from Yellowstone in the east to Boise in the west. The youngest western SRP basalts are transitional alkali basalts that range in age from circa 900 ka to 2 ka, with trace element and isotopic compositions similar to the plume component of Hawaiian basalts. These observations suggest that ancient SCLM was replaced by plume mantle after the North America passed over the hotspot in the western SRP, which triggered renewed

  8. Natural radioactivity of sediments from Wei River of Shannxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengling; Lu Xinwei

    2008-01-01

    The natural radioactivity level in sediments from Wei River of Shannxi has been surveyed with a NaI(Tl) γ-spectrometer and its radiation hazards to the people has been assessed. The results indicate the natural radioactivity level in sediments from Wei River of Shaanxi is normal and the sediments can be safely used as building materials. (authors)

  9. Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province - Pre-feasibility study - 1995. Travel report from Heilongjiang Province, China, Oct./Nov

    OpenAIRE

    Wathne, B.

    1996-01-01

    A request for co-operation on a system for water quality surveillance of Songhuajiang River System in Heilongjiang Province, China, was received by NIVA from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Heilongjiang Province. Funds were made available from NORAD, to initiate a co-operative work with the EPA. T. Skancke, NORGIT Centre, and B. M. Wathne, NIVA, travelled to Harbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province, to make a pre-feasibility study and project plans for further co-operation. T...

  10. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan part V - Chalk River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-10-01

    The aim of Part 5 of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan is to describe the measures that shall be undertaken to deal with a nuclear emergency caused by the Chalk River Laboratories. This plan deals mainly with actions at the Provincial level and shall by supplemented by the appropriate Municipal Plan. The Townships of Rolph, Buchanan, Wylie, and McKay, the Town of Deep River and the Village of Chalk River are the designated municipalities with respect to CRL. 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan part V - Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The aim of Part 5 of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Plan is to describe the measures that shall be undertaken to deal with a nuclear emergency caused by the Chalk River Laboratories. This plan deals mainly with actions at the Provincial level and shall by supplemented by the appropriate Municipal Plan. The Townships of Rolph, Buchanan, Wylie, and McKay, the Town of Deep River and the Village of Chalk River are the designated municipalities with respect to CRL. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Surveying drinking water quality (Balikhlou River, Ardabil Province, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalipour erdi, Mehdi; Gasempour niari, Hassan; Mousavi Meshkini, Seyyed Reza; Foroug, Somayeh

    2018-03-01

    Considering the importance of Balikhlou River as one of the most important water sources of Ardabil, Nir and Sarein cities, maintaining water quality of this river is the most important goals in provincial and national levels. This river includes a wide area that provides agricultural, industrial and drinking water for the residents. Thus, surveying the quality of this river is important in planning and managing of region. This study examined the quality of river through eight physicochemical parameters (SO4, No3, BOD5, TDS, turbidity, pH, EC, COD) in two high- and low-water seasons by international and national standards in 2013. For this purpose, a review along the river has been done in five stations using t test and SPSS software. Model results showed that the amount difference in TDS and EC with WHO standards, and TDS rates with Iran standards in low-water seasons, pH and EC with WHO standards in high-water seasons, is not significant in high-water season; but for pH and SO4 parameters, turbidity and NO3 in both standards and EC value with WHO standard in low-water season and pH, EC, SO4 parameters and turbidity and NO3 in high-water season have significant difference from 5 to 1%, this shows the ideal limit and lowness of parameters for different usage.

  13. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  14. The Influence of the Reconquista on Muslim Law in Al-Andalus

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    Filip Andrzej Jakubowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of the Reconquista on Muslim Law in Al-Andalus Life in the reality of the borderlands between the Muslim and Christian  worlds had significant influence on both sides. It also had an impact on Muslim law (sharia which is observable in a very precious source – fatwas (Muslim legal rulings. Among those collected form the area of Al-Andalus (Muslim Spain and Portugal and North Africa this paper discusses issues connected with the long-standing conflict between Christians and Muslims, known as the Reconquista. The problems include ransoming captives, defending Muslim towns or trade relations with Christians. This analysis reflects upon the impact of the Reconquista on everyday life, as it was seen in sharia.   Wpływ rekonkwisty na prawo islamskie w Al-Andalus w świetle wybranych fatw Życie na styku świata muzułmańskiego i chrześcijańskiego wpływało na obie strony. Odcisnęło także swe piętno na prawie muzułmańskim (szariacie, co można zaobserwować w bardzo cennym źródle – fatwach (muzułmańskich orzeczeniach prawnych. Niniejsza praca omawia problemy związane z rekonkwistą w oparciu o fatwy zebrane z obszaru Al-Andalus (muzułmańskiej Hiszpanii i Portugalii oraz Afryki Północnej w kompilacji Al-Wanšarīsīego. Rozważane zagadnienia obejmują wykup jeńców, obronę muzułmańskich miast oraz relacje handlowe z chrześcijanami. Tym samym wyłania się obraz wpływu rekonkwisty na życie codzienne muzułmanów, tak jak został on zachowany w fatwach omawianego okresu.

  15. Preliminary subsurface hydrologic considerations: Columbia River Plateau Physiographic Province. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veatch, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    This report contains a discussion of the hydrologic conditions of the Columbia River Plateau physiographic province. The Columbia River Plateau is underlain by a thick basalt sequence. The Columbia River basalt sequence contains both basalt flows and sedimentary interbeds. These sedimentary interbeds, which are layers of sedimentary rock between lava flows, are the main aquifer zones in the basalt sequence. Permeable interflow zones, involving the permeable top and/or rubble bottom of a flow, are also water-transmitting zones. A number of stratigraphic units are present in the Pasco Basin, which is in the central part of the Columbia River Plateau. At a conceptual level, the stratigraphic sequence from the surface downward can be separated into four hydrostratigraphic systems. These are: (1) the unsaturated zone, (2) the unconfined aquifer, (3) the uppermost confined aquifers, and (4) the lower Yakima basalt hydrologic sequence. A conceptual layered earth model (LEM) has been developed. The LEM represents the major types of porous media (LEM units) that may be encountered at a number of places on the Columbia Plateau, and specifically in the Pasco Basin. The conceptual LEM is not representative of the actual three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic sequence and hydrologic conditions existing at any specific site within the Columbia Plateau physiographic province. However, the LEM may be useful for gaining a better understanding of how the hydrologic regime may change as a result of disruptive events that may interact with a waste repository in geologic media

  16. Macrozoobenthos Community Structure In The Estuary of Donan River, Cilacap, Central Java Province, Indonesia

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    Taufik Fakih Hakiki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary of Donan Riverwhich is adjacent to Segara Anakan Lagoon in Cilacap, Central Java Province (Indonesia has been used for a number of activities such asfishieries, agriculture, industry, harbor, and tourism activities.  The aim of this study is to analyze the ecosystem condition based on mazcrozoobenthos community structure. This study was conducted from Augustus 2015 to January 2016. Samples were collected monthly at five stations from the river close area to the ocean close area. The study was conducted to identify kinds of generaand densityof themacrozoobenthos, and analyze substrates and water quality.Data analysis was performed onabundance, diversity, evenness and dominance indexes.Based on the study, macrozoobenthos at the estuary of Donan River consists of three classes i.e Gastropod (12 genera, Bivalvia(9 genera, and Polychaeta (6 genera. Based on the sampling location, Gastropod and Bivalvia are the largest composition found at five stations. Based on the sampling location, the macrozoobenthos density, diversity index, evennes index,and dominance index can be inferred that the estuary of Donan River is classified to be moderately ecological polluted.

  17. Investigation of heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead in Chironomidae and Gammarus pulex Namrood River – Tehran Province

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    Rezaei M. Kamali A. and Shapoori M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystem pollution is one of the important problems of today environment. In this study the existence of heavy metal in the Namrood River, situated in Firoozkooh in Tehran province, Iran has been investigated. The Namrood River is located near Firoozkooh route, and is affected by pollutant from tourist centers, entertainment, gas stations, nearby villages’ sewage systems, farming effluent, and hatchery farms. In some areas, its water is heavily polluted possibly by heavy metals. After selecting two stations in upstream and downstream of the river, they were sampled three times in both cold and hot seasons of year (mid-March, and June for Chironomidae, and Gammarus plux sediments. The measured heavy metals were cadmium and lead. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium in measured samples varied from 0.010-0.2033 ppm. The concentration of lead in samples varied from 0.11-2.16 ppm. The results also indicated that sediments of samples taken from the upper station in the cold season had a higher proportion of cadmium and a higher concentration of lead  than  sediments in the lower station during the hot season.

  18. Effect of community activities on water qualities of the Bangpakong River, Chachoengsao Province

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    Paibulkichakul, C.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of community activities on water qualities of the Bangpakong River were investigated. Water from three different areas, Huasai temple, Thayai market and Sothorn temple, were sampled for quality monitoring for its physical, chemical and biological properties during July-September 2004. Analysis of variance was used for data analysis, and Duncan's Multiple Range Test was applied for means comparison at 95% confidence level.The results showed that ranges of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphatephosphorus in all stations were 4.10-6.35, 0.022-0.156, 0.012-0.050, 0.084-0.299 and 0.004-0.047 mg/L, res the large food market, had the lowest water quality. Sothorn temple, the well-known tourist temple, had water quality in the middle of the three stations. Huasai temple, the agricultural site, had the best water qualities. The differences of water quality may be caused by the differences of community activities. The other parameters of this study could not clearly indicate the resons for the difference on water qualities.However, water quality from three areas met the Surface Water Quality Standard, class 3. Bangpakong River, the main river of Chachoengsao Province, is not only the source of water supply for households consumption as well as agricultural and industrial activities, but also receives untreated waste water from households, markets and industrial estates. Consequently, unless wastewater has been treated properly before discharging into the Bangpakong River, there will be water pollution in the near future.

  19. First survey of parasitic helminths of goats along the Han River in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Gasser, Robin B; Fang, Rui; Zeng, Jinrong; Zhu, Kaixiang; Qi, Mingwei; Zhang, Zongze; Tan, Li; Lei, Weiqiang; Zhou, Yanqin; Zhao, Junlong; Hu, Min

    2016-09-01

    Diseases caused by parasitic helminths cause considerable production and economic losses in livestock worldwide. Understanding the epidemiology of these parasites has important implications for controlling them. The main purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of key parasitic helminths in goats along the Han River in Zhanggang, Hubei Province (from January to December 2014). We used faecal flotation and sedimentation techniques as well as PCR-based DNA sequencing to detect and identify helminths. Results showed that the prevalence of helminths was high throughout the year, particularly for gastrointestinal nematodes. These first findings provide useful baseline information for goat helminths in Zhanggang, and a starting point for the implementation of control programs. With an increased expansion of the goat industry in China, the findings also emphasise the need to undertake prevalence surveys in other regions of China where extensive farming practices are used.

  20. [Analysis of trend of Oncomelania snail status in Yangtze River valley of Anhui Province, 1998-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-Chang; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Lu, Jin-You; Li, Ting-Ting; Gao, Feng-Hu; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Chuan-Ming; He, Long-Zhu; Yu, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Shi-Qing

    2011-04-01

    To understand the trend of Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in Yangtze River valley of Anhui Province so as to provide an evidence for making out schistosomiasis prevention and control strategies in the future. The snail data from 1998 to 2009 of the Yangtze River valley in Anhui Province were collected including the snail area, newly occurred and re-occurred snail areas, densities of snails and infected snails, etc., and the trend and influence factors were analyzed. With several fluctuations, the snail area showed a trend of declining in general after the devastating summer flooding in 1998. From 1998 to 2009, 3 peaks of newly occurred snail areas appeared in 1998, 2004 and 2006 and 2 peaks of reoccurred snail areas appeared in 1998 and 2004. The densities of living snails and infected snails were more severe in banks of the Yangtze River than in islets of the Yangtze River. During 12 years, 1 peak of living snail density appeared in 2003, and 3 peaks of infected snail density appeared in 1999, 2003-2004 and 2006 in the islets of the Yangtze River. The densities of living snails and infected snails in banks of the Yangtze both appeared 1 peak in 1998. The distribution of snails in the Yangtze River valley is related to nature, society and financial circumstances, and it is hard to completely perform the snail control in a short-term. Therefore, at the same time of strengthening snail control, we should also strengthen infectious source control.

  1. Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects of Zayandeh Roud River and Its Branches, Isfahan Province, Iran.

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    Mansoreh Shayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are the major groups of arthropods that spend some parts of their life cycle in the water. These insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. There is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of Iran.To study the aquatic insects fauna, adult, nymphal and larval collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard technique in Zayandeh Roud River, Isfahan Province,central Iran, during summer 2011.In total, 741 speimens of aquatic insects were collected and morphologically identified. They include 7 families and 12 genera representing 2 Orders. The order of Diptera (92.31% and Coleoptera (7.69%. The families Culicidae, Syrphidae and Chironomidae from Diptera order, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Hydrophilidae from Coleoptera order were identified.Some aquatic insects play an important role for transmission of human and animal diseases. These insects also are important for biological control. Therefore ecological study on aquatic insects can provide information about ecology of insects in an area for any decision making.

  2. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ( 227 Ac, 40 K, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 238 U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of regional-scale groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, Marcelo R.; Usunoff, Eduardo J.

    A three-dimensional modular model (MODFLOW) was used to simulate groundwater flow in the Azul River basin, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in order to assess the correctness of the conceptual model of the hydrogeological system. Simulated heads satisfactorily match observed heads in the regional water-table aquifer. Model results indicate that: (1) groundwater recharge is not uniform throughout the region but is best represented by three recharge rates, decreasing downgradient, similar to the distribution of soils and geomorphological characteristics; and (2) evapotranspiration rates are larger than previous estimates, which were made by using the Thornthwaite-Mather method. Evapotranspiration rates estimated by MODFLOW agree with results of independent studies of the region. Model results closely match historical surface-flow records, thereby suggesting that the model description of the aquifer-river relationship is correct. Résumé Un modèle modulaire tridimensionnel (MODFLOW) a été utilisé pour simuler les écoulements souterrains dans le bassin de la rivière Azul (Province de Buenos Aires, Argentine), dans le but d'évaluer la justesse du modèle conceptuel du système hydrogéologique. La piézométrie simulée s'ajuste de façon satisfaisante à celle observée pour l'ensemble de la nappe. Les résultats du modèle indiquent que: (1) la recharge de la nappe n'est pas uniforme sur toute la région, mais qu'elle est mieux approchée par trois valeurs différentes, décroissant vers l'aval-gradient, en suivant la même distribution que les sols et les caractéristiques géomorphologiques et (2) l'évapotranspiration est nettement plus importante que prévu initialement à partir de la méthode de Thornthwaite-Mather. Les valeurs d'évapotranspiration fournies par MODFLOW concordent bien avec les résultats d'autres études portant sur la région. Les résultats du modèle reproduisent convenablement les chroniques de débit des écoulements de surface

  4. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  5. [Prevalence of hypertension and its influencing factors in rural areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province in 2014-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingjun; Zhou, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuwei; Liang, Ling; Zhong, Qi; Qin, Qirong; Wang, Xiaodong; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and related influence factors of hypertension among rural adult residents in areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. Totally 2873 rural adult residents in seven typical towns along the Yangtze River of Chizhou, Tongling and Ma'anshan Cities, Anhui Province were selected, with multistage-stratified random cluster sampling, to perform questionnaires and physical measurements from year 2014 to 2015. The prevalence of hypertension was 30. 7%( standardized prevalence was 18. 4%), the awareness rate was 50. 6%( standardized rate was 29. 0%), the treatment rate was40. 4%( standardized rate was 18. 7%), the control rate was 17. 7%( standardized ratewas 9. 3%) in rural areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were increased with age increase. Abdominal obesity( OR = 1. 855, 95% CI 1. 467-2. 344), family history of hypertension( OR = 1. 594, 95% CI 1. 265-2. 008), the average annual household income Yangtze River. Female( OR = 0. 734, 95% CI 0. 604-0. 891) was its protective factors. While the factors of awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were not same. The prevalence of hypertension is higher in the areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. However, the awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension are lower.

  6. [Situation and assessment of heavy metal pollution in river and mud in one city in Henan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jingzhuan; Li, Cuimei; Wang, Shouying; Jiang, Zhigang; Zhang, Miaomiao; Han, Guangliang

    2010-11-01

    To study the heavy metal contamination status in river water and mud in the suburb of a city in Henan Province. Typical sampling method is used to select a farmland irrigation river of the suburb of a city. Use the atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and measure the heavy metal cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) in the river water samples and mud samples by graphite furnace method and flame method, respectively. The results of water were compared with GB 3838-2002, Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water, and GB 5084-2005, Standards for Irrigation Water Quality. The results of mud were compared with national soil background value. The contents of Cu and Cd in the river samples do not exceed the standard, and that of Pb is 3 to 6 times higher than the standard. According to the single factor pollution index method, the single factor pollution indice of Cu, and Cd in the river are less than 0.2 and are of clean level, while that of Pb reaches 6.84, indicating the Pb pollution in river water is severe. Cu in mud is more than 4 times of the soil background value, and that of Cd is more than 69 times of the soil background value, and that of Pb is more than 2 times of the soil background value. The single item pollution index indicates, in mud, the pollution index of Pb is 2.5, medium level pollution. The pollution indice of Cu and Cd in mud are more than 3, is severe pollution, and the Cd pollution is especially heavy, and the single pollution index reaches 67.76. The comprehensive pollution indice of the river and the mud are 5.346 and 84.115, respectively, indicating that both are at heavy pollution level. The main pollution source of the river originates from Pb, and that of the mud is from Cd and it is required to take measure and control as early as possible.

  7. Iktiofauna Sungai Sangkir Kabupaten Rokan Hulu Provinsi Riau (Ichthyofauna of Sangkir River, Rokan Hulu District Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunuk Dian Pranata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri river Sangkir village, Rokan Hulu district, Riau Province from May of July 2016. The aim of this study was to inventory the fish species in Sangkir river branch of Rokan Kiri River with direct observation (survey. Five sampling locations were determined purposely based on the environmental condition that could be represented by the river condition. A total of 288 individuals of fish belonging to 3 orders, 7 families, 13 genera and 16 species were recorded in this study, namely Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis, Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus and Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae was the most abundance fish in this study. Penelitian ini telah dilaksanakan di sungai Sangkir, anak sungai Rokan Kiri, desa Sangkir, Kabupaten Rokan Hulu, Provinsi Riau pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2016. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis ikan di sungai Sangkir anak Sungai Rokan Kiri dengan metode pengamatan langsung (survei dengan penetapan stasiun pengambilan sampel secara purposive sampling. Penetapan stasiun berdasarkan kondisi lingkungan yang terdiri dari 5 stasiun penelitian. Hasil penelitian  didapatkan sebanyak 288 individu ikan yang terdiri dari 3 ordo, 7 famili 13 genus dan 16 spesies. Spesies yang didapatkan yaitu Barbodes balleroides, Barbodes gonionotus, Barbichthys leavis, Channa striata, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, Labiobarbus fasciatus, Mystus nigriceps, Ompok eugeneiatus, Osteochilus hasseltii, Osteochilus mycrocephalus, Pangio semicincta, Pristolepis grooti, Thynnichthys polylepis Trichogaster leerii, Trichogaster trichopterus dan Trichopsis vittata. Cyprinidae merupakan kelompok ikan yang paling banyak dalam penelitian ini.

  8. Spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis in Anhui Province, East China: Potential effect of the Yangtze River - Huaihe River Water Transfer Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhi-Guo; Li, Si; Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Tian-Ping; Bergquist, Robert; Huang, Yin-Yin; Gao, Feng-Hua; Hu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2018-05-09

    Anhui Province has been one of typical epidemic areas of schistosomiasis in East China as a wide range of large lake and marshland regions provide an ideal environment for growth and reproduction of the intermediate snail host. With the completion of the Yangtze River-Huaihe River Water Transfer Project (YHWTP), launched by the end of 2016, the epidemic areas are expected to expand and controlling schistosomiasis remains a challenge. Based on annual surveillance data at the county level in Anhui for the period 2006-2015, spatial and temporal cluster analyses were conducted to assess the pattern of risk through spatial (Local Moran's I and flexible scan statistic) and space-time scan statistic (Kulldorff). It was found that schistosomiasis sero-prevalence was dramatically reduced and maintained at a low level. Cluster results showed that spatial extent of schistosomiasis contracted, but snail distribution remained geographically stable across the study area. Clusters, both for schistosomiasis and snail presence, were common along the Yangtze River. Considering the effect of the ongoing YHWTP on the potential spread of schistosomiasis, Zongyang County and Anqing, which will be transected by the new water-transfer route, should be given a priority for strengthened surveillance and control. Attention should also be paid to Guichi since it is close to one of the planned inlets of the YHWTP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sandbar Formation in the Mesjid River Estuary, Rupat Strait, Riau Province, Indonesia

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    Rifardi Rifardi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At the aim to clarify the relationship between the sandbar  formation and lithogeneous sediment discharges, the sedimentological aspects of the Mesjid River Estuary are revealed by various analysis. The samples of bottom surface sediments and the suspended sediment were collected at 50 stations in the estuary using grab and van dorm samplers. Oceanographic observation were also carried out  at the stations. The Mesjid River Estuary receives lithogeneous sediments mainly from the Mesjid River’s drainage areas which play important role on the formation of sandbar which is shown by  a belt-like area (0.5-1.0 m depth in the area off the river mouth. The sandbar might become a sandbank in 20 to 40 years later. High suspended sediment up to 354.61 mg/l indicates the river mouth receives lithogeneous sediments. Total of 926  ton/day of the sediments supplied by the river are deposited 0.024 m/year into the area.

  10. A comparative study of detrital zircon ages from river sediment and rocks of the Karoo Supergroup (Late Carboniferous to Jurassic), Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for the tectono-sedimentary evolution of Gondwanaland’s southern continental margin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) The Mzimvubu River, situated in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, drains essentially strata of the Late Carboniferous to Jurassic Karoo Supergroup with minor intersection of the underlying Devonian Msikaba Formation near the mouth of the river at Port St. Johns. Rock- and river sediment samples were collected at specific points from within the Mzimvubu River drainage basin, based on changes in the geology through which the rivers flow. Detrital zircon age populatio...

  11. La cuenca del río Reconquista en la planificación metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina. Ámbito, problemas y propuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Potocko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La cuenca del río Reconquista es una de las tres grandes cuencas de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina gravemente afectada por las inundaciones y por la contaminación. En tanto pieza territorial de la ciudad metropolitana, la cuenca Reconquista fue abordada en los documentos de planificación urbana que se elaboraron para la región durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX: el Plan Regulador de Buenos Aires, el Esquema Director Año 2000, el Estudio del Sistema Metropolitano Bonaerense y el Proyecto 90. Independientemente de que se hayan concretado o no, esas instancias de planificación ilustran las formas de pensar y operar en la cuenca, como un ámbito dentro de la ciudad, como un problema de alcance metropolitano y como una propuesta de transformación territorial, en tres momentos: el de las inundaciones y la hidráulica, el del medio ambiente y la calidad de vida, y el de la ecología y el paisaje, donde cambian las relaciones que se establecen entre la urbanización, el urbanismo y las cuencas hídricas.

  12. The phytogeography and ecotourism potential of the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü river" basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bastürk; Akis, Ayhan

    2012-04-01

    Köprü River Basin is located in the western Taurus mountains in south-western Turkey. The area is in the Mediterranean phytogeographical region. The climate in the area is typically Mediterranean: mild and rainy in winter, hot and dry in summer. Xerophytic plants can easily grow in this climate. Pinus brutia forests are common in the study area. Maquis and garique elements with sclerophyll character also occur in the region. The study aims to determine the distribution of the vegetation in the eastern province of lower part of the "Köprü River" Basin. The factors which affect the distribution of vegetation are climate, landforms and soils. In order to determine the plant growth and climate relationship, the climatic data were analyzed. As well as the geological and geomorphological conditions, the soils were investigated and the effects of these factors on vegetation cover were analyzed. The region also has various attributes for the development of ecotourism, including canyons, forests and historical places. The region has a great potential for many different social, cultural, and scientific activities related to ecotourism. These are highland tourism, rafting, botanic tourism, trekking, and climbing. In order to make ecotourism available for local people to benefit, ecotourism should be developed and introduced to the world. Moreover, plans for the sustainability of the resources should be made. The study highlights the ecotourism potential of the area which is of social, economic, and ecological importance for the region.

  13. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Osmium isotope variations accompanying the eruption of a single lava flow field in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Gannoun, A.; Barry, T. L.; Self, S.; Burton, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Geochemical interpretations of continental flood basalts usually assume that individual lava flows represent compositionally homogenous and rapidly erupted products of large well-mixed magma reservoirs. However, inflated pāhoehoe lavas may develop over considerable periods of time and preserve chemical variations that can be temporally linked through flow formation to eruption sequence thus providing an understanding of magma evolution over the timescale of a single eruption. This study presents comprehensive major, trace element and Re-Os isotope data for a single eruption that formed the 2660 km3 Sand Hollow flow field in the Columbia River Basalt Province, USA. Major and trace element variations accompanying flow emplacement (e.g. MgO 3.09-4.55 wt%, Ni 17.5-25.6 ppm) are consistent with fractional crystallisation, but other petrogenetic processes or variable sources cannot be distinguished. However, there is a systematic shift in the initial 187Os/188Os isotope composition of the magma (age corrected to 15.27 Ma), from 0.174 (lava core) to 1.444 (lava crust) within a single 35 m thick sheet lobe. Lava crust values are more radiogenic than any known mantle source, consistent with previous data indicating that neither an enriched reservoir nor the sub-continental lithospheric mantle are likely to have sourced these basalts. Rather, these data indicate that lavas emplaced during the earliest stages of eruption have higher degrees of crustal contamination. These results highlight the limitations of applying chemostratigraphic correlation across continental flood basalt provinces, the use of single data points to define melt sources and magmatic processes, and the dangers of using conventional isochron techniques in such basalt sequences for absolute chronology.

  15. Riverine Settlement Adaptation Characteristic in Mentaya River, East Kotawaringin Regency, Kalimantan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esariti, L.; Yuliastuti, N.; Ratih, N. K.

    2018-02-01

    The research looks for the importance of riverine settlement preservation as one of the efforts to carry out sustainable management of a traditional settlement. East Kalimantan, more specifically riverine settlement in Mentaya River is known as one of the traditional settlements that put river as the central of their livelihood activities. The theory of Rapopport [1] was used to investigate the importance of cultural aspect influence to the settlement process, and to seek for the behavioural and environment relationship in determining the pattern of adaptation process. Mix method approach was conducted by utilizing in depth interviews among 40 respondents within three districts, namely in Baamang, Mentaya Seberang and Mentawa Baru Ketapang subdistrict. The result shows that culture dominantly affect the process of settlement adaptation, especially the aspect of family structure, social network, and kinship. The adaptation pattern is influenced significantly by physical environment, type of physical condition of the houses, economic condition and the degree of heritage preservation motive. It sums up that adaptation process could be effective if the integration of culture, activities and government regulations is performed.

  16. Vegetation and vascular flora of the Mekong River, Kratie and Steung Treng Provinces, Cambodia

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    James F. Maxwell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary and detailed botanical survey of the islands in the Mekong River between Kratie and Steung Treng was done. This area includes the most biologically intact and threatened riparian and terrestrial ecosystems along the river in Cambodia. The vegetation includes six riverine zones and four terrestrial facies. Riverine habitats are mostly intact while the terrestrial vegetation ranges from destroyed to degraded. Effective conservation measures are required to stop further habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. One new species, 23 records for the Cambodian flora, and a total of 690 species were collected. Detailed descriptions of all habitats, a database, and photographs are included. Increased exploitative human settlement in the area has caused drastic environmental changes with extensive deforestation and hunting. The forests are grazed, burned, logged, and often cleared for agricultural use without effective control. Sustainable management and scientifically acceptable development must be implemented before the area is totally ruined. Properly conceived reforestation is urgently required as well as a conservation education project aimed directly at the people living in the area. Unless effective restraints are implemented the area will become biologically destitute and will not be able to provide the natural resources that people require--in short, the area will become uninhabitable. Restoration of degraded or destroyed places will be impossible or far more difficult than conservation and intelligent management of presently endangered places. The potential for profitable eco-tourism should also be considered since tourists will certainly want to visit natural ecosystems on some of the islands. Only if local people are directly involved in eco-tourism and understand the necessity of conservation can this activity be successful. It is strongly recommended that continued botanical research be conducted in the area in order to

  17. Physical Volcanological and Petrogenetic Implications of Intra-lava Flow Geochemical Heterogeneity in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vye, C. L.; Barry, T. L.; Self, S.; Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.

    2007-12-01

    Continental flood basalt lava flows are widely assumed to represent compositionally uniform and rapidly erupted products of large well-mixed magma reservoirs. However, this study presents new data to illustrate systematic element and isotope variations within the flow field formed by an individual flood basalt eruption, both vertically within each sheet lobe and laterally between the constituent lobes. Such variation is significant in chemostratigraphic correlation of flood basalt lava units, in identifying source variability during one eruption, and in petrogenetic modeling. We investigate the extent and cause of compositional variation through tracing lava sheet lobes in a 2,660 cubic kilometer pahoehoe flow field formed during a single eruption in the Columbia River Basalt Province, USA. This is based on features related to emplacement by the inflation mechanism. This method of emplacement is supported by small but statistically significant and systematic major and trace element variation e.g. MgO 3.09- 4.55 wt%, Ni 17.5-25.6 ppm, indicative of fractional crystallisation. Re-Os isotopes indicate progressive crustal contamination of the magma over the timescale of a single flood basalt eruption. By establishing this physical volcanological framework, we determine a temporal link with the supply of lava from the vent(s) and apply it to investigate sequential magmatic evolution during the timescale of one eruption.

  18. Geochemistry of uranium in ground waters of the Conlara river Valley, San Luis and Cordoba provinces (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, H.B.; Gamba, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Geochemical characteristics of ground waters related with lixiviation, transport and precipitation of uranium in the Conlara river valley (provinces of San Luis and Cordoba (Argentina)) are studied. Anions and cations' distributions, together with hardness, specific conductivity, pH, Eh, and uranium and vanadium contents, have been studied. Those parameters characterize four hidrogeochemical facies along an E-W profile: a calcic strong bicarbonate facies, an alkaline-calcic bicarbonate facies, an alkaline sulfate facies, and a strong alkaline sulfate facies. An ''Interphase zone'' (transition from bicarbonate water to sulfate water), where changes in composition may define a geochemical environment capable of UO2 precipitation, has been determined. The chemical-Thermodynamic studies give a dominance of UDC and UTC complexs ions (even in sulfate waters), so they represent the 99% of present ions. Besides, the calculated values required for equilibrium with uraninite or carnotite resulted much greater than those obtained in the performed experiments. It means that the precipitation of those minerals requires either the presence of greate amounts of uranium or vanadium, or a reducing environment with Eh values smaller than the observed ones. Finally, the steps to be taken in future investigations are suggested in view to a drilling plan where: 1) Priority to the ''Interphase zone'' areas is given. 2) The deepest aquifers in Tertiary sediments of the basin have to be reached in order to get the convenient environmental conditions (i.e. smallest Eh values) for uranium or uranium-vanadium precipitation. (author) [es

  19. Microscale ecotoxicity testing of Moselle river watershed (Lorraine Province, France sediments

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    Jean François Férard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecotoxic potential of seven Moselle river watershed sediments was assessed with a battery of bioassays comprised of rapid phototrophic [LuminoTox solid phase (L-SPA and elutriate (L-ELU assays] and bacterial [Microtox solid phase assay (M-SPA] exposure tests, as well as with two micro-invertebrate solid phase tests conducted with Hydra attenuata (lethal and sublethal effects solid phase assay, HL-SPA and HSL-SPA and Chironomus riparius. Measured effects of sediments and their elutriates were varied and reflected responses that were ecotoxicity test-, endpoint- and site-dependent, suggesting some degree of risk toward benthic and water column organisms, respectively, at specific sites. Correlation analysis demonstrated that L-SPA and M-SPA ecotoxicity responses were significantly linked with the Hydra HSL-SPA assay, indicating their ability to predict ecotoxicity towards an invertebrate taxonomic group representing secondary consumers. While the L-SPA and M-SPA assays hold promise as rapid screens for sediment ecotoxicity, correlation analysis with grain size (L-SPA: r=-0.795, P=0.033; M-SPA: r=-0.73, P=0.07 points out that their responses can be influenced by the presence of fines (i.e., sediment particles ≤0.063 mm in size and that this information is essential to properly interpret ecotoxicity data generated with these assays. Finally, notable differences observed in trophic level sensitivities once again recall the importance of employing a test battery to adequately appraise the ecotoxicity of sediments.

  20. GIS methodology for geothermal play fairway analysis: Example from the Snake River Plain volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Jacob; Shervais, John W.; Glen, Jonathan; Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh; Dobson, Patrick; Gasperikova, Erika; Sonnenthal, Eric; Visser, Charles; Liberty, Lee M.; Siler, Drew; Evans, James P.; Santellanes, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration derives from a systematic methodology originally developed within the petroleum industry and is based on a geologic and hydrologic framework of identified geothermal systems. We are tailoring this methodology to study the geothermal resource potential of the Snake River Plain and surrounding region. This project has contributed to the success of this approach by cataloging the critical elements controlling exploitable hydrothermal systems, establishing risk matrices that evaluate these elements in terms of both probability of success and level of knowledge, and building automated tools to process results. ArcGIS was used to compile a range of different data types, which we refer to as ‘elements’ (e.g., faults, vents, heatflow…), with distinct characteristics and confidence values. Raw data for each element were transformed into data layers with a common format. Because different data types have different uncertainties, each evidence layer had an accompanying confidence layer, which reflects spatial variations in these uncertainties. Risk maps represent the product of evidence and confidence layers, and are the basic building blocks used to construct Common Risk Segment (CRS) maps for heat, permeability, and seal. CRS maps quantify the variable risk associated with each of these critical components. In a final step, the three CRS maps were combined into a Composite Common Risk Segment (CCRS) map for analysis that reveals favorable areas for geothermal exploration. Python scripts were developed to automate data processing and to enhance the flexibility of the data analysis. Python scripting provided the structure that makes a custom workflow possible. Nearly every tool available in the ArcGIS ArcToolbox can be executed using commands in the Python programming language. This enabled the construction of a group of tools that could automate most of the processing for the project. Currently, our tools are repeatable

  1. Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Around 11.5 ∗ 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ∗ 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ∗ 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ∗ 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

  2. Algal and Cyanobacterial communities in two rivers of the province of San Luis (Argentina subjected to anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Daruich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The use of biological indicators of pollution has increased in recent years as an alternative to the monitoring of water quality. Phytoplankton community selectively respond to different anthropogenic disturbances, such as water dams and the increase of nutrients coming from city centers, which leads to the eutrophication of the aquatic environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the composition and the structure of the algal and Cyanobacterial communities in order to prove human influences by the presence of reservoirs with some degree of eutrophication and the impact of urbanization in two rivers at the Bebedero basin in San Luis province (Argentine. METHODS: Four sites were sampled: two of them were placed before dams and villages (V1 and (P1 and two after them (V2 and (P2. Each site was visited in every season of the year: summer, autumn, winter and spring. Qualitative and semi-quantitative phytoplankton samples were taken, and the frequency of occurrence was determined. Variations between pairs of sampling stations were analyzed through the Jaccard similarity and complementarity indices. RESULTS: Ninety two taxa were identified, of which diatoms were the most frequent. The most affected station was P2 with high abundance, less diversity and equitability, whereas the species more tolerant to the presence of organic matter were Melosira varians, Navicula tripunctata, Oscillatoria limosa, Gomphonema parvulum and Coelastrum microporum, and some species of euglenophytas. CONCLUSION: Therefore, the structure and composition of the algal and Cyanobacterial communities allowed us to identify sections more sensitive to human-induced alterations.

  3. Assessment of persistence and residue of diazinon and malathion in three rivers (Mond, Shahpour and Dalaky of Bushehr Province 2004-2005

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    Mansooreh Shayeghi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water contamination due to insecticides, often generates dangerous results for consumers. Immoderate consumption of insecticides in neighboring farms contaminates rivers. Assessment of residue of phosphorus insecticides which are used in farms near rivers can play a key role in preventing probable poisonings and aquatic ecosystems polution. Methods: In this case control study, water of three permanent rivers in Bushehr province and urban water pipe network of Bushehr city were assessed in different months in 2004-2005 and 216 samples were collected on the whole. In each river,three stations were used for sampling. After the sampling, extraction processes were accomplished using solvents such as: acetone, methylen-chloride and benzene. For detection and measurement of TLC Scanner apparatus was used. Results: Residues of diazinon and malathion were found in water of the three rivers in spring and summer. And in other seasons the rate of residues were very low or zero. The statistical analysis of the results through one-sidedanalysis variance, showed that diazinon and malathion residues in the water of the surveyed rivers in different months had significant difference (p 0.05, while malathion residue was significant (p <0.05. Conclusion: In the first and second months after applying the two insecticides, their residues level in all three rivers of Mond, Shahpour and Dalaky are more than acceptable contamination level, the higher levels belong to diazinon. Precautions must be considered in using the water for drinking purposes and also using aquatic foods which are provided from these rivers.

  4. Occurrence of naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac residues in wastewater and river water of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madikizela, Lawrence Mzukisi; Chimuka, Luke

    2017-07-01

    The present paper reports a detailed study that is based on the monitoring of naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac in Mbokodweni River and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located around the city of Durban in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Target compounds were extracted from water samples using a multi-template molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction prior to separation and quantification on a high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photo diode array detector. The analytical method yielded the detection limits of 0.15, 1.00, and 0.63 μg/L for naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, respectively. Solid-phase extraction method was evaluated for its performance using deionized water samples that were spiked with 5 and 50 μg/L of target compounds. Recoveries were greater than 80% for all target compounds with RSD values in the range of 4.1 to 10%. Target compounds were detected in most wastewater and river water samples with ibuprofen being the most frequently detected pharmaceutical. Maximum concentrations detected in river water for naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac were 6.84, 19.2, and 9.69 μg/L, respectively. The concentrations of target compounds found in effluent and river water samples compared well with some studies. The analytical method employed in this work is fast, selective, sensitive, and affordable; therefore, it can be used routinely to evaluate the occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals in South African water resources.

  5. Food poisoning associated with ingestion of wild wasp broods in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Huang, Tian

    2018-04-01

    Food poisoning due to wild wasp broods ingestion has long been noted in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley, Yunnan province, China. This study describes the epidemiological and clinical features of the poisoning and possible causes. Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2016 were analyzed to produce demographic data on patients, information on clinical presentations, wasp species identification, and estimations of possible risk factors for symptomatic cases. Eleven poisoning events were associated with the ingestion of wild wasp broods, including 46 exposed persons with 31 symptomatic living cases and 8 deceased cases that were reported in the Yunnan province between 2008 and 2016. Poisoning cases were only detected in the upstream region of the Lancang river valley in the autumn. The severity of the symptoms was correlated with an evident dose-effect relationship regarding the quantity ingested. The mean latent period from wild wasp broods ingestion to the onset of the symptoms was 10 h for symptomatic living cases and 7 h for deceased cases, respectively. Both gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms were commonly observed in the poisoning cases. The toxin source may be indirectly caused by the wasp broods due to the prevalence of local poisonous plants, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Tripterygium hypoglaucum Hutch and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Educational programs at the start of wasp harvest season in September in the high-risk area should be carried out to reduce the incidence of poisonings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quarternary Sediment Characteristics of Floodplain area: Study Case at Kampar River, Rumbio Area and Surroundings, Riau Province

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    Yuniarti Yuskar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in some floodplains of meandering river environment along the Kampar River, Rumbio. Typical morphology of meandering river that found in this area can be classified as stream channel, floodplain, abandoned channel, and sand bars deposit. Meandering river system carries sediment supply by suspended and bed - load (mixed load in conjunction with low energy into a particular characteristic on sediment deposition. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the sediments, changes in vertical and lateral spread of sediment deposition on the floodplain environment. This study conducted by field survey using a hand auger of 1.5m - 4m depth and trenching which is a layer that has been exposed of 1-2 meters depth. Further analysis had been carried out using granulometri method and core data analysis to determine the characteristics and depositional facies. Sediment deposit that formed along the Kampar River is the result of the main channel migration of Kampar River. The characteristic of quaternary sediment facies is coarse to gravelly sand on the bottom followed by fine to very fine sand with pattern fining upwards and silt to clay and abundant terrestrial organic matter at the uppermost layer. Depositional facies are determined based on the characteristics of sediment facies which can be grouped into a stream channel, oblique accretion deposits, sand bars and overbank deposits.

  7. [Dynamic coupling and spatial disparity of economic development and water environmental quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Hua; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2013-02-01

    By using coupling model, this paper analyzed the relationships between the economic development and water environment quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province from 1991 to 2010. During the study period, both the economic development index and the water environment index in the Basin showed an uptrend, basically in a coordination state. From the perspective of coupling coordination degree, the economic development and the water environment system were in interactive coupling, with the features of complexity, nonlinearity, and time-variation. As a whole, the coupling experienced three stages, i.e., low level stage, antagonistic stage, and breaking-in stage. As for the coupling degree, the coupling of the economic development and the water environment system was in the first quadrant, i.e., at a development stage of basic coordination. From the perspective of spatial disparity, the coupling degree of the economic development and the water environment system was higher in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin, including Changchun and Jilin, than in the lower reaches, including Songyuan and Baicheng. The coupling degree was not only significantly positively correlated with regional economic development, but also affected by the links between the regions as well as the industrial structure within the regions. The economic development of the cities in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was obviously higher than that in the lower reaches, and, due to the adopting of more strict and effective measures for environmental protection and pollution emissions reduction, the water environment quality in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was better.

  8. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Rivers around Dahongshan Fe&Cu Mine in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Qi, Wufu; Xu, Jun; Yang, Shuran

    2017-12-01

    Dahongshan Fe&Cu mine in Yunnan Province was endowed with the title of “National Green Mine Pilots” by Chinese Ministry of Land and Resources in April 2013. In order to verify the implementation effects of the green mine and better drive the construction of the green mine by other mine enterprises in Yunnan, the project team investigated overlying deposit in rivers around the Dahongshan mine in the wet season (August) of 2016, investigated mine enterprises, and applied the Potential Ecological Risk Index to evaluate potential ecological hazards of heavy metal pollution in overlying deposit. The results showed that all sampling points were less than 105, indicating the lower ecological hazard degree.

  9. Paisaje, ambiente y forma urbana en la cuenca del río Reconquista. El proyecto “Ríos Urbanos” como plataforma de abordaje.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arq. Fernando Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo da cuenta de la labor de “Ríos Urbanos”, un proyecto de investigación que dentro del Instituto de Arquitectura de la UNSAM, se orienta a estudiar la problemática de las cuencas hídricas urbanas en general y la de la cuenca del río Reconquista en particular, la segunda en importancia dentro de la conurbación bonaerense, con una población cercana a los 3 millones. Como en otras cuencas urbanas, las zonas más bajas concentran los problemas sociales y ambientales más críticos, localizándose allí donde los principales rellenos sanitarios del área metropolitana y los asentamientos informales de mayor densidad. Reparando en la complejidad de esta problemática y en el carácter heterotópico de los terrenos más bajos de la cuenca, el presente artículo recoge los aportes de dos de las cuatro líneas de investigación del proyecto, problematizando de este modo al paisaje, al ambiente y a la forma urbana como perspectivas de aproximación para el estudio de este particular territorio. El artículo concluye con una reflexión acerca de la necesaria redefinición del rol de la investigación dentro del Instituto de Arquitectura, donde se ha promovido el establecimiento de nuevas vinculaciones entre los proyectos de investigación y la enseñanza de grado y posgrado.

  10. Monitoring of selected priority and emerging contaminants in the Guadalquivir River and other related surface waters in the province of Jaén, South East Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The province of Jaén counts with four natural parks, numerous rivers, reservoirs and wetlands; moreover, it is probably the region with higher olive oil production in the world, which makes this zone a proper target to be studied based on the European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/CE. The aim of this survey is to monitor a total number of 373 compounds belonging to different families (pesticides, PAHs, nitrosamines, drugs of abuse, pharmaceuticals and life-style compounds) in surface waters located at different points of the province of Jaén. Among these compounds some priority organic substances (regulated by the EU Directive 2008/105/EC) and pollutants of emerging concern (not regulated yet) can be found. A liquid chromatography electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) method covering 340 compounds was developed and applied, together with a gas chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method which enabled the analysis of 63 organic contaminants (30 of these compounds are analyzed by LC-TOFMS as well). From April 2009 to November 2010 a total of 83 surface water samples were collected (rivers, reservoirs and wetlands). In this period numerous organic contaminants were detected, most of them at the ng L(-1) level. The most frequently priority substances found were chlorpyrifos ethyl, diuron and hexachlorobenzene. Within the other groups, the most frequently detected compounds were: terbuthylazine, oxyfluorfen, desethyl terbuthylazine, diphenylamine (pesticide family); fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene (PAHs group), codeine, paracetamol (pharmaceuticals compounds) and caffeine, nicotine (life-style compounds). As is could be expected, the total concentration of emerging contaminants is distinctly larger than that of priority pollutants, highlighting the importance of continuing with the study of their presence, fate and effects in aquatic environments. However, concentration levels (at the ng per liter level) are low in

  11. Schistosoma japonicum risk in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China: identification of a spatio-temporal risk pattern along the Yangtze River

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    Kun Yang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk for Schistosoma japonicum infection in Jiangsu province, People’s Republic of China, was investigated by a mouse bioassay. Various investigations were conducted in the period 2009-2011 with the presentation here representing the summary of the results from 45-50 sites in the marshlands along the Yangtze River’s course through the province. Indices representing three aspects of the infection were collected to assess risk: (i the proportion of sentinel points where at least one mouse infection was recorded; (ii the proportion of infected mice at each of these sites; and (iii the average worm burdens. Directional distribution analysis and scan statistics were used to explore the spatio-temporal risk pattern. The spatial distribution was oriented along the Yangtze River and the directional distributions for the proportion of infected mice and mean worm burdens were similar for the positive sentinel sites. Four statistically significant clusters were detected in 2009, but only one in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Temporal windows for infection risk were seen in June and September. The study illustrates the utility of spatio-temporal analysis in assessing the risk for schistosomiasis. This approach should be useful with respect to surveillance and response that can be expected to be increasingly applied when moving from morbidity control to transmission control.

  12. Assessing the Variability of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Liquid-Solid Two-Phase and Related Environmental Risks in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinxi; Yang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Junlong; Long, Yongqing; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Taifan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the variability of heavy metals in river water and the hyporheic zone is crucial for pollution control and environmental management. The biotoxicities and potential ecological risks of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) in a solid-liquid two-phase system were estimated using the Geo-accumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Assessment and Quality Standard Index methods in the Weihe River of Shaanxi Province, China. Water and sediment samples were collected from five study sites during spring, summer and winter, 2013. The dominant species in the streambed sediments were chironomids and flutter earthworm, whose bioturbation mainly ranged from 0 to 20 cm. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water and pore water varied obviously in spring and summer. The degrees of concentration of Cu and Cd in spring and summer were higher than the U.S. water quality Criteria Maximum Concentrations. Furthermore, the biotoxicities of Pb and Zn demonstrated season-spatial variations. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in spring and winter were significantly higher than those in summer, and the pollution levels also varied obviously in different layers of the sediments. Moreover, the pollution level of Cd was the most serious, as estimated by all three assessment methods. PMID:26193293

  13. Vegetation greenness modelling in response to interannual precipitation and temperature changes between 2001 and 2012 in Liao River Basin in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Tang, Jie; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Hai-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liao River basin in Jilin Province is the place of origin of the Dongliao River. This study gives a comprehensive analysis of the vegetation coverage in the region and provides a potential theoretical basis for ecological restoration. The seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and dynamics based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in major land cover types in the region was studied. Analyzing the relationship NDVI, temperature and rainfall, we derived a set of predictor variables from 2001 to 2012 using the MODIS Terra level 1 Product (MOD02QKM). The results showed a general increasing trend in NDVI value in the region, while 34.63 % of the region showed degradation. NDVI values begin to rise from April when plants are regreening and they drop in September when temperature are decreasing and the leaves are falling in the study area and temperature was found decreasing during the period of 2001-2012 while rainfall showed an increasing trend. This model could be used to observe the change in vegetation greenness and the dynamic effects of temperature and rainfall. This study provided important data for the environmental protection of the basin area. And we hope to provide scientific analysis for controlling water and soil erosion, maintaining the sustainable productivity of land resources, enhancing the treatment of water pollution and stimulating the virtuous cycle of the ecological system.

  14. Land use/land cover change geo-informative Tupu of Nujiang River in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-liang; Yang, Yue-yuan; Huang, You-ju; Fu, Lei; Rao, Qing

    2008-10-01

    Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) is the core components of global change researches. It is significant for understanding regional ecological environment and LUCC mechanism of large scale to develop the study of LUCC of regional level. Nujiang River is the upper reaches of a big river in the South Asia--Salween River. Nujiang River is a typical mountainous river which is 3200 kilometer long and its basin area is 32.5 × 105 square kilometer. It locates in the core of "Three Parallel Rivers" World Natural Heritage. It is one of international biodiversity conservation center of the world, the ecological fragile zone and key ecological construction area, as well as a remote undeveloped area with high diversity ethnic. With the rapidly development of society and economy, the land use and land cover changed in a great degree. The function of ecosystem has being degraded in some areas which will not only impact on the ecological construction of local area, but also on the ecological safety of lower reaches -- Salween River. Therefore it is necessary to carry out the research of LUCC of Nujiang River. Based on the theory and methods of geo-information Tupu, the "Spatial Pattern" and "Change Process" of land use of middle reach in Nujiang River from 1974 to 2004 had been studied in quantification and integration, so as to provide a case study in local area and mesoscale in time. Supported by the remote sensing and GIS technology, LUCC Tupu of 1974-2004 had been built and the characteristics of LUCC have been analyzed quantificationally. The results showed that the built-up land (Included in this category are cities, towns, villages, strip developments along highways, transportation, power, and communications facilities, and areas such as those occupied by mills, shopping centers, industrial and commercial complexes, and institutions that may, in some instances, be isolated from urban areas), agriculture land, shrubbery land, meadow & grassland, difficultly/unused land

  15. Al SahawaThe Awakening Volume III: Al Anbar Province, Western Euphrates River Valley, Area of Operations Denver- Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    could not be stopped or stalled . On 1 September 2008, conditions were stable enough to hand over the province to the Iraqis Government. What happened...international jihadists]. On any given day, they’d play well together in the sand box; that probably wasn’t a good day for us. Other days they’d fight...roam around up there, by all means, go for it, just let us know for purposes of de-confliction. You’re free to operate anywhere ten clicks north of the

  16. New azonal syntaxa from the hills and river banks of the Manyeleti Game Reserve, Northern Transvaal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Bredenkamp

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of a vegetation survey programme for nature conservation areas in South Africa, surveys of the plant communities of the rocky outcrops and river banks in the Manyeleti Game Reserve were undertaken. The Cardiospermo corindii-Acacietalia nigricentis are restricted to quartz and gabbro hills, mainly on shallow, soils, whereas the Spirostachyo africanae-Diospyretalia mespiliformis occur on the banks of small dry rivers. From a Braun-Blanquet analysis of the vegetation of the rocky outcrops and the riparian vegetation, two new orders, two new alliances and six new associations were identified and described. Additionally a quantitative assessment of the woody component of each association is presented. Ordinations based on floristic data revealed the position of the syntaxa on an environmental gradient.

  17. Audit Technical of Kori Rubber Dam in the River of Keyang District of Ponorogo East Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnianto, E.; Suprapto, M.; Ikhsan, C.

    2018-03-01

    The development of science and technology for the utilization and protection of rivers has embodied various types of river infrastructure. Without proper maintenance, rapid river sediments undergo physical degradation and function. Problems that occur in Kori Rubber Dam, among others, the damage to the body of the rubber dam that is made of rubber, so that the function of flower deflection is not optimal. This happens because of limited operational and maintenance activities (OM). A technical audit is a process of identifying problems, analyzing, and evaluating ones conducted independently, objectively and professionally on the basis of examination, to assess the truth, accuracy, credibility, and reliability of information about a job. In this case an assessment of the Kori Rubber Dam, which is basically a benchmarking activity. Assessment of rubber dam components includes the physical conditions and functions that affect the weir. This research is expected to know the performance of Kori rubber Dam as a recommendation material in the implementation of OM Rubber Dam activities.

  18. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

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    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  19. Geological and environmental observations in the Sunchales Creek and Tonco River , Don Otto uranium mine, Salta Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorustovich, S.; Guidi, F.; Bárbaro, N.; Nievas, H.; Tomellini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Results of geological and environmental observations made by professionals of the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) down streams Don Otto uranium mine on the Sunchales creek, from Los Guanacos strait down to the Tonco river mouth, and from river mouth down to narrow pass named Salto Grande, are presented in this report. La Yesera, Las Curtiembres and Los Blanquitos Formations of the Pirgua Subgroup, and Lecho and Yacoraite Formations of the Balbuena Subgroup crops out in that area (Salta Group, Cretaceous- Middle Eocene). Water stream analyses have given uranium contents between 890 μg/L and 1,100 μg/L, and uranium in stream sediments between 4 μg/g and 14 μg/g; radimetric anomalias up to 1,500 c/s in discoloured facies of the Las Curtiembres Formation, and 2,000 c/s in dark pelitic sediments of the Yacoraite Formation. A new zone with uranium traces in Curtiembres Formation belonging to the Pirgua Subgroup has been identified in the Alemanía cretaceous basin, which is stratigraphically similar to Cajoncillo, Las Abritas and El Fraile deposits. Those traces in addition to the other ones localized in the upper third of the Yacoraite Formation would have been originated by the geochemical uranium anomalies in waters and stream sediments by uranium leaching of rocks. The geochemical uranium anomalies in water and sediments are not a consequence of the antropic activity of the uranium mining carried out in Don Otto mine (1961-1982). (authors) [es

  20. Exposure risk of young population to lead: A case study in Le'an River Basin in Jiangxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Lu, Qun; Yan, Zhenghong; Ding, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Blood lead (Pb) level of children has widely been attracting public concern in China, particularly in the sites near mining or industrial areas. However, the policies about how to efficiently reduce the Pb intake of children are still under discussion. We collected six food types based on the local dietary habits and soils from Dexing, Leping, and Poyang Counties situated along the Le'an River Basin from upstream to downstream, and their Pb contents were analyzed. A Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the dietary chronic daily intake of Pb (CDI_P_b) from various foods and ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities and its non-carcinogenic risk to children indicated by hazard quotient (HQ). Only in the rural area of Dexing, its soil and vegetables both had higher Pb content than the national tolerance limits of China, resulting its the highest CDI_P_b among all the areas. The Pb contents of the six food types and soils in other sites were overall below the limits. Vegetables and rice accounted for from 63% (Leping, urban) to 85% (Dexing, rural) of the total CDI_P_b and ingested soil overall took up ∼6%. In the rural area, Dexing had the highest proportion (82.8%) of children with HQ > 1, followed by Leping (36.1%) and Poyang (27.7%). Different order was found in the urban areas, i.e. Dexing (46.7%) > Poyang (41.0%) > Leping (26.4%). Vegetables and rice were overall the two major contributors to the total CDI of Pb, which should be focused on to control the Pb intake by the local children, especially for those living in the rural area of Dexing County. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) contents of the local foods and soils in the Le'an River Basin were analyzed. • The exposure risk of children to Pb was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation. • Ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities took up ∼5.9% to their total chronic Pb intake. • Vegetables and rice were the two major contributors to the total intake of Pb. • Children in the rural area near the

  1. Short-Term Optimal Operation of a Wind-PV-Hydro Complementary Installation: Yalong River, Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshuo Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively use clean renewable energy to improve the capacity of the power grid to absorb new energy and optimize the power grid structure has become one of China’s current issues. The Yalong River Wind-PV-Hydro complementary clean energy base was chosen as the research object from which to analyze the output complementarity principle and characteristics of wind farms, photovoltaic power plants, and hydropower stations. Then, an optimization scheduling model was established with the objective of minimizing the amount of abandoned wind and photovoltaic power and maximizing the stored energy in cascade hydropower stations. A Progress Optimality Algorithm (POA was used for the short-term optimal operation of Wind-PV-Hydro combinations. The results show that use of cascaded hydropower storage capacity can compensate for large-scale wind power and photovoltaic power, provide a relatively sustained and stable power supply for the grid. Wind-PV-Hydro complementary operation not only promotes wind power and photovoltaic power consumption but also improves the efficiency of using the original transmission channel of hydropower. This is of great significance to many developing countries in formatting a new green approach, realizing low-carbon power dispatch and trade and promoting regional economic development.

  2. Suitability Analysis of Office Building Design against Maintenance Cost (Case Study of Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Yogyakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Puji Hersanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of building design's inaccuracy against the cost of maintenance, by taking the research in Serayu Opak River Basin Organization, Water Resources Field and Water Resources Management Center in Yogyakarta Special Region. The first step is to analyze the inaccuracy of building design based on the result of interview and observation during field survey. The second step is to analyze the cost of building maintenance. The third step is to analyze the maintenance costs used to minimize the effects of the inaccurate design of the building. The result shows the inaccuracy of building design in the form of the use of clear glass without coated glass film and the absence of heat insulator on the roof of the building cause the room to become hot. The installation of rain gutters without vertical pipes, toilet facilities in the entire building is not yet complete, inadequate accessibility for persons with disabilities, and inadequate corridor design. There is a small portion of the maintenance budget used for reducing the impact of building design's inaccuracy, so it can be concluded that the design of the building is less meet the requirements of the Government regulations.

  3. Water and Soil Analyses of Balongis Fish Cage and Oster (Talaba Farms in Concepcion River, Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of the talaba (saccosrea malabonensis production in Barangay Concepcion, Kabasalan, Zamboanga Sibugay motivated the fisher folks to determine the cause of the phenomenon through the Social Action Ministry (SAM – Diocese of Ipil, Ipil, Zamboanga Sibugay,Philippines who arranged for the conduct of the study. The research was hypothesized to be caused by climate change. Data collection began on January 28 until February 8, 2012 on site. Twelve (12 sampling sites were installed in Concepcion River barangay Balongis, Buayan Zamboanga Sibugay where the barangay’s fish cage and oyster (Talaba farms are Global Positioning System (GPS gadget was used for the identification/markings of sampling stations (07⁰ 46.00 N and 122⁰47.116E to 07⁰45.778 N and 122⁰47.151 E Water and soil/sediment samples were taken and analyzed once a week for three consecutive weeks – January 28 to February 18, 2012. Physical water parameters were taken in situ (pH, Temperature, salinity and TSS. Water temperature raging 24⁰C-31.5⁰C, water pH 7.0-8.24, water salinity 18 -27.6 ppt. Total Suspended Solids (TSS ranged 0.104 g/L to 0.672 g/L – classified turbid water for all sampling sites. Sediment analysis: for mercury containment – qualitative analysis is negative, Soil Classification using the Textual triangle – soil classified as Loamy Sand (Sites 7-10 and Sandy Loam for all other sites. Meiofauna component using the Nematoma, turbellaria, Ciliophora, Ostracoda, Gastrotricha, Tardigrada, Sarcomastigaphora, Sincarida, Copepoda and some other unidentified fauna. Sedimentation rate averaged from 1410-6469 g/m2 per week. The high sediment rate could have caused the decline in oyster production but not by mercury contamination as suspected.

  4. Valuing the effects of hydropower development on watershed ecosystem services: Case studies in the Jiulong River Watershed, Fujian Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Fang, Qinhua; Zhang, Luoping; Chen, Weiqi; Chen, Zhenming; Hong, Huasheng

    2010-02-01

    Hydropower development brings many negative impacts on watershed ecosystems which are not fully integrated into current decision-making largely because in practice few accept the cost and benefit beyond market. In this paper, a framework was proposed to valuate the effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development. Watershed ecosystem services were classified into four categories of provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services; then effects on watershed ecosystem services caused by hydropower development were identified to 21 indicators. Thereafter various evaluation techniques including the market value method, opportunity cost approach, project restoration method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method were determined and the models were developed to valuate these indicators reflecting specific watershed ecosystem services. This approach was applied to three representative hydropower projects (Daguan, Xizaikou and Tiangong) of Jiulong River Watershed in southeast China. It was concluded that for hydropower development: (1) the value ratio of negative impacts to positive benefits ranges from 64.09% to 91.18%, indicating that the negative impacts of hydropower development should be critically studied during its environmental administration process; (2) the biodiversity loss and water quality degradation (together accounting for 80-94%) are the major negative impacts on watershed ecosystem services; (3) the average environmental cost per unit of electricity is up to 0.206 Yuan/kW h, which is about three quarters of its on-grid power tariff; and (4) the current water resource fee accounts for only about 4% of its negative impacts value, therefore a new compensatory method by paying for ecosystem services is necessary for sustainable hydropower development. These findings provide a clear picture of both positive and negative effects of hydropower development for decision-makers in the monetary term, and also provide a

  5. [Evaluation of soil quality under different land use types in Naban River watershed, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Li, Zhao-Li; Li, Yong-Mei; Guo, Fang-Fang

    2011-12-01

    Eighty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 8 land use types (natural forest land, maize field, tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, flax field, banana plantation, and sugarcane field) in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas, and the soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed, aimed to study the effects of land use type on the soil quality by the method of soil quality index (SQI). Comparing with natural forest land, all the cultivated lands had somewhat decreased soil organic matter content and higher soil bulk density, and the soil bulk density was significantly higher in tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, and banana plantation. In cultivated lands, fertilization and reclamation made the soil available potassium and phosphorus contents maintained at a higher level, probably due to the input of mineral potassium and phosphorus and the decomposition of soil organic matter. The SQI of the 8 land use types was in the order of flax field (0.595) > natural forest land (0.532) > maize field (0.516) > banana plantation (0.485) tea garden (0.480) sugarcane field (0.463) > paddy field (0.416) > rubber plantation (0.362). The soils in higher altitude production demonstration areas (1614 +/-115 m) had significant higher SQI, compared to the soils in lower altitude buffer areas (908 +/- 98 m) and junction areas (926 +/- 131 m). Among the 8 land use types, the rubber plantation in lower altitude areas had the lowest SQI, due to the lower soil organic matter and available potassium and phosphorus contents and the highest soil bulk density. Application of organic manure or intercropping with leguminous plants could be an available practice to improve the soil quality of the rubber plantation.

  6. Groundwater flow and geochemistry in the lower reaches of the Yellow River: a case study in Shandang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. Y.; Tang, C. Y.; Sakura, Y.; Kondoh, A.; Shen, Y. J.

    2002-08-01

    Water samples were collected from the Yellow River and from wells for chemical and isotopic measurement in the counties of Yucheng and Qihe, to which 6-9×108 m3 of water is diverted annually from the Yellow River. A zone of high electrical conductivity (EC) in groundwater corresponds well on the regional scale with a ridge in groundwater level, which is the main flow path through the region, but has a low gradient. The zone of highest EC along this ridge occurs at a position with the lowest ground altitude in the study area. The unique characteristic of the groundwater is the linear relationship among the principal anions as the result of mixing. The mixing effect is confirmed by its isotopic signature, which was then used to calculate the contributions from three sources: rainfall, old water, and diverted water with an average mixing rate of 18, 17, and 65%, respectively. As an indicator of water movement, Cl- content varies across a wide range in the profile from 30-10 m with a maximum concentration at about 1.2 m depth. Concentrations are relatively stable at about 2 m, which is the average boundary of the saturated and unsaturated zone. The water from the Yellow River has proved to be dominant in mixing in the aquifer in terms of groundwater flow and geochemistry. Résumé. En vue d'analyses chimiques et isotopiques, des échantillons d'eau ont été prélevés sur le Fleuve Jaune et dans des puits des comtés de Yucheng et Qihe, où l'on prélève sur le fleuve 6-9×108 m3. Une zone de forte conductivité électrique dans la nappe correspond bien, à l'échelle régionale, avec une crête piézométrique liée au principal canal traversant la région, mais avec une faible pente. La zone de plus fortes conductivités le long de cette crête se situe là où l'altitude est la plus basse dans la région. La caractéristique remarquable de la nappe est la relation linéaire entre les principaux anions, résultant d'un mélange. L'effet de mélange est confirm

  7. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  8. Assessment of the detectability of geo-hazards using Google Earth applied to the Three Parallel Rivers Area, Yunnan province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voermans, Michiel; Mao, Zhun; Baartman, Jantiene EM; Stokes, Alexia

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities such as hydropower, mining and road construction in mountainous areas can induce and intensify mass wasting geo-hazards (e.g. landslides, gullies, rockslides). This represses local safety and socio-economic development, and endangers biodiversity at larger scale. Until today, data and knowledge to construct geo-hazard databases for further assessments are lacking. This applies in particular to countries with a recently emerged rapid economic growth, where there are no previous hazard documentations and where means to gain data from e.g. intensive fieldwork or VHR satellite imagery and DEM processing are lacking. Google Earth (GE, https://www.google.com/earth/) is a freely available and relatively simple virtual globe, map and geographical information program, which is potentially useful in detecting geo-hazards. This research aimed at (i) testing the capability of Google Earth to detect locations of geo-hazards and (ii) identifying factors affecting the diagnosing quality of the detection, including effects of geo-hazard dimensions, environs setting and professional background and effort of GE users. This was tested on nine geo-hazard sites following road segments in the Three Parallel Rivers Area in the Yunnan province of China, where geo-hazards are frequently occurring. Along each road site, the position and size of each geo-hazard was measured in situ. Next, independent diagnosers with varying professional experience (students, researchers, engineers etc.) were invited to detect geo-hazard occurrence along each of the eight sites via GE. Finally, the inventory and diagnostic data were compared to validate the objectives. Rates of detected geo-hazards from 30 diagnosers ranged from 10% to 48%. No strong correlations were found between the type and size of the geo-hazards and their detection rates. Also the years of expertise of the diagnosers proved not to make a difference, opposite to what may be expected. Meanwhile the amount of time

  9. U–Pb, Rb–Sr, and U-series isotope geochemistry of rocks and fracture minerals from the Chalk River Laboratories site, Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neymark, L.A.; Peterman, Z.E.; Moscati, R.J.; Thivierge, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • AECL evaluates Chalk River Laboratories site as potential nuclear waste repository. • Isotope-geochemical data for rocks and fracture minerals at CRL site are reported. • Zircons from gneiss and granite yielded U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 and 1045 ± 6 Ma. • WR Rb–Sr and Pb–Pb systems do not show substantial large-scale isotopic mobility. • U-series and REE data do not support oxidizing conditions at depth in the past 1 Ma. - Abstract: As part of the Geologic Waste Management Facility feasibility study, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is evaluating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario, situated in crystalline rock of the southwestern Grenville Province, for the possible development of an underground repository for low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. This paper presents petrographic and trace element analyses, U–Pb zircon dating results, and Rb–Sr, U–Pb and U-series isotopic analyses of gneissic drill core samples from the deep CRG-series characterization boreholes at the CRL site. The main rock types intersected in the boreholes include hornblende–biotite (±pyroxene) gneisses of granitic to granodioritic composition, leucocratic granitic gneisses with sparse mafic minerals, and garnet-bearing gneisses with variable amounts of biotite and/or hornblende. The trace element data for whole-rock samples plot in the fields of within-plate, syn-collision, and volcanic arc-type granites in discrimination diagrams used for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. Zircons separated from biotite gneiss and metagranite samples yielded SHRIMP-RG U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 (2σ) and 1045 ± 6 Ma, respectively, in very good agreement with widespread Early Mesoproterozoic plutonic ages and Ottawan orogeny ages in the Central Gneiss Belt. The Rb–Sr, U–Pb, and Pb–Pb whole-rock errorchron apparent ages of most of the CRL gneiss samples are consistent with zircon U–Pb age and do not indicate

  10. ANALYSIS OF EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION PATTERNS USING SOFTWARE OF MIKE 21 HDFM-MT IN THE KAPUAS MURUNG RIVER MOUTH CENTRAL KALIMANTAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franto Novico

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The public transportation system along the Kapuas River, Central Kalimantan are highly depend on water transportation. Natural condition gives high distribution to the smoothness of the vessel traffic along the Kapuas Murung River. The local government has planned to build specific port for stock pile at the Batanjung which would face with natural phenomena of sedimentation and erosion at a river mouth. Erosion and sedimentation could be predicted not only by field observing but it is also needed hypotheses using software analysis. Hydrodynamics and transport sediment models by Mike 21 HDFM-MT software will be applied to describe the position of sedimentations and erosions at a river mouth. Model is assumed by two different river conditions, wet and dry seasons. Based on two types of conditions the model would also describe the river flow and sediment transport at spring and neap periods. Tidal fluctuations and a river current as field observation data would be verified with the result of model simulations. Based on field observation and simulation results could be known the verification of tidal has an 89.74% correlation while the river current correlation has 43.6%. Moreover, based on the simulation the sediment patterns in flood period have a larger area than ebb period. Furthermore, the erosion patterns dominantly occur during wet and dry season within ebb period. Water depths and sediment patterns should be considered by the vessels that will use the navigation channel at a river mouth.

  11. Considerations on the feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation in the regional areas of the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina; Consideraciones sobre la viabilidad del uso de energia eolica para la generacion de electricidad en el ambito regional de la Provincia de Santa Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, Roberto E.; Nachez, Antonio E. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Fac. de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura. Dept. de Electronica], Emails: rgibbons@eie.fceia.unr.edu.ar, anachez@eie.fceia.unr.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the current status of the use of wind power and evaluating the factors that affecting the implementation in the generation of electricity. From information available on the winds in four cities in the Santa Fe Province, calculate the potential of generation to determine the feasibility of using energy wind as an alternative source of energy in the province. The information was provided by the Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Planning, National Weather Service Meteorological Information Center and consists of a total of 8462 measurements of wind speed and direction in hourly intervals during each day of the year 2007, in weather stations located in the towns of Ceres, Rosario, Reconquista and Sauce Viejo. Using data collected by weather stations in the expressions for the calculation of available power in the wind, it is shown that the study areas are not suitable for utilization of wind energy.

  12. Summary Report: Surveillance of Water Quality in the Songhua River Syatem in Heilongjiang Province, P.R. of China Harbin, Heilongjiang 26 February - 3 March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wathne, Bente M.; Borgvang, Stig A.; Dagestad, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the discussions and the commitments made during meetings in Harbin, China, between Chinese and Norwegian researchers participating in a project on the water quality of a river system in China

  13. [Phytoplankton's community structure and its relationships with environmental factors in the rivers of Tongling City, Anhui Province of East China in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ping; Li, Yang; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2013-01-01

    Tongling is one of the main non-ferrous metal mining areas in China, and the biodiversity in the river ecosystem of this area is seriously affected by heavy metals as a result of mining activities. In the winter in 2010, an investigation was conducted on the community structure of phytoplankton and its relationships with environmental factors in the main sections of the rivers in Tongling. A total of 203 phytoplankton species were identified, belonging to 96 genera and 8 phyla. The community structure of the phytoplankton differed obviously in different river sections, but the communities were all dominated by Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta. The phytoplankton abundance ranged from 9.1 x 10(3) to 6.5 x 10(7) cells x L(-1), and the quantity of the phytoplankton in the river sections directly carried with mining waste water was significantly low. The Shannon index of the phytoplankton community at different sampling sites ranged from 0 to 3.45, with a significant discrepancy in different river sections. There existed significant correlations between the density and group number of phytoplankton and the COD(Cr) and cadmium, copper and zinc concentrations in the rivers, and the concentrations of river total nitrogen, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, and copper, COD(Cr) and pH were the main environmental variables affecting the phytoplankton' s community structure and its spatial distribution. Although the nutritional status of the river waters had greater effects on the community structure of phytoplankton, the effects of the heavy metals there from mining enterprises could not be neglected.

  14. Effects of the sanitation of natural gas sources in the Dutch province Noord-Holland, north of the river IJ, on the nutrients and chloride burden of the surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Gaast, J.W.J.; Peerboom, J.M.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the Dutch polder 'De Beemster' (part of the province Noord-Holland) the consequences of sanitation of natural gas sources on seepage and the quality of surface waters are studied by means of a model. Material balances are drafted for nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorine. The sealing of all the gas sources in 'De Beemster' appears to have the largest impact on the emission of phosphorus (-40%). The emission of nitrogen and chlorine is reduced by 20%, respectively 25%. Based on the recommendations in this report a follow-up study has been carried out in which the results in this report are translated to other polders in Noord-Holland, north of the river IJ. 24 refs

  15. Nematodes from Swainson's spurfowl Pternistis swainsonii and an Orange River francolin Scleroptila levaillantoides in Free State Province, South Africa, with a description of Tetrameres swainsonii n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetrameridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Davies, O R; Jansen, R; Crowe, T M; Boomker, J

    2008-12-01

    Five Swainson's spurfowl collected in Free State Province, South Africa, were examined for helminth parasites, and the nematodes Acuaria gruveli, Cyrnea parroti, Gongylonema congolense, Subulura dentigera, Subulura suctoria and a new Tetrameres species were recovered. Their respective prevalence was 100, 20, 80, 20, 20 and 20%. These nematodes are all new parasite records for Swainson's spurfowl, and Acuaria gruveli constitutes a new geographical record as well. A single specimen of Cyrnea eurycerca was found in an Orange River francolin, representing a new host and geographical record for this parasite. The new species, for which the name Tetrameres swainsonii is proposed, can be differentiated from its congeners by a combination of the following characters of males: two rows of body spines, a single spicule which is 1152-1392 microm long, and eight pairs of caudal spines arranged in two ventral and two lateral rows of four spines each. The single female has the globular shape typical of the genus.

  16. Spatiotemporal variability in salinity and hydraulic relationship with salt intrusion in the tidal reaches of the Minjiang River, Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Luo, Bingrong; Li, Jiabing; Wu, Chunshan; Zheng, Yuyi; Sun, Qiyuan; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Feifeng

    2017-04-01

    Salinity is one of the most important factors for tidal-affected water bodies including estuaries and tidal river reaches. However, due to the limitations of simultaneous manual monitoring in long-distance areas, studies of estuaries are preferred to tidal reaches. Hence, in this study, we investigated the tidal reach of the Minjiang River and five sets of field observations were used to determine the influence of saltwater intrusion in different seasons. During the dry and wet season with low discharge, the longitudinal salinity profiles showed that a station located about 45 km from the river mouth still suffered from saltwater intrusion especially when the upstream discharge was under 754 m 3  s -1 , where the periodical fluctuation in the salinity remained the same with the water level, but there was a time lag of approximately 4 h compared with the discharge process. However, during the wet season in April and May 2016, the monitored salinity was approximately at the detectable limit of 0.02-0.04 ppt at the station close to the river mouth, which indicated that there was no saltwater exchange into the river, although dual flow directions were observed in the survey periods. The major differences among five survey periods were mainly related to upstream discharge rather than the seasons, the tidal range, and tidal excursion. The conclusions of this study have strategic importance for protecting water sources by guiding the government to assess the optimal freshwater release time and discharge rate to prevent saltwater entering the important tidal-affected river reaches.

  17. Morphotectonic and neotectonic control on river pattern in the Sierra de la Cantera piedmont, Central Precordillera, province of San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Laura P.; Rothis, Martín; Vargas, Horacio N.

    2014-01-01

    The drainage pattern on the western piedmont of the Sierra de La Cantera is divergent, typical of alluvial fans and showing anomalies that are directly related to the trace of La Cantera thrust. In previous studies, two types of anomalies were identified: upstream of the fault scarp, rivers have a broom-shaped pattern, while downstream - in the hanging block - streams become denser, more sinuous and incised. In this contribution, these morphotectonic aspects were analyzed in detail, making direct and indirect analysis to quantify the relationship between these anomalies and the faults affecting alluvial fans. In addition, the influence of neotectonic activity on smaller water course patterns in the alluvial fan areas was investigated in order to find indicators of on-going vertical movements, since the spatial arrangements of these piedmont channels are determined by slope and structure, where active faults cause diversions or anomalies. Topographic profiles in two selected channels cutting across the trace of the fault were performed using a differential GPS in order to establish the relationship between the sinuosity and slope of these rivers. The results obtained allow us to state that the most sinuous channels have lower slopes and are located in the hanging wall of the fault. Morphometric analysis of scarps stated that active tectonics have played an essential role in controlling the drainage pattern in the piedmont, leading the rivers to adjust to these slope variations. Finally, based on the geomorphologic, stratigraphic, structural and seismological characteristics and parameters analyzed, La Cantera Thrust is considered a seismogenic source of significance to the nearby towns (> 700,000 inhabitants) and also to the large-scale dams built downstream along the San Juan River.

  18. Petrology and U-PB geochronology of the Robertson River Igneous Suite, Blue Ridge province, Virginia - Evidence for multistage magmatism associated witn an early episode of Laurentian rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollo, R.P.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic (735-702 Ma) Robertson River Igneous Suite includes at least eight plutons ranging in composition from syenogranite to alkali feldspar granite to alkali feldspar syenite. These plutons intruded Mesoproterozoic (1.2-1.0 Ga) gneissic basement of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium in northern and central Virginia during an early episode of Laurentian rifting. Robertson River plutons range in composition from metaluminous to peralkaline and, relative to other granite types, exhibit compositional characteristics of A-type granitoids including (1) marked enrichment in Nb, Zr, Y, REE (except Eu), and Ga, (2) high Ga/Al and FeO(total)/MgO, and (3) depletion of Ba and Sr. High Ga/Al ratios are particularly diagnostic of the suite and serve as an effective discriminant between originally metaluminous and peralkaline bulk compositions, providing a useful proxy for widely used indicators based on major elements that are prone to remobilization. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate that the suite was emplaced in two pulses, occurring at 735 to 722 and 706 to 702 Ma. Metaluminous magmas were emplaced during both pulses, formed most of the main batholith, and fractionated as independent, time-correlative groups. Peralkaline magmas were emplaced only during the final pulse, formed a volcanic center that erupted unknown quantities of rhyolite, and experienced a style of fractionation similar to the metaluminous types. Differences in Ce/Nb, Y/Nb, and Yb/Ta ratios suggest that the metaluminous and peralkaline magmas were derived from different sources. The Robertson River Igneous Suite is part of a regional group of Late Neoproterozoic (760-700 Ma) plutons including at least 20 other A-type granitoid bodies exposed throughout the Laurentian terrane of Virginia and northwestern North Carolina. Like the Robertson River, most of the other granitoids are metaluminous in composition, typically form multi-intrusive, elongate plutons, and are not geographically

  19. Assessment of the Incidence of Enteric Adenovirus Species and Serotypes in Surface Waters in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: Tyume River as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Sibanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available TaqMan real-time PCR was used for the detection and quantitation of adenoviruses in Tyume River water samples over a 12-month period. A total of 72 samples were analysed, and 22 samples were positive for adenovirus. Of the positive samples, 18 were collected from downstream sampling points. Among the downstream sampling points, adenovirus detection rate increased with distance downstream, being 28%, 33%, and 39% for Alice, Drayini, and Manqulweni, respectively. The Alice sampling site had the highest concentrations of adenovirus ranging between 6.54×103 genome copies/L and 8.49×104 genome copies/L. The observed trend could have been expected considering the level of anthropogenic activities in areas along the lower stretch of Tyume River, with the major one being the effluent of treated and semi treated sewage from wastewater treatment facilities. Adenovirus detection was sporadic at most sampling sites. Multiplex conventional PCR was used for the detection of clinically important adenovirus species B, C, and F and their serotypes. Species C and F adenoviruses were detected in 77% and 18% of the samples, respectively. Most adenovirus positive samples were obtained from areas of increased population densities. The presence of adenoviruses may confirm the risk of its transmission to the human population.

  20. A 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village, the Anning River Valley, Sichuan Province, the Peoples' Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosoma japonicum is a major public health concern in the Peoples' Republic of China (PRC, with over one million people infected and another 50 million living in areas at risk of infection. Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes. It is predicted that the Three Gorges Dam (TGD will impact upon the transmission of schistosomiasis in the PRC, with varying degree across the four transmission modes. We undertook longitudinal surveillance from 2002 to 2006 in sentinel villages both above and below the TGD across five provinces (Hunan, Jiangxi, Hubei, Anhui and Sichuan to determine whether there was any impact of the TGD on schistosomiasis transmission during its construction. Here we present the results from a schistosomiasis-endemic village located above the dam in Sichuan Province. Results Baseline results showed a human S. japonicum prevalence of 42.0% (95% CI: 36.6-47.5. At follow-up, results showed that the incidence of S. japonicum infection in the selected human cohort in Shian decreased by three quarters from 46% in 2003 to 11.3% in 2006. A significant (P S. japonicum infection in bovines declined from 11.8% in the first year to zero in the final year of follow-up. Conclusions The substantial decrease in human (75% and bovine (100% incidence observed in Shian village can probably be attributed to the annual human and bovine PZQ treatment of positives; as seen in drug (PZQ intervention studies in other parts of PRC. If an increase in schistosome transmission had occurred as a result of the TGD, it would be of negligible size compared to the treatment induced decline seen here. It appears therefore that the construction of the TGD had virtually no impact on schistosomiasis transmission in Shian village over the period of study. Furthermore, contrary to previous reports from

  1. Landslide precursory deformation interpretation using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 InSAR image along Min River in Maoxien, Sichuan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H. P.

    2017-12-01

    Maoxien area in Sichuan Province, China has many landslide. For example, landslide (rock avalanche) occurred on the slope in Xinmocun Village in Maoxeien on 24 June 2017. I produced and interpreetd InSAR image using ALOS/PALSAR data observed on 19 Jul 2007-3 Sep 2007 and on 27 Jan 2011-14 Mar 2011, and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data observed on 26 Jul 2015-13 Dec 2015 and on 13 Dec 2015-11 Dec 2016. These images give good coherence and it was easy to identify local landslide surface deformation. As a result, e.g., two slopes were estimated to have local landslide surface deformation; one is at 103.936587 deg E and 32.04462 deg N, another is at 103.674754 deg E and 31.852838 N. However, the slope in Xinmocun Village was not identified as landslide precursory deformation. In the poster I will present more InSAR image observed after 11 Dec 2016 and discuss the possibility of local landslide surface deformaton using InSAR image. ALOS/PALSAR and ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data were provided by JAXA through Landslide Working Group in JAXA and through Special Research 2015-B-02 of Earthquake Research Institute/Tokyo University. This study was supported by KAKENHI (17H02973).

  2. A geological and hydrogeochemical investigation of the uranium potential of an area between the Orange and Kuruman Rivers, northwestern Cape Province. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1980-04-01

    An extensive geological, hydrological and hydrochemical study was conducted to determine the uranium potential of an area which includes the greater part of the Gordonia District and part of the bordering Kuruman District. The area is situated between 21 and 22 degrees east, the Kuruman River in the north and the Orange River in the south. All berohole information germane to the area, such as Government and private drill records have been studied. As a result of this study maps of the area have been compiled, showing surface and pre-Karoo geology, the pre-Karoo and pre-Kalahari topography and the thickness of the Karoo and post-Karoo cover. Contour maps of water levels were compiled from which a regional east-west flow pattern was deduced, indicating a large groundwater basin which could be divided into four smaller basins. Hydrochemical studies substantiate the inferred flow pattern of the groundwater. Of prime importance in this investigation was the study of the distribution of uranium in the groundwater of the area and its association with the various lithologies encountered. Radiometric borehole logging of all accessible boreholes in the most promising areas delineated by this study confirmed the presence of uranium mineralisation in the depositional basins (in particular the Dwyka Tillite Formation) west of the granite-gneiss ridge. Uranium mineralisation in surficial deposits was also discovered as a result of the reassessment of radiometric airborne data obtained previously. It is concluded that potential economic uranium deposits may exist in the Dwyka Tillite Formation northwest of Upington and in the surficial diatomaceous earth deposits on the farm Rus-en-Vrede [af

  3. Diversity and abundance of aquatics macroinvertebrates and water quality from high and low watersheds of Gariche River, Chiriqui province, Republic of Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinard, Johana del C; Rios, Tomas; Bernal Vega, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Diversity and abundance of aquatic microinvertebrate and quality of water in four sampling stations located in Gariche river high and low watersheds, during the dry season (January to April) and the rainy season (July to October) of 2010, were determined using methods described by Pino and Bernal (2009). A total of 4 964 individuals, belonging to 50 genera, 30 families and nine orders of class Insecta were identified. The average of the Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index in the dry season was 2.36 and 1.95 in rainy season, representing a middle diversity in this ecosystem. In dry season, the abundance of individuals was higher in the order Hemiptera, family Veliidae, and genus Rhagovelia followed by Trichoptera, family Hydroptilidae, and genus Atanatolica. In rainy season, the most representative orders were Ephemeroptera, family Leptophlebiidae and genus Thraulodes, followed by Hemiptera, family Veliidae and genus Rhagovelia. The Jaccard Index indicated that the stations with the greatest similarity were 1 and 2, with a 65.2 % (dry season) and 76.9 % (rainy season), while the similarity was low between stations 1 and 3, with 33.3 % (dry season) and 41.7 % (rainy season). The Biotic Index BMWP/PAN for the dry and rainy seasons, indicated a regular water quality for stations 1 and 2, but with acceptable quality at stations 3 and 4. The physic and chemical variables showed values within acceptable limits during the dry season, while in the rainy season the levels were low, according to the values established by the primary environmental quality standards and quality levels for freshwater recreational use without direct contact, influencing in the heterogeneity of aquatic macroinvertebrates in each sampling station.

  4. 面向生态的陕西省渭河流域水资源合理配置%Ecology-Oriented Rational Allocation of Water Resources of Weihe River Basin in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙甜; 董增川; 苏明珍

    2015-01-01

    结合陕西省渭河流域的水资源开发利用现状,对其水资源优化管理进行研究。通过分析流域社会经济发展的特点及生态环境形势,以定额法为基础对2020年流域的生活、生产和生态需水进行了预测。根据系统概化图和配水目标,综合考虑水资源配置中的生态指标、社会指标和经济指标,建立了面向生态的水资源合理配置模型。将混沌优化算法与遗传算法相结合对模型进行求解,结果表明:陕西省渭河流域2020年75%保证率下的缺水率为18.1%。%Combining with the development and utilization of water resources in the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province,this paper discussed the optimal management of water resources. After analyzing the characteristics of socio-economic development and ecological environment, it adopted the quota method as the essential method to forecast the life water demand,production water demand and ecological water demand in 2020. Ecological targets,social and economic targets were the main water distribution objectives. According to the network outline map of the water resources system,considering the demand of ecosystem,it established the reasonable water resources deployment model. Chaos op-timization algorithm and genetic algorithm were combined to solve the model. The results show that the water shortage rate under the condi-tiors of 75% guarantee rate in 2020 is 18. 1% and the gap is still large.

  5. Radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yibin; Wu Qun; Zhang Bo; Chen Daifu

    1998-01-01

    There are 110 million people in Sichuan Province, China. Although most of the people in cities of Sichuan use river water, which contains low levels of radon, as potable water, people in countryside and in some communities of big cities still use well water as domestic consumption. This paper reports the radon concentrations in well water investigated in four cities, i.e. Chengdu, Chongqing, Leshan and Leijiang in Sichuan Province. Of the 80 wells investigated, the radon concentrations range from 3.5 to 181.6 KBqm -3 . Of the four cities, Chongqing has the highest well water radon concentration with the average 49.6 ± 54.1 KBqm -3 and the greatest variation. The investigation in four cities showed that the radon concentrations in well water are much higher than that in tap-water. In Chongqing where there are complex geological structures, mainly granite stratum, for example, the average radon concentration in well water is 112 times higher than that in the tap-water, and even much higher than that in river water in Yangtse River, Jialing River, Jinsha River and Mingjiang River. The population in four cities is about one sixth of the total population in Sichuan Province. Because of the common use of well water and the high radon concentrations in well water in Sichuan Province, the health effect of radon in well water to the public should be stressed. (author)

  6. Projected future runoff of the Breede River under climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Breede River is the largest river in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and as such, is a key resource for a variety of activities within the region. It is this significance of the river that prompted a study into the impact of climate change on future runoff in the river and hence, the potential impacts a projected change ...

  7. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    The main task of studies on salt-water intrusion into coastal confined aquifers is to predict the position of the fresh- salt-water interface, which can be determined from the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea. Records of groundwater level affected by tides can be used to infer hydrological conditions and determine hydraulic parameters of an aquifer extending under the sea. In this paper, a three-dimensional, variable-density groundwater flow model has been developed to determine the equivalent roof length of an aquifer extending under the sea from the tidal-effected data of groundwater level in the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China. The seaward boundary is obtained by converging hydraulic head fluctuations observed in drill holes with calculated values, and the aquifer parameters in the extending zone are estimated. The impacts of aquifer roof length and aquifer parameters on the fluctuation of tidal groundwater are studied. It is concluded that the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea should correspond with certain aquifer parameters in the extrapolation zone. Therefore, the seaward boundary determined from tidal-effect information is the equivalent boundary in hydrodynamic characteristics rather than the true boundary of the confined aquifer Les sujets principaux des études d'instrusion saline dans les aquifères confinés en zone côtière sont la prédiction de la position de l'interface entre l'eau salée et l'eau fraîche, qui peut être déterminée à partir de l'extention du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer. Les enregistrements des niveaux des eaux souterraines influencés par les marées peuvent être utilisés pour préciser les conditions hydrologiques et déterminer les paramètres hydrauliques d'un aquifère possédant une extension sous la mer. Dans cet article, un modèle tridimensionnel comprenant des eaux souterraines de densité variable a été développé pour déterminer la longueur équivalente du toit

  8. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  9. Designing Roads and Retaining Structures for Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    2010). The province has 9 hospitals and 229 clinics . Water is obtained from ka- rezes, shallow wells, rivers, and springs. Safe drinking water is...compiled into USACE Hydrologic Engineering Center Data Storage System (HEC- DSS ) obtained through National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). and varies ac

  10. Vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fieldwork to study the vocal behaviour of Orange River Francolin Scleroptilia levaillantoides was conducted on a farm in the Heidelberg district, Gauteng province, South Africa, during August 2009 to March 2011. Orange River Francolins possess a basic repertoire of seven calls and one mechanical sound. From 83 ...

  11. Some aspects of the ecology of the Groot Letaba River in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the ecology of the Groot Letaba River in the Northern Province, South Africa. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... current ecological status of the Groot Letaba River and to compare this information with historical data.

  12. The acceptability, efficacy and safety of quinacrine non-surgical sterilization (QS), tubectomy and vasectomy in 5 provinces in the Red River Delta, Vietnam: a follow-up of 15,190 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, D T; Luong, T T; Anh, P T; Ngoc, D H; Duong, L Q

    2003-10-01

    To compare the safety, efficacy and acceptability of quinacrine sterilization (QS), tubectomy and vasectomy in Vietnam. This study was initiated in January 1998 and completed in February 2000. A sample of 9 districts in 5 provinces, where the prevalence of QS was known to be high, was selected. Every person sterilized in these 9 districts between January 1, 1988 and March 31, 1998 was identified and systematically interviewed by family planning clinicians who had received special training for this project. A total of 15,982 sterilization users were identified and 15,190 were interviewed and examined, including a gynecologic exam, if needed: a follow-up rate of 95%. Of those interviewed, 9,753 used tubectomy, 3,734 used QS and 1,703 used vasectomy. All three methods were found to be safe, although morbidity associated with tubectomy was more serious than with QS or vasectomy. No deaths were reported. After more than 5 years of follow-up, tubectomy had the lowest failure rate: 1.0%, followed by 4.1% with vasectomy. A pregnancy rate of 13.2% was reported with quinacrine, although only a small fraction of these failures were confirmed. A strong preference for QS was found. QS has an important role to play in sterilization services in Vietnam.

  13. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  14. Detailed measured sections, cross sections, and paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper cretaceous and lower tertiary nonmarine interval, Wind River Basin, Wyoming: Chapter 10 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed measured sections and regional stratigraphic cross sections are used to reconstruct facies maps and interpret paleogeographic settings for the interval from the base of Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation to top of lower member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming. The Mesaverde Formation spans the time during which the Upper Cretaceous seaway retreated eastward out of central Wyoming in Campanian time and the initial stages of the Lewis transgression in earliest Maastrichtian time. This retreat stalled for a considerable period of time during deposition of the lower part of the Mesaverde, creating a thick buildup of marginal marine sandstones and coaly coastal plain deposits across the western part of the basin. The Lewis sea transgressed into the northeast part of Wind River Basin, beginning in early Maastrichtian time during deposition of the Teapot Sandstone Member of the Mesaverde Formation. The Meeteetse Formation, which overlies the Teapot, was deposited in a poorly-drained coastal plain setting southwest of the Lewis seaway. The Lewis seaway, at maximum transgression, covered much of the northeast half of the Wind River Basin area but was clearly deflected around the present site of the Wind River Range, southwest of the basin, providing the first direct evidence of Laramide uplift on that range. Uplift of the Wind River Range continued during deposition of the overlying Maastrichtian Lance Formation. The Granite Mountains south of the basin also became a positive feature during this time. A rapidly subsiding trough during the Maastrichtian time formed near the presentday trough of the Wind River Basin in which more than 6,000 feet of Lance was deposited. The development of this trough appears to have begun before the adjacent Owl Creek Mountains to the north started to rise; however, a muddy facies in the upper part of Lance in the deep subsurface, just to the south, might be interpreted to indicate that the

  15. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  16. LAND-USE CHANGE AND ITS DRIVING FORCES OF "THREE PARALLEL RIVERS" IN NORTHWEST YUNNAN PROVINCE%滇西北三江并流区土地利用变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亮; 蒋莲芳; 李瑞林

    2005-01-01

    土地利用变化会改变地表覆盖,从而影响环境质量及陆地生态系统性质.开展区域土地利用/土地覆盖变化研究,可为区域土地资源优化利用和可持续发展提供科学依据.以第二次土壤普查资料和土地详查资料为依据,采用土地利用变化指数模型,定量分析三江并流区1983年到1999年土地利用变化特征,结果表明:(1)与土地利用结构分析法相比,土地利用变化指数模型更能反映土地变化趋势及在时空上变化特点;(2)研究区土地利用程度不断提高,其中林地园地、耕地与城郊用地增加较快;(3)1983~1996年间的变化大于1996~1999年间的变化;(4)州政府所在地(香格里拉县、泸水县、丽江县)的变化较其它地区大;(5)土地利用变化的主要原因是社会经济因素,包括人口增长、科技进步、经济增长、传统文化继承与发展、政策变化等.%Land use change can convert the earth surface cover, which will deeply influence geo-chemical cycle, envi ronmental quality, biodiversity of earth, as well as productivity and adaptability of terrestrial system. The regional research on land use/land cover change (LUCC) can provide the scientific basis for the optimization utilization of land resources and regional sustainable development. Based on the second general soil resources data and special land census data, a series of land use change indicator models had been adopted to analyze the changes (from 1983 to 1999) of land use patterns of the "Three Parallel Rivers" in the paper. The result showed: (1) Compare to traditional land use structure analysis, land use change index models can reflect the general trendy and temporal and spatial change in more details. (2) The land use degree had been increased continuously, especially for forest-garden land, cultivated land and built land. (3) The degree of land use change of 1983~1996 was bigger than that of 1996~1999. (4) The land use change degree of

  17. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  18. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  19. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  20. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Mini-hydropower development in human province of China and its position in the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daogao, L.

    1991-01-01

    Hunan province is situated in the southern part of the middle reaches of Yangtze River. With a population of 61 million, it covers an area of about 211,800 km 2 , equivalent to forty percents of the territorial area of France. Throughout the province, there are more than 5300 rivers and 13000 reservoirs completed before 1991, of which over 7300 mini-hydropower stations are under operation. The theoretical hydropower potential is 15320 MW among them 12990 MW can be exploited with a total installed capacity of 1320 MW and an annual generation output of 4150 GWh. The paper will describe the general condition of the hydropower resources, development of mini-hydropower in Human province and its positive role in the national economy. Additionally, the standard of classification, the type of equipment for the medium and small-sized hydropower plants and market conditions in Hunan will be also involved in the paper. 5 tabs

  2. Bacterial levels in the Nyl River system, Limpopo province, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotrophic plate counts, faecal coliform counts and total coliform counts indicated that the system was stressed. The Modimolle sewage treatment works and local agricultural activities were found to be the point and diffuse sources of bacterial contamination, respectively. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2010, 35(1): ...

  3. Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in rivers of Mpumalanga province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... countries due to poor socio-economic conditions and lack of access to potable ... potable water and sanitation, the African continent is the ... (World Health Organization WHO, 2005, 2006, 2007, ... through the fecal-oral route after consumption of .... Methods, 1998; South African Bureau of Standards, 2001).

  4. Hydrology of area 52, Rocky Mountain coal province Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowham, H.W.; Peterson, D.A.; Larson, L.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Ringen, B.H.; Mora, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 52 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes the Green River Basin upstream from the Yampa River, and the Bear River upstream from the Bear Lake - a total of 23,870 sq mi. Area 52 contains over 3 billion tons of strippable coal, most of which is located in the arid and semiarid plains. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 40 individual topics are discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: general features, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  5. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  6. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  7. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  8. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  9. Hydrogeomorphic and hydraulic habitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska-with special emphasis on the Niobrara National Scenic River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathan J.

    2010-01-01

    The Niobrara River is an ecologically and economically important resource in Nebraska. The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources' recent designation of the hydraulically connected surface- and groundwater resources of the Niobrara River Basin as ?fully appropriated? has emphasized the importance of understanding linkages between the physical and ecological dynamics of the Niobrara River so it can be sustainably managed. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the hydrogeomorphic and hydraulic attributes of the Niobrara River in northern Nebraska. This report presents the results of an analysis of hydrogeomorphic segments and hydraulic microhabitats of the Niobrara River and its valley for the approximately 330-mile reach from Dunlap Diversion Dam to its confluence with the Missouri River. Two spatial scales were used to examine and quantify the hydrogeomorphic segments and hydraulic microhabitats of the Niobrara River: a basin scale and a reach scale. At the basin scale, digital spatial data and hydrologic data were analyzed to (1) test for differences between 36 previously determined longitudinal hydrogeomorphic segments; (2) quantitatively describe the hydrogeomorphic characteristics of the river and its valley; and (3) evaluate differences in hydraulic microhabitat over a range of flow regimes among three fluvial geomorphic provinces. The statistical analysis of hydrogeomorphic segments resulted in reclassification rates of 3 to 28 percent of the segments for the four descriptive geomorphic elements. The reassignment of classes by discriminant analysis resulted in a reduction from 36 to 25 total hydrogeomorphic segments because several adjoining segments shared the same ultimate class assignments. Virtually all of the segment mergers were in the Canyons and Restricted Bottoms (CRB) fluvial geomorphic province. The most frequent classes among hydrogeomorphic segments, and the dominant classes per unit

  10. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  11. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  12. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  13. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  14. Phytolith analysis in fluvial quaternary sediment (San Salvador and Palmar formation) Uruguay river and Argentina eastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterer, N.; Passeggi, E.; Zucol, A.; Brea, M.; Krohling, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about two microfossils fluvial units deposited by the Uruguay river during the Quaternary. These are San Salvador and Palmar formation (Plio-Pleistocene - Upper Pleistocene).The Palmar formation is a band of 4-15 km along the right bank of the Uruguay river outcropping from the eastern provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios, to Concepcion del Uruguay

  15. Geochemistry of granitoid rocks from the western Superior Province: Evidence for 2- and 3-stage crustal evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakhouse, G. P.; errane) are discussed.

    1986-01-01

    The Superior Province is divisible into subprovinces that can be classified as greenstone-tonalite, paragneiss, or batholitic terranes and are distinguished by differences in lithologic proportions, metamorphic grade, and structural style. The origin and significance of contrasting geochemical characteristics of plutonic rocks from the Winnipeg River subprovince (a batholithic terrane) and the Wabigoon subprovince (a greenstone-tonalite terrane) are discussed.

  16. Regional flood frequency analysis in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, using the index-flood method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A regional frequency analysis of annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flows from relatively unregulated rivers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been conducted, including identification of homogeneous regions and suitable regional frequency distributions for the regions. The study...

  17. Qualitative and quantitative determination of sediments phases in Chillon River by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miramira Tipula, Biviano; Zeballos Velasquez, Elvira; Chui Betancur, Heber; Valencia Salazar, Edilberto; Huaypar Vasquez, Yesena; Olivera de Lescano, Paula

    2008-01-01

    With this paper, we pretend to contribute with the recovery of Chillon River from a characterization of sediments. The objectives are the identification of pollution places along the bed of the Chillon River, from the Canta Province to Lima Province (Comas) and the determination of the preponderant factors of pollution. The qualitative and semi-quantitative determination of the sediments components have been carried out using the x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence techniques, both of them will allow us to identify the pollute elements, for example the lead level in the Chillon River. (author)

  18. A new species of the genus Triplophysa (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae, Triplophysa daochengensis, from Sichuan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yi WU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triplophysa daochengensis sp. nov. is described from the Daocheng River, a northern tributary of the Jinsha River in Sichuan Province, China. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: body smooth and scales absent; lateral line complete; caudal peduncle compressed, depth unchanging; head length equal to caudal-peduncle length; lower jaw shovel-shaped; dorsal-fin origin anterior to pelvic-fin origin and closer to the tip of the snout than to the caudal-fin base, last unbranched ray hard; pelvic-fin tip not reaching anus; posterior chamber of gas bladder absent; intestine of spiral type with three winding coils.

  19. Leukemia in children and youths of the Azuay province, Ecuador: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Mariagrazia; Ugalde, Jorge; Arteaga, Francisco Salgado; Biggio, Giuseppe; Flore, Valeria; Nonne, Tinucia; Satta, Giannina; Blangiardo, Marta; Cocco, Pierluigi; Ennas, Maria Grazia

    2013-01-01

    We mapped leukemia risk among children and youths in the Azuay province, Rio Paute river basin, Ecuador, in 2000-2010, using a Bayesian disease mapping model. We assessed the comprehensiveness of the list of leukemia cases from the Sociedad de Lucha contra el Càncer en el Ecuador (SOLCA) Hospital in Cuenca, the only referral center for oncology in the whole Rio Paute area, by comparison to the Quito cancer registry. Risk of leukemia did not vary significantly by canton within the Azuay province. However, a moderate increase in risk of borderline statistical significance was observed in the city of Cuenca and particularly among males in a heavily industrialized parish, who had an almost eight-fold excess (95% CI 3.03, 20.39, p = 0.01) of AML. Analytical studies are warranted to properly address specific etiological factor of leukemia among children and youths of the Azuay province of Ecuador.

  20. Level of natural radiation nuclides in food and water in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keling; Sun Bangyin; Zhang Xiaozhen; Li Guangming

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the level of natural radiation nuclides in Hubei Province, China. 10 spots were selected in Wuhan, Jiangling etc., 171 samples in 14 kinds of food such as rice, cabbage and tap water, water in Yangtze River and other rivers were analysed.The results show that the values of U, Th, 226 Ra were n x 10 -2 Bq.kg -1 and that of 40 K was n x 10 Bq.kg -1 in food. The values of U, Th, 226 Ra, 40 K were n x 10 -2 Bq.L -1 , and that of 3 H was nBq.L -1 in drinking water. The data investigated indicates that Hubei Province belongs to the region of normal natural radiation. It is found that 226 Ra value in food is higher in general in the county of Tongcheng, and this problem needs further study

  1. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Adaptive capacity and water governance in the Keiskamma River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa, being a semi-arid country, faces water resource constraints. The projected impacts of climate change in the Keiskamma River Catchment, Eastern Cape Province, are, for example, changes in rainfall with effects on streamflow, salt water intrusion, decreasing water quality due to runoff and erosion, and droughts ...

  3. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  4. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This dataset represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data are from Fenneman and Johnson's Physiographic Provinces of the United States, which is based on 8 major divisions, 25 provinces, and 86 sections representing distinctive areas having common topography, rock type and structure, and geologic and geomorphic history (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins

  5. The potential micro-hydropower projects in Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosa, Preeyaphorn; Chinkulkijniwat, Avirut; Horpibulsuk, Suksun; Kulworawanichpong, Thanatchai; Srivoramas, Rerkchai; Teaumroong, Neung

    2011-01-01

    At present, fossil fuel energy is commonly used in developing countries, including Thailand. The tendency to use fossil fuel energy is continuously increasing, and the price of fossil fuels is rising. Thus, renewable energy is of interest. Hydropower is one of the oldest renewable energy forms known and one of the best solutions for providing electricity to rural communities. The present paper aims to determine the potential micro-hydropower sites that could provide more than 50 kW but not over 10 MW in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Both reservoir and run-of-the-river schemes are considered for the assessment of potential micro-hydropower sites. For the reservoir scheme, the discharge in the reservoir is employed for generating micro-hydropower electricity. This installation can be carried out without major modifications to the dam. The run-of-the-river scheme diverts water flow from the river mainstream to the intake via a pressure pipe or an open canal, which is then conveyed to the turbine via a penstock to generate electricity. The results showed that there are 6 suitable projects for the reservoir scheme and 11 suitable projects for the run-of-the-river. The maximum power load was 6000 kW and 320 kW for the reservoir and the run-of-the-river schemes, respectively. Hydropower from the run-of-the-river scheme is more suitable than hydropower from the reservoir scheme because of the many mountains in this province. The designed head for the run-of-the-river scheme is thus generally higher than that for the reservoir scheme. Because stream flow during the dry season is very low, electricity can only be produced in the wet season. This research is a pilot study to determine the potential sites of micro-hydropower projects. (author)

  6. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  7. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  8. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-07

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries).

  9. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 8. Antecedent Rivers - Ganga Is Older Than Himalaya. K S Valdiya. General Article Volume 1 Issue 8 August 1996 pp 55-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/08/0055-0063 ...

  10. RIVER STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    principals randomly selected from one hundred secondary schools in Cross River State. The data collected ... There was no siyriificant influerlce of gender on principals' leadership styles effectiveness. ... result of the cultural stereotyping of males and females by .... schools were single sex boys, another 10 were single sex ...

  11. Natural radiation level and doses to population in Anhui province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The absorbed dose rates in air 1 m above the ground from natural radiation and terrestrial gamma radiation in Anhui Province were surveyed. One measurement was made in every area of 90 km 2 . The absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial radiation range from 54 to 90 nGy.h -1 with an average of 70 nGy.h -1 . The ratios of indoors-to-outdoors and of roads-to-outdoors are 1.5 and 0.9 respectively. The annual effective dose equivalent from external radiation is 0.68-1.05 mSv. The population-weighted average values for mountain area, plain, hilly land, and the Changjiang River basin as well as the annual collective effective dose equivalent were calculated

  12. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  14. A survey of hazardous and toxic wastes from lead and zinc industries in Zanjan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamesi, J.; Asadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Angoran, situated in north-west of Zanjan province is unique in Middle East in respect of its rich reserves of Lead and Zinc minerals. These valuable reserves have attracted a number of Lead and Zinc industries into the province. With the absent of a proper waste management practices, a great deal of hazardous and toxic wastes are produced which contains a high percent of heavy metals that are potential sources for soil and water pollution. In this paper, after recognition of the main sources of the pollutants, the affected and vulnerable areas are mapped using Geographic Information System. The quality and quantity of these hazardous wastes are then evaluated by sampling and analyzing the samples and by taking into account the undesirable environmental conditions faced by the province, a number of preventive and curative measures for a better waste management practices are introduced. The annual wastes produced by 22 Zinc plants in the province are calculated to be about 260000 tons of filter cake leachates, 13000 tons of Cobalt filter cake, and 6550 tons of Cadmium-Nickel filter cakes. Two active Lead factories in the province are also producing about 13000 tons of slag annually. These wastes are containing 27000 ton Zinc, 9220 ton Lead, 560 ton Cadmium and 242000 tons of other wastes, that are left in open spaces within the factory or is dumped in dry riverbeds or near river valleys.The wastes are transported and deposited by wind in the environment and are washed by rain into the river systems or are soaked into the ground polluting the underground aquifers. Based of Basel Convention, these wastes are given international codes (Y 23, Y 31, Y 26, Y 46). Possession, disposal, and recycling of such wastes must be undertaken with specific management measures

  15. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  16. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  19. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  20. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  1. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  2. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  3. Environmental setting and its relations to water quality in the Kanawha River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Hughes, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Kanawha River and its major tributary, the New River, drain 12,233 mi2 in West Virginia, Virginia, and North Carolina. Altitude ranges from about 550 ft to more than 4,700 ft. The Kanawha River Basin is mountainous, and includes parts of three physiographic provinces, the Blue Ridge (17 percent), Valley and Ridge (23 percent), and Appalachian Plateaus (60 percent). In the Appalachian Plateaus Province, little of the land is flat, and most of the flat land is in the flood plains and terraces of streams; this has caused most development in this part of the basin to be near streams. The Blue Ridge Province is composed of crystalline rocks, and the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateaus Provinces contain both carbonate and clastic rocks. Annual precipitation ranges from about 36 in. to more than 60 in., and is orographically affected, both locally and regionally. Average annual air temperature ranges from about 43?F to about 55?F, and varies with altitude but not physiographic province. Precipitation is greatest in the summer and least in the winter, and has the least seasonal variation in the Blue Ridge Province. In 1990, the population of the basin was about 870,000, of whom about 25 percent lived in the Charleston, W. Va. metropolitan area. About 75 million tons of coal were mined in the Kanawha River Basin in 1998. This figure represents about 45 percent of the coal mined in West Virginia, and about seven percent of the coal mined in the United States. Dominant forest types in the basin are Northern Hardwood, Oak-Pine, and Mixed Mesophytic. Agricultural land use is more common in the Valley and Ridge and Blue Ridge Provinces than in the Appalachian Plateaus Province. Cattle are the principal agricultural products of the basin. Streams in the Blue Ridge Province and Allegheny Highlands have the most runoff in the basin, and streams in the Valley and Ridge Province and the southwestern Appalachian Plateaus have the least runoff. Streamflow is greatest in the

  4. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  5. River Diversions and Shoaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letter, Jr., Joseph V; Pinkard, Jr., C. F; Raphelt, Nolan K

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel...

  6. Suitability Evaluation of River Bank Filtration along the Second Songhua River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Second Songhua River is the biggest river system in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, the rapid economic development in this area has increased the prominence of water resources and water-related environmental problems; these include surface water pollution and the overexploitation of groundwater resources. Bank infiltration on the floodplains of the Second Songhua River is an important process of groundwater-surface water exchange under exploitation conditions. Understanding this process can help in the development of water resource management plans and strategies for the region. In this research, a multi-criteria evaluation index system was developed with which to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration along the Second Songhua River. The system was comprised of main suitability indexes for water quantity, water quality, the interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resources. The index system was integrated into GIS (Geographic Information System to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration (RBF in the study area was divided into five grades. Although the evaluation index system and evaluation method are applicable only to the Second Songhua River basin, the underlying principle and techniques it embodies can be applied elsewhere. For future generalization of the evaluation index system, the specific evaluation index and its scoring criteria should be modified appropriately based on local conditions.

  7. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  8. Pentastomid parasites in fish in the Olifants and Incomati River systems, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmien J. Luus-Powell

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During parasitological field surveys of freshwater fish, sebekiid and subtriquetrid pentastome larvae were recovered from the body cavity or swim bladder of several fish species from various localities in Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa. Sebekia wedli was recovered from the body cavity of Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae from Flag Boshielo Dam, Limpopo Province, and Alofia sp. and Subtriquetra rileyi were found in the swim bladder of Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae from the Phalaborwa Barrage, Limpopo Province. The latter species was also collected from the swim bladder of O. mossambicus in dams in the Phalaborwa region and the Ga-Selati River, Limpopo Province. A single specimen of Sebekia okavangoensis was present in the body cavity of Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae in a dam on a sugarcane farm in the Komatipoort region, Mpumalanga Province. Pentastomid infections in the Mormyridae and Clariidae represent new host records.

  9. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  10. [Spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in Guangdong Province of China in past 30 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Xing; Wang, Jing; Chai, Min; Chen, Ze-Peng; Zhan, Zhen-Shou; Zheng, Wu-Ping; Wei, Xiu-Guo

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1980s' soil inventory data and the 2002-2007 soil pH data of Guangdong Province, the spatiotemporal variation of soil pH in the Province in past 30 years was studied. In the study period, the spatial distribution pattern of soil pH in the Province had less change (mainly acidic), except that in Pearl River Delta and parts of Qingyuan and Shaoguan (weak alkaline). The overall variation of soil pH was represented as acidification, with the average pH value changed from 5.70 to 5.44. Among the soil types in the Province, alluvial soil had an increased pH, lateritic red soil, paddy soil, and red soil had a large decrement of pH value, and lime soil was most obvious in the decrease of pH value and its area percentage. The soil acidification was mainly induced by soil characteristics, some natural factors such as acid rain, and human factors such as unreasonable fertilization and urbanization. In addition, industrialization and mining increased the soil pH in some areas.

  11. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss taxa are reported for the province, corresponding to 256 species and four infraspecific taxa, of which 211 are new records for the province, 54 are new for Aisén Region, and two are new records for continental Chile ( Pohlia longicollis (Hedw.) Lindb. and Rigodium toxarion var. robustum (Broth.) Zomlefer). Twelve species extend their known distribution ranges to the north, whereas 49 extend them to the south.

  12. Magnetic properties of Surabaya river sediments, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyanto, Bijaksana, Satria

    2017-07-01

    Surabaya river is one of urban rivers in East Java Province, Indonesia that is a part of Brantas river that flows in four urban and industrial cities of Mojokerto, Gresik, Sidoarjo, and Surabaya. The urban populations and industries along the river pose serious threat to the river mainly for their anthropogenic pollutants. This study aims to characterize the magnetic properties of sediments in various locations along Surabaya river and correlate these magnetic properties to the level of pollution along the river. Samples are taken and measured through a series of magnetic measurements. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of sediments ranges from 259.4 to 1134.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1. The magnetic minerals are predominantly PSD to MD magnetite with the grain size range from 6 to 14 μm. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility tends to decreases downstream as accumulation of magnetic minerals in sediments is affected not only by the amount of household and industrial wastes but also by sediment dredging, construction of embankments, and extensive erosion arround the river. Sediments located in the industrial zone on the upstream area tend to have higher mass-specific magnetic susceptibility than in the non-industrial zones on the downstream area.

  13. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Munck

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence. Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases. Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  14. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, K K; Macedo, J C; Meneguzzi, A; Silva, L B; Quevedo, D M; Rodrigues, M A S

    2010-12-01

    The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W), Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅), turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA) regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI) used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS). Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  15. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  16. REVIEW: HOME AT THE SOURCE OF THREE RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Nyangchakja (Snying lcags rgyal སྙིང་ལྕགས་རྒྱལ། Niang Jijia 娘吉加

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Established in 2000, The Three Rivers Source National Nature Reserve (hereafter TRSNNR comprises 152,300 square kilometers of the general region of Three Rivers' Source, which encompasses 363,000 square kilometers in the south of Qinghai Province (SNNR 2018. "The Three Rivers" refer to the Yangtze (Changjiang, Yellow, and Lancang (Mekong. The region of the Three Rivers' Source, which has an area greater than that of Germany, has the country's highest altitude wetlands and supports globally important biodiversity. Known as "China's Water Tower," the area has key ecological value for China and our world. Global warming and glacial melting have direct impact on the wetlands, lakes, wildlife, and the entire ecosystem in the TRSNNR, which is China's second largest nature reserve. Rare wildlife protected in the nature reserve include snow leopards, Tibetan antelopes, wild yaks, wild ass, and black-necked cranes. .........

  17. Evaluation of urban river landscape design rationality based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lifang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation model for the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers was established with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method so as to provide a foundation for updating the landscape design of urban rivers. The evaluation system was divided into four layers, including the target layer, the comprehensive layer, the element layer, and the index layer. Each layer was made of different indices. The evaluation standards for each index were also given in this paper. This evaluation model was proved tenable through its application to the landscape design rationality evaluation of the Weihe River in Xinxiang City of Henan Province. The results show that the water quality, space, activity, facility, community, width of vegetation, sense of beauty and water content are among the most influential factors and should be considered the main basis for evaluating the rationality of the landscape design of urban rivers.

  18. Hierarchical, quantitative biogeographic provinces for all North American turtles and their contribution to the biogeography of turtles and the continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Sweat, Sarah C.; Hoagstrom, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Our study represents the first attempt to describe biogeographic provinces for North American (México, United States, and Canada) turtles. We analyzed three nested data sets separately: (1) all turtles, (2) freshwater turtles, and (3) aquatic turtles. We georeferenced North American turtle distributions, then we created presence–absence matrices for each of the three data sets. We used watershed unit as biogeographic units. We conducted an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean clustering analysis on each Jaccard index distance matrix from our watershed species matrices to delineate biogeographic provinces. Provinces were then tested for significant differences in species compositions in a global model with the use of a one-way analysis of similarity. We conducted a best subset of environmental variables with maximum (rank) correlation with community dissimilarities that determined the best model of abiotic variables explaining province delineation (i.e., climate, topography, and stream channel). To identify which species contributed the most to province delineations, we conducted an indicator species analysis and a similarity-percentage analysis. There were 16 all-turtle provinces, 15 freshwater provinces, and 13 aquatic provinces. Species compositions delineating the provinces were explained by abiotic variables, including mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation seasonality, and diversity of streams. Province delineations correspond closely with geographical boundaries, many of which have Pleistocene origins. For example, rivers with a history of carrying glacial runoff (e.g., Arkansas, Mississippi) sometimes dissect upland provinces, especially for aquatic and semiaquatic turtles. Compared with freshwater fishes, turtles show greater sensitivity to decreased temperature with restriction of most taxa south of the last permafrost maximum. Turtles also exhibit higher sensitivity to climatic, geomorphic, and tectonic instability, with richness

  19. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza Martin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. water of circulation flows and service components are returned completely to the river, or if operation of cooling towers, decreased in a small part. Evaporative losses account for approximately 1% of the total flow used for two nuclear groups. (Author)

  20. Pando Province, Northern Bolivia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Pando Province, Bolivia, and adjacent parts of Brazil and Peru are seen in this visualization of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data covering part of the Amazon Basin. Most of this region is covered by tropical rainforest and is still largely unaltered by development, though new roads are providing increased access to the area, leading to changes in the landscape. SRTM data provide the first detailed three-dimensional look at the landforms of this region, and the Amazon Basin in its entirety, and will be particularly helpful in understanding the hydrologic patterns as environmental management becomes increasingly important.River drainage across this area flows generally east-northeast away from the nearby Andes Mountains. The most prominent river channels seen here are the Purus River in the northwest (upper left) and the Madre de Dios River, which crosses the south central (lower central) part of this view. The Beni and Mamore Rivers combine with the Madre de Dios in the eastern (right central) area to form the Madeira River, which flows northeast to eventually meet the Amazon River near Manaus.The Trans-Amazon Highway crosses the northern half of the scene, and subtle evidence of rainforest clear cutting, facilitated by this easy access, is apparent just north of the scene center, even at the low resolution of this display (740 m or 2428 feet). As seen here, clear cutting patterns in the rainforest typically show a pattern of parallel lines. SRTM mapped the shape of the Earths solid surface (not exclusively the ground surface), which includes to some degree land covers such as forests. Thus, SRTM data are capable of revealing deforestation patterns.For a smaller, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (image size: 184k JPEG)A combination of visualization methods was used to produce this image, based on shading and color coding. A shade image was derived by computing

  1. Gross alfa activity measurement in water from the Agueda river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Figueroa, C.F.; Gomez, J.M.G.; Lozano, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gross α activity has been measured in water from the Agueda river, in the province of Salamanca (Spain), covering about 45 km around the uranium mine Fe. The activity has been found to be negligeable above the mine, and average values range from 0.13Bq/λ just after the mine to 0,05 Bq/λ 22 km below. (author) 9 refs

  2. Characterization of pig farms in Hung Yen, Hai Duong and Bac Ninh provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Van Duy; Vu Dinh; Dang Vu, Binh; Vo Trong, Thanh; Nguyen Cong, oanh; Phan Van, Chung

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterization of pig farms in the Red River Delta, a study was conducted on 90 pig farms in Hung Yen, Hai Duong and Bac Ninh provinces from June to December 2006. Results show that most of the pig farms had been built for five years with a small size (0.5 hectare per farm). The invested capital was about 300-400 millions VND per farm. Four main sow groups used in the farms included crossbred exotic sows (51.1%), crossbred sow between local and exotic breeds (14.4%), purebred La...

  3. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  4. Three run-of-river power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Three 'run-of-river' hydroelectric power plants in the Montreal area in the province of Quebec were described visually and in sound. A run-of-river generating station is one that has no reservoir behind the generating facilities. Instead of a reservoir, the generating station draws its power from the strong flow of the whole river as it passes through the turbines. The first generating station described was the Beauharnois power plant completed in 1963 which became the most powerful generating station in Canada at that time. Today, it ranks fourth after the La Grande complex. In winter, it supplies electricity primarily to the Quebec power system, but between April and November, 90 per cent of its power is destined for export. The Carillon power station on the Ottawa River, the second to be discussed in this videotape presentation, was completed in 1964 with a total generating capacity of 654 MW. Today, it is the tenth largest of its kind in Quebec. The Rivieres des Prairies generating station, the third and last one described was completed in 1930; today it has a generating capacity of 45 MW. Some of the efforts made by Hydro-Quebec to protect and enhance the natural environment were shown in action, including regular removal and recycling of debris at the gateways to the generating stations, construction of fish spawning ladders, and the control of zebra mussels

  5. Correlation between seismicity and geomorphology in Dingxi Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A M6.6 earthquake occurred on July 22, 2013 at Dingxi Basin in Gansu Province within the tectonially expanding northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the geomorphological features of the Dingxi Basin by using remote sensing technology and compared them with local seismic activity. We found that most of the river basins are at the robust stage of development and that the major local rivers and the development of some basins boundaries are controlled by the seismic faults. Among four zones identified to have significant tectonic activities, the northwestly-oriented one located in the south has the highest seismic activity, and it is where the M6. 6 earthquake occurrred.

  6. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  7. Peak Operation of Cascaded Hydropower Plants Serving Multiple Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjian Shen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The bulk hydropower transmission via trans-provincial and trans-regional power networks in China provides great operational flexibility to dispatch power resources between multiple power grids. This is very beneficial to alleviate the tremendous peak load pressure of most provincial power grids. This study places the focus on peak operations of cascaded hydropower plants serving multiple provinces under a regional connected AC/DC network. The objective is to respond to peak loads of multiple provincial power grids simultaneously. A two-stage search method is developed for this problem. In the first stage, a load reconstruction strategy is proposed to combine multiple load curves of power grids into a total load curve. The purpose is to deal with different load features in load magnitudes, peaks and valleys. A mutative-scale optimization method is then used to determine the generation schedules of hydropower plants. In the second stage, an exterior point search method is established to allocate the generation among multiple receiving power grids. This method produces an initial solution using the load shedding algorithm, and further improves it by iteratively coordinating the generation among different power grids. The proposed method was implemented to the operations of cascaded hydropower plants on Xin-Fu River and another on Hongshui River. The optimization results in two cases satisfied the peak demands of receiving provincial power grids. Moreover, the maximum load difference between peak and valley decreased 12.67% and 11.32% in Shanghai Power Grid (SHPG and Zhejiang Power Grid (ZJPG, exceeding by 4.85% and 6.72% those of the current operational method, respectively. The advantage of the proposed method in alleviating peak-shaving pressure is demonstrated.

  8. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  9. Yield-reliability analysis and operating rules for run-of-river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... Location of Siloam Village in A80A quaternary catchment. CASE STUDY AREA. Siloam Village falls under the quaternary catchment A80A of the Nzhelele River Catchment which is located in the Limpopo. Province of South ..... This enables allocation of more water to domestic users during times of high ...

  10. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ecological functioning of the Nyl River floodplain in the Limpopo Province of South Africa depends on water supplied by catchments which are experiencing continuing water resource development. Hydrological and hydraulic models have been produced to assist in future planning by simulating the effects of ...

  11. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  12. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  13. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  14. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  16. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  17. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  18. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Gutiérrez Gregoric

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b- for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean

  19. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  20. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  1. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  2. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  3. Infection dynamics and molecular identification of metacercariae in cyprinoids from Chiang Mai and Sakon Nakhon Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Pheravut; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2011-01-01

    The infection dynamics of metacercariae were assessed in cyprinoid fish (cyprinoids) from Chiang Mai and Sakon Nakhon Provinces, Thailand, during October 2008 to September 2009. The samples were collected during 3 seasons from rivers and local markets. Metacercarial infection was determined by acid-pepsin digestion and confirmed using HAT-RAPD PCR method. Thirteen and 16 species of cyprinoids were collected from Chiang Mai and Sakon Nakhon with overall prevalences of metacercarial infection of 84.5 and 47.6%, respectively. Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchoides sp, and Centrocestus caninus were found in Chiang Mai and 4 species of metacercariae: H. taichui, Haplorchoides sp, O. viverrini and an unknown trematode species in Sakon Nakhon. H. taichui and Haplorchoides sp metacercariae in 3 species of cyprinoids (Henicorhynchus siamensis, Cyclocheilichthys armatus, Amblyrhynchichthy truncatus) had the highest prevalence (100%) in Chiang Mai, while the highest prevalence (100%) of metacercaria in Sakon Nakhon was Haplorchoides sp in 1 species of cyprinoids (Cyclocheilichthys armatus). The overall prevalence from Chiang Mai Province was highest in the rainy season (95.6%), lower in the hot-dry season (88.1%) and lowest in the cool season (72.5%). In Sakon Nakhon Province the highest prevalence was in the hot-dry season (52.7%), and lower in the rainy and cool season, 44.4% and 43.5%, respectively. The HAT-RAPD profiles confirmed the identity of metacercariae and adult stage of H. taichui, Haplorchoides sp, C. caninus and O. viverrini.

  4. Assessing arsenic intake from groundwater and rice by residents in Prey Veng province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Heng, Savoeun; Huoy, Laingshun; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated total daily intake of As by residents in Prey Veng province in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Groundwater (n = 11), rice (n = 11) and fingernail (n = 23) samples were randomly collected from the households and analyzed for total As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Calculation indicated that daily dose of inorganic As was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL 0.5 equals to 3.0 μg d −1 kg −1 body wt. ). Moreover, positive correlation between As in fingernail and daily dose of As from groundwater and rice and total daily dose of As were found. These results suggest that the Prey Veng residents are exposed to As in groundwater. As in rice is an additional source which is attributable to high As accumulation in human bodies in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. -- Highlights: • We investigated total daily intake of As in Prey Veng province of Cambodia. • Residents in Prey Veng study area are at risk of As in groundwater. • As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies. -- Calculation of total daily intake indicated that Prey Veng residents are at risk of As in groundwater while As in rice is an additional source for high As accumulation in human bodies

  5. Flowing with Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students compare how artists have depicted rivers in paintings, using different styles, compositions, subject matter, colors, and techniques. They create a watercolor landscape that includes a river. Students can learn about rivers by studying them on site, through environmental study, and through works of…

  6. Mineral compositions and sources of the riverbed sediment in the desert channel of Yellow River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing

    2011-02-01

    The Yellow River flows through an extensive, aeolian desert area and extends from Xiaheyan, Ningxia Province, to Toudaoguai, Inner Mongolia Province, with a total length of 1,000 km. Due to the construction and operation of large reservoirs in the upstream of the Yellow River, most water and sediment from upstream were stored in these reservoirs, which leads to the declining flow in the desert channel that has no capability to scour large amount of input of desert sands from the desert regions. By analyzing and comparing the spatial distribution of weight percent of mineral compositions between sediment sources and riverbed sediment of the main tributaries and the desert channel of the Yellow River, we concluded that the coarse sediment deposited in the desert channel of the Yellow River were mostly controlled by the local sediment sources. The analyzed results of the Quartz-Feldspar-Mica (QFM) triangular diagram and the R-factor models of the coarse sediment in the Gansu reach and the desert channel of the Yellow River further confirm that the Ningxia Hedong desert and the Inner Mongolian Wulanbuhe and Kubuqi deserts are the main provenances of the coarse sediment in the desert channel of the Yellow River. Due to the higher fluidity of the fine sediment, they are mainly contributed by the local sediment sources and the tributaries that originated from the loess area of the upper reach of the Yellow River.

  7. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  8. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  9. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Distribution and pollution, toxicity and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments from urban and rural rivers of the Pearl River delta in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rong; Bai, Junhong; Huang, Laibin; Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2013-12-01

    Sediments were collected from the upper, middle and lower reaches of both urban and rural rivers in a typical urbanization zone of the Pearl River delta. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and their spatial distribution, pollution levels, toxicity and ecological risk levels were evaluated to compare the characteristics of heavy metal pollution between the two rivers. Our results indicated that the total contents of the six metals in all samples exceeded the soil background value in Guangdong province. Based on the soil quality thresholds of the China SEPA, Cd levels at all sites exceeded class III criteria, and other metals exhibited pollution levels exceeding class II or III criteria at both river sites. According to the sediment quality guidelines of the US EPA, all samples were moderately to heavily polluted by Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Compared to rural river sites, urban river sites exhibited heavier pollution. Almost all sediment samples from both rivers exhibited moderate to serious toxicity to the environment, with higher contributions from Cr and Ni. A "hot area" of heavy metal pollution being observed in the upper and middle reaches of the urban river area, whereas a "hot spot" was identified at a specific site in the middle reach of the rural river. Contrary metal distribution patterns were also observed along typical sediment profiles from urban and rural rivers. However, the potential ecological risk indices of rural river sediments in this study were equal to those of urban river sediments, implying that the ecological health issues of the rivers in the undeveloped rural area should also be addressed. Sediment organic matter and grain size might be important factors influencing the distribution profiles of these heavy metals.

  11. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  12. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  13. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  14. Mathematical models for the arrangement and the cleaning of the river basin and surroundings of the river sandy grounds to its passage by the city of Salta (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Corrales, José Manuel; Grau Olive, Juan Bautista; Speroni, Colombo; Rios, Lisandro de los; Andina de la Fuente, Diego; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    The province of Salta is located the Northwest of Argentina in the border with Bolivia, Chile and Paraguay. Its Capital is the city of Salta that concentrates half of the inhabitants of the province and has grown to 600000 hab., from a small active Spanish town well founded in 1583. The city is crossed by the Arenales River descending from close mountains at North, source of water and end of sewers. But with actual growing it has become a focus of infection and of remarkable unhealthiness. It...

  15. Socio-Hydrology of Channel Flows in Complex River Basins: Rivers, Canals, and Distributaries in Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescoat, James L.; Siddiqi, Afreen; Muhammad, Abubakr

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a socio-hydrologic analysis of channel flows in Punjab province of the Indus River basin in Pakistan. The Indus has undergone profound transformations, from large-scale canal irrigation in the mid-nineteenth century to partition and development of the international river basin in the mid-twentieth century, systems modeling in the late-twentieth century, and new technologies for discharge measurement and data analytics in the early twenty-first century. We address these processes through a socio-hydrologic framework that couples historical geographic and analytical methods at three levels of flow in the Punjab. The first level assesses Indus River inflows analysis from its origins in 1922 to the present. The second level shows how river inflows translate into 10-daily canal command deliveries that vary widely in their conformity with canal entitlements. The third level of analysis shows how new flow measurement technologies raise questions about the performance of established methods of water scheduling (warabandi) on local distributaries. We show how near real-time measurement sheds light on the efficiency and transparency of surface water management. These local socio-hydrologic changes have implications in turn for the larger scales of canal and river inflow management in complex river basins.

  16. THE EXPLORATION OF THE TIETÊ RIVER BY THE COMISSÃO GEOGRÁFICA E GEOLÓGICA (1905: CARTOGRAPHIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pimentel Cintra

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cartographic products associated with the Tiete River Exploration Report, (1905 published by the Geographical and Geological Committee of the São Paulo Province. The expedition, from the Bar of the Jacaré-Guassú River to the Paraná River, led to the mapping of the Tietê River, which, along with others, is part of the efforts made by this state agency so that there was no longer a great region called "Unknown hinterland inhabited by Indians" in the official map of the Province of Sao Paulo. The purpose was not only to map, but also to raise the mineral resources, the geology, focused on the types of soil and its agricultural potential, and the navigability of rivers for transporting people and goods. The data obtained are studied (altitudes, longitudes, magnetic declination, surveys paths, equipment used, work methodology and the Cartography produced: General Map, Partial Maps, Profile, Cross Sections and others.

  17. Operation of river systems. The Otra river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harby, A.; Vaskinn, K.A.; Wathne, M.; Heggenes, J.; Saltveit, S.J.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report was to prepare an operative tool for making decisions about the operation of the power system on the river Otra (Norway) with regard to how this operation might affect the various users of the river system. Above all this affects fish, outdoor life and esthetic values. The connection between water quality and volume of discharge has been examined in a sub project. How suitable parts of the river are as habitats for trout has been simulated on a computer. From field investigation it is concluded that near the Steinfoss power station the physical conditions for trout depend on the operation of the river system. Outdoor life is not much affected downstream Vikeland. 11 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs

  18. 76 FR 51887 - Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Patuxent River, Patuxent River, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone during the ``NAS Patuxent River... held over certain waters of the Patuxent River adjacent to Patuxent River, Maryland from September 1...

  19. Development of a GIS-Based Decision Support System for Diagnosis of River System Health and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of a decision support system (DSS to inform policy making has been progressing rapidly. This paper presents a generic framework and the development steps of a decision tool prototype of geographic information systems (GIS-based decision support system of river health diagnosis (RHD-DSS. This system integrates data, calculation models, and human knowledge of river health status assessment, causal factors diagnosis, and restoration decision making to assist decision makers during river restoration and management in Zhejiang Province, China. Our RHD-DSS is composed of four main elements: the graphical user interface (GUI, the database, the model base, and the knowledge base. It has five functional components: the input module, the database management, the diagnostic indicators management, the assessment and diagnosis, and the visual result module. The system design is illustrated with particular emphasis on the development of the database, model schemas, diagnosis and analytical processing techniques, and map management design. Finally, the application of the prototype RHD-DSS is presented and implemented for Xinjiangtang River of Haining County in Zhejiang Province, China. This case study is used to demonstrate the advantages gained by the application of this system. We conclude that there is great potential for using the RHD-DSS to systematically manage river basins in order to effectively mitigate environmental issues. The proposed approach will provide river managers and designers with improved insight into river degradation conditions, thereby strengthening the assessment process and the administration of human activities in river management.

  20. Status of the dirty darter, Etheostoma olivaceum, and bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration)sp., with notes on fishes of the Caney Fork River system, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, S.R.; Simons, A.M.; Wood, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-six localities were sampled in the Caney Fork River system and adjacent Cumberland River tributaries. Etheostoma olivaceum was found in small creeks from nine tributaries of lower Caney Fork River and three tributaries of the Cumberland River in the Nashville Basin physiographic province. The species was most abundant around slab rocks and rubble over bedrock in slow to moderate current. Etheostoma olivaceum was common throughout its small range; however, given widespread habitat degradation from agriculture, the species should retain its open-quotes deemed in need of managementclose quotes status in Tennessee. The bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration) sp., was collected in slow to moderate current over sand and gravel in Collins River, Rocky River, Cane Creek, and Caney Fork River. All four populations were isolated upstream of Great Falls Reservoir in the Highland Rim physiographic province. The species was found in a 37-km reach of Collins River but was restricted to reaches of 0.2 to 4.3 km in the other three streams. Threats to the species include pesticides from plant nurseries, siltation, gravel dredging, and acid mine drainage. The authors recommend that the bluemask darter be listed as state and federally protected. Two new records were established for the rare Barrens darter, Etheostoma forbesi, in lower Collins River and Barren Fork River, and eight previously unknown records of the species were identified from older museum collections. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Potential building sand deposits in Songkhla province area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooptarnond, K.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of potential building sand deposits in Songkhla province area subdivided them into four regions according to their accumulation in various alluvial plains, meanders throughout alluvial deposits and residual soils. Four selected deposits, were Rattaphum-Khuan Niang, U-Taphao river, Na Mom, and Chana-Thepha regions. Information obtained from these deposits revealed a good correlation between the geomorphological features as interpreted from aerial photographs and those identified from vertical electrical resistivity sounding results. Sand samples were analysed for their physical and chemical properties. Petrographic studies were also undertaken to characterize the composition types, texture and shapes. An overview of the sand properties was used them to be within the acceptable limits for building sand. However, relatively high organic impurities and soundness were found in sand from Khuan Niang and Na Mom deposits. The result indicated a potential reconnaissance mineral resource of about 46 square kilometres.A reserve evaluation for natural building sand was carried out by using Geographic Information System (GIS. Maps of the various parameters considered were constructed in digital database format with the aid of Arc/Info and ArcView software. Overlay mapping and buffer zone modules were performed to evaluate inferred resources of building sand. The key parameters of analysis included the distance from transportation, distance from streams, lithology and thickness of sand layers. The remaining inferred sand total was of about 386 million cubic metres or about 1,021 million metric tons was therefore estimated, of which 60 percent lies in the Rattaphum-Khuan Niang region and 40 percent in the other regions.

  2. Age, distribution, and formation of late cenozoic paleovalleys of the lower Colorado River and their relation to river aggradation and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K.A.; Lundstrom, S.C.; Malmon, D.V.; Hook, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctive far-traveled fluvial sediment of the lower Colorado River fills 20 paleo-valleys now stranded by the river downstream of Grand Canyon as it crosses the Basin and Range Province. These sediments resulted from two or more aggradational epi sodes in Pliocene and Pleistocene times following initial incision during the early Pliocene. A review of the stratigraphic evidence of major swings in river elevation over the last 5 m.y. from alternating degradation and aggradation episodes establishes a framework for understanding the incision and filling of the paleovalleys. The paleo-valleys are found mostly along narrow bedrock canyon reaches of the river, where divides of bedrock or old deposits separate them from the modern river. The paleo-valleys are interpreted to have stemmed from periods of aggradation that filled and broadened the river valley, burying low uplands in the canyon reaches into which later channel positions were entrenched during subsequent degradation episodes. The aggradation-degradation cycles resulted in the stranding of incised river valleys that range in elevation from near the modern river to 350 m above it. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  3. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  4. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from the persp......Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...

  5. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  6. The study of genetic diversity and population structure of Vimba vimba persa (Pallas, 1814 populations in the Eastern and Western coastline of the Caspian sea (Havigh River and GorganRoud River using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohamadian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Vimba vimba persa was investigated using microsatellite markers from two regions of the Iranian coastline of southern Caspian sea (Havigh River in Guilan province, GorganRoud River in Golestan province. The purpose of this research was the study of Vimba vimba persa’s possible populations related to genetic diversity and population structure in the Caspian sea and introducing the useful genetic markers. To investigate the genetic structure of Vimba vimba persa populations, we sampled 50 specimens of Vimba vimba persa caught by beach seine from GorganRoud River in Golestan Province (30 specimens and Havigh River in the Guilan Province (20 specimens. Genomic DNA was extracted from fin tissue by phenol-Chlorophorm method and PCR reaction was accomplished with 17 microsatellite primers 10 of which were amplified with reasonable polymorphism. Means of alleles were on 6.75 averages, observed and expected heterozygosity averages were 0.817 and 0.735, respectively. Most cases, significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p≤0.01. According to the Fst values, there are two significant populations of Vimba vimba persa in the eastern and western coasts of the Caspian Sea which restocking of these species should be considered. Based on the survey revealed, since the population of this species is decreasing with its high genetic diversity, the Caspian Vimba had an enormous diversity in the past.

  7. Usher syndrome clinical characterization. Holguin province

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Hernández, Elayne Esther; Lantigua Cruz, Paulina Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: El síndrome de Usher es una enfermedad determinada genéticamente, con una gran heterogeneidad clínica y genética; está caracterizada por hipoacusia neurosensorial de moderada a severa, retinosis pigmentaria progresiva y puede acompañarse de alteración vestibular. Por la alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad en la provincia de Holguín, se considera necesario este estudio. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente todos los enfermos con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Usher en la provinc...

  8. Wildflowers of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seger, Tona [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). USDA Forest Service

    2015-08-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help field personnel (nonbotanists) identify plants on the Savannah River Site (SRS) premises. Although not a complete flora guide, this publication contains information about 123 plant species found on the SRS. Plants are listed by their common names and arranged by the color of the flower. The SRS supports a diverse array of plant communities. Land use history, the establishment of the SRS, and current land management practices have shaped the flora presently found on the SRS. Located south of Aiken, SC, SRS spans 198,344 acres with land covering Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties. Situated on the Upper Coastal Plain and Sandhills physiographic provinces, the SRS has more than 50 distinct soil types. The topography is rolling to flat with elevation ranges from 50 to 400 feet above sea level.

  9. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  10. Map of Portuguese 'Reconquista'; Map of Danish conquest in the Baltic; Map of the maritime routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny Grandjean Gøgsig

    2016-01-01

    Tre kort til artikel "Military orders between territorialization and periphery from the 12th to the 16th century" af Paula Pinto Costa, Luís Adão da Fonseca, Kurt Villads Jensen & Cristina Pimenta, udgivet i 'Scandinavian Journal of History' 41:2 (Routledge, 2016), s. 141-159 (fig. 1-3, s. 145-147)....

  11. Tres documentos inéditos para la historia de la guerra de reconquista inca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont publiées les déclarations de trois témoins oculaires des événements de 1533 à 1558, c'est-à-dire depuis l'entrée de Manko Inka Yupanki à Cusco, avec ses alliés espagnols, jusqu'à la 'sortie' de l'auki Sayri Thupa, -un de ses enfants- en 1558, sur la pression militaire et diplomatique du Marquis de Cañete. Ces témoignages directs, confrontés avec d'autres contemporains, constituent de nouveaux éléments inédits pour éclairer la version donnée par les sources espagnoles de cette époque ils font connaître également, et presque en détail, les négociations du vice-roi Marquis de Cañete, lequel se proposait d'en finir pacifiquement avec la résistance héroïque de Vilcabamba, ainsi que la prudence Inca pour déjouer ce plan et éviter les dangers d'une guerre contre ce dernier réduit du Tawantinsuyo. Il ressort de ces témoignages, comparés avec d'autres fiables que nous avons consultés, la mise en question de la vérité sur la succession de Sayri Thupa à la mort de son père, Manko Inka, et la possibilité que le jeune auki ait simulé cette fonction par le truchement d'un artifice politique de la Cour de Vilcabamba. Se publican en este artículo las declaraciones de tres testigos presenciales de los sucesos de 1533 a 1558, es decir desde la entrada de Manko Inka Yupanki al Cusco, con sus aliados españoles, hasta la 'salida' del auki Sayri Thupa, -uno de sus hijos- en 1558, ante la presión militar y diplomática del Marqués de Cañete. Estos testimonios directos, confrontados con otros coetáneos, constituyen nuevos e inéditos elementos de juicio para aclarar la versión de las fuentes hispanas de estos años y para conocer casi en detalle las negociaciones del virrey Marqués de Cañete, que se proponía acabar pacíficamente con la resistencia heroica de Vilcabamba, y la cautela Inca para burlar este propósito y evitar los peligros de una guerra contra este último reducto del Tawantinsuyo. De estos testimonios compulsados con otros confiables que se citan, resulta cuestionada la verdad sobre la sucesión de Sayri Thupa a la muerte de su padre Manko Inka y la posibilidad que este auki simulara este cargo como un ardid político de la Corte de Vilcabamba.

  12. Impact of seasonal variation on Escherichia coli concentrations in the riverbed sediments in the Apies River, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, ALK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available quality of riverbed sediments in the Apies River, Gauteng Province, South Africa, using Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator organism and to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on its abundance. Weekly samples were collected at 10 sampling sites...

  13. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  14. WATER POLLUTION AND RIVER ALGAE: STUDY IN ZAYANDEH ROOD RIVER – ISFAHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H POUR MOGHADAS

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dischange of domestic, agricultural and industrial waste water into the rivers increase chemical substances such as nitrate and phosphate. These chemical changes increase algal population. High density of algae may cause changes in color, odor and taste of water. Some of the algae such as Oscillatoria, Microcystis and Anabeana produce toxins and in high concentrations may kill fishes. While Zayandehrud river is considered as one of the main water supply sources for drinking water and valuable water resources of Isfahan Province, water quality control of this river is important. The study of algae of the river in relation with the concentration of nitrate and phosphate is the purpose of this research project. Methods: To perform this projects, seven sampling stations from "Pole Vahid" to .Pole choom. were selected. Grab methods were used for sampling of the river water. 147 water samples were collected in one year of the study.The samples were analyzed for phosphate, nitrate and genera of the algae. Nitrate and phosphate of the water samples were determined using Phenol Disulfonic Acid and Stanous chloride methods, respectively. The genera of the algae were detennined using the keys. Results and Disccusion:The result of the study showed that the frequency of the algae increased with increasing nitrate and phosphate. Overall.35 genera of algae in the area of the study were observed, which six of them were indicators of water pollution. Minimum frequency of indicators of pollution was observed in the enterance of Isfahan city and maximum frequency was observed after the discharge of municipal water from waste water treatment plant (pole Choom.

  15. Dujiangyan: Could the ancient hydraulic engineering be a sustainable solution for Mississippi River diversions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    Dujiangyan, also known as the Dujiangyan Project, is a hydraulic engineering complex built more than 2260 years ago on the Mingjiang River near Chengdu in China's Sichuan Province. The complex splits the river into two channels, a so-called "inner river" (Leijiang) and an "outer river" (Waijiang) that carry variable water volumes and sediment loads under different river flow conditions. The inner river and its numerous distributary canals are primarily man-made for irrigation over the past 2000 years, while the outer river is the natural channel and flows southward before entering into the Yangtze River. Under normal flow, 60% of the Mingjiang River goes into the inner river for irrigating nearly 1 million hectares of agricultural land on the Chengdu plain. During floods, however, less than 40% of the Mingjiang River flows into the inner river. Under both flow conditions, about 80% of the riverine sediments is carried by the outer river and continues downstream. This hydrology is achieved through a weir work complex that comprises three major components: a V-shaped bypass dike in the center of the Mingjiang River (the Yuzui Bypass Dike, see photo below), a sediment diversion canal in the inner river below the bypass dike (the Feishayan Floodgate), and a flow control in the inner river below the sediment diversion canal (the Baopingkou Diversion Passage). Together with ancillary embankments, these structures have not only ensured a regular supply of silt-reduced water to the fertile Chengdu plain, but have provided great benefits in flood control, sediment transport, and water resources regulation over the past two thousand years. The design of this ancient hydraulic complex ingeniously conforms to the natural environment while incorporating many sophisticated techniques, reflecting the concept that humankind is an integral part of nature. As we are urgently seeking solutions today to save the sinking Mississippi River Delta, examination of the ancient engineering

  16. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  17. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  18. Preserving the Dnipro River

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Humanity inherited the true sense of proportion, synergy, and harmony from the natural environment. ..... In Ukraine, the middle and lower sections of the Dnipro have a drainage ... The following large cities are located in the Dnipro basin: in Russia, .... In Kherson Oblast and in river basins of some small rivers it is as high as ...

  19. Hydrochemical evaluation of river water quality—a case study: Horroud River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falah, Fatemeh; Haghizadeh, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Surface waters, especially rivers are the most important sources of water supply for drinking and agricultural purposes. Water with desirable quality is necessary for human life. Therefore, knowledge of water quality and its temporal changes is of particular importance in sustainable management of water resources. In this study, available data during 20 years from two hydrometry stations located in the way of Horroud River in Lorestan province were used and analyzed using Aq.QA software. Piper, Schoeller, Stiff, and Wilcox diagram were drawn and Mann-Kendal test was used for determining data trend. According to Wilcox diagram, water of this river in both stations is placed in c2s1 class which is good for agricultural purposes, and according to Schoeller diagram, there is no restrict for drinking purposes. Results of Man-Kendal test show increasing trend for colorine, EC, TDS while decreasing trend for potassium in Kakareza station. On the other hand in Dehnu station, positive trend was seen in calcium and colorine while negative trend for sulfate and potassium. For other variables, no specific trend was found.

  20. Recent U.S. Geological Survey Studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada-Results of a 5-Year Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents summary papers of work conducted between 2002 and 2007 under a 5-year project effort funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program, formerly entitled 'Tintina Metallogenic Province: Integrated Studies on Geologic Framework, Mineral Resources, and Environmental Signatures.' As the project progressed, the informal title changed from 'Tintina Metallogenic Province' project to 'Tintina Gold Province' project, the latter being more closely aligned with the terminology used by the mineral industry. As Goldfarb and others explain in the first chapter of this report, the Tintina Gold Province is a convenient term used by the mineral exploration community for a 'region of very varied geology, gold deposit types, and resource potential'. The Tintina Gold Province encompasses roughly 150,000 square kilometers, bounded by the Kaltag-Tintina fault system on the north and the Farewell-Denali fault system on the south. It extends westward in a broad arc, some 200 km wide, from northernmost British Columbia, through the Yukon, through southeastern and central Alaska, to southwestern Alaska. The climate is subarctic and, in Alaska, includes major physiographic delineations and ecoregions such as the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Tanana-Kuskokwim Lowlands, Yukon River Lowlands, and the Kuskokwim Mountains. Although the Tintina Gold Province is historically important for some of the very first placer and lode gold discoveries in northern North America, it has recently seen resurgence in mineral exploration, development, and mining activity. This resurgence is due to both new discoveries (for example, Pogo and Donlin Creek) and to the application of modern extraction methods to previously known, but economically restrictive, low-grade, bulk-tonnage gold resources (for example, Fort Knox, Clear Creek, and Scheelite Dome). In addition, the Tintina Gold Province hosts numerous other mineral deposit types, possessing both high and low sulfide content, which

  1. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  2. A guide to the biological indicators of the watercourses of the Province of Viterbo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, L.; Andreani, P.

    2008-01-01

    European legislation recognised to biological indicators a main role among the instruments for the evaluation of the ecological status of fresh running waters (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). The analysis of the communities of different biological components, such as Diatoms, Macrophytes, Macro invertebrates and Fishes, can provide an approach at ecosystem level, essential for a correct interpretation of river conditions. Therefore, it is fundamental to provide useful instruments for the taxonomic identification of the aquatic organisms. The Viterbo Province has a long time activity in this context, through the organisation of several events focused on training courses and dissemination. This work, even if preliminary, provides a scheme of Atlas of Biological Indicators of running waters, available for all stake holders, and that could represent a stepping stone for the future realization of guides at national level [it

  3. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  4. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  5. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  6. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  7. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  8. Distribution and source analysis of aluminum in rivers near Xi'an City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqi; He, Yanling; Liang, Jidong; Liu, Pei; Zhuang, Pengyu

    2013-02-01

    To study the status and source of aluminum (Al) contamination, a total of 21 sampling sites along six rivers near Xi'an City (Shaanxi province, China) were investigated during 2008-2010. The results indicated that the average concentration of total Al (Al(t)) in the six rivers increased by 1.6 times from 2008 to 2010. The spatial distribution of Al(t) concentrations in the rivers near Xi'an City was significantly different, ranged from 367 μg/L (Bahe River) to 1,978 μg/L (Taiping River). The Al(t) concentration was highest near an industrial area for pulp and paper-making (2,773 μg/L), where the Al level greatly exceeded the water quality criteria of both the USA (Criterion Continuous Concentration, 87 μg/L) and Canada (100 μg/L). The average concentration of inorganic monometric aluminum (Al(im)) was 72 μg/L which would pose threats to fishes and other aquatic lives in the rivers. The concentrations of exchangeable Al (Al(ex)) in the sediment of the Taiping River sampled were relatively high, making it to be an alternative explanation of increasing Al concentrations in the rivers near Xi'an City. Furthermore, an increasing Al level has been detected in the upstream watershed near Xi'an City in recent years, which might indicate another notable pollution source of Al.

  9. The contemporary geomorphology of the Letaba River in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Moon

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Letaba River drains part of Northern Province in north-east South Africa. Its catchment has been modified significantly by human activity which has affected the flow regime; it experiences only ephemeral flows through the Kruger National Park to its confluence with the Olifants River. Although the Letaba is similar to the other rivers in the Kruger National Park in that it displays some bedrock influenced channel features, increased sediment delivery from the degraded catchment upstream has resulted in extensive alluviation within the channel. Sections of channel flowing over bedrock with no sediment covering are rare, and the river comprises a series of channel types: mixed anastomosing, alluvial braided, mixed pool-rapid and alluvial single thread. Each is characterised by a different combination of morphological units which relate to the degree of alluviation in the channel. These channel types are described in detail and inferences are made concerning their formation and maintenance from field observation and measurement.

  10. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    2014-01-01

    the size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...... the utilization of cultural institutions, creative industries and the demands of the creative class were drivers in the development of the major cities, i.e. the ”Bilbao Effect”. From the major cities these ideas spread to smaller cities, which raised questions about critical mass, etc. This ”second wave...... of the welfare state, which focus on accessibility, a democratic and inclusive approach expressed in the form of culture projects that will enhance the quality of life and liveability in the local community. The paper discusses how and if the two rationales can be executed in the same projects: economic growth...

  11. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  12. Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

    2014-10-01

    The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross α and β activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11 mBq L(-1), 169.44 mBq L(-1) for gross α and β in tap water. For all samples the gross β activity is always higher than the gross α activity. All value of the gross α were lower than the limit value of 500 mBq L(-1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross β activity concentrations of greater than 1000 mBq L(-1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-4) or less. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cahora Bassa and Tete Province (Mozambique): A great potential for an industrial hub in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebitosi, A.B.; Graca, A. da

    2009-01-01

    Mozambique is host to the great Zambezi River Basin and the World Famous Cahora Bassa power plant that generates some 13,000 GWh annually. The bulk of this energy (85%) is exported but the revenue raised does not appear to have any appreciable impact on the host economy. Moreover it is estimated that a further 10% of the generated energy is lost along the 1414 km long transmission line to South Africa. So quite evidently, Mozambique would benefit more if its energy were utilized by locally based industry. This would also save on the losses that are currently incurred during regional transmission. In this paper the authors visit Tete, the Mozambican Province that hosts the Zambezi Basin. They examine its natural and human resources. They observe that its strategic location gives it easy access to regional markets. They also hold interviews with a number of administrators in the Province. Finally, they conclude that Tete is uniquely advantaged to develop into the next regional industrial hub for the Southern African region. This would also greatly add value to the local resources. To realize this dream will require, conviction supported by strong and timely political commitment as well as hard work. Current trends towards integrated regional trading blocks will provide an even easier access to potential markets and human skills pools.

  14. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, C. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 ?? 106 m3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 ?? 106 m3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province. ?? 1988.

  15. Uranium in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.; Edmond, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 x 10 7 mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load

  16. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  17. Large Dam Effects on Flow Regime and Hydraulic Parameters of river (Case study: Karkheh River, Downstream of Reservoir Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Azarang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The critical role of the rivers in supplying water for various needs of life has led to engineering identification of the hydraulic regime and flow condition of the rivers. Hydraulic structures such dams have inevitable effects on their downstream that should be well investigated. The reservoir dams are the most important hydraulic structures which are the cause of great changes in river flow conditions. Materials and Methods: In this research, an accurate assessment was performed to study the flow regime of Karkheh river at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam as the largest dam in Middle East. Karkheh River is the third waterful river of Iran after Karun and Dez and the third longest river after the Karun and Sefidrud. The Karkheh Dam is a large reservoir dam built in Iran on the Karkheh River in 2000. The Karkheh Reservoir Dam is on the Karkheh River in the Northwestern Khouzestan Province, the closest city being Andimeshk to the east. The part of Karkheh River, which was studied in this research is located at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam. This interval is approximately 94 km, which is located between PayePol and Abdolkhan hydrometric stations. In this research, 138 cross sections were used along Karkheh River. Distance of cross sections from each other was 680m in average. The efficient model of HEC-RAS has been utilized to simulate the Karkheh flow conditions before and after the reservoir dam construction using of hydrometric stations data included annually and monthly mean discharges, instantaneous maximum discharges, water surface profiles and etc. Three defined discharges had been chosen to simulate the Karkheh River flow; maximum defined discharge, mean defined discharge and minimum defined discharge. For each of these discharges values, HEC-RAS model was implemented as a steady flow of the Karkheh River at river reach of study. Water surface profiles of flow, hydraulic parameters and other results of flow regime in

  18. Wigwam River juvenile bull trout and fish habitat monitoring program: 2000 data report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00)

  19. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, R.S. [Westslope Fisheries, Cranbrook, BC, Canada

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  20. Savannah River Plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.

    1984-03-01

    On June 20, 1972, the Atomic Energy Commission designated 192,323 acres of land near Aiken, SC, as the nation's first National Environmental Research Park. The designated land surrounds the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant production complex. The site, which borders the Savannah River for 17 miles, includes swampland, pine forests, abandoned town sites, a large man-made lake for cooling water impoundment, fields, streams, and watersheds. This report is a description of the geological, hydrological, meteorological, and biological characteristics of the Savannah River Plant site and is intended as a source of information for those interested in environmental research at the site. 165 references, 68 figures, 52 tables

  1. Pollution Problem in River Kabul: Accumulation Estimates of Heavy Metals in Native Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Yousafzai, Ali Muhammad; Siraj, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Ahmad, Israr; Nadeem, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Waqar; Akbar, Nazia; Muhammad, Khushi

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of aquatic systems with heavy metals is affecting the fish population and hence results in a decline of productivity rate. River Kabul is a transcountry river originating at Paghman province in Afghanistan and inters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and it is the major source of irrigation and more than 54 fish species have been reported in the river. Present study aimed at the estimation of heavy metals load in the fish living in River Kabul. Heavy metals including chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer after tissue digestion by adopting standard procedures. Concentrations of these metals were recorded in muscles and liver of five native fish species, namely, Wallago attu, Aorichthys seenghala, Cyprinus carpio, Labeo dyocheilus, and Ompok bimaculatus. The concentrations of chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead were higher in both of the tissues, whereas the concentration of cadmium was comparatively low. However, the concentration of metals was exceeding the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance of USA) limits. Hence, continuous fish consumption may create health problems for the consumers. The results of the present study are alarming and suggest implementing environmental laws and initiation of a biomonitoring program of the river.

  2. Fish vs. power: Remaking salmon, science and society on the Fraser River, 1900--1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenden, Matthew Dominic

    Overlapping resource demands made the Fraser River a contested site of development politics in twentieth century British Columbia. Since the turn of the century, power interests surveyed the river's flow, sited dams and promoted development schemes. Fisheries interests, on the other hand, sought to maintain the river as salmon spawning habitat. They questioned the necessity of dams, supported fisheries research and rehabilitation and organized anti-development coalitions. Before the mid-1950s a number of dam projects proceeded on Fraser tributaries and major landslides at Hells Gate modeled the dangers of main stem development. Because of the concerted political lobbying of fisheries groups, the skeptical appraisal of fisheries scientists to development proposals and the legal and political authority of the federal Department of Fisheries and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, major dam projects were defeated on the Fraser in the late 1950s. Delayed development on the Fraser helped to spur hydroelectric projects on other rivers in the province; the fish-power problem on the Fraser altered the province's spatial economy of power. Once development began on the Columbia and Peace Rivers, the Fraser was protected by implication. The study combines approaches from environmental history, the history of science and political economy to demonstrate the intersections and interactions between nature, knowledge and society. Research was conducted at eleven archives in Canada and the United States in the papers of organizations, corporations, government departments, politicians, scientists and individuals.

  3. Is ENSO related to 2015 Easter Star Capsized on the Yangtze River of China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P.

    2015-12-01

    Natural disasters have profound effects on community security and economic damage of China's Hubei province. In June 1st, 2015, a cruise ship, Easter Star, capsized on Yangtze River in Hubei province with 442 died. What reason gives rise to such strong convection causing ship sunk? Based on the wind disasters of Hubei province happened in 1963-2015, this study analyzes their features bytime-series regression, and correlates them to global El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The compared results demonstrated that the wind disasters shown an increasing tendency. There are two peaks corresponding to the strongest ENSO peaks during the past 50 years; each peak lasts two-three years. The facts demonstrated an essential linear relation between the ENSO phenomena and wind disasters in Hubei province. 2015 Easter Star capsized happened at current El Niño event in 2014-2015. We also observed that the historical wind disasters appeared in seasonal variation. Over 90% events concentrated in spring and summer; very few events happened in autumn and winter. Moreover, the disasters depend on the geographic conditions. Most disasters concentrated in four zones, named as Xingshan-Baokang, Xuanen, Wufeng-Yichang, Jingzhou-Gongan, in which Xingshan and Changyang are the two most density of zones. Yangtze River provides an air flowing conduct for strong convective winds. It can be concluded that the strong convection causing 2015 Easter Star capsized is related to current global ENSO phenomenon.Keywords: ENSO, wind disaster, time-series regression analysis, Easter Star, Yangtze River, Hubei Province,

  4. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VICIOUS CIRCULATION OF WATER DEFICIENCY AND WATER POLLUTION – “CANCER” OF THE RIVERS IN THE NORTH OF CHINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liankang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The North of China belongs to the basin of the Tarim River ,the Heihe River , the Yellow River , the Huaihe River ,the Haihe River ,the Liaohe River , the Heilongjiang River and other shorter rivers and other indraft areas. The total area of all river basin is about 3,200,000 sq. km., exceeds 3/5 of area of land of 13 provinces , municipalities and autonomous regions of the North of China (5, 220,000 sq. km. .Follow the growth of the economy and the population, lacking of water in the rivers of the northern China is serious,. Since the sixties and seventies of previous century, the blanking has taken place successively in numerous rivers, brought serious influence on the development of the economic, made the society to shake. Afterwards, through certain effort, although the blanking phenomenon is alleviated for the past several years, but the water quality of manyrivers has sharply worsened and was dropped to V, bad V grade in the numerous sections, fromthe situation that the water quality in a great part sections in the main stream was still rather good for past more than 20 years ago. It has become the first killer, influencing the life of river.Therefore, we must summarize the experiences on that the rivers of the northern China, especially the most influential Yellow River, have gone from blanking to resuming flow, we also must control the pollution and proportionate the development of the society and theeconomic, with the water yield and the water quality. These affair have already become task of top priority!

  6. Uranium mineralization in the Rum Jungle-Alligator Rivers Province, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, R.G.; Needham, R.S.; Wilkes, P.G.; Page, R.W.; Smart, P.G.; Watchman, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    Renewed interest in uranium exploration in northern Australia in the late 1960s led to the discovery of one of the most important uranium fields in the world. To obtain an understanding of the geological setting of the uranium deposits, and to provide guidelines for future exploration, the Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) undertook an investigation which included semi-detailed mapping, aided by geophysical surveys, isotopic dating, and stratigraphic drilling. From the results so far obtained and from the important data made available by mining companies engaged in exploration in the region, a pattern of uranium mineralization can be recognized, particularly in relation to the Lower Proterozoic sedimentation of the region. (author)

  7. A stream sediment orientation programme for Uranium in the Alligator River Province, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingrich, J.E.; Foy, M.F.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments samples were collected from streams draining the Koongarra uranium deposit and the small uranium mines in the South Alligator Valley. Determinations for U, Cu and Pb on various size fractions taken from each of these samples indicated that the best results were obtained for U from the minus 200-mesh fraction, but the train from the Koongarra ore deposit was very short. Cu and Pb were not found to be very useful as indicator elements for U. Alpha-track films were used to determine the Rn content of each sample and the ratio of alpha-track film reading to U content was found to define anomalous drainage areas around the mineralization in the Koongarra area. The areas so defined were of sufficient magnitude to be defined in a reconnaissance stream sediment programme

  8. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: conservation planning for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish to Tsitsikamma water management area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish- to-Tsitsikamma water management area Project Aims To put in practice and refine, through a pilot study in the Eastern Cape Province, the policy and planning tools developed for systematic conservation... engagement in developing the technical approach to river prioritization and selection, as well as the reviewing of results to facilitate buy-in and ownership of the product. Project Description The Fish to Tsitsikamma Water Management Area is one...

  9. Exploitation of the nuclear plant Asco and the benthic community of the river Ebro; Explotacion de la central nuclear Asco y la comunidad bentonica del rio Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esparza Martin

    2015-07-01

    The Ebro river passing through the town of Asco in the province of Tarragona, provides the necessary water for the operation of the nuclear plant. water of circulation flows and service components are returned completely to the river, or if operation of cooling towers, decreased in a small part. Evaporative losses account for approximately 1% of the total flow used for two nuclear groups. (Author)

  10. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hunting camp. River Murray

    OpenAIRE

    ? Bayliss, Charles, 1850-1897, photographer

    2003-01-01

    200 x 149 mm. A good photograph showing a group of aborigines (in European clothes) with two hunting dogs, holding spears and standing in front of rough wooden cabins; with the river in the background. Photograph unknown, possible Charles Bayliss.

  12. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  13. Cooper River Rediversion Project. Lake Moultrie and Santee River, South Carolina. Intake and Tailrace Canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    0 COM’PLE’t 01 No N’-tcRO~TATIC. ŘLAD F.0Uv4DATlON4 PRevuRr- + L. *I. .;Appko/%C-NH 5. oo *PS f~ ;:.. .~0NlION -FULL 14’lC7, AULIC . WILAD . 7A IL W...Data 3 1 HYDROLOGY Basin Description 4 l Topography 6 2 Stream Characteristics 7 2 Climate 8 2 Precipitation 9 2 Storms of Record 10 3 Runoff and...swampy areas as they reach the Coastal Plain. Slopes of the rivers in the Coastal Plain Province average about 0.6 foot per mile. 6. Climate . The Santee

  14. Assessment of air quality management policies in China with integrated model framework: Case study for Hebei province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, B.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.; Yang, W.; He, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese government has pledged to clean urban air within five years from 2013 to 2017, to promote annual average PM2.5 concentration decline by 25%, 20% and 15% in the North China Plain, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta, respectively. The national targets are disaggregated into provinces, where region-specific action plan is designed and implemented by local government. It is particularly important to timely assess the effectiveness of local emission control measures and guarantee local efforts are in line with the national goal. We develop an integrated model framework for air quality management and policy evaluation, by integrating a dynamic high-resolution emission model, an emission scenarios analysis tool, and a 3-D air quality model. We then put the model system into pilot use in Hebei province for policy making to achieve the air quality target of 2017. We first integrate over 3000 point source facilities into this system to develop a high-resolution emission inventory. Upon the base emission dataset, the efforts to mitigate emissions with current and enacted measures are tracked and quantified to dynamic account of emission changes monthly. Strict policies are designed within the model framework through analyzing the potential to cut emissions for each point source. The finalized policy package can reduce emissions of major air pollutants by 20%-40%, respectively, leading to large decrease of ambient PM2.5 concentration.

  15. An Attempt to Construction of Seismotectonic Province Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Shim, Taek Mo

    2010-01-01

    A seismotectonic province is a kind of seismic source where, in general, seismic characteristics are assumed to be uniform. It is different from earthquake-generating geological structures such as faults or folds. It is an area or a zone where earthquakes diffusely occur but no specific geological structure is identified to be responsible for those earthquakes. The terminology, a seismotectonic province is originated from a tectonic province of U.S. federal code, with emphasis on earthquakes. The seismotectonic province is called the seismogenic source in the regulatory guides of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the zone of diffuse seismicity in a guide of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In Korea, existing seismotectonic province maps were constructed based on the geological information due to insufficient earthquake data. As understood in its name, however, a seismotectonic province map should be based on the seismic information. Moreover, it should be noted that the Korean (geologic) tectonic structures cannot correctly represent the current tectonic regime because they were formed before the Cenozoic. In this context, we attempted to construct a seismotectonic province map by using seismic and geophysical information as well as geologic information

  16. Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other meteorological and socioeconomic factors, malaria (odds ratio [OR] = 3.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.77–7.61), diarrhea (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.24–3.78), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (OR = 6.11, 95% CI = 1.04–35.84) were significantly related to the 2007 Huai River flood both from the spatial and temporal analyses. Special attention should be given to develop public health preparation and interventions with a focus on malaria, diarrhea, and HAV infection, in the study region. PMID:26903612

  17. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  18. Trends in prevalence of clonorchiasis among patients in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (2009-2012: implications for monitoring and control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. Past estimates showed the prevalence increased based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. However, control strategies, changing ecology and migration may have resulted to changes in the prevalence of clonorchiasis. The purpose of the present study was to analysis the prevalence and epidemiological characterisation of clonorchiasis in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4951 clinically suspected outpatients were examined from January 2009 to December 2012. Overall prevalence of clonorchiasis was 25.93% (1284/4951 by the combination strategy of the Kato-Katz technique (KK and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with a significant increase from 22.53% in 2009 to 34.25% in 2012. Apart from Daxinganling city, clonorchiasis was reported throughout Heilongjiang Province and mainly along the Songhua River and Nen River basin, with an increased annual prevalence. The annual prevalence in men increased significantly in 2012 and was higher than that in women over 4 years. A similar pattern was seen for the annual infection rate in rural and urban areas. Farm labourers accounted for the majority of cases (65.93%, with a higher prevalence than in other occupations. Consumption of freshwater fish was considered the strongest risk factor of clonorchiasis. The infection rates in the 40-49 and 50-59 years age groups showed a significant increasing trend in 2012. Cases of re-infection were common. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study revealed that clonorchiasis remained widespread and prevalent in Heilongjiang Province. An integrated control programme is urgently needed to reduce the public health impact of clonorchiasis in this endemic area.

  19. Spatial analysis of Schistosomiasis in Hubei Province, China: a GIS-based analysis of Schistosomiasis from 2009 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Chen

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic areas are located in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, particularly in areas along the middle and low reach of the Yangtze River. Spatial analytical techniques are often used in epidemiology to identify spatial clusters in disease regions. This study assesses the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and explores high-risk regions in Hubei Province, China to provide guidance on schistosomiasis control in marshland regions.In this study, spatial autocorrelation methodologies, including global Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics, were utilized to describe and map spatial clusters and areas where human Schistosoma japonicum infection is prevalent at the county level in Hubei province. In addition, linear logistic regression model was used to determine the characteristics of spatial autocorrelation with time.The infection rates of S. japonicum decreased from 2009 to 2013. The global autocorrelation analysis results on the infection rate of S. japonicum for five years showed statistical significance (Moran's I > 0, P < 0.01, which suggested that spatial clusters were present in the distribution of S. japonicum infection from 2009 to 2013. Local autocorrelation analysis results showed that the number of highly aggregated areas ranged from eight to eleven within the five-year analysis period. The highly aggregated areas were mainly distributed in eight counties.The spatial distribution of human S. japonicum infections did not exhibit a temporal change at the county level in Hubei Province. The risk factors that influence human S. japonicum transmission may not have changed after achieving the national criterion of infection control. The findings indicated that spatial-temporal surveillance of S. japonicum transmission plays a significant role on schistosomiasis control. Timely and integrated prevention should be continued, especially in the Yangtze

  20. Primary syphilis cases in Guangdong Province 1995-2008: opportunities for linking syphilis control and regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Gang; Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Bin; Shen, Song-Ying; Sun, Xi-Feng; Chen, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2010-12-30

    Syphilis cases have risen in many parts of China, with developed regions reporting the greatest share of cases. Since syphilis increases in these areas are likely driven by both increased screening and changes in sexual behaviours, distinguishing between these two factors is important. Examining municipal-level primary syphilis cases with spatial analysis allows a more direct understanding of changing sexual behaviours at a more policy-relevant level. In this study we examined all reported primary syphilis cases from Guangdong Province, a southern province in China, since the disease was first incorporated into the mandatory reporting system in 1995. Spatial autocorrelation statistics were used to correlate municipal-level clustering of reported primary syphilis cases and gross domestic product (GDP). A total of 52,036 primary syphilis cases were reported over the period 1995-2008, and the primary syphilis cases increased from 0.88 per 100,000 population in 1995 to 7.61 per 100,000 in 2008. The Pearl River Delta region has a disproportionate share (44.7%) of syphilis cases compared to other regions. Syphilis cases were spatially clustered (p = 0.01) and Moran's I analysis found that syphilis cases were clustered in municipalities with higher GDP (p = 0.004). Primary syphilis cases continue to increase in Guangdong Province, especially in the Pearl River Delta region. Considering the economic impact of syphilis and its tendency to spatially cluster, expanded syphilis testing in specific municipalities and further investigating the costs and benefits of syphilis screening are critical next steps.

  1. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1994-03-01

    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  2. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  3. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  4. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  5. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  7. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  8. Optimization of the scheme for natural ecology planning of urban rivers based on ANP (analytic network process) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichuan; Wang, Jiangping

    2015-07-01

    Rivers serve as a highly valued component in ecosystem and urban infrastructures. River planning should follow basic principles of maintaining or reconstructing the natural landscape and ecological functions of rivers. Optimization of planning scheme is a prerequisite for successful construction of urban rivers. Therefore, relevant studies on optimization of scheme for natural ecology planning of rivers is crucial. In the present study, four planning schemes for Zhaodingpal River in Xinxiang City, Henan Province were included as the objects for optimization. Fourteen factors that influenced the natural ecology planning of urban rivers were selected from five aspects so as to establish the ANP model. The data processing was done using Super Decisions software. The results showed that important degree of scheme 3 was highest. A scientific, reasonable and accurate evaluation of schemes could be made by ANP method on natural ecology planning of urban rivers. This method could be used to provide references for sustainable development and construction of urban rivers. ANP method is also suitable for optimization of schemes for urban green space planning and design.

  9. Application of HEC-RAS for flood forecasting in perched river-A case study of hilly region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Wang, Shuqian; Gan, Hong; Liu, Bin; Jia, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Flooding in small and medium rivers are seriously threatening the safety of human beings’ life and property. The simulation forecasting of the river flood and bank risk in hilly region has gradually become a hotspot. At present, there are few studies on the simulation of hilly perched river, especially in the case of lacking section flow data. And the method of how to determine the position of the levee breach along the river bank is not much enough. Based on the characteristics of the sections in hilly perched river, an attempt is applied in this paper which establishes the correlation between the flow profile computed by HEC-RAS model and the river bank. A hilly perched river in Lingshi County, Shanxi Province of China, is taken as the study object, the levee breach positions along the bank are simulated under four different design storm. The results show that the flood control standard of upper reach is high, which can withstand the design storm of 100 years. The current standard of lower reach is low, which is the flooding channel with high frequency. As the standard of current channel between the 2rd and the 11th section is low, levee along that channel of the river bank is considered to be heighten and reinforced. The study results can provide some technical support for flood proofing in hilly region and some reference for the reinforcement of river bank.

  10. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  11. Magnetic Characterization of Sand and Boulder Samples from Citarum River and Their Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarningsih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Citarum River is a nationally strategic river located near Bandung, the capital city of West Java Province. The feasibility of using magnetic methods for monitoring pollution level is currently being tested in the river. Due to its location in a volcanic area, the sediments from the river are expected to be highly magnetic. In this study, sand and boulder samples from Balekambang, a relatively pristine upstream area of the river, were subjected to magnetic and geochemical characterizations to establish the baseline for unpolluted sediments. Such baseline is important for future magnetic monitoring of sediments in the river. The mass-specific magnetic susceptibility of boulder samples was found to be varied from 819.2 to 2340.5 × 10-8m3 kg-1 while that of sand samples varied from 2293.9 to 3845.3 × 10-8m3 kg-1. These high magnetic susceptibility values infer that river sediments are highly magnetic even before being contaminated by industrial and household wastes. The predominant magnetic mineral in sand samples was multi-domain magnetite while that in boulder samples was single to pseudo-single domain magnetite. These differences were supported by the results from petrographic and XRF analyses, implying that the sand and boulder samples originated from different geological formations.

  12. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  13. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  14. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  15. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  16. Lagoa Real uranium province - The History of an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1982-01-01

    It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.) [pt

  17. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  18. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  19. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  20. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  1. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  2. Late Mesolithic hunting of a small female aurochs in the valley of the River Tjonger (the Netherlands) in the light of Mesolithic aurochs hunting in NW Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, W.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.

    The valley of the River Tjonger, situated in the Province of Friesland (the Netherlands), is rich in prehistoric organic remains. The fill of the valley, consisting of waterlogged sediments (peat, gyttja and sands), presents favourable conditions for the preservation of bone, antler and botanical

  3. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Sepideh Peivandi; Narges Moslemizadeh; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable bir...

  4. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  5. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 ...

  6. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  7. Public environmental awareness of water pollution from urban growth: The case of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers in Rasht, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorhosseini, Seyyed Ali; Allahyari, Mohammad Sadegh; Damalas, Christos A; Moghaddam, Sina Siavash

    2017-12-01

    Rivers in urban areas have been associated with water quality problems because of the practice of discharging untreated domestic and industrial waste into the water bodies. However, to what extent the public can identify specific environmental problems and whether people are ready to cope with potential risks is to a great extent unknown. Public environmental awareness of factors underpinning the pollution of rivers and approaches for reducing it were studied in Rasht City of Guilan Province in northern Iran, with Zarjub and Goharrud rivers as a case study. Data were collected from residents on the banks of the studied rivers using a questionnaire. Industrial areas, hospitals, and poultry farms were perceived as the main factors deteriorating water pollution of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers in Guilan Province. The discharge of urban sewage into the rivers was the second most important polluting factor. Most residents on the banks of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers showed high interest in the conservation of the environment. Overall, 62.7% of the residents had moderate, 20% had high, and 4% had very high environmental awareness. Families and mass media (TV and radio) were perceived of being the most important sources of information of family members concerning environmental awareness. According to the residents, the main approach for alleviating the pollution of Zarjub and Goharrud rivers were creating green spaces, dredging the rivers, establishing a water purifying system, and establishing a waste incinerator with a separation system (based on municipal planning). The public in the study area appeared well prepared to cope with the risks of water pollution, but further improving environmental awareness of the community can be a first step for preventing environmental degradation. The positive attitudes of the residents towards environmental conservation, the use of proper information sources, and practical training in the context of extension services can be effective in

  8. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  9. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  10. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  11. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  12. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... this massive reconstruction work, which involved moving more than 2,7 million cubic meters of earth, cause a lot of ‘dissonance’ among the local population, the resulting ‘nature’ and its dynamic processes are also constantly compromising the preferred image of the restored landscape (Clemmensen 2014......). The presentation offers insight into an on-going research and development project - Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual, which question existing trends and logics within nature restoration. The project explores how the Skjern River Delta could have been ‘restored’ with a greater sensibility for its cultural...

  13. Effect of Construction Land Expansion on Energy-Related Carbon Emissions: Empirical Analysis of China and Its Provinces from 2001 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuankai Deng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction land expansion significantly affects energy-related carbon emissions. This paper analyzed the effect of construction land expansion on energy-related carbon emissions in China and its provinces from 2001 to 2011 by using the logarithmic mean Divisia index method. We divided the study into two intervals (2001–2006 and 2006–2011 and categorized the 30 provinces of China into eight zones. Results indicated that construction land expansion exerted the second largest positive effect on carbon emission growth in China and in the 30 provinces from 2001 to 2011. The north, east, and south coastal regions as well as the middle Yellow River region, were the highly affected regions in the same period. Between the two study intervals, the effect of construction land expansion on carbon emissions decreased in China and in the coastal regions, but increased in inland regions. The Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Yunnan, Chongqing, Ningxia, and Xinjiang provinces, which are concentrated in the north, east, and south coastal regions, were selected for the reduction of carbon emissions by controlling construction land expansion.

  14. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  15. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  16. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  17. [Hydrologic processes of the different landscape zones in Fenhe River headwater catchment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Gang; Li, Cai-Mei; Qin, Zuo-Dong; Zou, Song-Bing

    2014-06-01

    There are few studies on the hydrologic processes of the landscape zone scales at present. Since the water environment is worsening, there is sharp contradiction between supply and demand of water resources in Shanxi province. The principle of the hydrologic processes of the landscape zones in Fenhe River headwater catchment was revealed by means of isotope tracing, hydrology geological exploration and water chemical signal study. The results showed that the subalpine meadow zone and the medium high mountain forest zone were main runoff formation regions in Fenhe River headwater catchment, while the sparse forest shrub zone and the mountain grassland zone lagged the temporal and spatial collection of the precipitation. Fenhe River water was mainly recharged by precipitation, groundwater, melt water of snow and frozen soil. This study suggested that the whole catchment precipitation hardly directly generated surface runoff, but was mostly transformed into groundwater or interflow, and finally concentrated into river channel, completed the "recharge-runoff-discharge" hydrologic processes. This study can provide scientific basis and reference for the containment of water environment deterioration, and is expected to deliver the comprehensive restoration of clear-water reflowing and the ecological environment in Shanxi province.

  18. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer; Saes, Gerson Souza; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  19. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  20. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  1. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  2. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T. H.; Yin, Z.; Song, Y. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  3. Water Quality Assessment Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Saigon River and Its Tributaries, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Pham Anh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study to enhance the discussion about the usefulness of benthic macroinvertebrates for water quality assessment in Saigon River and its tributaries. Data from 16 sites were used as a representative example for Saigon River and its tributaries in the area of basin over 4,500 km2, the length through provinces of Tay Ninh, Binh Phuoc, Binh Duong, and Ho Chi Minh City of about 280 km. The data covered the period of dry and rainy seasons in 2015, the survey sampled 16 sites (32 events of the Saigon River and its tributaries selected. To implement this evaluation, the analyses were based on MRC methods and classifications these improved by the scientific group.

  4. Research on monitoring system of water resources in Shiyang River Basin based on Multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T h; Yin, Z; Song, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    The Shiyang River Basin is the most populous, economy relatively develop, the highest degree of development and utilization of water resources, water conflicts the most prominent, ecological environment problems of the worst hit areas in Hexi inland river basin in Gansu province. the contradiction between people and water is aggravated constantly in the basin. This text combines multi-Agent technology with monitoring system of water resource, the establishment of a management center, telemetry Agent Federation, as well as the communication network between the composition of the Shiyang River Basin water resources monitoring system. By taking advantage of multi-agent system intelligence and communications coordination to improve the timeliness of the basin water resources monitoring.

  5. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  6. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sharkov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large igneous provinces (LIPs formed by mantle superplume events have irreversibly changed their composition in the geological evolution of the Earth from high-Mg melts (during Archean and early Paleoproterozoic to Phanerozoic-type geochemically enriched Fe-Ti basalts and picrites at 2.3 Ga. We propose that this upheaval could be related to the change in the source and nature of the mantle superplumes of different generations. The first generation plumes were derived from the depleted mantle, whereas the second generation (thermochemical originated from the core-mantle boundary (CMB. This study mainly focuses on the second (Phanerozoic type of LIPs, as exemplified by the mid-Paleoproterozoic Jatulian–Ludicovian LIP in the Fennoscandian Shield, the Permian–Triassic Siberian LIP, and the late Cenozoic flood basalts of Syria. The latter LIP contains mantle xenoliths represented by green and black series. These xenoliths are fragments of cooled upper margins of the mantle plume heads, above zones of adiabatic melting, and provide information about composition of the plume material and processes in the plume head. Based on the previous studies on the composition of the mantle xenoliths in within-plate basalts around the world, it is inferred that the heads of the mantle (thermochemical plumes are made up of moderately depleted spinel peridotites (mainly lherzolites and geochemically-enriched intergranular fluid/melt. Further, it is presumed that the plume heads intrude the mafic lower crust and reach up to the bottom of the upper crust at depths ∼20 km. The generation of two major types of mantle-derived magmas (alkali and tholeiitic basalts was previously attributed to the processes related to different PT-parameters in the adiabatic melting zone whereas this study relates to the fluid regime in the plume heads. It is also suggested that a newly-formed melt can occur on different sides of a critical plane of silica undersaturation and can

  7. A new family programme in Zhejiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B

    1994-04-01

    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of

  8. Geomorphic classification of rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Buffington; D. R. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, environmental legislation and a growing awareness of historical human disturbance to rivers worldwide (Schumm, 1977; Collins et al., 2003; Surian and Rinaldi, 2003; Nilsson et al., 2005; Chin, 2006; Walter and Merritts, 2008) have fostered unprecedented collaboration among scientists, land managers, and stakeholders to better understand,...

  9. Savannah River Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a monthly progress report from the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of January 1993. It has sections with work in the areas of reactor safety, tritium processes and absorption, separations programs and wastes, environmental concerns and responses, waste management practices, and general concerns

  10. Alligator Rivers Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the Alligator Rivers Region is presented. It contains general information regarding the physiography, climate, hydrology and mining of the region. The Alligator Rivers Region is within an ancient basin, the Pine Creek Geosyncline, which has an area of approximately 66000 km 2 . The Geosyncline has a history of mineral exploitation dating back to 1865, during which time 16 metals have been extracted (silver, arsenic, gold, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tin, tantalum, uranium, tungsten, zinc). Uranium exploration in the Pine Creek Geosyncline was stimulated by the discovery in 1949 of secondary uranium mineralisation near Rum June, 70 km south-east of Darwin. This was followed by a decade of intense exploration activity resulting in the discoveries of economic uranium ore bodies at Rum Jungle and in the upper reaches of the South Alligator River Valley. All the known major uranium deposits of the East Alligator River uranium field have been discovered since 1969. The present known resources of the Geosyncline are approximately 360 000 tonnes of contained U 3 O 8 . 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Discover the Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Bordering on the Fantastic. As the longest river on earth, the Nile passes through 10 countries. Presented through a wide range of activities and a winning array of games, it's also unsurpassed at taking young minds into exploring the world of water, as well as natural and man made wonders.

  12. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers that...

  13. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in an artificial urban river receiving WWTP effluent in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Tao, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Kuiyu; Yuan, Zhenghao; Wu, Qianyuan; Zhang, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as reclaimed water provides an alternative water resource for urban rivers and effluent will pose a significant influence on the water quality of rivers. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in XZ River, an artificial urban river in Shenzhen city, Guangdong Province, China, after receiving reclaimed water from WWTP effluent. The water samples were collected monthly at different sites of XZ River from April 2013 to September 2014. Multivariate statistical techniques and a box-plot were used to assess the variations of water quality and to identify the main pollution factor. The results showed the input of WWTP effluent could effectively increase dissolved oxygen, decrease turbidity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of XZ River. However, total nitrogen and nitrate pollution loads were found to remain at higher levels after receiving reclaimed water, which might aggravate eutrophication status of XZ River. Organic pollution load exhibited the lowest value on the 750 m downstream of XZ River, while turbidity and nutrient load showed the lowest values on the 2,300 m downstream. There was a higher load of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the dry season and at the beginning of wet season.

  14. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K.; Wysoczanski, R.

    1999-01-01

    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D 1 -D 4 ) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S 2 on the rims of D 4 porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D 4 emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D 2 -D 4 ) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 ± 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D 2 for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. River water pollution condition in upper part of Brantas River and Bengawan Solo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosmini, D.; Septiono, M. A.; Putri, N. E.; Shabrina, H. M.; Salami, I. R. S.; Ariesyady, H. D.

    2018-01-01

    Wastewater and solid waste from both domestic and industry have been known to give burden on river water quality. Most of river water quality problem in Indonesia has start in the upper part of river due to anthropogenic activities, due to inappropriate land use management including the poor wastewater infrastructure. Base on Upper Citarum River Water pollution problem, it is interesting to study the other main river in Java Island. Bengawan Solo River and Brantas River were chosen as the sample in this study. Parameters assessed in this study are as follows: TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and hexavalent chromium. The status of river water quality are assess using STORET method. Based on (five) parameters, STORET value showed that in Brantas River, Pagerluyung monitoring point had the worst quality relatively compared to other monitoring point in Brantas River with exceeding copper, lead and tin compared to the stream standard in East Java Provincial Regulation No. 2 in 2008. Brantas River was categorized as lightly polluted river based on monitoring period 2011-2015 in 5 monitoring points, namely Pendem, Sengguruh, Kademangan, Meritjan and Kertosono.

  16. A spatial analysis of county-level variation in syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas X Tan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI have made a resurgence in many rapidly developing regions of southern China, but there is little understanding of the social changes that contribute to this spatial distribution of STI. This study examines county-level socio-demographic characteristics associated with syphilis and gonorrhea in Guangdong Province.This study uses linear regression and spatial lag regression to determine county-level (n = 97 socio-demographic characteristics associated with a greater burden of syphilis, gonorrhea, and a combined syphilis/gonorrhea index. Data were obtained from the 2005 China Population Census and published public health data. A range of socio-demographic variables including gross domestic product, the Gender Empowerment Measure, standard of living, education level, migrant population and employment are examined. Reported syphilis and gonorrhea cases are disproportionately clustered in the Pearl River Delta, the central region of Guangdong Province. A higher fraction of employed men among the adult population, higher fraction of divorced men among the adult population, and higher standard of living (based on water availability and people per room are significantly associated with higher STI cases across all three models. Gross domestic product and gender inequality measures are not significant predictors of reported STI in these models.Although many ecological studies of STIs have found poverty to be associated with higher reported STI, this analysis found a greater number of reported syphilis cases in counties with a higher standard of living. Spatially targeted syphilis screening measures in regions with a higher standard of living may facilitate successful control efforts. This analysis also reinforces the importance of changing male sexual behaviors as part of a comprehensive response to syphilis control in China.

  17. Holocene compression in the Acequión valley (Andes Precordillera, San Juan province, Argentina): Geomorphic, tectonic, and paleoseismic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard, M.; Franck, A.; Perucca, L.; Laura, P.; Pantano, Ana; Avila, Carlos R.; Onorato, M. Romina; Vargas, Horacio N.; Alvarado, Patricia; Viete, Hewart

    2016-04-01

    The Matagusanos-Maradona-Acequión Valley sits within the Andes Precordillera fold-thrust belt of western Argentina. It is an elongated topographic depression bounded by the roughly N-S trending Precordillera Central and Oriental in the San Juan Province. Moreover, it is not a piggy-back basin as we could have expected between two ranges belonging to a fold-thrust belt, but a very active tectonic corridor coinciding with a thick-skinned triangular zone, squeezed between two different tectonic domains. The two domains converge, where the Precordillera Oriental has been incorporated to the Sierras Pampeanas province, becoming the western leading edge of the west-verging broken foreland Sierras Pampeanas domain. This latter province has been in turn incorporated into the active deformation framework of the Andes back-arc at these latitudes as a result of enhanced coupling between the converging plates due to the subduction of the Juan Fernández ridge that flattens the Nazca slab under the South American continent. This study focuses on the neotectonics of the southern tip of this N-S elongated depression, known as Acequión (from the homonym river that crosses the area), between the Del Agua and Los Pozos rivers. This depression dies out against the transversely oriented Precordillera Sur, which exhibits a similar tectonic style as Precordillera Occidental and Central (east-verging fold-thrust belt). This contribution brings supporting evidence of the ongoing deformation during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene of the triangular zone bounded between the two leading and converging edges of Precordillera Central and Oriental thrust fronts, recorded in a multi-episodic lake sequence of the Acequión and Nikes rivers. The herein gathered evidence comprise Late Pleistocene-Holocene landforms of active thrusting, fault kinematics (micro-tectonic) data and outcrop-scale (meso-tectonic) faulting and folding of recent lake and alluvial sequences. In addition, seismically

  18. The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025.

  19. Spatial distribution of cancer in Kohgilooyeh and Boyerahmad province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fararouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of cancer is one of the powerful tools in epidemiology of cancer. The present study is designed to understand the geographical distribution of most frequent types of cancer in K&B province. Methods: All registered cases of cancer are reviewed and duplicate cases were removed. The data was analyzed using Arcgis software. Results: Of all registered cases, 1273  remained for analysis of which 57% were residences of urban areas. Cities including  Sisakht, Yasuj and Dehdsasht were shown to have highest incidence rates among the Urban areas. Dena, Sepidar and Kohmare Khaleghi had the highest rates among the rural areas in the province. Skin cancer was the most common type of cancer which had the highest rates of incidence in Sisakht and Dehdasht and Dena and Sepidar among urban and rural areas respectively. Conclusion: The distribution of cancer was not even in the province. Attitude and consumption of wild and regional plants are introduced as the potential risk factors for such a spatial distribution of the common cancers I the province. The results of this study could be used for further analytical studies to understand the regional etiology of cancer in the province.

  20. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thanh Long

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1 there are seven key factors affecting the satisfaction of the tourists, including: spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage, natural environment, service prices and tourism infrastructure; and (2 revisit intention of tourists is affected by six factors, including: satisfaction, spirituality, tourism safety and security, people, food and beverage and service prices. Among them, spirituality is a new factor to be thoughtfully considered due to its significant influence on both the tourist satisfaction and revisit intention. From these findings, we proposed some managerial implications for the sustainable development of rural tourism in An Giang Province by enhancing the satisfaction and revisit intention of the tourists after they visit the province.

  1. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  2. Outbreaks of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in the Yangtze River Delta: immigration or local reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gao; Lu, Fang; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Xi

    2014-01-01

    An effective control strategy for migratory pests is difficult to implement because the cause of infestation (i.e., immigration or local reproduction) is often not established. In particular, the outbreak mechanisms of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), an insect causing massive losses in rice fields in the Yangtze River Delta in China, are frequently unclear. Field surveys of N. lugens were performed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in 2008 to 2010 and related historical data from 2003 onwards were collected and analyzed to clarify the cause of these infestations. Results showed that outbreaks of N. lugens in the Yangtze River Delta were mostly associated with an extremely high increase in population. Thus, reproduction rather than immigration from distant sources were the cause of the infestations. Although mass migration occurred late in the season (late August and early September), the source areas of N. lugens catches in the Yangtze River Delta were mainly located in nearby areas, including the Yangtze River Delta itself, Anhui and northern Jiangxi Provinces. These regions collectively form the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the late migration can thus be considered as an internal bioflow within one population.

  3. Risk and toxicity assessments of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jie; Hu, Xin; Tao, Xiancong; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution is one of the most serous environmental issues globally. To evaluate the metal pollution in Jiangsu Province of China, the total concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and fishes from the Yangtze River and Taihu Lake were analyzed. Ecological risk of sediments and human health risk of fish consumption were assessed respectively. Furthermore, toxicity of samples on expression of the stress responsive genes was evaluated using microbial live cell-array method. The results showed that the heavy metals concentrations in sediments from the Yangtze River were much higher than those in sediments from the Taihu Lake. However, the fishes from the Taihu Lake had higher concentrations of heavy metals than fishes from the Yangtze River. Ecological risk evaluation showed that the heavy metal contaminants in sediments from the Yangtze River posed higher risk of adverse ecological effects, while sediments from the study areas of Taihu Lake were relatively safe. Health risk assessment suggested that the heavy metals in fishes of both Yangtze River and Taihu Lake might have risk of adverse health effects to human. The toxicity assessment indicated that the heavy metals in these sediments and fishes showed transcriptional effects on the selected 21 stress responsive genes, which were involved in the pathways of DNA damage response, chemical stress, and perturbations of electron transport. Together, this field investigation combined with chemical analysis, risk assessment and toxicity bioassay would provide useful information on the heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibiogram, Adhesive Characteristics, and Incidence of Class 1 Integron in Aeromonas Species Isolated from Two South African Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoken H. Igbinosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are well distributed in freshwater environments, and their natural susceptibility to antimicrobials renders them interesting candidates for the survey of antimicrobial resistance in freshwater milieu. Water samples were collected from Kat and Tyume rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, and a total of 45 isolates identified as Aeromonas species were recovered from the two rivers. All Aeromonas isolates were resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, clindamycin, cephalothin, vancomycin, and rifamycin, while appreciable susceptibilities (89.3 : 94.1%, 82.1 : 94.1%, 85.7 : 88.2%, and 92.9 : 88.2% were observed against ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin from Kat and Tyume rivers, respectively. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR indices ranged from 0.016 to 0.044 for the two rivers. Class 1 integron was detected in about 20% of the isolates, and all the isolates except one showed ability to produce biofilm in vitro as weak producers (53.33%, moderate producers (15.56%, and strong producers (28.9%. This investigation provides a baseline data on antibiotic resistance as well as the adhesive characteristics of Aeromonas isolates from Tyume and Kat rivers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.

  5. Outbreaks of the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in the Yangtze River Delta: Immigration or Local Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hong; Liu, Wan-Cai; Zhu, Feng; Wu, Xiang-Wen; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Xi

    2014-01-01

    An effective control strategy for migratory pests is difficult to implement because the cause of infestation (i.e., immigration or local reproduction) is often not established. In particular, the outbreak mechanisms of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), an insect causing massive losses in rice fields in the Yangtze River Delta in China, are frequently unclear. Field surveys of N. lugens were performed in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces in 2008 to 2010 and related historical data from 2003 onwards were collected and analyzed to clarify the cause of these infestations. Results showed that outbreaks of N. lugens in the Yangtze River Delta were mostly associated with an extremely high increase in population. Thus, reproduction rather than immigration from distant sources were the cause of the infestations. Although mass migration occurred late in the season (late August and early September), the source areas of N. lugens catches in the Yangtze River Delta were mainly located in nearby areas, including the Yangtze River Delta itself, Anhui and northern Jiangxi Provinces. These regions collectively form the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the late migration can thus be considered as an internal bioflow within one population. PMID:24558459

  6. Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    More than 40 percent of California's drinking water is from groundwater. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province (hereinafter referred to as San Diego) is one of the study units being evaluated. The San Diego study unit is approximately 3,900 square miles and consists of the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and 12 other alluvial basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The study unit also consists of all areas outside defined groundwater basins that are within 3 kilometers of a public-supply well. The study unit was separated, based primarily on hydrogeologic settings, into four study areas: Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, Alluvial Basins, and Hard Rock (Wright and others, 2005). The sampling density for the Hard Rock study area, which consists of areas outside of groundwater basins, was much lower than for the other study areas. Consequently, aquifer proportions for the Hard Rock study area are not used to calculate the aquifer proportions shown by the pie charts. An assessment of groundwater quality for the Hard Rock study area can be found in Wright and Belitz, 2011. The temperatures in the coastal part of the study unit are mild with dry summers, moist winters, and an average annual rainfall of about 10 inches. The temperatures in the mountainous eastern part of the study unit are cooler than in the coastal part, with an annual precipitation of about 45 inches that occurs mostly in the winter. The primary aquifers consist of Quaternary-age alluvium and weathered bedrock in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas, whereas in the Hard Rock study area the primary aquifers consist mainly of fractured and

  7. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  8. Tracking suspended particle transport via radium isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) through the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Richard N.; Burnett, William C.; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Santos, Isaac R.; Misra, Sambuddha; Froelich, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can carry metals, nutrients, and pollutants downstream which can become bioactive in estuaries and coastal marine waters. In river systems with multiple sources of both suspended particles and contamination sources, it is important to assess the hydrologic conditions under which contaminated particles can be delivered to downstream ecosystems. The Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint (ACF) River system in the southeastern United States represents an ideal system to study these hydrologic impacts on particle transport through a heavily-impacted river (the Chattahoochee River) and one much less impacted by anthropogenic activities (the Flint River). We demonstrate here the utility of natural radioisotopes as tracers of suspended particles through the ACF system, where particles contaminated with arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) have been shown to be contributed from coal-fired power plants along the Chattahoochee River, and have elevated concentrations in the surficial sediments of the Apalachicola Bay Delta. Radium isotopes ( 228 Ra and 226 Ra) on suspended particles should vary throughout the different geologic provinces of this river system, allowing differentiation of the relative contributions of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers to the suspended load delivered to Lake Seminole, the Apalachicola River, and ultimately to Apalachicola Bay. We also use various geochemical proxies ( 40 K, organic carbon, and calcium) to assess the relative composition of suspended particles (lithogenic, organic, and carbonate fractions, respectively) under a range of hydrologic conditions. During low (base) flow conditions, the Flint River contributed 70% of the suspended particle load to both the Apalachicola River and the bay, whereas the Chattahoochee River became the dominant source during higher discharge, contributing 80% of the suspended load to the Apalachicola River and 62% of the particles entering the estuary. Neither of these hydrologic

  9. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  10. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  11. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  12. The Emeishan large igneous province: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gregory Shellnutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The late Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP covers ∼0.3 × 106 km2 of the western margin of the Yangtze Block and Tibetan Plateau with displaced, correlative units in northern Vietnam (Song Da zone. The ELIP is of particular interest because it contains numerous world-class base metal deposits and is contemporaneous with the late Capitanian (∼260 Ma mass extinction. The flood basalts are the signature feature of the ELIP but there are also ultramafic and silicic volcanic rocks and layered mafic-ultramafic and silicic plutonic rocks exposed. The ELIP is divided into three nearly concentric zones (i.e. inner, middle and outer which correspond to progressively thicker crust from the inner to the outer zone. The eruptive age of the ELIP is constrained by geological, paleomagnetic and geochronological evidence to an interval of ≤3 Ma. The presence of picritic rocks and thick piles of flood basalts testifies to high temperature thermal regime however there is uncertainty as to whether these magmas were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle or sub-lithospheric mantle (i.e. asthenosphere or mantle plume sources or both. The range of Sr (ISr ≈ 0.7040–0.7132, Nd (ɛNd(t ≈ −14 to +8, Pb (206Pb/204Pb1 ≈ 17.9–20.6 and Os (γOs ≈ −5 to +11 isotope values of the ultramafic and mafic rocks does not permit a conclusive answer to ultimate source origin of the primitive rocks but it is clear that some rocks were affected by crustal contamination and the presence of near-depleted isotope compositions suggests that there is a sub-lithospheric mantle component in the system. The silicic rocks are derived by basaltic magmas/rocks through fractional crystallization or partial melting, crustal melting or by interactions between mafic and crustal melts. The formation of the Fe-Ti-V oxide-ore deposits is probably due to a combination of fractional crystallization of Ti-rich basalt and fluxing of CO2-rich fluids

  13. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  14. Location Selection for Hardboard Industry in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an optimum framework for hardboard industry location selection in Mazandaran Province. Considering the existence of only two depreciated hardboard plants with very old technology in Iran, the establishment of new plants are vital. To materialize this goal, Mazandaran province enjoys priorities to other provinces based on its resources of raw lignocellulosic materials required for wood and paper industries. The model presented in this article uses AHP benefit/cost ratios. The results indicate that the criterion of ‘material and production’ with a weight of 0.327 and the sub-criterion of ‘reliability of supply’ with a weight of 0.146 have the highest priorities, and the city of Sari is the best alternative.

  15. Reference dose levels for dental periapical radiography in Chonnam Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Seo [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Chonnan National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hee [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To establish reference doses of periapical radiography in Chonnam Province, Korea. The target-skin distances were measured for dental patient's 1235 exposures including 345 mandibular molar areas. Each periapical radiation exposure was simulated with exactly the same patients exposure parameters and the simulated radiation doses were measured utilizing Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billadal, Sweden). The measurements were done in 44 dental clinics with 49 dental x-ray sets in Chonnam Province for one or two weeks at each dental clinic during year 2006. The third quartile patient surface doses were 2.8 mGy for overall periapical exposures and 3.2 mGy for periapical mandibular molar exposures. The third quartile patient surface doses in Chonnam Province can be used as a guide to accepted clinical practice to reduce patient radiation exposure for the surveyed reference doses were below the recommended dental periapical radiography dose of 7 mGy by IAEA.

  16. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  17. Investing for upgrading: the emergence of financial system of science and technology in China’s Pearl River Delta

    OpenAIRE

    XIAODONG WANG; CHRISTOF MORSCHER

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the recent reform policy in China on setting up new financial system for supporting science and technology innovation. Based on the financial sector development in the Pearl River Delta in China’s Guangdong Province, especially Guangzhou, one pilot city of Chinese Science and Technology Financial System Reform, the article analyses the problems in financial system and makes some suggestion on how to restructure the financial system to meet the financial need of local em...

  18. Measurement and Prediction of Regional Tourism Sustainability: An Analysis of the Yangtze River Economic Zone, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canmian Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of sustainable development of tourism, this paper firstly constructs a more comprehensive and scientific index system from the economical/societal/resource-related/environmental aspects of tourism and evaluates the sustainable and comprehensive development level of tourism in 11 provinces and cities of the Yangtze River economic zone by using the weighted TOPSIS (The Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution method; secondly, it analyzes the coupling coordination evolution relationship between tourism and the economy/society/resources/environment in different provinces and cities of the Yangtze river economic zone based on the coupling coordination model from the spatio-temporal dimension; and finally, it predicts the coupling coordination degree of the provinces and cities in the region in the next few years by the grey model (1,1 and puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference to the study on the sustainable development of tourism and is very significant for learning the sustainable development of regional tourism and establishing specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  19. Sapucai River Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, A.L.; Rosa, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Sapucai River Project is a gold, ilmenite, monazite and zircon alluvial deposit. It is located on Sapucai River valley in the south of Minas Gerais State. The reserves are 28.000.000 m 3 of pay bed. The production will be 1.400.000 m 3 /year and the mine's life 20 years. A cutterhead suction dredge will do the overburden removal. The pay bed will be mined with an underwater bucket-wheel dredge. The ROM will be concentrated in a washing plant. The gold will be recovered by leaching method. The other heavy minerals will be recovered by electrostatic, magnetic and gravitic methods. SAMITRI believes that it's possible to implant and operate the Project without ecological damage. (author) [pt

  20. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  1. Heat dispersion in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.L.

    1974-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Sonderforschungsbereich 80 is to study the dispersion of heat discharged into rivers and other bodies of water and to develop methods which permit prediction of detrimental effects caused by the heated discharges. In order to help the SFB 80 to specify this task, Dr. Shaw, lecturer of Civil Engineering at the Bristol University, conducted a literature survey on heat-dispersion studies during the two months which he spent as a visiting research fellow with the SFB 80 at the University of Karlsruhe in the summer of 1973. The following report is the outcome of this survey. It gives Dr. Shaw's assessment of the present state of knowledge - based almost exclusively on literature in the English language - and compares this with the knowledge required by river planners. The apparent discrepancy leads to suggestions for future research. Selected references as well as a representative bibliography can be found at the end of the report. (orig.) [de

  2. Feasibility analysis of nuclear power development in Sichuan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qi; Li Jie

    2003-01-01

    Sichuan province should take this opportunity to develop nuclear power actively since the application of nuclear power has been enhanced worldwide. It is accepted that nuclear power is one kind of safe and clean energy, and the economic has been improved greatly. Considering the electricity demands and structure conflict in near 20 years, nuclear power could solve the problem of electricity shortness in Sichuan, optimize the electricity structure and meliorate the environment, and thus maintain the sustainable development of the economy in Sichuan Province

  3. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  4. The Analysis on Leading industries in Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyani Irmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for identifying the types of industriesthat become leading industries in Central Java Province. The methods, used are LQ (SLQ and DLQ and Shift Share. The result of this research shows that the the leading industries in Central Java Province are beverage industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, apparel industry, wood industry, printing industry, furniture industry and other processing industries.In the future, the development of the industry should not only focus on the leading industries  but also onnon-leading industries, so that the non leading industries will not be left behind.

  5. A Low-Li Geochemical Province in the NE Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, J. C.; Gwozdz, R.

    1978-01-01

    Lithium was analysed in 392 basalts and related igneous rocks from the North Atlantic Tertiary-Recent province using activation analysis and Čerenkov counting. Monotonous Li values of 5.5±2 ppm in NE Atlantic basalts define a low-Li geochemical province which has persisted for 60 million years...... basalt series. No whole-rock coherence is observed between Li and Mg, K, Rb or Ca. Mantle phlogopite is considered to play an insignificant rôle in controlling the Li levels of NE Atlantic basalts....

  6. Establishment and Operation of Crop Genebank in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong WANG; Yingjie LIN; Xiaodong ZHANG; Runfang LI; Shihua LIU; Cun'e WANG; Lingyun LU; Nana LI; Hanfeng DING; Xiaomu WANG; Xiaohong GU

    2017-01-01

    Shandong Province has abundant and diverse crop germplasm resources, but it is in lack of unified and effective preservation and management, leading to the decline and even extinction of many rare germplasm resources. In this study, the necessity for the establishment of crop genebank in Shandong Province was briefly described. In addition, the type, functions and technical indicators, as well as the operation of the crop genebank were introduced comprehensively to provide a reference for the establishment of genebank by other units or organizations.

  7. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  8. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. The following areas consisting of the water, waterway bottom, and adjacent riparian zone of...

  9. Onilahy River, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Near the southern tip of Madagascar, the Onilahy River (23.5S, 44E) drains a near barren landscape, the result of rapid deforestation for quick profits from the lumber industry with no regard to the environmental impact. At the turn of the century, the island was a lush tropical paradise with about 90 percent of the surface forested. Now, at the close of the century, only about 10 percent of the forests remain in inaccessible rugged terrain.

  10. Charles River Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    duration, deck sections will be prefabricated off-site and delivered just-in-time for assembly and installation. The schedule assumes that the parts of...on one side (the side which abuts the existing bridges) there will be the appearance that the new bridges cantilever off the existing bridges. (See...many events that takes place on the Charles River such as crew racings and the “Head of the Charles”. Prefabricated off 19  ANCHORAGE GROUP, LTD

  11. AHP 45: Review: River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zon thar rgyal says that inspiration for River came with the arrival of his second child (a son, which made his daughter very uncomfortable. "At first, I just wanted to make a simple movie for children as a gift for my daughter,"6 he said during an interview in Lha sa. Later, however, the film became more elaborate with the addition of a grandfather, creating a story that embraces three generations.

  12. Columbia River pathway report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the river-pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project is estimating radiation doses that could have been received by the public from the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the river-pathway dose reconstruction effort sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the area from above the Hanford Site at Priest Rapids Dam to below the site at McNary Dam from January 1964 to December 1966. Of the potential sources of radionuclides from the river, fish consumption was the most important. Doses from drinking water were lower at Pasco than at Richland and lower at Kennewick than at Pasco. The median values of preliminary dose estimates calculated by HEDR are similar to independent, previously published estimates of average doses to Richland residents. Later phases of the HEDR Project will address dose estimates for periods other than 1964--1966 and for populations downstream of McNary Dam. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  13. The river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descy, J.P.; Lambinon, J.

    1984-01-01

    From the standpoint of the ecologist, a river is an ecosystem characterized by its biocoenosis, in dynamic equilibrium with the abiotic environment. This ecosystem can be envisaged at the structural level by examining its physical, chemical and biological properties, together with the relationships existing between these compartments. The biocoenotic structure of a river is relatively complex: it manifests, among other specific features, the presence of plankton communities which show marked space-time variations. The function of the river ecosystem can be approximated by a study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components: primary production, secondary production, recycling of organic matter, etc. Lotic environments are subject to frequent disturbance from various forms of man-made pollution: organic pollution, eutrophization, thermal pollution, mineral pollution, contamination by organic and mineral micropollutants, as well as by radionuclides, mechanical pollution and physical degradation. The biocoenotic effects of these forms of pollution may be evaluated, in particular, using biological indicators (bioindicators): these are either able to show the overall impact of the pollution on the biocoenosis or else they permit the detection and evaluation of certain pollutant forms. (author)

  14. Preliminary study of the favorability for uranium in selected areas in the Basin and Range Province, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupp, G.M.; Leedom, S.H.; Mitchell, T.P.; Kiloh, K.D.; Horton, R.C.

    1977-10-01

    Six uranium areas in Nevada were examined in a reconnaissance fashion to determine their favorability for uranium deposits. The favorable areas are: Virgin Valley, Humboldt County; northern Reese River Valley, Lander County; East Walker River, Lyon County; and Coaldale, Esmeralda County. Areas judged to be unfavorable are: Carol ''R'' prospect, Garfield Hills, Mineral County; and Meadow Valley (Panaca), Lincoln County. In the Virgin Valley area, the Canyon Rhyolite Formation contains as much as 27 ppM U 3 O 8 and is an excellent source rock. Uranium deposits in the underlying Virgin Valley Formation are small, but larger deposits may exist. The northern portion of the Reese River Valley contains several small uranium deposits but none of mineable grade or size. Rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and larger deposits may lie beneath these potential source rocks. The East Walker River area may be part of a larger uranium province. Intrusive and extrusive rocks in the area contain above-average amounts of uranium, and low-grade supergene deposits were found. Large areas of potential source rocks and host rocks, and two small uranium deposits, were found in the Coaldale area. Many rhyolite plugs were also found. The Carol ''R'' prospect is an isolated uranium occurrence in Tertiary lacustrine rocks. Uranium deposits in Meadow Valley are in the Panaca Formation, a Pliocene lacustrine formation of varied lithology. The uranium deposits are small and low grade. It is unlikely that large-grade deposits will be found in this area

  15. Changes in the land use in the valley of Escaba (Province of Tucuman, Argentina) and their environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, E.; Sesma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in the land use due to the construction of a dam and reservoir in the valley of Escaba, located southwest of the province of Tucuman ( north of Argentina ) and its implications for the atmosphere. Aerial photographs and satellite images were used for the study. The results show changes in the drainage network of rivers flowing into the center of the valley, changes in base levels and the formation of wetlands of high ecological, social and economic values. The existence of archaeological sites, some of which remain under water and crop areas that have expanded into both riverbanks stands . The enclosure of the valley caused large areas of land disappear under water, altering not only the landscape but also land use and lifestyle of the population, much of which had to be relocated to higher areas

  16. DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE IN RIVERS AND STREAMS AND ON CULTIVATED SOILS OF THE PODKARPACIE REGION IN THE YEARS 2007–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms Bacillariophyceae are a specialized, systematic group of algae, living in different types of ecosystems, and they are very good indicators of water quality. Recently, detailed studies have been carried out in the territory of the Podkarpacie Province on the diversity of diatoms in running waters. The area of study covers mostly the catchment of the biggest rivers of the province (mainly the River Wisłok and cultivated soils. Running waters in the Podkarpacie Province are characterized by a huge species richness of diatoms, 738 different taxa have been found so far. The highest number of taxa was noted in the Wisłok River (400, while the Żołynianka and Różanka streams and the Mleczka were also characterized by huge diversity (from 200 to over 350 taxa. In the majority of studied sites diatoms of alkaline (pH>7 and nutrient rich (eutrophic waters dominated: Navicula lanceolata, N. gregaria, N. capitatoradiata, Nitzschia palea, N. dissipata ssp. dissipata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, A. pyrenaicum, Amphora pediculus, Diatoma vulgaris, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis pediculus and C. placentula var. lineata. About 150 taxa were indentified on cultivated soils, among which the largest populations were formed by Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Nitzschia palea, N. pusilla, Pinnularia obscura and Stauroneis thermicola.

  17. Enhancing mud supply from the Lower Missouri River to the Mississippi River Delta USA: Dam bypassing and coastal restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, G. Paul; Day, John W.; Rogers, J. David; Giosan, Liviu; Peyronnin, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    Sand transport to the Mississippi River Delta (MRD) remains sufficient to build wetlands in shallow, sheltered coastal bays fed by engineered diversions on the Mississippi River (MR) and its Atchafalaya River (AR) distributary. But suspended mud (silt & clay) flux to the coast has dropped from a mean of 390 Mt y-1 in the early 1950s, to 100 Mt y-1 since 1970. This fine-grained sediment travels deeper into receiving estuarine basins and plays a critical role in sustaining existing marshes. Virtually all of the 300 Mt y-1 of missing mud once flowed from the Missouri River (MOR) Basin before nearly 100 dams were built as part of the Pick-Sloan water development project. About 100 Mt y-1 is now intercepted by main-stem Upper MOR dams closed in 1953. But the remaining 200 Mt y-1 is trapped by impoundments built on tributaries to the Lower MOR in the 1950s and 1960s. Sediment flux during the post-dam high MOR discharge years of 1973, 1993 and 2011 approached pre-dam levels when tributaries to the Lower MOR, including the Platte and Kansas Rivers, contributed to flood flows. West bank tributaries drain a vast, arid part of the Great Plains, while those entering from the east bank traverse the lowlands of the MOR floodplain. Both provinces are dominated by highly erodible loess soils. Staunching the continued decline in MR fine-grained sediment flux has assumed greater importance now that engineered diversions are being built to reconnect the Lowermost MR to the MRD. Tributary dam bypassing in the Lower MOR basin could increase mud supply to the MRD by 100-200 Mt y-1 within 1-2 decades. Such emergency measures to save the MRD are compatible with objectives of the Missouri River Restoration and Platte River Recovery Programs to restore MOR riparian habitat for endangered species. Rapid mobilization to shunt fine-grained sediments past as many as 50 Lower MOR tributary dams in several U.S. states will undoubtedly require as much regional coordination and funding in the 21st

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  19. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled, ``Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and...

  20. 78 FR 18277 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor... proposes to issue a special local regulation on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston... Country Splash is scheduled to take place on the waters of the Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston...

  1. Determinants of Elongation of the Labia Minora in Tete Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    au hasard pour participer. Cette étude est la première étude sur les femmes dans la province de Tete, Mozambique qui a été basée ... sex, or as a symbol of cultural identity. The population-level ... component informed the development of the.

  2. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  3. Life Interference Due to Gambling in Three Canadian Provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Sareen, Jitender; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Fortier, Janique

    2018-03-28

    The gambling landscape among provinces in Canada is diverse. Yet, few studies have investigated provincial differences related to life interference due to gambling. The objectives of the current study were to examine: (1) provincial differences with regard to gambling types and (2) if gender, family history of gambling, and alcohol or drug use while gambling were related to an increased likelihood of life interference in three Canadian provinces. Data were drawn from the 2013 and 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey from Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia (n = 30,150). Analyses were conducted stratified by provinces and also combined using logistic regression models. Provincial differences were noted with individuals from British Columbia compared to Manitoba being less likely to play VLTs outside of casinos, play live horse racing at a track or off track, and participate in sports gambling. Those in Saskatchewan compared to Manitoba were more likely to play VLTs inside a casino. When examining all provinces combined, family history of gambling was associated with increased odds of life interference. Gender was not associated with life interference. Provincial differences were noted, which may be in part related to differences in gambling landscapes. Family history of gambling may have clinical relevance for understanding which individuals may be more likely to experience life interference due to gambling. Further research is needed to clarify the link between alcohol and drug use while gambling and life interference due to gambling as the models in the current research were likely underpowered.

  4. Strategic planning for Halal tourism development in Gilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam KamalZade Gilani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism as a necessity for economic development in many countries, therefore, in this study we intended to investigate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Halal tourism in Gilan province, by using SWOT model to introduce strategic solutions to further developments. This study is practical based on questionnaire in terms of practical objectives, in terms of data collection. The population of this study was 25 tourism experts, which according to Morgan table, 24 people were selected as sample size.To identify relationships and priority setting criteria , at first internal and external factors were identified and then multi-criteria decision-making models and AHP model was used. After that by using internal factors evaluation matrix (IFE and external (EFE final weight determined and at the end the model was design and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats were analyzed .The result of SWOT analysis in this research indicates that strategies for Gilan provinces according its environmental strengths and opportunities should be offensive strategy. Surveys show that due to the diversity of tourist attractions and geographical location of Gilan province, this province has the necessary capabilities to develop Halal tourism

  5. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that D genotype is the main genotype of HBV in West Azarbayjan province. Presence of this genotype conformed with the low rate of acute liver diseases caused by hepatitis B chronic infection, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  7. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  8. Seismic hazard analysis of Sinop province, Turkey using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-01-11

    Jan 11, 1997 ... 2008 in the Sinop province of Turkey this study presents a seismic hazard analysis based on ... Considering the development and improvement ... It is one of the most populated cities in the coun- ... done as reliably as the seismic hazard of region per- .... Seismic safety work of underground networks was.

  9. Epidemiology of malt fever in Kermanshah province in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Hamzavi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic, chronic and infectious disease in many developing countries, including Iran. This study investigated some of the epidemiological features of the disease in Kermanshah province in 2011. Methods: In this descriptive study, all of the patients with brucellosis reported to the health center of the province during the year 2011 were studied. The demographic and some epidemiologic parameters of the disease were recorded in the questionnaires. All collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version19 software. Results: Totally, 777 cases of brucellosis were reported to the health center of the province in 2011. The lowest incidence of brucellosis in the province was 40.8/100000 .The highest and lowest incidence rates were seen in Dalahoo (215.2/100 000 and Javanrood (12.6/100 000 districts, respectively. 47.4% of the patients were female and about half of the patients were under 30 years old. Raw milk was the most common cause of the disease consumed by 81.9% of the cases. Also, 87.6% of the patients were living in rural areas and the peak of disease was seen in the spring and summer months. Conclusion: Despite the significant reduction, it seems that the incidence of disease in some rural areas of the districts such as Dalahoo and Sarpol-e-Zahab are very high.

  10. Studies on possibility of building radiation centre in Hunan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chuandao

    1987-01-01

    Hunan province is rich in agriculture products and their by-products. The processing and preservation of those products after porduction is an urgent problem to solve. However, radiation techniques can solve the problem of the processing and preservation of part of those products which can not be solved by normal ways. Only in Changsha area, the products such as leather and their products, dried and fresh fruit, medical equipments, industrial chemicals and so on, which can be provided to irradiate, weigh over 1 x 10 5 tons a year. In order to advance the research and application of radiation techniques in the province, over 40 units have been investigated in the province and other provinces. Since 1983, six informal discussions or demonstration meetings were held. 15 pieces of various reports and materials have been put forward. The necessity, possibility, size, place, development aim and united research of building a radiation centre have been scientificly demonstrated and a certain basis have been provided for building radiation centre

  11. Chinalco Signed Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation with Gansu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Recently,Chinalco and Gansu Provincial People’s Government signed"Framework Agreement for Strategic Cooperation on Reform,Restructuring and Transition Development of Chinalco’s Electrolytic Aluminum Enterprises in Gansu",signifying that the strategic cooperation between Chinalco and Gansu Province had made new substantive progress.

  12. Spatial pattern of agricultural land conversion in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, S.; Humaira, A. N. S.; Pratiwi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Population growth has an implication on increasing demand for land. The demand for built-up area is filled by land conversion, mostly from agricultural land. On the other hand, population growth requires an increase in food production as well as land for agriculture. Conversion of agricultural land can threaten the availability and food security. The purpose of this study is to identify the spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province as input to improve food security condition in this province. Descriptive statistics and spatial analysis were used to analyse the area of agricultural land, conversion of agricultural land, and spatial pattern of changes in agricultural land in West Java Province. The data used is time series data in the period of 2005-2014. The result of analysis shows that there are still areas with a high percentage of agricultural land in West Java Province. The rate of conversion of agricultural land varies widely. Cities or regions with very high land conversion rate tend to concentrate in metropolitan areas.

  13. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  14. Environmental quality in the Dutch province North-Holland 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, S.

    2002-08-01

    An overview is given of the environmental quality in the Dutch province Noord-Holland in the year 2002. Special attention is paid to safety, energy, agriculture and the airport Schiphol. The report is available in electronic form in parts, discussing Social developments, the quality of Air, Soil, and Water, Public Health, Nature, Safety, Energy, Agriculture, and Schiphol (airport) [nl

  15. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  16. Birds of Mount Kisingiri, Nyanza Province, including a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mount Kisingiri comprises a much overlooked highland massif in southern Nyanza. Province with a hitherto ..... This imbalance in relative species abundance within a defined ecological niche could .... Hills is unsuitable for foraging or breeding but there is extensive savanna grassland and suitable ..... Columba guinea nf.

  17. A historical overview of the Western Province Senior Schools Sports ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First a brief overview of multi-coded school sport organization in Cape Town is present ed. Next, the emergence of the Western Province Senior Schools Sport Union (WPSSSU) and how this organization differed with all existing patterns of school sport management is explored. The ideology underpinning this organization, ...

  18. Spectrum of α-thalassemia mutations in Qazvin Province, Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... α-Thalassemia is a widespread inherited disease particularly prevalent in the middle East Asia population, including Iran. The aim of this study was to define the molecular spectrum and frequency of α-thalassemia mutations in prospective couples of Qazvin province. A total of 120,000 subjects were.

  19. Maternal mortality in the Cape Province, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design. A descriptive study with analytic components. Characteristics of patients who died from the most ... authorities on how to collect data on maternal deaths throughout a whole region. This surveillance may be ... Following the publication of perinatal data from 18 ruraJ. hospitalsT in the Cape Province, the Continuing ...

  20. Diversity and Distribution of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safniyeti Safniyeti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myrmecophyte is a common medicinal plant used by local people in Indonesia for treating various diseases especially in Papua. Bengkulu province is one of the Myrmecophyte habitats, but there has no report on its identity and distribution. The objectives of this research were to identify the diversity and analyze the Myrmecophytes distribution as well as factor affecting its presence. This study used purposive sampling method by exploring the area where Myrmecophytes commonly found. The Myrmecophyte distribution based on host tree was analyzed using Morishita index and the autecological analysis of abiotic factors was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA generated from Minitab 16. The results of this research showed that there were two species of Myrmecophytes in Bengkulu province, namely Hydnophytum formicarum and Myrmecodia tuberosa, as well as two variants of M. tuberosa i.e. M. tuberosa ‘armata’ and M. tuberosa ‘siberutensis’. The distribution of Myrmecophytes based on host tree was mostly randomly scattered in Central Bengkulu regency, Seluma, North Bengkulu, South Bengkulu, and Kaur. Their distributions were affected by light intensity and temperature. The data of this research can be used as basic information for carried out conservation efforts in Bengkulu province. The abundance of Myrmecophytes is also used as a source of additional income for local people in Bengkulu province.     

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Brucellosis is responsible for considerable public health issues involving economic losses due to abortion, loss of milk production and infertility in adult males. The purpose of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the possible risk factors.

  2. Malaria Epidemiology in Mersin Province, Turkey from 2002 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F AYDIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is an infectious disease caused by Plasmodium spp. with high morbidity and mortality in human in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, number of malaria cases has been significantly reduced because of fight with the disease in Turkey. This study intended to investigate the malaria epidemiology in Mersin Province from 2002 to 2011 using data from the provincial Public Health Directorate.Methods: Over ten years, 303573 blood samples were taken from the people by active and passive surveillance methods and blood smears were prepared. Smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under the microscope.Results: Totally, 73 people including 44 male and 29 female were positive in terms of Plasmodium spp. It was determined that P. vivax observed in 67 cases while P. falciparum in 6 cases. Cases were mainly observed in 15 to 44 years old range, showed an increase between June-September periods and a significant decrease after 2006. Out of the 73 malaria cases, 54 cases were from Mersin Province and 13 cases were imported from another province of Turkey. Six cases were transmitted from abroad.Conclusion: These results provide information about malaria epidemiology in an endemic area in Turkey and contribute its prevention in Mersin Province

  3. Heavy daily-rainfall characteristics over the Gauteng Province

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-09

    Feb 9, 2009 ... the lowest number of heavy and very heavy rainfall days. The highest 24-h ... With regard to seasonal rainfall, the 1995/96 summer rainfall season had ..... The Gauteng Province is approximately 16 500 km2 in size. When the ...

  4. Odyssean malaria outbreaks in Gauteng Province, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odyssean malaria cases are inevitable in South Africa, given the volume of road, rail and air traffic from malaria risk areas into Gauteng and other non-endemic provinces. It is likely that many cases are missed, owing to the rare and sporadic nature of the condition. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of ...

  5. Primary cutaneous malignancies in the Northern Cape Province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    size, the Northern Cape (NC) Province has the smallest population of the ... whether skin cancer incidence in SA has followed the global trend.[12] ... high risk of mortality.[16] As ... 2012 was conducted using public and private health sector databases. .... majority of KSs occurred in the younger age group 30 - 39 years.

  6. Thyroid Diseases among Patients from Hadhramout Province, Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the histopathological pattern of thyroid diseases among patients in Hadhramout Province, Yemen. Materials and Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted at Ibn Sina Central Teaching Hospital, in Mukalla city, Hadhramout, Yemen between January 2007 and December 2012.

  7. Characterizing preventive activity in Camagüey province

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, María

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the characteristic features of preventive activities within the System of Education at Camaguey province. This information herein gathers results from a research investigation project and might be of interest for teachers, principals and investigators as a professional tool.

  8. Remediation of Legacy Arsenic Mining Areas in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian H. von Lindern

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The success of the demonstration project was recognized and has provided direction and momentum for a wider effort by the Province to address mining pollution and water contamination challenges. It demonstrates the success of using known techniques for environmental remediation in the US, with local partners in China responding to their communities’ health and environmental problems.

  9. Railway Endowment in Italy’s Provinces, 1839-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Ciccarelli, Carlo

    This paper presents new annual estimates of railway extension in Italian provinces at 1913 borders for the period 1839-1913. The main operator of the Italian railway network (Ferrovie dello Stato) published in 1911 a unique set of homogeneous historical five year maps illustrating the routes of

  10. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  11. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in Pasteurized and Traditional Milk in Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Babolhavaegi

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the presence of AFM1 toxin contamination in traditional and pasteurized milks of Hamedan province. Further investigation and monitoring is needed in Hamedan province.

  12. Collective action for effective tobacco control: one province at a time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharanappa Dhage

    2018-03-01

    What started with one province Gadag has now been replicated in 23 other provinces throughout Karnataka. COTPA compliance or comprehensive tobacco control is achievable, replicable and will aid in building momentum for endgame of tobacco in India

  13. Environmental isotope investigation of groundwaters in the region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Keqin; Lin Ruifen; Wang Zhixiang

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive environmental isotope investigation of several complex groundwater systems and the mixing of groundwater with surface water in the region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China, is presented. Environmental isotopes, including stable isotopes, tritium and uranium series in water and its activity ratio 234 U/ 238 U are applied to divide karstic groundwaters into separate Xishan and Dongshan systems. The Xishan karstic water system shows a great scattering of isotope data. This results from the mixing of karstic groundwater and surface water from the Fenhe River. The Dongshan system is homogeneous and karstic water is tritium free and its age should be more than 50-100 a. The increase in uranium activity ratio, which is correlated with the length of the flow paths, shows the run-off direction of the Dongshan karstic water system towards the major natural outlet, the Lancun Spring. The altitudes of recharge of Xishan and Dongshan karstic waters are evaluated as 1400 m and 1300 m, respectively. The ages of fissure groundwaters in metamorphic rocks are determined in terms of their tritium content. Some practical considerations upon groundwater management are also drawn from isotope results. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  14. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Environmental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, M; Niyyati, M; Salehi, M; Feghhi, M; Makvandi, M; Pourmehdi, M; Farnia, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic keratitis (AK). The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran. Methods In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA). Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Genotypes were identified by Blast search and homology analysis. Results Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6%) of samples of water and 13 (26%) soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%), T2 (6.6%), and T5 (6.6%) genotypes. Conclusion TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture. PMID:23323088

  15. Reconnaissance investigation of the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan Area of Interest, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpeli, Katherine C.; Chirico, Peter G.; McLoughlin, Isabel H.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance investigation of the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan Area of Interest (AOI) in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. Detailed investigations of the Zarkashan gold deposits were conducted by Soviet and Afghan geologists in the 1960s and 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected concentration and borehole sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the placer gold deposits in the Zarkashan AOI. A methodology combining the collection and analysis of historical sampling data, digital database development, hydrologic analysis, and geomorphic modeling was used. The analysis led to the reinterpretation of four gold-bearing seams along the Zarkashan River, and the calculation of an estimated gold reserve of approximately 3,000 kilograms (kg). This estimate is approximately 1,500 kg greater than the Soviet estimate. The result differs in large part due to the reinterpretation of the seams based on a much lower cutoff grade of 100 mg/m3. Because cutoff grade is dependent in part on the price of gold, the sevenfold increase in the price of gold since the undertaking of the Soviet investigation warranted our re-evaluation of their 500 mg/m3 cutoff grade.

  16. Assessment Of Carbon Leakage In Multiple Carbon-Sink Projects: ACase Study In Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Rizaldi; Wasrin, Upik R.; Hendri, Perdinan; Dasanto,Bambang D.; Makundi, Willy; Hero, Julius; Ridwan, M.; Masripatin, Nur

    2007-06-01

    Rehabilitation of degraded forest land throughimplementation of carbon sink projects can increase terrestrial carbonstock. However, carbon emissions outside the project boundary, which iscommonly referred to as leakage, may reduce or negate the sequestrationbenefits. This study assessed leakage from carbon sink projects thatcould potentially be implemented in the study area comprised of elevensub-districts in the Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Sumatra,Indonesia. The study estimates the probability of a given land use/coverbeing converted into other uses/cover, by applying a logit model. Thepredictor variables were: proximity to the center of the land use area,distance to transportation channel (road or river), area of agriculturalland, unemployment (number of job seekers), job opportunities, populationdensity and income. Leakage was estimated by analyzing with and withoutcarbon sink projects scenarios. Most of the predictors were estimated asbeing significant in their contribution to land use cover change. Theresults of the analysis show that leakage in the study area can be largeenough to more than offset the project's carbon sequestration benefitsduring the period 2002-2012. However, leakage results are very sensitiveto changes of carbon density of the land uses in the study area. Byreducing C-density of lowland and hill forest by about 10 percent for thebaseline scenario, the leakage becomes positive. Further data collectionand refinement is therefore required. Nevertheless, this study hasdemonstrated that regional analysis is a useful approach to assessleakage.

  17. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perinatal services and outcomes in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Nguyen T; Målqvist, Mats; Eriksson, Leif; Hoa, Dinh P; Johansson, Annika; Wallin, Lars; Persson, Lars-Åke; Ewald, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    We report baseline results of a community-based randomized trial for improved neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam (NeoKIP; ISRCTN44599712). The NeoKIP trial seeks to evaluate a method of knowledge implementation called facilitation through group meetings at local health centres with health staff and community key persons. Facilitation is a participatory enabling approach that, if successful, is well suited for scaling up within health systems. The aim of this baseline report is to describe perinatal services provided and neonatal outcomes. Survey of all health facility registers of service utilization, maternal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths during 2005 in the province. Systematic group interviews of village health workers from all communes. A Geographic Information System database was also established. Three quarters of pregnant women had ≥3 visits to antenatal care. Two hundred and five health facilities, including 18 hospitals, provided delivery care, ranging from 1 to 3258 deliveries/year. Totally there were 17 519 births and 284 neonatal deaths in the province. Neonatal mortality rate was 16/1000 live births, ranging from 10 to 44/1000 in the different districts, with highest rates in the mountainous parts of the province. Only 8% had home deliveries without skilled attendance, but those deliveries resulted in one-fifth of the neonatal deaths. A relatively good coverage of perinatal care was found in a Vietnamese province, but neonatal mortality varied markedly with geography and level of care. A remaining small proportion of home deliveries generated a substantial part of mortality. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  20. Barriers to sustainable water resources management : Case study in Omnogovi province, Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Enkhtsetseg, Mandukhai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the barriers to sustainable water resources management in water vulnerable, yet a mining booming area. The case study is conducted in Omnogovi province of Mongolia in Nov-Dec 2016. This study presents how the Omnogovi province manages its water with increased mining and examines what hinders the province from practicing sustainable water resources management and examines the involvement of residents in the water resources management of Omnogovi province. Qualitative approa...

  1. [The assessment of vulnerability to floods in Guangdong province at district level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong-hui; Luo, Yuan; Wei, Yao; Xiao, Jian-peng; Zeng, Si-qing; Ma, Wen-jun

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the vulnerability to floods in Guangdong province at district level. Data were collected from the sixth census, the 2010 Statistical Yearbook of Guangdong, the 2010 Health Statistics Yearbook of Guangdong and China Disease Prevention and Control information systems, etc. The weight of each indicator was determined based on subjective method and objective method respectively; and finally the results of the two methods were compared. 13 indicators were selected for the assessment of vulnerability to floods, including 6 sensitivity indicators, 5 adaptability indicators and 2 exposure indicators. Indicators with large weight (subjective weight/objective weight) were the proportion of population older than 65 years old (0.31/0.30), the proportion of population older than 65 years old (0.16/0.23), infant mortality rate (0.18/0.20), the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (0.33/0.21), the proportion of illiterate in the population older than 15 years old (0.19/0.28), history frequency of floods (0.75/0.75). The mean vulnerability index (VI) calculated by subjective method was 0.35 with the standard deviation of 0.10; the mean vulnerability index calculated by objective method was 0.31 with the standard deviation of 0.08. The two weighting methods showed consistent results of vulnerability index (ICC = 0.975, P 0.50 or objective VI > 0.40 should pay more attention to floods, including parts of the coastal areas, Beijiang River Basin, the eastern tributary area of Dongjiang River and the northern part of Pearl River Delta. Dapu district of Meizhou (0.55/0.45), Dianbai district and Maogang district of Maoming (0.54/0.48) were most vulnerable. Districts of Heyuan, Dongguan, Zhaoqing and Huizhou were less vulnerable, Yuancheng district of Heyuan showed least vulnerable to floods (0.15/0.12) followed by Dongguan (0.18/0.16), Duanzhou district (0.18/0.16) and Guangning (0.17/0.15) district of Zhaoqing. The score of indicators differed among different level

  2. River Restoration and Meanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mathias Kondolf

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most visually striking river restoration projects are those that involve the creation of a new channel, often in a new alignment and generally with a form and dimensions that are different from those of the preproject channel. These channel reconstruction projects often have the objective of creating a stable, single-thread, meandering channel, even on rivers that were not historically meandering, on rivers whose sediment load and flow regime would not be consistent with such stable channels, or on already sinuous channels whose bends are not symmetrical. Such meandering channels are often specified by the Rosgen classification system, a popular restoration design approach. Although most projects of this type have not been subject to objective evaluation, completed postproject appraisals show that many of these projects failed within months or years of construction. Despite its, at best, mixed results, this classification and form-based approach continues to be popular because it is easy to apply, because it is accessible to those without formal training in fluvial geomorphology, and probably because it satisfies a deep-seated, although unrecognized, cultural preference for single-thread meandering channels. This preference is consistent with 18th-century English landscape theories, which held the serpentine form to be ideal and led to widespread construction of meandering channels on the country estates of the era. The preference for stability in restored channels seems to be widely accepted by practitioners and funders despite the fact that it is antithetical to research showing that dynamically migrating channels have the greatest ecological richness.

  3. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  4. Geomorphological evidences of Quaternary tectonic activities in the Santa Cruz river valley, Patagonia, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabie, A.; Sanguinetti, A.; Nestiero, O.

    2007-01-01

    From Argentin lake, at west on Andean hills, to Puerto Santa Cruz on Atlantic coast, Santa Cruz river cross eastward Santa Cruz province over 250 km in Patagonia at southern Argentina. Present bed of the river has a meandering outline with first order meanders of great ratio bends and second order meanders of minor ratio bends. Principal wanderings are 45 to 55 km spaced from near Estancia La Julia or Rio Bote at west to Comandante Luis Piedrabuena at east. On river's bed middle sector these great curvatures are located at Estancia Condor Cliff and Estancia Rincon Grande. Regional and partial detailed studies allow to recognize structural control on river's bed sketch and valley s geomorphology that relates first order bends with reactivated principal faults. These faults fit well with parallel system of northwest strike of Austral Basin.On geological, geomorphologic and structural evidences recognized in Santa Cruz river, quaternary tectonic activity, related to Andean movements in southern Patagonian foreland, is postulated. (author)

  5. Saga of Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    An epic struggle in the US Congress between what the author calls the forces of transcendence and the forces of experience over development of a breeder reactor for electric power generation is described in this article. The project was started by President Nixon, survived repeated attacks under President Carter, and ironically succumbed under a strong supporter, President Reagan, as a result of an unlikely coalition of conservative organizations and Republican politicians. The broader meanings of the demise of the Clinch River project are examined on several levels, examining the significance for the nation's energy future and for the nation's political future

  6. Lowland river systems - processes, form and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M. L.; Kronvang, B.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Present day river valleys and rivers are not as dynamic and variable as they used to be. We will here describe the development and characteristics of rivers and their valleys and explain the background to the physical changes in river networks and channel forms from spring to the sea. We seek...... to answer two fundamental questions: How has anthropogenic disturbance of rivers changed the fundamental form and physical processes in river valleys? Can we use our understanding of fl uvial patterns to restore the dynamic nature of channelised rivers and drained fl oodplains in river valleys?...

  7. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Gretchen (Kootenai River Network, Libby, MT)

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and

  8. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  9. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  10. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  11. Geomorphology and river dynamics of the lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges.Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005–07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36–37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36–37 during average flow periods.The U.S. Geological Survey’s Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  12. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  13. ISSR Analysis on Genetic Diversity of the 34 Populations of Oryza meyeriana Distributing in Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-tao WAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of the 34 populations of wild rice Oryza meyeriana Baill. distributed in Yunnan Province, China was analyzed using 13 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. A total of 168 bands were amplified, of which 135 polymorphic bands were discovered and the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 80.36%. A genetic diversity was revealed as Nei's gene diversity (H = 0.2666 and Shannon information index (I = 0.4028 at population level. The 34 populations were divided into different groups based on administrative regions, latitude and longitudes, river areas, altitudes of their origins, and their indexes such as Na (number of alleles, Ne (effective number of alleles, H, I and PPB were calculated. Richer genetic diversity was found in the wild rice populations distributed in Simao Prefecture than that in Lingcang Prefecture or Xishuangbanna Prefecture whereas the least genetic diversity was in Baoshan Prefecture or Dehong Prefecture. Rich genetic diversity was also discovered in the wild rice populations originated from higher than 710 m altitude around the middle and lower reaches of the Lancang River belonging to the Pacific Ocean drainage system. The 34 populations could be classified into two groups, one group covered the wild rice distributing in Simao Prefecture only while the other group covered ones in Lingcang, Xishuangbanna and Dehong Prefectures. The issue on how to effectively conserve the wild rice germplasm was discussed.

  14. Global relationships in river hydromorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Lion, C.; Allen, G. H.; Durand, M. T.; Schumann, G.; Beighley, E.; Yang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Since the widespread adoption of digital elevation models (DEMs) in the 1980s, most global and continental-scale analysis of river flow characteristics has been focused on measurements derived from DEMs such as drainage area, elevation, and slope. These variables (especially drainage area) have been related to other quantities of interest such as river width, depth, and velocity via empirical relationships that often take the form of power laws. More recently, a number of groups have developed more direct measurements of river location and some aspects of planform geometry from optical satellite imagery on regional, continental, and global scales. However, these satellite-derived datasets often lack many of the qualities that make DEM=derived datasets attractive, including robust network topology. Here, we present analysis of a dataset that combines the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL) database of river location, width, and braiding index with a river database extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM and the HydroSHEDS dataset. Using these combined tools, we present a dataset that includes measurements of river width, slope, braiding index, upstream drainage area, and other variables. The dataset is available everywhere that both datasets are available, which includes all continental areas south of 60N with rivers sufficiently large to be observed with Landsat imagery. We use the dataset to examine patterns and frequencies of river form across continental and global scales as well as global relationships among variables including width, slope, and drainage area. The results demonstrate the complex relationships among different dimensions of river hydromorphology at the global scale.

  15. The new petrographic data about the Maymecha-Kotuy area of the Siberian flood-basalt province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, Anton; Veselovskiy, Roman

    2010-05-01

    The Maymecha-Kotuy area of the Siberian flood-basalt province is of great interest because of its exceptional composition of igneous rocks. Alkaline-ultramafic rocks prevail there over basalts. It seems to be the only such trap province in the world. Investigation of the magma evolution and revealing of sources of magma is the task of an immense importance. Now there is a discussion about possible connections between the mass extinction on the boundary between Paleozoic and Mesozoic and magmatic activity expressed in formation of the largest Siberian flood-basalt province. Absence of the precise correlation of Maymecha-Kotuy area with other areas of the Siberian province does not allow estimating duration and volumes of the eruption of traps. Another question is if eruption of traps was uninterrupted or it had several pulses of magmatic activity. The solution of this problem will let estimate the degree of possible influence of the flood-basalt eruption to the environment. The represented results of investigations comprise all five igneous suites of Maymecha-Kotuy area. Petrographic investigation included research of thin sections and microprobe analyzes. The most entire sequences of Arydzhangsky and Kogotoksky suites and partly sequences of Pravoboyarsky, Delkansky and Maymechinsky suites were studied. This research allowed to reveal that the section of "Truba" on the Kotuy River belongs to Onkuchaksky suite (former lower Kogotoksky subsuite) and to reconsider the petrography of Arydzhangsky suite. Also, the research of geochemistry based on data of Fedorenko et al. (1997, 2000) lets suggest the sources of magma and its evolution. According to the new paleomagnetic data (Pavlov, Veselovskiy, Fetisova, EGU-2010), the new scheme of correlation of Maymecha-Kotuy trap section with Norilsk trap section was worked out and it became possible to estimate character of the magmatic activity in this region. In addition, it makes the contribution into the working out the

  16. The economic support index evaluation study on the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Le, Xi-lin; Yuan, Gang; Ji, Xue-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Shanxi province, Anhui province, Jiangxi province, Henan province, Hubei province and Hunan province are located in the central part of China. They are playing an essential role in China’s economic and social development. In this article, we use analytic hierarchy process(AHP), on the basis of the statistical yearbook data of 2016, conduct an appraisal research about the economic support index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China. The evaluation shows that Hubei tops all of the provinces on the economic support index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi. The lowest index is in Shanxi province. It indicates the economic conditions in Hubei province is the most capable for it to support the pig breeding scale, Shanxi province is the opposite.

  17. First description of Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Esmeraldas province, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella

    2014-08-06

    Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.

  18. SRP baseline hydrogeologic investigation: Aquifer characterization. Groundwater geochemistry of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, R.N.; Kaback, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    An investigation of the mineralogy and chemistry of the principal hydrogeologic units and the geochemistry of the water in the principal aquifers at Savannah River Site (SRS) was undertaken as part of the Baseline Hydrogeologic Investigation. This investigation was conducted to provide background data for future site studies and reports and to provide a site-wide interpretation of the geology and geochemistry of the Coastal Plain Hydrostratigraphic province. Ground water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, minor and trace elements, gross alpha and beta, tritium, stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, and carbon-14. Sediments from the well borings were analyzed for mineralogy and major and minor elements.

  19. Recent Niger Delta shoreline response to Niger River hydrology: Conflict between forces of Nature and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Olusegun A.; Li, Guangxue; Qiao, Lulu; Asiwaju-Bello, Yinusa Ayodele; Anifowose, Adeleye Yekini Biodun

    2018-03-01

    The Niger River Delta is a prolific hydrocarbon province and a mega-delta of economic and environmental relevance. To understand patterns of its recent shoreline evolution (1923-2013) in response to the Niger River hydrology, and establish the role played by forces of Nature and Human, available topographic and satellite remote sensing data, combined with hydro-climatic (rainfall and runoff) data were analyzed. Results indicate that the entire delta coastline dramatically receded: 82% of the >400 km-long coast retreated, during the period 1950-1987; and 69% between 2007 and 2012. Prior to 1950, there was a continuation of seaward advancement along 53-74% of the delta coast. The 1950-1987 shoreline recession coincided with occurrences of two major events in the Niger River basin; these are downward trends in hydro-climatic conditions (the great droughts of the 1970s-1980s), and dam construction on the Lower Niger River at Kainji (1964-1968). The 2007-2012 event corresponded with the extensive channel dredging during 2009-2012 in the Lower Niger River from the coastal town of Warri in the south to Baro in the north. Remarkably, the largest net shoreline advancement recorded in 74% of the entire delta area occurred within a year (2012-2013), which we link to increased sediment supply to the coast caused by the '2012' floods, adjudged the worst floods in the entire Niger River Basin in the last few decades. With both anthropogenic and environmental factors inducing delta evolution, only innovative river and coastal management can determine the fortune of the future coastal development of the Niger Delta.

  20. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  1. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  2. Philippine Plecopteran with four new records in Compostela Valley Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Norman Dejadena Medina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the updated list of Philippine Plecoptera starting from the 1940’s Philippine Zoological Expedition up to the recent discoveries of Sivec and Stark on 2011. A poorly known group, there is scanty literature and several part of the Philippine archipelago is poorly explored. In order to address this information gap particularly in Compostela Valley Province, a provincial survey was conducted from January to November 2012. Opportunistic sampling using hand netting and standard light trapping methods were used to collect species from nine municipalities. There were 181 individuals collected representing two genera and four species comprising about 11.76% of the recorded species to occur in the archipelago. This paper reports the first record of Plecoptera in the province.

  3. Advances and prospects for induced mutation breeding in Helongjiang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guangzu

    1995-12-01

    Induced mutation breeding employed on soybean, spring wheat, maize, millet, fiber flax, chinese cabbage, kidney been and garlic in Heilongjiang province. Thirty-six new varieties had introduced and released from 1980 to 1994, made up 20.6% of total released varieties for the same period, accumulated cultivated area of 3.746 million hm 2 , and increased the income of formers to US dollar 168 million; 72 mutants having specific and utilizing values and traits have also been bred in the province. Basic research such as radiation breeding in combination with distant hybridization, biotechnology, and application new induced factors, improving selection methods, have been achieved; 91 articles have been published. These researches play an important role for increasing induced mutation breeding. Three items of suggestion to develop induced mutation breeding are made. (1 tab.)

  4. Accounting for variation in wind deployment between Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson-Martin, Christopher J.; Hill, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Wind energy deployment varies widely across regions and this variation cannot be explained by differences in natural wind resources alone. Evidence suggests that institutional factors beyond physical wind resources can influence the deployment of wind energy systems. Building on the work of , this study takes a historical institutionalist approach to examine the main factors influencing wind energy deployment across four Canadian provinces Canada: Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Nova Scotia. Our case studies suggest that wind energy deployment depends upon a combination of indirect causal factors-landscape values, political and social movements, government electricity policy, provincial electricity market structure and incumbent generation technologies and direct causal factors-grid architecture, ownership patterns, renewable incentive programs, planning and approvals processes and stakeholder support and opposition. - Research highlights: → Examines the reasons for variations in wind deployment between Canadian provinces. → Employs a historical institutional approach to the analysis. → Discusses social factors that affect wind deployment across Canadian jurisdictions.

  5. The east coast petroleum province: Science and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Atlantic offshore, especially the mid-Atlantic, was an exciting exploration area from the 1970s into the 1980s. Much pioneering 'frontier' activity in both scientific and policy matters occurred in this area. Although production was not achieved, objective geological evidence indicates that the province does have potential. Major population centers of the mid-Atlantic area demand large amounts of energy and enormous amounts of crude and product are shipped through East Coast waters. Nevertheless, exploration has been shut down by moratoria, environmental concerns, and international pricing. It is suggested that the province will be revisited in the future and that the geologic and environmental information that has been generated at great cost should be preserved for use by the next generation of explorationists and policy-makers.

  6. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  7. Yellowstone-Snake River Plain seismic profilling experiment: Crustal structure of the eastern Snake River Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braile, L.W.; Smith, R.B.; Ansorge, J.; Baker, M.R.; Sparlin, M.A.; Prodehl, C.; Schilly, M.M.; Healy, J.H.; Mueller, S.; Olsen, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    Seismic refraction profiles recorded along the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in southeastern Idaho during the 1978 Yellowstone-Snake River Plain cooperative seismic profiling experiment are interpreted to infer the crustal velocity and attenuation (Q-1) structure of the ESRP. Travel-time and synthetic seismogram modeling of a 250 km reversed refraction profile as well as a 100 km detailed profile indicate that the crust of the ESRP is highly anomalous. Approximately 3 to 6 km of volcanic rocks (with some interbedded sediments) overlie an upper-crustal layer (compressional velocity approx. =6.1 km/s) which thins southwestward along the ESRP from a thickness of 10 km near Island Park Caldera to 2 to 3 km beneath the central and southwestern portions of the ESRP. An intermediate-velocity (approx. =6.5 km/s) layer extends from approx. =10 to approx. =20 km depth. a thick (approx. =22 km) lower crust of compressional velocity 6.8 km/s, a total crustall thickness of approx. =42 km, and a P/sub n/ velocity of approx. =7.9 km/s is observed in the ESRP, similar to the western Snake River Plain and the Rocky Mountains Provinces. High attenuation is evident on the amplitude corrected seismic data due to low-Q values in the volcanic rocks (Q/sub p/ = 20 to 200) and throughout the crust (Q/sub p/ = 160 to 300). Based on these characteristics of the crustal structure and volcanic-age progression data, it is suggested that the ESRP has resulted from an intensitive period of intrusion of mantle-derived basaltic magma into the upper crust generating explosive silicic volcanism and associated regional uplift and caldera collapse. This activity began about 15 m.y. ago in southwestern Idaho and has migrated northeast to its present position at Yellowstone. Subsequent cooling of the intruded upper crust results in the 6.5 km/s velocity intermediate layer. Crustal subsidence and periodic basaltic volcanism as represented by the ESRP complete the sequence of crustal evolution

  8. The Brazil-Angola alkaline - carbonatite province and its main economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, F.E.V.L.; Di Valderano, M.H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The principal characteristics of the Brazil-Angola Alkaline Carbonatite Province are defined and described with specific reference to tectonic setting and economic aspects. The economic aspects of the Brazilian uranium deposits are emphasised. The Brazil-Angola Alkaline-Carbonatite Province can be divided into six Brazilian sub-provinces and two Angolan sub-provinces. Correlation between the sub-provinces of Brazil and Angola remains speculative due to the lack of detailed information, especially age determinations on the Angolan rocks. However, an analysis of the tectonic and petrochemical aspects suggests that the two Brazilian sub-provinces situated along the littoral of Rio de Janeiro/ Sao Paulo and around the periphery of the Parana Basin may be more easily comparable to the two Angolan sub-provinces than the remaining four. (Author) [pt

  9. Marketing orientation vs. innovativeness of SMEs of the Podlaskie province

    OpenAIRE

    Ejdys, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to examine the impact of marketing orientation on the innovation level among Small and Medium Size (SMEs) from Podlaskie Province. A survey utilizing a questionnaire was conducted among 137 companies in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Altogether 3 hypotheses concerning marketing orientation and innovativeness level have been examined with the use of the hierarchical regression techniques. The relation between three types of marketing orientation and innovativeness has been analy...

  10. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality Control Assessment of Radiology Devices in Kerman Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Jomehzadeh; Ali Jomehzadeh; Mohammad Bagher Tavakoli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Application of quality control (QC) programs at diagnostic radiology departments is of great significance for optimization of image quality and reduction of patient dose. The main objective of this study was to perform QC tests on stationary radiographic X-ray machines, installed in 14 hospitals of Kerman province, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, QC tests were performed on 28 conventional radiographic X-ray units in Kerman governmental hospitals, based ...

  12. Gestion des parcours dans la province de Rhamna (Maroc) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au Maroc, les parcours font l'objet d'une grave dégradation, et cela a suscité des interventions publiques visant à réduire les pressions exercées sur les ressources naturelles et à favoriser une gestion durable. Dans la province de Rhamna, où l'on pratique depuis des générations la transhumance, les interventions n'ont ...

  13. Coastal and Marine Environment Problems in East Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Supriharyono

    2000-01-01

    Coastal and marine problems were collected from the coastal community in area of the Municipality of Balikpapan East Kalimantan Province, from fishermen, NGO's and government officials. The technique used was that of the Field Participatory Workshop's. the result of the study revealed some coastal community awarenees, coastal resources USAge, and governmental policy. The local government's failure to solve those problems was mainly due to lack of social awarenees for environmental coastal man...

  14. Natural radioactivity in soils of the province of Caceres (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A; Del Rio, M; Miro, C; Paniagua, J M [Extremadura Univ., Caceres (Spain). Facultad de Veterinaria

    1992-01-01

    Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their [sup 226]Ra, [sup 232]Th and [sup 40]K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author).

  15. Social inequalities in maternal mortality among the provinces of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Antonio; Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Ríos-Quituizaca, Paulina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia; Espinosa, Isabel

    2017-06-08

    This study set out to describe the association between the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) estimates and a set of socioeconomic indicators and compute the MMR inequalities among the provinces of Ecuador. A cross-sectional ecological study was conducted, using data for 2014 from the country's 24 provinces. The MMR estimate was calculated for each province, as well as the association and its strength between MMR and specific socioeconomic indicators. For the indicators that were found to be significantly associated with MMR, inequality measurements were computed. Despite a relatively low MMR for Ecuador overall, ratios differed substantially among the provinces. Five socioeconomic indicators proved to be statistically significantly associated with MMR: total fertility rate, the percentage of indigenous population, the percentage of households with children who do not attend school, gross domestic product, and the percentage of houses with electrical service. Of these five, only three had MMR inequalities that were significant: total fertility rate, gross domestic product, and the percentage of households with electricity. This study supports research arguing that national averages can be misleading, as they often hide differences among subgroups at the local level. The findings also suggest that MMR is significantly associated with some socioeconomic indicators, including ones linked with significant health outcome inequalities. In order to reduce health inequities, it is crucial that countries look beyond national averages and identify the subgroups being left behind, explore the particular social determinants that generate these health inequalities, and examine the specific barriers and other factors affecting the subgroups most vulnerable to maternal health inequalities.

  16. The Alto Paraguay Alkaline Province: petrographic, geochemical and geochronological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Fernandez, Victor

    1996-01-01

    The Alto Paraguay Province is located at the border of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, between the coordinates 21 deg 10 ' to 23 deg 25 ' of Southern latitude and 57 deg 10 ' to 58 deg 00 ' , having the city of Porto Murtinho as the main reference point. The geotectonic domain of the area is governed by the precambric units of the Southern extreme of the Amazonic craton which developed a long and accentuated activity, giving rise to folds and important faults, that in several cases seem to have exerted an effective control of the magmatic manifestations. Radiometric data indicate that the emplacement of the syenitic bodies took place in the Permo-Triassic period, with a major incidence in the interval 260-240 Ma, representing thus, an important phase of alkaline magmatic affinity associated to the Parana Basin which is believed is to be unique, since the other known areas (Central, Amambay and Rio Apa Provinces, Paraguay, Velasco Province, Bolivia) are considerably younger (140-120 Ma). Syenitic rocks from the Alto Paraguay Province show wide variation in the ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.703361 - 0.707734). Excluding the Cerro Boggiani rocks (0.703837-0.707734), values for the nepheline syenites (0.703361-0.703672) general lower than those of the other syenites types. Alkaline syenites cover the interval 0.703510- 0.703872, while quartz syenites and syenogranites are 0.704562 and 0.707076, respectively. geologic evidence, in addition to petrographic, geochemical and isotopic (Sr) data, suggest that the syenitic rocks have been derived from an unique mantelic parental liquid, by fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, which are assumed to be occurred during the emplacement of the magma in the crust. (author)

  17. Pediatric hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Shaea A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the levels of blood pressure (BP) between male and female adolescents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and reference percentiles for Saudi adolescents. A secondary aim was to explore the distribution of BP among the participants based on age and gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 146 boys and girls attending intermediate and secondary schools in 2 regions (Al-Mallaha and Al-Mubarraz) in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Weight, random blood glucose, and BP were collected by a team of health educators in the morning of the school day between April and May 2014. Results: Of the current sample of adolescents originally from the Eastern Province, 30% had systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥140 mm Hg and 22% had diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. For girls between 13 and 16 years old, the SBP was greater than the 95th percentile of Saudi national norms. Participants were classified by gender and school stage, and one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the means of SBP between intermediate boys (127±2.5 mm Hg) and secondary boys (136±2.1 mm Hg) (p<0.05), and between intermediate boys and intermediate girls (138±1.6 mm Hg) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The increased level of BP among adolescents originally from the Eastern Province raises the need to update the current BP nomograms, considering possible differences for specific geographic areas across the country. Implementing therapeutic life style management in girls’ schools is recommended. PMID:25987114

  18. Patients' satisfaction evaluation with the health center of elis province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavida, Angeliki; Stamouli, Maria-Aggeliki; Balis, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    Patient satisfaction related to the provided health services is a key indicator of the quality of the health sector. The SERVQUAL model was employed as a way of measuring the level of patient satisfaction with the services of the Health Center of Elis Province. Although certain aspects such as "Assurance" and "Empathy" meet the users' needs, improvements like a detailed medical record and an overhaul of the equipment need to be introduced.

  19. Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection in Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zary Nokhodian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5-2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students′ thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words "HBV," "HBsAg," "prevalence," "Isfahan," "Esfahan," and "Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision.

  20. Behavior Disorders Prevalence in High School Students in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zolfaghari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.

  1. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Badparva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2 838 stool samples in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in 2013. Samples were examined by the several techniques. Results: The frequency of intestinal parasites was 465 (16.4% of which 188 (13.5% samples were for urban areas and 277 (19.2% for rural areas. Infection in rural areas was significantly higher than urban areas. Out of 465 infected samples, 456 (98% were contaminated with protozoan parasites and 9 (2% with helminthes. Infection in people who sometimes used the soap to wash hands was significantly more than those who always used soap (P<0.001. Infection in people with poor economic conditions was significantly more than the two groups with moderate and good economic conditions (P<0.001. Conclusions: Effective reasons for the reducing incidence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province could be the development of universities with more students led to increased awareness, improvement of the environment, increase of the ease of access to health care centers, increase of advertising in provincial mass media about health training, increased health culture, and dispose of sanitary waste properly.

  3. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  4. Molecular Identification of Nosema species in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmaraii, N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran. 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1% and 260 (67.1%respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.

  5. Assessment of radiation Protection in Khuzestan province radiographers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amirhossein davoudian talab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Purpose: Radiation had been as a continuous and constant hazard in modern medicine which there is no doubt about its harmful effects. The purpose of this study of knowledge, attitude and practice of Radiation worker Khuzestan province towards radiation Protection And provide controlling solutions. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive analytical study was conducted in Imaging Centers of Khuzestan province in2013. research material contain three questionnaire (Demographic, Knowledge, attitude and practice in radiation protection and open-ended questionnaire, sampling method was Cluster – randomized which After distributing the questionnaires and data collection were analyzed by Using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test (SPSS16. Result: Range of age workers was 21-55year with mean 33/92years also. Also not fund a significant relationship Between age, gender, work experience, with knowledge, practice and attitude(P>.05, But between participate in training classes with the knowledge, practice and attitude found positive and significant relationship(p<0.05. Conclusion: Rate of Knowledge and performance the workers Khuzestan province is moderate but is lower than in other studies extraterritorial however the attitude of the workers is desirable. Also the results of this study showed that Target population has Willingness to attend training classes and training and attend training classes can be an effective factor to raise awareness, attitude and practices for radiologists.

  6. Epidemiologic study of Phenylketonuria disease in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Zafar Mohtashami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Phenylketonuria (PKU is a metabolic disease with autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance caused by a deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase in the liver. Phenylketonuria incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province. Materials and Methods: All 81 phenylketonuria patients known in Lorestan province up to winter 2014 were considered in this descriptive epidemiologic study. Based on the goals and variables of the study, a complete questionnaire was developed to collect data through interviews with parents and the records and they were analyzed by use of SPSS v.16 software with preparing tables and graphs and using chi-square and t-test. Results: Results showed that phenylketonuria prevalence is 4.3 out of 100,000 people in Lorestan province. Twenty of the patients (24.7% were identified through screening and 61 patients (75.3% through other methods. Forty-six of the samples (56.8% were female and 35 cases (43.2% were male. Nearly 75% of PKU patients had a positive history of consanguinity marriage in their parents. The prevalence of the disease was significantly different from other cities. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria is necessary and should be done within 3-5 days of birth. In families with children suffering from PKU, prenatal diagnosis is necessary for other pregnancies.

  7. Incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, A A; Yousuf, B I; Quantock, A J; Murphy, P J

    2005-11-01

    To assess the incidence and associated signs and symptoms of patients with keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. 125 new keratoconus patients (51 male, 74 female; mean age 18.5 (SD 3.8) years; range 8--28 years) were recruited from referrals to the department of ophthalmology, Asir Central Hospital, over a 1 year period. Age, visual acuity, and keratometry were recorded along with clinical signs and symptoms. The incidence of keratoconus in Asir Province is 20 cases per 100,000 population. Also, the disease severity is high, as indicated by an early mean age (17.7 (3.6) years) with advanced stage keratoconus. Visual acuity, with either spectacles or rigid contact lenses, was 6/12 or better in 98% of eyes measured. Just over half (56%) of patients had atopic ocular disease. 16% of patients had a positive family history of the disease and 16% had atopic dermatitis (eczema and/or vitiligo). The incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia, is high with an early onset and more rapid progress to the severe disease stage at a young age. This might reflect the influence of genetic and/or environmental factor(s) in the aetiology of keratoconus.

  8. The use of wind to produce energy in Ketodestrin province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, E.; Ahmadkia, H.; Talebi, F.; Mojib, J.

    2004-01-01

    Productivity of oil and gas and their high cost benefit in matters than combustion, in one hand and their problem of environmental pollution when they are burnt, on the other hand attracted the decision markers in Iran to consider the wind energy as a good alternative for energy resources . It is especially important because of the existence of regions with high potential for wind energy in Iran. The Kurdestan province is one of the windy places in Iran that has not been considered for wind energy yet. In this paper, the general characteristics of the different kinds of winds which are blown throughout the year in Kurdestan province are considered firstly. Then by using the information from the stations in the sixth major cities in the province, the wind characteristics including power, direction, intensity and probability at different months of the year, are considered. The statistical studies show that Bijar, Zarine Obatoo, Ghorveh, Sanandaj and Marivan have the most wind energy potential, and Bijar and Ghorveh are the best places to install the wind turbine. for all of the above regions, the maximum of the wind average speed and powe are obtained in March, April. May, and the minimum of the average wind speed occurs in December. Bijar, Ghorveh and Zarine Obatoo have high average wind speed and its recommended to search for best places in these regions for the wind turbine sites

  9. OTEC Potential of East Nusa Tenggara Province in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyartono, M.; Rahmadian, R.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago country in the world, located between Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Indonesia has more than 17000 islands with 70 per cent of the region is ocean. The Growth of the economic and population in Indonesia increasing the demand of the electricity annually, in 2015 alone electricity consumption in Indonesia reaching 200 TWh and will continue increasing every year. However, East Nusa Tenggara Province electrification ratio only around 58.64%, this is the second lowest ratio in Indonesia. This electrification ratio describes the level of availability of electrical energy for the community. Power Plant with renewable source placement in East Nusa Tenggara Province or smaller district need to be prioritise to cope with the low electrification ratio. Renewable sources for power plant have a good potential to work with, in example wind power, solar power, geothermal, or biomass. In addition, another renewable source that not yet known is from the ocean itself. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is one of the renewable source method from ocean. This paper will uncover the potential of OTEC in East Nusa Tenggara province so it will bring possibility to build an OTEC power plant in the future.

  10. River history and tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita-Finzi, C

    2012-05-13

    The analysis of crustal deformation by tectonic processes has gained much from the clues offered by drainage geometry and river behaviour, while the interpretation of channel patterns and sequences benefits from information on Earth movements before or during their development. The interplay between the two strands operates at many scales: themes which have already benefited from it include the possible role of mantle plumes in the breakup of Gondwana, the Cenozoic development of drainage systems in Africa and Australia, Himalayan uplift in response to erosion, alternating episodes of uplift and subsidence in the Mississippi delta, buckling of the Indian lithospheric plate, and changes in stream pattern and sinuosity along individual alluvial channels subject to localized deformation. Developments in remote sensing, isotopic dating and numerical modelling are starting to yield quantitative analyses of such effects, to the benefit of geodymamics as well as fluvial hydrology. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society

  11. Robotics at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    A Robotics Technology Group was organized at the Savannah River Laboratory in August 1982. Many potential applications have been identified that will improve personnel safety, reduce operating costs, and increase productivity using modern robotics and automation. Several active projects are under way to procure robots, to develop unique techniques and systems for the site's processes, and to install the systems in the actual work environments. The projects and development programs are involved in the following general application areas: (1) glove boxes and shielded cell facilities, (2) laboratory chemical processes, (3) fabrication processes for reactor fuel assemblies, (4) sampling processes for separation areas, (5) emergency response in reactor areas, (6) fuel handling in reactor areas, and (7) remote radiation monitoring systems. A Robotics Development Laboratory has been set up for experimental and development work and for demonstration of robotic systems

  12. Development of the Alligator Rivers uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, L.J.; Farthing, J.W.; Warner, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in the Northern Territory of Australia has proven uranium deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek which contain more than 80% of the country's low-cost reasonably assured uranium resources estimated to be 290,000 t U. Following the Government's decision in 1977 to proceed with the further development of Australia's uranium resources, the region is destined to become a major producer of U 3 O 8 for export. At the time of the decision provision was made for strict controls to protect the environment, the granting of Aboriginal land rights and the creation of a major national park. The paper describes the progress made to achieve these objectives. The open-cut mining methods to be used at Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek are described, as well as the underground mining operations proposed for Jabiluka. Each of the treatment plants will use the conventional acid leach, solvent extraction purification process for uranium recovery. The characteristics of the treatment operations are outlined. The water-management schemes, tailings disposal methods and procedures for environment protection are also discussed. The proposed initial production capacities of the operations are: Jabiluka 2540 (expanding to 7630 in the fifth year of production); Ranger 2540 (expanding to 5080 when commercially practicable); Koongarra 850; and Nabarlek 920 t U/a. Both Nabarlek and Ranger have been granted Government development approval and construction is proceeding at each site with the expectation that normal commercial production will commence towards the end of 1980 and 1981, respectively. Planning for the Jabiluka and Koongarra projects has reached an advanced stage; each are undergoing environmental procedures and will have to reach agreement with the Aboriginals on environmental and other matters before site work can commence. (author)

  13. [Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers and its driving mechanism in Pan-Yangtze River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2014-11-01

    Shifting path of industrial pollution gravity centers is the response of environmental special formation during the industry transfer process, in order to prove the responding of industrial pollution gravity centers to industry transfer in economically developed areas, this paper calculates the gravity centers of industrial wastewater, gas and solid patterns and reveals the shifting path and its driving mechanism, using the data of industrial pollution in the Pan-Yangtze River Delta from 2000 to 2010. The results show that the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts for sure in the last 10 years, and gravity center of solid waste shifts the maximum distance within the three wastes, which was 180.18 km, and shifting distances for waste gas and waste water were 109.51 km and 85.92 km respectively. Moreover, the gravity center of the industrial waste in Pan-Yangtze River Delta shifts westwards, and gravity centers of waste water, gas and solid shift for 0.40 degrees, 0.17 degrees and 0.03 degrees respectively. The shifting of industrial pollution gravity centers is driven by many factors. The rapid development of the heavy industry in Anhui and Jiangxi provinces results in the westward shifting of the pollutions. The optimization and adjustment of industrial structures in Yangtze River Delta region benefit to alleviating industrial pollution, and high-polluting industries shifted to Anhui and Jiangxi provinces promotes pollution gravity center shifting to west. While the development of massive clean enterprise, strong environmental management efforts and better environmental monitoring system slow the shifting trend of industrial pollution to the east in Yangtze River Delta. The study of industrial pollution gravity shift and its driving mechanism provides a new angle of view to analyze the relationship between economic development and environmental pollution, and also provides academic basis for synthetical management and control of

  14. Habitat quality assessment for the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra on the river Jajrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little information about the status and ecology of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra in Iran. We assessed the habitat suitability for otters of the River Jajrood, Tehran province, measuring, or visually estimating, 12 environmental parameters along 16 600 m long river stretches (sampling sites. The downstream stretches of the river were found to be more suitable for otters with respect to the upper part of its course. Although the assessments of habitat suitability for the otter may be affected by several limits, the current distribution of the species on the river agrees with the results of this study. The preservation of the otter in Tehran province should involve the restoration of the ecosystem of the River Jajrood in order to improve the length of suitable river stretches.
    Riassunto Stima dell’idoneità ambientale per la lontra (Lutra lutra del fiume Jajrood, Iran. Le informazioni relative alla lontra (Lutra lutra in Iran sono scarse. L’idoneità ambientale per la specie del fiume Jajrood, provincia di Tehran, è stata valutata, misurando o stimando 12 parametri ambientali lungo 16 stazioni di campionamento, coincidenti con tratti di fiume della lunghezza di 600 m. I tratti più a valle sono risultati più idonei rispetto al corso superiore del fiume. Malgrado i numerosi limiti del metodo di stima dell’idoneità ambientale adottato, i risultati sono in accordo con l’attuale distribuzione della lontra lungo il fiume Jajrood. La conservazione della lontra nella provincia di Tehran dovrebbe prevedere miglioramenti ambientali volti a incrementare lo sviluppo lineare degli habitat idonei lungo il fiume Jajrood.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4447

  15. Atmospheric toxic metals emission inventory and spatial characteristics from anthropogenic sources of Guangdong province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, S.; Menghua, L.; Xiao, X.; Yuqi, W.; Zhuangmin, Z.; Zhijiong, H.; Cheng, L.; Guanglin, J.; Zibing, Y.; Junyu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric toxic metals (TMs) are part of particulate matters, and may create adverse effects on the environment and human health depending upon their bioavailability and toxicity. Localized emission inventory is fundamental for parsing of toxic metals to identify key sources in order to formulate efficient toxic metals control strategies. With the use of the latest municipal level environment statistical data, this study developed a bottom-up emission inventory of five toxic metals (Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr) from anthropogenic activities in Guangdong province for the year of 2014. Major atmospheric toxic metals sources including combustion sources (coal, oil, biomass, municipal solid waste) and industrial process sources (cement production, nonferrous metal smelting, iron and steel industry, battery and fluorescent lamp production) were investigated. Results showed that: (1) The total emissions of Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cr in Guangdong province were 18.14, 32.59, 411.34, 13.13, 84.16 t, respectively. (2) Different pollutants have obvious characteristics of emission sources. For total Hg emission, 46% comes from combustion sources, of which 32% from coal combustion and 8% from MSW combustion. Other 54% comes from industrial processes, which dominated by the cement (19%), fluorescent lamp (18%) and battery production (13%). Of the total Hg emission, 69% is released as Hg0 , 29% as Hg2+ , and only 2% as Hgp due to strict particulate matters controls policies. For As emissions, coal combustion, nonferrous metal smelting and iron and steel industry contributed approximate 48%, 25% and 24%, respectively. Pb emissions primarily come from battery production (42%), iron and steel industry (21%) and on-road mobile gasoline combustion (17%). Cd and Cr emissions were dominated by nonferrous metal smelting (71%) and iron and steel industry (82%), respectively. (3) In term of the spatial distribution, emissions of atmospheric toxic metals are mainly concentrated in the central region of

  16. Irrigation Management Transfer and WUAs' dynamics: evidence from the South-Kazakhstan province

    Science.gov (United States)

    zinzani, andrea

    2014-05-01

    The importance of water resources management in the arid and semi-arid lands can not be overestimated being related with environmental, economical and socio-political issues. In Central Asia, due to the physical and climatic features, water control and irrigation have always played a strategic role in territorial and societal development. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan, as in the other Central Asian republics, significant changes in both the water and agricultural sector have emerged; water management shifted from a purely technical issue to a sociopolitical and economic one leading to several institutional and organizational changes. To address this transitional water management context and the related governance and technical issues, since the 1990s several development organizations and donor agencies (such as the World Bank, United Nations, USAID, and others), according to the international water community, have sought to streamline the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and the establishment of the Water Users Associations (WUAs); this initiatives are sponsored and related to the IWRM framework, the water program globally supported by the Global Water Partnership and widely debated and questioned in the last years. This paper aims to discuss these transitional water management processes focusing on the meso-local level in the Arys valley, administratively included in the South-Kazakhstan province, ten years since the enactment of the law formalizing the WUAs. Three districts (Tyulkibas, Ordabasy and Otrar) were selected to analyse and understand the specific local transitional water institutional/organizational framework and to highlight the differences among them. The fieldwork was conducted in two different phases, April-May and November-December 2012. Within those periods, semi-structured interviews were carried out to the members of the state organizations (river basin agencies and district/province water departments) as well as the

  17. Quantitative analysis of the effect of climate change and human activities on runoff in the Liujiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, X.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: As human basic and strategic natural resources, Water resources have received an unprecedented challenge under the impacts of global climate change. Analyzing the variation characteristics of runoff and the effect of climate change and human activities on runoff could provide the basis for the reasonable utilization and management of water resources. Taking the Liujiang River Basin as the research object, the discharge data of hydrological station and meteorological data at 24 meteorological stations in the Guangxi Province as the basis, the variation characteristics of runoff and precipitation in the Liujiang River Basin was analyzed, and the quantitatively effect of climate change and human activities on runoff was proposed. The results showed that runoff and precipitation in the Liujiang River Basin had an increasing trend from 1964 to 2006. Using the method of accumulative anomaly and the orderly cluster method, the runoff series was divided into base period and change period. BP - ANN model and sensitivity coefficient method were used for quantifying the influences of climate change and human activities on runoff. We found that the most important factor which caused an increase trend of discharges in the Liujiang River Basin was precipitation. Human activities were also important factors which influenced the intra-annual distribution of runoff. Precipitation had a more sensitive influence to runoff variation than potential evaporation in the Liujiang River Basin. Key words: Liujiang River Basin, climate change, human activities, BP-ANN, sensitivity coefficient method

  18. Verde River hydrology [Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina

    2012-01-01

    The Central Arizona Highlands are a distinct biogeographic, climatic, and physiographic province that forms a diverse ecotone between the more extensive Colorado Plateau to the north and the Sonoran Desert ecoregions to the south (Ffolliott 1999). The Highlands coincide closely to the Arizona Transition Zone identified by ecologists, geologists, and others (Karlstrom...

  19. HYDROLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS OF SOME RIVERS IN EDO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest monthly hydropower yields were recorded in September for Ovia, Ikpoba and Edion Rivers and in August for Orlie River. On annual basis, Ovia River, recorded the highest power yield of 61.619MW (suggesting that Ovia river may be suitable for a Medium hydropower scheme, 10MW-100MW) with the highest ...

  20. Assessment of river plan changes in Terengganu River using RS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The database can help in the appropriate understanding of river plan change and know ... The data collected from Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) database.

  1. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft... States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23, 2013, Fort Lauderdale...

  2. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection... response costs concerning the River Forest Dry Cleaners site in River Forest, Cook County, Illinois with... code: C-14J, Chicago, Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the River Forest Dry Cleaners Site...

  3. Potential Climatic Zoning of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrough Sadat Baniaghil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Crop selection based on land capabilities has been used in several studies to assess the suitability of land for specific crops in order to determine the optimal cropping system. Maize, rice, wheat, barley, cotton, soybean and canola are the major crops found in the agricultural production systems of Golestan province, Iran. Soybean (Glycine max L.; Fabaceae is grown world-wide as an important staple and commercial crop. Kamkar et al., (2014 on assessment review of land suitability for cultivation of rapeseed and soybean in four basins over Golestan province, using GIS reported that only 11.82% of the total lands very suitable to rotate soybean after canola, used raster layers for them study were included climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC. The Geographical Information System (GIS offers a flexible and powerful tool as it can combine large volumes of different kinds of data into new datasets and display these new datasets in the form of informative and accessible thematic maps. The aim of this study was to perform land suitability assessments for wheat cultivation Golestan province, and to investigate the possibility of wheat cultivation. In this way, we used GIS and a comprehensive data set on wheat crop ecological requirements, agro climatological, topographic and soil data. Material and Methods Geographical Location of the Region The province of Golestan with an area of 21,500 square kilometers, is in the southeast of the Caspian Sea. This area extends from 36_440 N to 38_50 N and from 51_530 E to 56_140 E. In general, Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as "the moderate Caspian climate. arid and semiarid areas has occupied more than 35% of Golestan province. The study area of the research, include agricultural lands and rangelands of Golestan province is present. Using 1: 50,000 maps of the national cartographic center of Iran, we created a 20 m

  4. Mind the Gap: Dealing with Resource Revenue in Three Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald D. Kneebone

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador have each enjoyed a “rags to riches” story. Each of these provinces entered Confederation as poor cousins relative to the rest of the country; Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905 and Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949. Rather remarkably, almost exactly four decades after entering Confederation each province began to enjoy the strong economic growth resulting from the development of their natural resources; Alberta and Saskatchewan in the late 1940s with the discovery of large pools of oil and Newfoundland and Labrador in the early 1990s with the development of off-shore oil. The governments of these provinces have similarly enjoyed the benefits of large amounts of revenue realized from the sale of these natural resources. In 2013-14, resource revenues accounted for 21 per cent, 22 per cent and 32 per cent of provincial revenues in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Newfoundland and Labrador, respectively. Unfortunately, the benefit of receiving large amounts of resource revenue must be weighed against two costs. The first is that these revenues, having flowed into provincial coffers without the need to impose high tax rates on citizens, are easily spent. The second cost is that the prices of resources are determined in international markets and so a significant amount of the revenues of these provinces is largely unpredictable and often volatile. All three provinces have fallen prey to the temptation to allow a large fiscal gap to open between the costs of providing health care, education, social assistance and other areas of provincial responsibility and the taxes imposed on citizens to pay for these services. Doing so has put all three provinces at financial risk should resource prices fall. Using a newly constructed data set spanning the period 1970 to 2014, I review the history of how Alberta and Saskatchewan have dealt with commodity price shocks and what this has meant for provincial finances. With that

  5. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  6. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  7. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  8. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  9. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... go adrift. Immediately after completion of the emergency mooring, the lockmaster of the first lock... of approach to unattended, normally open automatic, movable span bridges, the factor of river flow...

  10. Anastomosing Rivers are Disequilibrium Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavooi, E.; Haas, de T.; Kleinhans, M.G.; Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Anastomosing rivers have multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins. Various theories have been proposed to explain this pattern, including an increased discharge conveyance and sediment transport capacity of multiple channels, or, alternatively, a tendency to avulse due to upstream

  11. Missouri River, Natural Resources Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    1971. Thermal study of the 366. CUNDAY TW, BROOKS KN. 1981. Calibrating Missouri River in North Dakota using infrared and verifying the SSARR model...in North and South 1612. SCHUELER RL, SULLIVAN JK. 1967. Quantifying Dakota using NOAA-5 infrared data. In: current and potential commercial fishery...use survey, 1984. South Dakota River. Journal of the Waterways Department of Game, Fish and Parks. Pierre, 101( WW2 ):119-33. SD. Interim report. South

  12. Continuum Model for River Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Achille; Maritan, Amos; Banavar, Jayanth R.

    1995-07-01

    The effects of erosion, avalanching, and random precipitation are captured in a simple stochastic partial differential equation for modeling the evolution of river networks. Our model leads to a self-organized structured landscape and to abstraction and piracy of the smaller tributaries as the evolution proceeds. An algebraic distribution of the average basin areas and a power law relationship between the drainage basin area and the river length are found.

  13. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  14. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  15. The Phylogeography and Population Demography of the Yunnan Caecilian (Ichthyophis bannanicus: Massive Rivers as Barriers to Gene Flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Ichthyophis bannanicus is the only caecilian species in China. In this study, the phylogeography and population demography of I. bannanicus were explored, based on the mitochondrial DNA genes (cyt b and ND2 and 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Altogether 158 individuals were collected from five populations in Yunnan province, Guangxi province, Guangdong province, and Northern Vietnam. Phylogeographical and population structure analysis identified either two groups (Xishuangbanna, Northern Vietnam-Yulin-Yangchun-Deqing or three groups (Xishuangbanna, Northern Vietnam-Yulin-Yangchun, and Deqing, indicating that the Red River and Pearl River systems may have acted as gene-flow barriers for I. bannanicus. Historical population expansion that happened 15-17 Ka ago was detected for mtDNA data and was possibly triggered by warmer weather after the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the Bayesian simulations of population history based on microsatellite data pinpointed population decline in all populations since 19,123 to 1,029 years ago, demonstrating a significant influence of anthropogenic habitat alteration on I. bannanicus.

  16. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  17. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: RVRMILES (River Mile Marker Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for river miles along the Hudson River. Vector lines in this data set represent river mile markers. This data set...

  18. Hierarchically nested river landform sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Weber, M. D.; Brown, R. A.; Baig, D.

    2017-12-01

    River corridors exhibit landforms nested within landforms repeatedly down spatial scales. In this study we developed, tested, and implemented a new way to create river classifications by mapping domains of fluvial processes with respect to the hierarchical organization of topographic complexity that drives fluvial dynamism. We tested this approach on flow convergence routing, a morphodynamic mechanism with different states depending on the structure of nondimensional topographic variability. Five nondimensional landform types with unique functionality (nozzle, wide bar, normal channel, constricted pool, and oversized) represent this process at any flow. When this typology is nested at base flow, bankfull, and floodprone scales it creates a system with up to 125 functional types. This shows how a single mechanism produces complex dynamism via nesting. Given the classification, we answered nine specific scientific questions to investigate the abundance, sequencing, and hierarchical nesting of these new landform types using a 35-km gravel/cobble river segment of the Yuba River in California. The nested structure of flow convergence routing landforms found in this study revealed that bankfull landforms are nested within specific floodprone valley landform types, and these types control bankfull morphodynamics during moderate to large floods. As a result, this study calls into question the prevailing theory that the bankfull channel of a gravel/cobble river is controlled by in-channel, bankfull, and/or small flood flows. Such flows are too small to initiate widespread sediment transport in a gravel/cobble river with topographic complexity.

  19. Impact factors on expansion of built-up areas in Zhejiang Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Zhu, Qiankun; Li, Yan; Gong, Fang

    2017-10-01

    Built-up areas are the results of human activities. Not only are they the real reflection of human and society activities, but also one of the most important input parameters for the simulation of biogeochemical cycle. Therefore, it is very necessary to map the distribution of built-up areas and monitor their changes by using new technologies and methods at high spatiotemporal resolution. By combining technologies of GIS (Geographic Information System) and RS (Remote Sensing), this study mainly explored the expansion and driving factors of built-up areas at the beginning of the 21st century in Zhejiang Province, China. Firstly, it introduced the mapping processes of LULC (Land Use and Land Cover) based on the method which combined object-oriented method and binary decision tree. Then, it analyzed the expansion features of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and 2005 to 2010. In addition to these, potential driving factors on the expansion of built-up areas were also explored, which contained physical geographical factors, railways, highways, rivers, urban centers, elevation, and slop. Results revealed that the expansions of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2005 and from 2005 to 2010 were very obvious and they showed high levels of variation in spatial heterogeneity. Except those, increased built-up areas with distance to railways, highways, rivers, and urban centers could be fitted with power function (y = a*xb ), with minimum R2 of 0.9507 for urban centers from 2000 to 2005; the increased permillages of built-up areas to mean elevation and mean slop could be fitted with exponential functions (y = a*ebx), with minimum R2 of 0.6657 for mean slop from 2005 to 2010. Besides, government policy could also impact expansion of built-up areas. In a nutshell, a series of conclusions were obtained through this study about the spatial features and driving factors of evolution of built-up areas in Zhejiang from 2000 to 2010.

  20. [Strategy of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis and its effect in key areas of Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Le-Ping; Tian, Zeng-Xi; Yang, Kun; Hong, Qing-Biao; Gao, Yang; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Lian-Heng; Yang, Guo-Jing; Min, Jie; Ge, Jun; Wu, Hong-Hui; Huang, Yi-Xin; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control for schistosomiasis in key areas of Jiangsu Province. The basic data and the data of implementation of comprehensive control measures were collected from the key areas of Jiangsu Province, including 30 townships, 87 marshlands and 78 anchor points. A field survey was carried out to investigate the Oncomelania snail status by using the systematic sampling method and schistosomiasis morbidity in humans and animals in the 12 key counties (districts). The changes of snail status and morbidity of humans and animals were statistically analyzed in key counties (districts) where comprehensive control measures was implemented, and the effects of schistosomiasis control before and after the implementation of the comprehensive control were compared. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 84 100 harmless latrines were constructed, 339 600 persons were examined, 2.6938 million people received health education, 112 000 protective creams and 798 000 publicity materials were allocated, 9 085 domestic animals were reared in pens, 11 800 domestic animals were examined, 130 high-risk cattle were eliminated in 30 key townships of 12 countries (districts), Jiangsu Province. A total of 19 640.78 hm2 were controlled with molluscicides, 798 warning tablets were placed, 116.07 hm2 of farmlands were ploughed up and planted, 306.80 hm2 were dug for fish culture, and 506.74 hm2 were planted with trees for snail control in 87 high-risk marshlands. A total of 118.83 million Yuan were invested into the water resources development projects, 39.82 km-long rivers were dredged, 70.04 km-long bank were concreted, 30 culvert gates were re-constructed, and 22 snail sedimentation tanks were built. In the 78 anchor points, 95 harmless public toilets were built, 3 192 stool container were allocated, 28 700 boatmen were examined, 71 600 protective creams and 53 200 publicity materials were allocated, and 46 600 persons received health education. Following the

  1. Checklist and key identification of Chironomidae Larvae (Insecta: Diptera in Marbor River (Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Karami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chironomidae (Diptera which are distributed worldwide, are the most abundant and diverse insects in many freshwater ecosystems, as well as inland waters of Iran. However, very few researches were done for identification of this group in Iran, and there is a poor knowledge of their faunal diversity distribution in this country. To investigate chironomid larvae in Marbor river, Isfahan Province, seasonal samplings were done (2003-2004 in five selected sites along the river course, using Dredge sampler 3 times for every site. After collecting, the samples were preserved in formaldehyde at the site. Samples were sorted out in laboratory and the Chironomidae larvae were identified down to the generic level using the identification keys, and light and phase-contrast microscopes. Results revealed 39 genera from four subfamilies in Marbor River: Chironominae (15 genera, Diamesinae (2 genera, Orthocladiinae (17 genera and Tanypodinae (5 genera. From these, 13 genera were reported for the first time in Iran. An identification key for the taxon in Marbor river was provided.

  2. Rare and endangered plant species and associations in the Moravica river (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljevnaić-Mašić Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Moravica is a river in the southeast of Banat (Vojvodina Province, Serbia. This relatively small river is characterised by great floristic richness. A total of 87 taxa were found in the Moravica River. It is a sanctuary for some plant species that are rare and endangered both in Serbia and in Europe. Fifty-five species are on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and forty-five species are on the European Red List of Vascular Plants. Species Acorus calamus L., Alisma gramineum Gmel., Iris pseudacorus L., Marsilea quadrifolia L., Potamogeton fluitans Roth. and Utricularia vulgaris L. are protected or strictly protected by law in Serbia. Some of these rare species form stands of aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation rare both in Banat and in Serbia in general, such as: Lemnetum (minori - trisulcae Den Hartog 1963, Potametum nodosi Soó (1928 1960, Segal 1964, Acoreto - Glycerietum aquaticae Slavnić 1956, Rorippo - Oenanthetum (Soó 1927 Lohm. 1950, Pop 1968, and Bolboschoenetum maritimi continentale Soó (1927 1957 subass. marsiletosum quadrifoliae Ljevnaić-Mašić (2010. Because of its great diversity of flora and vegetation, the Moravica River could be a potential Important Plant Area (IPA in the future. Unfortunately, strong anthropogenic influence is a threat to this unique flora and vegetation, so appropriate and timely measures for protecting the aquatic ecosystem need to be implemented.

  3. A Rejang River rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Li Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old Iban woman presented to a rural primary healthcare clinic located along the Batang Rejang in Sarawak. She had a 2-day history of rash, which started over her trunk and later spread to her face and limbs. What started out as individual erythematous maculopapular spots later coalesced to form larger raised blotches. The rash was extremely pruritic and affected her sleep, and hence her visit. The rash was preceded by high grade, persistent fever that was temporarily relieved by paracetamol. She also complained of malaise, arthralgia and myalgia. Her appetite had been poor since the onset of the fever. She lived in a long house at the edge of the jungle. Although she did not have a history of going into the jungle to forage, she went regularly to the river to wash clothes. Clinically, she appeared lethargic and had bilateral conjunctival injection. Her left anterior cervical lymph nodes were palpable. There were erythematous macules measuring 5 to 15 mm distributed over her whole body but predominantly over the chest and abdominal region (Figure 1. An unusual skin lesion was discovered at the right hypochondriac region. This lesion resembled a cigarette burn with a necrotic centre (Figure 2. There was no evidence of hepato-splenomegaly. Examination of the other systems was unremarkable. On further questioning, the patient admitted being bitten by a ‘kutu babi’ or mite 3 days before the onset of her fever.

  4. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  5. Connectivity in river deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sendrowski, A.

    2016-12-01

    Deltas host approximately half a billion people and are rich in ecosystem diversity and economic resources. However, human-induced activities and climatic shifts are significantly impacting deltas around the world; anthropogenic disturbance, natural subsidence, and eustatic sea-level rise are major causes of threat to deltas and in many cases have compromised their safety and sustainability, putting at risk the people that live on them. In this presentation, I will introduce a framework called Delta Connectome for studying connectivity in river deltas based on different representations of a delta as a network. Here connectivity indicates both physical connectivity (how different portions of the system interact with each other) as well as conceptual (pathways of process coupling). I will explore several network representations and show how quantifying connectivity can advance our understanding of system functioning and can be used to inform coastal management and restoration. From connectivity considerations, the delta emerges as a leaky network that evolves over time and is characterized by continuous exchanges of fluxes of matter, energy, and information. I will discuss the implications of connectivity on delta functioning, land growth, and potential for nutrient removal.

  6. River rating complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy of streamflow data depends on the veracity of the rating model used to derive a continuous time series of discharge from the surrogate variables that can readily be collected autonomously at a streamgage. Ratings are typically represented as a simple monotonic increasing function (simple rating), meaning the discharge is a function of stage alone, however this is never truly the case unless the flow is completely uniform at all stages and in transitions from one stage to the next. For example, at some streamflow-monitoring sites the discharge on the rising limb of the hydrograph is discernably larger than the discharge at the same stage on the falling limb of the hydrograph. This is the so-called “loop rating curve” (loop rating). In many cases, these loops are quite small and variation between rising- and falling-limb discharge measurements made at the same stage are well within the accuracy of the measurements. However, certain hydraulic conditions can produce a loop that is large enough to preclude use of a monotonic rating. A detailed data campaign for the Mississippi River at St. Louis, Missouri during a multi-peaked flood over a 56-day period in 2015 demonstrates the rating complexity at this location. The shifting-control method used to deal with complexity at this site matched all measurements within 8%.

  7. Surface water contamination by uranium Mining/Milling activities in Northern guangdong province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin; Song, Gang; Chen, Yongheng; Zhu, Li [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Juan [Key Laboratory of Waters Safety and Protection in the Pearl River Delta, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Li, Hongchun [Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei (China); Xiao, Tangfu [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China); Qi, Jianying [South China Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-12-15

    The northern region of Guangdong Province, China, has suffered from the extensive mining/milling of uranium for several decades. In this study, surface waters in the region were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the concentrations of uranium (U), thorium (Th), and non-radioactive metals (Fe, Mn, Mg, Li, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). Results showed highly elevated concentrations of the studied radionuclides and metals in the discharged effluents and the tailing seepage of the U mining/milling sites. Radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations were also observed to be overall enhanced in the recipient stream that collected the discharged effluents from the industrial site, compared to the control streams, and rivers with no impacts from the U mining/milling sites. They displayed significant spatial variations and a general decrease downstream away from upper point-source discharges of the industrial site. In addition, obvious positive correlations were found between U and Th, Fe, Zn, Li, and Co (R{sup 2} > 0.93, n = 28) in the studied water samples, which suggest for an identical source and transport pathway of these elements. In combination with present surface water chemistry and chemical compositions of uraniferous minerals, the elevation of the analyzed elements in the recipient stream most likely arose from the liquid effluents, processing water, and acid drainage from the U mining/milling facilities. The dispersion of radionuclides and hazardous metals is actually limited to a small area at present, but some potential risk should not be negligible for local ecosystem. The results indicate that environmental remediation work is required to implement and future cleaner production technology should be oriented to avoid wide dispersion of radioactivity and non-radioactive hazards in U mining/milling sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Karangrowo Site, Undaan District, Kudus Sub Province Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Kudus is one of sub province in central Java with have the fresh water availability problem Condition of insufficiency 'Standard Water has been recognized in some part of regional area, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process; due the ground water trapped character is briny or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of prospect area fur exploiting of ground water. Referring to that problem ''Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN'' means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, geohydrology and sub surface geophysical characterize, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain that target, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo electrical 2-D image measurement Base on the result of analyze, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential aquifer that happened at layer of sand sedimentary, in form of lens trapped in impermeable layer of clay sediment The layer of aquifer pattern follows of Old River in North-South and East-West direction. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement GF. A 4-14, AB 4-11 and B4. Physical characterized of aquifer, resistivity 9-19 Ωm with charge ability 13-53 milliseconds. (author)

  9. Extremadura (Spain): a case to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maribel; Tejado, Juanjo; Pereira, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Extremadura is geologically located in the Iberian Massif, belonging part of the Central Iberian Zone, in the north of the region, and the Ossa Morena zone, in the south of it. The Central Iberian Zone is characterized by the abundance of clastic metasedimentary rocks and greywacke, sandstones, shales, conglomerates, quartzites and lesser amounts of carbonate materials such as limestone and dolomite (600-300 Ma). Also featured are Hercynian granitic intrusions. The rocks from the Ossa-Morena zone are metamorphic, intrusive igneous and volcanic (650-300 Ma). Extremadura, given its strategic geographical position, has been the site of human settlement since ancient times, and this civilisation has left its influence on the building materials used in buildings and monuments. The rocks used in building, are directly related to the geology of the immediate area, since rock outcrops, near the construction are mostly granites, slates and marbles. The historic and artistic heritage from Extremadura includes Roman treasures (like the bridges located in the Via de la Plata, dams, walls and milestones), Islamic and Christian treasures as well as medieval and Renaissance Jewish treasures. Extremadura has three World Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO: the old town of Cáceres, the archaeological site at Merida and the monastery of Guadalupe. The latter is built mainly of bricks and masonry. In Merida, granites and diorites of various facies of the batholiths located north of the city are used together with Sierra Carija's marble and quartzite alluvial gravels from the river Guadiana. Among the constructions in Merida, granite utilisation in the theater and amphitheater, aqueduct of Miracles and the Proserpina dam, are remarkable. The old town of Cáceres is characterised by the presence of narrow streets and monuments, medieval churches and Renaissance palaces, built with granite and flanked by a wall constructed during the Muslim period. This granite comes from the quarries

  10. Investigation of coastline changes in three provinces of Thailand using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochamnanvita, T.; Muttitanon, W.

    2014-11-01

    The measuring of coastal in the certain short period of time is almost impossible, but applying the remote sensing with the satellite imagery bring mankind to track down and analyze the approximately length of the coastal changes at the Nano technology speed. An attempt has been made to study the length of shoreline changes along three provinces in the upper gulf of Thailand. The significant purpose is to investigate coastline length changes and to evaluate those different coastal changes at different times. Two specialties of chosen areas are the outstanding location at mouth of river in curve pattern and ecological important mangrove forest, as nominated and designated area listed in Ramsar convention, international wetlands treaty. In employing the remote sensing will help to investigate the shoreline erosion, stable or construction shoreline. Rapid and drastic shoreline changes have been compared and measured base on satellite image Landsat 5 TM on 1994, 2002 and 2007 at path129 row 051. There were geometrically co-registered and, in the process were resampled to 25 m. By composing RGB band, fusion, supervised classification. By apply different theories will give different results but the similarly pattern. Training sites were selected by signature editor, area of interest, evaluate by seperabilitly and contingency. Principle component analysis (PCA) was employed as a method of change detection. This is to conclude that these shoreline areas were in erosion from natural processes and manmade activities, for example, aquaculture and agriculture expansion, such as shrimp farm. These coastal line lost were not just losing the land; it's losing the soul of the cycle of marine life, economically, and environmentally. Moreover, this project, in the future, could benefit to set the recovery buffer zone for mangrove restoration also.

  11. Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Cystic Echinococcosis among Livestock Farmers in Basrah Province, Iraq

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    Mohanad F. Abdulhameed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is an endemic neglected parasitic zoonosis in many of the countries of the Middle East. The disease poses a remarkable economic burden for both animals and humans. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey among livestock farmers in Basrah province, southern Iraq, in order to evaluate their knowledge and awareness about CE, and to understand some of the risky practices that could contribute to spread and persistence of such disease. Of the interviewed participants (N = 314, 27.4% owned dogs on their farms. Among farmers owning dogs, 76.7% (66/86 never tied up their dogs, and 43% (37/86 indicated feeding uncooked animal viscera to their dogs. The majority (96.5% of the farmers indicated that they did not de-worm their dogs at all. Only 9.8% (31/314 of the respondents indicated eating raw leafy vegetables without washing. Added to that, 32% of the interviewees indicated that they source water for domestic use from a river; meanwhile 94.3% (296/314 of them do not boil water before using it for domestic purposes. Half of the interviewed livestock farmers in Basrah were not aware about how humans get infected with CE disease, and 41.4% (130/314 did not even realize that CE is a dangerous disease to human health. Almost one in three of the respondents who owned dogs on their farms viewed de-worming of their dogs as a low priority practice. This study highlights the gap in knowledge and awareness about CE among the study population. Risky practices associated with dog keeping management and food and water handling practices were identified. The insight from this research could be used to improve the delivery of a health education message relevant to cystic echinococcosis control at the human-animal interface in Iraq.

  12. Agrobiodiversity Indices for Three Cucurbit Species in Khorasan- Razavi Province

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    Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The deterioration of genetic resources of many field crops due to monoculture and other agricultural activities has been well documented. Estimates indicate that the introduction of new varieties has contributed at least 80% of the increase in crop production, yet, these gains have been offset by the loss of 90% of landraces. The importance of biodiversity in enhancing the sustainability of crop production in agroecosystems has been well acknowledged in the literature. This has been achieved by increasing the biodiversity at cropping systems, species, and variety levels, which corresponds to biodiversity at the ecosystem, species, and ecotype levels in natural ecosystems. Conservation of biodiversity is prerequisite for sustainable agroecosystems. In the past, diverse species, genotypes and varieties were used in agroecosystems that ensured their sustainability. At present, this approach has changed and new varieties have replaced old ones and on sustainability of systems has been negatively impacted. In the other word, agrobiodiversity or the variety of species in cropping systems has dropped rapidly. Materials and methods In this research, agrobiodiversity of melon (Cucumis.melo var. Inodorus, watermelon (Citrullus Vulgaris and cantaloupe (Cucumis.melo var. Cantaloupensis were evaluated at the genotype and variety levels. For this purpose necessary data including the number of cultivated genotypes or land races and cultivated area for each of them were collected from 25 counties of Khorasan Razavi province. Accurate data was gathered from the appropriate database and also by filling questionnaire for growing season of 2010-2011. Then spatial biodiversity indices of Simpson and Shannon, evenness, and similarity indices of Sorenson were calculated for three cucurbit crops. Results and discussion The results showed that from total cultivated area of cucurbit species in 2010-2011 growing season, 48, 30, 20 and 2 percent belonged to

  13. Hydrologic parameters and land use reflection on water quality at Mun river, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akter, A.; Babel, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    The 'River Basin' is the land area surrounding one river from its headwaters to its mouth whereas the area drained by a river and its tributaries. So that the land use changes and excessive application of nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) in predominant agricultural river basins may have a great influence on water quality. Here the study area Mun River Basin is approximately of 69,701 km/sup 2/ and in 1994, out of the total basin area 'about 80 percent was covered by agricultural purposes. Also one of the driest parts of Thailand as well as one of the industrialized provinces in Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima is situated at the upstream of the river. Accordingly the downstream part Ubon Ratchathani seems totally agricultural based area. To get the water quality changing trends due to land use, there are around forty water quality parameters has considered for the last ten years along with the basins hydrological parameters. For this study based on the fifteen years rainfall data, the whole year divided into two seasons namely wet season (May to October) and dry season (November to April). The result shows: (1) most of the physicochemical parameters are high in wet season; (2) heavy metals moreover appear higher at wet season and (3) although the presences of pesticides are very nominal, the higher values are detected at wet season. The conclusion draws for the water quality by having wet season water sampling and then the testing of water samples for selected seven parameters whereas the water samples are collected at a duration of one-week to three-week from April to October 2004. And this short duration analysis shows that the mean value of the nutrient shows not only higher at wet season (May to October) than April's data also exceed the existing Thailand's surface water quality standard. (author)

  14. Radon assessment in thermal waters in Imbabura and Pichincha provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, Mayra

    2001-01-01

    The radon is a radioactive, odorless and colorless gas, that generated in the terrestrial crust by the radioactive decay of the radio, originating of the chain of disintegration of the Uranium-238, can migrate considerable distances during its short time of life (3.82 days), from the ground to the water and later to the atmosphere. For the accomplishment of the preliminary study of quantification of radon in thermal sources, it was come to the sampling from radon-222 in bath waters different from the provinces of Pichincha and Imbabura. For which a particle accountant was used alpha, that uses the method of flashing, emitted by ionizing particles at the moment at which the radium decays in its descendant radon, and this one in its next descendants. The water samples are analyzed in the Pylon model RM-1003, particle accountant alpha, that uses for the harvesting of the gas, cameras that contain sensible detectors activated zinc sulfide cells with silver. For this sampling it was taken into account qualitative factors like: rain temperature, presence, origin of the source, proximity of some hill or volcano, presence of seismic movements, among others. These parameters could affect to the measurements of concentration of radon. Of the obtained results, we can conclude that of the 13 bath, those of the province of Pichincha, specially three of them (Tesalia, Sillunchi, Cunuyacu), contain greater concentration of radon that those of the province of Imbabura. In addition in general for all the selected bath it was verified that the concentration of radon is greater for the source than for the swimming pool. Finally it is possible to be emphasized values of concentration of radon that are around 1000-15000 Bq/m3 for the source, and the swimming pool of 100-800 Bq/m3. (The author)

  15. HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, China

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    Chen Xi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use (IDU is one of the major modes of HIV transmission in China. Drug use is illegal in China, all identified drug users are registered by Public Security Bureau, and most were sent to detention; most detainees engaged in high risk behaviours. In order to well understand the HIV/AIDS knowledge among detainees, a survey was conducted in different detention settings in Hunan province in 2008 to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV among detainees and to provide useful information for HIV prevention and intervention strategies in detention centers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 detentions in Hunan province, China, and demographic information along with knowledge and attitude of HIV/AIDS was collected through standardized interviews. Descriptive statistics were used to describe HIV knowledge, attitudes, and education services among detainees. Results There were 956 detainees interviewed from 10 detention centers. The male to female ratio was 2.24:1. The majority detainees received nine years of compulsory education, accounting for 51.5%. There were nine questions to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge of detainees, and 35.7% of those surveyed answered all nine questions correctly. There were 92.3% (882/956 who consented to be informed about the HIV antibody test results when tested, and 81% (774/956 elected that their family members were also informed. All detention centers had an organized HIV/AIDS education program. Conclusion This study gives us an overview about HIV/AIDS knowledge in detention in Hunan province, and all detention sites in the study provided HIV/AIDS intervention services among detainees that focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and health behaviors.

  16. EVERYDAY LIFE OF INTERNEES IN KAZAN PROVINCE IN 1917

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    Елена Валерьевна Миронова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the situation of intemees(persons having the nationality of a hostile state is analyzed on the example of the Kazan province in 1917. Analyzing the rights and duties of the prisoners, the author equates their status to that of administrative exiles and gives moral evaluation to the phenomenon of internment. To illustrate the particular situation of the internees in the crisis year for Russia, the author refers to the earlier period of their lives in the Kazan province - from 1914 to 1916. The forced displacement from their homes entailed separation from family, inability to find jobs in their specialty, restriction of freedom of movement, prohibition of communication with the local population. The revolutionary year of 1917 was marked, on the one hand, by general liberalization which affected, among others, the civilian prisoners. On the other hand, the economic problems in the country provoked the province residents’ anger with foreigners. Thus, because of food shortages and economic disruption, the domestic problems only worsened, the internees couldn’t choose the place of residence and the expectations of easing of the internment regime were not met. The new public authorities - Public Security Committees - treated foreigners in general and internees in particular with caution and tried to curtail their rights. This led to the fact that even the citizens of neutral states were persecuted. After the 1917 October Revolution this mistrust continued. As a result, regardless of the fact which political force was in power, the fate of the internees did not become easier, even after such a strong social upheaval as the February and October Revolutions.

  17. Healthcare Services Expenditure: A Case Study in Isfahan Province, Iran

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    Ferdosi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Determining and understanding of healthcare costs and its financing method is one of the most important subjects understatement of which can cause such major problems as excessive health costs for households due to the high rate of out-of-pocket expenses. Objectives The current study aimed to analyze the healthcare costs and determine the share of Isfahan province, Iran, from the total healthcare costs of the country from 2006 to 2011. Materials and Methods It was a retrospective and descriptive-analytical study. The required statistical data were gathered from statistical yearbooks of the country and the province, the website of the World Bank, the statistics provided by the Healthcare Department of Isfahan and Kashan Universities of Medical Sciences and the statistical data provided by Iran Statistics Center in 2011, all covering the period of six years from 2006 to 2011. Excel software was used for data analysis and computations of the research. Results During this period, the annual growth average of healthcare and treatment costs were 12% and 20%, respectively. The share of the healthcare sector declined from 33% in 2006 to 25.4% in 2011. In other words, healthcare cost per capita, being about one second of the treatment cost per capita, reduced to a third of treatment per capita in 2011. Conclusions Efficient allocation of financial resources in the healthcare system based on specific goals and strategies, coordination of public and private sectors in providing healthcare services, the rising share of the healthcare sector in GDP of the province and the country, and the preference of prevention over treatment measures can affect achieving the healthcare system goals and surmount challenges such as pay-out-of-pocket and rising healthcare costs, particularly the costs of integrated treatment with full performance.

  18. Syrian Refugees in Turkey and Their Reflections in Gaziantep Province

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    Ersin Kaya SANDAL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wave of democracy the Arab Spring Caused got started in 18 December 2010, after a university graduate stallholder's stall has been taken hold of and his burning himself to protest government led to o range of event in Tunisia deeply affected Syria by causing populations to pay for this. The Syrian Civil War started in March 2011 and it was seen as a result of Arab Spring, that noteworthy affects this region. But, although it had been a few years the Arab Spring hasn't come to Syria yet. While Syrian people,neighbor countries and the people in the region were all waiting for the spring to come, the rising of the Civil Wars and the affects of military, political and the economics sports of the countries that Syrian Regime politically, economically and commercially aligned with, had been turned into a humanitarian tragedy. As a result of the civil attacks of the Regime of Syrian to his people, around 300.000 people did,around 6.5 million people have been displaced, the numbers of the people need help increased to 10 million and so the number of the Syrian refugees in the neighbor countries reached to 3.795.284. As a result of this civil war in Syria 1.679.963 Syrian Arab Republic citizens have come to our country as refuges since 2011. The number of Syrian refugees reached 326 333 in Gaziantep Province. In this study, distribution by province of Syrian refugees in Turkey, and reflections of refugees in Gaziantep province are analyzed

  19. As traduções de Bates: dois naturalistas no Rio Amazonas Bates's translations: two naturalists in the Amazon River

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    Cristina Carneiro Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se duas traduções do relato da viagem do naturalista Henry Walter Bates pela Amazônia, uma publicada em 1944 na Coleção Brasiliana feita pelo naturalista Candido de Mello-Leitão, outra editada em 1979 na Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, assinada por Regina Regis Junqueira. O objetivo do artigo é problematizar a demarcação de limites nítidos entre uma ética da diferença e uma ética da igualdade, pois, em ambos os textos, tanto ocorre um movimento no sentido de preservar a alteridade do texto e do autor, quanto no de domesticar o texto. A análise busca também evidenciar que cada tradução, realizada a partir de diferentes projetos editoriais e tradutórios, acaba por suscitar diferentes imagens do naturalista e dos lugares por ele visitados.Two translations of the travel writing by the naturalist Henry Walter Bates in the Amazon are analyzed in this work: one published in 1944 in the Brasiliana Collection by the naturalist Candido de Mello-Leitão, and another edited in 1979 in the Reconquista do Brasil Collection, signed by Regina Regis Junqueira. The purpose of this study is to examine the delimitation of clear boundaries between an ethics of difference and an ethics of equality, since the two texts present a movement that both preserves the otherness of the text and the author and domesticates the text. The analysis also aims to evidence that each translation, carried out from different editorial and translational projects, ultimately projects different images of naturalist and the places visited by him.

  20. Formal and Informal Rural Credit in Four Provinces of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders. Formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation, while informal loans are used...... for consumption smoothening. Interest rates fell from 1997 to 2002, reflecting increased market integration. Moreover, the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. While credit rationing depends on education and credit history, in particular, regional differences in the demand for credit...