WorldWideScience

Sample records for reconfigurable bi-directional flexfet

  1. Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet? Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often...

  2. Bi-Directional Fast Charging Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray

    2012-02-01

    This report details the hardware and software infrastructure needed to demonstrate the possibility of utilizing battery power in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) with a bi directional fast charger to support/offset peak building loads. This document fulfills deliverable requirements for Tasks 1.2.1.2, 1.2.1.3, and 1.2.1.4 of Statement of Work (SOW) No.5799 for Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, now ECOtality North America (NA) support for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  3. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  4. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, L; D. Henze; J. Bash; G.-R. Jeong; Cady-Pereira, K.; Shephard, M; Luo, M; F. Paulot; Capps, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bi-directional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3) has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements i...

  5. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3 has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements in the Southeastern US, NH3 concentrations decrease throughout the globe, up to 17 ppb in India and Southeastern China, with corresponding decreases in aerosol nitrate by up to 7 μg m−3. The ammonium (NH4+ soil pool in the bi-directional exchange model largely extends the NH3 lifetime in the atmosphere. Including bi-directional exchange generally increases NH3 gross emissions (7.1% and surface concentrations (up to 3.9 ppb throughout the globe in July, except in India and Southeastern China. In April and October, it decreases NH3 gross emissions in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., 43.6% in April in China and increases NH3 gross emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. Bi-directional exchange does not largely impact NH4+ wet deposition overall. While bi-directional exchange is fundamentally a better representation of NH3 emissions from fertilizers, emissions from primary sources are still underestimated and thus significant model biases remain when compared to in situ measurements in the US. The adjoint of bi-directional exchange has also been developed for the GEOS-Chem model and is used to investigate the sensitivity of NH3 concentrations with respect to soil pH and fertilizer application rate. This study thus lays the groundwork for future inverse modeling studies to more directly constrain these physical processes rather than tuning bulk uni-directional NH3 emissions.

  6. Global evaluation of ammonia bi-directional exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Henze, D.; Bash, J.; Jeong, G.-R.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Shephard, M.; Luo, M.; Paulot, F.; Capps, S.

    2015-02-01

    Bi-directional air-surface exchange of ammonia (NH3) has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bi-directional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3 livestock emissions and evaluate the recently developed MASAGE_NH3 bottom up inventory. While updated diurnal variability improves comparison of modeled-to-hourly in situ measurements in the Southeastern US, NH3 concentrations decrease throughout the globe, up to 17 ppb in India and Southeastern China, with corresponding decreases in aerosol nitrate by up to 7 μg m-3. The ammonium (NH4+) soil pool in the bi-directional exchange model largely extends the NH3 lifetime in the atmosphere. Including bi-directional exchange generally increases NH3 gross emissions (7.1%) and surface concentrations (up to 3.9 ppb) throughout the globe in July, except in India and Southeastern China. In April and October, it decreases NH3 gross emissions in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., 43.6% in April in China) and increases NH3 gross emissions in the Southern Hemisphere. Bi-directional exchange does not largely impact NH4+ wet deposition overall. While bi-directional exchange is fundamentally a better representation of NH3 emissions from fertilizers, emissions from primary sources are still underestimated and thus significant model biases remain when compared to in situ measurements in the US. The adjoint of bi-directional exchange has also been developed for the GEOS-Chem model and is used to investigate the sensitivity of NH3 concentrations with respect to soil pH and fertilizer application rate. This study thus lays the groundwork for future inverse modeling studies to more directly constrain these physical processes rather than tuning bulk uni-directional NH3 emissions.

  7. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  8. High Efficiency Bi-Directional Converter Used For Renewable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Desal Raja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Isolated bi-directional converter for renewable system. Voltage stress and current stress was decreses in switches. Power flows in both side. The proposed converter three phase ac voltage to dc voltage, dc voltage to three phase a.c voltage and synchronous the two voltage source. Silicon carbide diodes and bi-directional switches Mosfet’s are used for decreases the switching loss. LC Series resonant converter connected to the high efficiency. This converter power conversion control by the output voltage information.

  9. Transfer of Pragmatic Competences: A Bi-Directional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, I-Ru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the bi-directionality of language transfer (first language [L1] to second language [L2] and L2 to L1) at the pragmatic level with a focus on the speech act of request. The L2 participants were Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners at the intermediate and advanced levels. Data were collected via discourse…

  10. Bi-directional Secure Communication Based on Discrete Chaotic Synchronization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Min; QIU Shui-Sheng; PENG Fei

    2007-01-01

    Discrete chaotic systems are used for bi-directional secure communication. Both sides of communication keep sending signals to achieve their synchronization, and then recover the messages. However, the third side without keys cannot get useful information. Known-plaintext attack is also engaged to analyze this method, and the simulation results show that the proposed method can reach high security performance.

  11. Transfer of Pragmatic Competences: A Bi-Directional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, I-Ru

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the bi-directionality of language transfer (first language [L1] to second language [L2] and L2 to L1) at the pragmatic level with a focus on the speech act of request. The L2 participants were Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners at the intermediate and advanced levels. Data were collected via discourse…

  12. Bi-directional normalized difference vegetation index: concept and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The data products of land surface bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) from the space-borne Polarization and Directionality of the Earth Reflectance (POLDER) of France and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)of USA are available recently, but the atmospheric correction for meeting the requirement of quantitative remote sensing is still a very dfficult problem. This paper presents a concept: bi-directional normalized difference vegetation index (Bi-NDVI), in order to consider simul taneously the effects of both land surface BRDF and atmospheric path scattering. An atmospheric quality index is thus defined for satellite multi-angular observations. The quality of MODIS/BRDF data products can be improved notably through iterative inversion weighed by this index.

  13. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  14. High Voltage Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Capacitive Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high voltage DC-DC converter topology for bi-directional energy transfer between a low voltage DC source and a high voltage capacitive load. The topology is a bi-directional flyback converter with variable switching frequency control during the charge mode, and constant...... switching frequency control during the discharge mode. The converter is capable of charging the capacitive load from 24 V DC source to 2.5 kV, and discharges it to 0 V. The flyback converter has been analyzed in detail during both charge and discharge modes, by considering all the parasitic elements...... in the converter, including the most dominating parameters of the high voltage transformer viz., self-capacitance and leakage inductance. The specific capacitive load for this converter is a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, which can be used as an effective replacement for conventional actuators...

  15. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDRIK Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  16. Bi-directional interhemispheric inhibition during unimanual sustained contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between homologous muscle representations in the right and left primary motor cortex was studied using a paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS protocol known to evoke interhemispheric inhibition (IHI. The timecourse and magnitude of IHI was studied in fifteen healthy right-handed adults at several interstimulus intervals between the conditioning stimulus and test stimulus (6, 8, 10, 12, 30, 40, 50 ms. IHI was studied in the motor dominant to non-dominant direction and vice versa while the right or left hand was at rest, performing isometric contraction of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle, and isometric contraction of the FDI muscle in the context of holding a pen. Results Compared with rest, IHI was reduced at all ISIs during contraction of either type (with or without the context of pen. IHI was reduced bi-directionally without evidence of hemispheric dominance. Further, contraction of the hand contralateral to the conditioning and test pulse yielded similar reductions in IHI. Conclusion These data provide evidence for bi-directional reduction of IHI during unimanual contractions. During unimanual, sustained contractions of the hand, the contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices demonstrate reduced inhibition. The data suggest that unimanual movement decreases inhibition bi-directionally across motor hemispheres and offer one explanation for the observation of ipsilateral M1 activity during hand movements.

  17. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru Miyauchi; Yanjun Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirmlow optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  18. High-Speed Optical Local Access Network System Using Bi-Directional Polarization Multiplexing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuru; Miyauchi; Yanjun; Sun

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed and economical optical local access network system is proposed where bi-directional polarization multiplexing is applied to a bi-directional transmission. Experimental results using a prototype system confirm low optical loss and environmental stabilities.

  19. Rad-hard Reconfigurable Bi-Directional Level Shifters Technology for Micro- and Nanosatellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various technologies available to space system designers that operate at different voltage levels. It is, however, important to interface, maintain, and update these...

  20. Bi-directional thruster development and test report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot, A. D.; Bushnell, G. S.; Anderson, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    The design, calibration and testing of a cold gas, bi-directional throttlable thruster are discussed. The thruster consists of an electro-pneumatic servovalve exhausting through opposite nozzles with a high gain pressure feedback loop to optimize performance. The thruster force was measured to determine hysteresis and linearity. Integral gain was used to maximize performance for linearity, hysteresis, and minimum thrust requirements. Proportional gain provided high dynamic response (bandwidth and phase lag). Thruster performance is very important since the thrusters are intended to be used for active control.

  1. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  2. Bi-directional electrical characterisation of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrenne, N; Ledezma, P; Bevilacqua, P; Buret, F; Allard, B; Greenman, J; Ieropoulos, I A

    2013-01-01

    The electrical performance of microbial fuel cells in steady-state is usually investigated by standard characterisation methods that reveal many important parameters e.g. maximum power. This paper introduces a novel "bi-directional" method to study how the acquisition parameters (i.e. sweep rate and sweep regime) can influence measurements and consequently performance estimations. The investigation exhibited considerable differences (hysteresis) between the forward and backward characterisation regimes, indicating a difficulty to reach steady-state under certain conditions. Moreover, it is found that fast sweep rates (time-step of 2 min) can lead to an overestimation of the short-circuit currents, while prolonged operation with high external loads leads to maximum power overestimation and extended conditioning at high currents can result in its underestimation.

  3. Bi-directional evolutionary optimization for photonic band gap structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fei [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075 (China); Huang, Xiaodong, E-mail: huang.xiaodong@rmit.edu.au [Centre for Innovative Structures and Materials, School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Vehicle Body Design & Manufacture, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China); Jia, Baohua [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering & Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    Toward an efficient and easy-implement optimization for photonic band gap structures, this paper extends the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method for maximizing photonic band gaps. Photonic crystals are assumed to be periodically composed of two dielectric materials with the different permittivity. Based on the finite element analysis and sensitivity analysis, BESO starts from a simple initial design without any band gap and gradually re-distributes dielectric materials within the unit cell so that the resulting photonic crystal possesses a maximum band gap between two specified adjacent bands. Numerical examples demonstrated the proposed optimization algorithm can successfully obtain the band gaps from the first to the tenth band for both transverse magnetic and electric polarizations. Some optimized photonic crystals exhibit novel patterns markedly different from traditional designs of photonic crystals.

  4. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  5. Design of Bi-Directional Hydrofoils for Tidal Current Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Tidal Current Turbines operate in flows which reverse direction. Bi-directional hydrofoils have rotational symmetry and allow such turbines to operate without the need for pitch or yaw control, decreasing the initial and maintenance costs. A numerical test-bed was developed to automate the simulations of hydrofoils in OpenFOAM and was utilized to simulate the flow over eleven classes of hydrofoils comprising a total of 700 foil shapes at different angles of attack. For promising candidate foil shapes physical models of 75 mm chord and 150 mm span were fabricated and tested in the University of New Hampshire High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HiCaT). The experimental results were compared to the simulations for model validation. The numerical test-bed successfully generated simulations for a wide range of foil shapes, although, as expected, the k - ω - SST turbulence model employed here was not adequate for some of the foils and for large angles of attack at which separation occurred. An optimization algorithm is currently being coupled with the numerical test-bed and additional turbulence models will be implemented in the future.

  6. Sandwiched structural panel having a bi-directional core structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A structural panel assembly has a bi-directional core structure sandwiched between and secured to a pair of outer side wall members. The core structure is formed from first and second perpendicular series of elongated strip members having crenelated configurations. The strip members in the first series thereof are transversely interwoven with the strip members in the second series thereof in a manner such that crest portions of the strip members in the first series overlie and oppose trough portions of the strip members in the second series, and trough portions of the strip members in the first series underlie and oppose crest portions of the strip members in the second series. The crest portions of all of the strip members lie generally in a first plane and are secured to the inner side of one of the panel assembly outer side walls, and the trough portions of all of the strip members lie generally in a second plane and are secured to the inner side of the other panel assembly outer side wall.

  7. Bi-directional SIFT predicts a subset of activating mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William; Zhang, Yan; Mukhyala, Kiran; Lazarus, Robert A; Zhang, Zemin

    2009-12-14

    Advancements in sequencing technologies have empowered recent efforts to identify polymorphisms and mutations on a global scale. The large number of variations and mutations found in these projects requires high-throughput tools to identify those that are most likely to have an impact on function. Numerous computational tools exist for predicting which mutations are likely to be functional, but none that specifically attempt to identify mutations that result in hyperactivation or gain-of-function. Here we present a modified version of the SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant) algorithm that utilizes protein sequence alignments with homologous sequences to identify functional mutations based on evolutionary fitness. We show that this bi-directional SIFT (B-SIFT) is capable of identifying experimentally verified activating mutants from multiple datasets. B-SIFT analysis of large-scale cancer genotyping data identified potential activating mutations, some of which we have provided detailed structural evidence to support. B-SIFT could prove to be a valuable tool for efforts in protein engineering as well as in identification of functional mutations in cancer.

  8. A bi-directional electrochemically driven micro liquid dosing system with integrated sensor/actuator electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2000-01-01

    In this contribution a micro liquid dosing system is presented, which allows bi-directional manipulation of fluids (i.e. pushing out and pulling in of liquids) by the electrochemical generation and removal of gas bubbles. Bi-directionality is obtained by reversal of the actuation current thereby

  9. A chronic generalized bi-directional brain-machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, A. G.; Stanslaski, S. R.; Cong, P.; Jensen, R. M.; Afshar, P.; Ullestad, D.; Gupta, R.; Molnar, G. F.; Moran, D. W.; Denison, T. J.

    2011-06-01

    A bi-directional neural interface (NI) system was designed and prototyped by incorporating a novel neural recording and processing subsystem into a commercial neural stimulator architecture. The NI system prototype leverages the system infrastructure from an existing neurostimulator to ensure reliable operation in a chronic implantation environment. In addition to providing predicate therapy capabilities, the device adds key elements to facilitate chronic research, such as four channels of electrocortigram/local field potential amplification and spectral analysis, a three-axis accelerometer, algorithm processing, event-based data logging, and wireless telemetry for data uploads and algorithm/configuration updates. The custom-integrated micropower sensor and interface circuits facilitate extended operation in a power-limited device. The prototype underwent significant verification testing to ensure reliability, and meets the requirements for a class CF instrument per IEC-60601 protocols. The ability of the device system to process and aid in classifying brain states was preclinically validated using an in vivo non-human primate model for brain control of a computer cursor (i.e. brain-machine interface or BMI). The primate BMI model was chosen for its ability to quantitatively measure signal decoding performance from brain activity that is similar in both amplitude and spectral content to other biomarkers used to detect disease states (e.g. Parkinson's disease). A key goal of this research prototype is to help broaden the clinical scope and acceptance of NI techniques, particularly real-time brain state detection. These techniques have the potential to be generalized beyond motor prosthesis, and are being explored for unmet needs in other neurological conditions such as movement disorders, stroke and epilepsy.

  10. Reconfigurable antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This lecture explores the emerging area of reconfigurable antennas from basic concepts that provide insight into fundamental design approaches to advanced techniques and examples that offer important new capabilities for next-generation applications. Antennas are necessary and critical components of communication and radar systems, but sometimes their inability to adjust to new operating scenarios can limit system performance. Making antennas reconfigurable so that their behavior can adapt with changing system requirements or environmental conditions can ameliorate or eliminate these restricti

  11. Behavior of composite rigid frame bridge under bi-directional seismic excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pushover analysis and time history analysis are conducted to explore the bi-directional seismic behavior of composite steel-concrete rigid frame bridge, which is composed of RC piers and steel-concrete composite girders. Both longitudinal and transverse directions excitations are investigated using OpenSees. Firstly, the applicability of pushover analysis based on the fundamental mode is discussed. Secondly, an improved pushover analysis method considering the contribution of higher modes is proposed, and the applicability on composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional earthquake is verified. Based on this method, an approach to predict the displacement responses of composite rigid frame bridge under random bi-directional seismic excitations by revising the elasto-plastic demand curve is also proposed. It is observed that the developed method yield a good estimate on the responses of composite rigid frame bridges under bi-directional seismic excitations.

  12. Reconfigurable Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Joao MP

    2011-01-01

    As the complexity of modern embedded systems increases, it becomes less practical to design monolithic processing platforms. As a result, reconfigurable computing is being adopted widely for more flexible design. Reconfigurable Computers offer the spatial parallelism and fine-grained customizability of application-specific circuits with the postfabrication programmability of software. To make the most of this unique combination of performance and flexibility, designers need to be aware of both hardware and software issues. FPGA users must think not only about the gates needed to perform a comp

  13. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency.......We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  14. An Efficient Algorithm For Chinese Postman Walk on Bi-directed de Bruijn Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kundeti, Vamsi; Dinh, Hieu

    2010-01-01

    Sequence assembly from short reads is an important problem in biology. It is known that solving the sequence assembly problem exactly on a bi-directed de Bruijn graph or a string graph is intractable. However finding a Shortest Double stranded DNA string (SDDNA) containing all the k-long words in the reads seems to be a good heuristic to get close to the original genome. This problem is equivalent to finding a cyclic Chinese Postman (CP) walk on the underlying un-weighted bi-directed de Bruijn graph built from the reads. The Chinese Postman walk Problem (CPP) is solved by reducing it to a general bi-directed flow on this graph which runs in O(|E|2 log2(|V |)) time. In this paper we show that the cyclic CPP on bi-directed graphs can be solved without reducing it to bi-directed flow. We present a ?(p(|V | + |E|) log(|V |) + (dmaxp)3) time algorithm to solve the cyclic CPP on a weighted bi-directed de Bruijn graph, where p = max{|{v|din(v) - dout(v) > 0}|, |{v|din(v) - dout(v) < 0}|} and dmax = max{|din(v) - ...

  15. Microwave impedance matching strategies of an applicator supplied by a bi-directional magnetron waveguide launcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussy, Georges; Kongmark, Nils

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that a bi-directional waveguide launcher can be used advantageously for reducing the reflection coefficient mismatch of an input impedance of an applicator. In a simple bi-directional waveguide launcher, the magnetron is placed in the waveguide and generates a nominal field distribution with significant output impedance in both directions of the waveguide. If a standing wave is tolerated in the torus, which connects the launcher and the applicator, the power transfer from the magnetron to the applicator can be optimal, without using special matching devices. It is also possible to match the bi-directional launcher with two inductance stubs near the antenna of the magnetron and use them for supplying a two-input applicator without reflection.

  16. Ac-dc Bus-interface Bi-directional Converters in Renewable Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation covers several issues related to the ac-dc bus-interface bi-directional converters in renewable energy systems. The dissertation explores a dc-electronic distribution system for residential and commercial applications with a focus on the design of an ac-dc bi-directional converter for such application. This converter is named as the â Energy Control Centerâ due to its unique role in the system. First, the impact of the unbalanced power from the ac grid, especially the ...

  17. Transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic motor and experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xiangcheng; CHEN Zaili

    2002-01-01

    A transducer-type bi-directional linear ultrasonic notor is presented. It has the features of flexible bi-directional drive, simple construction and easy control, etc. The characteristics parameters of the prototype are: frequency 21.46 kHz, maximum moving speed 400 mm/s under pre-load of 3.2 N, maximum thrust 2.1 N under pre-load of 1.6 N. The influence of phase shift and vibration amplitude of ultrasonic transducers on ideal elliptical locus and output characteristics are investigated with theoretical and experimental methods.

  18. Analysis of Bi-directional Effects on the Response of a Seismic Base Isolation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung-Kui; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The floor response spectrum depends on the height of the floor of the structure. Also FRS depends on the characteristics of the seismic base isolation system such as the natural frequency, damping ratio. In the previous study, the floor response spectrum of the base isolated structure was calculated for each axis without considering bi-directional effect. However, the shear behavior of the seismic base isolation system of two horizontal directions are correlated each other by the bi-directional effects. If the shear behavior of the seismic isolation system changes, it can influence the floor response spectrum and displacement response of isolators. In this study, the analysis of a bi-directional effect on the floor response spectrum was performed. In this study, the response of the seismic base isolation system based on the bi-directional effects was analyzed. By analyzing the time history result, while there is no alteration in the maximum shear force of seismic base isolation system, it is confirmed that the shear force is generally more decreased in a one-directional that in a two-directional in most parts. Due to the overall decreased shear force, the floor response spectrum is more reduced in a two-directional than in a one-directional.

  19. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...

  20. Properties and Stability of Max-Product Fuzzy Bi-Directional Associative Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Lan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy operator of max-product is defined at first, and the fuzzy bi-directional associative memory (FBAM) based on the fuzzy operator of max-product is given. Then the properties and the Lyapunov stability of equilibriums of the networks are studied.

  1. Longitudinal Bi-Directional Relationships between Sleep and Youth Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Latimer, Lara A.; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Moe, Stacey G.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the known deficits in sleep that occur during adolescence and the high prevalence of substance use behaviors among this group, relatively little research has explored how sleep and substance use may be causally related. The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal bi-directional relationships between sleep duration, sleep…

  2. Inferring bi-directional interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolism with model ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grzegorczyk, Marco; Aderhold, Andrej; Husmeier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    There has been much interest in reconstructing bi-directional regulatory networks linking the circadian clock to metabolism in plants. A variety of reverse engineering methods from machine learning and computational statistics have been proposed and evaluated. The emphasis of the present paper is on

  3. Achievable rate regions and outer bounds for a multi-pair bi-directional relay network

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Joon; Devroye, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    In a bi-directional relay channel, a pair of nodes wish to exchange independent messages over a shared wireless half-duplex channel with the help of relays. Recent work has mostly considered information theoretic limits of the bi-directional relay channel with two terminal nodes (or end users) and one relay. In this work we consider bi-directional relaying with one base station, multiple terminal nodes and one relay, all of which operate in half-duplex modes. We assume that each terminal node communicates with the base-station in a bi-directional fashion through the relay and do not place any restrictions on the channels between the users, relays and base-stations; that is, each node has a direct link with every other node. Our contributions are three-fold: 1) the introduction of four new temporal protocols which fully exploit the two-way nature of the data and outperform simple routing or multi-hop communication schemes by carefully combining network coding, random binning and user cooperation which exploit ...

  4. Efficient parallel and out of core algorithms for constructing large bi-directed de Bruijn graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn Matthew

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assembling genomic sequences from a set of overlapping reads is one of the most fundamental problems in computational biology. Algorithms addressing the assembly problem fall into two broad categories - based on the data structures which they employ. The first class uses an overlap/string graph and the second type uses a de Bruijn graph. However with the recent advances in short read sequencing technology, de Bruijn graph based algorithms seem to play a vital role in practice. Efficient algorithms for building these massive de Bruijn graphs are very essential in large sequencing projects based on short reads. In an earlier work, an O(n/p time parallel algorithm has been given for this problem. Here n is the size of the input and p is the number of processors. This algorithm enumerates all possible bi-directed edges which can overlap with a node and ends up generating Θ(nΣ messages (Σ being the size of the alphabet. Results In this paper we present a Θ(n/p time parallel algorithm with a communication complexity that is equal to that of parallel sorting and is not sensitive to Σ. The generality of our algorithm makes it very easy to extend it even to the out-of-core model and in this case it has an optimal I/O complexity of Θ(nlog(n/BBlog(M/B (M being the main memory size and B being the size of the disk block. We demonstrate the scalability of our parallel algorithm on a SGI/Altix computer. A comparison of our algorithm with the previous approaches reveals that our algorithm is faster - both asymptotically and practically. We demonstrate the scalability of our sequential out-of-core algorithm by comparing it with the algorithm used by VELVET to build the bi-directed de Bruijn graph. Our experiments reveal that our algorithm can build the graph with a constant amount of memory, which clearly outperforms VELVET. We also provide efficient algorithms for the bi-directed chain compaction problem. Conclusions The bi-directed

  5. Tissue Microarray Study of Vasculogenic Mimicry in Bi-directional Differentiated Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XishanHao; BaocunSun; ShiwuZhang; XiulanZhao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if vasculogenic mimicry (VM) exists in bi-directional differentiated malignant tumors. METHODS The blood supply models for bi-directional differentiated tumors were studied with immunohistochemical and PAS double-staining techniques. New sections were made from 158 paraffin-embedded bi-directional malignant-tumor samples, including melanoma (high malignancy n=30, low malignancy n=30); synoviosarcoma(SS) (high malignancy n=26, low malignancy n=13); acinar rhabdomyosarcoma (All) (high malignancy n=16,low malignancy n=13); malignant mesothelioma (MM) (n=26), and epithelioid sarcoma (ES)(n=4). Tissue microarrays were made. The representative points in the paraffin sections were labeled and two tissue microarrays were made, one included 60 cases of melanoma, and the other included the other tumors. Immunohistochemical staining of the platelet-endothelial cell adhesive molecule(CD31 antigen) and periodic acid Schiff(PAS) staining were conducted. The areas were calculated of vessel-like channels consisting of CD31 antigen-positive tumor cells and of PAS positive materials. The VM was studied using the data obtained. RESULTS Some of these bi-directional tumor cells secreted PAS-positive materials and 0D31 positive materials. The walls of the VM consisted of PAS-positive materials lined with CD31 negative tumor cells with red blood cells inside the channel, whereas the walls of the epithelium-dependent vessels were comprised of CD31 positive materials. The positive areas of CD31 were significantly less than that of PAS (P<0.01). The number of cases with VM in highly malignant tumors was greater than that found in the lowly malignant tumors. CONCLUSIONS Bi-directional differentiated malignant tumor cells have the ability to auto-transform and might interact with the extracellular matrix to form a vessel channel system which mimics blood vessels for transporting blood. That process is called VM. Results in this study show that bi-directional

  6. Identification of a bi-directional promoter from Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A bi-directional promoter of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) was obtained with the total DNA from TYLCCNV isolate Y10 infected tobacco leaves as a template. Plant expression vectors were constructed by fusing the amplified DNA fragment with the gus gene and nopaline terminator in different orientations. The vectors containing promoter fragments were transferred into leaf cells and plant stems of Nicotiana benthamiana by Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transient expression results showed that both the complementary and virion-sense promoters could drive the gus gene to express, and the GUS activity of the complementary-sense promoter was stronger than that of the virion-sense. Co-expression of the vector containing βC1 gene of TYLCCNV DNAβ with the vector containing a bi-directional promoter revealed that the βC1 protein has no impact on expression of either the virion- or the complementarysense promoter.

  7. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  8. Detailed string stability analysis for bi-directional optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亮

    2015-01-01

    The class of bi-directional optimal velocity models can describe the bi-directional looking effect that usually exists in the reality and is even enhanced with the development of the connected vehicle technologies. Its combined string stability condition can be obtained through the method of the ring-road based string stability analysis. However, the partial string stability about traffic fluctuation propagated backward or forward was neglected, which will be analyzed in detail in this work by the method of transfer function and its H∞norm from the viewpoint of control theory. Then, through comparing the conditions of combined and partial string stabilities, their relationships can make traffic flow be divided into three distinguishable regions, displaying various combined and partial string stability performance. Finally, the numerical experiments verify the theoretical results and find that the final displaying string stability or instability performance results from the accumulated and offset effects of traffic fluctuations propagated from different directions.

  9. A bi-directional leading-edge vortex in slow-flying bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xin; He, Guowei

    2011-11-01

    A leading-edge vortex (LEV) is crucial to bat afloat, since a LEV could generate high lift which could not be predicted by the conventional aerodynamics theories. The LEV usually exhibits an intensive spiral vortex of a unidirectional axial flow on the top surface of wing. In this study, we numerically simulate a slowing-flying bat using immersed boundary method. The morphology and kinematics of bat are taken from experimental measurements. It is observed from our simulation that the stretching and collapse motions of wing could induce a bi-directional axial flow. The bi-directional axial flows stabilize the LEV and enhance its intensity. The observation is further investigated by using a simple model: the flows around a spanwise oscillating plate. The spanwise oscillation could enhance the LEV and make its more stable. This result implies a link of bat kinematics with its unusual aerodynamic performances.

  10. Model of Bi-directional Flyback Converter for Hybrid AC/DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Pasonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a simulation model and concept of two switch bi-directional isolated DC/DC converter is presented. Converter is based on flyback converter type. Also control method for voltage regulation with bi-directional power transfer is presented. Target application of the proposed converter was selected to be a hybrid AC/DC distribution system concept of which was briefly described. The requirement of galvanic isolation in the hybrid AC/DC concept comes from use of shared neutral wire; DC current runs with unbalanced part of AC current in neutral wire. Without galvanic isolation grounded neutral would cause short circuit if DC/DC converter is connected to three phase rectifier or inverter. Simulation was carried out with PSCAD electromagnetic transient simulator.

  11. Bi-directional memory-based dialog translation The KEMDT approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, G; Lee, J H; Lee, Geunbae; Jung, Hanmin; Lee, Jong-Hyeok

    1995-01-01

    A bi-directional Korean/English dialog translation system is designed and implemented using the memory-based translation technique. The system KEMDT (Korean/English Memory-based Dialog Translation system) can perform Korean to English, and English to Korean translation using unified memory network and extended marker passing algorithm. We resolve the word order variation and frequent word omission problems in Korean by classifying the concept sequence element in four different types and extending the marker- passing-based-translation algorithm. Unlike the previous memory-based translation systems, the KEMDT system develops the bilingual memory network and the unified bi-directional marker passing translation algorithm. For efficient language specific processing, we separate the morphological processors from the memory-based translator. The KEMDT technology provides a hierarchical memory network and an efficient marker-based control for the recent example-based MT paradigm.

  12. Bi-directional triplexer with butterfly MMI coupler using SU-8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareš, David; Jeřábek, Vítězslav; Prajzler, Václav

    2015-01-01

    We report about a design of a bi-directional planar optical multiplex/demultiplex filter (triplexer) for the optical part of planar hybrid WDM bi-directional transceiver in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) PON applications. The triplex lightwave circuit is based on the Epoxy Novolak Resin SU-8 waveguides on the silica-on-silicon substrate with Polymethylmethacrylate cladding layer. The triplexer is comprised of a linear butterfly concept of multimode interference (MMI) coupler separating downstream optical signals of 1490 nm and 1550 nm. For the upstream channel of 1310 nm, an additional directional coupler (DC) is used to add optical signal of 1310 nm propagating in opposite direction. The optical triplexer was designed and optimized using beam propagation method. The insertion losses, crosstalk attenuation, and extinction ratio for all three inputs/outputs were investigated. The intended triplexer was designed using the parameters of the separated DC and MMI filter to approximate the idealized direct connection of both devices.

  13. Performance Prediction of Differential Fibers with a Bi-Directional Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a bi-directional prediction approach to predict the production parameters and performance of differential fibers based on neural networks and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The proposed method does not require accurate description and calculation for the multiple processes, different modes and complex conditions of fiber production. The bi-directional prediction approach includes the forward prediction and backward reasoning. Particle swam optimization algorithms with K-means algorithm are used to minimize the prediction error of the forward prediction results. Based on the forward prediction, backward reasoning uses the multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to find the reasoning results. Experiments with polyester filament parameters of differential production conditions indicate that the proposed approach obtains good prediction results. The results can be used to optimize fiber production and to design differential fibers. This study also has important value and widespread application prospects regarding the spinning of differential fiber optimization.

  14. Learning to Monitor Machine Health with Convolutional Bi-Directional LSTM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression models directly. Therefore, previous work focuses on feature extraction/fusion methods requiring expensive human labor and high quality expert knowledge. With the development of deep learning methods in the last few years, which redefine representation learning from raw data, a deep neural network structure named Convolutional Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory networks (CBLSTM has been designed here to address raw sensory data. CBLSTM firstly uses CNN to extract local features that are robust and informative from the sequential input. Then, bi-directional LSTM is introduced to encode temporal information. Long Short-Term Memory networks(LSTMs are able to capture long-term dependencies and model sequential data, and the bi-directional structure enables the capture of past and future contexts. Stacked, fully-connected layers and the linear regression layer are built on top of bi-directional LSTMs to predict the target value. Here, a real-life tool wear test is introduced, and our proposed CBLSTM is able to predict the actual tool wear based on raw sensory data. The experimental results have shown that our model is able to outperform several state-of-the-art baseline methods.

  15. Learning to Monitor Machine Health with Convolutional Bi-Directional LSTM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Yan, Ruqiang; Wang, Jinjiang; Mao, Kezhi

    2017-01-01

    In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression models directly. Therefore, previous work focuses on feature extraction/fusion methods requiring expensive human labor and high quality expert knowledge. With the development of deep learning methods in the last few years, which redefine representation learning from raw data, a deep neural network structure named Convolutional Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory networks (CBLSTM) has been designed here to address raw sensory data. CBLSTM firstly uses CNN to extract local features that are robust and informative from the sequential input. Then, bi-directional LSTM is introduced to encode temporal information. Long Short-Term Memory networks (LSTMs) are able to capture long-term dependencies and model sequential data, and the bi-directional structure enables the capture of past and future contexts. Stacked, fully-connected layers and the linear regression layer are built on top of bi-directional LSTMs to predict the target value. Here, a real-life tool wear test is introduced, and our proposed CBLSTM is able to predict the actual tool wear based on raw sensory data. The experimental results have shown that our model is able to outperform several state-of-the-art baseline methods. PMID:28146106

  16. BI-DIRECTIONAL COHEN-GROSSBERG NEURAL NETWORK WITH DISCRETE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Discrete-time version of the bi-directional Cohen-Grossberg neural network is stud-ied in this paper. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global exponen-tial stability of such networks with discrete time based on Lyapunov method. These results do not require the symmetry of the connection matrix and the monotonicity, boundedness and differentiability of the activation function.

  17. BI-DIRECTIONAL COHEN-GROSSBERG NEURAL NETWORK WITH DISCRETE TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Dejun; Chen Anping

    2009-01-01

    Discrete-time version of the bi-directional Cohen-Grossberg neural network is stu-died in this paper. Some sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the global ex-ponential stability of such" networks with discrete time based on Lyapunov method. These results do not require the symmetry of the connection matrix and the monoto-nicity, boundedness and differentiability of the activation function.

  18. Learning to Monitor Machine Health with Convolutional Bi-Directional LSTM Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Yan, Ruqiang; Wang, Jinjiang; Mao, Kezhi

    2017-01-30

    In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression models directly. Therefore, previous work focuses on feature extraction/fusion methods requiring expensive human labor and high quality expert knowledge. With the development of deep learning methods in the last few years, which redefine representation learning from raw data, a deep neural network structure named Convolutional Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory networks (CBLSTM) has been designed here to address raw sensory data. CBLSTM firstly uses CNN to extract local features that are robust and informative from the sequential input. Then, bi-directional LSTM is introduced to encode temporal information. Long Short-Term Memory networks(LSTMs) are able to capture long-term dependencies and model sequential data, and the bi-directional structure enables the capture of past and future contexts. Stacked, fully-connected layers and the linear regression layer are built on top of bi-directional LSTMs to predict the target value. Here, a real-life tool wear test is introduced, and our proposed CBLSTM is able to predict the actual tool wear based on raw sensory data. The experimental results have shown that our model is able to outperform several state-of-the-art baseline methods.

  19. Development of an efficient bi-directional promoter with tripartite enhancer employing three viral promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patro, Sunita; Maiti, Indu B; Dey, Nrisingha

    2013-02-10

    We have developed a novel bi-directional promoter (FsFfCBD) by placing two heterogeneous core-promoters from the Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsCP, -69 to +31) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CCP, -89 to +1) respectively on upstream (5') and downstream (3') ends of a tri-hybrid enhancer (FsEFfECE), in reverse orientation. The FsEFfECE domain encompasses three heterologous enhancer fragments from Figwort mosaic virus sub-genomic transcript promoter (FsE, 101 bp, -70 to -170), Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (FfE, 196 bp, -249 to -54) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CE, 254 bp, -343 to -90). The bi-directional nature of the FsFfCBD promoter (coupled to GFP and GUS) was established both in transient systems (onion epidermal cells and tobacco protoplasts) and transgenic plant (Nicotiana tabacum samsun NN) by monitoring the simultaneous expression of GFP and GUS employing fluorescence (for GFP) and biochemical (for GUS) based assays. In transgenic plants, the FsFfCBD promoter was found to be 6.8 and 2.5 times stronger than two parent promoters; Fs and FfC respectively. The bi-directional compound promoter FsFfCBD, composed of three heterologous enhancers with enhanced activity could become a valuable additional tool for efficient plant metabolic engineering and molecular pharming.

  20. Bi-directional electrons in the near-Earth plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shiokawa

    Full Text Available We have studied the occurrence characteristics of bi-directional electron pitch angle anisotropy (enhanced flux in field-aligned directions, F^ /F|| > 1.5 at energies of 0.1–30 keV using plasma and magnetic field data from the AMPTE/IRM satellite in the near-Earth plasma sheet. The occurrence rate increases in the tailward direction from XGSM = - 9 RE to - 19 RE . The occurrence rate is also enhanced in the midnight sector, and furthermore, whenever the elevation angle of the magnetic field is large while the magnetic field intensity is small, B ~ 15 nT. From these facts, we conclude that the bi-directional electrons in the central plasma sheet are produced mainly in the vicinity of the neutral sheet and that the contribution from ionospheric electrons is minor. A high occurrence is also found after earthward high-speed ion flows, suggesting Fermi-type field-aligned electron acceleration in the neutral sheet. Occurrence characteristics of bi-directional electrons in the plasma sheet boundary layer are also discussed.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; magnetotail; plasma sheet

  1. The Bi-directional Moving Structures in a Coronal Bright Point

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dong; Su, Yingna

    2016-01-01

    We report the bi-directional moving structures in a coronal bright point (CBP) on 2015 July 14. It is observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). This CBP has a lifetime of about 10 minutes, and a curved shape. The observations show that many bright structures are moving intermittently outward from the CBP brightness core. Such moving structures are clearly seen at AIA 171, 193, 211, 131, 94, 335 and 304 A, slit-jaw (SJI) 1330 and 1400 A. In order to analyze these moving structures, the CBP is cut along the moving direction with a curved slit from the AIA and SJI images. Then we can obtain the time-distance slices, including the intensity and intensity-derivative diagrams, from which, the moving structures are recognized as the oblique streaks, and they are characterized by the bi-direction, simultaneity, symmetry, and periodicity. The average speed is around 300 km/s, while the typically period is about 90 s. All these features (including the bi-directional fl...

  2. Blade Vortex Interaction of Bi-directional flow in a Uni-directional Impulse Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Uni-directional impulse turbines are used for the extraction of wave energy by converting oscillating air flow generated by waves into uni-directional rotational energy. The symmetric airfoil design requires a large camber, in order to function in bi-directional flow, which creates a large boundary layer separation region towards the trailing edge of the blade. A three-dimensional, viscous, transient turbulent CFD model with rotating reference frame is created to model the blade vortex interaction (BVI) which occurs during transient bi-directional air flow. Various LES models are compared to determine an adequate turbulence model to accurately resolve the vortices created on the blade trailing edge. A study of the adverse effects of this BVI is conducted and a novel blade jet technique is introduced to prevent the separation of air flow from the trailing edge of the blade. Results show strong stresses arise from BVI during bi-directional transitional flow and the effectiveness of the blade jet technique in diminishing flow separation is successfully demonstrated. Results indicate that the increase in blade lift is linearly proportional to the blade jet mass flow rate once the jet velocity reaches approximately 120% of the turbine inlet velocity and that the increase in efficiency created by the blade jets are greater than the loss in efficiency in reducing the mass flow rate extracted from the inlet to the blade jet.

  3. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network pr

  4. Reconfigurable antenna pattern verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of verifying programmable antenna configurations is disclosed. The method comprises selecting a desired antenna configuration from a plurality of antenna configuration patterns, with the selected antenna configuration forming at least one reconfigurable antenna from reconfigurable antenna array elements. The method validates the formation of the selected antenna configuration to determine antenna performance of the at least one reconfigurable antenna.

  5. Reliability analysis of an LCL tuned track segmented bi-directional inductive power transfer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif Iqbal, S. M.; Madawala, U. K.; Thrimawithana, D. J.;

    2013-01-01

    Bi-directional Inductive Power Transfer (BDIPT) technique is suitable for renewable energy based applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), for the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems. Recently, more efforts have been made by researchers to improve both efficiency and reliability...... for a 1.5 kW BDIPT system in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Reliability parameters such as failure rate and mean time between failures (MTBF) are compared between the two systems. A nonlinear programming (NP) model is developed for optimizing charging schedule for a stationery EV. A case study of EV...

  6. Analysis of global exponential stability for a class of bi-directional associative memory networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏霞; 何晨

    2003-01-01

    In real-time applications of bi-directional associative memory (BAM) networks, a global exponentially stable equilibrium is highly desired. The existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability for a class of BAM networks are studied in this paper, the signal function of neurons is assumed to be piece-wise linear from the engineering point of view. A very concise condition for the equilibrium of such a network being globally exponentially stable is derived,which makes the practical design of this kind of networks an easy job.

  7. Study on Application of Bi-directional Combination Technology Integrating Residue Hydrotreating with Catalytic Cracking RICP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Chuanfeng; Gao Yongcan; Dai Lishun; Li Dadong

    2008-01-01

    After analysing the disadvantages of the traditional residue hydrotreating-catalytic cracking combination process, RIPP has proposed a bi-directional combination technology integrating residue hydrotreating with catalytic cracking called RICP which does not further recycles the FCC heavy cycle oil (HCO) inside the FCC unit and delivers HCO to the residue hydrotreating unit as a diluting oil for the residue that is concurrently subjected to hydrotreating prior to being used as the FCC feed oil. The RICP technology can stimulate residue hydrotreating reactions through utilization of HCO along with an increased yield of FCC light distillate, resulting in enhanced petroleum utilization and economic benefits of the refinery.

  8. [Differences of bi-directional regulative effects between acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definition; 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a) correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist), combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica in clinical practice, but their basis and modes for inducing effects are different.

  9. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, R.-S.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.

    2010-11-01

    Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3). Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the ground layer compensation point (χg), stomatal compensation point (χs) and cuticular resistance (Rw). We review existing measurements of χg, χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and dissociation equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N) input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH4 apomodel for example). In principle, the parameterisations should be applicable to other climates, though there is a need for more underpinning data, with the uncertainties being especially large for tropical and subtropical conditions.

  10. Moral judgment modulation by disgust is bi-directionally moderated by individual sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    How Hwee eOng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern theories of moral judgment predict that both conscious reasoning and unconscious emotional influences affect the way people decide about right and wrong. In a series of experiments, we tested the effect of subliminal and conscious priming of disgust facial expressions on moral dilemmas. Trolley-car-type scenarios were used, with subjects rating how acceptable they found the utilitarian course of action to be. On average, subliminal priming of disgust facial expressions resulted in higher rates of utilitarian judgments compared to neutral facial expressions. Further, in replication, we found that individual change in moral acceptability ratings due to disgust priming was modulated by individual sensitivity to disgust, revealing a bi-directional function. Our second replication extended this result to show that the function held for both subliminally and consciously presented stimuli. Combined across these experiments, we show a reliable bi-directional function, with presentation of disgust expression primes to individuals with higher disgust sensitivity resulting in more utilitarian judgments (i.e., number-based and presentations to individuals with lower sensitivity resulting in more deontological judgments (i.e., rules-based. Our results may reconcile previous conflicting reports of disgust modulation of moral judgment by modeling how individual sensitivity to disgust determines the direction and degree of this effect.

  11. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  12. Introduction to Reconfigurable Supercomputing

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Rosenberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This book covers technologies, applications, tools, languages, procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of reconfigurable supercomputing using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The target audience is the community of users of High Performance Computers (HPe who may benefit from porting their applications into a reconfigurable environment. As such, this book is intended to guide the HPC user through the many algorithmic considerations, hardware alternatives, usability issues, programming languages, and design tools that need to be understood before embarking on the creation of reconfigur

  13. Reconfigurable logic design case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shing-Fat F.; Knight, John; Plett, Calvin

    2002-07-01

    This design case identifies generalizable features of a course-grained reconfigurable FPGA, Chameleon's reconfigurable platform. An FFT is used to identify typical design practices, problems, and solutions in targeting such a platform. This paper focuses on datapath mapping, separating it into functional design and placement of reconfigurable resources. In addition to exploring the design methodology, it analyzes numerical artifacts, demonstrates efficient packing of the data path, and highlights differences from ASIC design.

  14. High efficiency interleaved bi-directional ZVS DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Akbar Hussain, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    A high efficiency interleaved bi-directional ZVS DC-DC converter is presented in this paper. This converter can be operated in both buck and boost mode. CoolMOS is used as a power device to achieve low conduction losses and fast turn off. The value of inductance is selected such that the CoolMOS drain-to-source voltage always falls to zero before it turns on and ZVS is achieved. Multiphase interleaved inductors are used to achieve high power and low ripple currents. Converter is operated at 50kHz and MATLAB Simulink simulation is performed. 6kW prototype converter is implemented in buck mode and simulation results are verified.

  15. Diffuse and bi-directional reflectance spectrometry to study European volcanic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salzano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse and bi-directional reflectance spectroscopy were applied in this research in order to characterize chemical and mineralogical properties in volcanic soils. The study was conducted on 77 volcanic soil profiles from several European countries. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with parameterization using the second derivative of the Kubelka-Munk function and colour calculation. From derivative curves, one band of interest was characterized and identified around 450 nm. Using correlation analysis, significant relationships were observed between amplitude of this band and Fed (r = 0.6. In addition, the data showed that soil organic matter content, Ald and Fep were moderately correlated with reflectance values centered at 546, 579 and 2048 nm.

  16. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  17. An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Bit Circular Shift and Bi-directional Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisong Ye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel image encryption scheme based on chaotic system is proposed. The proposed encryption scheme utilizes one tent map to generate a pseudo-random sequence and then shift the bits of the expanding 0-1 image circularly so as to shuffle the image gray values. To make the encryption scheme resist differential attack efficiently, generalized Arnold maps and Bernoulli shift maps are applied to produce two pseudo-random gray value sequences and then diffuse the gray values bi-directionally. The bit circular shift process and diffusion processes greatly confuse the statistical nature between plain-images and cipher-images. Security analyses including key sensitivity analysis, key space analysis, statistical analysis, differential attack analysis and information entropy analysis are performed. All the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed image encryption scheme possesses large key space to frustrate brute-force attack efficiently and can resist statistical attack, differential attack, etc.

  18. Bi-directional two-dimensional/three-dimensional convertible integral imaging using scattering polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Jisoo; Park, Soon-gi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2012-10-01

    A bi-directional 2D/3D convertible integral imaging system is proposed. Two optical modules composed of a scattering polarizer and a linear polarizer are adopted, and 2D or 3D mode operation is easily changed by converting polarization states of the projected images. In the 2D mode, the incident light is scattered at the scattering polarizer and the scattered light facing the lens-array is blocked, a 2D image is observable only at the same side as the projector. In the 3D mode, the incident light with the transmission polarization is directly projected onto a lens-array, and the 3D images are integrated. Our proposed system is able to display the 3D images as well as the 2D images for the observers who are placed in front and rear side of the system.

  19. Regenerative Strategy for Sum-rate Enhancement in Bi-directional Three-node Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Ning; Zhong Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    In bi-directional three-node cooperation, one regenerative strategy with network coding and power optimization is proposed for system sum-rate under a total energy constraint. In this paper, the network coding and power optimization are applied to improve system sum-rate. But max-min optimization problem in power allocation is a NP-hard problem. In high Signal-to-Noise Ratio regime, this NP-hard problem is transformed into constrained polynomial optimization problem, which can be computed in polynomial time. Although it is a suboptimal solution, numerical simulations show that this strategy enhances the system sum-rate up to 45% as compared to a traditional four-phase strategy, and up to 13% as compared to the three-phase strategy without power optimization.

  20. Hybrid semiconductor-dielectric metamaterial modulation for switchable bi-directional THz absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ly Nguyen; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Thuy, Le Minh; Tung, Nguyen Thanh

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing interest for electromagnetic metamaterials that show mutable absorption properties with real-time and dynamic control. In this paper, we investigate a modulation of bi-directional metamaterial absorbers that is thermally switchable at terahertz frequencies. The metamaterial absorber is composed of symmetric hybrid semiconductor-dielectric cut-wire-pair structures, whose electromagnetic responses can be actively manipulated by utilizing an external heat source. As increasing the temperature of metamaterials from 300 to 350 K, we demonstrate that the magnetic resonance can be systematically blue-shifted and overlapped with the electric resonance, which is unaffectedly settled at about 0.8 THz. This superposition provides an effective mechanism to control the absorption intensity from 43% to nearly 95%. Finite integration simulation technique, standard retrieval method, and equivalent circuit model are employed to elaborate our idea.

  1. A possible mechanism for self coordination of bi-directional traffic across nuclear pores

    CERN Document Server

    Kapon, Ruti; Mukamel, David; Reich, and Ziv

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes are constantly confronted by large fluxes of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes that need to get into and out of the nucleus. Such bi-directional traffic occurring in a narrow channel can easily lead to jamming. How then is passage between the nucleus and cytoplasm maintained under the varying conditions that arise during the lifetime of the cell? Here, we address this question using computer simulations in which the behaviour of the ensemble of transporting cargoes is analyzed under different conditions. We suggest that traffic can exist in two distinct modes, depending on concentration of cargoes and dissociation rates of the transport receptor-cargo complexes from the pores. In one mode, which prevails when dissociation is quick and cargo concentration is low, transport in either direction proceeds uninterrupted by the other direction. The result is that overall-traffic-direction fluctuates rapidly and unsystematically between import and export. Remarkably, when cargo concen...

  2. Inference of biological networks using Bi-directional Random Forest Granger causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Mohammad Shaheryar; Siyal, Mohammad Yakoob

    2016-01-01

    The standard ordinary least squares based Granger causality is one of the widely used methods for detecting causal interactions between time series data. However, recent developments in technology limit the utilization of some existing implementations due to the availability of high dimensional data. In this paper, we are proposing a technique called Bi-directional Random Forest Granger causality. This technique uses the random forest regularization together with the idea of reusing the time series data by reversing the time stamp to extract more causal information. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method by applying it to simulated data and then applied it to two real biological datasets, i.e., fMRI and HeLa cell. fMRI data was used to map brain network involved in deductive reasoning while HeLa cell dataset was used to map gene network involved in cancer.

  3. CSO/CTB/BER performances improvement in a bi-directional hybrid DWDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Han Lu(吕海涵); Hsu-Hung Huang(黄旭弘); Ming-Chuan Wang(王明傅); Heng-Sheng Su(蘇(恒)生)

    2003-01-01

    Experimental verifications of the feasibility of using chirped fiber grating (CFG) as the dispersion compen-sation device in a bi-directional hybrid dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) system to reducethe dispersion and cross-phase modulation (XPM) induced crosstalk were proposed and demonstrated.Not only channel capacity was increased, but also good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) ≥ 50dB, composite second order (CSO) ≥72 dB, composite triple beat (CTB) ≥69 dB and low bit error rate(BER) < 10-9 were achieved in our proposed system over a 50-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transport.

  4. A bi-directional gap model for simulating the directional thermal radiance of row crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Liangfu; (陈良富); LIU; Qinhuo; (柳钦火); FAN; Wenjie; (范闻捷); LI; Xiaowen; (李小文); XIAO; Qing; (肖青); YAN; Guangjian; (闫广建); TIAN; Guoliang; (田国良)

    2002-01-01

    Row crops are a kind of typical vegetation canopy between discrete canopy and continuous canopy. Kimes et al. studied the directional thermal radiation of row crops using the geometrical optical model, which simplified row structure as "box" and neglected the gap among foliage and did not consider the emissivity effects. In this work we take account of the gaps along illumination and viewing directions and propose a bi-direction gap model on the basis of the idea of gap probability of discrete vegetation canopy introduced by "Li-Strahler" and inter-correlation of continuous vegetation developed by Kuusk. It can be used to explain "hot spot" effects in thermal infrared region. The gap model has been validated by field experiment on winter wheat planted in shape of rows and results show that the gap model is better than Kimes' model in describing the directionality of thermal infrared emission for row crops.

  5. Demonstration and experimental evaluation of a bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar-Huerta, I. E.; Correa-Mena, A. G.; Hernández-Nava, P.; García-Juárez, A.; Rodríguez-Asomoza, J.; Lee, Min Won

    2016-09-01

    A bi-directional 10-GHz microwave photonic filter is proposed and experimentally evaluated. Its frequency response consists of a series of microwave band-pass windows obtained by the interaction of externally modulated multimode laser diodes emitting around of 1550 nm associated to the chromatic dispersion parameter of an optical fiber, as well as the length of the optical link. Microwave band-pass windows exhibit on average a-3 dB bandwidth of 378 MHz. This electro-optical system shows an efficient configuration and good performance. Potentially, filtered microwave signals can be used as electrical carriers in optical communication systems to transmit and distribute services such as video, voice and data.

  6. Power system transient stability simulation based on module bi-directional iteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Dazhong; YANG; Xiaodong

    2005-01-01

    A new simultaneous solution method using module bi-directional iteration is proposed for power system transient stability simulation. In this method, power network is partitioned into a tree hierarchy; computation modules are established for decomposed power networks and various power system components respectively. Through representing every computation module by a computation node, a computation tree is constructed by connecting the nodes together according to their electrical relations in power systems. A tree-traversing procedure called forward reduction and backward evaluation is performed to calculate correction factors of the variables in Newton iterations. This high-efficiency simulation method is feasible to be applied in parallel computation for large interconnected systems. Simulation tests are conducted on the New England 10-generator test power system and the North China-Northeast interconnected system, and the results are compared with those of the commercial software BPA to validate the effectiveness and correctness of this method.

  7. Near-to-eye displays with embedded eye-tracking by bi-directional OLED microdisplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Uwe; Wartenberg, Philipp; Richter, Bernd; Brenner, Stephan; Baumgarten, Judith; Thomschke, Michael; Fehse, Karsten; Hild, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Near-to-eye (NTE) projection is the major approach to "Smart Glasses", which have gained lot of traction during the last few years. Micro-displays based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) achieve high optical performance with excellent contrast ratio and large dynamic range at low power consumption, making them suitable for such application. In state-of-the-art applications the micro-display typically acts as a purely unidirectional output device. With the integration of an additional image sensor, the functionality of the micro-display can be extended to a bidirectional optical input/output device, aiming for implementation of eye-tracking capabilities in see-through (ST-)NTE applications to achieve gaze-based human-display-interaction. This paper describes a new bi-directional OLED microdisplay featuring SVGA resolution for both image display and acquisition, and its implementation with see-through NTE optics.

  8. Bi-directional evolutionary topology optimization of continuum structures with one or multiple materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Xie, Y. M.

    2009-02-01

    There are several well-established techniques for the generation of solid-void optimal topologies such as solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method and evolutionary structural optimization (ESO) and its later version bi-directional ESO (BESO) methods. Utilizing the material interpolation scheme, a new BESO method with a penalization parameter is developed in this paper. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method for achieving convergent optimal solutions for structures with one or multiple materials. The results show that the optimal designs from the present BESO method are independent on the degree of penalization. The resulted optimal topologies and values of the objective function compare well with those of SIMP method.

  9. Dynamic Analyses of Isolated Structures under Bi-Directional Excitations of Near-Field Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Ozdemir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear response history analyses (NRHA of a 3-story isolated reinforced concrete (RC building are carried out under both uni- and bi-directional earthquake excitations of near-field records. NRHA are conducted for a wide range of yield strength (Q/W of lead rubber bearings (LRB, and isolation period (T. Selected near-field records are used to investigate both the contribution of orthogonal components on maximum isolator displacements and accuracy of equivalent lateral force (ELF procedure on estimation of maximum isolator displacements. Analyses results show that both the contribution of orthogonal components and accuracy of ELF procedure depend on the soil condition where isolation system is implemented.

  10. Bi-directional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies in a piezoelectric optomechanical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainsencher, Amit; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the principles of design, fabrication, and operation of a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal with which we demonstrate bi-directional conversion of energy between microwave and optical frequencies. The optomechanical crystal has an optical mode at 1523 nm co-located with a mechanical breathing mode at 3.8 GHz, with a measured optomechanical coupling strength gom/2π of 115 kHz. The breathing mode is driven and detected by curved interdigitated transducers that couple to a Lamb mode in suspended membranes on either end of the optomechanical crystal, allowing the external piezoelectric modulation of the optical signal as well as the converse, the detection of microwave electrical signals generated by a modulated optical signal. We compare measurements to theory where appropriate.

  11. A distributed optical fiber bi-directional strain-displacement sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A distributed optical fiber strain-displacement sensor is developed, which consists of an optical fiber gauge of strain-displacement and an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). The operational principle is the modulation of fiber loss in OTDR, i.e. the strain and displacement in monitoring position are obtained from the bending loss of optical fiber bonded on the optical fiber gauge of strain-displacement. After examining the strain and displacement in the cantilever and the micro displacement rack respectively, the result indicates that the distributed optical fiber gauge of strain-displacement can monitor strains or displacements in different sensitive lengths. The key technique for measuring bi-directional strain-displacement is the pretreatment of bending of the freely suspended optical fibers, which can be identified with OTDR by inserting time delay optical fiber.

  12. Impacts of environmental factors to bi-directional 2×40 Gb/s WDM free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Hsu, Kuang-Yu; Yeh, Jai-Ger; Lin, Yu-Ming; Yu, Yi-Lin

    2017-08-01

    Bi-directional short-range free-space optical (FSO) communication with bi-directional 2×4×10 Gb/s wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) channel signals is demonstrated by using a transmission distance of 25 m. The single-mode-fiber components are used in the optical terminals for both optical transmitting and receiving functions. The measured power penalties for the 25-m bi-directional four-channel FSO communication compared with the back-to-back link and uni-directional transmission system are less than 0.8 dB and 0.2 dB, respectively. The environmental factor effects, including the oblique incidence through the building window glasses, thermally induced non-uniform air index as well as rainfall on the FSO performance are investigated and analyzed. The experimental results show that rainfall is influential for free space optical transmission.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Responses of Classic Spar Platform Subjected to Bi-directional Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kurian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bi-directional short-crested waves on the dynamic motion responses of the moored classic spar is demonstrated from the results of the models test in this study. Practically in the design of offshore structures, long-crested or 2-dimensional wave properties that propagated to one direction are considered. Even though such long-crested wave is widely used for the design purposes, it is hardly determined in the real sea. The wind generated sea state in the real sea conditions are indeed well represented by the short-crested waves. Short-crested waves are defined as linear summation of long-crested wave series that propagated to different directions. Hence, the motions of the model were investigated experimentally by conducting the wave tank tests in the wave tank of Offshore Laboratory of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. Five groups of bi-directional wave series were defined and exerted on the classic spar model, which fabricated by using steel with scaling factor of 1:100. From the results measured, it was found that similar trends of the responses in term of Response Amplitude Operator (RAO for surge, heave and pitch motions were obtained. Maximum responses of surge, heave and pitch were found due to wave crossing angle 90°, while minimum response was found due to wave crossing angle 135°, respectively. It could be concluded that the wave crossing angle 90° (BD3 gives the widest spreading for short crested waves, while the wave crossing angle 135° (BD4 gives the narrowest spreading for short crested waves.

  14. Clinico-serologic co-relation in bi-directional ABO incompatible hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. Aims: The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. Materials and Methods: In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells. Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. Results: The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Conclusion: Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT.

  15. ROLE OF LEAF SURFACE WATER IN THE BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to study the ammonia exchange between plants and the atmosphere in a soybean field in Duplin County, North Carolina during the summer of 2002. Measurements indicate that the net canopy-scale ammonia exchange is bi-directional and has a significant...

  16. Performance Analysis of Video PHY Controller Using Unidirection and Bi-directional IO Standard via 7 Series FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M F L; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    graphics consumes more power, this creates a need of designing the low power design for Video PHY controller. In this paper, the performance of Video PHY controller is analyzed by comparing the power consumption of unidirectional and bi-directional IO Standard over 7 series FPGA. It is determined...

  17. An Observational Approach to Testing Bi-Directional Parent-Child Interactions as Influential to Child Eating and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Skouteris, Helen; Dell'Aquila, Daniela; Aksan, Nazan; McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Milgrom, Jeannette; Baur, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity among children has been on the rise globally for the past few decades. Previous research has centred mainly on self/parent-reported measures examining only uni-directional parental feeding styles and practices. Recent discussions in the literature have raised the importance of bi-directional parent-child interactions in influencing…

  18. ROLE OF LEAF SURFACE WATER IN THE BI-DIRECTIONAL AMMONIA EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE ATMOSPHERE AND TERRESTRIAL BIOSPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to study the ammonia exchange between plants and the atmosphere in a soybean field in Duplin County, North Carolina during the summer of 2002. Measurements indicate that the net canopy-scale ammonia exchange is bi-directional and has a significant...

  19. Analysis SWT Bi-directional Adjustable Ejector%浅析SWT型双向可调式射流器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祖才; 王剑波; 王剑平

    2000-01-01

    阐述SwT型双向可调式射流器的设计原理、结构、运行特点和使用价值。%The theory, structuer, operation performance and value of SWT bi-directional adjustable ejector are described in brief in this paper.

  20. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A self-adaptive full asynchronous bi-directional transmission channel for network-on-chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuguang, Guan; Yintang, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Duan, Zhou

    2010-08-01

    To improve two shortcomings of conventional network-on-chips, i.e. low utilization rate in channels between routers and excessive interconnection lines, this paper proposes a full asynchronous self-adaptive bi-directional transmission channel. It can utilize interconnection lines and register resources with high efficiency, and dynamically detect the data transmission state between routers through a direction regulator, which controls the sequencer to automatically adjust the transmission direction of the bi-directional channel, so as to provide a flexible data transmission environment. Null convention logic units are used to make the circuit quasi-delay insensitive and highly robust. The proposed bi-directional transmission channel is implemented based on SMIC 0.18 μm standard CMOS technology. Post-layout simulation results demonstrate that this self-adaptive bi-directional channel has better performance on throughput, transmission flexibility and channel bandwidth utilization compared to a conventional single direction channel. Moreover, the proposed channel can save interconnection lines up to 30% and can provide twice the bandwidth resources of a single direction transmission channel. The proposed channel can apply to an on-chip network which has limited resources of registers and interconnection lines.

  1. Arginine bi-directional translocation and breakdown into ornithine along the arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN HaiRu

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional translocatlon and degradation of Arginine (Arg) along the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycellum were testified through 15N and/or 13C isotopic labeling. In vitro mycorrhizas of Glomus intraradices and Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were grown in dual compartment Petri dishes. [15N-and/or13C]Arg was supplied to either the fungal compartment or the mycorrhizal compartment or separate dishes containing the uncolonized roots. The levels and labeling of free amino acids (AAs) in the mycorrhizal roots and in the extraradical mycelia(ERM) were measured by gas chromatogra-phy/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ERM of AM fungi exposed in either NH4+ or urea as sole external nitrogen source had much higher 15N enrichment of Arg, compared with those In nitrate or exogenous Arg; however, glycerol supplied as an external car-bon source to the ERM had no significant effect on the level of Arg in the ERM. Meanwhile, Arg bio-synthesized In the ERM could be translocated intact to the mycorrhizal roots and thereby the level of Arg in the mycorrhizal roots increased to about 20% after culture of ERM in 4 mmol/L NH4+ for 6 weeks.Also Arg was found to be bi-directionally transported along the AM fungal mycelium through [U-13C]Arg labeling either In the mycorrhizal compartment or in the fungal compartment. Once Arg was translo-cated to the potential N-limited sites, it would be further degraded into ornithine (Orn) and urea since either [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Orn was apparently shown up in the mycorrhizal root tissues when [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Arg was labeled In the fungal compartment, respectively. Evidently Orn formation indi-cated the ongoing activities of Arg translocation and degradation through the urea cycle in AM fungal mycelium.

  2. Arginine bi-directional translocation and breakdown into ornithine along the arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional translocation and degradation of Arginine (Arg) along the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal mycelium were testified through 15N and/or 13C isotopic labeling. In vitro mycorrhizas of Glomus intraradices and Ri T-DNA-transformed carrot roots were grown in dual compartment Petri dishes. [15N- and/or13C]Arg was supplied to either the fungal compartment or the mycorrhizal compartment or separate dishes containing the uncolonized roots. The levels and labeling of free amino acids (AAs) in the mycorrhizal roots and in the extraradical mycelia(ERM) were measured by gas chromatogra- phy/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ERM of AM fungi exposed in either NH4+ or urea as sole external nitrogen source had much higher 15N enrichment of Arg, compared with those in nitrate or exogenous Arg; however, glycerol supplied as an external car- bon source to the ERM had no significant effect on the level of Arg in the ERM. Meanwhile, Arg bio- synthesized in the ERM could be translocated intact to the mycorrhizal roots and thereby the level of Arg in the mycorrhizal roots increased to about 20% after culture of ERM in 4 mmol/L NH4+ for 6 weeks. Also Arg was found to be bi-directionally transported along the AM fungal mycelium through [U-13C]Arg labeling either in the mycorrhizal compartment or in the fungal compartment. Once Arg was translo- cated to the potential N-limited sites, it would be further degraded into ornithine (Orn) and urea since either [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Orn was apparently shown up in the mycorrhizal root tissues when [U-13C] or [U-15N/U-13C]Arg was labeled in the fungal compartment, respectively. Evidently Orn formation indi- cated the ongoing activities of Arg translocation and degradation through the urea cycle in AM fungal mycelium.

  3. The Role of PTSD in Bi-directional Intimate Partner Violence in Military and Veteran Populations: A Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Misca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting the higher prevalence of PTSD linked to combat-related trauma in military personnel and veteran populations is well-established. Consequently, much research has explored the effects that combat related trauma and the subsequent PTSD may have on different aspects of relationship functioning and adjustment. In particular, PTSD in military and veterans has been linked with perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV. New research and theoretical perspectives suggest that in order to respond effectively to IPV, a more accurate understanding of the direction of the violence experienced within each relationship is critical. In both civilian and military populations, research that has examined the direction of IPV's, bi-directional violence have been found to be highly prevalent. Evidence is also emerging as to how these bi-directional violence differ in relation to severity, motivation, physical and psychological consequences and risk factors. Of particular importance within military IPV research is the need to deepen understanding about the role of PTSD in bi-directional IPV not only as a risk factor for perpetration but also as a vulnerability risk factor for victimization, as findings from recent research suggest. This paper provides a timely, critical review of emergent literature to disentangle what is known about bi-directional IPV patterns in military and veteran populations and the roles that military or veterans' PTSD may play within these patterns. Although, this review aimed to identify global research on the topic, the majority of research meeting the inclusion criteria was from US, with only one study identified from outside, from Canada. Strengths and limitations in the extant research are identified. Directions for future research are proposed with a particular focus on the kinds of instruments and designs needed to better capture the complex interplay of PTSD and bi-directional IPV in military populations and

  4. Reconfigurable MEMS OADM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Q. Liu; J. Li; Q. X. Zhang; W. D. Zhong; C. Lu

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a serial reconfigurable OADM consisting of optical circulator and 2 × 2 MEMS optical switch and tunable FBG. Based on MEMS technology, the OADM is demonstrated to increase the flexibility, decrease the cost andimprove the reliability.

  5. Optically Controlled Reconfigurable Filtenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is regarding the development of a novel antenna called optically controlled reconfigurable filtenna, which is based on the integration of a broadband printed antenna with a bandpass reconfigurable RF filter. The filter is designed by applying defected microstrip structure (DMS technique and positioned in printed antenna feeding line in order to keep the same size of the original antenna. The filtenna bandwidth is optically reconfigurable by using two photoconductive silicon switches excited by CW laser at 808 nm. Numerical results rely on independent and switchable operational modes through the 2.4 and 5.1 GHz ISM bands, whereas measurements demonstrate two reconfigurable modes based on single-band/dual-band operation over the same frequency bands. The proposed device is validated by theoretical, numerical, and experimental results.

  6. A Bi-Directional Out-of-Plane Actuator by Electrostatic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ren

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper is a bi-directional out-of-plane actuator which combines the merits of the electrostatic repulsive principle and the electrostatic attractive principle. By taking advantage of the electrostatic repulsive mode, the common “pull-in” instability can be lessened to enlarge the displacement, and by applying the electrostatic attractive mode, the out-of-plane displacement is further enlarged. The implications of changing the actuator’s physical dimensions are discussed, along with the two-layer polysilicon surface microfabrication process used to fabricate such an actuator. The static characteristics of the out-of-plane displacement versus the voltage of both modes are tested, and displacements of 1.4 μm and 0.63 μm are obtained at 130 V and 15 V, respectively. Therefore, a total stroke of 2.03 μm is achieved, more than 3 fold that of the electrostatic attractive mode, making this actuator useful in optical Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and Radio Frequency (RF MEMS applications.

  7. Current understanding of the bi-directional relationship of major depression with inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messay Berhane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consistent evidence links major depression and its affective components to negative health outcomes. Although the pathways of these effects are likely complex and multifactorial, recent evidence suggests that innate inflammatory processes may play a role. An overview of current literature suggests that pathways between negative moods and inflammation are bi-directional. Indeed, negative moods activate peripheral physiologic mechanisms that result in an up regulation of systemic levels of inflammation. Conversely, peripheral inflammatory mediators signal the brain to affect behavioral, affective and cognitive changes that are consistent with symptoms of major depressive disorder. It is likely that these pathways are part of a complex feedback loop that involves the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems and plays a role in the modulation of peripheral inflammatory responses to central and peripheral stimuli, in central responses to peripheral immune activation and in the maintenance of homeostatic balance. Further research is warranted to fully understand the role of central processes in this feedback loop, which likely contributes to the pathophysiology of mental and physical health.

  8. Low frequency radio observations of bi-directional electron beams in the solar corona

    CERN Document Server

    Carley, Eoin P; Vilmer, Nicole; Gallagher, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    The radio signature of a shock travelling through the solar corona is known as a type II solar radio burst. In rare cases these bursts can exhibit a fine structure known as `herringbones', which are a direct indicator of particle acceleration occurring at the shock front. However, few studies have been performed on herringbones and the details of the underlying particle acceleration processes are unknown. Here, we use an image processing technique known as the Hough transform to statistically analyse the herringbone fine structure in a radio burst at $\\sim$20-90 MHz observed from the Rosse Solar-Terrestrial Observatory on 2011 September 22. We identify 188 individual bursts which are signatures of bi-directional electron beams continuously accelerated to speeds of 0.16$_{-0.10}^{+0.11} c$. This occurs at a shock acceleration site initially at a constant altitude of $\\sim$0.6 R$_{\\odot}$ in the corona, followed by a shift to $\\sim$0.5 R$_{\\odot}$. The anti-sunward beams travel a distance of 170$_{-97}^{+174}$ ...

  9. Synthesis and Analysis of Custom Bi-directional Reflectivity Distribution Functions in DIRSIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, J.; Allen, D.

    2016-09-01

    The bi-directional reflectivity distribution (BRDF) function is a fundamental optical property of materials, characterizing important properties of light scattered by a surface. For accurate radiance calculations using synthetic targets and numerical simulations such as the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model, fidelity of the target BRDFs is critical. While fits to measured BRDF data can be used in DIRSIG, obtaining high-quality data over a large spectral continuum can be time-consuming and expensive, requiring significant investment in illumination sources, sensors, and other specialized hardware. As a consequence, numerous parametric BRDF models are available to approximate actual behavior; but these all have shortcomings. Further, DIRSIG doesn't allow direct visualization of BRDFs, making it difficult for the user to understand the numerical impact of various models. Here, we discuss the innovative use of "mixture maps" to synthesize custom BRDFs as linear combinations of parametric models and measured data. We also show how DIRSIG's interactive mode can be used to visualize and analyze both available parametric models currently used in DIRSIG and custom BRDFs developed using our methods.

  10. Bi-directional modulation of AMPA receptor unitary conductance by synaptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Paul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of how synapses alter their efficiency of communication is central to the understanding of learning and memory. The most extensively studied forms of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation (LTP and its counterpart long-term depression (LTD of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, it has been shown that LTP often involves a rapid increase in the unitary conductance of AMPA receptor channels. However, LTP can also occur in the absence of any alteration in AMPA receptor unitary conductance. In the present study we have used whole-cell dendritic recording, failures analysis and non-stationary fluctuation analysis to investigate the mechanism of depotentiation of LTP. Results We find that when LTP involves an increase in unitary conductance, subsequent depotentiation invariably involves the return of unitary conductance to pre-LTP values. In contrast, when LTP does not involve a change in unitary conductance then depotentiation also occurs in the absence of any change in unitary conductance, indicating a reduction in the number of activated receptors as the most likely mechanism. Conclusions These data show that unitary conductance can be bi-directionally modified by synaptic activity. Furthermore, there are at least two distinct mechanisms to restore synaptic strength from a potentiated state, which depend upon the mechanism of the previous potentiation.

  11. Shape Optimization of the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn surgery for stage-1 single ventricle palliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aekaansh; Shang, Jessica; Esmaily-Moghadam, Mahdi; Wong, Kwai; Marsden, Alison

    2016-11-01

    Babies born with a single functional ventricle typically undergo three open-heart surgeries starting as neonates. The first of these stages (BT shunt or Norwood) has the highest mortality rates of the three, approaching 30%. Proceeding directly to a stage-2 Glenn surgery has historically demonstrated inadequate pulmonary flow (PF) & high mortality. Recently, the Assisted Bi-directional Glenn (ABG) was proposed as a promising means to achieve a stable physiology by assisting the PF via an 'ejector pump' from the systemic circulation. We present preliminary parametrization and optimization results for the ABG geometry, with the goal of increasing PF. To limit excessive pressure increases in the Superior Vena Cava (SVC), the SVC pressure is included as a constraint. We use 3-D finite element flow simulations coupled with a single ventricle lumped parameter network to evaluate PF & the pressure constraint. We employ a derivative free optimization method- the Surrogate Management Framework, in conjunction with the OpenDIEL framework to simulate multiple simultaneous evaluations. Results show that nozzle diameter is the most important design parameter affecting ABG performance. The application of these results to patient specific situations will be discussed. This work was supported by an NSF CAREER award (OCI1150184) and by the XSEDE National Computing Resource.

  12. Bi-directional Exchange: the Cornerstone of Globally Focused Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gary; Ali, Samira; Ringell, Kassia; McKay, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Social work holds a unique place relative to other professions in that it prioritizes the elimination of human suffering as its primary goal. The roots of the profession are firmly planted in Western theories, historically and culturally specific perspectives, and knowledge. History has repeatedly demonstrated an association between the arrival of Westerners and the subsequent control of natural resources. Some argue that the development of global social work practice has serious pitfalls, including diverting needed resources away from local contexts and inadvertently spreading western world-views, paradigms and practices. However, the social work profession is uniquely positioned to offer expertise and collaborate with those experiencing the serious consequences of social inequity and the dearth of economic and social resources locally and across the globe. Grounded in anti-oppressive theory, guided by the difficult, yet acute awareness of western privilege and racism, and drawing from social/collective action and collaborative paradigms, a bi-directional exchange and action are detailed as the foundations for globally focused social work. The skills and knowledge base for global social work are essential as populations locally and worldwide are impacted by a global economic system that innately increases serious social inequity. Comprehensive training and preparation for globally focused social work, critical to successful engagement in global practice are outlined.

  13. Measurement of Bi-Directional Ammonia Exchange Above a Maize Canopy in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. J.; Vieira-Filho, M. S.; Heuer, M.; Lehmann, C.; Myles, L.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Crop fertilization contributes to more than 40% of total anthropogenic emissions of ammonia (NH3) in Illinois. NH3 released into the atmospheric environment reacts readily with acidic compounds to form small diameter (<2.5μm) particulate matter (PM2.5) resulting in human health effects and deposition to surfaces causing eutrophication. Such emissions are not well characterized, and improved measurements are needed to further validate air quality models. This study seeks to provide improved understanding of the emission pathway of agricultural NH3 by measuring bi-directional flux of gaseous NH3 in an intensively managed agroecosystem. A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system was deployed above a maize canopy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Energy Farm. Average NH3 flux was measured throughout the growing season in four-hour periods during the morning and afternoon. The REA coefficient (β) was monitored for the duration of the season. The highest atmospheric NH3 concentration (8.11 μg/m3) was observed during the period nearest fertilization, with a mean concentration of 4.02 μg/m3 ± 2.15 μg/m3. Generally, larger upward fluxes of gaseous NH3 coincided with higher atmospheric NH3 concentration, but large variations were observed during the season. Observed NH3 flux ranged from -0.20 µg /m2s to 0.97 µg/m2s, where negative flux indicates deposition.

  14. Upgrade of a transverse ventilation system in a bi-directional tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidmar Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Karavanke tunnel forms an important link between Slovenia and Austria. The almost 8 km long tunnel is operated with bi-directional traffic and does not have dedicated escape routes. Moreover, the ventilation in case of fire does not satisfy requirements of the EU Directive 2004/54/EC that specifies the minimum requirements for tunnels in the trans-European road network. The paper present results of the research conducted regarding the possibility of upgrade the existing system in order to reach the required level of safety at lower costs possible. It is shown that with simple but novel adaptations of the ventilation system, a sizeable increase in the overall level of safety can be achieved. The methodology applied is a combination of a simple pipe model for tunnel ventilation and for detailed fluid dynamics analysis the CFD model is used. The existing ventilation system that in fire ventilation extracts smoke from a single duct is replaced with the smoke extraction from both ducts applying four axial fans. The analysis is focused on air/smoke flow through the vents and ducts and on pressure drops calculated over the length of the ventilation duct and its influence on the total flow. The change of the flow condition also has influence on ventilation fan operation point that is investigated in the paper as well.

  15. Bi-directional roles of bone morphogenetic proteins in cancer: another molecular Jekyll and Hyde?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehata, Shogo; Yokoyama, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Kei; Miyazono, Kohei

    2013-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional cytokines, which belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family. In some cancer tissues, aberrant expression of various BMP signal components has been detected. Here, we describe the divergent roles of BMPs during the progression of cancer. BMPs exhibit various effects on both cancer cells and on tumor microenvironments. BMPs inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, with some exceptions. BMPs also induce the differentiation of certain cancer stem cells, and attenuate their aggressiveness. In parallel, BMPs play a critical role in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis and the metastasis of cancer cells. Some mouse xenograft models have revealed that cancer metastases are prevented by the inhibition of BMP signaling. Together, these findings imply that BMPs function as both suppressors and promoters of tumors in a context dependent manner. The bi-directional characteristics of BMPs in cancer are similar to those of TGF-β, which was previously described as a molecular 'Jekyll and Hyde.' © 2013 The Authors. Pathology International © 2013 Japanese Society of Pathology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Possible bi-directional link between ETA receptors and protein kinase C in rat blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Northover

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible links have been investigated between activation of protein kinase C (PKC and endothelin (ET production by small blood vessels. Perfusion pressures were recorded from rat isolated mesenteric artery, with or without the small intestine attached, before and after addition to the perfusate of either ET-1, ET-3 or the PKC activator 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate (DOPPA. Rises in perfusion pressure in response to ET-1 (10−8 Mor DOPPA (10−6 M were reduced significantly by pre-treatment with either the ETA receptor antagonist PD151242 (10−6 M or the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 (10−6 M. ET-3 (10−8 M had a significant, albeit small, effect only when the gut was still attached to the mesentery. Inthis latter preparation ET-1 and DOPPA increased the permeability of villi microvessels to colloidal carbon in the perfusate. This effect of DOPPA was reduced by pre-treatment with either PD151242 or Ro 31-8220, but the effects of ET-1 were reduced significantly only by Ro 31-8220. ET-3 (10−8 M was without effect. The results suggest a possible bi-directional link between ETA receptors and PKC in the intestinal vasculature.

  17. Operational characteristics of mixed traffic flow under bi-directional environment using cellular automaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenke Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed traffic flow composed of autos and non-autos widely exists in developing countries and areas. To investigate the operational characteristics of the mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles in different types (large vehicles, cas, and bicycles, we develop a cellular automaton model to replicate the travel behaviors on a bi-directional road segment with respect to the physical and mechanic ftures of différent vehicle types. By implementing the eesential parameters calibrated through the field data collection, a numerical study is carried out considering the variation in volume, density, and velocity with different compositions of mixed traffic flows. The primary findings include: the average velocity of traffic flow and total volume decrease 60% and 30% after incorporating 10% bicycles, respectively; the phenomenon of double-summit in terms of the total volume appears when the proportion of bicycle is beyond 60%; the maximal total volume starts to recover when the proportion of bicycle is higher than 10 %.

  18. 4x10Gb/s WDM Bi-directional Gating in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier by Using Polarization Multiplexing Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Jianjun; Jeppesen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    Bi-directional SOA gating can further reduce the number of gating elements in the space switch, we demonstrate that a conventional SOA employing polarization multiplexing technique (PMT) can be used for bi-directional WDM gating operation at 10Gb/s....

  19. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-S. Massad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3. Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the ground layer compensation point (χg, stomatal compensation point (χs and cuticular resistance (Rw. We review existing measurements of χg, χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and dissociation equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH4 apo, NH4 bulk. For managed ecosystems, the main source of N is fertilisation which is reflected in a peak value of χs a few days following application, but also alters seasonal values of NH4 apo and NH4 bulk. We propose a parameterisation for χs which includes peak values as a function of amount and type of fertiliser application which gradually decreases to a background value. The background χs is based on total N input to the ecosystem as a yearly fertiliser application and N deposition (Ndep. For non-managed ecosystems, χs is parameterised based solely on the link with Ndep.

    For Rw we propose a general parameterisation as a function of atmospheric relative humidity (RH, incorporating a minimum value (

  20. Review and parameterisation of bi-directional ammonia exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-S. Massad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current deposition schemes used in atmospheric chemical transport models do not generally account for bi-directional exchange of ammonia (NH3. Bi-directional exchange schemes, which have so far been applied at the plot scale, can be included in transport models, but need to be parameterised with appropriate values of the stomatal compensation point (χs and cuticular resistance (Rw. We here review existing measurements of χs as well as Rw and compile a comprehensive dataset from which we then propose generalised parameterisations. χs is related to Γs, the non-dimensional ratio of [NH4+]apo and [H+]apo in the apoplast, through the temperature dependence of the combined Henry and solubility equilibrium. The meta-analysis suggests that the nitrogen (N input is the main driver of the apoplastic and bulk leaf concentrations of ammonium (NH+4 apo, NH+4 bulk. For managed ecosystems, the main source of N is fertilisation which is reflected in a peak value of χs a few days following application, but also alters seasonal values of NH+4 apo and NH+4 bulk. We propose a parameterisation for χs which includes peak values as a function of amount and type of fertiliser application which gradually decreases to a background value. The background χs is set based on total N input to the ecosystem as a yearly fertiliser application and N deposition (Ndep. For non-managed ecosystems, χs is parameterised based solely on the link with Ndep.

    For Rw we propose a general parameterisation as a function of atmospheric Relative Humidity (RH, incorporating a minimum value (R w(min, which depends on the ratio of atmospheric acid

  1. High accuracy solution of bi-directional wave propagation in continuum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Akhil; Sawant, Nilesh; Haider, Ijlal; Sharma, Nidhi; Sengupta, Tapan K.

    2015-10-01

    Solution of partial differential equations by numerical method is strongly affected due to numerical errors, which are caused mainly by deviation of numerical dispersion relation from the physical dispersion relation. To quantify and control such errors and obtain high accuracy solutions, we consider a class of problems which involve second derivative of unknowns with respect to time. Here, we analyse numerical metrics such as the numerical group velocity, numerical phase speed and the numerical amplification factor for different methods in solving the model bi-directional wave equation (BDWE). Such equations can be solved directly, for example, by Runge-Kutta-Nyström (RKN) method. Alternatively, the governing equation can be converted to a set of first order in time equations and then using four-stage fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) method for time integration. Spatial discretisation considered are the classical second and fourth order central difference schemes, along with Lele's central compact scheme for evaluating second derivatives. In another version, we have used Lele's scheme for evaluating first derivatives twice to obtain the second derivative. As BDWE represents non-dissipative, non-dispersive dynamics, we also consider the canonical problem of linearised rotating shallow water equation (LRSWE) in a new formulation involving second order derivative in time, which represents dispersive waves along with a stationary mode. The computations of LRSWE with RK4 and RKN methods for temporal discretisation and Lele's compact schemes for spatial discretisation are compared with computations performed with RK4 method for time discretisation and staggered compact scheme (SCS) for spatial discretisation by treating it as a set of three equations as reported in Rajpoot et al. (2012) [1].

  2. Bi-Directional Tuning of Amygdala Sensitivity in Combat Veterans Investigated with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Brashers-Krug

    Full Text Available Combat stress can be followed by persistent emotional consequences. It is thought that these emotional consequences are caused in part by increased amygdala reactivity. It is also thought that amygdala hyper-reactivity results from decreased inhibition from portions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in which activity is negatively correlated with activity in the amygdala. However, experimental support for these proposals has been inconsistent.We showed movies of combat and civilian scenes during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI session to 50 veterans of recent combat. We collected skin conductance responses (SCRs as measures of emotional arousal. We examined the relation of blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD signal in the amygdala and ACC to symptom measures and to SCRs.Emotional arousal, as measured with SCR, was greater during the combat movie than during the civilian movie and did not depend on symptom severity. As expected, amygdala signal during the less-arousing movie increased with increasing symptom severity. Surprisingly, during the more-arousing movie amygdala signal decreased with increasing symptom severity. These differences led to the unexpected result that amygdala signal in highly symptomatic subjects was lower during the more-arousing movie than during the less-arousing movie. Also unexpectedly, we found no significant inverse correlation between any portions of the amygdala and ACC. Rather, signal throughout more than 80% of the ACC showed a strong positive correlation with signal throughout more than 90% of the amygdala.Amygdala reactivity can be tuned bi-directionally, either up or down, in the same person depending on the stimulus and the degree of post-traumatic symptoms. The exclusively positive correlations in BOLD activity between the amygdala and ACC contrast with findings that have been cited as evidence for inhibitory control of the amygdala by the ACC. The conceptualization of post

  3. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2000-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  4. No evidence for a functional role of bi-directional Notch signaling during angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven S Liebler

    Full Text Available The Delta-Notch pathway is a signal exchanger between adjacent cells to regulate numerous differentiation steps during embryonic development. Blood vessel formation by sprouting angiogenesis requires high expression of the Notch ligand DLL4 in the leading tip cell, while Notch receptors in the trailing stalk cells are activated by DLL4 to achieve strong Notch signaling activity. Upon ligand binding, Notch receptors are cleaved by ADAM proteases and gamma-secretase. This releases the intracellular Notch domain that acts as a transcription factor. There is evidence that also Notch ligands (DLL1, DLL4, JAG1, JAG2 are processed upon receptor binding to influence transcription in the ligand-expressing cell. Thus, the existence of bi-directional Delta-Notch signaling has been proposed. We report here that the Notch ligands DLL1 and JAG1 are processed in endothelial cells in a gamma-secretase-dependent manner and that the intracellular ligand domains accumulate in the cell nucleus. Overexpression of JAG1 intracellular domain (ICD as well as DLL1-ICD, DLL4-ICD and NOTCH1-ICD inhibited endothelial proliferation. Whereas NOTCH1-ICD strongly repressed endothelial migration and sprouting angiogenesis, JAG1-ICD, DLL1-ICD and DLL4-ICD had no significant effects. Consistently, global gene expression patterns were only marginally affected by the processed Notch ligands. In addition to its effects as a transcription factor, NOTCH1-ICD promotes cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix in a transcription-independent manner. However, JAG1-ICD, DLL1-ICD and DLL4-ICD did not influence endothelial cell adhesion. In summary, reverse signaling of Notch ligands appears to be dispensable for angiogenesis in cellular systems.

  5. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Li, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton......–Raphson method. Both the unification of units and the per-unit system are proposed to simplify the system description and to enhance the computation efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing an IEEE-9 test system integrated with a 7-node natural gas network. Later, time...

  6. A bi-directional DC/DC converter for hybrid wind generator/battery system with state machine control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.C.; Liao, Y.C. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A bi-directional DC to DC converter used in a hybrid wind generator/lead-acid battery power system was presented. A state machine control strategy was used to control both the system power flow and load distribution. It was also used to increase the power capacity of the system. The battery was also charged or discharged through the bi-directional DC to DC converter. Multi-stage current charging control of the batteries was accomplished by adjusting the duty cycle of the power converter. This also improved the charging efficiency by the maximum power point tracking algorithm. It was concluded that the proposed control method can be readily extended to other renewable energy conversion systems. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  8. Reconfigurable system design and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Huang, Chun-Hsian

    2009-01-01

    Reconfigurable systems have pervaded nearly all fields of computation and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Reconfigurable System Design and Verification provides a compendium of design and verification techniques for reconfigurable systems, allowing you to quickly search for a technique and determine if it is appropriate to the task at hand. It bridges the gap between the need for reconfigurable computing education and the burgeoning development of numerous different techniques in the design and verification of reconfigurable systems in various application domains. The text e

  9. Reconfiguration of Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K. Thakre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration (DPR of FPGAs presents many opportunities for application design flexibility, enabling tasks to dynamically swap in and out of the FPGA without entire system interruption. In this paper, we will implement a line follower robot for the white line as well as for black line; both these modules will be programmed in VHDL. The robot will dynamically reconfigure the FPGA in the run-time while the robot senses black line after white line or vice-versa. This design includes two modules one is static and the other is partially reconfigurable regions (PRR which is a dynamic region. The controllers are the static modules used for controlling the flow of data to and from the reconfigurable modules to the external world (host environment through busmacros. Whereas white line and black line modules are designed as dynamic modules. Different hardware modules will be used such as Sensors and actuators , all these modules will be interfaced using FPGA controller. The speed of motor is controlled using pulse width modulation (PWM using VHDL

  10. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure

  11. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance measure

  12. Synchronization of Chaotic Storage-Ring Free-Electron Laser by Bi-Directional Coupling Scheme with the Coupling Strength Varied Periodically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liang-Yu; LUO Xiao-Shu

    2006-01-01

    @@ We analyse the chaotic dynamics of storage-ring free-electron lasers and report a bi-directional coupled scheme with the coupling strength varied periodically to synchronize two chaotic storage-ring free-electron lasers.

  13. Laboratory characterization of a CCD camera system for retrieval of bi-directional reflectance distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Prabal; Thome, Kurtis J.; Biggar, Stuart F.

    1999-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group of the Optical Science Center at the University of Arizona has developed a four-band, multi- spectral, wide-angle, imaging radiometer for the retrieval of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for vicarious calibration applications. The system consists of a fisheye lens with four interference filters centered at 470 nm, 575 nm, 660 nm, and 835 nm for spectral selection and an astronomical grade 1024 X 1024-pixel, silicon CCD array. Data taken by the system fit in the array as a nominally 0.2 degree per pixel image. This imaging radiometer system has been used in support of the calibration of Landsat-5 and SPOT- satellite sensors. This paper presents the results of laboratory characterization of the system to determine linearity of the detector, point spread function (PSF) and polarization effects. The linearity study was done on detector array without the lens, using a spherical-integrating source with a 1.5-mm aperture. This aperture simulates a point source for distances larger than 60 cm. Data were collected as both a function of exposure time and distance from the source. The results of these measurements indicate that each detector of the array is linear to better than 0.5%. Assuming a quadratic response improves this fit to better than 0.1% over 88% of the upper end of the detector's dynamic range. The point spread function (PSF) of the lens system was measured using the sphere source and aperture with the full camera system operated at a distance of 700 mm from the source, thus the aperture subtends less than the field of view of one pixel. The PSF was measured for several field angles and the signal level was found to fall to less than 1% of the peak signal within 1.5-degrees (10 pixels) for the on-axis case. The effect of this PSF on the retrieval of modeled BRDFs is shown to be less than 0.2% out to view angles of 70 degrees. The final test presented is one to assess the polarization effects of the lens

  14. Projecting Ammonia Dry Deposition Using Passive Samplers and a Bi-Directional Exchange Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Walker, J. T.; Austin, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Animal agriculture within the United States is known to be a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Dry deposition of NH3 to terrestrial ecosystems immediately surrounding large local sources of NH3 emissions (e.g. animal feeding operations) is difficult to measure, and is best estimated via models. Presented here are results for a semi-empirical modeling approach for estimating air-surface exchange fluxes of NH3 downwind of a large poultry facility (~ 3.5 million layers) using a bi-directional air-surface exchange model. The modeling domain is the western section of the Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge in Tyrrell, Washington, and Hyde Counties of eastern North Carolina in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic region. Vegetation within the modeling domain is primarily pocosin wetlands, characterized by acid (pH 3.6) peat soils and a thick canopy of shrub vegetation (leatherwood (Cyrilla racemiflora), inkberry (Ilex glabra), wax myrtle (Morella cerifera)). Land surrounding the refuge is primarily used for crop production: ~ 28%, 24%, and 45% agricultural in Tyrell, Hyde, and Washington counties, respectively. Ammonia air-surface exchange (flux) was calculated using a two-layer canopy compensation point model developed by Nemitz et al. (2001. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 127, 815 - 833.) as implemented by Walker et al. (2008. Atmos. Environ., 42, 3407 - 3418.), in which the competing processes of emission and deposition within the foliage-soil system were taken into account by relating the net canopy-scale NH3 flux to the net emission potential of the canopy (i.e., foliage and soil). Ammonia air concentrations were measured using ALPHA passive samplers (Center for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh) along transects to the north and northeast of the poultry facility at distances of 800, 2000 and 3200 m, respectively. Samplers were deployed in duplicate at each location at a height of 5.8 m from July 2008 to July 2010 weekly during warm months and bi-weekly curing

  15. Evaluation of a regional air-quality model with bi-directional NH3 exchange coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Pleim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is the primary atmospheric base and an important precursor for inorganic particulate matter and when deposited NH3 contributes to surface water eutrophication, soil acidification and decline in species biodiversity. Flux measurements indicate that the air-surface exchange of NH3 is bi-directional. However, the effects of bi-directional exchange, soil biogeochemistry and human activity are not parameterized in air quality models. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA's Community Multiscale Air-Quality (CMAQ model with bi-directional NH3 exchange has been coupled with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA's Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC agro-ecosystem model's nitrogen geochemistry algorithms. CMAQ with bi-directional NH3 exchange coupled to EPIC connects agricultural cropping management practices to emissions and atmospheric concentrations of reduced nitrogen and models the biogeochemical feedback on NH3 air-surface exchange. This coupled modeling system reduced the biases and error in NHx (NH3 + NH4+ wet deposition and in ambient aerosol concentrations in an annual 2002 Continental US (CONUS domain simulation when compared to a 2002 annual simulation of CMAQ without bi-directional exchange. Fertilizer emissions estimated in CMAQ 5.0 with bi-directional exchange exhibits markedly different seasonal dynamics than the US EPA's National Emissions Inventory (NEI, with lower emissions in the spring and fall and higher emissions in July.

  16. Impact and Use of the Asymmetric Property in Bi-directional Cooperative Relaying under Asymmetric Traffic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Koji; Murata, Hidekazu; Yoshida, Susumu

    Cooperative relaying (CR) is a promising technique to provide spatial diversity by combining multiple signals from source and relay stations. In the present paper, the impact and use of the asymmetric property in bi-directional CR under asymmetric traffic conditions are discussed assuming that CR involves one communication pair and one relay station in a time division duplex (TDD) system. The asymmetric property means that the average communication quality differs for each transmission direction because of the difference in signal power between the combined signals for each direction. First, numerical results show the asymmetric property of bi-directional CR. Next, in order to evaluate the impact of the asymmetric property, the optimal relay position and resource allocation are compared to those in simple multi-hop relaying, which does not have the asymmetric property. Numerical results show that, in order to maximize the overall quality of bi-directional communication, the optimal relay position in CR depends on the offered traffic ratio, which is defined as the traffic ratio of each transmission direction, while the offered traffic ratio does not affect the optimal relay position in multi-hop relaying. Finally, the asymmetric property is used to enhance the overall quality. Specifically, a high overall quality can be achieved by, for example, opportunistically switching to the transmission direction with higher quality. Under asymmetric traffic conditions, weighted proportionally fair scheduling (WPFS), which is proposed in the context of downlink scheduling in a cellular network, is applied to transmission direction switching. Numerical results reveal that WPFS provides a high overall quality and that the quality ratio is similar to the offered traffic ratio.

  17. Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The changing balance of forces at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop a new generation of spatially reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials in which electromagnetic Coulomb, Lorentz and Ampère forces, as well as thermal stimulation and optical signals, can be engaged to dynamically change their optical properties. Individual building blocks of such metamaterials, the metamolecules, and their arrays fabricated on elastic dielectric membranes can be reconfigured to achieve optical modulation at high frequencies, potentially reaching the gigahertz range. Mechanical and optical resonances enhance the magnitude of actuation and optical response within these nanostructures, which can be driven by electric signals of only a few volts or optical signals with power of only a few milliwatts. We envisage switchable, electro-optical, magneto-optical and nonlinear metamaterials that are compact and silicon-nanofabrication-technology compatible with functionalities surpassing those of natural media by orders of magnitude in some key design parameters.

  18. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  19. Bandwidth Reconfigurable Metamaterial Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial structures provide innovative ways to manipulate electromagnetic wave responses to realize new applications. This paper presents a conformal wideband metamaterial array that achieves as much as 10 : 1 continuous bandwidth. This was done by using interelement coupling to concurrently achieve significant wave slow-down and cancel the inductance stemming from the ground plane. The corresponding equivalent circuit of the resulting array is the same as that of classic metamaterial structures. In this paper, we present a wideband Marchand-type balun with validation measurements demonstrating the metamaterial (MTM array’s bandwidth from 280 MHz to 2800 MHz. Bandwidth reconfiguration of this class of array is then demonstrated achieving a variety of band-pass or band-rejection responses within its original bandwidth. In contrast with previous bandwidth and frequency response reconfigurations, our approach does not change the aperture’s or ground plane’s geometry, nor does it introduce external filtering structures. Instead, the new responses are realized by making simple circuit changes into the balanced feed integrated with the wideband MTM array. A variety of circuit changes can be employed using MEMS switches or variable lumped loads within the feed and 5 example band-pass and band-rejection responses are presented. These demonstrate the potential of the MTM array’s reconfiguration to address a variety of responses.

  20. Exploration of pathological prediction of chronic kidney diseases by a novel theory of bi-directional probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Luo, Min; Xiao, Li; Zhu, Xue-Jing; Wang, Chang; Fu, Xiao; Yuan, Shu-Guang; Xiao, Fang; Liu, Hong; Dong, Zheng; Liu, Fu-You; Sun, Lin

    2016-08-25

    In the clinic, the pathological types of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are considered references for choosing treatment protocols. From a statistical viewpoint, a non-invasive method to predict pathological types of CKD is a focus of our work. In the current study, following a frequency analysis of the clinical indices of 588 CKD patients in the department of nephrology, a third-grade class-A hospital, a novel theory is proposed: "bi-directional cumulative probability dichotomy". Further, two models for the prediction and differential diagnosis of CKD pathological type are established. The former indicates an occurrence probability of the pathological types, and the latter indicates an occurrence of CKD pathological type according to logistic binary regression. To verify the models, data were collected from 135 patients, and the results showed that the highest accuracy rate on membranous nephropathy (MN-100%), followed by IgA nephropathy (IgAN-83.33%) and mild lesion type (MLN-73.53%), whereas lower prediction accuracy was observed for mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (0%) and focal segmental sclerosis type (21.74%). The models of bi-directional probability prediction and differential diagnosis indicate a good prediction value in MN, IgAN and MLN and may be considered alternative methods for the pathological discrimination of CKD patients who are unable to undergo renal biopsy.

  1. A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus for potential application in seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi [Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus is developed. This MRE was synthesized by filling NdFeB particles into polyurethane (PU)/ epoxy (EP) interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. The anisotropic samples were prepared in a permanent magnetic field and magnetized in an electromagnetic field of 1 T. Dynamic mechanical responses of the MRE to applied magnetic fields are investigated through magneto-rheometer, and morphology of MREs is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test result indicates that when the test field orientation is parallel to that of the sample's magnetization, the shear modulus of sample increases. On the other hand, when the orientation is opposite to that of the sample's magnetization, shear modulus decreases. In addition, this PU/EP IPN matrix based MRE has a high-damping property, with high loss factor and can be controlled by applying magnetic field. It is expected that the high damping property and the ability of bi-directional magnetic-control modulus of this MRE offer promising advantages in seismologic application.

  2. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada); Redekop, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Univeristy of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont., KIN 6N5 (Canada)]. E-mail: dredekop@tesla.cc.uottawa.ca

    2005-03-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading.

  3. Cooperation of electrically stimulated muscle and pneumatic muscle to realize RUPERT bi-directional motion for grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xikai Tu; Jiping He; Yue Wen; Jian Huang; Xinhan Huang; Hailong Huang; Meng Guo; Yong Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted rehabilitation is an active area of research to meet the demand of repetitive therapy in stroke rehabilitation. Robotic upper-extremity repetitive trainer (RUPERT) with its unidirectional pneumatic muscle actuation (PMA) can be used by most stroke patients that have difficulty moving in one direction because of a weak agonist or hyperactive antagonist. In this research, to broaden the usage of RUPERT, we not only add grasping functionality to the rehabilitation robot with the help of surface Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) but also realize the robot joint bi-directional motion by using a PMA in cooperation with surface FES evoked paralyzed muscle force. This integrative rehabilitation strategy is explored for training patients to practice coordinated reaching and grasping functions. The effectiveness of this FES electrically evoked bio-actuator way is verified through a method that separates the mixed electromyogram (MEMG) into the electrically evoked electromyogram (EEMG) and voluntary electromyogram (VEMG). This is a promising approach to alleviate the size and mechanical complexity of the robot, thereby the cost of the joint bi-directional actuator rehabilitation robot by means of their own characteristics of stroke subjects.

  4. Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in chronic heart failure reduces bi-directional pulmonary fluid flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dani-Louise; Mayne, George C; Griggs, Kim M; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Bersten, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Chronic heart failure leads to pulmonary vascular remodelling and thickening of the alveolar-capillary barrier. We examined whether this protective effect may slow resolution of pulmonary oedema consistent with decreased bi-directional fluid flux. Seven weeks following left coronary artery ligation, we measured both fluid flux during an acute rise in left atrial pressure (n = 29) and intrinsic alveolar fluid clearance (n = 45) in the isolated rat lung. Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure prevented pulmonary oedema and decreased lung compliance when left atrial pressure was raised to 20 cmH2O, and was associated with reduced expression of endothelial aquaporin 1 (P = 0.03). However, no other changes were found in mediators of fluid flux or cellular fluid channels. In isolated rat lungs, chronic LV dysfunction (LV end-diastolic pressure and infarct circumference) was also inversely related to alveolar fluid clearance (P ≤ 0.001). The rate of pulmonary oedema reabsorption was estimated by plasma volume expansion in eight patients with a previous clinical history of chronic heart failure and eight without, who presented with acute pulmonary oedema. Plasma volume expansion was reduced at 24 h in those with chronic heart failure (P = 0.03). Chronic elevation of pulmonary microvascular pressure in CHF leads to decreased intrinsic bi-directional fluid flux at the alveolar-capillary barrier. This adaptive response defends against alveolar flooding, but may delay resolution of alveolar oedema.

  5. Transparent Dynamic reconfiguration for CORBA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, João Paulo A.; Wegdam, Maarten; Sinderen, van Marten; Nieuwenhuis, Lambert; Blair, G.; Schmidt, D.; Tari, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Distributed systems with high availability requirements have to support some form of dynamic reconfiguration. This means that they must provide the ability to be maintained or upgraded without being taken off-line. Building a distributed system that allows dynamic reconfiguration is very intrusive t

  6. RF MEMS Based Reconfigurable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will first of all address the advantages of RF MEMS circuit in antenna applications and also the need for electronically reconfigurable antennas. Next, discuss some of the recent examples of RF MEMS based reconfigurable microstrip antennas. Finally, conclude the talk with a summary of MEMS antenna performance.

  7. Topology optimization using bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization based on the element-free Galerkin method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Vahid

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method based on the element-free Galerkin (EFG) method is presented for topology optimization of continuum structures. The mathematical formulation of the topology optimization is developed considering the nodal strain energy as the design variable and the minimization of compliance as the objective function. The EFG method is used to derive the shape functions using the moving least squares approximation. The essential boundary conditions are enforced by the method of Lagrange multipliers. Several topology optimization problems are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Many issues related to topology optimization of continuum structures, such as chequerboard patterns and mesh dependency, are studied in the examples.

  8. Parallel input parallel output high voltage bi-directional converters for driving dielectric electro active polymer actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2014-01-01

    is to design and implement driving circuits for the DEAP actuators for their use in various applications. This paper presents implementation of parallel input, parallel output, high voltage (~2.5 kV) bi-directional DC-DC converters for driving the DEAP actuators. The topology is a bidirectional flyback DC......-DC converter incorporating commercially available high voltage MOSFETs (4 kV) and high voltage diodes (5 kV). Although the average current of the aforementioned devices is limited to 300 mA and 150 mA, respectively, connecting the outputs of multiple converters in parallel can provide a scalable design....... This enables operating the DEAP actuators in various static and dynamic applications e.g. positioning, vibration generation or damping, and pumps. The proposed idea is experimentally verified by connecting three high voltage converters in parallel to operate a single DEAP actuator. The experimental results...

  9. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Eom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  10. Reconfigurable Integrated Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Soref

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated optics today is based upon chips of Si and InP. The future of this chip industry is probably contained in the thrust towards optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs and photonic integrated circuits (PICs manufactured in a high-volume foundry. We believe that reconfigurable OEICs and PICs, known as ROEICs and RPICs, constitute the ultimate embodiment of integrated photonics. This paper shows that any ROEIC-on-a-chip can be decomposed into photonic modules, some of them fixed and some of them changeable in function. Reconfiguration is provided by electrical control signals to the electro-optical building blocks. We illustrate these modules in detail and discuss 3D ROEIC chips for the highest-performance signal processing. We present examples of our module theory for RPIC optical lattice filters already constructed, and we propose new ROEICs for directed optical logic, large-scale matrix switching, and 2D beamsteering of a phased-array microwave antenna. In general, large-scale-integrated ROEICs will enable significant applications in computing, quantum computing, communications, learning, imaging, telepresence, sensing, RF/microwave photonics, information storage, cryptography, and data mining.

  11. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  12. Airborne hyperspectral surface and cloud bi-directional reflectivity observations in the Arctic using a commercial, digital camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Spectral radiance measurements by a digital single-lens reflex camera were used to derive the bi-directional reflectivity of clouds and different surfaces in the Arctic. The camera has been calibrated radiometrically and spectrally to provide accurate radiance measurements with high angular resolution. A comparison with spectral radiance measurements with the SMART-Albedometer showed an agreement within the uncertainties of both instruments. The bi-directional reflectivity in terms of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor HDRF was obtained for sea ice, ice free ocean and clouds. The sea ice, with an albedo of ρ = 0.96, showed an almost isotropic HDRF, while sun glint was observed for the ocean HDRF (ρ = 0.12. For the cloud observations with ρ = 0.62, the fog bow – a backscatter feature typically for scattering by liquid water droplets – was covered by the camera. For measurements above a heterogeneous stratocumulus clouds, the required number of images to obtain a mean HDRF which clearly exhibits the fog bow has been estimated with about 50 images (10 min flight time. A representation of the HDRF as function of the scattering angle only reduces the image number to about 10 (2 min flight time.

    The measured cloud and ocean HDRF have been compared to radiative transfer simulations. The ocean HDRF simulated with the observed surface wind speed of 9 m s−1 agreed best with the measurements. For the cloud HDRF, the best agreement was obtained by a broad and weak fog bow simulated with a cloud droplet effective radius of Reff = 4 μm. This value agrees with the particle sizes from in situ measurements and retrieved from the spectral radiance of the SMART-Albedometer.

  13. Optimal Reconfiguration of Tetrahedral Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Geoffrey; Rao, Anil V.; Hughes, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of minimum-fuel formation reconfiguration for the Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) mission is studied. This reconfiguration trajectory optimization problem can be posed as a nonlinear optimal control problem. In this research, this optimal control problem is solved using a spectral collocation method called the Gauss pseudospectral method. The objective of this research is to provide highly accurate minimum-fuel solutions to the MMS formation reconfiguration problem and to gain insight into the underlying structure of fuel-optimal trajectories.

  14. Reconfigurable nanowire electronics - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. M.; Heinzig, A.; Trommer, J.; Martin, D.; Grube, M.; Mikolajick, T.

    2014-12-01

    Reconfigurable nanowire transistors merge the electrical properties of unipolar n- and p-type FETs into a single type of device with identic technology, geometry and composition. These four-terminal nanowire transistors employ an electric signal to dynamically program unipolar n- or p-type behavior. More than reducing the technological complexity, they open up the possibility of dynamically programming the functions of circuits at the device level, i.e. enabling a fine-grain reconfiguration of complex functions. We will review different reconfigurable concepts, analyze the transport properties and finally assess their maturity for building circuits.

  15. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    were not obstacles which the proposed changes should overcome, but are on the contrary necessary, as it is the alliances between the particular interests and the proposed changes that motor the initiatives. The interests were not invented through the initiatives but are formed through history. Although...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... not in the intended manner. It was, however, an achievement to relate the different interests for a period. In this dissertation I will elucidate the proposed changes in the initiatives as well as expound on the manner in which they were proposed. It is argued that the different interests involved in the initiatives...

  16. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    Experience, measured as seniority, is seldom sufficient to explain individual professionals’ abilities to contribute with valuable knowledge to team production. We need to pay attention to professionals’ knowledge and its fit to the project they engage in. In many industries and settings, the cog......Experience, measured as seniority, is seldom sufficient to explain individual professionals’ abilities to contribute with valuable knowledge to team production. We need to pay attention to professionals’ knowledge and its fit to the project they engage in. In many industries and settings...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  17. Reconfigurable, Digital EVA Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The nature of human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars demands a frequency-agile, reconfigurable, durable digital radio delivering telemetry, ranging, voice,...

  18. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those ins

  19. Comparison of ultraviolet Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) measurements of diffusers used in the calibration of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, J.J.; Park, H.; Barnes, P.Y.; Early, E.A.; Eijk-Olij, C. van; Zoutman, A.E.; Buller-Leeuwen, S. van; Groote Schaarsberg, J.

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and long-term monitoring of global total ozone by ultraviolet albedo measuring satellite instruments require accurate and precise determination of the Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of laboratory-based diffusers used in the pre-launch calibration of those

  20. Reconfigurable Parallel Data Flow Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Naji, Hamid Reza

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reconfigurable parallel data flow architecture. This architecture uses the concepts of multi-agent paradigm in reconfigurable hardware systems. The utilization of this new paradigm has the potential to greatly increase the flexibility, efficiency, expandability of data flow systems and to provide an attractive alternative to the current set of disjoint approaches that are currently applied to this problem domain. The ability of methodology to implement data flow type processing with different models is presented in this paper.

  1. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karani S Vimaleswaran

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR analysis.We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OHD (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects. Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT consortium (n = 123,864. Each 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OHD (p = 6.52×10⁻²⁷. The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (p = 6.30×10⁻⁶² and 25(OHD (-0.06% [95% CI -0.10 to -0.02], p = 0.004 in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OHD (p≤8.07×10⁻⁵⁷ for both scores but not with BMI (synthesis score, p = 0.88; metabolism score, p = 0.08 in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OHD concentrations (IV ratio: -4.2 [95% CI -7.1 to -1.3], p = 0.005. No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OHD with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (p≥0.57 for both vitamin D scores.On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OHD, while any effects of lower 25(OHD increasing BMI are likely to be small. Population level interventions to

  2. Lunar Applications in Reconfigurable Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program is developing a lunar surface outpost in which reconfigurable computing will play a significant role. Reconfigurable systems provide a number of benefits over conventional software-based implementations including performance and power efficiency, while the use of standardized reconfigurable hardware provides opportunities to reduce logistical overhead. The current vision for the lunar surface architecture includes habitation, mobility, and communications systems, each of which greatly benefit from reconfigurable hardware in applications including video processing, natural feature recognition, data formatting, IP offload processing, and embedded control systems. In deploying reprogrammable hardware, considerations similar to those of software systems must be managed. There needs to be a mechanism for discovery enabling applications to locate and utilize the available resources. Also, application interfaces are needed to provide for both configuring the resources as well as transferring data between the application and the reconfigurable hardware. Each of these topics are explored in the context of deploying reconfigurable resources as an integral aspect of the lunar exploration architecture.

  3. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, Matteo; Kong, Xianwen

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I provides a selection of key papers presented in The Second ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR 2012) held on 9th -11th  July 2012 in Tianjin, China. This ongoing series of conferences will be covered in this ongoing collection of books.   A total of seventy-eight papers are divided into seven parts to cover the topology, kinematics and design of reconfigurable mechanisms with the reconfiguration theory, analysis and synthesis, and present the current research and development in the field of reconfigurable mechanisms including reconfigurable parallel mechanisms. In this aspect, the recent study and development of reconfigurable robots are further presented with the analysis and design and with their control and development. The bio-inspired mechanisms and subsequent reconfiguration are explored in the challenging fields of rehabilitation and minimally invasive surgery. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and ...

  4. Investigating sources of measured forest-atmosphere ammonia fluxes using two-layer bi-directional modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.; Personne, E.; Skjøth, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    with a coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model to represent seasonal variation in canopy physiological activity for simulating both net ecosystem CO2 exchange rates (R2=0.77 for MMSF and R2=0.84 for DK-Sor) and atmospheric NH3 fluxes (R2=0.43 for MMSF and R2=0.60 for DK-Sor). A scaling of the ground...... explain the daytime flux observations well, and it is hypothesized that cuticular desorption is responsible for the observed NH3 emissions at night. During leaf fall in DK-Sor, ground fluxes dominate the NH3 flux with a mean emission rate of 150ng NH3-N m−2s−1. This study shows that forests potentially...... comprise a natural source of NH3 to the atmosphere, and that it is crucial to take into account the bi-directional exchange processes related to both the stomatal, cuticular and ground layer pathways in order to realistically simulate forest–atmosphere fluxes of NH3....

  5. Angle-Resolved Scatter Measurements of Laser Damaged DKDP Crystals Using a Bi-Directional Scatter Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluck, R; Wegner, P; Sheehan, L; Hackel, L A

    2000-12-22

    We built a bi-directional scatter diagnostics to measure and quantify losses due to scattering and absorption of harmonic conversion crystals (DKDP) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The main issues to be addressed are (1) amount of total energy reaching the target if the target hole was {+-}200 {micro}rad in size, (2) distribution of energy inside the target hole, (3) collateral damage of other optics by scattered light. The scatter diagnostics enables angle-resolved measurements at 351 nm, and is capable of both near specular transmission and large angle scatter measurements. In the near specular setup, the transmission can be measured within {+-}65 {micro}rad up to {+-}60 mrad acceptance angle. A silicon photo detector and a scientific-grade CCD camera provide total energy and energy distribution. A linear swing arm detection system enables large angle scatter measurements of 360{sup o}, in principal, with step sizes as small as 0.01{sup o} and different collection angle ranging between 1 and 20 mad. In this paper, scatter effects from laser damage and final finishing process of DKDP are discussed.

  6. Bi-directional processing of pri-miRNAs with branched terminal loops by Arabidopsis Dicer-like1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Yuyi; Castillo-González, Claudia; Lu, Amber; Ge, Chunxiao; Zhao, Ying-Tao; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Zhaohu; Axtell, Michael J.; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Xiuren

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs originate from primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) with characteristic stem-loop structures. Accurate processing of pri-miRNAs is required for functional miRNAs. Here, using pri-miR166 family as a paradigm, we report the decisive role of pri-miRNA terminal loops in miRNA biogenesis. We found that multi-branched terminal loops in pri-miR166s substantially suppressed miR166 expression in vivo. Unlike canonical processing of pri-miRNAs, terminal-loop-branched (TLBed) pri-miRNAs can be processed by Dicer-like1 (DCL1) complexes bi-directionally: from base to loop and from loop to base, resulting in productive and abortive processing of miRNAs, respectively. In either case, DCL1 complexes canonically cut pri-miRNAs at a distance of 16-17 base pairs (bp) from a reference single-stranded loop region. DCL1 also adjusts processing sites toward an internal loop through its helicase domain. Thus, these results provide new insight into the poorly understood processing mechanism of pri-miRNAs with complicated secondary structures. PMID:23934148

  7. Simulating bi-directional pedestrian flow in a cellular automaton model considering the body-turning behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Jiang, Rui; Yin, Jun-Lin; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Dawei

    2017-09-01

    In the experiments of bi-directional pedestrian flow, it is often observed that pedestrians turn their bodies and change from walking straight to walking sideways, in order to mitigate or avoid the conflicts with opposite walking ones. When these conflicts disappear, pedestrians restore and walk straight again. In the turning states, the forward velocities of pedestrians are not affected. In order to simulate this body-turning behavior, we use a cellular automaton (CA) model named ITP model, which has been proposed before. But the occupied area of one pedestrian is set as 0.4 m∗0.2 m. After the introduction of new rules of turnings and restorations, the pedestrians become more intelligent and flexible during the lane formation process, and some improvements of the fundamental diagram of pedestrian flow can be found. The simulation results of two different scenarios under open boundary conditions are also presented, and compared with the experimental data. It is shown that the new model performs much better than the original model in various tests, which further confirms the validity of the new rules. We think this approach is one useful contribution to the pedestrian flow modeling.

  8. Sistem Navigasi Indoor Menggunakan Bi-Directional Dijkstra Search Berbasis Integrasi dengan Smartphone untuk Studi Kasus pada Gedung Bertingkat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ardhiansyah Metana Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini kebutuhan masyarakat akan informasi lokasi sangat tinggi, terutama dengan memanfaatkan teknologi teknologi Global Positioning System (GPS. GPS merupakan salah satu teknologi yang bisa digunakan untuk melakukan navigasi diluar ruangan, namun ketika berada di dalam ruangan atau bangunan sistem ini memiliki akurasi yang rendah, apalagi untuk ruangan/gedung yang besar. Oleh karena itu, sebuah sistem yang lebih akurat untuk memberikan solusi bagi pendeteksian lokasi di dalam ruangan atau gedung yang memiliki lebih dari satu level lantai dikembangkan dengan konsep 3D Indoor Navigation System. Sistem yang dibangun dapat menunjukan posisi pengguna dengan menggunakan Indoor Localization System dengan memanfaatkan Received Signal Strength (RSS dan rute navigasi dalam tampilan peta 3D menggunakan Bi-Directional Algorithm untuk melakukan pencarian rute terdekat antar dua tempat. Untuk mengembangkan tampilan peta 3D digunakan Unity3D. Hasil pengujian sistem menunjukan bahwa sistem ini dapat menampilkan lokasi pengguna dan rute perjalanan pada peta 3D serta pengguna bisa melakukan navigasi pada peta tersebut. Dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa sistem ini dapat lebih membantu pengguna dalam menemukan tempat yang ingin dituju pada studi kasus gedung Teknik Informatika ITS.

  9. Self-vibration cancellation of a novel bi-directional magnetized NdFeB/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chung Ming; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    A novel magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite structure is proposed in this work, aiming to provide a good self-vibration cancellation performance under the magnetic field detection environment. The proposed structure consists of two Terfenol-D magnetostrictive alloy plates which are revised and length-magnetized by two NdFeB magnets bonded on the top surface of a thickness-polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramic plate with separate electrodes. Experiments have shown that great vibration suppression up to 44 dB under harmonic disturbance was observed. The ME coefficient of the proposed structure also reaches up to ˜29 mV/Oe at non-resonance frequency and 758 mV/Oe at resonance frequency of 79 kHz which is ˜2 times larger than the traditional L-T Terfenol-D/PZT bilayer configuration of the same scale. Such performance improvement is achieved based on the bi-directional magnetic field bias (HBias) of two NdFeB magnets in magnetostrictive layer, internal in-series electrical wire connection in piezoelectric layer. The proposed design has great potential to be used for industrial applications associated with heavy environmental vibration noise.

  10. Reconfigurable Networks-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sao-Jie; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hu, Yu-Hen

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive survey of recent progress in the design and implementation of Networks-on-Chip. It addresses a wide spectrum of on-chip communication problems, ranging from physical, network, to application layers. Specific topics that are explored in detail include packet routing, resource arbitration, error control/correction, application mapping, and communication scheduling. Additionally, a novel bi-directional communication channel NoC (BiNoC) architecture is described, with detailed explanation.   Written for practicing engineers in need of practical knowledge about the design and implementation of networks-on-chip; Includes tutorial-like details to introduce readers to a diverse range of NoC designs, as well as in-depth analysis for designers with NoC experience to explore advanced issues; Describes a variety of on-chip communication architectures, including a novel bi-directional communication channel NoC.     From the Foreword: Overall this book shows important advances over the...

  11. On reconfigurable tiled multi-core programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, Kenneth C.; Burgwal, van de Marcel D.; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2009-01-01

    For a generic flexible efficient array antenna receiver platform a hierarchical reconfigurable tiled architecture has been proposed. The architecture provides a flexible reconfigurable solution, but partitioning, mapping, modelling and programming such systems remains an issue. A semantic model has

  12. MEMS-Reconfigurable Metamaterials and Antenna Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Debogovic; Julien Perruisseau-Carrier

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right/left handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA). Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, ...

  13. Network-based reconfiguration routes for a self-reconfigurable robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JinGuo; MA ShuGen; WANG YueChao; LI Bin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a network-based analysis approach for the reconfiguration problem of a self-reconfigurable robot.The self-reconfigurable modular robot named "AMOEBA-Ⅰ" has nine kinds of non-isomorphic configurations that consist of a configuration network.Each configuration of the robot is defined to be a node in the weighted and directed configuration network.The transformation from one configuration to another is represented by a directed path with nonnegative weight.Graph theory is applied in the reconfiguration analysis,where reconfiguration route,reconfigurable matrix and route matrix are defined according to the topological information of these configurations.Algorithms in graph theory have been used in enumerating the available reconfiguration routes and deciding the best reconfiguration route.Numerical analysis and experimental simulation results prove the validity of the approach proposed in this paper.And it is potentially suitable for other self-reconfigurable robots' configuration control and reconfiguration planning.

  14. CHANGES IN CORTICAL KYNURENIC ACID BI-DIRECTIONALLY MODULATE PREFRONTAL GLUTAMATE LEVELS AS ASSESSED BY MICRODIALYSIS AND RAPID ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradsson-Geuken, Ȧ.; Gash, C. R.; Wu, H.-Q.; Alexander, K. S.; Pellicciari, R.; Schwarcz, R.; Bruno, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Using two in vivo methods, microdialysis and rapid in situ electrochemistry, this study examined the modulation of extracellular glutamate levels by endogenously produced kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of awake rats. Measured by microdialysis, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KYNA's bioprecursor L-kynurenine dose-dependently elevated extracellular KYNA and reduced extracellular glutamate (nadir after 50 mg/kg kynurenine: 60% decrease from baseline values). This dose-dependent decrease in glutamate levels was also seen using a glutamate-sensitive microelectrode array (MEA) (31% decrease following 50 mg/kg kynurenine). The kynurenine-induced reduction in glutamate was blocked (microdialysis) or attenuated (MEA) by co-administration of galantamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), a drug that competes with KYNA at an allosteric potentiating site of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In separate experiments, extracellular glutamate levels were measured by MEA following the local perfusion (45 min) of the PFC with kynurenine (2.5 μM) or the selective KYNA biosynthesis inhibitor S-ethylsulfonylbenzoylalanine (S-ESBA; 5 mM). In agreement with previous microdialysis studies, systemic kynurenine application produced a reversible reduction in glutamate (nadir: −29%), whereas perfusion with S-ESBA increased glutamate levels reversibly (maximum: +38%). Collectively, these results demonstrate that fluctuations in the biosynthesis of KYNA in the PFC bi-directionally modulate extracellular glutamate levels, and that qualitatively very similar data are obtained by microdialysis and MEA. Since KYNA levels are elevated in the PFC of individuals with schizophrenia, and since prefrontal glutamatergic and nicotinic transmission mediate cognitive flexibility, normalization of KYNA levels in the PFC may constitute an effective treatment strategy for alleviating cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:20600676

  15. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  16. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  17. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  18. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-04-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  19. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  20. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  1. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  2. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  3. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  4. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-02] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  5. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  6. CERES BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data in HDF (CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    Each BiDirectional Scans (BDS) data product contains twenty-four hours of Level-1b data for each CERES scanner instrument mounted on each spacecraft. The BDS includes samples taken in normal and short Earth scan elevation profiles in both fixed and rotating azimuth scan modes (including space, internal calibration, and solar calibration views). The BDS contains Level-0 raw (unconverted) science and instrument data as well as the geolocated converted science and instrument data. The BDS contains additional data not found in the Level-0 input file, including converted satellite position and velocity data, celestial data, converted digital status data, and parameters used in the radiance count conversion equations. The following CERES BDS data sets are currently available: CER_BDS_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_BDS_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_BDS_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  7. Image processing using reconfigurable FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lee

    1996-10-01

    The use of reconfigurable field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for imaging applications show considerable promise to fill the gap that often occurs when digital signal processor chips fail to meet performance specifications. Single chip DSPs do not have the overall performance to meet the needs of many imaging applications, particularly in real-time designs. Using multiple DSPs to boost performance often presents major design challenges in maintaining data alignment and process synchronization. These challenges can impose serious cost, power consumption and board space penalties. Image processing requires manipulating massive amounts of data at high-speed. Although DSP chips can process data at high-speeds, their architectures can inhibit overall system performance in real-time imaging. The rate of operations can be increased when they are performed in dedicated hardware, such as special-purpose imaging devices and FPGAs, which provides the horsepower necessary to implement real-time image processing products successfully and cost-effectively. For many fixed applications, non-SRAM- based (antifuse or flash-based) FPGAs provide the raw speed to accomplish standard high-speed functions. However, in applications where algorithms are continuously changing and compute operations must be modified, only SRAM-based FPGAs give enough flexibility. The addition of reconfigurable FPGAs as a flexible hardware facility enables DSP chips to perform optimally. The benefits primarily stem from optimizing the hardware for the algorithms or the use of reconfigurable hardware to enhance the product architecture. And with SRAM-based FPGAs that are capable of partial dynamic reconfiguration, such as the Cache-Logic FPGAs from Atmel, continuous modification of data and logic is not only possible, it is practical as well. First we review the particular demands of image processing. Then we present various applications and discuss strategies for exploiting the capabilities of

  8. Dynamically reconfigurable bio-inspired hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Upegui Posada, Andres Emilio

    2006-01-01

    During the last several years, reconfigurable computing devices have experienced an impressive development in their resource availability, speed, and configurability. Currently, commercial FPGAs offer the possibility of self-reconfiguring by partially modifying their configuration bitstream, providing high architectural flexibility, while guaranteeing high performance. These configurability features have received special interest from computer architects: one can find several reconfigurable c...

  9. Antenna reconfiguration verification and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor); Carlson, Douglas R. (Inventor); Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of testing the electrical functionality of an optically controlled switch in a reconfigurable antenna is provided. The method includes configuring one or more conductive paths between one or more feed points and one or more test point with switches in the reconfigurable antenna. Applying one or more test signals to the one or more feed points. Monitoring the one or more test points in response to the one or more test signals and determining the functionality of the switch based upon the monitoring of the one or more test points.

  10. A rule driven bi-directional translation system for remapping queries and result sets between a mediated schema and heterogeneous data sources.

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, R.; Mork, P.; Barclay, M; Tarczy-Hornoch, P.

    2002-01-01

    As the number of online biomedical data sources increases, so too do the number of ways to access such data. The research described herein focuses on creating a data access system that provides bi-directional translation and mapping of data between heterogeneous databases and a mediated schema. Semantic mapping rules stored in a knowledge base are used by our generalized software to convert XML query results obtained from each data source to a common schema representing a single ontology. We ...

  11. Construction and analysis of a plant transformation binary vector pBDGG harboring a bi-directional promoter fusing dual visible reporter genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxiao Zhang; Ying Gai; Wenqi Wang; Yanyan Zhu; Xuemei Chen; Xiangning Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) is a polar unidirectional promoter and is widely used in plantgenetic engineering.In the present study,the unidirectional CaMV 35S promoter has been modified to a bi-directional promoter by fusing its minimal promoter element to the 5' end of CaMV 35S promoter in the opposite orientation.To qualitatively and quantitatively esti-mate its bi-directional Wanscriptionai function and activity,two visible reporter genes,gusA β-glucuronidase,GUS) and gfp (green fluo-rescent protein,GFP),were fused to the two ends of the promoter in bi-orientations ending with NOS terminator sequences,respectively.Stable expression of gusA and gfp genes in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was visulized by histochemically staining for GUS and fluorescence microscopic observation under UV for GFP in transgenic plants.The expression of two reporter genes showed that the eonsuructed bi-directional promoter did have the bi-directional transcriptional function in both expected orientations.The quantitativeestimation of GUS and GFP were determined on a HITACHI F1000 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer with various wavelengths of excita-tion and emission.The GUS activity varied from 8 to 250 pmol 4-MU/min/mg protein and the GFP content varied from 0.9 to 1.8 μg/mg protein in various lines of transgenic tobacco plants.Higher GUS activity generally coupled with lower GFP content,and vice versa.

  12. Organizational Reconfiguration and Strategic Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the organizational reconfiguration of offshoring on firms’ strategies. A consequence of offshoring is the need to reintegrate the geographically relocated organizational activities into a coherent organizational architecture. In order to do...

  13. Secure computing on reconfigurable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes Chaves, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes a Secure Computing Module (SCM) for reconfigurable computing systems. SC provides a protected and reliable computational environment, where data security and protection against malicious attacks to the system is assured. SC is strongly based on encryption algorithms and on the

  14. Channel Communication and Reconfigurable Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Karelse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many applications can be structured as a set of processes or threads that communicate via channels. These threads can be executed on various platforms (e.g. general purpose CPU, DSP, FPGA, etc). In our research we apply channels as a basic communication mechanism between threads in a reconfigurable

  15. Secure computing on reconfigurable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes Chaves, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes a Secure Computing Module (SCM) for reconfigurable computing systems. SC provides a protected and reliable computational environment, where data security and protection against malicious attacks to the system is assured. SC is strongly based on encryption algorithms and on the a

  16. Design of reconfigurable logic controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...

  17. Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Topological Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-12-01

    Using full 3D finite-element simulation and underlining Hamiltonian models, we demonstrate reconfigurable photonic analogues of topological insulators on a regular lattice of tunable posts in a reentrant 3D lumped element-type system. The tunability allows a dynamical in situ change of media chirality and other properties via the alteration of the same parameter for all posts, and as a result, great flexibility in the choice of bulk-edge configurations. Additionally, one-way photon transport without an external magnetic field is demonstrated. The ideas are illustrated by using both full finite-element simulation as well as simplified harmonic oscillator models. Dynamical reconfigurability of the proposed systems paves the way to a class of systems that can be employed for random access, topological signal processing, and sensing.

  18. Reconfigurable Microwave Photonic Topological Insulator

    CERN Document Server

    Goryachev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate reconfigurable photonic analogues of topological insulators on a regular lattice of tunable posts in a re-entrant 3D lumped element type system. The tunability allows dynamical {\\it in-situ} change of media chirality and other properties via change of a single post parameter, and as a result, great flexibility in choice of bulk/edge configurations. Additionally, one way photon transport without external magnetic field is demonstrated. The ideas are illustrated by using both full finite element simulation as well as simplified harmonic oscillator models. Reconfigurability of the proposed systems paves the wave to a new class of systems that can be employed for random access, topological signal processing and sensing.

  19. Dynamic reconfiguration in sensor middleware

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, P.; Coulson, G; Blair, Gordon S.; Porter, B. (collab.); Hughes, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Middleware solutions for sensor networks have so far mainly focused on communication abstractions, ad-hoc message routing protocols, and power conservation techniques. We argue that customisation and dynamic reconfiguration of sensor network middleware are additional important dimensions to consider. This paper describes a sensor middleware that can be customised to suit different sensor application types, and provides a reflective approach for co-ordinated network-wide dynamic reconfiguratio...

  20. Structures with Reconfigurable Circulatory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-16

    crosslinked material; whereas exposure to a different wavelength of light should reverse the crosslinking reaction and reform a liquid material...terminated LDI- glycerol polymer. Structures with Reconfigurable Circulatory Systems - Clark, Beckman, Cho, Weiland, and Bielawski 3 C..,c (Glutathione...reduced) (Glutathione, oxidized) C 4 V ’ " - .- x,,, ’- %. Figure 1:3. Scheme 11: Dissolution-gelation of Cysteine terminated LDI- glycerol polymer gel

  1. A novel PWM control for a bi-directional full-bridge DC-DC converter with smooth conversion mode transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, V. R. H.; Schwarzmann, H.; März, M.; Bauer, A. J.; Ryssel, H.; Frey, L.; Poure, P.; Braun, F.

    2011-08-01

    A novel CMOS integrated pulse-width modulation (PWM) control circuit allowing smooth transitions between conversion modes in full-bridge based bi-directional DC-DC converters operating at high switching frequencies is presented. The novel PWM control circuit is able to drive full-bridge based DC-DC converters performing step-down (i.e. buck) and step-up (i.e. boost) voltage conversion in both directions, thus allowing charging and discharging of the batteries in mobile systems. It provides smooth transitions between buck, buck-boost and boost modes. Additionally, the novel PWM control loop circuit uses a symmetrical triangular carrier, which overcomes the necessity of using an output phasing circuit previously required in PWM controllers based on sawtooth oscillators. The novel PWM control also enables to build bi-directional DC-DC converters operating at high switching frequencies (i.e. up to 10 MHz and above). Finally, the proposed PWM control circuit also allows the use of an average lossless inductor-current sensor for sensing the average load current even at very high switching frequencies. In this article, the proposed PWM control circuit is modelled and the integrated CMOS schematic is given. The corresponding theory is analysed and presented in detail. The circuit simulations realised in the Cadence Spectre software with a commercially available 0.18 µm mixed-signal CMOS technology from UMC are shown. The PWM control circuit was implemented in a monolithic integrated bi-directional CMOS DC-DC converter ASIC prototype. The fabricated prototype was tested experimentally and has shown performances in accordance with the theory.

  2. The Bi-Directional Prediction of Carbon Fiber Production Using a Combination of Improved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper creates a bi-directional prediction model to predict the performance of carbon fiber and the productive parameters based on a support vector machine (SVM and improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm (SVM-IPSO. In the SVM, it is crucial to select the parameters that have an important impact on the performance of prediction. The IPSO is proposed to optimize them, and then the SVM-IPSO model is applied to the bi-directional prediction of carbon fiber production. The predictive accuracy of SVM is mainly dependent on its parameters, and IPSO is thus exploited to seek the optimal parameters for SVM in order to improve its prediction capability. Inspired by a cell communication mechanism, we propose IPSO by incorporating information of the global best solution into the search strategy to improve exploitation, and we employ IPSO to establish the bi-directional prediction model: in the direction of the forward prediction, we consider productive parameters as input and property indexes as output; in the direction of the backward prediction, we consider property indexes as input and productive parameters as output, and in this case, the model becomes a scheme design for novel style carbon fibers. The results from a set of the experimental data show that the proposed model can outperform the radial basis function neural network (RNN, the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the hybrid approach of genetic algorithm and improved particle swarm optimization (GA-IPSO method in most of the experiments. In other words, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the SVM-IPSO model in dealing with the problem of forecasting.

  3. The enhancement effect of pp38 gene product on the activity of its upstream bi-directional promoter in Marek's disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Jiabo; CUI; Zhizhong; JIANG; Shijin; REDDY; Sanjay

    2006-01-01

    There was a bi-directional promoter between gene 38 kd phosphorylated protein (pp38) gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcript gene family in the genome of Marek's disease virus (MDV). In this study, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) reporter plamids, pP(pp38)-EGFP and pP(1.8- kb)-EGFP, were constructed under this bi-directional promoter in two directions. The two plasmids were transfected into uninfected chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF), MDV clone rMd5 infected CEF (rMd5-CEF) and pp38-deleted derivative rMd5Δpp38 infected CEF (rMd5Δpp38-CEF) respectively. Transfection analysis showed that EGFP was only expressed in rMd5-CEF, and no EGFP could be detected in uninfected CEF or rMd5Δpp38-CEF, implying that pp38 was a factor influencing the activity of the promoter. The pp38-expressing recombinant plasmid pcDNA-pp38 was constructed to co- transfect CEF or rMd5Δpp38-CEF with pP(pp38)-EGFP or pP(1.8-kb)-EGFP. In this case, EGFP could be detected only in rMd5Δpp38-CEF but still not in uninfected CEF, implying that pp38 needs other protein(s) to work together for the complete trans-acting activity. Another MDV gene, 24 kd phosphorylated protein pp24 gene was cloned into pcDNA3.1 as a pp24-expressing recombinant plasmid pcDNA-pp24. When uninfected CEF was co-transfected with pcDNA-pp38, pcDNA-pp24 and EGFP expressing plasmids pP(pp38)-EGFP or pP(1.8-kb)-EGFP, the EGFP could be detected. These results indicated that pp38 and pp24 could enhance the activity of the promoter when they worked together. DNA mobility shift assay showed that pp38 would bind to the bi-directional promoter with the co-existing of pp24, although neither of them alone influenced mobility of the promoter DNA. All the above suggested that MDV pp38 could transactivate the bi-directional promoter when combined with pp24. The results also indicated that the activity of the promoter in the direction of 1.8-kb mRNA was significantly stronger than that of pp38 direction.

  4. Simulation analysis of one-stage C+L-band erbium-doped fiber ASE source with double-pass bi-directional pumping configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wencai Huang(黄文财); Hai Ming(明海)

    2004-01-01

    A new technique to generate a C+L-band flat amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source in one-stage erbium-doped fiber (EDF) using bi-directional pumping configuration is analyzed. The simulation results show that the key point of obtaining flat C+L-band ASE spectrum in one-stage EDF is using a laser diode operated at 980 nm as backward pump source. ASE source with nearly 80-nm bandwidth can be obtained by means of selecting suitable fiber length and properly adjusting the ratio of forward to backward pump power.

  5. Analysis and Design of Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter in the Extended Run Time DC UPS System Based on Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    input voltage combined with load current feedback using PI controller with anti-windup scheme to realize closed-loop control of the whole system, and verify the feasibility of the control scheme proposed by simulation. A 1kW prototype controlled by TMS320F2808 DSP is implemented and tested. Experimental......Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes...

  6. Reconfigurable Computing for Dynamically Reprogrammable Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the need for a framework and domain architecture suitable for reconfigurable transceivers and associated component technologies. The goal of...

  7. MEMS-Reconfigurable Metamaterials and Antenna Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Debogovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right-/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA. Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, applicable in reflectarrays and partially reflective surface (PRS antennas. All the presented devices have been fabricated and experimentally validated. They operate in X- and Ku-bands.

  8. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  9. Reconfiguration of Analog Electronics for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo; Keymeulen, Didier; Guo, Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of adaptive reconfiguration as a technique to expand the operational envelope of analog electronics for extreme environments (EE). On a reconfigurable device, although component parameters change in EE, as long as devices still operate, albeit degraded, a new circuit design, suitable for new parameter values, may be mapped into the reconfigurable structure to recover the initial circuit function. Laboratory demonstrations of this technique were performed by JPL in several independent experiments in which bulk CMOS reconfgurable devices were exposed to, and degraded by, high temperatures (approx.300 C) or radiation (300kRad TID), and then recovered by adaptive reconfiguration using evolutionary search algorithms.

  10. MEMS-reconfigurable metamaterials and antenna applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debogovic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right/left handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA). Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, applicable in reflectarrays and partially reflective surface (PRS) antennas. All the presented devices have been fabricated and experimentally validated. They operate in X- and Ku-bands.

  11. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, Anja; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike [University of Muenster, Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Clinical Radiology, Muenster (Germany); Minnerup, Jens [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Neurology, Muenster (Germany); Dannlowski, Udo [University of Muenster, Department of Psychiatry, Muenster (Germany); University of Marburg, Department of Psychiatry, Marburg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. (orig.)

  12. Relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions and nonlinear increase in the conversion efficiency of an optical parametric oscillator using a bi-directional pump geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, G; McConnell, G

    2010-03-01

    A novel bi-directional pump geometry that nonlinearly increases the nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is reported. This bi-directional pumping method synchronizes the circulating signal pulse with two counter-propagating pump pulses within a linear OPO resonator. Through this pump scheme, an increase in nonlinear optical conversion efficiency of 22% was achieved at the signal wavelength, corresponding to a 95% overall increase in average power. Given an almost unchanged measured pulse duration of 260 fs under optimal performance conditions, this related to a signal wavelength peak power output of 18.8 kW, compared with 10 kW using the traditional single-pass geometry. In this study, a total effective peak intensity pump-field of 7.11 GW/cm(2) (corresponding to 3.55 GW/cm(2) from each pump beam) was applied to a 3 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, which had a damage threshold intensity of 4 GW/cm(2), without impairing crystal integrity. We therefore prove the application of this novel pump geometry provides opportunities for power-scaling of synchronously pumped OPO systems together with enhanced nonlinear conversion efficiency through relaxed damage threshold intensity conditions.

  13. A mathematical model and computational framework for three-dimensional chondrocyte cell growth in a porous tissue scaffold placed inside a bi-directional flow perfusion bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawath Hossain, Md; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture for cartilage tissue regeneration in a perfusion bioreactor is a complex process. Mathematical modeling and computational simulation can provide important insights into the culture process, which would be helpful for selecting culture conditions to improve the quality of the developed tissue constructs. However, simulation of the cell culture process is a challenging task due to the complicated interaction between the cells and local fluid flow and nutrient transport inside the complex porous scaffolds. In this study, a mathematical model and computational framework has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) cell growth in a porous scaffold placed inside a bi-directional flow perfusion bioreactor. The model was developed by taking into account the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field and associated glucose concentration, and then used to perform a resolved-scale simulation based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The simulation predicts the local shear stress, glucose concentration, and 3D cell growth inside the porous scaffold for a period of 30 days of cell culture. The predicted cell growth rate was in good overall agreement with the experimental results available in the literature. This study demonstrates that the bi-directional flow perfusion culture system can enhance the homogeneity of the cell growth inside the scaffold. The model and computational framework developed is capable of providing significant insight into the culture process, thus providing a powerful tool for the design and optimization of the cell culture process.

  14. Collective cargo hauling by a bundle of parallel microtubules: bi-directional motion caused by load-dependent polymerization and depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Dipanwita; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    A microtubule (MT) is a hollow tube of approximately 25 nm diameter. The two ends of the tube are dissimilar and are designated as ‘plus’ and ‘minus’ ends. Motivated by the collective push and pull exerted by a bundle of MTs during chromosome segregation in a living cell, we have developed here a much simplified theoretical model of a bundle of parallel dynamic MTs. The plus-end of all the MTs in the bundle is permanently attached to a movable ‘wall’ by a device whose detailed structure is not treated explicitly in our model. The only requirement is that the device allows polymerization and depolymerization of each MT at the plus-end. In spite of the absence of external force and direct lateral interactions between the MTs, the group of polymerizing MTs attached to the wall create a load force against the group of depolymerizing MTs and vice versa; the load against a group is shared equally by the members of that group. Such indirect interactions among the MTs give rise to the rich variety of possible states of collective dynamics that we have identified by computer simulations of the model in different parameter regimes. The bi-directional motion of the cargo, caused by the load-dependence of the polymerization kinetics, is a ‘proof-of-principle’ that the bi-directional motion of chromosomes before cell division does not necessarily need active participation of motor proteins.

  15. Efficient Runtime Management of Reconfigurable Hardware Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marconi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Runtime reconfigurable systems built upon devices with partial reconfiguration can provide reduction in overall hardware area, power efficiency, and economic cost in addition to the performance improvements due to better customization. However, the users of such systems have to be able to afford som

  16. The Molen compiler for reconfigurable architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscu Panainte, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present the Molen compiler framework that targets reconfigurable architectures under the Molen Programming Paradigm. More specifically, we introduce a set of compiler optimizations that address one of the main shortcomings of the reconfigurable architectures, namely the reco

  17. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2011-01-01

    be effective if sufficient redundancy does not exist in the process. A measure for control reconfigurability which reveals the level of redundancy in connection with feedback control is proposed in this paper for bilinear systems. The proposed control reconfigurability measure is the extension of its gramian...

  18. Reconfigurable Radio-Over-Fiber Networks [Invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks, including activities in coherent remote access units, silicon photonics for microwave photonics and optical switching.......This paper discusses reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks, including activities in coherent remote access units, silicon photonics for microwave photonics and optical switching....

  19. Robust Reconfiguration of A Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradzadeh, Benyamin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a robust reconfiguration approach based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is proposed to minimize loss in distribution systems. A Depth-First Search (DFS) algorithm to enumerate possible loops provides radiality constraint. This provides a general solution to the radiality constraint for distribution system reconfiguration/expansion problems. Still, imprecision and ambiguity in net loads, i.e. load minus renewable generation, due to lack of sufficient measurements and high utilization of demand response programs and renewable resources, creates challenges for effective reconfiguration. Deterministic optimization of reconfiguration may no lead to optimal/feasible results. Two methods to address these uncertainties are introduced in this paper: one, based on a stochastic MIP (SMIP) formulation and two, based on a fuzzy MIP (FMIP) formulation. Case studies demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of the proposed reconfiguration methods.

  20. Formation reconfiguration in restricted three body problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengping Gong; Junfeng Li; Hexi Baoyin; Yunfeng Gao

    2007-01-01

    Reconfiguration of formation flying around a halo orbit of the Sun-Earth restricted three body system is investigated with impulse maneuvers. For a short time reconfiguration, the two-impulse maneuver is investigated with both analytical and numerical methods and the BeginningEnding (BE) method is proven to be an energy-optimal one of all two-impulse (TI) reconfigurations, and the energy consumption of BE is independent of the position of the chief spacecraft, and decreases with the reconfiguration time.Then, genetic algorithm is adopted to optimize the energy consumption. The results show that the optimal energy increases with radius difference between the initial and final orbits, and decreases with the reconfiguration time.

  1. Implementing Workflow Reconfiguration in WS-BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzara, Manuel; Dragoni, Nicola; Zhou, Mu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of dynamic reconfiguration by means of a workflow-based case study used for discussion. We state the requirements on a system implementing the workflow and its reconfiguration, and we describe the system’s design in BPMN. WS-BPEL, a language that would not natu......This paper investigates the problem of dynamic reconfiguration by means of a workflow-based case study used for discussion. We state the requirements on a system implementing the workflow and its reconfiguration, and we describe the system’s design in BPMN. WS-BPEL, a language that would...... not naturally support dynamic change, is used as a target for implementation. The WS-BPEL recovery framework is here exploited to implement the reconfiguration using principles derived from previous research in process algebra and two mappings from BPMN to WS-BPEL are presented, one automatic and only mostly...

  2. Transformational electronics are now reconfiguring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Arevalo, A.; Foulds, I. G.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-05-01

    Current developments on enhancing our smart living experience are leveraging the increased interest for novel systems that can be compatible with foldable, wrinkled, wavy and complex geometries and surfaces, and thus become truly ubiquitous and easy to deploy. Therefore, relying on innovative structural designs we have been able to reconfigure the physical form of various materials, to achieve remarkable mechanical flexibility and stretchability, which provides us with the perfect platform to develop enhanced electronic systems for application in entertainment, healthcare, fitness and wellness, military and manufacturing industry. Based on these novel structural designs we have developed a siliconbased network of hexagonal islands connected through double-spiral springs, forming an ultra-stretchable (~1000%) array for full compliance to highly asymmetric shapes and surfaces, as well as a serpentine design used to show an ultrastretchable (~800%) and flexible, spatially reconfigurable, mobile, metallic thin film copper (Cu)-based, body-integrated and non-invasive thermal heater with wireless controlling capability, reusability, heating-adaptability and affordability due to low-cost complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration.

  3. Transformational electronics are now reconfiguring

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-22

    Current developments on enhancing our smart living experience are leveraging the increased interest for novel systems that can be compatible with foldable, wrinkled, wavy and complex geometries and surfaces, and thus become truly ubiquitous and easy to deploy. Therefore, relying on innovative structural designs we have been able to reconfigure the physical form of various materials, to achieve remarkable mechanical flexibility and stretchability, which provides us with the perfect platform to develop enhanced electronic systems for application in entertainment, healthcare, fitness and wellness, military and manufacturing industry. Based on these novel structural designs we have developed a siliconbased network of hexagonal islands connected through double-spiral springs, forming an ultra-stretchable (~1000%) array for full compliance to highly asymmetric shapes and surfaces, as well as a serpentine design used to show an ultrastretchable (~800%) and flexible, spatially reconfigurable, mobile, metallic thin film copper (Cu)-based, body-integrated and non-invasive thermal heater with wireless controlling capability, reusability, heating-adaptability and affordability due to low-cost complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  4. Reconfigurable L-Band Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.

    2008-01-01

    The reconfigurable L-Band radar is an ongoing development at NASA/GSFC that exploits the capability inherently in phased array radar systems with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to enable multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar architecture. The development leverages on the L-Band Imaging Scatterometer, a radar system designed for the development and testing of new radar techniques; and the custom-built DBSAR processor, a highly reconfigurable, high speed data acquisition and processing system. The radar modes currently implemented include scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and altimetry; and plans to add new modes such as radiometry and bi-static GNSS signals are being formulated. This development is aimed at enhancing the radar remote sensing capabilities for airborne and spaceborne applications in support of Earth Science and planetary exploration This paper describes the design of the radar and processor systems, explains the operational modes, and discusses preliminary measurements and future plans.

  5. Dynamically Reconfigurable Processor for Floating Point Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anbumani,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, development of embedded processors is toward miniaturization and energy saving for ecology. On the other hand, high performance arithmetic circuits are required in a lot of application in science and technology. Dynamically reconfigurable processors have been developed to meet these requests. They can change circuit configuration according to instructions in program instantly during operations.This paper describes, a dynamically reconfigurable circuit for floating-point arithmetic is proposed. The arithmetic circuit consists of two single precision floating-point arithmetic circuits. It performs double precision floating-point arithmetic by reconfiguration. Dynamic reconfiguration changes circuit construction at one clock cycle during operation without stopping circuits. It enables reconfiguration of circuits in a few nano seconds. The proposed circuit is reconfigured in two modes. In first mode it performs one double precision floating-point arithmetic or else the circuit will perform two parallel operations of single precision floating-point arithmetic. The new system design reduces implementation area by reconfiguring common parts of each operation. It also increases the processing speed with a very little number of clocks.

  6. Performance Assessment of Bi-Directional Knotless Tissue-Closure Devices in Juvenile Chinook Salmon Surgically Implanted with Acoustic Transmitters, 2009 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Bryson, Amanda J.

    2012-11-09

    The purpose of this report is to assess the performance of bi-directional knotless tissue-closure devices for use in tagging juvenile salmon. This study is part of an ongoing effort at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to reduce unwanted effects of tags and tagging procedures on the survival and behavior of juvenile salmonids, by assessing and refining suturing techniques, suture materials, and tag burdens. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knotless (barbed) suture, using three different suture patterns (treatments: 6-point, Wide “N”, Wide “N” Knot), to the current method of suturing (MonocrylTM monofilament, discontinuous sutures with a 2×2×2×2 knot) used in monitoring and research programs with a novel antiseptic barrier on the wound (“Second Skin”).

  7. A validation of a ray-tracing tool used to generate bi-directional scattering distribution functions for complex fenestration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, A.; Jonsson, C.J.; Appelfeld, David

    2013-01-01

    Fenestration attachments are anticipated to produce significant reductions in building energy use because they can be deployed quickly at low-cost. New software tools enable users to assess the building energy impacts of optically complex fenestration systems (CFS) such as shades, Venetian blinds......, or daylighting systems. However, such tools require users to provide bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data that describe the solar-optical performance of the CFS. A free, open-source Radiance tool genBSDF enables users to generate BSDF data for arbitrary CFS. Prior to genBSDF, BSDF data...... for arbitrary fenestration systems could only be produced using either expensive software or with expensive equipment. genBSDF outputs CFS data in the Window 6 XML file format and so can be used with CFS-enabled software tools to model multi-layered window systems composed of glazing and shading layers...

  8. A discussion of the bi-directional ranking of occurrence-frequency based non-interactive literature method for knowledge discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Yunqiu; GUO; Kelei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the existing ranking terminology or subject relevancy of documents methods through an intermediary collection as a catalyst(designated as Group B collection)for the purpose of of non-interactive literature-based discovery,this article proposes a bi-directional document occurrence frequency based ranking method according to the"concurrence theory"and the degree and extent of the subject relevancy.This method explores and further refines the ranking method that is based on the occurrence frequency of the usage of certain terminologies and documents and injects a new insightful perspective of the concurrence of appropriate terminologies/documents in the"low occurrence frequency component"of three non-interactive document collections.A preliminary experiment was conducted to analyze and to test the significance and viability of our newly designed operational method.

  9. Bi-directional gene set enrichment and canonical correlation analysis identify key diet-sensitive pathways and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaora Peadar Ó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of bioinformatics methods are available to generate appropriate lists of genes from a microarray experiment. While these lists represent an accurate primary analysis of the data, fewer options exist to contextualise those lists. The development and validation of such methods is crucial to the wider application of microarray technology in the clinical setting. Two key challenges in clinical bioinformatics involve appropriate statistical modelling of dynamic transcriptomic changes, and extraction of clinically relevant meaning from very large datasets. Results Here, we apply an approach to gene set enrichment analysis that allows for detection of bi-directional enrichment within a gene set. Furthermore, we apply canonical correlation analysis and Fisher's exact test, using plasma marker data with known clinical relevance to aid identification of the most important gene and pathway changes in our transcriptomic dataset. After a 28-day dietary intervention with high-CLA beef, a range of plasma markers indicated a marked improvement in the metabolic health of genetically obese mice. Tissue transcriptomic profiles indicated that the effects were most dramatic in liver (1270 genes significantly changed; p Conclusion Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of

  10. The construction and characterization of the bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts of Marek's disease viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Jiabo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marek's disease virus (MDV has a bi-directional promoter between pp38 gene and 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts. By sequencing for the promoters from 8 different strains (CVI988, 814, GA, JM, Md5, G2, RB1B and 648A, it is found, comparing with the other 7 MDV strains, CVI988 has a 5-bp (from -628 to -632 deletion in this region, which caused a Sp1 site destroyed. In order to analysis the activity of the promoter, the complete bi-directional promoters from GA and CVI988 were, respectively, cloned into pCAT-Basic vector in both directions for the recombinants pPGA(pp38-CAT, pPGA(1.8 kb-CAT, pPCVI(pp38-CAT and pPCVI(1.8 kb-CAT. The complete promoter of GA was divided into two single-direction promoters from the replication of MDV genomic DNA, and cloned into pCAT-Basic for pdPGA(pp38-CAT and pdPGA(1.8 kb-CAT as well. The above 6 recombinants were then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs infected with MDV, and the activity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT was measured from the lysed CEFs 48 h post transfection. Results The results showed the activity of the divided promoters was decreased on both directions. In 1.8-kb mRNA direction, it is nearly down to 2.4% (19/781 of the whole promoter, while it keeps 65% (34/52 activity in pp38 direction. The deletion of Sp1 site in CVI988 causes the 20% activity decreased, and has little influence in pp38 direction. Conclusion The present study confirmed their result, and the promoter for the 1.8-kb mRNA transcripts is a much stronger promoter than that in the orientation for pp38.

  11. MR imaging of the brain in large cohort studies: feasibility report of the population- and patient-based BiDirect study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Anja; Sundermann, Benedikt; Kugel, Harald; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter; Minnerup, Jens; Dannlowski, Udo; Berger, Klaus; Wersching, Heike

    2017-01-01

    To describe the implementation and protocol of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the longitudinal BiDirect study and to report rates of study participation as well as management of incidental findings. Data came from the BiDirect study that investigates the relationship between depression and arteriosclerosis and comprises 2258 participants in three cohorts: 999 patients with depression, 347 patients with manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 912 population-based controls. The study program includes MRI of the brain. Reasons for non-participation were systematically collected. Incidental findings were categorized and disclosed according to clinical relevance. At baseline 2176 participants were offered MRI, of whom 1453 (67 %) completed it. Reasons for non-participation differed according to cohort, age and gender with controls showing the highest participation rate of 79 %. Patient cohorts had higher refusal rates and CVD patients a high prevalence of contraindications. In the first follow-up examination 69 % of participating subjects completed MRI. Incidental findings were disclosed to 246 participants (17 %). The majority of incidental findings were extensive white matter hyperintensities requiring further diagnostic work-up. Knowledge about subjects and sensible definition of incidental findings are crucial for large-scale imaging projects. Our data offer practical and concrete information for the design of future studies. • Willingness to participate in MRI is generally high, also in follow-up examinations. • Rates of refusal and prevalence of contraindications differ according to subject characteristics. • Extensive white matter hyperintensities considerably increase the disclosure rates of incidental findings. • MRI workflow requires continuous case-by-case handling by an interdisciplinary team.

  12. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella

    2013-01-01

    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  13. (Re)configuration based on model generation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Gerhard; Falkner, Andreas A; Haselböck, Alois; Schenner, Gottfried; Schreiner, Herwig; 10.4204/EPTCS.65.3

    2011-01-01

    Reconfiguration is an important activity for companies selling configurable products or services which have a long life time. However, identification of a set of required changes in a legacy configuration is a hard problem, since even small changes in the requirements might imply significant modifications. In this paper we show a solution based on answer set programming, which is a logic-based knowledge representation formalism well suited for a compact description of (re)configuration problems. Its applicability is demonstrated on simple abstractions of several real-world scenarios. The evaluation of our solution on a set of benchmark instances derived from commercial (re)configuration problems shows its practical applicability.

  14. Design of reconfigurable antennas using graph models

    CERN Document Server

    Costantine, Joseph; Christodoulou, Christos G; Christodoulou, Christos G

    2013-01-01

    This lecture discusses the use of graph models to represent reconfigurable antennas. The rise of antennas that adapt to their environment and change their operation based on the user's request hasn't been met with clear design guidelines. There is a need to propose some rules for the optimization of any reconfigurable antenna design and performance. Since reconfigurable antennas are seen as a collection of self-organizing parts, graph models can be introduced to relate each possible topology to a corresponding electromagnetic performance in terms of achieving a characteristic frequency of oper

  15. 基于锂电池化成的新型双向DC/DC拓扑结构研究与建模%Research and Modeling of New Bi-directional DC/DC Topological Structure Based on Lithium Battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少林; 王宜志; 李志斌

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of bi-directional DC/DC topological structure used in the technology of lithium batteries is put for-ward. Adopting two-stage bi-directional DC/DC topological combination ( the half-bridge bi-directional converter and the buck-boost bi-directional converter) , and taking control of buck-boost bi-directional converter by digital signal processor, which can attain the transformation of large voltage differences. The loop simulation of the topological structure of the power circuit can be realized in the environment of Matlab/Simlink. The simulation results show that the converter performance is stahle, and can effectively realize bi-directional transformation between 3 V battery voltage and 400 V bus bar voltage.%提出一种用于锂电池化成技术的新型双向DC/DC拓扑结构.采用两级双向DC/DC拓扑结构,一级使用半桥双向变换器,另一级使用Buck-boost双向变换器,用数字信号处理器对Buck-boost双向变换器进行闭环控制,能实现输入电压和输出电压有较大压差的情况下进行变换.在Matlab/Simlink下对该拓扑结构进行验证.结果表明,该变换器性能稳定,能有效地实现3 V电池电压和400 V母线电压双向变换.

  16. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant...... that although the reconfiguration is performed to achieve a single objective, the overall network performance is improved. In addition, the value achieved by reconfiguration can be very sensitive to the reconfiguration frequency and the associated cost....

  17. Researches on Reconfigurable Antenna in CEMLAB at UESTC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-zhong; XIAO Shao-qiu; ZHANG Yong; YANG Xue-song; WU Wei-xia

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the achievement and progress in the research on reconfigurable antenna since 2001, in Computational Electromagnetics Laboratory (CEMLAB) at University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC). Several typical reconfigurable antennas are introduced, which can realize frequency, pattern or frequency-pattern reconfigurability by electrically controlling methods. Some techniques involved in the design and analysis of reconfigurable antennas are reported. At last, the development trend of reconfigurable antenna is predicted in the conclusions.

  18. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  19. Reconfigurable optical assembly of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo, Yunuen; Yetisen, Ali K.; Butt, Haider; Yun, Seok-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Arrangements of nanostructures in well-defined patterns are the basis of photonic crystals, metamaterials and holograms. Furthermore, rewritable optical materials can be achieved by dynamically manipulating nanoassemblies. Here we demonstrate a mechanism to configure plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer media using nanosecond laser pulses. The mechanism relies on optical forces produced by the interference of laser beams, which allow NPs to migrate to lower-energy configurations. The resulting NP arrangements are stable without any external energy source, but erasable and rewritable by additional recording pulses. We demonstrate reconfigurable optical elements including multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, volumetric photonic crystals and lenses, as well as dynamic holograms of three-dimensional virtual objects. We aim to expand the applications of optical forces, which have been mostly restricted to optical tweezers. Holographic assemblies of nanoparticles will allow a new generation of programmable composites for tunable metamaterials, data storage devices, sensors and displays.

  20. Radiation effects in reconfigurable FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are co-processing hardware used in image and signal processing. FPGA are programmed with custom implementations of an algorithm. These algorithms are highly parallel hardware designs that are faster than software implementations. This flexibility and speed has made FPGAs attractive for many space programs that need in situ, high-speed signal processing for data categorization and data compression. Most commercial FPGAs are affected by the space radiation environment, though. Problems with TID has restricted the use of flash-based FPGAs. Static random access memory based FPGAs must be mitigated to suppress errors from single-event upsets. This paper provides a review of radiation effects issues in reconfigurable FPGAs and discusses methods for mitigating these problems. With careful design it is possible to use these components effectively and resiliently.

  1. Adaptive reconfigurable distributed sensor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1997-07-01

    The infancy of unattended ground based sensors is quickly coming to an end with the arrival of on-board GPS, networking, and multiple sensing capabilities. Unfortunately, their use is only first-order at best: GPS assists with sensor report registration; networks push sensor reports back to the warfighter and forwards control information to the sensors; multispectral sensing is a preset, pre-deployment consideration; and the scalability of large sensor networks is questionable. Current architectures provide little synergy among or within the sensors either before or after deployment, and do not map well to the tactical user's organizational structures and constraints. A new distributed sensor architecture is defined which moves well beyond single sensor, single task architectures. Advantages include: (1) automatic mapping of tactical direction to multiple sensors' tasks; (2) decentralized, distributed management of sensor resources and tasks; (3) software reconfiguration of deployed sensors; (4) network scalability and flexibility to meet the constraints of tactical deployments, and traditional combat organizations and hierarchies; and (5) adaptability to new battlefield communication paradigms such as BADD (Battlefield Analysis and Data Dissemination). The architecture is supported in two areas: a recursive, structural definition of resource configuration and management via loose associations; and a hybridization of intelligent software agents with tele- programming capabilities. The distributed sensor architecture is examined within the context of air-deployed ground sensors with acoustic, communication direction finding, and infra-red capabilities. Advantages and disadvantages of the architecture are examined. Consideration is given to extended sensor life (up to 6 months), post-deployment sensor reconfiguration, limited on- board sensor resources (processor and memory), and bandwidth. It is shown that technical tasking of the sensor suite can be automatically

  2. China's Reconfigurable Planet Probing Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2005-01-01

    Research of reconfigurable planet probing robot conducted by the Shenyang Institute of Automation of the Chinese Academy of Science (SIA-CAS) has passed appraisal of 863 Program sresearch on intelligent robots.

  3. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2011-01-01

    be effective if sufficient redundancy does not exist in the process. A measure for control reconfigurability which reveals the level of redundancy in connection with feedback control is proposed in this paper for bilinear systems. The proposed control reconfigurability measure is the extension of its gramian......The objective of the methods within the framework of the plug and play process control and particularly fault tolerant control is to establish control techniques which guarantee a certain performance through control reconfiguration at the occurrence of the faults or changes. These methods cannot......-based analogous counterpart, which has been previously proposed for the linear processes. The control reconfigurability is calculated for the bilinear models of an electro-hydraulic drive to show its relevance to redundant actuating capabilities in the models....

  4. Performance Monitoring in Transparent Reconfigurable WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Kit.Chan; Frank; Tong

    2003-01-01

    This paper classifies and surveys different approaches proposed for performance monitoring, in particular the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring, in transparent reconfigurable WDM networks. Some considerations for future monitoring schemes are discussed.

  5. Reconfigurable/Reprogrammable Communication Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The future of reconfigurable/reprogrammable transceivers with !Y 1 Gbps transmission and reception data rates for future NASA space communications applications will...

  6. Reconfigurable materials: Algorithm for architectural origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed allowing the rational design of origami-inspired materials that can be rearranged to change their properties. This might open the way to strategies for making reconfigurable robots. See Article p.347

  7. Roles and Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvinge, Nicolai; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Christensen, David Johan

    2007-01-01

    A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape....... Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular......, self-reconfigurable robots, we have developed a declarative, role-based language that allows the programmer to associate roles and behavior to structural elements in a modular robot. Based on the role declarations, a dedicated middleware for high-level distributed communication is generated...

  8. Elements of Autonomous Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan

    In this thesis, we study several central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular robots. Unlike conventional robots such robots are: i) Modular, since robots are assembled from numerous robotic modules. ii) Reconfigurable, since the modules can be combined in a variety of ways. iii) Self......-reconfigurable, since the modules themselves are able to change how they are combined. iv) Autonomous, since robots control themselves without human guidance. Such robots are attractive to study since they in theory have several desirable characteristics, such as versatility, reliability and cheapness. In practice...... robots: design, scalability, self-reconfiguration and adaptation. The first element we consider is the design of systems, modules, robots, and behaviors. We introduce a number of design principles that will guide our designs throughout the thesis. The design principles advocate simple, extendable...

  9. MEMS-Enabled Smart Reconfigurable Antennas Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A prototype wearable smart reconfigurable antenna for the Suit will be built to be used during NASA's EVA operations on lunar surface. The design is based on the...

  10. An FPGA-based reconfigurable DDC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, B.; Kasprowicz, G.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes implementation of reconfigurable digital down converter in an FPGA structure. System is designed to work with quadrature signals. One of the main criteria of the project was to provied wide range of reconfiguration in order to fulfill various application rage. Potential applications include: software defined radio receiver, passive noise radars and measurement data compression. This document contains general system overview, short description of hardware used in the project and gateware implementation.

  11. Universal Reconfiguration of (Hyper-)cubic Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Zachary; Kominers, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    We study a simple reconfigurable robot model which has not been previously examined: cubic robots comprised of three-dimensional cubic modules which can slide across each other and rotate about each others' edges. We demonstrate that the cubic robot model is universal, i.e., that an n-module cubic robot can reconfigure itself into any specified n-module configuration. Additionally, we provide an algorithm that efficiently plans and executes cubic robot motion. Our results directly extend to a...

  12. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, Christos George (The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-07-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  13. A Reconfigurable Radiation Pattern Annular Slot Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, NA; Radhi, A; Nilavalan, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper contemplate a theoretical analysis of a pattern reconfigurable antenna using annular slot antenna operating in low frequency. A shorting pin is inserted to allow the annular slot antenna to have an omnidirectional radiation pattern like a monopole antenna. The reconfigurable antenna consists of numerous metal cylinders arranged around the annular slot antenna. By controlling pin diodes associated with the metal cylinders, the antenna is capable of working up in different dire...

  14. RF MEMS reconfigurable triangular patch antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Christodoulou, Christos George (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Feldner, Lucas Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A Ka-band RF MEMS enabled frequency reconfigurable triangular microstrip patch antenna has been designed for monolithic integration with RF MEMS phase shifters to demonstrate a low-cost monolithic passive electronically scanned array (PESA). This paper introduces our first prototype reconfigurable triangular patch antenna currently in fabrication. The aperture coupled patch antenna is fabricated on a dual-layer quartz/alumina substrate using surface micromachining techniques.

  15. A dual-band reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna with diverse radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurav, Kushmanda; Sarkar, Debdeep; Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a dual-band pattern reconfigurable antenna is proposed. The antenna comprises of a dual-band complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs) loaded dipole as the driven element and two copper strips with varying lengths as parasitic segments on both sides of the driven dipole. PIN diodes are used with the parasitic elements to control their electrical length. The CSRRs loading provide a lower order mode in addition to the reference dipole mode, while the parasitic elements along with the PIN diodes are capable of switching the omni-directional radiation of the dual-band driven element to nine different configurations of radiation patterns which include bi-directional end-fire, broadside, and uni-directional end-fire in both the operating bands. A prototype of the designed antenna together with the PIN diodes and DC bias lines is fabricated to validate the concept of dual-band radiation pattern diversity. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement. The proposed antenna can be used in wireless access points for PCS and WLAN applications.

  16. 一种改进的基于BiDirectional体制的MISO-SAR系统%Improved MISO-SAR System Based on BiDirectional Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海; 宋红军

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the German Aerospace Center (DLR.) proposed a BiDirectional mode that can achieve several seconds of repeated time lags by single star and single flight. Its basic principle includes the generation of a double-beam antenna pattern by electronic beam steering and simultaneous emission of two pulses that irradiate the front and back imaging area. The two pulses, which are simultaneously received will be separated by band-pass filtering in the Doppler domain and imaged, respectively. This paper presents an improved Multi Input Single Output (MISO)-SAR system based on the BiDirectional mode which converts the traditional simultaneous dual beam emitting and receiving into time-division emitting and simultaneous receiving, respectively. This results in an improved emitting antenna pattern owning to the suppression of the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR). The current paper describes the spectrum separation effects, AASR analysis, and the system design process. Therefore, to confirm effectiveness, point target 1-D and 2-D simulation results are compared before and after the improvement. Furthermore, the BiDirectional and other short-term repeated SAR modes are compared.%BiDirectional体制是德宇航在2012年提出的一种通过单星单次飞行实现秒级重访的新体制,基本原理是利用相控阵电扫描方式生成双波束天线方向图,同时发射两个脉冲照射方位向前后两块成像区域,将同时接收到的脉冲在多普勒域进行带通滤波分离,并分别成像。该文介绍了一种改进的基于BiDirectional体制的多发单收(Multi Input Single Output, MISO)SAR系统,将传统的双波束同发同收改进为分时先后发射和同时接收,利用发射时较优的方向图抑制方位模糊(AASR),获得了较好的效果。文中给出了频谱分离效果、AASR分析和系统设计流程,给出了改进前后的点目标1维和2维成像结果对比,证明了该改进的有效性,最后

  17. Configuration representation and reconfiguration optimization for the reconfigurable robots with independent manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG MingHui; MA ShuGen; LI Bin; WANG YueChao

    2009-01-01

    Single module of the reconfigurable robots with independent manipulation can perform the actions of locomotion and manipulation. In conformity with the request for achieving autonomous operation in the unstructurized environment Instead of fixed operation in the structurized environment, these robots are applied in the complicated and dangerous environment. The existing researches on the configura-tion theory focus on the reconfigurable robots with limited locomotion and the ones with independent locomotion, not being applicable to the reconfigurable robots with independent manipulation. The vec-tor configuration is put forward, the research content of which contains the topology and locomotion direction of configuration, the posture and orientation and connection relation between modules. Mod-ule state vector and configuration state matrix are proposed for representation methodology for the swarm configuration of these reconfigurable robots, which supports transformation operation to repre-sent and trigger behavior motion of the module and reconfiguration between configurations. Optimiza-tion algorithm of assembly reconfiguration applying workload as the optimization target is presented, as well as optimization algorithm of transformation reconfiguration applying the Integration of pos-ture_orientation_workload and connection_workload. The result of optimization is the relation of state transformation between the initial configuration and the object one as the basic of reconfiguration plan and control.

  18. Reconfigurable mobile radio systems a snapshot of key aspects related to reconfigurability in wireless systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vivier, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Different aspects of the reconfigurability of mobile radio systems are analyzed in this book. These include services, object modeling applied to software radio, flexible spectrum management, trade-offs for building a reconfigurable terminal, an example of a pure software radio modem, adaptive MIMO techniques and analog-to-digital converters.

  19. Dense central office solution for point-to-point fibre access including a novel compact dual bi-directional fibre optical transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Gunnar; Junique, Stéphane; Persson, Karl-Åke; Sundberg, Erland

    2006-07-01

    The centralized Point-to-Point fibre access approach with a dedicated single mode optical fibre link connecting each customer to a Central Office (CO) has advantages regarding future-proofness, security, and simple and low-cost optical links and transceivers. The potential bottleneck in handling the large number of optical fibres that need to be terminated in the CO, and combined with optoelectronic components, has been studied within the IST 6th Framework Programme integrated project MUSE. The key parts in the CO are the passive cabinet where customer fibres are accessible through fibre connectors in the Optical Distribution Frame (ODF), and the active cabinet with switching equipment and optical transceivers. For the passive cabinet we conclude, that the most efficient solution is that each connection from the active cabinet to a customer passes only one ODF, and that small form factor connectors are used. For the active cabinet we have demonstrated the feasibility of an SFF-size module containing two bi-directional transceiver units by building and successfully testing a prototype, increasing the customer port density by a factor of two compared to commercial transceivers. The power consumption, which impacts power supply, cooling and cost, has been analyzed, and we propose measures to significantly decrease the power consumption.

  20. A 30 Gb/s full-duplex bi-directional transmission optical wireless-over fiber integration system at W-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chanjuan; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan; Tian, Yumin; Zhang, Junwen

    2014-01-13

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a full-duplex bi-directional transmission optical wireless-over fiber integration system at W-band (75-100 GHz) with the speed up to 15 Gb/s for both 95.4 GHz link and 88.6 GHz link for the first time. The generation of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless signal is based on the photonic technique by heterodyne mixing of an optical quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal with a free-running light at different wavelength. After 20 km fiber transmission, up to 30 Gb/s mm-wave signal is delivered over 2 m wireless link, and then converted to the optical signal for another 20 km fiber transmission. At the wireless receiver, coherent detection and advanced digital signal processing (DSP) are introduced to improve receiver sensitivity and system performance. With the OSNR of 15 dB, the bit error ratios (BERs) for 10 Gb/s signal transmission at 95.4 GHz and 88.6 GHz are below the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) whether post filter is used or not, while the BER for 15 Gb/s QPSK signal employing post filter in the link of 95.4 GHz is 2.9 × 10(-3).

  1. SURFATM-NH3: a model combining the surface energy balance and bi-directional exchanges of ammonia applied at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personne, E.; Loubet, B.; Herrmann, B.; Mattsson, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.; Nemitz, E.; Sutton, M. A.; Cellier, P.

    2009-08-01

    A new biophysical model SURFATM-NH3, simulating the ammonia (NH3) exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is presented. SURFATM-NH3 consists of two coupled models: (i) an energy budget model and (ii) a pollutant exchange model, which distinguish the soil and plant exchange processes. The model describes the exchanges in terms of adsorption to leaf cuticles and bi-directional transport through leaf stomata and soil. The results of the model are compared with the flux measurements over grassland during the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment at Braunschweig, Germany. The dataset of GRAMINAE allows the model to be tested in various meteorological and agronomic conditions: prior to cutting, after cutting and then after the application of mineral fertilizer. The whole comparison shows close agreement between model and measurements for energy budget and ammonia fluxes. The major controls on the ground and plant emission potential are the physicochemical parameters for liquid-gas exchanges which are integrated in the compensation points for live leaves, litter and the soil surface. Modelled fluxes are highly sensitive to soil and plant surface temperatures, highlighting the importance of accurate estimates of these terms. The model suggests that the net flux depends not only on the foliar (stomatal) compensation point but also that of leaf litter. SURFATM-NH3 represents a comprehensive approach to studying pollutant exchanges and its link with plant and soil functioning. It also provides a simplified generalised approach (SVAT model) applicable for atmospheric transport models.

  2. Priming in the Type I-F CRISPR-Cas system triggers strand-independent spacer acquisition, bi-directionally from the primed protospacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Corinna; Dy, Ron L; McKenzie, Rebecca E; Watson, Bridget N J; Taylor, Corinda; Chang, James T; McNeil, Matthew B; Staals, Raymond H J; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-07-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), in combination with CRISPR associated (cas) genes, constitute CRISPR-Cas bacterial adaptive immune systems. To generate immunity, these systems acquire short sequences of nucleic acids from foreign invaders and incorporate these into their CRISPR arrays as spacers. This adaptation process is the least characterized step in CRISPR-Cas immunity. Here, we used Pectobacterium atrosepticum to investigate adaptation in Type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Pre-existing spacers that matched plasmids stimulated hyperactive primed acquisition and resulted in the incorporation of up to nine new spacers across all three native CRISPR arrays. Endogenous expression of the cas genes was sufficient, yet required, for priming. The new spacers inhibited conjugation and transformation, and interference was enhanced with increasing numbers of new spacers. We analyzed ∼ 350 new spacers acquired in priming events and identified a 5'-protospacer-GG-3' protospacer adjacent motif. In contrast to priming in Type I-E systems, new spacers matched either plasmid strand and a biased distribution, including clustering near the primed protospacer, suggested a bi-directional translocation model for the Cas1:Cas2-3 adaptation machinery. Taken together these results indicate priming adaptation occurs in different CRISPR-Cas systems, that it can be highly active in wild-type strains and that the underlying mechanisms vary.

  3. SURFATM-NH3: a model combining the surface energy balance and bi-directional exchanges of ammonia applied at the field scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Personne

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biophysical model SURFATM-NH3, simulating the ammonia (NH3 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is presented. SURFATM-NH3 consists of two coupled models: (i an energy budget model and (ii a pollutant exchange model, which distinguish the soil and plant exchange processes. The model describes the exchanges in terms of adsorption to leaf cuticles and bi-directional transport through leaf stomata and soil. The results of the model are compared with the flux measurements over grassland during the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment at Braunschweig, Germany. The dataset of GRAMINAE allows the model to be tested in various meteorological and agronomic conditions: prior to cutting, after cutting and then after the application of mineral fertilizer. The whole comparison shows close agreement between model and measurements for energy budget and ammonia fluxes. The major controls on the ground and plant emission potential are the physicochemical parameters for liquid-gas exchanges which are integrated in the compensation points for live leaves, litter and the soil surface. Modelled fluxes are highly sensitive to soil and plant surface temperatures, highlighting the importance of accurate estimates of these terms. The model suggests that the net flux depends not only on the foliar (stomatal compensation point but also that of leaf litter. SURFATM-NH3 represents a comprehensive approach to studying pollutant exchanges and its link with plant and soil functioning. It also provides a simplified generalised approach (SVAT model applicable for atmospheric transport models.

  4. Redundantly piezo-actuated XYθ z compliant mechanism for nano-positioning featuring simple kinematics, bi-directional motion and enlarged workspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wu-Le; Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Liu, Qiang; Ju, Bing-Feng; Zhou, Xiaoqin

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a novel redundantly piezo-actuated three-degree-of-freedom XYθ z compliant mechanism for nano-positioning, driven by four mirror-symmetrically configured piezoelectric actuators (PEAs). By means of differential motion principle, linearized kinematics and physically bi-directional motions in all the three directions are achieved. Meanwhile, the decoupled delivering of three-directional independent motions at the output end is accessible, and the essential parallel and mirror symmetric configuration guarantees large output stiffness, high natural frequencies, high accuracy as well as high structural compactness of the mechanism. Accurate kinematics analysis with consideration of input coupling indicates that the proposed redundantly actuated compliant mechanism can generate three-dimensional (3D) symmetric polyhedral workspace envelope with enlarged reachable workspace, as compared with the most common parallel XYθ z mechanism driven by three PEAs. Keeping a high consistence with both analytical and numerical models, the experimental results show the working ranges of ±6.21 μm and ±12.41 μm in X- and Y-directions, and that of ±873.2 μrad in θ z-direction with nano-positioning capability can be realized. The superior performances and easily achievable structure well facilitate practical applications of the proposed XYθ z compliant mechanism in nano-positioning systems.

  5. Polarization Reconfigurable Patch Antenna Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a nearly square patch antenna integrated with a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for reconfiguring the polarization. Experimental results demonstrate that at a fixed frequency, the polarization can be reconfigured, from circular to linear.

  6. Reconfigurable Fault Tolerance for FPGAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The invention allows a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) or similar device to be efficiently reconfigured in whole or in part to provide higher capacity, non-redundant operation. The redundant device consists of functional units such as adders or multipliers, configuration memory for the functional units, a programmable routing method, configuration memory for the routing method, and various other features such as block RAM, I/O (random access memory, input/output) capability, dedicated carry logic, etc. The redundant device has three identical sets of functional units and routing resources and majority voters that correct errors. The configuration memory may or may not be redundant, depending on need. For example, SRAM-based FPGAs will need some type of radiation-tolerant configuration memory, or they will need triple-redundant configuration memory. Flash or anti-fuse devices will generally not need redundant configuration memory. Some means of loading and verifying the configuration memory is also required. These are all components of the pre-existing redundant FPGA. This innovation modifies the voter to accept a MODE input, which specifies whether ordinary voting is to occur, or if redundancy is to be split. Generally, additional routing resources will also be required to pass data between sections of the device created by splitting the redundancy. In redundancy mode, the voters produce an output corresponding to the two inputs that agree, in the usual fashion. In the split mode, the voters select just one input and convey this to the output, ignoring the other inputs. In a dual-redundant system (as opposed to triple-redundant), instead of a voter, there is some means to latch or gate a state update only when both inputs agree. In this case, the invention would require modification of the latch or gate so that it would operate normally in redundant mode, and would separately latch or gate the inputs in non-redundant mode.

  7. Modular reconfigurable machine tools: design, control and evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available -process capacity scaling. Scalable production capacity and adjustable system functionality are the key objectives of reconfigurable manufacturing. Index terms: Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems, Modular Reconfigurable Machines, Open Architecture Control...] identify the fixed mechanical architectures and proprietary control systems found in CNC and DMT equipment as the specific drawback in effectively implementing these classes of equipment in RMS. Koren et al.[3] proposed the development of reconfigurable...

  8. Reconfigurable origami-inspired acoustic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Sahab; Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Chen, Elizabeth R.; Tournat, Vincent; Bertoldi, Katia

    2016-01-01

    We combine numerical simulations and experiments to design a new class of reconfigurable waveguides based on three-dimensional origami-inspired metamaterials. Our strategy builds on the fact that the rigid plates and hinges forming these structures define networks of tubes that can be easily reconfigured. As such, they provide an ideal platform to actively control and redirect the propagation of sound. We design reconfigurable systems that, depending on the externally applied deformation, can act as networks of waveguides oriented along one, two, or three preferential directions. Moreover, we demonstrate that the capability of the structure to guide and radiate acoustic energy along predefined directions can be easily switched on and off, as the networks of tubes are reversibly formed and disrupted. The proposed designs expand the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials and exploit complex waveguiding to enhance control over propagation and radiation of acoustic energy, opening avenues for the design of a new class of tunable acoustic functional systems. PMID:28138527

  9. Component Based Dynamic Reconfigurable Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Hong; HE Lingsong; ZHANG Dengpan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a novel component based framework of test system is presented for the new requirements of dynamic changes of test functions and reconfiguration of test resources. The complexity of dynamic reconfiguration arises from the scale, redirection, extensibility and interconnection of components in test system. The paper is started by discussing the component assembly based framework which provide the open platform to the deploy of components and then the script interpreter model is introduced to dynamically create the components and build the test system by analyzing XML based information of test system. A pipeline model is presented to provide the data channels and behavior reflection among the components. Finally, a dynamic reconfigurable test system is implemented on the basis of COM and applied in the remote test and control system of CNC machine.

  10. A dynamically reconfigurable data stream processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J.M.; Trombly-Freytag, K.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes a component-based framework for data stream processing that allows for configuration, tailoring, and runtime system reconfiguration. The system's architecture is based on a pipes and filters pattern, where data is passed through routes between components. A network of pipes and filters can be dynamically reconfigured in response to a preplanned sequence of processing steps, operator intervention, or a change in one or more data streams. This framework provides several mechanisms supporting dynamic reconfiguration and can be used to build static data stream processing applications such as monitoring or data acquisition systems, as well as self-adjusting systems that can adapt their processing algorithm, presentation layer, or data persistency layer in response to changes in input data streams.

  11. Reconfigurable origami-inspired acoustic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Sahab; Overvelde, Johannes T B; Chen, Elizabeth R; Tournat, Vincent; Bertoldi, Katia

    2016-11-01

    We combine numerical simulations and experiments to design a new class of reconfigurable waveguides based on three-dimensional origami-inspired metamaterials. Our strategy builds on the fact that the rigid plates and hinges forming these structures define networks of tubes that can be easily reconfigured. As such, they provide an ideal platform to actively control and redirect the propagation of sound. We design reconfigurable systems that, depending on the externally applied deformation, can act as networks of waveguides oriented along one, two, or three preferential directions. Moreover, we demonstrate that the capability of the structure to guide and radiate acoustic energy along predefined directions can be easily switched on and off, as the networks of tubes are reversibly formed and disrupted. The proposed designs expand the ability of existing acoustic metamaterials and exploit complex waveguiding to enhance control over propagation and radiation of acoustic energy, opening avenues for the design of a new class of tunable acoustic functional systems.

  12. Survey on research and development of reconfigurable modular robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive survey of reconfigurable modular robots, which covers the origin, history, the state of the art, key technologies, challenges, and applications of reconfigurable modular robots. An elaborative classification of typical reconfigurable modular robots is proposed based on the characteristics of the modules and the reconfiguration mechanism. As the system characteristics of reconfigurable modular robots are mainly dependent on the functions of modules, the mechanical and electrical design features of modules of typical reconfigurable modular robots are discussed in detail. Furthermore, an in-depth comparison analysis is conducted, which encompasses discussions of module shape, module degrees of freedom, module attribute, connection mechanisms, interface autonomy, locomotion modes, and workspace. Meanwhile, many reconfigurable modular robot researches focus on the study of self-X capabilities (i.e. self-reconfiguration, self-assembly, self-adaption, etc., which embodies autonomy performance of reconfigurable modular robots in certain extent. An evolutionary cobweb evaluation model is proposed in this article to evaluate the autonomy level of reconfigurable modular robots. Although various reconfigurable modular robots have been developed and some of them have been put into practical applications such as search and rescue missions, there still exist many open theoretical, technical, and practical challenges in this field. This work is hopefully to offer a reference for the further developments of reconfigurable modular robots.

  13. Reconfigurable Threshold Logic Element with SET and MOS Transistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rong-Shan; CHEN Jin-Feng; CHEN Shou-Chang; HE Ming-Hua

    2012-01-01

    A novel reconfigurable threshold logic element (TLE) using single-electron transistors (SETs) and metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors is proposed.The proposed TLE is highly reconfigurable,which can perform all two-variable logic functions directly or indirectly,including OR,NOR,AND,NAND,XOR and XNOR.The reconfiguration of the TLE is realized by simply configuring the input bits without changing the device parameters.The design methodology can also be applied in the design of a multi-variable TLE.The reconfigurable TLE demonstrates good performance at room temperature with a compact structure and ultralow power dissipation.The reconfigurable TLE can be useful in high-density high-performance reconfigurable systems and artificial neural networks.%A novel reconfigurable threshold logic element (TLE) using single-electron transistors (SETs) and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors is proposed. The proposed TLE is highly reconfigurable, which can perform all two-variable logic functions directly or indirectly, including OR, NOR, AND, NAND, XOR and XNOR. The reconfiguration of the TLE is realized by simply configuring the input bits without changing the device parameters. The design methodology can also be applied in the design of a multi-variable TLE. The reconfigurable TLE demonstrates good performance at room temperature with a compact structure and ultralow power dissipation. The reconfigurable TLE can be useful in high-density high-performance reconfigurable systems and artificial neural networks.

  14. Reducing Redundancies in Reconfigurable Antenna Structures Using Graph Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantine, Joseph; al-Saffar, Sinan; Christodoulou, Christos G.; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2010-04-23

    Many reconfigurable antennas have redundant components in their structures. In this paper we present an approach for reducing redundancies in reconfigurable antenna structures using graph models. We study reconfigurable antennas, which are grouped, categorized and modeled according to a set of proposed graph rules. Several examples are presented and discussed to demonstrate the validity of this new technique.

  15. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF......). This paper presents an application of the Udwadia-Kalaba Equation for modelling the Reconfigurable Underwater Robots. The constraints developed to enforce the rigid connection between robots in the system is derived through restrictions on relative distances and orientations. To avoid singularities...

  16. Hybrid antenna synthesis for reconfigurable contoured beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, A. D.; Westcott, B. S.

    1993-08-01

    A reflector illuminated by a small phased array is an attractive antenna configuration for systems requiring reconfigurable contoured beams. The use of a shaped reflector can provide control of the feed power distribution and antenna geometry. A systematic reflector synthesis technique based on geometric optics is formulated, using complex coordinate notation and illustrated by application to a simple design requirement. Results demonstrate that geometric shaping can be successfully applied to systems with distributed sources, and that significant beam reconfiguration can be achieved by phase-only control of the feed array.

  17. Reconfigurable photoinduced metamaterials in the microwave regime

    CERN Document Server

    Rizza, Carlo; De Paulis, Francesco; Palange, Elia; Orlandi, Antonio; Columbo, Lorenzo; Prati, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We investigate optically reconfigurable dielectric metamaterials at gigahertz frequencies. More precisely, we study the microwave response of a subwavelength grating optically imprinted into a semiconductor slab. In the homogenized regime, we analytically evaluate the ordinary and extraordinary component of the effective permittivity tensor by taking into account the photo-carrier dynamics described by the ambipolar diffusion equation. We analyze the impact of semiconductor parameters on the gigahertz metamaterial response which turns out to be highly reconfigurable by varying the photogenerated grating and which can show a marked anisotropic behavior.

  18. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  19. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  20. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF......). This paper presents an application of the Udwadia-Kalaba Equation for modelling the Reconfigurable Underwater Robots. The constraints developed to enforce the rigid connection between robots in the system is derived through restrictions on relative distances and orientations. To avoid singularities...... in the orientation and, thereby, allow the robots to undertake any relative configuration the attitude is represented in Euler parameters....

  1. YAGI UDA SHAPED DUAL RECONFIGURABLE ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Srinivas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, YagiUda shaped rectangular microstrip patch antenna fed by inset feed is designed to operate for frequency and polarization reconfigurability is presented. It consists of a square patch with four corners truncated and three parasitic patches placed on top. It operates as a frequency and polarization, reconfigurable antenna. Switches are placed in the gaps of truncated corners to obtain switching between Linear, Circular polarizations. The proposed antenna also switches between two frequencies by controlling current path between main and parasitic patches through switches. Its performance evaluation is carried out with the help of simulation and physical verification and the results are presented.

  2. Smart Actuators and Adhesives for Reconfigurable Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyunhyub; Javey, Ali

    2017-03-06

    Biological systems found in nature provide excellent stimuli-responsive functions. The camouflage adaptation of cephalopods (octopus, cuttlefish), rapid stiffness change of sea cucumbers, opening of pine cones in response to humidity, and rapid closure of Venus flytraps upon insect touch are some examples of nature's smart systems. Although current technologies are still premature to mimic these sophisticated structures and functions in smart biological systems, recent work on stimuli-responsive programmable matter has shown great progress. Stimuli-responsive materials based on hydrogels, responsive nanocomposites, hybrid structures, shape memory polymers, and liquid crystal elastomers have demonstrated excellent responsivities to various stimuli such as temperature, light, pH, and electric field. However, the technologies in these stimuli-responsive materials are still not sophisticated enough to demonstrate the ultimate attributes of an ideal programmable matter: fast and reversible reconfiguration of programmable matter into complex and robust shapes. Recently, reconfigurable (or programmable) matter that reversibly changes its structure/shape or physical/chemical properties in response to external stimuli has attracted great interest for applications in sensors, actuators, robotics, and smart systems. In particular, key attributes of programmable matter including fast and reversible reconfiguration into complex and robust 2D and 3D shapes have been demonstrated by various approaches. In this Account, we review focused areas of smart materials with special emphasis on the material and device structure designs to enhance the response time, reversibility, multistimuli responsiveness, and smart adhesion for efficient shape transformation and functional actuations. First, the capability of fast reconfiguration of 2D and 3D structures in a reversible way is a critical requirement for programmable matter. For the fast and reversible reconfiguration, various approaches

  3. Bi-directional induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 during T lymphoma/endothelial cell contact: implication of ICAM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudjit, F; Potworowski, E F; St-Pierre, Y

    1998-03-15

    The mechanisms that lead to the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) during the invasive process of normal and transformed T cells remain largely unknown. Since vascular cells form a dynamic tissue capable of responding to local stimuli and activating cells through the expression of cytokine receptors and specific cell adhesion molecules, we hypothesized that the firm adhesion of T lymphoma cells to endothelial cells is a critical event in the local production of MMP and TIMP. In the present work, we show that adhesion of lymphoma cells to endothelial cells induced a transient and reciprocal de novo expression of MMP-9 mRNA and enzymatic activity by both cell types. Up-regulation of MMP-9 in T lymphoma cells was concomitant to that of TIMP-1, and required direct contact with endothelial cells. Induction of MMP-9, but not of TIMP-1, was blocked by anti-LFA-1 and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 Abs, indicating that induction of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in lymphoma cells required direct, yet distinct, intercellular contact. In contrast, the induction of MMP-9 in endothelial cells by T lymphoma cells did not necessitate direct contact and could be achieved by exposure to IL-1 and TNF, or to the supernatant of T lymphoma cell culture. Together, these results demonstrate that firm adhesion of T lymphoma cells to endothelial cells participates in the production of MMP-9 in both cell types through bi-directional signaling pathways, and identify intercellular adhesion molecule-1/LFA-1 as a key interaction in the up-regulation of MMP-9 in T lymphoma cells.

  4. CB1 receptor activation in the rat paraventricular nucleus induces bi-directional cardiovascular effects via modification of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzęda, Emilia; Schlicker, Eberhard; Toczek, Marek; Zalewska, Iwona; Baranowska-Kuczko, Marta; Malinowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    We have shown previously that the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of urethane-anaesthetized rats induces depressor and pressor cardiovascular effects in the absence and presence of the CB1 antagonist AM251, respectively. The aim of our study was to examine whether the hypotension and/or hypertension induced by CP55940 given into the PVN results from its influence on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. CP55940 was microinjected into the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats twice (S1 and S2, 20 min apart). Antagonists of the following receptors, NMDA (MK801), β2-adrenergic (ICI118551), thromboxane A2-TP (SQ29548), angiotensin II-AT1 (losartan) or GABAA (bicuculline), or the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME were administered intravenously 5 min before S2 alone or together with AM251. The CP55940-induced hypotension was reversed into a pressor response by AM251, bicuculline and L-NAME, but not by the other antagonists. The CP55940-induced pressor effect examined in the presence of AM251 was completely reversed by losartan, reduced by about 50-60 % by MK801, ICI118551 and SQ29548, prevented by bilateral adrenalectomy but not modified by bicuculline and L-NAME. Parallel, but smaller, changes in heart rate accompanied the changes in blood pressure. The bi-directional CB1 receptor-mediated cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids microinjected into the PVN of anaesthetized rats depend on stimulatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic inputs to the sympathetic tone; the glutamatergic input is related to AT1, TP and β2-adrenergic receptors and catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla whereas the GABAergic input is reinforced by NO.

  5. Threshold-Opportunistic Relaying Strategy Based on Bi-Directional Flows Network%基于双向流的门限机会中继策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡同森; 张茜; 田贤忠

    2011-01-01

    We research a bi-directional traffic flows network which two nodes are in each signal coverage area's in this article.Selecting optimum relaying using opportunistic relaying strategy based on instantaneous channel state information, then judging whether needs optimum relaying participates in the cooperation according to the threshold value.Don't need relay for transmission when the direct-transmission channel state is bigger than the threshold value;whereas sources and optimum relaying cooperate together.Comparing with direct transmission model, this strategy improves the network throughput, enhances the performance against fading, and reduces system symbol-error-rate effectively in high signal-to-noise ratio.%对两节点在彼此覆盖范围内的双向传输流模型进行研究.用瞬时链路状态信息的机会中继策略,选择出最佳中继节点,然后根据门限值来判断是否需要最佳中继参与协作,当两节点直连链路状态大于门限值时,节点间直接交互信息,无需中继节点的协助;反之,信源和最佳中继共同协作参与传输.相比直接传输模型,本策略提高网络吞吐量的同时,增大了系统的分集增益,有效的提高了系统的抗衰落性能,并在信噪比高时有效降低系统误码率.

  6. Effects of reconfiguration on the performance of mobile navigation robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Yili; Xu He; Li Han; Wang Shuguo; Ma Yuliu

    2006-01-01

    An innovative mobile robot that has reconfigurable locomotion chassis and reconfigurable bionic wheels has been developed to meet the needs of different payload and different terrain. Several prototypes have been achieved by the reconfiguration. By modeling relative comparison coefficients, these prototypes are analyzed in terms of geometrical parameter of trafficability, static stability and maneuverability. The effects of reconfiguration on these indices of robot performance can be compared, i.e. the variable height of chassis h has the biggest effect, the variable length of chassis l is the second, then is the camber angleβ and the caster angle α. Some principles for reconfiguration are proposed.

  7. Implementing Workflow Reconfiguration in WS-BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzara, Manuel; Dragoni, Nicola; Zhou, Mu

    2012-01-01

    not naturally support dynamic change, is used as a target for implementation. The WS-BPEL recovery framework is here exploited to implement the reconfiguration using principles derived from previous research in process algebra and two mappings from BPMN to WS-BPEL are presented, one automatic and only mostly...

  8. Controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanev, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines an algorithm for controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems, based on a combination of a multiple model estimator and a generalized predictive controller. A set of models is constructed, each corresponding to a different operating condition of the system. The interacting m

  9. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  10. Automatic Hardware Generation for Reconfigurable Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nane, R.

    2014-01-01

    Reconfigurable Architectures (RA) have been gaining popularity rapidly in the last decade for two reasons. First, processor clock frequencies reached threshold values past which power dissipation becomes a very difficult problem to solve. As a consequence, alternatives were sought to keep improving

  11. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF...

  12. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  13. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  14. Realization of Reconfigurable Virtual Environments for Virtual Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yan Wu; Zheng-Xu Zhao

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of reconfigurable virtual environments (VEs) for virtual testing. It proposes a hybrid design approach that is derived from a so-called integration and composition of the reconfiguration strategy. The designing process has thus evolved from binding virtual objects using reconfiguration rules within the context of virtual testing scenarios. Therefore reconfigurable virtual environments are established with improved flexibility and scalability, tailored to a wide range of virtual testing applications. Those virtual environments integrate virtual testing scenarios, data acquisition, databases, rule mapping and application interfaces, which yield modular testing functions and an open-ended system architecture with a set of extensible interface tools to realize data exchange within reconfigurable VEs.This enables virtual testing scenarios to be reconfigured interactively based on real time data and communication between virtual environments and real environments. A virtual testing application has been implemented using reconfigurable VEs.

  15. The Matching Research for Bi-Directional-Servo Central Parking Brake%某越野车双向自增力中央驻车制动器的匹配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛琼; 叶晓明; 侯鹏伟; 陈智磊

    2013-01-01

    双向自增力鼓式制动器因其效能因数高,在越野车和轻型卡车上作为中央驻车制动器应用较多。就双向自增力中央制动器在开发过程中的几项设计要点进行了详述,解析了自增力鼓式驻车制动器效能因数的计算方法,并通过理论计算和试验对比,验证了方法的准确性。同时,分析了摩擦系数的选择方法,对制动间隙的设计和控制进行了研究。%Bi-directional-servo drum brakes has been used on off-road trucks and light trucks commonly as central parking brake because of its high efficiency factor. Several designing points of the development for bi-directional-servo parking brake have been detailed in this paper, it analyzing the calculation methods of efficient factor for bi-directional-servo parking brake and having been proved the correctness through comparing between theoretical calculations value and test value, analyzing the method of choosing value for friction coefficient and also researching how to designing and controlling brake clearance.

  16. Construction of recombinant Marek's disease virus (rMDV co-expressing AIV-H9N2-NA and NDV-F genes under control of MDV's own bi-directional promoter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjie Zhang

    Full Text Available To qualitatively analyze and evaluate a bi-directional promoter transcriptional function in both transient and transgenic systems, several different plasmids were constructed and recombinant MDV type 1 strain GX0101 was developed to co-express a Neuraminidase (NA gene from Avian Influenza Virus H9N2 strain and a Fusion (F gene from the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The two foreign genes, NDV-F gene and AIV-NA gene, were inserted in the plasmid driven in each direction by the bi-directional promoter. To test whether the expression of pp38/pp24 heterodimers are the required activators for the expression of the foreign genes, the recombinant plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F containing expression cassette for the two foreign genes was co-transfected with a pp38/pp24 expression plasmid, pBud-pp38-pp24, in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells. Alternatively, plasmid pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F was transfected in GX0101-infected CEFs where the viral endogenous pp38/pp24 were expressed via virus infection. The expression of both foreign genes was activated by pp38/pp24 dimers either via virus infection, or co-expression. The CEFs transfected with pPpp38-NA/1.8kb-F alone had no expression. We chose to insert the expression cassette of Ppp38-NA/1.8kb-F in the non-essential region of GX0101ΔMeq US2 gene, and formed a new rMDV named MZC13NA/F through homologous recombination. Indirect fluorescence antibody (IFA test, ELISA and Western blot analyses indicated that F and NA genes were expressed simultaneously under control of the bi-directional promoter, but in opposite directions. The data also indicated the activity of the promoter in the 1.8-kb mRNA transcript direction was higher than that in the direction for the pp38 gene. The expression of pp38/pp24 dimers either via co-tranfection of the pBud-pp38-pp24 plasmid, or by GX0101 virus infection were critical to activate the bi-directional promoter for expression of two foreign genes in both directions. Therefore, the

  17. A subgroup of plant aquaporins facilitate the bi-directional diffusion of As(OH3 and Sb(OH3 across membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Annemarie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a toxic and highly abundant metalloid that endangers human health through drinking water and the food chain. The most common forms of arsenic in the environment are arsenate (As(V and arsenite (As(III. As(V is a non-functional phosphate analog that enters the food chain via plant phosphate transporters. Inside cells, As(V becomes reduced to As(III for subsequent extrusion or compartmentation. Although much is known about As(III transport and handling in microbes and mammals, the transport systems for As(III have not yet been characterized in plants. Results Here we show that the Nodulin26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs AtNIP5;1 and AtNIP6;1 from Arabidopsis thaliana, OsNIP2;1 and OsNIP3;2 from Oryza sativa, and LjNIP5;1 and LjNIP6;1 from Lotus japonicus are bi-directional As(III channels. Expression of these NIPs sensitized yeast cells to As(III and antimonite (Sb(III, and direct transport assays confirmed their ability to facilitate As(III transport across cell membranes. On medium containing As(V, expression of the same NIPs improved yeast growth, probably due to increased As(III efflux. Our data furthermore provide evidence that NIPs can discriminate between highly similar substrates and that they may have differential preferences in the direction of transport. A subgroup of As(III permeable channels that group together in a phylogenetic tree required N-terminal truncation for functional expression in yeast. Conclusion This is the first molecular identification of plant As(III transport systems and we propose that metalloid transport through NIPs is a conserved and ancient feature. Our observations are potentially of great importance for improved remediation and tolerance of plants, and may provide a key to the development of low arsenic crops for food production.

  18. A Family of Non-isolated Bi-directional DC-DC Converters%一族非隔离双向直流变换器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红飞; 陆珏晶; 石巍; 张君君; 邢岩

    2012-01-01

    A family of non-isolated bi-directional DC converter (BDC) based on negative-coupled-inductor (NCI) was proposed. By utilizing the induced potential of the introduced NCI to block the body diode of MOSFET, the reverse-recovery problem associated with the body diode is eliminated. Furthermore, according to the analysis of the equivalent circuit of NCI and filter inductor, by replacing the two inductors with a positive-coupled-inductor (PCI), a family of non-isolated BDC based on PCI was proposed. The control of the proposed BDCs is the same as conventional unidirectional DC converter and has no extra soft start circuit required for the BDCs. The proposed BDCs have advantages of high efficiency, simple control and high reliability. The topology derivation process was presented and the operation principles of the proposed BDCs were analyzed in detail with experimental results given to verify the proposed topologies.%提出一族基于反向耦合电感的非隔离双向直流变换器foi.directionalDCconveaer,BDC),通过引入反向耦合电感,利用电感感应电势阻断不工作MOSFET的体二极管,消除了传统双向变换器中开关管寄生体二极管的反向恢复问题;通过反向耦合电感与滤波电感等效电路的分析,将反向耦合电感与滤波电感用一个同向耦合电感代替,提出一族基于PCI的非隔离双向直流变换器。所提出的变换器控制与传统单向变换器相同,不需要专门的软启动电路,兼顾了较高变换效率、控制简单和高可靠性。给出拓扑推演过程,详细分析拓扑工作原理,并通过实验验证理论分析的正确性。

  19. Bi-directional subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean during the Late Silurian: Magmatic records from both the southern Central Tianshan Block and northern Tarim Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Ge, Maohui

    2016-10-01

    The subduction polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean (STO) is a matter of debate, primarily in that the Paleozoic structures of Tianshan orogenic belt have been strongly overprinted by the Cenozoic intra-continental deformation. Indentifying the arc-related magmatic rocks may provide a convincible clue for understanding the closure process of the STO. In this study, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope were presented on the andesite and monzonite from the Bayanbulak area of the southern Central Tianshan Block (CTB) and on the quartz diorite from the Ouxidaban area of the northern Tarim Craton. Geochemically, all the samples are Na-rich, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, U, K and Pb), and depleted in high strength field elements (Nb, Ta and Ti), like most arc-type igneous rocks. The Bayanbulak andesite samples display high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2 and Mg# values, and positive εHf(t) values, indicating magma source from the wedge mantle. But the existence of xenocrystic zircons implies that continental crust material were involved during magma ascend, suggesting a continental arc setting for the Bayanbulak andesite. The Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite samples display relatively higher SiO2 contents, and lower MgO, Fe2O3T and TiO2 concentrations, indicating crustal sources. But the Mg# values of the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite are 48.76-51.85 and 50.31-53.73, and the εHf(t) values are -2.5 to 8.7 and -1.7 to 4.1, indicating that their magma sources were also mixed by mantle-derived components. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that the Bayanbulak andesite, the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite were formed at 423, 424 Ma, and 421 Ma, respectively. The age and geochemical data indicate that both the southern CTB and northern Tarim Craton were active continental margins during the Late Silurian, favoring a bi-directional subduction

  20. 基于双向管理的社区白内障患者管理模式研究%Study on Bi-directional Management Mode of Patients with Cataract in Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海双; 余雪如; 陈怡; 李超宏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of bi-directional management on emotional states, body symptoms and health status of patients with cataract in community and to provide rehabilitation guidelines.Methods From January 2014 and August 2015, 236 patients who had been diagnosed as senile cataract and had received phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation were included in this study and were divided into bi-directional management group and conventional intervention group randomly. After 4-month intervention, the performance evaluation was conducted through self-design questionnaire of following doctors' advice, Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, Self-rating Depression Scale and Chinese-version Low Vision Quality of Life questionnaire (CLVQOL).Results After 4-month intervention, scores of following doctors' advice in bi-directional management group were higher than that in conventional intervention group, scores of life quality in bi-directional management group improved more than that in conventional intervention group, anxiety and depression scores in bi-directional management group reduced more than that in conventional intervention group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Compared with conventional intervention group, patients in bi-directional management have better behavior of following doctors' advice, emotional states and life quality. Bi-directional management has positive influence on patients with cataract in community which is worth popularizing in community and clinical practice.%目的评价双向管理对社区白内障患者情绪状态、躯体症状及健康状态等的影响,为患者康复提供指导。方法选取本市2014年1月至2015年8月确诊为白内障且经白内障超声乳化联合晶状体植入术老年白内障患者236例,随机分为双向管理组与常规干预组,对其分别进行双向管理干预与常规干预,每月至少随访一次,干预4个月后,分别采用

  1. Reconfigurable Infrared Phased-Array Semiconductor Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Jon

    The ability to engineer the scattering phase of metamaterial constituents offers tremendous potential for constructing new classes of beam steering, shaping, and focusing technologies. Current methods for engineering phase rely on static geometry-based effects. In this talk we describe methods to dynamically tune the scattering phase of infrared semiconductor nanoantennas. We fabricate spherical silicon and germanium nanoparticles via femtosecond laser ablation and demonstrate size-dependent multipolar resonances throughout the infrared frequency range. We experimentally demonstrate that the resonance frequencies shift with doping, according to simple Drude models of free-carrier refraction. Using a combination of theoretical and analytical calculations we show that dynamically tuning free-carrier concentration can enable reconfigurable optical antennas and metasurfaces. Such dynamic tuning will enable reconfigurable photonic devices based on optical antenna and metamaterial concepts.

  2. Research on reconfigurable collaborative remote diagnosis system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Chuming; Chen Youping; Zhang Guohui; Zhou Zude

    2006-01-01

    The function-layer model and working model of collaborative remote fault diagnosis system (FDS),which includes three layers: task layer, collaboration layer and diagnosing layer, are proposed. The running mechanism of the system is discussed. A collaborative FDS may consist of several subsystems running at different places and the subsystem consists of several function modules. A structure centered on data-bus is adopted in subsystem. All the function modules in subsystem are encapsulated into software intelligent chips (SICs) and SIC can but connect with data-bus. So, it is feasible to reuse these diagnosis function modules and the structure of subsystem in different diagnosis applications. With the reconfigurable SICs, several different function modules can reconstruct quickly some different diagnosis subsystems in different combinations, and some subsystems can also reconfigure a specified collaborative FDS.

  3. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software-Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Software-defined radio (SDR) technology allows radios to be reconfigured to perform different communication functions without using multiple radios to accomplish each task. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed SDR platforms that switch adaptively between different operation modes. The innovation works by modifying both transmit waveforms and receiver signal processing tasks. In Phase I of the project, the company developed SDR cognitive capabilities, including adaptive modulation and coding (AMC), automatic modulation recognition (AMR), and spectrum sensing. In Phase II, these capabilities were integrated into SDR platforms. The reconfigurable transceiver design employs high-speed field-programmable gate arrays, enabling multimode operation and scalable architecture. Designs are based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and are modular in nature, making it easier to upgrade individual components rather than redesigning the entire SDR platform as technology advances.

  4. Compact, Frequency Reconfigurable, Printed Monopole Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a possible implementation of a compact printed monopole antenna, useful to operate in UMTS and WLAN bands. In order to accomplish that, a miniaturization technique based on the application of chip inductors is used in conjunction with frequency reconfiguration capability. The chip inductors change the impedance response of the monopole, allowing to reduce the resonant frequency. In order to be able to operate the antenna in these two different frequencies, an antenna reconfiguration technique based on PIN diodes is applied. This procedure allows the change of the active form of the antenna leading to a shift in the resonant frequency. The prototype measurements show good agreement with the simulation results.

  5. Reconfigurable nonreciprocity with nonlinear Fano diode

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yi; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a dynamically tunable nonreciprocal response for wave propagations by employing nonlinear Fano resonances. We demonstrate that transmission contrast of waves propagation in opposite directions can be controlled by excitation signal. In particular, the unidirectional transmission can be flipped at different times of a pulse, resembling a diode operation with {\\em dynamical reconfigurable nonreciprocity}. The key mechanism is the interaction between the linear and nonlinear Fano reso...

  6. Control model for reconfigurable assembly systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jianfeng; Yin Yuehong; Chen Zhaoneng

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes knowledge based object-oriented timed colored Petri net, a modeling method for reconfigurable assembly systems. Combining knowledge and object-oriented method into timed colored Petri net, a comprehensive and powerful representation model for control of RAS is obtained. With object-oriented method the whole system can be decomposed into concrete objects explicitly, and their relationships are constructed according to the system assembly requirements. Finally, a simple assembly system modeled by the KTCOPN is presented.

  7. Microelectromechanical Systems Actuator Based Reconfigurable Printed Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A polarization reconfigurable patch antenna is disclosed. The antenna includes a feed element, a patch antenna element electrically connected to the feed element, and at least one microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator, with a partial connection to the patch antenna element along an edge of the patch antenna element. The polarization of the antenna can be switched between circular polarization and linear polarization through action of the at least one MEMS actuator.

  8. Partial Reconfiguration on FPGAs Architectures, Tools and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This is the first book to focus on designing run-time reconfigurable systems on FPGAs, in order to gain resource and power efficiency, as well as to improve speed.  Case studies in partial reconfiguration guide readers through the FPGA jungle, straight toward a working system.  The discussion of partial reconfiguration is comprehensive and practical, with models introduced together with methods to implement efficiently the corresponding systems.  Coverage includes concepts for partial module integration and corresponding communication architectures, floorplanning of the on-FPGA resources, physical implementation aspects starting from constraining primitive placement and routing all the way down to the bitstream required to configure the FPGA, and verification of reconfigurable systems.   Provides comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art partial run-time reconfiguration techniques, including architectures, methods, and tools; Focuses on real applications that will benefit from partial reconfiguration; �...

  9. Rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvelde, Johannes T. B.; Weaver, James C.; Hoberman, Chuck; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Advances in fabrication technologies are enabling the production of architected materials with unprecedented properties. Most such materials are characterized by a fixed geometry, but in the design of some materials it is possible to incorporate internal mechanisms capable of reconfiguring their spatial architecture, and in this way to enable tunable functionality. Inspired by the structural diversity and foldability of the prismatic geometries that can be constructed using the snapology origami technique, here we introduce a robust design strategy based on space-filling tessellations of polyhedra to create three-dimensional reconfigurable materials comprising a periodic assembly of rigid plates and elastic hinges. Guided by numerical analysis and physical prototypes, we systematically explore the mobility of the designed structures and identify a wide range of qualitatively different deformations and internal rearrangements. Given that the underlying principles are scale-independent, our strategy can be applied to the design of the next generation of reconfigurable structures and materials, ranging from metre-scale transformable architectures to nanometre-scale tunable photonic systems.

  10. Underactuated spacecraft formation reconfiguration with collision avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2017-02-01

    Underactuated collision-free controllers are proposed in this paper for multiple spacecraft formation reconfiguration in circular orbits with the loss of either the radial or in-track thrust. A nonlinear dynamical model of underactuated formation flying is introduced, which is then linearized about circular orbits for controllability and feasibility analyses on underactuated formation reconfiguration. By using the inherent dynamics coupling of system states, reduced-order sliding mode controllers are then designed for either case to indirectly stabilize the system trajectories to the desired formations. In consideration of the collision-avoidance requirement, the artificial potential function method is then employed to design novel underactuated collision-avoidance maneuvers. Rigorous proof substantiates the capabilities of such maneuvers in preventing collisions even in the absence of radial or in-track thrust. Furthermore, a Lyapunov-based analysis ensures the asymptotic stability of the overall closed-loop system. Numerical simulations are performed in a J2-perturbed environment to verify the validity of the proposed underactuated control schemes for collision-free reconfiguration.

  11. Software-Reconfigurable Processors for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Allen; Gray, Andrew; Bell, Bryan; Stanton, Valerie; Chong, Yong; Peters, Kenneth; Lee, Clement; Srinivasan, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    A report presents an overview of an architecture for a software-reconfigurable network data processor for a spacecraft engaged in scientific exploration. When executed on suitable electronic hardware, the software performs the functions of a physical layer (in effect, acts as a software radio in that it performs modulation, demodulation, pulse-shaping, error correction, coding, and decoding), a data-link layer, a network layer, a transport layer, and application-layer processing of scientific data. The software-reconfigurable network processor is undergoing development to enable rapid prototyping and rapid implementation of communication, navigation, and scientific signal-processing functions; to provide a long-lived communication infrastructure; and to provide greatly improved scientific-instrumentation and scientific-data-processing functions by enabling science-driven in-flight reconfiguration of computing resources devoted to these functions. This development is an extension of terrestrial radio and network developments (e.g., in the cellular-telephone industry) implemented in software running on such hardware as field-programmable gate arrays, digital signal processors, traditional digital circuits, and mixed-signal application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs).

  12. Rational design of reconfigurable prismatic architected materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvelde, Johannes T B; Weaver, James C; Hoberman, Chuck; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-01-18

    Advances in fabrication technologies are enabling the production of architected materials with unprecedented properties. Most such materials are characterized by a fixed geometry, but in the design of some materials it is possible to incorporate internal mechanisms capable of reconfiguring their spatial architecture, and in this way to enable tunable functionality. Inspired by the structural diversity and foldability of the prismatic geometries that can be constructed using the snapology origami technique, here we introduce a robust design strategy based on space-filling tessellations of polyhedra to create three-dimensional reconfigurable materials comprising a periodic assembly of rigid plates and elastic hinges. Guided by numerical analysis and physical prototypes, we systematically explore the mobility of the designed structures and identify a wide range of qualitatively different deformations and internal rearrangements. Given that the underlying principles are scale-independent, our strategy can be applied to the design of the next generation of reconfigurable structures and materials, ranging from metre-scale transformable architectures to nanometre-scale tunable photonic systems.

  13. Analysis of Reconfigurable Processors Using Petri Net

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Heidari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose Petri net models for processing elements. The processing elements include: a general-purpose processor (GPP, a reconfigurable element (RE, and a hybrid element (combining a GPP with an RE. The models consist of many transitions and places. The model and associated analysis methods provide a promising tool for modeling and performance evaluation of reconfigurable processors. The model is demonstrated by considering a simple example. This paper describes the development of a reconfigurable processor; the developed system is based on the Petri net concept. Petri nets are becoming suitable as a formal model for hardware system design. Designers can use Petri net as a modeling language to perform high level analysis of complex processors designs processing chips. The simulation does with PIPEv4.1 simulator. The simulation results show that Petri net state spaces are bounded and safe and have not deadlock and the average of number tokens in first token is 0.9901 seconds. In these models, there are only 5% errors; also the analysis time in these models is 0.016 seconds.

  14. Configuration information acquisition and matching in self-reconfiguring process of modular self-reconfigurable robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Zongwei; Zang Xizhe; Zhu Yanhe; Zhang Yuhua; Zhao Jie

    2008-01-01

    Configuration information acquisition and matching are two important steps in the self-reconfiguring process of self-reconfigurable robots. The process of configuration information acquisition was introduced, and a self-reconfiguring configuration matching strategy based on graded optimization mechanism was proposed. The first-grade optimization was to search common connection between matching scheme and goal configuration. The second-grade optimization, whose object function was constructed in terms of configuration connectivity, was to search common topology according to the results of the first-grade optimization. The entire process of configuration information acquisition and matching was verified by an experiment and genetic algorithm (GA). The result shows the accuracy of the configuration information acquisition and the effectiveness of the configuration matching method.

  15. Partial reconfiguration of concurrent logic controllers implemented in FPGA devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Remigiusz; Grobelna, Iwona; Stefanowicz, Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Reconfigurable systems are recently used in many domains. Although the concept of multi-context logic controllers is relatively new, it may be noticed that the subject is receiving a lot of attention, especially in the industry. The work constitutes a stepping stone in design of reconfigurable logic controllers implemented in an FPGA device. An approach of designing of logic controllers oriented for further partial reconfiguration is proposed. A case study of a milling machine is used for an illustration.

  16. Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent Multifunctional Autonomous Robust Sensor Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Reconfigurable Intelligent software agent technologies are key and revolutionary technologies that are needed to fulfill spacecraft autonomy and...

  17. Reconfiguration of Analog Electronics for Extreme Environments: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo; Keymeulen, Didier; Guo, Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues in favor of adaptive reconfiguration as a technique to expand the operational envelope of analog electronics for extreme environments (EE). In addition to hardening-by-process and hardening-by-design, "hardening-by-reconfiguration", when applicable, could be used to mitigate drifts, degradation, or damage on electronic devices (chips) in EE, by using re-configurable devices and an adaptive self-reconfiguration of their circuit topology. Conventional circuit design exploits device characteristics within a certain temperature/radiation range; when that is exceeded, the circuit function degrades. On a reconfigurable device, although component parameters change in EE, as long as devices still operate, albeit degraded, a new circuit design, suitable for new parameter values, may be mapped into the reconfigurable structure to recover the initial circuit function. Partly degraded resources are still used, while completely damaged resources are bypassed. Designs suitable for various environmental conditions can be determined prior to operation or can be determined in-situ, by adaptive reconfiguration algorithms running on built-in digital controllers. Laboratory demonstrations of this technique were performed by JPL in several independent experiments in which bulk CMOS reconfigurable devices were exposed to, and degraded by, low temperatures (approx. 196 C), high temperatures (approx.300 C) or radiation (300kRad TID), and then recovered by adaptive reconfiguration using evolutionary search algorithms. Taking this technology from Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3 to TRL 5 is the target of a current NASA project.

  18. Design, Modelling and Analysis of a Workflow Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzara, Manuel; Abouzaid, Faisal; Dragoni, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study involving the reconfiguration of an office workflow. We state the requirements on a system implementing the workflow and its reconfiguration, and describe the system’s design in BPMN. We then use an asynchronous pi-calculus and Web.1 to model the design and to ve......This paper describes a case study involving the reconfiguration of an office workflow. We state the requirements on a system implementing the workflow and its reconfiguration, and describe the system’s design in BPMN. We then use an asynchronous pi-calculus and Web.1 to model the design...

  19. Automatic Distribution Network Reconfiguration: An Event-Driven Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Fei; Jiang, Huaiguang; Tan, Jin

    2016-11-14

    This paper proposes an event-driven approach for reconfiguring distribution systems automatically. Specifically, an optimal synchrophasor sensor placement (OSSP) is used to reduce the number of synchrophasor sensors while keeping the whole system observable. Then, a wavelet-based event detection and location approach is used to detect and locate the event, which performs as a trigger for network reconfiguration. With the detected information, the system is then reconfigured using the hierarchical decentralized approach to seek for the new optimal topology. In this manner, whenever an event happens the distribution network can be reconfigured automatically based on the real-time information that is observable and detectable.

  20. Trustworthy reconfigurable systems enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Feller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ?Thomas Feller sheds some light on trust anchor architectures fortrustworthy reconfigurable systems. He is presenting novel concepts enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware.Almost invisible to the user, many computer systems are embedded into everyday artifacts, such as cars, ATMs, and pacemakers. The significant growth of this market segment within the recent years enforced a rethinking with respect to the security properties and the trustworthiness of these systems. The trustworthiness of a system in general equates to the integrity of its system components. Hardware-b

  1. Research on control strategy for battery system of photovoltaic power system based on bi-directional DC/DC converter%基于双向变换器的光伏储能控制策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 解璞

    2016-01-01

    独立光伏系统中,储能环节起到平衡功率、稳定系统的关键作用,而合理的控制策略能将储能系统与光伏阵列有机地结合起来,双向 DC/DC变换器正是完成此目标的桥梁。本文在对已有的双向 DC/DC变换器进行优化设计的基础上,提出了一种兼顾电池电性能与系统稳定性的储能系统控制策略。在 Matlab仿真环境下搭建了带有双向 DC/DC变换器的独立光伏系统模型,并对储能系统的工作情况进行仿真,验证了变换器拓扑结构与储能控制策略的合理性。%The independent photovoltaic system needs energy storage in order to balance the power and improve its stability of power generation. A scientiifc control strategy can combine the PV cells with the battery system organically. The bi-directional DC/DC converter can be the bridge to achieve this target. This paper presents a control strategy which takes account of battery electrical performance and system stability based on optimization on the circuit topology of bi-directional DC/DC already underway. Moreover, the charge and discharge circuit based on bi-directional DC/DC converter and an integral independent PV power system are built with Matlab. The simulation results show the correctness of the charge and discharge circuit topology and control strategy.

  2. 电动汽车与电网能量交互的双向变流器拓扑研究%Topology of Bi-directional Converter Used for Energy Interaction Between Electric Vehicle and Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍谚; 姜久春; 张宏韬; 牛利勇; 张维戈

    2012-01-01

    In view of the interaction technology between electric vehicle and gird, which has attracted widespread attention domestically and abroad, the bi-directional converter used as their energy interaction interface was investigated in this paper. Several typical topologies that suit for applying to electric vehicle bi-directional charger were introduced at first. Based on the comparison of characteristics and principles, a novel high power factor bi-directional single-stage full-bridge (BSS-FBC) topology was presented. This converter has the advantage of high efficiency, high power density, low harmonics, small volume, low cost, simple control, etc., The working principle and design of key parameters were introduced. Besides, the harmonic characteristic of this topology was analyzed through double-Fourier integral algorithm. On the basis of the topology and control strategy, a 3.3 kW prototype was developed. The excellent characteristics of this converter were verified by simulation and experiment.%针对国内外广泛关注的电动汽车与电网互动技术,对二者能量交互的接口——双向变流器进行了研究.首先分类介绍了几种典型的适用于电动汽车充放电机的电路拓扑,并对其主要特点和基本原理进行了比较和分析.在此基础上,提出了一种新颖的高功率因数双向单级全桥变换器(bi-directional single-phase single-stage full-bridge converter,BSS-FBC)拓扑,相比其他典型拓扑,该变换器具有效率高、功率密度高、谐波污染小、体积小、成本低、控制简单等特点.介绍了该拓扑的工作原理和设计要点,采用二重傅里叶积分方法对该拓扑进行了谐波特性分析.基于所提出的拓扑及控制方案,制作了一台功率为3.3 kW的样机,通过仿真和实验验证了该变换器的优良性能.

  3. 智能电表系统中的双向物理层辅助认证技术∗%Bi-Directional Physical Layer-Assist Authentication in Smart-Meter System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婷; 任梦吟; 文红; 李腾飞

    2014-01-01

    Continuous bi-directional authentication is usually required between the smart meters,and however the existing upper-layer authentication technology based on encryption is not applicable to the resource-limited smart meters. Furthermore,the current physical layer assist authentication schemes could merely realize the one-way authentication from receiving terminal to source and not satisfy the authentication of bi-directional communication. This paper proposes a bi-directional physical layer-assist authentication scheme between smart meters. After initial message authentication based on PKI,physical-layer authentication is adopted in the follow-up authentication instead of relying on upper-layer authentication. Simulation results under IEEE 802.15.4g standard illustrate that this proposed scheme can achieve fast bi-directional authentication and is more applicable for smart meter system.%智能电表之间通常需要进行连续双向身份认证,而现有的基于加密的上层身份认证技术不适用于资源受限的智能电表系统。已有的物理层辅助身份认证机制仅能实现接收端到源的单向认证,不能满足智能电表之间双向通信的认证需求。文中提出一种适用于智能电表系统中的双向物理层辅助认证方案,该方案在完成基于PKI的初始消息认证后,在后续认证中使用物理层认证而无须依赖上层认证。基于IEEE802.11.4g标准的仿真结果表明,该方案能够实现快速双向身份认证,更适用于智能电表系统。

  4. Glenn Reconfigurable User-interface and Virtual reality Exploration (GURVE) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The GRUVE (Glenn Reconfigurable User-interface and Virtual reality Exploration) Lab is a reconfigurable, large screen display facility at Nasa Glenn Research Center....

  5. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party...

  6. Architecturally Reconfigurable Development of Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile game development must face the problem of multiple hardware and software platforms, which will bring large number of variants. To cut the development and maintenance efforts, in this paper, we present an architecturally reconfigurable software product line approach to develop mobile games....... Mobile game domain variants could be handled uniformly and traced across all kinds of software assets. The architecture and configuration mechanism in our approach make optimizations that built into meta-components propagated to all product line members. We show this approach with an industrial Role......-Playing-Game product line, which achieved not only development and maintenance gains, but also performance enhancements....

  7. Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Design and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMS) have been an increasing area of interest in the research arena. However, it seems that current literature is lacking application and implementation cases where RMS are simulated, tested, and evaluated as a feasible manufacturing concept. A Manufacturer...... is meant primarily to show the physical feasibility of the system and provide a first-look into a real production application of the RMS ideas. The purpose of this paper is to present the design of the manufacturer’s RMS proof of concept, its implementation, and evaluation results....

  8. Delay Time Analysis of Reconfigurable Firewall Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Sato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A firewall function is indispensable for mobile devices and it demands low-power operations. To realize this demand, the authors have developed a firewall unit with a reconfigurable device. The firewall unit needs a large amount of register for the timing adjustment of packets. Using the registers is the cause of power consumption. In this paper, to solve the problem of power consumption, the firewall unit has developed by using wave-pipelining technique and detailed delay time for the technique is analyzed.

  9. RESEARCH ON FRAMEWORK OF RAPIDLY RECONFIGURABLE INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiXurong; DingQiulin; XuHuanliang

    2002-01-01

    Changes and reconfiguration of information systems(ISs)are two kernel concepts of rapidil reconfigurable in-formation system(RRIS).It is the abilitise to evolve with changes that make RRIS superior to the traditional ISs.Hierarchical architecture of RRIS is put forward.And then a component-based framework of RRIS is discussed including its building and designing in detail.

  10. The Assemble and Animate Control Framework for Modular Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Moghadam, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the “Assemble and Animate” (ASE) control framework. The objective of ASE is to provide a flexible and extendable control framework, which facilitates rapid development and deployment of modular reconfigurable robots. ASE includes a simple event-driven application framework...... for planetary contingency, adaptive locomotion, self-reconfiguration, and tangible behavior-based programming....

  11. Enabling Self-Organization in Embedded Systems with Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bobda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology based on self-organization to manage resources in networked embedded systems based on reconfigurable hardware. Two points are detailed in this paper, the monitoring system used to analyse the system and the Local Marketplaces Global Symbiosis (LMGS concept defined for self-organization of dynamically reconfigurable nodes.

  12. Recent developments in reconfigurable and multiband antenna technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, N.; Caratelli, D.; Yarovoy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of various reconfigurable andmultiband antenna concepts is presented. In order to satisfy the requirements for the advanced systems used in modern wireless and radar applications, different multiband and reconfigurable antennas have been proposed and investigated in the past y

  13. Reconfigurable Array Antenna Using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Chun, Donghoon; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper demonstrates a patch antenna integrated with a novel microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator for reconfiguring the operating frequency. Experimental results demonstrate that the center frequency can be reconfigured by as much as 1.6 percent of the nominal operating frequency at K-Band In addition, a novel on-wafer antenna pattern measurement technique is demonstrated.

  14. Facilitating preemptive hardware system design using partial reconfiguration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Rincon, Fernando; Vaderrama, Carlos; Villanueva, Felix; Caba, Julian; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In FPGA-based control system design, partial reconfiguration is especially well suited to implement preemptive systems. In real-time systems, the deadline for critical task can compel the preemption of noncritical one. Besides, an asynchronous event can demand immediate attention and, then, force launching a reconfiguration process for high-priority task implementation. If the asynchronous event is previously scheduled, an explicit activation of the reconfiguration process is performed. If the event cannot be previously programmed, such as in dynamically scheduled systems, an implicit activation to the reconfiguration process is demanded. This paper provides a hardware-based approach to explicit and implicit activation of the partial reconfiguration process in dynamically reconfigurable SoCs and includes all the necessary tasks to cope with this issue. Furthermore, the reconfiguration service introduced in this work allows remote invocation of the reconfiguration process and then the remote integration of off-chip components. A model that offers component location transparency is also presented to enhance and facilitate system integration.

  15. Distinguishing Reconfiguration and Compound-cue Retrieval in Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon D Logan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers claim that task switching requires reconfiguration of the cognitive system. Others claim that task switching involves cue-based memory retrieval processes and not reconfiguration. We evaluate these competing claims by developing both reconfiguration and cue-based memory models in a common theoretical framework and by fitting the models to' target functions', which show how performance on individual target stimuli varies depending on the task subjects perform on the targets. Our analyses show that the process of compound-cue retrieval – using the task cue and the target as joint retrieval cues to select a response from memory – is sufficient to explain target functions for parity and magnitude judgments of digits and that reconfiguration does not seem to add anything to the explanation. We address the generality of this conclusion and speculate about the conditions under which reconfiguration may be necessary for task switching.

  16. Efficient Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms on the Reconfigurable Mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万颖瑜; 许胤龙; 顾晓东; 陈国良

    2000-01-01

    he reconfigurable mesh consists of an array of processors interconnected by a reconfigurable bus system. The bus system can be used to dynamically obtain various interconnection patterns among the processors. Recently, this model has attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, two efficient algorithms are proposed for computing the minimum spanning tree of an n-vertex undirected graph. One runs on an n×n reconfigurable mesh with time complexity of O(log2 n). The other runs with time complexity of O(log n) on an n1+ε×n reconfigurable mesh, where 0 < e < I is a constant. All these improve the previously known results on the reconfigurable mesh.

  17. High Speed Reconfigurable FFT Design by Vedic Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Raman, Ashish; Sarin, R K

    2010-01-01

    The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a computationally intensive digital signal processing (DSP) function widely used in applications such as imaging, software-defined radio, wireless communication, instrumentation. In this paper, a reconfigurable FFT design using Vedic multiplier with high speed and small area is presented. Urdhava Triyakbhyam algorithm of ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics is utilized to improve its efficiency. In the proposed architecture, the 4x4 bit multiplication operation is fragmented reconfigurable FFT modules. The 4x4 multiplication modules are implemented using small 2x2bit multipliers. Reconfigurability at run time is provided for attaining power saving. The reconfigurable FFT has been designed, optimized and implemented on an FPGA based system. This reconfigurable FFT is having the high speed and small area as compared to the conventional FFT.

  18. Researching and implementation of reconfigurable Hash chip based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaohui; Dai Zibin; Liu Yuanfeng; Wang Ting

    2007-01-01

    The reconfigurable cryptographic chip is an integrated circuit that is designed by means of the method of reconfigurable architecture, and is used for encryption and decryption. Many different cipher algorithms can be flexibly implemented with the aid of a reconfigurable cryptographic chip and can be used in many fields. This article takes an example for the SHA-1/224/256 algorithms, and then designs a reconfigurable cryptographic chip based on the thought and method of the reconfigurable architecture. Finally, this paper gives the implementation result based on the FPGA of the family of Stratix II of Altera Corporation, and presents a good research trend for resolving the storage in hardware implementation using FPGAs.

  19. Application of Remote FPGA Dynamic Reconfiguration System in LED Lighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; WANG Wei; NIU Ping-juan; ZHANG li-ping

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic reconfiguration technique based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can improve the resource utilization.Discussed are the dynamic reconfiguration principles and methods.Proposed is a remote dynamic reconfiguration scheme using Xilinx Virtex-II FPGA and SMCS Ethernet Physical layer transceiver(PHY).The hardware of the system is designed with Xilinx Virtex-II XC2V30P FPGA that embedds MicroBlaze and MAC IP core,and its network communication software based on transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) protocol is programmed by loading LwlP to MicroBlaze. The experimental results indicate that the remote FPGA dynamic reconfiguration system(RFDRS) can switch freely in the eight lighting modes of light emitting diodes (LED),and that,using dynamic reconfiguration technology,FPGA resource utilization can be reduced remarkably,which is advantageous in the system upgrade and software update.

  20. Lattice Automata for Control of Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Self-reconfigurable robots are built from robotic modules typically organised in a lattice. The robotic modules themselves are complete, although simple, robots and have onboard batteries, actuators, sensors, processing power, and communication capabilities. The modules can automatically connect...... to and disconnect from neighbour modules and move around in the lattice of modules. The self-reconfigurable robot as a whole can, through this automatic rearrangement of modules, change its own shape to adapt to the environment or as a response to new tasks. Potential advantages of self-reconfigurable robots...... are extreme versatility and robustness. The organisation of self-reconfigurable robots in a lattice structure and the emphasis on local communication between modules mean that lattice automata are a useful basis for control of self-reconfigurable robots. However, there are significant differences which arise...

  1. Reconfigurable transceiver architecture for multiband RF-frontends

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Erick

    2016-01-01

      This book investigates and discusses the hardware design and implementation to achieve smart air interfaces with a reduced number of Radio Frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver chains, or even with a single reconfigurable RF-Frontend in the user terminal. Various hardware challenges are identified and addressed to enable the implementation of autonomous reconfigurable RF-Frontend architectures. Such challenges are (i) the conception of a transceiver with wide tuning range of at least up to 6 GHz, (ii) the system integration of reconfigurable technologies targeting current compact devices that demand voltages up to 100 V for adaptive controlling and (iii) the realization of a multiband and multistandard antenna module employing agile components to provide flexible frequency coverage. A solid design of a reconfigurable frontend is proposed from the RF part to the digital baseband. The system integration of different components in the reconfigurable RF-Frontend of a portable-oriented device architecture is ...

  2. 一种软开关的交错并联Buck/Boost双向DC/DC变换器%A Type of Soft-Switching and Interleaving Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱润卿; 刘军; 徐波

    2016-01-01

    针对传统硬开关双向直流变换器在高频工作时开关损耗较高的缺点,提出一种采用有源箝位软开关的多相交错并联Buck/Boost双向DC/DC变换器.这种变换器的开关管都能在零电压条件下开通,解决了开关管在开通时功率损耗较大的问题.借助SIMetrix软件工具,得出电路仿真结果,结果表明,变换器所有开关在Buck工作模式和Boost工作模式中均能实现软开关工作.%In view of the faults that traditional hard-switching bi-directional DC/DC converter working in high frequency caused much loss, a type of active clamped soft-switching of multiphase interleaving buck/boost bi-directional DC/DC converter is proposed, all switches of converter can be opened at zero voltage, it solves the problem of large loss of power switches.With the help of SIMetrix software tools, circuit simulation results are obtained.The simulation results show that the all switches of converter can achieve soft-switching in the buck mode and in the boost mode.

  3. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  4. Optimal reconfiguration of satellite constellations with the auction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Weck, Olivier L.; Scialom, Uriel; Siddiqi, Afreen

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, satellite constellation design has focused on optimizing global, zonal or regional coverage with a minimum number of satellites. In some instances, however, it is desirable to deploy a constellation in stages to gradually expand capacity. This requires launching additional satellites and reconfiguring the existing on-orbit satellites. Also, a constellation might be retasked and reconfigured after it is initially fielded for operational reasons. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing orbital reconfigurations of satellite constellations. The work focuses on technical aspects for transforming an initial constellation A into a new constellation, B, typically with a larger number of satellites. A general framework was developed to study the orbital reconfiguration problem. The framework was applied to low Earth orbit constellations of communication satellites. This paper specifically addresses the problem of determining the optimal assignment for transferring on-orbit satellites in constellation A to constellation B such that the total ΔV for the reconfiguration is minimized. It is shown that the auction algorithm, used for solving general network flow problems, can efficiently and reliably determine the optimum assignment of satellites of A to slots of B. Based on this methodology, reconfiguration maps can be created, which show the energy required for transforming one constellation into another as a function of type (Street-of-Coverage, Walker, Draim), altitude, ground elevation angle and fold of coverage. Suggested extensions of this work include quantification of the tradeoff between reconfiguration time and ΔV, multiple successive reconfigurations, balancing propellant consumption within the constellation during reconfiguration as well as using reconfigurability as an objective during initial constellation design.

  5. Reconfigurable Liquid Whispering Gallery Mode Microlasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shancheng; Ta, Van Duong; Wang, Yue; Chen, Rui; He, Tingchao; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2016-06-01

    Engineering photonic devices from liquid has been emerging as a fascinating research avenue. Reconfigurably tuning liquid optical micro-devices are highly desirable but remain extremely challenging because of the fluidic nature. In this article we demonstrate an all-liquid tunable whispering gallery mode microlaser floating on a liquid surface fabricated by using inkjet print technique. We show that the cavity resonance of such liquid lasers could be reconfigurably manipulated by surface tension alteration originated from the tiny concentration change of the surfactant in the supporting liquid. As such, remarkable sensing of water-soluble organic compounds with a sensitivity of free spectral range as high as 19.85 THz / (mol · mL-1) and the detectivity limit around 5.56 × 10-3 mol · mL-1 is achieved. Our work provides not only a novel approach to effectively tuning a laser resonator but also new insight into potential applications in biological, chemical and environmental sensing.

  6. Reconfigurable Braille display with phase change locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Cody W.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2016-07-01

    Automatically updated signs and displays for sighted people are common in today’s world. However, there is no cheap, low power equivalent available for the blind. This work demonstrates a reconfigurable Braille cell using the solid-to-liquid phase change of a low melting point alloy as a zero holding power locking mechanism. The device is actuated with the alloy in the liquid state, and is then allowed to solidify to lock the Braille dot in the actuated position. A low-cost manufacturing process is developed that includes molding of a rigid silicone to create pneumatic channels, and bonding of a thin membrane of a softer silicone on the surface for actuation. A plug of Field’s metal (melting point 62 °C) is placed in the pneumatic channels below each Braille dot to create the final device. The device is well suited for low duty cycle operation in applications such as signs, and is able to maintain its state indefinitely without additional power input. The display requires a pneumatic pressure of only 24 kPa for actuation, and reconfiguration has been demonstrated in less than a minute and a half.

  7. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  8. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  9. Collaborative virtual experience based on reconfigurable simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, Qonita M.; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Ko, Heedong

    2006-10-01

    Virtual Reality simulation enables immersive 3D experience of a Virtual Environment. A simulation-based Virtual Environment can be used to map real world phenomena onto virtual experience. With a reconfigurable simulation, users can reconfigure the parameters of the involved objects, so that they can see different effects from the different configurations. This concept is suitable for a classroom learning of physics law. This research studies the Virtual Reality simulation of Newton's physics law on rigid body type of objects. With network support, collaborative interaction is enabled so that people from different places can interact with the same set of objects in immersive Collaborative Virtual Environment. The taxonomy of the interaction in different levels of collaboration is described as: distinct objects and same object, in which there are same object - sequentially, same object - concurrently - same attribute, and same object - concurrently - distinct attributes. The case studies are the interaction of users in two cases: destroying and creating a set of arranged rigid bodies. In Virtual Domino, users can observe physics law while applying force to the domino blocks in order to destroy the arrangements. In Virtual Dollhouse, users can observe physics law while constructing a dollhouse using existing building blocks, under gravity effects.

  10. Voltage-controlled nanoscale reconfigurable magnonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Chumak, Andrii V.; Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Hillebrands, Burkard; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    A nanoscale reconfigurable magnonic crystal is designed using voltage-controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in ferromagnetic-dielectric heterostructures. A periodic array of gate metallic strips is placed on top of a MgO/Co structure in order to apply a periodic electric field and to modify the PMA in Co. It is numerically demonstrated that the introduction of PMA, which can be realized experimentally via applying a voltage, modifies the spin-wave propagation and leads to the formation of band gaps in the spin-wave spectrum. The band gaps can be controlled, i.e., it is possible to switch band gaps on and off within a few tens of nanoseconds. The width and the center frequency of the band gaps are defined by the applied voltage. Finally, it is shown that the introduction of PMA to selected, rather than to all gate strips allows for a predefined modification of the band-gap spectra. The proposed voltage-controlled reconfigurable magnonic crystal opens a way to low power consumption magnonic applications.

  11. Reconfigurable Optical Interconnections Using Dynamic Optoelectronic Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Elmar

    1988-04-01

    Increasing complexity and processing speed of electronic circuits and a high device density have led to serious problems in electrical interconnections. Their limitations arise from their signal transmission capacity. power consumption. crosstalk. and reliability. Optical links may solve such problems by offering high data rates of several gigabits per second. large fanouts of up to 100 loads. good reliability and less power expenditure. Optical fibers, integrated optical waveguides or free-space transmission links may be applicable. For the free-space links, lenses. mirrors and holograms can be used to guide the light waves. In this paper, reconfigurable optical interconnection schemes are proposed and described which are based on optoelectronic holograms. Their interference patterns can be changed dynamically. To establish connections as free-space links, the light beams emitted from even hundreds of light sources are imaged onto an array of small dynamic holograms. Their interference patterns are optically and electronically controllable. These holograms diffract and focus each of the incident light beams individually onto the receiving photo-diodes. By changing the hologram interference patterns dynamically. an optical switch is obtained. It renders the establishment of reconfigurable optical interconnections. As optoelectronic holograms very-high-resolution spatial light modulators are proposed.

  12. Reconfigurability in MDO Problem Synthesis. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2004-01-01

    Integrating autonomous disciplines into a problem amenable to solution presents a major challenge in realistic multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). We propose a linguistic approach to MDO problem description, formulation, and solution we call reconfigurable multidisciplinary synthesis (REMS). With assistance from computer science techniques, REMS comprises an abstract language and a collection of processes that provide a means for dynamic reasoning about MDO problems in a range of contexts. The approach may be summarized as follows. Description of disciplinary data according to the rules of a grammar, followed by lexical analysis and compilation, yields basic computational components that can be assembled into various MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms, including hybrid strategies, with relative ease. The ability to re-use the computational components is due to the special structure of the MDO problem. The range of contexts for reasoning about MDO spans tasks from error checking and derivative computation to formulation and reformulation of optimization problem statements. In highly structured contexts, reconfigurability can mean a straightforward transformation among problem formulations with a single operation. We hope that REMS will enable experimentation with a variety of problem formulations in research environments, assist in the assembly of MDO test problems, and serve as a pre-processor in computational frameworks in production environments. Part 1 of two companion papers, discusses the fundamentals of REMS. This paper, Part 2 illustrates the methodology in more detail.

  13. Reconfigurability in MDO Problem Synthesis. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2004-01-01

    Integrating autonomous disciplines into a problem amenable to solution presents a major challenge in realistic multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). We propose a linguistic approach to MDO problem description, formulation, and solution we call reconfigurable multidisciplinary synthesis (REMS). With assistance from computer science techniques, REMS comprises an abstract language and a collection of processes that provide a means for dynamic reasoning about MDO problems in a range of contexts. The approach may be summarized as follows. Description of disciplinary data according to the rules of a grammar, followed by lexical analysis and compilation, yields basic computational components that can be assembled into various MDO problem formulations and solution algorithms, including hybrid strategies, with relative ease. The ability to re-use the computational components is due to the special structure of the MDO problem. The range of contexts for reasoning about MDO spans tasks from error checking and derivative computation to formulation and reformulation of optimization problem statements. In highly structured contexts, reconfigurability can mean a straightforward transformation among problem formulations with a single operation. We hope that REMS will enable experimentation with a variety of problem formulations in research environments, assist in the assembly of MDO test problems, and serve as a pre-processor in computational frameworks in production environments. This paper, Part 1 of two companion papers, discusses the fundamentals of REMS. Part 2 illustrates the methodology in more detail.

  14. Schematic Approach to Information Services Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Information system change is concerned with deliberate modifications to an organization’s technical and organiza‐ tional subsystems that deal with information. Changes result in adjustments being made to the configuration of information systems that could have an impact on the operations of those systems. This paper examines the problem of interference between old configuration activi‐ ties, new configuration activities and reconfiguration activities that occur due to overlapping modes. The paper proposes a novel form of depicting and solving the problem based on a flow-based conceptualization in which a configuration can be viewed as a system of flow systems organized architecturally, described by their internal flows, and connected by external flows and triggering. This method of diagramming is applied to a complex case study involving the reconfiguration of an office workflow for order processing described in BPMN. The diagrams resulting from this method and the BPMN diagrams are then examined side by side. Accordingly, the conclusion is that a new high-level representation seems more system‐ atic as a foundation for building a conceptual schema of business processes.

  15. The Gospel of Matthew: Reconfigured Torah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Hays

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the evangelist Matthew’s reading of Israel’s Scripture. Rather than focusing only on Matthew’s distinctive formula quotations, we must observe the subtler ways that Matthew evokes scriptural images and patterns. The essay highlights four major aspects of Matthew’s reading of Scripture. (1 Matthew reads Israel’s Scripture as a story that highlights election, kingship, exile, and messianic salvation as the end of exile. (2 Matthew reconfigures Torah into a call for radical transformation of the heart. (3 Matthew highlights Scripture’s call for mercy, particularly by emphasizing Hosea 6:6 as the hermeneutical key to Torah. (4 Matthew interprets the mission to the Gentiles as the fulfilment of Israel’s destiny and the active embodiment of the authority of the Son of Man (Dn 7:13-14 over the whole world. Jointly taken, these strategies of interpretation produce a striking reconfiguration of Israel’s Torah.

  16. Implementation and implications of macrophyte reconfiguration in hydraulic river modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoren, Veerle; Schoelynck, Jonas; Buis, Kerst; Meire, Dieter; Bal, Kris; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2014-05-01

    In lowland rivers, abundant macrophyte growth can often be observed. The aquatic vegetation has an impact on the flow by creating friction which results in increased water levels and decreased flow velocities. At the same time submerged macrophytes are susceptible to hydrodynamic forces of the water. Their morphology is therefore often flexible and streamlined so that it enables reconfiguration (i.e. bending of macrophytes with water flow) and decreases potential damage at high flow velocities. Knowledge of these mutual interactions is crucial in order to model water flow in vegetated rivers. A correct estimation of flow velocity and water height is indispensable for the calculation of hydraulic, ecological and geomorphological parameters. The total resistance to water flow in a river can be described by a Manning coefficient. This value is influenced by river characteristics as well as by the presence of macrophytes. In this study a simple method is developed to quantify the resistance created by macrophytes after reconfiguration of their canopy. In order to achieve this we derive model formulations and plant parameters for three different macrophyte species and compare model simulation with measured flow velocity data for two case studies. Furthermore, the effect of macrophyte reconfiguration is investigated by modeling the same case studies with and without the implementation of macrophyte reconfiguration. It was found that the local resistance created by the vegetation was overestimated when reconfiguration was not considered. This resulted in an overestimation of stream velocity adjacent to the vegetation and an underestimation of the stream velocity within and behind the vegetation. Another effect was a higher water level gradient and consequently a higher Manning coefficient in the scenario without reconfiguration compared to the scenario with reconfiguration. Reconfiguration had also an influence on ecological and geomorphological parameters. It was found

  17. Center-configuration selection technique for the reconfigurable modular robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reconfigurable modular robot has an enormous amount of configurations to adapt to various environments and tasks. It greatly increases the complexity of configuration research in that the possible configuration number of the reconfigurable modular robot grows exponentially with the increase of module number. Being the initial configuration or the basic configuration of the reconfigurable robot, the center-configuration plays a crucial role in system's actual applications. In this paper, a novel center-configuration selection technique has been proposed for reconfigurable modular robots. Based on the similarities between configurations' transformation and graph theory, configuration network has been applied in the modeling and analyzing of these configurations. Configuration adjacency matrix, reconfirmation cost matrix, and center-configuration coefficient have been defined for the configuration network correspondingly. Being similar to the center-location problem, the center configuration has been selected according to the largest center-configuration coefficient. As an example of the reconfigurable robotic system, AMOEBA-I, a three-module reconfigurable robot with nine configurations which was developed in Shenyang Institute of Automation (SIA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), has been introduced briefly. According to the numerical simulation result, the center-configuration coefficients for these nine configurations have been calculated and compared to validate this technique. Lastly, a center- configuration selection example is provided with consideration of the adjacent configurations. The center-configuration selection technique proposed in this paper is also available to other reconfigurable modular robots.

  18. Analysis of Petri net model and task planning heuristic algorithms for product reconfiguration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Reconfiguration planning is recognized as an important factor for reducing the cost of manufacturing reconfigurable products, and the associated main task is to generate a set of optimal or near-optimal reconfiguration sequences using some effect algorithms. A method is developed to generate a Petri net as the reconfiguration tree to represent two-state-transit of product, which solved the representation problem of reconfiguring interfaces replacement. Relating with this method, two heuristic algorithms are proposed to generate task sequences which considering economics to search reconfiguration paths effectively. At last,an objective evaluation is applied to compare these two heuristic algorithms to other ones. The developed reconfiguration task planning heuristic algorithms can generate better strategies and plans for reconfiguration. The research finds are exemplified with struts reconfiguration of reconfigurable parallel kinematics machine (RPKM).

  19. 基于模糊控制的电动车双向DC-DC变换器研究%Research on the Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter of the Electric Vehicle Based on the Fuzzy Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雪; 郑翔; 穆佩红; 高雅洁

    2014-01-01

    为了延长车辆续航里程,提高蓄电池的使用寿命,使用超级电容作为辅助的能量源,控制超级电容的双向DC-DC变换器对直流母线进行能量的回馈和补充,提高了电动车电源系统效率。根据蓄电池和超级电容的剩余电量及负载瞬态功率需求,提出了一种模糊控制器改善双能量电动车DC-DC变换器性能的方法。模糊控制器根据车辆运行的不同工况,自动地决策出一个合理的输出电流,进而控制双向半桥Buck/Boost式变换器的电流环。实验结果说明了控制系统具有良好的动态性、可行性、有效性。%In order to prolong the driving range and the life cycle of the storage battery, ultracapcitor was used in this study as an auxiliary power source, the bi-directional DC-DC converter of the ultracapacitor was controlled to supplement the energy of the DC bus, and thus the efficiency of the electric vehicle power system was enhanced. Based on the dump energy of the storage battery and ultracapacitor and the need for load transient power, a method was proposed in this paper, in which a fuzzy controller was adopted to improve the performance of the bi-directional DC-DC converter of the electric vehicle. The fuzzy controller could automatically decide on proper output current according to different working conditions of the vehicle, and thereby control the current loop of the bi-directional half-bridge Buck/Boost converter. Simulation results proved that the control system was very dynamic, feasible and effective.

  20. Game Theory Algorithm of Reconfiguration for Shipboard Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guanqun; ZHANG Xuemin; LIU Feng; MEI Shengwei

    2012-01-01

    The reconfiguration process for a shipboard power system (SPS) alters the topology of the system in order to achieve certain objectives, such as enhancing service continuity and minimizing power losses under cascading failures or battle damage while satisfying the system's operating constraints. Reconfiguration techniques can be classified into two categories: centralized and decentralized methods. The decentralized reconfiguration technique has outstanding advantages such as fast computing speed and the avoidance of single-point failure, and therefore is preferred for SPS instead of centralized techniques.

  1. Centralised versus Decentralised Control Reconfiguration for Collaborating Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furno, Lidia; Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces an approach to fault-tolerant reconfiguration for collaborating underwater robots. Fault-tolerant reconfiguration is obtained using the virtual actuator approach, Steen (2005). The paper investigates properties of a centralised versus a decentralised implementation...... an underwater drill needs to be transported and positioned by three collaborating robots as part of an underwater autonomous operation....... and assesses the capabilities under communication constraints between the individual robots. In the centralised case, each robot sends information related to its own status to a unique virtual actuator that computes the necessary reconfiguration. In the decentralised case, each robot is equipped with its own...

  2. Towards Shop Floor Hardware Reconfiguration for Industrial Collaborative Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper; Madsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a roadmap for hardware reconfiguration of industrial collaborative robots. As a flexible resource, the collaborative robot will often need transitioning to a new task. Our goal is, that this transitioning should be done by the shop floor operators, not highly specialized...... engineers. The hard- ware reconfiguration framework adopts a modular architecture for the collabo- rative robot which dictates a clear segmentation of the robot into well-defined exchangeable modules. Four main objectives for the hardware reconfiguration framework; 1) Modular architecture, 2) Module...

  3. Reconfigurable THz Plasmonic Antenna Concept Using a Graphene Stack

    CERN Document Server

    Tamagnone, Michele; Mosig, Juan Ramon; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The concept and analysis of a Terahertz (THz) frequency-reconfigurable antenna using graphene are presented. The antenna exploits dipole-like plasmonic resonances that can be frequency-tuned on large range via the electric field effect in a graphene stack. In addition to efficient dynamic control, the proposed approach allows high miniaturization and good direct matching with continuous wave THz sources. A qualitative model is used to explain the excellent impedance stability under reconfiguration. These initial results are very promising for future all-graphene THz transceivers and sensors. Keywords: Reconfigurable antenna, Graphene, Plasmons, Terahertz, frequency-tuning.

  4. Band-notched reconfigurable CPW-fed UWB antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, H. A.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Murad, N. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Kamarudin, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    A reconfigurable band-notched CPW-fed UWB antenna using electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is proposed. Two structures are positioned adjacent to the transmission line of the UWB antenna. The band-notched characteristic can be disabled by switching the state of switch place at the strip line. The EBG structure produces reconfigurable band notched at 4.0 GHz, which covers C-band satellite communication (3.625-4.2 GHz) systems. The proposed antenna is suitable for UWB systems, which requires reconfigurable band reject function.

  5. Design of Processors with Reconfigurable Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mokhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy becomes a dominating factor for a wide spectrum of computations: from intensive data processing in “big data” companies resulting in large electricity bills, to infrastructure monitoring with wireless sensors relying on energy harvesting. In this context it is essential for a computation system to be adaptable to the power supply and the service demand, which often vary dramatically during runtime. In this paper we present an approach to building processors with reconfigurable microarchitecture capable of changing the way they fetch and execute instructions depending on energy availability and application requirements. We show how to use Conditional Partial Order Graphs to formally specify the microarchitecture of such a processor, explore the design possibilities for its instruction set, and synthesise the instruction decoder using correct-by-construction techniques. The paper is focused on the design methodology, which is evaluated by implementing a power-proportional version of Intel 8051 microprocessor.

  6. Plasmonic Route to Reconfigurable Polarization Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Tang, X M; Wang, S M; Wang, Q J; Zhu, S N

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmon polariton (SPP) as a bounded mode on a metal/dielectric interface intrinsically has a definite transverse magnetic (TM) polarization that usually lacks further manipulations. However, the in-plane longitudinal components of SPP field can produce versatile polarization states when two orthogonal propagating SPP interfere with each other. Here, we demonstrated a plasmonic polarization router by designing appropriate nanohole arrays that can selectively scatter the interfered SPP fields to desired light beams. It is well proved that our device is able to reconfigure a certain input polarization to all kinds of states with respect to a scattered light. Accompanied with a composite phase modulation by diffractions, multiple focusing beams with different polarization states are simultaneously achieved, promising the possibility in polarization multiplexing and related signal processing. Our design offers a new route for achieving full control of the optical polarizations as well as the optical spin-...

  7. Reconfigurable and writable magnetic charge crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2017-07-18

    Artificial ices enable the study of geometrical frustration by design and through direct observation. It has, however, proven difficult to achieve tailored long-range ordering of their diverse configurations, limiting both fundamental and applied research directions. An artificial spin structure design is described that produces a magnetic charge ice with tunable long-range ordering of eight different configurations. A technique is also developed to precisely manipulate the local magnetic charge states and demonstrate write-read-erase multi-functionality at room temperature. This globally reconfigurable and locally writable magnetic charge ice provides a setting for designing magnetic monopole defects, tailoring magnetics and controlling the properties of other two-dimensional materials.

  8. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  9. Reconfigurable photonic data networks for military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, T. L.; Seal, D. W.; Hoard, M. A.

    The authors propose a photonic switched network approach capable of supporting multi-gigabit-per-second data rate transmissions, independent of protocol, over a large number of simultaneous, independent paths. To form the heart of this network, a single chip, gallium arsenide (GaAs), all-optical crossbar switch suitable for application to fighter aircraft has been developed. This monolithic photonic crossbar requires no electrical/optical conversions; thus it provides a transparent network interface. It is capable of digital data transmission at rates from dc to at least 2 Gb/s, independently of communication protocol or format. It can connect any input to any available output without disturbing existing connections, and it is capable of broadcasting signals from one input to multiple outputs. It can reconfigure its input to output routings in less than 1.0 ns. The authors report on optical switch technology assessment, and laboratory evaluation of photonic data bus star repeaters.

  10. Reconfigurable robot based on modular joint concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Shicai; Xie Zongwu; Gao Xiaohui; Jin Minghe; Zhu Yingyuan; Ni Fenglei; Liu Hong; Kraemer Erich; Hirzinger Gerd

    2006-01-01

    A reconfigurable modular robot was developed for a free-flying robot project. This robot was composed of 6 same modular joints and one gripper. In order to save space and cost for transporting it into the space, the robot should be folded overall and locked. A big central hole in the modular joint was designed for the placement of the cables and plugs in the robot arm, which prevented them from damage of high temperature, radiation in the space environment and the motion of the robot. Multiple sensors were integrated into the fully modular joint, such as joint torque sensor, joint position sensor and temperature sensors, which made the joint more intelligent. A zero gravity experimental system was developed to verify the functions of the robot under zero gravity environment.

  11. Easy Reconfiguration of Modular Industrial Collaborative Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative robots have gained a high interest in both research and industry over the past decade as a response to the need for more flexible and agile manufacturing equipment. In contrast to traditional industrial robots, collaborative robots are not isolated by fences, but work alongside...... the production staff collaborating to perform common tasks. This change of environment imposes a much more dynamic lifecycle for the robot which consequently requires new ways of interacting. This thesis investigates how the changeover to a new task on a collaborative robot can be performed by the shop floor...... operators already working alongside the robot. To effectively perform this changeover, the operator must both reconfigure the hardware of the robot and reprogram the robot to match the new task. To enable shop floor operators to quickly and intuitively program the robot, this thesis proposes the use...

  12. Electronically reconfigurable metal-on-silicon metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Tyler, Talmage; Dhar, Sulochana; Nguyen, Vinh; Jokerst, Nan M; Schmalenberg, Paul; Smith, David R

    2012-01-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterial-based apertures can play a unique role in both imaging and in beam-forming applications, where current technology relies mostly on the fabrication and integration of large detector or antenna arrays. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a voltage-controlled, silicon-based electromagnetic metamaterial operating in the W-band (75-110 GHz). In this composite semiconductor metamaterial, patterned gold metamaterial elements serve both to manage electromagnetic wave propagation while simultaneously acting as electrical Schottky contacts that control the local conductivity of the semiconductor substrate. The active device layers consist of a patterned metal on a 2-{\\mu}m-thick n-doped silicon layer, adhesively bonded to a transparent Pyrex wafer. The transmittance of the composite metamaterial can be modulated over a given frequency band as a function of bias voltage. We demonstrate a quantitative understanding of the composite device through the application of numerical appr...

  13. 基于网络编码的双向多中继系统中断概率分析%Outage Probability Analysis of Bi-directional Multi-Relay System Based on Network Coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文文; 徐友云; 田华; 许魁

    2012-01-01

    Network Coding has been investigated extensively in bi-directional multi-relay system and can improve the throughput of bi-directional multi-relay system effectually. Firstly two outage probability expressions of bi-directional multi-relay system on independent orthogonal channel and multiple access channel with decode-and-forward based on network coding are given in this paper and theory analysis is proved correct by Monte Carlo simulation. Secondly we analyze the system average outage performance at different situation of different power allocation coefficient, SNR and the number of relay, indicating the inherent relationship between power allocation coefficient and total system power as well as the number of relay. Simulation results indicate that optimal system outage performances of bi-directional multi-relay system on the two channels are attained when power allocation coefficient is chosen in[0.5,0.6] , and we can see that outage performance of the system on multiple access channel is better than the independent orthogonal channel.%网络编码在双向多中继系统中已经得到了广泛地研究,并有效地提高了双向多中继系统的吞吐量.首先本文导出了在译码转发方式时,独立正交信道和多接入信道下基于网络编码的双向多中继系统平均中断概率表达式.Monte Carlo仿真和理论分析非常吻合,验证了理论分析的正确性.之后分析了系统平均中断性能在不同信噪比和不同中继节点个数等多种情形下与功率分配因子的关系,揭示了功率分配因子与系统总功率和中继节点数量之间的内在关系.仿真结果表明,双向多中继系统采用网络编码进行传输时,在独立正交信道下和多接入信道下的功率分配因子取值在区间[0.5,0.6]内能够获得最优的系统中断概率性能,并且多接入信道下的系统中断性能要好于独立正交信道.

  14. Optical microassembly platform for constructing reconfigurable microenvironment for biomedical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Kelemen, Lóránd; Palima, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    Cellular development is highly influenced by the surrounding microenvironment. We propose user-reconfigurable microenvironments and bio-compatible scaffolds as an approach for understanding cellular development processes. We demonstrate a model platform for constructing versatile microenvironments...

  15. Reconfiguring the Logical Topology With Performance Guarantees in WDM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To improve the network performance after traffic demand changes, reconfiguring the logical topology is necessary. We present an ILP algorithm to find out the least lightpath changes needed with guaranteed network performance.

  16. Self-Assembling Wireless Autonomous Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory propose Self-assembling, Wireless, Autonomous, Reconfigurable Modules (SWARM) as an innovative approach to...

  17. Generation of a Reconfigurable Logical Cell Using Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Campos-Cantón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nature, an interesting topic is about how a cell can be reconfigured in order to achieve a different task. Another interesting topic is about the learning process that seems to be a trial and error process. In this work, we present mechanisms about how to produce a reconfigurable logical cell based on the tent map. The reconfiguration is realized by modifying its internal parameters generating several logical functions in the same structure. The logical cell is built with three blocks: the initial condition generating function, the tent map, and the output function. Furthermore, we propose a reconfigurable structure based on a chaotic system and an evolutionary algorithm is used in order to tune the parameters of the cell via trial and error process.

  18. Reconfiguration of distribution system using a binary programming model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mashud Hyder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution system reconfiguration aims to choose a switching combination of branches of the system that optimize certain performance criteria of power supply while maintaining some specified constraints. The ability to automatically reconfigure the network quickly and reliably is a key requirement of self-healing networks which is an important part of the future Smart Grid system. We present a unified mathematical framework, which allows us to consider different objectives of distribution system reconfiguration problems in a flexible manner, and investigate its performance. The resulting optimization problem is in quadratic form which can be solved efficiently by using a quadratic mixed integer programming (QMIP solver. The proposed method has been applied for reconfiguring different standard test distribution systems.

  19. Radiation Resistant, Reconfigurable, Shape Memory Metal Rubber Space Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic has demonstrated that Shape Memory Metal RubberTM (SM-MR) adaptive skins exhibit reconfigurable and durable RF properties. It is hypothesized that such...

  20. Distributed flexible reconfigurable condition monitoring and diagnosis technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU You-min; YANG Shu-zi; DU Run-sheng

    2006-01-01

    As manufacturing becomes increasingly decentralized,flexible and reconfigurable,more research needs to be done on monitoring and diagnosis technology that accommodate these new trends.The distributed condition monitoring and diagnosis technology based on the "flexible and reconfigurable" concept is studied here.A condition monitoring diagnosis model based on the distributed flexible and reconfigurable idea is proposed in this paper.The component makeup and functions of this model are discussed in detail.The model can fulfill in most instances the manufacturing system requirements for changing the configuration of the monitoring diagnosis system according to different manufacturing system configurations.This model also realizes the flexibility and reconfigurability of the monitoring diagnosis system in some degree.The model has already spawned a successful prototype for monitoring a chemical plant in accomplishing monitoring and control of the production process and equipment.Finally,some future research work is pointed out.

  1. Towards Software Defined Radios Using Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, Gerard K.; Heysters, Paul M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Jha, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile wireless terminals tend to become multimode wireless communication devices. Furthermore, these devices become adaptive. Heterogeneous reconfigurable hardware provides the flexibility, performance, and efficiency to enable the implementation of these devices. The implementation of a wideband c

  2. Reconfigurable Secondary Composite Building Blocks for Expandable Habitable Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZIN Technologies, Inc. will provide a preliminary design showing the feasibility of a Reconfigurable Multi-functional Architecture (RMA) for a deployable floor...

  3. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  4. Reconfigurable EVA Radio with Built-In Navigation Capability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation, Inc. and its sub-contractor, Purdue University, propose to develop a power-efficient miniaturized reconfigurable EVA radio system with...

  5. Dynamically reconfigurable multiple beam illumination based on optical correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2009-01-01

    We adapt concepts from optical correlation and optical pattern recognition to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple spots with high efficiency. The generated spots correspond to the correlation spikes in optical pattern recognition. In pattern recognition, optimizing the correla...

  6. A frequency reconfigurable antenna based on digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaci, Yasin; Cetiner, Bedri A

    2013-08-07

    We present a novel antenna reconfiguration mechanism relying on electrowetting based digital microfluidics to implement a frequency reconfigurable antenna operating in the X-band. The antenna built on a quartz substrate (εr = 3.9, tan δ = 0.0002) is a coplanar waveguide fed annular slot antenna, which is monolithically integrated with a microfluidic chip. This chip establishes an electrowetting on dielectric platform with a mercury droplet placed in it. The base contact area of the mercury droplet can be spread out by electrostatic actuation resulting in a change of loading capacitance. This in turn changes the resonant frequency of the antenna enabling a reversible reconfigurable impedance property. This reconfigurable antenna has been designed, fabricated and measured. The frequency of operation is tuned from around 11 GHz to 13 GHz as demonstrated by simulations and measurements. The design methodology, fabrication processes and the experimental results are given and discussed.

  7. Circularly split-ring-resonator-based frequency-reconfigurable antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. A.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an antenna with frequency configurability in light of a circularly split-ring resonator (CSRR) is introduced. The proposed reconfigurable monopole antenna consists of a microstrip-fed hook-shaped structure and a CSRR having single reconfigurable split only. A new band of radiation unlike the band radiated from monopole only is observed due to magnetic coupling between the CSRR and the monopole antenna. The resonance frequency of the CSRR can be arbitrarily chosen by varying the dimension and relative position of its gap with the monopole, which leads the antenna to become reconfigurable one. By using a single switch with perfect electric conductor at the gap of CSRR cell, the effect of CSRR can be deactivated and, hence, it is possible to suppress the corresponding resonance, resulting in a frequency-reconfigurable antenna. Commercially available Computer Simulation Technology microwave studio based on finite integration technique was adopted throughout the study.

  8. Low-Power Optically Controlled Patch Antenna of Reconfigurable Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshuang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact beam-reconfigurable patch antenna based on light control of no more than 30 mW optical powers is successfully demonstrated. It consists of one T-shape driven patch and one slot-etched parasitic patch. A silicon dice is employed as the photoconductive switch that is bridged across the slot center for optical control of reconfigurable beams. The antenna greatly reduces the total optical powers required for reconfigurable beams. Such design is based on the fact that the current phase change of the parasitic patch is sensitive to the conductivity of the silicon dice. A few conductivity changes of the silicon dice induced by the optical light can lead to a big phase change of the parasitic patch currents, eventually resulting in reconfigurable beams with low optical power requirement.

  9. Synthesis of Evolving Cells for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, J.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs) was formulated due to the global necessity for production systems that are able to economically evolve according to changes in markets and products. Technologies and design methods are under development to enable RMSs to exhibit transformable system layouts, reconfigurable processes, cells and machines. Existing factory design methods and software have not yet advanced to include reconfigurable manufacturing concepts. This paper presents the underlying group technology framework for the design of manufacturing cells that are able to evolve according to a changing product mix by mechanisms of reconfiguration. The framework is based on a Norton- Bass forecast and time variant BOM models. An adaptation of legacy group technology methods is presented for the synthesis of evolving cells and two optimization problems are presented within this context.

  10. Hotspot Prevention Through Runtime Reconfiguration in Network-On-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Link, G M

    2011-01-01

    Many existing thermal management techniques focus on reducing the overall power consumption of the chip, and do not address location-specific temperature problems referred to as hotspots. We propose the use of dynamic runtime reconfiguration to shift the hotspot-inducing computation periodically and make the thermal profile more uniform. Our analysis shows that dynamic reconfiguration is an effective technique in reducing hotspots for NoCs.

  11. Reconfigurable manufacturing system for agile mass customization manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available with Agile MCM environment. Fig.8: MCM requirements for rms in Agile MCM environment 5. Reconfigurable Machine Using Modular Mechatronic Control The RMS is controlled by computer-based technology. Since the advent of the microprocessor, computer... Lowe (July 2005) A simple model generation system for computer graphics. In: Future Generation Computer Systems, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 1223-1234 Moon, Y. M., and Kota, S. (1998) Generalized Kinematic Modelling Method for Reconfigurable Machine Tools...

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Reconfigurable Manufacturing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Yang; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    In modern manufacturing industry, reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) is a promising concept in the research arena. A new RMS system structure has been recently designed by a large consumer goods manufacturer in Europe, aiming to improve its production efficiency. This article shows...... implemented in this consumer goods manufacturer can be effectively (re)configured as part of the daily operations, and the configuration is analyzed by computer simulation before release. Flexibility can be increased considerably meanwhile the system can maintain an acceptable productivity....

  13. Optimizing a reconfigurable material via evolutionary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Sam; Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2015-08-01

    Rapid prototyping by combining evolutionary computation with simulations is becoming a powerful tool for solving complex design problems in materials science. This method of optimization operates in a virtual design space that simulates potential material behaviors and after completion needs to be validated by experiment. However, in principle an evolutionary optimizer can also operate on an actual physical structure or laboratory experiment directly, provided the relevant material parameters can be accessed by the optimizer and information about the material's performance can be updated by direct measurements. Here we provide a proof of concept of such direct, physical optimization by showing how a reconfigurable, highly nonlinear material can be tuned to respond to impact. We report on an entirely computer controlled laboratory experiment in which a 6 ×6 grid of electromagnets creates a magnetic field pattern that tunes the local rigidity of a concentrated suspension of ferrofluid and iron filings. A genetic algorithm is implemented and tasked to find field patterns that minimize the force transmitted through the suspension. Searching within a space of roughly 1010 possible configurations, after testing only 1500 independent trials the algorithm identifies an optimized configuration of layered rigid and compliant regions.

  14. Reconfigurable cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maso, Marco; Baştuğ, Ejder; Cardoso, Leonardo S.; Debbah, Mérouane; Özdemir, Özgür

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we provide the implementation and analysis of a cognitive transceiver for opportunistic networks. We focus on a previously introduced dynamic spectrum access (DSA) - cognitive radio (CR) solution for primary-secondary coexistence in opportunistic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) networks, called cognitive interference alignment (CIA). The implementation is based on software-defined radio (SDR) and uses GNU Radio and the universal software radio peripheral (USRP) as the implementation toolkit. The proposed flexible transceiver architecture allows efficient on-the-fly reconfigurations of the physical layer into OFDM, CIA or a combination of both. Remarkably, its responsiveness is such that the uplink and downlink channel reciprocity from the medium perspective, inherent to time division duplex (TDD) communications, can be effectively verified and exploited. We show that CIA provides approximately 10 dB of interference isolation towards the OFDM receiver with respect to a fully random precoder. This result is obtained under suboptimal conditions, which indicates that further gains are possible with a better optimization of the system. Our findings point towards the usefulness of a practical CIA implementation, as it yields a non-negligible performance for the secondary system, while providing interference shielding to the primary receiver.

  15. Reconfiguring active particles by electrostatic imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Han, Ming; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Cong; Luijten, Erik; Granick, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Active materials represent a new class of condensed matter in which motile elements may collectively form dynamic, global structures out of equilibrium. Here, we present a general strategy to reconfigure active particles into various collective states by introducing imbalanced interactions. We demonstrate the concept with computer simulations of self-propelled colloidal spheres, and experimentally validate it in a two-dimensional (2D) system of metal-dielectric Janus colloids subjected to perpendicular a.c. electric fields. The mismatched, frequency-dependent dielectric responses of the two hemispheres of the colloids allow simultaneous control of particle motility and colloidal interactions. We realized swarms, chains, clusters and isotropic gases from the same precursor particle by changing the electric-field frequency. Large-scale polar waves, vortices and jammed domains are also observed, with the persistent time-dependent evolution of their collective structure evoking that of classical materials. This strategy of asymmetry-driven active self-organization should generalize rationally to other active 2D and three-dimensional (3D) materials.

  16. LOPES 3D reconfiguration and first measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, D; Arteaga, J C; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Buchholz, P; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Finger, M; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Wommer, M; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2013-01-01

    The Radio detection technique of high-energy cosmic rays is based on the radio signal emitted by the charged particles in an air shower due to their deflection in the Earth's magnetic field. The LOPES experiment at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany with its simple dipoles made major contributions to the revival of this technique. LOPES is working in the frequency range from 40 to 80 MHz and was reconfigured several times to improve and further develop the radio detection technique. In the current setup LOPES consists of 10 tripole antennas which measure the complete electric field vector of the radio emission from cosmic rays. LOPES is the first experiment measuring all three vectorial components at once and thereby gaining the full information about the electric field vector and not only a two-dimensional projection. Such a setup including also measurements of the vertical electric field component is expected to increase the sensitivity to inclined showers and help to advance the understanding of th...

  17. Remote hardware-reconfigurable robotic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Maya-Rueda, Selene E.

    2001-10-01

    In this work, a camera with integrated image processing capabilities is discussed. The camera is based on an imager coupled to an FPGA device (Field Programmable Gate Array) which contains an architecture for real-time computer vision low-level processing. The architecture can be reprogrammed remotely for application specific purposes. The system is intended for rapid modification and adaptation for inspection and recognition applications, with the flexibility of hardware and software reprogrammability. FPGA reconfiguration allows the same ease of upgrade in hardware as a software upgrade process. The camera is composed of a digital imager coupled to an FPGA device, two memory banks, and a microcontroller. The microcontroller is used for communication tasks and FPGA programming. The system implements a software architecture to handle multiple FPGA architectures in the device, and the possibility to download a software/hardware object from the host computer into its internal context memory. System advantages are: small size, low power consumption, and a library of hardware/software functionalities that can be exchanged during run time. The system has been validated with an edge detection and a motion processing architecture, which will be presented in the paper. Applications targeted are in robotics, mobile robotics, and vision based quality control.

  18. Flexible, reconfigurable, power efficient transmitter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James W. (Inventor); Zaki, Nazrul H. Mohd (Inventor); Newman, David Childress (Inventor); Bundick, Steven N. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, reconfigurable, power efficient transmitter device and method is provided. In one embodiment, the method includes receiving outbound data and determining a mode of operation. When operating in a first mode the method may include modulation mapping the outbound data according a modulation scheme to provide first modulation mapped digital data, converting the first modulation mapped digital data to an analog signal that comprises an intermediate frequency (IF) analog signal, upconverting the IF analog signal to produce a first modulated radio frequency (RF) signal based on a local oscillator signal, amplifying the first RF modulated signal to produce a first RF output signal, and outputting the first RF output signal via an isolator. In a second mode of operation method may include modulation mapping the outbound data according a modulation scheme to provide second modulation mapped digital data, converting the second modulation mapped digital data to a first digital baseband signal, conditioning the first digital baseband signal to provide a first analog baseband signal, modulating one or more carriers with the first analog baseband signal to produce a second modulated RF signal based on a local oscillator signal, amplifying the second RF modulated signal to produce a second RF output signal, and outputting the second RF output signal via the isolator. The digital baseband signal may comprise an in-phase (I) digital baseband signal and a quadrature (Q) baseband signal.

  19. A reconfiguration of the sex trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmes, Jocelyn; Skovdal, Morten; Nhongo, Kundai

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social and struc......Understanding the dynamic nature of sex work is important for explaining the course of HIV epidemics. While health and development interventions targeting sex workers may alter the dynamics of the sex trade in particular localities, little has been done to explore how large-scale social...... and structural changes, such as economic recessions–outside of the bounds of organizational intervention–may reconfigure social norms and attitudes with regards to sex work. Zimbabwe’s economic collapse in 2009, following a period (2000–2009) of economic decline, within a declining HIV epidemic, provides...... implications for their health and well-being. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. The analysis revealed how changing economic conditions, combined with an increased awareness and fear of HIV–changing norms and local attitudes toward sex work–had altered the demand for commercial sex. In response, sex work...

  20. An Efficient Reconfigurable Architecture for Fingerprint Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish S. Bhairannawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint identification is an efficient biometric technique to authenticate human beings in real-time Big Data Analytics. In this paper, we propose an efficient Finite State Machine (FSM based reconfigurable architecture for fingerprint recognition. The fingerprint image is resized, and Compound Linear Binary Pattern (CLBP is applied on fingerprint, followed by histogram to obtain histogram CLBP features. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT Level 2 features are obtained by the same methodology. The novel matching score of CLBP is computed using histogram CLBP features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Similarly, the DWT matching score is computed using DWT features of test image and fingerprint images in the database. Further, the matching scores of CLBP and DWT are fused with arithmetic equation using improvement factor. The performance parameters such as TSR (Total Success Rate, FAR (False Acceptance Rate, and FRR (False Rejection Rate are computed using fusion scores with correlation matching technique for FVC2004 DB3 Database. The proposed fusion based VLSI architecture is synthesized on Virtex xc5vlx30T-3 FPGA board using Finite State Machine resulting in optimized parameters.

  1. On Endogenous Reconfiguration in Mobile Robotic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Savla, Ketan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, our focus is on certain applications for mobile robotic networks, where reconfiguration is driven by factors intrinsic to the network rather than changes in the external environment. In particular, we study a version of the coverage problem useful for surveillance applications, where the objective is to position the robots in order to minimize the average distance from a random point in a given environment to the closest robot. This problem has been well-studied for omni-directional robots and it is shown that optimal configuration for the network is a centroidal Voronoi configuration and that the coverage cost belongs to $\\Theta(m^{-1/2})$, where $m$ is the number of robots in the network. In this paper, we study this problem for more realistic models of robots, namely the double integrator (DI) model and the differential drive (DD) model. We observe that the introduction of these motion constraints in the algorithm design problem gives rise to an interesting behavior. For a \\emph{sparser} net...

  2. Toxicity-reducing and efficacy-maintaining function of fungal fermentative products in Tripterygium wilfordii by Ganoderma lucidum bi-direction solid fermentation%灵芝双向发酵雷公藤的解毒持效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小梅; 贺婧; 罗闳丹; 苏明声; 张普照; 庄毅

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究灵芝双向发酵对雷公藤的解毒持效作用.方法 运用双向发酵工程的原理和方法 获得灵雷菌质(G30),用常规急性毒性试验,免疫学试验、自身免疫疾病动物模型试验等进行G30的毒性和药效学研究.结果 G30的LD_(50)较雷公藤生药组显著提高,并且能抑制小鼠T、B淋巴细胞的增殖和血清溶血素的分泌;G30降低阿霉素诱导的肾炎大鼠的24 h尿蛋白量,同时改善肾炎大鼠的多项生化指标,且对各脏器的毒性要小于雷公藤生药;G30缓解佐剂性类风湿关节炎大鼠的足肿胀度,并改善大鼠的生存状况.结论 灵芝与雷公藤构成发酵组合所产灵雷菌质G30毒性降低并仍然保持免疫抑制作用,对佐剂性类风湿关节炎及阿霉素诱导的大鼠肾炎均有一定的治疗作用.显示双向发酵对雷公藤解毒持效是一条可行的途径.%Objective To survey the toxicity-reducing and efficacy-maintaining function of fungal fermentative products in Tripterygium wilfordii by Ganoderma lucidum bi-direction solid fermentation.Methods Bi-direction solid fermentation engineering was applied and Linglei fungal substance(G30)was obtained.Its toxicity and pharmacodynamics were detected with regular acute toxicity test,immunological test,and tests on autoimmune disease animal pattern.Results LD_(50) of G30 was higher than that of crude drug.G30 had the inhibiting effect on proliferation of both T and B lymphoeytes and could decrease the production of hemolysin in mice.G30 could decrease 24 h urine protein of nephritis model of rats caused by Adriamycin.and it had less toxicity on organs than T. wilfordii.G30 could alleviate foot swelling of rheumatoid arthritis model.Conclusion Linglei fungal substance is obtained from the fermentative composition of G.lucidum fungal and T.wilfordii.It shows lOW toxicity and effects of immunosuppression and also has some therapeutic effects on the model of autoimmune diseases

  3. A Reconfigurable Microfluidics Platform for Microparticle Separation and Fluid Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ki Hahn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics is an engineering tool used to control and manipulate fluid flows, with practical applications for lab-on-a-chip, point-of-care testing, and biological/medical research. However, microfluidic platforms typically lack the ability to create a fluidic duct, having an arbitrary flow path, and to change the path as needed without additional design and fabrication processes. To address this challenge, we present a simple yet effective approach for facile, on-demand reconfiguration of microfluidic channels using flexible polymer tubing. The tubing provides both a well-defined, cross-sectional geometry to allow reliable fluidic operation and excellent flexibility to achieve a high degree of freedom for reconfiguration of flow pathways. We demonstrate that microparticle separation and fluid mixing can be successfully implemented by reconfiguring the shape of the tubing. The tubing is coiled around a 3D-printed barrel to make a spiral microchannel with a constant curvature for inertial separation of microparticles. Multiple knots are also made in the tubing to create a highly tortuous flow path, which induces transverse secondary flows, Dean flows, and, thus, enhances the mixing of fluids. The reconfigurable microfluidics approach, with advantages including low-cost, simplicity, and ease of use, can serve as a promising complement to conventional microfabrication methods, which require complex fabrication processes with expensive equipment and lack a degree of freedom for reconfiguration.

  4. Decentralized autonomous planning of cluster reconfiguration for fractionated spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jing; Guo, Jian; Gill, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    Autonomous cluster operation such as cluster reconfiguration is one of the enabling technologies for fractionated spacecraft. By virtue of the multi-agent system theory, this paper presents an organizational architecture for fractionated spacecraft, which not only enables autonomous cluster operations but also facilitates its non-traditional attributes. Within this organizational architecture, a decentralized framework is proposed to solve cluster reconfiguration problems based on primal and dual decomposition, where subgradient methods are adopted to include reconfiguration cases with non-differentiable objectives. Two typical constraints are considered: final configuration constraints representing coupling variables and collision avoidance constraints representing coupling constraints, both of which are non-convex. General schemes are proposed to convexify those constraints via the linearization and convex restriction technology. Then final configuration constraints are tackled by primal decomposition, while collision avoidance constraints by dual decomposition. To the end, multi-level primal and dual decompositions are employed to solve reconfiguration problems with both coupling variables and coupling constraints. For illustration an example of in-plane cluster reconfiguration is solved and compared with the centralized approach the solution is optimal.

  5. Reconfigurable Polymer Networks for Improved Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh, Chi Suze Q.

    Endovascular embolization of intracranial aneurysms is a minimally invasive treatment in which an implanted material forms a clot to isolate the weakened vessel. Current strategy suffers from long-term potential failure modes. These potential failure modes include (1) enzymatic degradation of the fibrin clot that leads to compaction of the embolic agent, (2) incomplete filling of the aneurysm sac by embolic agent, and (3) challenging geometry of wide neck aneurysms. In the case of wide neck aneurysms, usually an assisting metal stent is used to help open the artery. However, metal stents with much higher modulus in comparison to the soft blood vessel can cause biocompatibilities issues in the long term such as infection and scarring. Motivated to solve these challenges associated with endovascular embolization, strategies to synthesize and engineer reconfigurable and biodegradable polymers as alternative therapies are evaluated in this thesis. (1) Reconfiguration of fibrin gel's modulus was achieved through crosslinking with genipin released from a biodegradable polymer matrix. (2) Reconfigurability can also be achieved by transforming triblock co-polymer hydrogel into photoresponsive material through incorporation of melanin nanoparticles as efficient photosensitizers. (3) Finally, reconfigurability can be conferred on biodegradable polyester networks via Diels-Alder coupling of furan pendant groups and dimaleimide crosslinking agent. Taken all together, this thesis describes strategies to transform a broad class of polymer networks into reconfigurable materials for improved treatment of intracranial aneurysms as well as for other biomedical applications.

  6. A Reconfigurable FPGA System for Parallel Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hongtao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A run-time reconfigurable field programmable gate array (FPGA system is presented for the implementation of the parallel independent component analysis (ICA algorithm. In this work, we investigate design challenges caused by the capacity constraints of single FPGA. Using the reconfigurability of FPGA, we show how to manipulate the FPGA-based system and execute processes for the parallel ICA (pICA algorithm. During the implementation procedure, pICA is first partitioned into three temporally independent function blocks, each of which is synthesized by using several ICA-related reconfigurable components (RCs that are developed for reuse and retargeting purposes. All blocks are then integrated into a design and development environment for performing tasks such as FPGA optimization, placement, and routing. With partitioning and reconfiguration, the proposed reconfigurable FPGA system overcomes the capacity constraints for the pICA implementation on embedded systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this implementation on real images with large throughput for dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral image (HSI analysis.

  7. 模块化双向AC/DC变换器并联系统无缝切换控制%Seamless Switching Control for Modular Bi-directional AC/DC Converter Parallel Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张犁; 吴田进; 冯兰兰; 孙凯; 邢岩

    2012-01-01

    研究模块化双向AC/DC变换器并联运行系统,分析指出现有单模块双向运行控制方法引起各并联模块的功率流向不一致的问题;研究系统功率流与直流母线电压变化趋势的内在联系,提出一种模块化AC/DC变换器的双向运行控制方法,分别采用正向和负向电压调节器以保证各并联模块的功率流向一致;整流和逆变状态以不同的直流母线电压运行、自然区分两种功率流向。提出的控制方法可以实现各并联模块整流与逆变之间的无缝切换。详细分析系统稳定性,并指出多模块并联对系统动态特性有所改善;给出关键参数的设计准则。搭建实验验证系统,进行稳态和动态实验。实验结果证明了所提出控制方法的可行性和有效性。%The issue of inconsistent power flow among modular bi-directional AC/DC converters in parallel operation with the conventional control was analyzed.The inherent relationship between system power flow and the trend of the DC bus voltage was researched and a bi-directional operation control for the modular AC/DC converter parallel system was proposed.The consistent power flow of each module is achieved by utilizing a positive and a negative DC bus voltage regulators.Power flows of rectification and inversion are distinguished naturally with different DC bus voltages,and seamless switching between rectification and inversion was also realized.The stability of the modular AC/DC converter parallel system was analyzed in detail with the design principle of the key parameter given.A prototype system was built and both of the steady-state and dynamic experimental results were presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system and control method.

  8. 非对称双向多中继系统机会式网络编码中断概率分析%Outage Probability Analysis of Opportunistic Network Coding on Asymmetrical Bi-directional Multi-Relay System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文文; 田华; 徐友云; 许魁; 陈小杰

    2013-01-01

    A practical asymmetrical bi-directional multi-relay system model is firstly constructed, and then an outage probability expression of the model is given based on opportunistic relay scheme and network coding, which is proved accurate by Monte Carlo simulations. Secondly, it analyzes the system average outage probability with different situations of power allocation coefficient, locations of the relay nodes and the number of relay nodes, indicating the inherent relationship between power allocation coefficient and total system power, as well as the number of relay nodes. Simulation results show that the optimal system outage performance of asymmetrical bi-directional multi-relay system based on opportunistic relay scheme and network coding is attained when power allocation coefficient is chosen at 0. 6 or about 0. 6. It can be known that the location of relay nodes is an important factor for the problem of system outage probability.%建立了一个实际的非对称双向多中继系统模型,并采用机会中继策略,推导出了该模型在译码转发方式下采用网络编码时的中断概率表达式,Monte Carlo仿真和理论值吻合,充分验证了该表达式的正确性.分析了不同中继节点位置、不同中继节点个数和不同功率分配因子等情况下的系统中断性能,揭示了最优功率分配因子与中继节点个数和位置以及系统总功率的内在关系.仿真结果表明,在非对称双向多中继系统中同时采用网络编码和机会中继策略时,功率分配因子取值为0.6时可获得最佳的系统中断性能,并指出在研究系统中断概率问题时,中继节点位置是一个不可忽略的因素.

  9. Design of a real-time open architecture controller for a reconfigurable machine tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masekamela, I

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and the development of a real-time, open architecture controller that is used for control of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) in reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS). The controller that is presented can...

  10. Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment: Optimizing the Human Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment (HRI-RTE) integrates a grid-based, reconfigurable test arena and an operator workstation with...

  11. A reconfigurable all-optical VPN based on XGM effect of SOA in WDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Tao; Su, Yikai

    2010-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable all-optical VPN scheme enabling intercommunications among different ONUs in a WDM PON. Reconfiguration is realized by dynamically setting wavelength conversion of optical VPN signal using a SOA in the OLT.

  12. 3rd IEEE/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xianwen; Dai, Jian; ReMAR 2015; Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the most recent advances in the research and applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. It collects 93 independently reviewed papers presented at the Third ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR 2015) held in Beijing, China, 20-22 July 2015. The conference papers are organized into seven parts to cover the reconfiguration theory, topology, kinematics and design of reconfigurable mechanisms including reconfigurable parallel mechanisms. The most recent results on reconfigurable robots are presented including their analysis, design, simulation and control. Bio-inspired mechanisms are also explored in the challenging fields of rehabilitation and minimally invasive surgery. This book further addresses deployable mechanisms and origami-inspired mechanisms and showcases a wide range of successful applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II should be of interest for researchers, eng...

  13. Modeling dynamic reconfigurations in Reo using high-level replacement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Christian; Maraikar, Ziyan; Lazovik, Alexander; Arbab, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Reo is a channel-based coordination language, wherein circuit-like connectors model and implement interaction protocols in heterogeneous environments that coordinate components or services. Connectors are constructed from primitive channels and can be reconfigured dynamically. Reconfigurations can

  14. Towards effective modeling and programming multi-core tiled reconfigurable architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, K.C.; Burgwal, van de M.D.; Kuper, J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    For a generic flexible efficient array antenna receiver platform a hierarchical reconfigurable tiled architecture has been proposed. The architecture provides a flexible reconfigurable solution, but partitioning, mapping, modeling and programming such systems remains an issue. We will advocate a mod

  15. GPM Constellation Reconfiguration and Mission Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2006-01-01

    sampling and coverage over land. Plans to reconfigure the baseline GPM constellation to include cross-track microwave sounders over land and the status of other GPM mission elements such as snowfall algorithm development and ground validation plans will be presented

  16. Configuration Method Design for Reconfigurable Manufacturing System with the aid of Plant Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Shuai; Bilberg, Arne

    2014-01-01

    A new Reconfigurable Manufacturing System structure has been recently designed by a large consumer goods manufacturer in Europe, aiming to balance the performance of productivity and flexibility. This article shows an exploratory research on the (re)configuration procedure of the new RMS structure....... Following the procedure which is designed in this paper, the (re)configuration of RMS can be managed as part of the daily operation with the help of computer simulation. Keywords: Plant Simulation, Tecnomatix, Reconfigurable Manufacturing System, modular manufacturing....

  17. A Method for Design of Modular Reconfigurable Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Presented in this paper is a method for the design of modular reconfigurable machine tools (MRMTs. An MRMT is capable of using a minimal number of modules through reconfiguration to perform the required machining tasks for a family of parts. The proposed method consists of three steps: module identification, module determination, and layout synthesis. In the first step, the module components are collected from a family of general-purpose machines to establish a module library. In the second step, for a given family of parts to be machined, a set of needed modules are selected from the module library to construct a desired reconfigurable machine tool. In the third step, a final machine layout is decided though evaluation by considering a number of performance indices. Based on this method, a software package has been developed that can design an MRMT for a given part family.

  18. An Agent Inspired Reconfigurable Computing Implementation of a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, John M.; Wells, B. Earl

    2003-01-01

    Many software systems have been successfully implemented using an agent paradigm which employs a number of independent entities that communicate with one another to achieve a common goal. The distributed nature of such a paradigm makes it an excellent candidate for use in high speed reconfigurable computing hardware environments such as those present in modem FPGA's. In this paper, a distributed genetic algorithm that can be applied to the agent based reconfigurable hardware model is introduced. The effectiveness of this new algorithm is evaluated by comparing the quality of the solutions found by the new algorithm with those found by traditional genetic algorithms. The performance of a reconfigurable hardware implementation of the new algorithm on an FPGA is compared to traditional single processor implementations.

  19. Ingredients of Adaptability: A Survey of Reconfigurable Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chattopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For a design to survive unforeseen physical effects like aging, temperature variation, and/or emergence of new application standards, adaptability needs to be supported. Adaptability, in its complete strength, is present in reconfigurable processors, which makes it an important IP in modern System-on-Chips (SoCs. Reconfigurable processors have risen to prominence as a dominant computing platform across embedded, general-purpose, and high-performance application domains during the last decade. Significant advances have been made in many areas such as, identifying the advantages of reconfigurable platforms, their modeling, implementation flow and finally towards early commercial acceptance. This paper reviews these progresses from various perspectives with particular emphasis on fundamental challenges and their solutions. Empowered with the analysis of past, the future research roadmap is proposed.

  20. A Novel Design of Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for UWB Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ziliang; Wu, Zheng; Shen, Huajiao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel frequency reconfigurable antenna which could be easily operate in a single notched-band (WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz)) UWB frequency band, another single notched-band (WLAN (5-6 GHz)) UWB frequency band and the dual band-notched UWB frequency band (the stopband covers the WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz) and WLAN (5-6 GHz)). The reconfigurability is achieved by changing the states of PIN diodes. The simulated results are in agreement well with the measured results. And the measured patterns are slightly changed with antenna reconfiguration. The proposed antenna is a good candidate for various UWB applications.

  1. Analysis of Reconfigured Control Loop with a Virtual Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filasova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Control reconfiguration changes the control structure in response to a fault detected in the plant. This becomes necessary, because a major fault like loss of an actuator breaks the corresponding control loop and therefore renders the whole system inoperable.  An important aim of control reconfiguration is to change the control structure as little as possible, since every change bears the potential of practical problems. The proposed solution is to keep the original controller in the loop and to add an extension called virtual actuator that implements the necessary changes of the control structure. The virtual actuator translates between the signals of the nominal controller and the signal of the faulty plants. This paper is concerned with the analysis of reconfigured loop with a virtual actuator for the system with the faulty actuator. The proposed analysis is illustrated on numerical example.

  2. Image processing algorithm acceleration using reconfigurable macro processor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙广富; 陈华明; 卢焕章

    2004-01-01

    The concept and advantage of reconfigurable technology is introduced. A kind of processor architecture of reconfigurable macro processor (RMP) model based on FPGA array and DSP is put forward and has been implemented.Two image algorithms are developed: template-based automatic target recognition and zone labeling. One is estimating for motion direction in the infrared image background, another is line picking-up algorithm based on image zone labeling and phase grouping technique. It is a kind of "hardware" function that can be called by the DSP in high-level algorithm.It is also a kind of hardware algorithm of the DSP. The results of experiments show the reconfigurable computing technology based on RMP is an ideal accelerating means to deal with the high-speed image processing tasks. High real time performance is obtained in our two applications on RMP.

  3. Ultra Low Energy FDSOI Asynchronous Reconfiguration Network for Adaptive Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundous Chairat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a plug-and-play on-chip asynchronous communication network aimed at the dynamic reconfiguration of a low-power adaptive circuit such as an internet of things (IoT system. By using a separate communication network, we can address both digital and analog blocks at a lower configuration cost, increasing the overall system power efficiency. As reconfiguration only occurs according to specific events and has to be automatically in stand-by most of the time, our design is fully asynchronous using handshake protocols. The paper presents the circuit’s architecture, performance results, and an example of the reconfiguration of frequency locked loops (FLL to validate our work. We obtain an overall energy per bit of 0.07 pJ/bit for one stage, in a 28 nm Fully Depleted Silicon On Insulator (FDSOI technology at 0.6 V and a 1.1 ns/bit latency per stage.

  4. Generation of closed-form inverse kinematics for reconfigurable robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie ZHAO; Weizhong WANG; Yongsheng GAO; Hegao CAI

    2008-01-01

    For reconfigurable robots, the automatic gen-eration of inverse kinematics is a key problem, because such robots may assume various configurations. In this paper, the screw and product-of-exponentials (POE) formula are used to model the kinematics of reconfigurable robots. The POE formula can be converted to canonical subproblems through decomposition and adjoint transfor-mation. Three classes and 28 types of subproblems containing geometric or algebraic solutions are identified and solved, which can be reused in different configurations. A generalized, decomposable, and reusable approach for close-form inverse kinematics of reconfigurable robots is developed based on POE and subproblems. The effective-ness of this method is shown in an example.

  5. Steering Wheel Shaped Frequency Reconfigurable Antenna for Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbinder Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts an outline to design a novel compact and low profile frequency reconfigurable microstrip patch antenna for possible applications in cognitive radio systems to act as a fast switching antenna capable of operating in seven different frequencies in the range of 6.25 to 8.25 GHz. The antenna structure comprises a center rectangular encircled patch, in which rectangular patch is driven patch and the encirclement is for frequency reconfigure ability. The reconfiguration ability of the antenna is obtained by placing four radio frequency micro-electromechanical system (RF-MEMS switches in between encircled patch and driven patch. Different switch configurations were investigated and the same was evaluated for diverse frequency ranges.

  6. Molecular encryption and reconfiguration for remodeling of dynamic hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihui; Gaddes, Erin R; Chen, Niancao; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-11

    Dynamic materials have been widely studied for regulation of cell adhesion that is important to a variety of biological and biomedical applications. These materials can undergo changes mainly through one of the two mechanisms: ligand release in response to chemical, physical, or biological stimuli, and ligand burial in response to mechanical stretching or the change of electrical potential. This study demonstrates an encrypted ligand and a new hydrogel that are capable of inducing and inhibiting cell adhesion, which is controlled by molecular reconfiguration. The ligand initially exhibits an inert state; it can be reconfigured into active and inert states by using unblocking and recovering molecules in physiological conditions. Since molecular reconfiguration does not require the release of the ligand from the hydrogels, inhibiting and inducing cell adhesion on the hydrogels can be repeated for multiple cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A Column Arrangement Algorithm for a Coarse-grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Hoede, C.; Smit, G.J.M.; Plaks, T.P.; DeMara, R.; Gokhale, M.; Guccione, S.; Platzner, M.; Smit, G.J.M.; Wirthlin, M.

    2006-01-01

    In a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture, the functions of resources such as Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) can be reconfigured. Unlike the programmability of a general purpose processor, the programmability of a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture is limited. The limitation might be th

  8. An Attitude Strength and Self-Perception Framework Regarding the Bi-directional Relationship of Job Satisfaction with Extra-Role and In-Role Behavior: The Doubly Moderating Role of Work Centrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Studies have identified variables either moderating the extent to which job satisfaction predicts work behavior or moderating the reverse impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Based on an attitude strength and self-perception framework, we argue that certain variables may moderate both the predictive utility of job satisfaction for work behavior and the impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Specifically focusing on work centrality, we hold that high work centrality renders job satisfaction a strong job attitude, whereas low work centrality renders job satisfaction a weak job attitude. Hence, the predictive utility of job satisfaction for both extra-role behavior and in-role behavior should be higher the more work is central to employees. In contrast, the influence of extra-role behavior, but not of in-role behavior, on job satisfaction should be higher the less work is central to employees. Results of a two-wave study (N = 176) were in line with these predictions. We discuss further variables that may play a similar role for the bi-directional relationship between job satisfaction and work behavior.

  9. An Attitude Strength and Self-Perception Framework Regarding the Bi-directional Relationship of Job Satisfaction with Extra-Role and In-Role Behavior: The Doubly Moderating Role of Work Centrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Studies have identified variables either moderating the extent to which job satisfaction predicts work behavior or moderating the reverse impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Based on an attitude strength and self-perception framework, we argue that certain variables may moderate both the predictive utility of job satisfaction for work behavior and the impact of work behavior on job satisfaction. Specifically focusing on work centrality, we hold that high work centrality renders job satisfaction a strong job attitude, whereas low work centrality renders job satisfaction a weak job attitude. Hence, the predictive utility of job satisfaction for both extra-role behavior and in-role behavior should be higher the more work is central to employees. In contrast, the influence of extra-role behavior, but not of in-role behavior, on job satisfaction should be higher the less work is central to employees. Results of a two-wave study (N = 176) were in line with these predictions. We discuss further variables that may play a similar role for the bi-directional relationship between job satisfaction and work behavior. PMID:26973556

  10. Assessment of mechanical and three-body abrasive wear peculiarity of TiO$_2$- and ZnO-filled bi-directional E-glass fibre-based polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AKANT KUMAR SINGH; SIDDHARTHA; DEEPAK

    2016-08-01

    This paper is about the development of bi-directional E-glass fibre-based polyester composites filled with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO$_2$) fillers, respectively. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three-body abrasive wear characteristic of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. For this, the three-body abrasion test is done on dry abrasion test rig (TR-50)and analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance. The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner–Lancaster and Wang. A good linear relationship is obtained between specific wear rate and the reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites. It indicates that the experimentally obtained results are in good agreement with theseexisting models. It is found that the tensile strength decreases with filler loading, while hardness, flexural strength, inter-laminar shear strength and impact strength are increased. TiO$_2$-filled composites were observed to performbetter than ZnO-filled composites under abrasive wear situations. The wear mechanism is studied in correlation with the SEM micrograph of the worn-out surface of composites. Performance optimization of composites is doneby using VIKOR method.

  11. Research on a Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter Applied in Electric Vehicle%一种应用于电动汽车的双向DC/DC变换器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灵敏

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, topology structures of four non-isolated bi-directional DC/DC converter are analyzed and com-pared. A DC-DC converter-interleaving Buck-Boost is designed aiming at the environment protection and storage battery performance of hybrid electric vehicle(HEV). And the working principle of this converter is presented. The theory is testi-fied through a 3 000 W experiment prototype.%分析和比较了四种非隔离型双向DC/DE变换器的拓扑结构.针对目前广泛使用的混合动力电动汽车存在的环保问题和电池性能问题设计了一种双向DC/DC变换器一两相交错双向DC/DC变换器,论述了其工作原理,并通过一台3 000 W的样机验证了理论的正确性.

  12. 波分复用技术在实现双向改造中的应用%Wavelength Division Multiplexing Technique and its Application in the Realization of Bi-Directional Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮邦耀; 陈明希

    2012-01-01

    DWDM和CWDM技术是WDM技术的两种方式,其通过在一芯光纤中传输多路光波来实现光通信网络容量的扩展、提升光信道的利用率。文章通过对DWDM技术优点、技术分类和发展现状的介绍,以及通过对于DWDM和CWDM技术在福州双向网络改造中的应用,来探讨如何在不改变现有光网络结构的基础上,实现网络容量提升,满足用户日益增长的需求。%DWDM and CWDM technology are two ways of WDM technology,through multi-channel optical transmission in a core fiber to achieve upgrading of optical communication network capacity,enhance the utilization of optical channel.This article introduced the DWDM technology advantages,technical classification and the development situation,as well as the DWDM and CWDM technology in Fuzhou bi-directional network transformation application,to explore how to achieve network capacity upgrade and to meet the growing demands of users on the basis of not change the existing optical network structure.

  13. The Research on the Bi-Directional Mapping Algorithm between XML and RDB Based on DTD Element-Tress%基于DTD元素树的XML与RDB的双向映射算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莉

    2011-01-01

    XML, as the carrier of data exchange between the database, a series of mapping rules by analyzing the mapping principles from the Relational Database to the XML document have been set up, and presented an approach based on DTD Element-Tree and a mapping algorithm between DTD Element-Tress and RDB, Based on this the bi-directional mapping model between the XML document and the RDB is built and a bi-dircetional mapping is given, which is used to complete the data transformation.%分析了XML文档到关系数据库的映射方法,并提出了元素树和元素树节点与其他类型数据之间的映射算法.在此基础上建立了XML模式和关系模式之间的双向映射模型,并给出了双向映射模型算法,从而完成了XML与RDB数据转换.

  14. Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanquan; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun; Shang, Huiliang

    2013-01-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel full-duplex bi-directional subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system based on commercially available red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) and phosphor-based LED (P-LED) with 575-Mb/s downstream and 225-Mb/s upstream transmission, employing various modulation orders of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). For the downlink, red and green colors/wavelengths are assigned to carry useful information, while blue chip is just kept lighting to maintain the white color illumination, and for the uplink, the low-cost P-LED is implemented. In this demonstration, pre-equalization and post-equalization are also adopted to compensate the severe frequency response of LEDs. Using this scheme, 4-user downlink and 1-user uplink transmission can be achieved. Furthermore, it can support more users by adjusting the bandwidth of each sub-channel. Bit error rates (BERs) of all links are below pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8x 10(-3) after 66-cm free-space delivery. The results show that this scheme has great potential in the practical VLC system.

  15. Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator with Orthogonally Reconfigurable Filter Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy

    2008-01-01

    An optical resonator has been developed with reconfigurable filter function that has resonant lines that can be shifted precisely and independently from each other, creating any desirable combination of resonant lines. This is achieved by changing the axial distribution of the effective refractive index of the resonator, which shifts the resonant frequency of particular optical modes, leaving all the rest unchanged. A reconfigurable optical filter is part of the remote chemical detector proposed for the Mars mission (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program PIDDP), but it is also useful for photonic communications devices.

  16. Reconfiguring The Supply Chain For Complex Engineered Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Asmussen, Jesper Normann

    2016-01-01

    Supply chains are faced by increasingly challenging requirements, exemplified by shorter time to market, cost pressure, increased variance and quality requirements This poses a number of challenges to the overall demand for SC management to ensure a systematic fit between the configuration...... of the SC, the product and market requirements. This paper seeks to investigate the factors which create a need for supply chain reconfiguration in the context of the Complex Product Systems, together with the enablers and barriers for successfully realizing supply chain improvements through reconfiguration....

  17. Reconfigurable Mobile System - Ground, sea and air applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonica, Gary L.; Sturges, James W.

    1990-11-01

    The Reconfigurable Mobile System (RMS) is a highly mobile data-processing unit for military users requiring real-time access to data gathered by airborne (and other) reconnaissance data. RMS combines high-performance computation and image processing workstations with resources for command/control/communications in a single, lightweight shelter. RMS is composed of off-the-shelf components, and is easily reconfigurable to land-vehicle or shipboard versions. Mission planning, which involves an airborne sensor platform's sensor coverage, considered aircraft/sensor capabilities in conjunction with weather, terrain, and threat scenarios. RMS's man-machine interface concept facilitates user familiarization and features iron-based function selection and windowing.

  18. Reconfigurable microfluidic pump enabled by opto-electrical-thermal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Hagiwara, Masaya; Haulot, Gauvain; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2013-10-01

    Flexible integration of a microfluidic system comprising pumps, valves, and microchannels was realized by an optoelectronic reconfigurable microchannels (OERM) technique. Projecting a low light fluidic device pattern—e.g., pumps, valves, and channels—onto an OERM platform generates Joule heating and melts the substrate in the bright area on the platform; thus, the fluidic system can be reconfigured by changing the projected light pattern. Hexadecane was used as the substrate of the microfluidic system. The volume change of hexadecane during the liquid-solid phase transition was utilized to generate pumping pressure. The system can pump nanoliters of water within several seconds.

  19. Self-Reconfiguration of CPU- Enhancement in the Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh Yadav

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the initial steps toward a distributed system that can optimize its performance by learning to reconfigure CPU and memory resources in reaction to current workload. We present a learning framework that uses standard system-monitoring tools to identify preferable configurations and their quantitative performance effects. The framework requires no instrumentation of the middleware or of the operating system. Using results from an implementation of the TPC Benchmark™ W (TPC-W online transaction-processing benchmark, we demonstrate a significant performance benefit to reconfiguration in response to workload changes.

  20. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  1. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-09-24

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  2. An Integrated Design and Verification Methodology for Reconfigurable Multimedia Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Borgatti, M; Rossi, U; Lambert, J -L; Moussa, I; Fummi, F; Pravadelli, G

    2011-01-01

    Recently a lot of multimedia applications are emerging on portable appliances. They require both the flexibility of upgradeable devices (traditionally software based) and a powerful computing engine (typically hardware). In this context, programmable HW and dynamic reconfiguration allow novel approaches to the migration of algorithms from SW to HW. Thus, in the frame of the Symbad project, we propose an industrial design flow for reconfigurable SoC's. The goal of Symbad consists of developing a system level design platform for hardware and software SoC systems including formal and semi-formal verification techniques.

  3. KINEMATIC DESIGN OF A RECONFIGURABLE MINIATURE PARALLEL KINEMATIC MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The kinematic design of a reconfigurable miniature parallel kinematic machine is dealt with. It shows that the reconfigurability may be realized by packaging a tripod-based parallel mechanism with fixed length struts into a compact and rigid frame with which the different configurations can be formed. Utilizing a dual parameter model, the influences of the geometrical parameters on the dexterous performance and the workspace/machine volume ratio are investigated. A novel global performance index for the dimensional synthesis is proposed and optimized, resulting in a set of dimensionless geometrical parameters.

  4. Recent Developments in Reconfigurable and Multiband Antenna Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Haider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of various reconfigurable and multiband antenna concepts is presented. In order to satisfy the requirements for the advanced systems used in modern wireless and radar applications, different multiband and reconfigurable antennas have been proposed and investigated in the past years. In this paper, these design concepts have been classified into three basic approaches: tunable/switchable antenna integration with radio-frequency switching devices, wideband or multiband antenna integration with tunable filters, and array architectures with the same aperture utilized for different operational modes. Examples of each design approach are discussed along with their inherent benefits and challenges.

  5. Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.

  6. Graphene Antennas: Can Integration and Reconfigurability Compensate for the Loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien; Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian; Carrasco, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In this opening presentation we will first recall the main characteristics of graphene conductivity and electromagnetic wave propagation on graphene-based structures. Based on these observations and different graphene antenna simulations from microwave to Terahertz, we will discuss the issue of antenna efficiency, integration and reconfigurability, as function of the operation frequency range. While the applicability of graphene for antennas at microwave appears limited to particular cases where very low efficiency can be tolerated for integration or transparency purpose, the plasmonic nature of graphene conductivity at terahertz frequency allows unprecedented antenna properties and in particular efficient dynamic reconfiguration.

  7. Multi-Tenant Isolation via Reconfigurable Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Caldwell, Blake A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hicks, Susan Elaine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koch, Scott M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pelfrey, Daniel S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pogge, James R. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Scott, Stephen L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sorrillo, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data at various security levels but in so doing are often enclaved at the highest security posture. This approach places significant restrictions on the users of the system even when processing data at a lower security level and exposes data at higher levels of confidentiality to a much broader population than otherwise necessary. The traditional approach of isolation, while effective in establishing security enclaves poses significant challenges for the use of shared infrastructure in HPC environments. This report details current state-of-the-art in reconfigurable network enclaving through Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and their applicability to secure enclaves in HPC environments. SDN and NFV methods are based on a solid foundation of system wide virtualization. The purpose of which is very straight forward, the system administrator can deploy networks that are more amenable to customer needs, and at the same time achieve increased scalability making it easier to increase overall capacity as needed without negatively affecting functionality. The network administration of both the server system and the virtual sub-systems is simplified allowing control of the infrastructure through well-defined APIs (Application Programming Interface). While SDN and NFV technologies offer significant promise in meeting these goals, they also provide the ability to address a significant component of the multi-tenant challenge in HPC environments, namely resource isolation. Traditional HPC systems are built upon scalable high-performance networking technologies designed to meet specific application requirements. Dynamic isolation of resources within these environments has remained difficult to achieve. SDN and NFV methodology

  8. A Modular Re-configurable Rover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouloubasis, A.; McKee, G.; Active Robotics Lab

    In this paper we present the novel concepts incorporated in a planetary surface exploration rover design that is currently under development. The Multitasking Rover (MTR) aims to demonstrate functionality that will cover many of the current and future needs such as rough-terrain mobility, modularity and upgradeability [1]. The rover system has enhanced mobility characteristics. It operates in conjunction with Science Packs (SPs) and Tool Packs (TPs) - modules attached to the main frame of the rover, which are either special tools or science instruments and alter the operation capabilities of the system. To date, each rover system design is very much task driven for example, the scenario of cooperative transportation of extended payloads [2], comprises two rovers each equipped with a manipulator dedicated to the task [3]. The MTR approach focuses mostly on modularity and upgradeability presenting at the same time a fair amount of internal re-configurability for the sake of rough terrain stability. The rover itself does not carry any scientific instruments or tools. To carry out the scenario mentioned above, the MTR would have to locate and pick-up a TP with the associated manipulator. After the completion of the task the TP could be put away to a storage location enabling the rover to utilize a different Pack. The rover will not only offer mobility to these modules, but also use them as tools, transforming its role and functionality. The advantage of this approach is that instead of sending a large number of rovers to perform a variety of tasks, a smaller number of MTRs could be deployed with a large number of SPs/TPs, offering multiples of the functionality at a reduced payload. Two SPs or TPs (or a combination of) can be carried and deployed. One of the key elements in the design of the four wheeled rover, lies within its suspension system. It comprises a linear actuator located within each leg and also an active differential linking the two shoulders. This novel

  9. Application of Global Dynamic Reconfiguration in Artificial Neural Network System based on Field Programmable Gate Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; WANG Wei; MA Yi-mei; WANG Jin-hai

    2008-01-01

    Presented is a global dynamic reconfiguration design of an artificial neural network based on field programmable gate array(FPGA). Discussed are the dynamic reconfiguration principles and methods. Proposed is a global dynamic reconfiguration scheme using Xilinx FPGA and platform flash. Using the revision capabilities of Xilinx XCF32P platform flash, an artificial neural network based on Xilinx XC2V30P Virtex-Ⅱ can be reconfigured dynamically from back propagation(BP) learning algorithms to BP network testing algorithms. The experimental results indicate that the scheme is feasible, and that, using dynamic reconfiguration technology, FPGA resource utilization can be reduced remarkably.

  10. Optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programm......This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer...... manner through the DT framework. Three case studies were conducted to validate the optimal reconfiguration-based DT method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks....

  11. PV Reconfiguration Systems: a Technical and Economic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical electrical array reconfiguration strategies for grid-connected PV systems have been proposed as solution to improve energy production due to the mismatch effect of PV plants during partial shading conditions. Strategies are based on the use of dynamic connections between PV panels given by the employment of switches that allow for each panel the series, parallel or exclusion connections, physically changing the electrical connections between the related PV modules, consequentially modifying the layout of the plant. Usually the cost of the dynamic matrix is not taken into account. This novel work evaluates the economic advantages obtained by the use of reconfiguration strategies in PV systems, by taking into consideration the price of energy due to incentives in different European and non-European countries and correlates it with the employment of two types of reconfigurators, with different internal structures. For each of the incentives proposed by the different Countries, the main strength and weakness points of the possible investment are highlighted and critically analyzed. From this analysis, it can be stated that the adoption of reconfiguration systems, in certain cases, can be a very convenient solution.

  12. Reconfigurable Optical Spectra from Perturbations on Elliptical Whispering Gallery Resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Elastic strain, electrical bias, and localized geometric deformations were applied to elliptical whispering-gallery-mode resonators fabricated with lithium niobate. The resultant perturbation of the mode spectrum is highly dependant on the modal indices, resulting in a discretely reconfigurable optical spectrum. Breaking of the spatial degeneracy of the whispering-gallery modes due to perturbation is also observed.

  13. Reconfiguration of sustainable thermoelectric generation using wireless sensor network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive reconfiguration controller is proposed to improve the power performance of thermoelectric module (TEM) arrays when the heat source temperature profile is not uniform and/or a portion of the TEMs in the system is degraded. Distributed control algorithms are also implemented by using...

  14. Development of a Reconfigurable Platform for Manufacturing Equipment Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Shouting; LI Di; CHENG Xiangyu

    2006-01-01

    In modern manufacturing equipment control area, controller is required to deliver higher computing capability for adopting advanced algorithms to meet speed and accuracy requirements, and reconfigurabilities for changing or (and) adding features or functions. This paper presents a methodology in design and implementation of a high performance and reconfigurable platform for manufacturing equipment control. This methodology is in virtue of system on a programmable chip (SoPC) technology but replacing the on-chip processor by an external high performance, floating-point digital signal processor (DSP). The application of the DSP is designed as a multi-threaded framework, which has more flexibilities than a traditional single-loop one. Furthermore, the field programmable gate array (FPGA) system can be reconfigured easily and quickly to meet a new requirement by dragging and dropping pre-built components in a SoPC building environment. As a result, the controller platform is more reconfigurable in terms of algorithms and functions. This platform is implemented in a 3-axis milling machine control and the result indicates that the design and implementation presented in this paper is feasible.

  15. Flexible Reconfiguration of Existing Urban Water Infrastructure Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lina Sela; Allen, Michael; Preis, Ami; Iqbal, Mudasser; Whittle, Andrew J

    2015-11-17

    This paper presents a practical methodology for the flexible reconfiguration of existing water distribution infrastructure, which is adaptive to the water utility constraints and facilitates in operational management for pressure and water loss control. The network topology is reconfigured into a star-like topology, where the center node is a connected subset of transmission mains, that provides connection to water sources, and the nodes are the subsystems that are connected to the sources through the center node. In the proposed approach, the system is first decomposed into the main and subsystems based on graph theory methods and then the network reconfiguration problem is approximated as a single-objective linear programming problem, which is efficiently solved using a standard solver. The performance and resiliency of the original and reconfigured systems are evaluated through direct and surrogate measures. The methodology is demonstrated using two large-scale water distribution systems, showing the flexibility of the proposed approach. The results highlight the benefits and disadvantages of network decentralization.

  16. Cognitive Radio Design on an MPSoC Reconfigurable Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology for solving today’s spectrum scarcity problem by means of dynamic spectrum access. The multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) reconfigurable platform is proposed as an enabling technology for cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose a

  17. Cognitive Radio Design on an MPSoC Reconfigurable Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem by dynamic spectrum access. The MPSoC reconfigurable platform is proposed as an enabling technology for Cognitive Radio. In this paper, we propose a design methodology based on task transaction

  18. Hardware-software Reconfigurable Techniques for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rajasekaran

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days, the industrial based real time embedded applications are highly developed and they act as a major role in the production cost and real world safety environment. In that, one of the advanced technique is that reconfigurable techniques. This technique plays a major role with wireless sensor networks for the efficient data transmissions. In recent days, most of the industrial applications are works to minimize the size and cost of device. The foremost improvement of the reconfigurable technique is that it circumvents the unnecessary hang and deferral in the device performance. In modern biosphere, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is one of the supreme operative reconfigurable devices and generally used for most of the hardware and software reconfiguration applications. In this study, the exertion pacts with whatever going to make changes in the hardware and software during runtime, it should not disturb the present successively process. This is the main impartial of the study that the changes to be done in an analogous manner at the same time concentrating the cost and power transmission problems during data trans-receiving and also the results to be seen with the help of online manner via the Ethernet cable.

  19. Application of mechatronic design approach in a reconfigurable manufacturing environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available of reconfigurable manufacturing tools (RMTs) for RMS. But according to the literature, there is no suitable methods available yet can be applied directly to RMT design. So in this paper, the authors came up with a novel machine design approach termed mechatronics...

  20. Re-configurable electronics behavoir under extreme thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Adrian; Lacayo, Veronica; Rajeshuni, Ramesham; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo; Neff, Joe; Burke, Gary; Daud, Taher

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on analog/digital electronics at low-temperatures. The experiments cover separate tests of the whole Evolvable Hardware system: the Evolutionary Processor (the DSP in the SABLE system), Xilinx Virtes II Pro FPGA evaluation board, and the Reconfigurable analog array components tested at low and high temperatures.

  1. Towards automatic model based controller design for reconfigurable plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces model-based Plug and Play Process Control, a novel concept for process control, which allows a model-based control system to be reconfigured when a sensor or an actuator is plugged into a controlled process. The work reported in this paper focuses on composing a monolithic m...

  2. Optimal design of the satellite constellation arrangement reconfiguration process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Bakhtiari, Majid; Soleymani, Mahshid

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a novel approach is introduced for the satellite constellation reconfiguration based on Lambert's theorem. Some critical problems are raised in reconfiguration phase, such as overall fuel cost minimization, collision avoidance between the satellites on the final orbital pattern, and necessary maneuvers for the satellites in order to be deployed in the desired position on the target constellation. To implement the reconfiguration phase of the satellite constellation arrangement at minimal cost, the hybrid Invasive Weed Optimization/Particle Swarm Optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm is used to design sub-optimal transfer orbits for the satellites existing in the constellation. Also, the dynamic model of the problem will be modeled in such a way that, optimal assignment of the satellites to the initial and target orbits and optimal orbital transfer are combined in one step. Finally, we claim that our presented idea i.e. coupled non-simultaneous flight of satellites from the initial orbital pattern will lead to minimal cost. The obtained results show that by employing the presented method, the cost of reconfiguration process is reduced obviously.

  3. Reconfigurable materials handling system incorporating part tracking, routing and scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidu, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this regard the tracking of the parts within the manufacturing cycle is important for ascertaining the location of parts within the cycle as well as the history of the completed parts. This paper outlines the development of a reconfigurable manufacturing...

  4. Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems as an Application of Mass Customisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    and responsiveness of manufacturing systems. A Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) is aimed at possess such flexibility and responsiveness and is said to be the manufacturing paradigm of tomorrow. RMS is, though, not yet fully developed. A similarity between RMS and modular product families, known from Mass...

  5. Cognitive Radio Design on an MPSoC Reconfigurable Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology for solving today’s spectrum scarcity problem by means of dynamic spectrum access. The multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) reconfigurable platform is proposed as an enabling technology for cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose a desi

  6. Cognitive Radio Design on an MPSoC Reconfigurable Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology to solve today’s spectrum scarcity problem by dynamic spectrum access. The MPSoC reconfigurable platform is proposed as an enabling technology for Cognitive Radio. In this paper, we propose a design methodology based on task transaction lev

  7. Low cost & fast turnaround: reconfigurable Graph-Based execution units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Stekelenburg, M.; Klaassen, C.E.; Smit, G.; Havinga, P.; Mullender, S.

    1998-01-01

    New devices with the efficiency of full-custom designs and the programmability of FPGAs will ease many aspects of the design of complex systems, without the high cost of mask production. The possibility of in-circuit programming and even dynamic reconfiguration offers great advantages over the tradi

  8. Temporal Partitioning and Multi-Processor Scheduling for Reconfigurable Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popp, Andreas; Le Moullec, Yannick; Koch, Peter

    This poster presentation outlines a proposed framework for handling mapping of signal processing applications to heterogeneous reconfigurable architectures. The methodology consists of an extension to traditional multi-processor scheduling by creating a separate HW track for generation of groups...... of tasks that are handled similarly to SW processes in a traditional multi-processor scheduling context....

  9. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  10. Reconfigurable Control of Input Affine Nonlinear Systems under Actuator Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fault tolerant control method for input-affine nonlinear systems using a nonlinear reconfiguration block (RB). The basic idea of the method is to insert the RB between the plant and the nominal controller such that fault tolerance is achieved without re-designing the nominal...

  11. Optical-router-based dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Broadband photonics (BBP) project under the Freeband consortium of projects investigated the design of a dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network. Access networks form a key link in ensuring optimal bandwidth to the end user without which any improvements deeper in the network in the a

  12. Dataflow-based reconfigurable architecture for streaming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermeier, A.; Kuper, J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Coarse-grain reconfigurable arrays often rely on an imperative programming approach including a read/write mechanism for memory access. In this paper, we present an architecture composed of a configurable array of computing cores and memory blocks in which both the execution mechanism and configurat

  13. Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Networks (CHRON): Enabling Technologies and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Zibar, Darko; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil;

    2011-01-01

    We present the approach of cognition applied to heterogeneous optical networks developed in the framework of the EU project CHRON: Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network. We introduce and discuss in particular the technologies and techniques that will enable a cognitive optical ne...

  14. Split and flow: reconfigurable capillary connection for digital microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Florian; Harnois, Maxime; Coffinier, Yannick; Boukherroub, Rabah; Thomy, Vincent

    2014-09-21

    Supplying liquid to droplet-based microfluidic microsystems remains a delicate task facing the problems of coupling continuous to digital or macro- to microfluidic systems. Here, we take advantage of superhydrophobic microgrids to address this problem. Insertion of a capillary tube inside a microgrid aperture leads to a simple and reconfigurable droplet generation setup.

  15. Reconfigurable Communication Processor:A New Approach for Network Processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华; 陈青山; 张文渊

    2003-01-01

    As the traditional RISC +ASIC/ASSP approach for network processor design can not meet the today'srequirements, this paper described an alternate approach, Reconfigurable Processing Architecture, to boost theperformance to ASIC level while reserve the programmability of the traditional RISC based system. This papercovers both the hardware architecture and the software development environment architecture.

  16. Optical-router-based dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    The Broadband photonics (BBP) project under the Freeband consortium of projects investigated the design of a dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network. Access networks form a key link in ensuring optimal bandwidth to the end user without which any improvements deeper in the network in the a

  17. Cognitive Radio Design on an MPSoC Reconfigurable Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive Radio has been proposed as a promising technology for solving today’s spectrum scarcity problem by means of dynamic spectrum access. The multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) reconfigurable platform is proposed as an enabling technology for cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose a desi

  18. System Design and Modeling of a Thermally Activated Reconfigurable Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    wwc wall/wick interface in the condenser wwe wall/wick interface in the evaporator INTRODUCTION Morphing and reconfigurable aircraft...subscripts w, wa, e, v, and wwe refer to the heat pipe wick, wall, evaporator, wick/vapor interface, and wall/wick interface in the evaporator respectively

  19. Hydra: an Energy-efficient and Reconfigurable Network Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Rauwerda, G.K.; Heysters, P.M.

    In heterogeneous tiled System-on-Chip architectures a Network-on-Chip is used to transport messages between processing elements. A reconfigurable network interface is used to connect the processing elements to the Network-on-Chip, converting the messages between both domains. This paper introduces

  20. Reconfigurable field effect transistor for advanced CMOS: Advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, C.; Barraud, S.; Martinie, S.; Lacord, J.; Jaud, M.-A.; Vinet, M.

    2017-02-01

    Reconfigurable FETs (RFETs) are optimized in planar Fully Depleted (FD) SOI. Their basics, electrostatics and performance are studied and compared with standard 28 nm FDSOI and other RFETs results in the literature. The main challenge for future broad adoption is analyzed and commented. Finally, some tips to improve the performance such as the asymmetric silicidation at source/drain are discussed.

  1. Service delivery aspects in a reconfigurable photonic access network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.; Manhoudt, Gert; van Etten, Wim

    2008-01-01

    We discuss service delivery aspects in a reconfigurable photonic access network. The network is viewed as a stack of logical PONs in which a DWDM overlay is used over TDM PONs operating in their native format. The use of optical routers in the network allows for a dynamic change in the network topol

  2. The ReNoC Reconfigurable Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Sparsø, Jens

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable network-on-chip architecture called ReNoC, which is intended for use in general-purpose multiprocessor system-on-chip platforms, and which enables application-specific logical NoC topologies to be configured, thus providing both efficiency and flexibility...

  3. Mapping Applications to a Coarse Grain Reconfigurable System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Broersma, Haitze J.; Rosien, M.A.J.; Heysters, P.M.; Omondi, A.; Sedukhin, S.

    This paper introduces a method which can be used to map applications written in a high level source language program, like C, to a coarse grain reconfigurable architecture, MONTIUM. The source code is first translated into a control data flow graph. Then after applying graph clustering, scheduling

  4. Optical-router-based dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, R.

    2014-01-01

    The Broadband photonics (BBP) project under the Freeband consortium of projects investigated the design of a dynamically reconfigurable photonic access network. Access networks form a key link in ensuring optimal bandwidth to the end user without which any improvements deeper in the network in the

  5. Design of Balanced Mechanisms based on Reconfiguration for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Wei, Bin

    2017-09-01

    Often, one achieves the dynamic balancing condition by resorting to counter-devices approach, however, by doing this, one adds extra weight and therefore the inertia are increased inside the whole system, which is not cost-effective when the system is sent into space and later used in space. In this study, it is suggested one is able to achieve the reactionless condition through combining the self-balanced system. For example, the dynamic balancing condition can be realized via the reconfiguration concept. Extra counter-mass is not employed but through reconfiguring the whole structure, in this way, the system will not get to be heavy and therefore, reduce the energy costs and make the system more applicable and flexible for space applications. Based on this concept, first and foremost, one needs to balance a single component through the reconfiguration approach (i.e. decomposition process) and after that integrate the above balanced components to build the entire system (i.e. integration process). Finally, with the mechanical reconfiguration, the control laws governing the operation of the mechanism also need to be changed, so as to make whole systems more flexible when they are used in space.

  6. 独立光伏发电系统中双向变换器的软起动策略%Two-phase soft start strategy for bi-directional DC-DC converter in solar cell stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新华; 廖志凌; 杨孟雄

    2009-01-01

    Bi-directional converter applied to solar cell stand-alone photovoltaic power system belongs to the double sources application. Due to complemented operation of switches in bi-directional converter, traditional soft start method will give rise to large inverse inductor current from the output source at double sources application, and result in damage of converter. This paper proposes a novel soft start method-two-phase soft start method to achieve soft start for bi-directional converter of double sources. By implementing soft start of both active switch and passive switch, two-phase soft start method can realize bi-directional converter soft start at double sources application, avoiding inverse inductor current. Two-phase soft start method applies to a series of bi-directional converter. Experimental results are finally given to verify the effectiveness and validity of two-phase soft start method for bi-directional converter of double sources.%双向变换器在太阳能独立光伏发电系统中属于两端"源"的运用场合,采用传统的软起动方法,由于功率开关管互补导通,会从输出端"源"引入反向电感电流,导致变换器损坏.为了实现双向变换器在两端"源"情况下的开机软起动,提出了一种新颖的双向变换器两段式软起动方法,通过对主控管和被控管实施软起动,避免产生反向电感电流,该方法也适用于一族的双向变换器.最后给出了实验结果,验证了两端"源"双向变换器两段式软起动方法的有效性和正确性.

  7. How to Efficiently Reconfigure Tunable Lookup Tables for Dynamic Circuit Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic Circuit Specialization is used to optimize the implementation of a parameterized application on an FPGA. Instead of implementing the parameters as regular inputs, in the DCS approach these inputs are implemented as constants. When the parameter values change, the design is reoptimized for the new constant values by reconfiguring the FPGA. This allows faster and more resource-efficient implementation but investigations have shown that reconfiguration time is the major limitation for DCS implementation on Xilinx FPGAs. The limitation arises from the use of inefficient reconfiguration methods in conventional DCS implementation. To address this issue, we propose different approaches to reduce the reconfiguration time drastically and improve the reconfiguration speed. In this context, this paper presents the use of custom reconfiguration controllers and custom reconfiguration software drivers, along with placement constraints to shorten the reconfiguration time. Our results show an improvement in the reconfiguration speed by at least a factor 14 by using Xilinx reconfiguration controller along with placement constraints. However, the improvement can go up to a factor 40 with the combination of a custom reconfiguration controller, custom software drivers, and placement constraints. We also observe depreciation in the system’s performance by at least 6% due to placement constraints.

  8. Differences of Bi-directional Regulative Effects between Acu-moxibustion and Chinese Materia Medica Interventions%针灸和中药双向调节特征之异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新; 余芝; 徐斌

    2012-01-01

    双向调节是指当机体由于内在或外在因素导致功能亢进或低下时,针灸和中药干预所发挥的平衡效应.通过分析针灸和中药的作用特点,认为针灸和中药的双向调节效应均为多向整体性调节的一种特殊表现,其效应的发挥都与机体的功能状态有关.由于二者治疗性质和作用途径不同,使二者双向效应发挥的基础和模式不同.双向调节是腧穴效应的个性体现,以经络辨证和脏腑辨证为基础;针灸的双向调节效应是多种因素共同作用的结果,其模式以趋中性调节为主.中药双向调节效应的发挥是建立在药证对应的基础上,其调整作用的产生是以所含的拮抗性成分为物质基础,作用模式包括趋中性调节和偏离性调节.%Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definitions 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a)correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist) , combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and

  9. An in vitro biomechanical evaluation of an expansive double-threaded bi-directional compression screw for fixation of type II odontoid process fractures: A SQUIRE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tian, Li; Jiang, Rong-Xian; Xu, Chao; Shi, Lei; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2017-04-01

    Odontoid process fracture accounts for 5% to 15% of all cervical spine injuries, and the rate is higher among elderly people. The anterior cannulated screw fixation has been widely used in odontoid process fracture, but the fixation strength may still be limited under some circumstances. This study aims to investigate the biomechanical fixation strength of expansive double-threaded bi-directional compression screw (EDBCS) compared with cannulated lag screw (CLS) and improved Herbert screw (IHS) for fixation of type II odontoid process fracture.Thirty fresh cadaveric C2 vertebrae specimens were harvested and randomly divided into groups A, B, and C. A type II fracture model was simulated by osteotomy. Then the specimens of the 3 groups were stabilized with a single CLS, IHS, or EDBCS, respectively. Each specimen was tested in torsion from 0° to 1.25° for 75 s in each of 5 cycles clockwise and 5 cycles anticlockwise. Shear and tensile forces were applied at the anterior-to-posterior and proximal-to-distal directions, respectively, both to a maximum load of 45 N and at a speed of 1 mm/min.The mean torsional stiffness was 0.309 N m/deg for IHS and 0.389 N m/deg for EDBCS, which were significantly greater compared with CLS, respectively (0.169 N m/deg) (P < .05 and P < .05). The mean shear stiffness for the EDBCS was 238 N/mm, which was significantly greater than CLS (150 N/mm) and IHS (132 N/mm) (P < .05 and P < .05). All 3 screws only partly restored tensile stiffness, but not significantly.Fixation with the EDBCS can improve the biomechanical strength for odontoid process fracture compared with CLS and IHS, especially in terms of torsional and shear stiffness.

  10. 适合于混合动力汽车新型双向DC/DC变换器研究%Study of One Bi-directional DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建明

    2011-01-01

    首先介绍了一种混合动力汽车的基本电路,然后根据要求设计了一种双向变换器,它具有高功率传输能力和最小开关应力,适合于连接超级电容器来驱动混合动力汽车.与一些典型的隔离式双向DC/DC变换器相比,该变换器具有较低的设备应力,并且可通过相移加PWM控制,采用隔离变压器的漏感作为能量传输单元和控制变量.最后,实验波形证明该变换器能较好地应用于混合动力汽车.%The paper first introduces the basic drive system of a hybrid electric vehicle.Then the selection and design of aforementioned converter are proposed. The converter has high powerflow capability and minimum device stresses that can suitably interface a super capacitor with the drive train of a hybrid electric vehicle. Furthermore ,by comparing of the main characteristics and applications with some typical isolated bi-directional DC/DC converter, the proposed converter has low device rating and can be controlled by duty cycle and phase shift. At last,the most important characteristics of this converter is to uses the transformer leakage inductance as the primary energy transfer element and control parameters, the experimental waveforms are given to demonstrate the goodness of this novel topology which is in particular for hybrid electric vehicle.

  11. Thermal management and performance evaluation of a dual bi-directional, soft-switched IGBT-based inverter for the 1st autonomous microgrid power system in Taiwan under various operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chan; Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Lu, Hong-Yi; Tu, Sheng-Xun

    2016-06-01

    The thermal management of the inverter system is of great importance since very high voltage/current will be switched intermittently and/or continuously and high temperature is excruciably detrimental to the service life of electronics, especially for the switching devices such as insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT). In this study, a newly developed dual bi-directional IGBT-based inverter in conjunction with autonomous microgrid system is investigated with particular focus on the thermal management and performance evaluation under various operation conditions. Locally enhanced heat transfer approach such as oblique orientation and heat dissipating materials are experimentally investigated. The studied inverter system is initially packaged by a galvanized steel plate (size 62 × 48 × 18 cm) and the switching power is set in the range of 0.5-3 kW. The module is operated at the switching and pulse frequencies of 60 Hz and 20 kHz, respectively. The adoption of heat dissipating material in either paste or film form had experimentally shown to possess the flexibility tailoring heat transfer performance locally. Experimental studies of heat dissipating film with various hotspot scenarios showed that the temperature difference can be appreciably reduced as much as 13.1 and 15.4 °C, respectively with facilitation of one- and two-layers of heat dissipating film. From the measurement results, the measured peak temperature is highly dominated by the thickness of heat dissipating film, showing the dominance of thickness-dependent thermal resistance and resultant heat accumulation phenomena.

  12. Hybrid Decoder Reconfiguration of AVS-P7 and MPEG-4 /AVC in the Reconfigurable Video Coding Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhaoyang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of video coding technology, all kinds of video coding standards have been advanced in recent years with a variety of different and complex algorithms. They share common and/or similar coding tools, yet there is currently no explicit way to exploit such commonalities at the level of specifications or implementations. Reconfigurable video coding (RVC is to develop a video coding standard that overcomes many shortcomings of current standardization and specification process by updating and progressively incrementing a modular library of components. In this paper, a hybrid decoder reconfiguration is instantiated in the RVC framework by grouping the coding tools from AVS-P7 and MPEG-4/AVC. Experimental results show that compared with MPEG-4/AVC baseline profile, the reconfigurable coding system reduces the computational complexity and guarantees the coding performance at low bit rate. Moreover, it enriches the RVC video tool library (VTL by introducing the coding tools of AVS-P7, and also verifies the flexibility and re-configurability of RVC framework to meet the needs of different applications.

  13. Constrained simultaneous multi-state reconfigurable wing structure configuration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Matthew

    A reconfigurable aircraft is capable of in-flight shape change to increase mission performance or provide multi-mission capability. Reconfigurability has always been a consideration in aircraft design, from the Wright Flyer, to the F-14, and most recently the Lockheed-Martin folding wing concept. The Wright Flyer used wing-warping for roll control, the F-14 had a variable-sweep wing to improve supersonic flight capabilities, and the Lockheed-Martin folding wing demonstrated radical in-flight shape change. This dissertation will examine two questions that aircraft reconfigurability raises, especially as reconfiguration increases in complexity. First, is there an efficient method to develop a light weight structure which supports all the loads generated by each configuration? Second, can this method include the capability to propose a sub-structure topology that weighs less than other considered designs? The first question requires a method that will design and optimize multiple configurations of a reconfigurable aerostructure. Three options exist, this dissertation will show one is better than the others. Simultaneous optimization considers all configurations and their respective load cases and constraints at the same time. Another method is sequential optimization which considers each configuration of the vehicle one after the other - with the optimum design variable values from the first configuration becoming the lower bounds for subsequent configurations. This process repeats for each considered configuration and the lower bounds update as necessary. The third approach is aggregate combination — this method keeps the thickness or area of each member for the most critical configuration, the configuration that requires the largest cross-section. This research will show that simultaneous optimization produces a lower weight and different topology for the considered structures when compared to the sequential and aggregate techniques. To answer the second question

  14. Design and Fabrication of a Reconfigurable MEMS-Based Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Miguel Angel Galicia

    2011-06-22

    This thesis presents the design and fabrication of a customized in house Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) process based on-chip antenna that is both frequency and polarization reconfigurable. It is designed to work at both 60 GHz and 77 GHz through MEMS switches. This antenna can also work in both horizontal and vertical linear polarizations by utilizing a moveable plate. The design is intended for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) and automotive radar applications. Typical on-chip antennas are inefficient and difficult to reconfigure. Therefore, the focus of this work is to develop an efficient on-chip antenna solution, which is reconfigurable in frequency and in polarization. A fractal bowtie antenna is employed for this thesis, which achieves frequency reconfigurability through MEMS switches. The design is simulated in industry standard Electromagnetic (EM) simulator Ansoft HFSS. A novel concept for horizontal to vertical linear polarization agility is introduced which incorporates a moveable polymer plate. For this work, a microprobe is used to move the plate from the horizontal to vertical position. For testing purposes, a novel mechanism has been designed in order to feed the antenna with RF-probes in both horizontal and vertical positions. A simulated gain of approximately 0 dB is achieved at both target frequencies (60 and 77 GHz), in both horizontal and vertical positions. In all the cases mentioned above (both frequencies and positions), the antenna is well matched (< -10 dB) to the 50 Ω system impedance. Similarly, the radiation nulls are successfully shifted by changing the position of the antenna from horizontal to vertical. The complete design and fabrication of the reconfigurable MEMS antenna has been done at KAUST facilities. Some challenges have been encountered during its realization due to the immaturity of the customized MEMS fabrication process. Nonetheless, a first fabrication attempt has highlighted such shortcomings. According

  15. General framework for the reconfiguration of satellite constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferringer, Matthew Phillip

    From remote sensing to navigation and communication, satellite constellations have become an indispensible component of our society's infrastructure. Recent events, including China's intercept of their Feng Yun-1C weather satellite and the United States' intercept of a non-functioning satellite, have dramatically increased the amount of space debris, which poses an increased risk for on-orbit collisions. When the loss or degradation of a satellite in a constellation is experienced---be it from a collision with space debris, on-orbit malfunctions, or natural causes---the constellation may no longer be capable of fulfilling its mission requirements. Instead of simply accepting the degraded performance, stakeholders may consider reconfiguration of the remaining spacecraft. In this research, a general framework for the reconfiguration of satellite constellations is developed. The key characteristic that separates this research from others that have come before it is that the future state of the reconfigured constellation is not assumed a priori; rather, it is this state that is found. In other words, the reconfigured geometry can occupy any feasible region (this is mission dependent) of the design space in an attempt to provide optimal performance with respect to multiple-criterion. These include the propellant expended, time of transfer, reduction in mission life, coverage performance, and risk due to maneuvering. When modeled as mathematical functions, some of these concerns exhibit continuous behavior; however, most have nonlinear, discrete, discontinuous, and/or multimodal characteristics. The framework adapts a best-in-class parallel Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to approximate the optimal hypervolumes for this complex tradeoff-space. Several loss scenarios for the Global Positioning System constellation are presented to demonstrate the framework. An a posteriori procedure for decision support is introduced that enables down-selection to a final design

  16. 胃肠调节类中西药对胃肠道平滑肌的双向调节作用%Bi-directional Regulation Effect of Chinese and Western Medicines Used in Gastro-Intestine on Gastro-Intestinal Smooth Muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段煜; 张俊; 战丽彬; 林原; 唐泽耀

    2011-01-01

    在不同条件下,单味、复方中药对胃肠道平滑肌可产生双向调节作用.其可能机理为多层次网络系统的平衡调节等.从整体、离体器官、分子水平,单一、配对西药也对胃肠道平滑肌产生双向调节作用.这种双向调节作用充分体现网络系统平衡调节的整体性的哲学内涵,遵循对立统一规律辩证哲学观.%Chinese traditional sole or compound medicines may affect on gastro- intestinal smooth muscle in bi- directional regulation under different conditions. The possible mechanism may be as the balanced regulation under multi-level network system. Moreover, sole or pair western medicines also can act on the gastro-intestinal smooth muscle in bi-directional regulation in general body or isolated organ or molecular level. The bi-directional regulation fully manifestate the integrity philosophy connotation of balancing regulation in the network system, following dialectical philosophy law of the unity of opposites.

  17. Self-sufficiency of an autonomous reconfigurable modular robotic organism

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Raja Humza

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how the principle of self-sufficiency can be applied to a reconfigurable modular robotic organism. It shows the design considerations for a novel REPLICATOR robotic platform, both hardware and software, featuring the behavioral characteristics of social insect colonies. Following a comprehensive overview of some of the bio-inspired techniques already available, and of the state-of-the-art in re-configurable modular robotic systems, the book presents a novel power management system with fault-tolerant energy sharing, as well as its implementation in the REPLICATOR robotic modules. In addition, the book discusses, for the first time, the concept of “artificial energy homeostasis” in the context of a modular robotic organism, and shows its verification on a custom-designed simulation framework in different dynamic power distribution and fault tolerance scenarios. This book offers an ideal reference guide for both hardware engineers and software developers involved in the design and implem...

  18. The Robust Control Mixer Module Method for Control Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Z.; Blanke, M.

    1999-01-01

    of the reconfigurated system simultaneously, and to deal with a more general controller reconfiguration than the static feedback mechanism by using the control mixer approach, the robust control mixer module method is proposed in this paper. The form of the control mixer module extends from a static gain matrix......The control mixer concept is efficient in improving an ordinary control system into a fault tolerant one, especially for these control systems of which the real-time and on-line redesign of the control laws is very difficult. In order to consider the stability, performance and robustness...... into a LTI dynamical system, and furthermore multiple dynamical control mixer modules can be employed in our consideration. The H_{\\infty} control theory is used for the analysis and design of the robust control mixer modules. Finally, one practical robot arm system as benchmark is used to test the proposed...

  19. Optimal design of virtual topology reconfiguration in WDM optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengqing Liu(刘逢清); Qingji Zeng(曾庆济); Xu Zhu(朱栩); Shilin Xiao(肖石林)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual topology of WDM optical networks is often designed for some specific traffic matrix to get thebest network performance. When traffic demand imposed on WDM optical networks changes, the networkperformance may degrade and even become unacceptable. So virtual topology need to be reconfigured.In previous works, virtual topology is reconfigured to achieve the best network performance, in which alarge number of lightpaths need to be set up or torn down. In this paper, we try to get a tradeoff betweenthe network performance and traffic disruption (or implementing cost). The problem of virtual topologyreconfiguration for changing traffic patterns is formulated as an optimization problem and a mixed integerlinear programming (MILP) algorithm is presented. Numerical results show that a large cost reduction ofreconfiguration can be achieved at the expense of network performance.

  20. Reconfigurable terahertz grating with enhanced transmission of TE polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an optically reconfigurable grating with enhanced transmission of TE-polarized waves in the terahertz (THz waveband. This kind of grating is realized by projecting a grating image onto a thin Si wafer with a digital micromirror device (DMD. The enhanced transmission is caused by a resonance of the electromagnetic fields between the photoexcited strips. The position of the transmission peak shifts with the variation of the period and duty cycle of the photoinduced grating, which can be readily controlled by the DMD. Furthermore, a flattened Gaussian model was applied to describe the distribution of the photoexcited free carriers in the Si wafer, and the simulated transmittance spectra are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In future, the photoexcited carriers could also be used to produce THz diffractive elements with reconfigurable functionality.