WorldWideScience

Sample records for reconciling safety standards

  1. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  2. Elevating standards, improving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2014-08-01

    In our latest 'technical guidance' article, Richard Clarke, sales and marketing director at one of the UK's leading lift and escalator specialists, Schindler, examines some of the key issues surrounding the specification, maintenance, and operation of lifts in hospitals to help ensure the highest standards of safety and reliability.

  3. DOE standard: Firearms safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Information in this document is applicable to all DOE facilities, elements, and contractors engaged in work that requires the use of firearms as provided by law or contract. The standard in this document provides principles and practices for implementing a safe and effective firearms safety program for protective forces and for non-security use of firearms. This document describes acceptable interpretations and methods for meeting Order requirements.

  4. Outer Space Traffic Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Paul B.

    2013-09-01

    Management of traffic in outer space is a major safety problem. Traffic is increasing. Most satellites are navigable but they have to co-exist with space debris which is not navigable. We need minimum safety rules for outer space traffic. We have the possible beginnings of international safety standards in the form of national space object tracking; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) standardization through ICAO and the International Committee on GNSS (ICG); the IADC space debris guidelines; and the proposed Code of Conduct. However, safety could be improved by standards for such activities as licensing launches of satellites into outer space; standards for accident investigation and search and rescue: operational safety zones around space objects such as the International Space Station. This paper describes legal authority for minimum safety standards. It considers safety standards established by private agreements among commercial operators. Finally it examines a number of options for an international forum to establish safety standards, including self-regulation, COPUOS, ICAO, ITU, a space code of conduct, and a new space organization.

  5. Electrical Safety Standards in focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ A forum, the IEC/ACOS Workshop Ⅷ-IEC safety standards in support of regulatory requirements, was held on May 22nd-23rd 2006 in Beijing to cerate an environment for technical exchange between the regulators and the standard developers with its theme on the following regards :

  6. Japanese National Safety Standards for Electrical Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junkichi Sumiya

    2006-01-01

    @@ I am working in Japan electrical safety & environment technology laboratory, which is called JET for short. In JET, we are carrying out the safety test of electrical equipment according to Japanese domestic standards or IEC standards. And in my section, our stuff is drafting some national safety standards harmonized with IEC in cooperation with the government. The standards are applied for the mandatory regulation and other schemes.

  7. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  8. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry

    2015-10-22

    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  9. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruse

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%. There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075% and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%. Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  10. The IAEA radioactive waste safety standards programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourtellotte, James R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA is currently reviewing more than thirty publications in its Safety Series with a view toward consolidating and organizing information pertaining to radioactive waste. the effort is entitled Radioactive Waste Safety Standards programme (RADWASS). RADWASS is a significant undertaking and may have far reaching effects on radioactive waste management both in the international nuclear community and in individual nuclear States. This is because IAEA envisions the development of a consensus on the final document. In this circumstance, the product of RADWASS may ultimately be regarded as an international norm against which future actions of Member States may be measured. This program is organized in five subjects: planning, pre-disposal, disposal, uranium and thorium waste management and decommissioning, which has four levels: safety fundamentals, safety standards, safety guides and safety practices. (author).

  11. 77 FR 21311 - Locomotive Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... first public hearing on the subject in mid-1990s to gather information and examine the safety issues... systems since the Locomotive Safety Standards regulation was first published in 1980. See 45 FR 21092. The... granted, an extension of the cleaning, repairing, and testing requirements for pneumatic components of...

  12. Quality Safety Standards of Organic Mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kui; LIN; Riji; WEI; Zheng; ZHANG; Zhaojun; HUANG; Yankun; PAN; Daoping; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    This article conducts a brief analysis of the factors that affect the quality safety of organic mango, and discusses the organic production measures for improving the quality and quality safety of mango, including the choice of environment of place of origin, varieties and seedlings, fertilizers and fertilization, plant protection products and other production inputs. A test is carried out in 0.667 hm2 of base in Tianyang County, Baise City. Content of lead, arsenic and 14 kinds of pesticide residue such as BHC in the mango are not detected; the content of heavy metal such as mercury and cadmium is 0.001-0.006 mg/kg. Then the quality and quality safety indicators of organic mango are discussed, and finally the Guangxi local standards of organic mango products are developed.

  13. 77 FR 48105 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... rule amended the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final...\\ Final Rule, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets, 76 FR 28132 (May 13, 2011)....

  14. 16 CFR 1115.8 - Compliance with product safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with product safety standards. 1115.8 Section 1115.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... product safety standards. (a) Voluntary standards. The CPSA and other federal statutes administered by...

  15. 46 CFR 80.25 - Notification of safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... standards, except the 1966 fire safety standards. (ii) This vessel complies with international safety standards developed prior to 1960. There is (or, is not) an automatic sprinkler system fitted in the... international safety standard. There is (or, is not) an automatic sprinkler system fitted in the...

  16. Cell biology and EMF safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Living cells react defensively and start to synthesize stress proteins when exposed to potentially harmful stimuli. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are among the many different environmental stimuli that initiate stress protein synthesis. Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response.

  17. Implementation of the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhalter, E Eugene

    2000-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  18. Implementation of the INEEL safety analyst training standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. E. Hochhalter

    2000-04-28

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) safety analysis units at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are in the process of implementing the recently issued INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107). Safety analyst training and qualifications are integral to the development and maintenance of core safety analysis capabilities. The INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard (STD-1107) was developed directly from EFCOG Training Subgroup draft safety analyst training plan template, but has been adapted to the needs and requirements of the INEEL safety analysis community. The implementation of this Safety Analyst Training Standard is part of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Phase II Implementation currently underway at the INEEL. The objective of this paper is to discuss (1) the INEEL Safety Analyst Training Standard, (2) the development of the safety analyst individual training plans, (3) the implementation issues encountered during this initial phase of implementation, (4) the solutions developed, and (5) the implementation activities remaining to be completed.

  19. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle...

  20. 77 FR 37477 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Glazing Materials; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL03 Federal Motor Vehicle.... The changes proposed in this NPRM to the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on glazing...

  1. Building clinical and organizational resilience to reconcile safety threats, tensions and trade-offs: insights from theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Tregunno, Deborah; MacMillan, Kathleen; Espin, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare delivery settings are complex adaptive and tightly coupled, interrelated systems. Within the larger healthcare system, a key subsystem is the "clinical microsystem" level. It is at this level that clinicians are faced with high levels of uncertainty in their daily work - uncertainty that impacts the quality and safety of care that patients receive. The first aim of this paper is to enhance healthcare leaders' understanding of what is currently known about safety threats and strategies to manage the inherent tensions and trade-offs that occur in everyday practice. The second aim is to inform strategies that build clinical and organizational resilience through a multi-level framework derived from the collective theoretical and empirical work. Together, this information can strengthen safety practices throughout healthcare organizations.

  2. Reconcile: A Coreference Resolution Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V; Cardie, C; Gilbert, N; Riloff, E; Buttler, D; Hysom, D

    2009-10-29

    Despite the availability of standard data sets and metrics, approaches to the problem of noun phrase coreference resolution are hard to compare empirically due to the different evaluation setting stemming, in part, from the lack of comprehensive coreference resolution research platforms. In this tech report we present Reconcile, a coreference resolution research platform that aims to facilitate the implementation of new approaches to coreference resolution as well as the comparison of existing approaches. We discuss Reconcile's architecture and give results of running Reconcile on six data sets using four evaluation metrics, showing that Reconcile's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art systems in coreference resolution.

  3. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  4. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  5. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... rail equipment designs to FRA for approval with respect to the placement and securement of safety... spurred efforts to increase workplace safety in at least two areas related to appliances on railroad cars... that the only instance where FRA has required service upon labor unions is with respect to the...

  6. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration..., and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to ensure that...

  7. A New Standard for Multidisciplinary Health and Safety Technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinoskey, P.A.; Fry, L.; Egbert, W.F.

    2000-01-18

    The purpose of this standard (ANSI 13.62)--''Training and Qualification of Health and Safety Technicians''--is to provide a means for the development of technicians with necessary skills in industrial hygiene, industrial safety, radiological safety, fire protection, and other health and safety areas specific to a given work site and its hazards. These individuals should be qualified to handle their roles and responsibilities competently in a variety of safety areas. The standard presented here is intended for individuals who develop, revise, implement, manage, or provide oversight of training for health and safety technicians. The standard is not intended to address the training or qualification of safety professionals (i.e., industrial hygienists and health physicists).

  8. Performance standards and meat safety--developments and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Ian; Sumner, John

    2012-11-01

    Performance standards have been developed to express, for regulatory purposes, an acceptable level of food safety afforded by either a product or a process. These performance standards have reflected the development of scientific thought on food safety management through setting of microbiological criteria, implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems, process control and risk-based management. In meat safety management, some performance standards reflect current risk-based thinking which sets objectives and/or criteria and allows freedom on how those objectives/criteria can be met. However, many performance standards do not reflect current thinking and some perpetuate the idea that meat can be consumed with zero risk.

  9. New Standards for Food Safety Inspection & Quarantine Added

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently, two industrial standards for inspection and quarantine, including the Requirements on Food Safety Control System and the Guide to Examination & Verification of Food Safety Control System drafted by the joint efforts of Certification and Accreditation Administration of the People's Republic of China (CNCA), China Import & Export Commodity Inspection Technology Institute and Hebei Inspection & Quarantine Bureau, passed examination and approval. The attending experts believed that these two standards have filled China's gaps respectively in the control of food safety as well as in the examination and inspection of safety control system.

  10. 75 FR 17641 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... economy of $100 million or more, or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or...; * * * * * (4) Meet the following additional requirements, if the provisions for One and Two-Family...

  11. 78 FR 77574 - Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1218 Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles; Correction AGENCY: Consumer Product... (78 FR 63019). The document established a standard for bassinets and cradles that incorporates by... published a final rule establishing a standard for bassinets and cradles that incorporates by reference ASTM...

  12. 75 FR 42017 - Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1218 RIN 3041-AC81 Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles AGENCY: Consumer Product... Standard for Bassinets and Cradles. The reopened comment period will expire on September 10, 2010. DATES... Standard for Bassinets and Cradles'' (75 FR 22303). The Commission issued the NPR pursuant to section 104(b...

  13. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims

  14. 78 FR 55137 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Ejection Mitigation; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL40 Federal Motor Vehicle... document responds to petitions for reconsideration of a 2011 final rule that established Federal...

  15. 77 FR 54836 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards CFR...; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds)...

  16. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in cooperation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aims

  17. 76 FR 18073 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 213 RIN 2130-AC01 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final...

  18. Mandatory Standards-a "Safety Belt" of Auto

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Standards are closely related with our production and life safety. There are disasters including earthquakes and hurricanes, floods etc., and traffic accidents, epidemics and industrial disasters etc., all surrounding us,which not only bring the material damage to human beings, but also result in tens of thousands injuries and deaths each year. International standardization bodies and countries have developed a lot of standards relating to safety. The role that standards can play in preventing or mitigating such human and material losses is increasingly recognized and their use is rising as a consequence.

  19. KHNP Safety Culture Framework based on Global Standard, and Lessons learned from Safety Culture Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younggab; Hur, Nam Young; Jeong, Hyeon Jong [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In order to eliminate the vague fears of the people about the nuclear power and operate continuously NPPs, a strong safety culture of NPPs should be demonstrated. Strong safety culture awareness of workers can overcome social distrust about NPPs. KHNP has been a variety efforts to improve and establish safety culture of NPPs. Safety culture framework applying global standards was set up and safety culture assessment has been carried out periodically to enhance safety culture of workers. In addition, KHNP developed various safety culture contents and they are being used in NPPs by workers. As a result of these efforts, safety culture awareness of workers is changed positively and the safety environment of NPPs is expected to be improved. KHNP makes an effort to solve areas for improvement derived from safety culture assessment. However, there are some areas to take a long time in completing the work. Therefore, these actions are necessary to be carried out consistently and continuously. KHNP also developed recently safety culture enhancement system based on web. All information related to safety culture in KHNP will be shared through this web system and this system will be used to safety culture assessment. In addition to, KHNP plans to develop safety culture indicators for monitoring the symptoms of safety culture weakening.

  20. European standardization activities on safety of liquid helium cryostats

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk gives a general overview on the challenges of designing safety units for liquid helium cryostats with regard to existing industry standards. It reviews the work of a national working group that published the technical guideline DIN SPEC 4683 in April 2015, which is dedicated to the particular conditions in liquid helium cryostats. Based on both this guideline and equivalent documents from e.g. CEA, CERN, a working group is being formed at the European Committee for Standardization, associated to CEN/TC 268, which will work on a European standard on safety of liquid helium cryostats. The actual status and the schedule of this project are presented.

  1. The Standard System and Quality and Safety Standards for Banana in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei; ZOU; Yongbo; Pan; Zhi; XU; Jinhui; LUO

    2015-01-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit and China is the world’s third largest banana producer. The standardization level of banana industry not only affects the yield and quality of banana,but also plays an important role in promoting the production standardization and industrialization of other tropical crops. Through the analysis of revision,publicity and implementation of banana standard system in China as well as the study on its standard system and quality and safety standards,it is found that there are some problems such as irrational banana standard structure,short period of validity of standard,low level of quality and safety standards,and loose link between standards and production. At the same time,some recommendations are put forward in order to guide the standardized production and trade,research and management of banana and promote sustained,healthy and stable development of the banana industry in China.

  2. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources international basic safety standards

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna

    2014-01-01

    The Board of Governors of the IAEA first approved Basic Safety Standards in June 1962; they were published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 9. A revised edition was issued in 1967. A third revision was published by the IAEA as the 1982 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 9 ; this edition was jointly sponsored by the IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA and the WHO. The next edition was International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, published by the IAEA as IAEA Safety Series No. 115 in February 1996, and jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and the WHO.

  3. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Consumer Education Efforts for Revised Children's Sleepwear Safety Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    A study examined the type and extent of consumer education that occurred since the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) amended the 1972 federal safety standards (effective January 1997) to permit marketing of snug-fitting, nonflame-resistant cotton garments as sleepwear. Three voluntary point-of-sale (POS) practices recognized as important…

  4. 30 CFR 6.20 - MSHA acceptance of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.20 MSHA acceptance of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards. (a) MSHA will accept non-MSHA product safety standards, or groups of standards, as equivalent... intent to review any non-MSHA product safety standard for equivalency in the Federal Register for...

  5. Securing Safety - Spaceflight Standards for the Mass Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, G.

    The projected total revenue of the space tourism industry is expected to exceed USD $1 billion by 2021. The vast economic potential of space tourism has fuelled ambitious plans for commercial orbital and suborbital flights, in addition to longer- duration spaceflights on board the International Space Station (ISS) and other planned orbiting habitats. International and national legal frameworks are challenged to provide regulations to ensure minimum standards of spaceflight safety for a high risk activity that aims to enter the mainstream tourism market. Thrown into the mix are various considerations of the number of spaceflight participants per flight, the economic viability of stringent safety standards, the plethora of possible flight vehicles and the compensation mechanism in case of violations of safety regulations. This paper surveys the legal challenges in the regulation of safety in commercial manned spaceflight, including issues of jurisdiction, authorization, licensing and liability. Drawing on analogous developments in other fields of law related to international carriage, a safety regulation framework with minimum international standards is proposed. This proposed framework considers both accident avoidance and emergency response in light of international legal, policy and economic perspectives.

  6. 76 FR 34890 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 213 RIN 2130-AC01 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties... mandates specific requirements for effective concrete crossties, for rail fastening systems connected to concrete crossties, and for automated inspections of track constructed with concrete crossties. The Track...

  7. 76 FR 55819 - Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 213 RIN 2130-AC35 Track Safety Standards; Concrete Crossties... concrete crossties, for rail fastening systems connected to concrete crossties, and for automated inspections of track constructed with concrete crossties. This document amends and clarifies the final rule...

  8. 10 CFR 851.23 - Safety and health standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., “Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Agriculture.” (9) American Conference of Governmental Industrial... § 851.27). (11) ANSI Z136.1, “Safe Use of Lasers,” (2000) (incorporated by reference, see § 851.27). (12...

  9. 77 FR 52272 - Safety Standard for Play Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... F406-12a, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards.'' The draft... ``a supported sleep surface that attaches to a non-full-size crib or play yard designed to convert the... hazard that resulted in the death of the infant. The requirement and test method apply only to...

  10. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  11. Coreference Resolution With Reconcile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Procedure (RAP). JavaRap resolves only pronouns and, thus, it is not directly comparable to Reconcile. GuiTaR (Poesio and Kabadjov, 2004) and BART...Versley et al., 2008) (which can be considered a succes- sor of GuiTaR ) are both modular systems that tar- get the full coreference resolution task. As such

  12. 75 FR 76185 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard, Rearview Mirrors; Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Rearview Video Systems viii. Development of a Performance-Based or Technology-Neutral Standard ix. Other... scene and vehicle, as well as interviews of the involved parties when possible. When an on-site...

  13. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry.

  14. 50 CFR 600.355 - National Standard 10-Safety of Life at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 10-Safety of Life at Sea... Standards § 600.355 National Standard 10—Safety of Life at Sea. (a) Standard 10. Conservation and management measures shall, to the extent practicable, promote the safety of human life at sea. (b) General....

  15. Codex Alimentarius: food quality and safety standards for international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, A W; Whitehead, A J

    1997-08-01

    Since 1962, the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation has been responsible for developing standards, guidelines and other recommendations on the quality and safety of food to protect the health of consumers and to ensure fair practices in food trade. The mission of the CAC remains relevant, but a number of factors have shown the need for new techniques to form the basis of food standards, the most important of which is risk analysis. The authors give a brief description of the role and work of the CAC and the efforts deployed by the Commission to respond to the challenges posed by new approaches to government regulation, harmonisation of national requirements based on international standards and the role of civil society.

  16. New safety standard for coaches; Neuer Sicherheitsstandard im Reisebus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.R.; Bartha, E.

    1996-12-01

    This article is about the newly developed Starliner coach from Gottlob Auwaerter GmbH and Co. (Neoplan). The chief priority of the Neoplan engineers was to combine the highest possible standards of safety, both active and passive, with the maximum in passenger comfort. In this article, we shall describe their most important innovations for the improvement of passenger comfort and bus safety. (orig.) [Deutsch] Dieser Beitrag beschaeftigt sich mit dem neu entwickelten Reisebus `Starliner` der Gottlob Auwaerter GmbH + Co. (Neoplan) Oberstes Entwicklungsziel fuer den Starliner war die Verbindung der hoechstmoeglichen aktiven und passiven Sicherheit mit einem maximalen Fahrgastkomfort. Im folgenden werden die wichtigsten innovativen Ideen bezueglich der Erhoehung des Fahrgastkomforts und der Fahrgastsicherheit dargestellt. (orig.)

  17. Current safety standards in infant nutrition--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernell, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Foods intended specifically for infants and young children are considered under European community law and are defined in specific commission directives. In principal, these directives conclude that such foods must be safe, have a special composition, be distinguishable from normal foods, be suitable for fulfilling particular nutritional requirements, and should, when marketed, indicate such suitability. Since infant formulas are intended as the sole source of nutrition during the first months of life, their nutritional adequacy and safety are particularly strictly regulated. The Scientific Committee on Food report from 2003, on which the current commission directive is based, makes clear recommendations on how benefits, suitability, and safety of modifications beyond established standards should be documented and evaluated. These principles resulted in part from a workshop on characterization of infant food modifications in the EU and two position papers by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). These papers are reviewed below.

  18. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  19. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  20. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...

  1. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  2. 77 FR 30765 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy... 571 RIN 2127-AK97 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems for... a new Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 136 to require electronic stability control (ESC...

  3. 30 CFR 6.30 - MSHA listing of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABORATORIES AND NON-MSHA PRODUCT SAFETY STANDARDS § 6.30 MSHA listing of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards. MSHA evaluated the following non-MSHA product safety standards and determined that they provide... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false MSHA listing of equivalent non-MSHA...

  4. The History of Infant Formula: Quality, Safety, and Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Wayne F

    2016-01-01

    Food-related laws and regulations have existed since ancient times. Egyptian scrolls prescribed the labeling needed for certain foods. In ancient Athens, beer and wines were inspected for purity and soundness, and the Romans had a well-organized state food control system to protect consumers from fraud or bad produce. In Europe during the Middle Ages, individual countries passed laws concerning the quality and safety of eggs, sausages, cheese, beer, wine, and bread; some of these laws still exist today. But more modern dietary guidelines and food regulations have their origins in the latter half of the 19th century when the first general food laws were adopted and basic food control systems were implemented to monitor compliance. Around this time, science and food chemistry began to provide the tools to determine "purity" of food based primarily on chemical composition and to determine whether it had been adulterated in any way. Since the key chemical components of mammalian milk were first understood, infant formulas have steadily advanced in complexity as manufacturers attempt to close the compositional gap with human breast milk. To verify these compositional innovations and ensure product quality and safety, infant formula has become one of the most regulated foods in the world. The present paper examines the historical development of nutritional alternatives to breastfeeding, focusing on efforts undertaken to ensure the quality and safety from antiquity to present day. The impact of commercial infant formulas on global regulations is addressed, along with the resulting need for harmonized, fit-for-purpose, voluntary consensus standard methods.

  5. Green lasers are beyond power limits mandated by safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M H; Fox, K; Goldwasser, S; Lau, D W M; Aliahmad, B; Sarossy, M

    2016-08-01

    There has been an increasing number of reports of people losing vision from laser exposure from pocket laser pointers despite the safety limit of 1 milliwatt (1mW) imposed by the Australian government. We hypothesize that this is because commercially available red and green laser pointers are exceeding their labeled power outputs. We tested the power outputs of 4 red and 4 green lasers which were purchased for less than AUD$30 each. The average of 10 measurements was recorded for each laser. We found that 3 out of 4 red lasers conformed to the 1mW safety standard; in contrast, all of the green lasers exceeded this limit, with one of the lasers recording an output of 127.9 mW. This contrast in compliance is explained by the construction of these lasers - green lasers are typically Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers that can emit excessive infrared (IR) radiation with poor workmanship or inconsistent adherence to practices of safe design and quality control; red lasers are diode lasers which have limited power outputs due to `Catastrophic Optical Damage' (COD). Relevant professional bodies ought to advocate more strongly for stringent testing, quality control and licensing of DPSS lasers with a view towards government intervention to banning green laser pointer use.

  6. Standardizing central line safety: lessons learned for physician leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeff T; Wright, Alan J; Fedraw, Leslie A; Murad, M Hassan; Brown, Daniel R; Thompson, Kristine M; Flick, Randall; Seville, Maria Teresa A; Huskins, W Charles

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive central venous catheter (CVC) safety program reduces mechanical and infectious complications and requires an integrated multidisciplinary effort. A multistate health care system implemented a discovery and diffusion project addressing CVC insertion, maintenance, and removal. Process and outcome measures were collected before and after the intervention. The project was completed in 12 months. It was associated with statistically significant improvement in 6 process measures and reduction in the rate of ICU central line-associated bloodstream infection (from 1.16 to 0.80 infections/1000 catheter days; incidence rate ratio = 0.69; 95% confidence interval = 0.51, 0.93). A comprehensive CVC standardization project increased compliance with several established best practices, was associated with improved outcomes, produced a refined definition of discovery and diffusion project components, and identified several discrete leadership principles that can be applied to future clinical improvement initiatives.

  7. GOALDS--goal based damage ship stability and safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Hamann, Rainer; Lee, Byung Suk; Mains, Christian; Olufsen, Odd; Vassalos, Dracos; Zaraphonitis, George

    2013-11-01

    The new probabilistic damaged stability regulations for dry cargo and passenger ships (SOLAS 2009), which entered into force on January 1, 2009, represent a major step forward in achieving an improved safety standard through the rationalisation and harmonization of damaged stability requirements. There are, however, serious concerns regarding the adopted formulation for the calculation of the survival probability of passenger ships, particularly for ROPAX and large cruise vessels. The present paper outlines the objectives, the methodology of work and main results of the EU-funded FP7 project GOALDS (Goal Based Damaged Stability, 2009-2012), which aims to address the above shortcomings by state-of-the-art scientific methods and by formulating a rational, goal-based regulatory framework, properly accounting for the damage stability properties of passenger ships and the risk of people onboard.

  8. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  9. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY: National.... SUMMARY: This document adopts amendments to the Federal motor vehicle safety standards on platform...

  10. 76 FR 49532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Electronic Stability Control Systems for Cars and LTVs... Technical Report on its existing Safety Standard 126, Electronic Stability Control Systems. The report's...

  11. 29 CFR 1960.19 - Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and health. 1960.19 Section 1960.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL... EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Standards § 1960.19 Other Federal agency standards affecting occupational safety and health. (a) Where employees of different...

  12. 48 CFR 1371.113 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1371.113 Section 1371.113 Federal Acquisition... CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.113 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-82, Department of Labor Occupational Safety and...

  13. 24 CFR 1005.111 - What safety and quality standards apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What safety and quality standards... URBAN DEVELOPMENT LOAN GUARANTEES FOR INDIAN HOUSING § 1005.111 What safety and quality standards apply? (a) Loans guaranteed under section 184 must be for dwelling units which meet the safety and...

  14. 38 CFR 17.155 - Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. 17.155 Section 17.155 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Minimum standards of safety and quality for automotive adaptive equipment. (a) The Under Secretary for Health or designee is authorized to develop and establish minimum standards of safety and quality for...

  15. 76 FR 53660 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assemblies AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... rulemaking submitted by Mr. Michael R. Schramm, to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard on seat... during normal vehicle operation and certain crash scenarios, resulting in increased risk to vehicle...

  16. 78 FR 15920 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Tire Selection and Rims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL24 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 110 to make it clear that special trailer... two revisions are appropriate and would not result in any degradation of motor vehicle safety....

  17. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  18. Overview of the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong-xue; LI Jia-jie; LI Cui-ping; LIU Shuang-yue

    2008-01-01

    Outlined the South African mine health and safety regulatory framework, including the roles of government, tripartite council, service agencies, mine enterprises,rescue stations and workers unions, analyzed the institutional structures of South African mine health and safety standardization, including the South African standard and specification systems and standard development processes, and characterized the South African mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems. Intended to provide some suggestions for the transformation and improvement of mine health and safety standardization and regulation systems in China or in similar situations.

  19. 77 FR 40843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    .... 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 108, Lamps, reflective devices, and... to vertical aim, luminance of signaling and marking lamps, masking of front turn signals,...

  20. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the rail transit agency's top management. (4) Oversight agency safety and security review section... plan and system security plan. This section includes the process to be used by the affected rail... in the rail transit agency's system safety program plan. The contents of the system safety plan...

  1. 30 CFR 7.10 - MSHA acceptance of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... General § 7.10 MSHA acceptance of equivalent non-MSHA product safety standards. (a) MSHA will accept non-MSHA product safety standards, or groups of standards, as equivalent after determining that they: (1... protection as those MSHA requirements. (b) MSHA will publish its intent to review any non-MSHA product...

  2. Compliance of Iranian dentists with safety standards of oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab, S; Kavosi, A; Nazarinia, H; Mehralizadeh, S; Mohammadpour, M; Emami, M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Dentists use radiographs in their daily practice. Their knowledge and behaviour towards radiographic examination can affect patients' exposure to radiation. The aim of this study was to survey the knowledge and behaviour of Iranian dentists regarding oral radiology safety standards. Methods 1000 questionnaires were given to the participants of the 48th Annual Congress of the Iranian Dental Association, of which 700 were returned. The participants were asked about demographic data, primary knowledge of radiation protection, selection criteria, radiographic equipment and technique, methods of patient and personnel protection and management of radiographic waste. Descriptive analysis of data was performed. Results 44% of respondents said the initial radiograph they took was of the periapical view of a limited area. 12% preferred the periapical paralleling technique. F-speed film was used by 9% and E-speed film by 62%. Only 2% had digital receptors. Proper exposure time was selected by 26.5%. The use of long and rectangular collimators was 15% and 6%, respectively. 34% occasionally covered their patients with both thyroid shields and lead aprons. 36% used the position and distance rule correctly for their own protection. Proper disposal of the used processing solutions and the lead foils were done by only 1% and 3%, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the majority of dentists in the study group did not select the proper method, material and equipment in order to minimize the exposure of their patient to unnecessary radiation in dental radiography. PMID:22301640

  3. Preliminary safety information document for the standard MHTGR. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-01-01

    This report contains information concerning: operational radionuclide control; occupational radiation protection, conduct of operations; initial test program; safety analysis; technical specifications; and quality assurance. (JDB)

  4. 29 CFR 500.102 - Applicability of vehicle safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Motor... agricultural association to transport any migrant or seasonal agricultural worker shall meet the vehicle...

  5. 75 FR 22291 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... persuasion research has found that the degree of seriousness of a perceived threat plays a significant role... warning compliance. The warning already communicates the safety importance of its content via a safety... firms supplying toddler beds to the United States market. Twenty-nine of the 48 firms are known...

  6. 77 FR 70914 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... longitudinal centerline and the same distance from the vehicle's longitudinal centerline, within 10 mm ( 0.4 in... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... vehicle safety standard for side impact protection. In today's document, we correct a minor error in...

  7. 77 FR 71163 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Windshield Zone Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK13 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... rulemaking proposal to rescind Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 219, ``Windshield zone... members included: BMW Group, Chrysler LLC, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz...

  8. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK56 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Action Plan, NHTSA is issuing this NPRM to propose to amend the Federal motor vehicle safety standard... crash must involve a motor vehicle traveling on a traffic way customarily open to the public, and...

  9. 75 FR 15621 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK38 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 114 that certain motor vehicles with an automatic transmission..., or ``Act'') was signed into law.\\1\\ This Act relates to several aspects of motor vehicle...

  10. 77 FR 75600 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The comment period is scheduled to close...

  11. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Lead time. The final rule specified that manufacturers must... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK48 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., 2007, final rule that upgraded Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact...

  12. 76 FR 52880 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Rover, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz USA, Mitsubishi Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. III. Response to... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK82 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... Manufacturers regarding a March 2010 final rule on the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for side impact...

  13. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL05 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...: This NPRM proposes to amend Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly..., MY 2000 Chevrolet S-10, MY 2002 Chevrolet TrailBlazer, MY 2003 Volkswagen Jetta, MY 1996 Ford F-350...

  14. Reconciling Paleomagnetism and Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, M. M.; Van Der Voo, R.; Torsvik, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    -artifact. Using the most recent late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic paleomagnetic data, we examine the influence of data-quality, refined continental fits, and theoretical inclination shallowing corrections, and demonstrate that the paleomagnetic data can be reconciled with Pangea without invoking alternative reconstructions or non-dipole fields.

  15. Quality management and safety culture in medicine - Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wischet, Werner; Schusterschitz, Claudia

    2009-12-15

    In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report "To err is human: building a safer healthcare system" highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety.

  16. R&D for Safety Codes and Standards: Materials and Components Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFleur, Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Marchi, Chris San [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project addresses the following technical barriers from the Safety, Codes and Standards section of the 2012 Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan (section 3.8): (A) Safety data and information: limited access and availability (F) Enabling national and international markets requires consistent RCS (G) Insufficient technical data to revise standards.

  17. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  18. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  19. Safety standards of electrical equipment in surface mines. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, V.O.; Il' in, Yu.N.; Neyaskin, D.V.

    1985-03-01

    Modified safety regulations developed by the VostNII Institute are discussed. The safety regulations for electrical equipment used in surface coal mines are modifications of general safety regulations in coal surface mining. The modified regulations cover: improved protection from short circuits and grounds in electrical systems with voltage higher than 1000 V, protection systems for heavy-duty electric motors and motors with thyristor control, operation of power shovels on benches with contact systems (hazards of damage to electric cables caused by moving mining equipment), operation of electrical equipment and contact systems on benches at which trucks are used for mine haulage (hazards of damage to electric cables by moving trucks).

  20. 76 FR 174 - NIJ Draft Metal Detector Standards for Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Draft Metal Detector Standards for Public Safety AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice and request for comments on the Draft Metal Detector Standards for Public... the following draft standards for metal detectors: 1. Walk-through Metal Detector Standard for...

  1. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous... the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals. DATES: Comments must be... collection. Title: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR...

  2. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard... ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to section 106 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will become a...

  3. 16 CFR 1203.53 - Interim safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—CAN/CSA-D113.2-M89, (4) Snell Memorial Foundation (Snell) 1990 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling (designation B-90), ( 5) Snell 1990 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling, including March 9, 1994 Supplement (designation B-90S), (6) Snell 1994 Standard for Protective...

  4. 75 FR 38432 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards, Miscellaneous Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... submit new rail equipment designs to FRA for approval with respect to the placement and securement of... during this time frame spurred efforts to increase workplace safety in at least two areas related to... a regulation prescribed or order issued by the Secretary of Transportation (with respect to railroad...

  5. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  6. 76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... staff to assist in the creation of a pipeline safety report to the nation. The subcommittee is made up...) and the creation of a subcommittee to assist PHMSA in the preparation of a pipeline safety report to the nation. PHMSA will host a series of meetings with a newly formed subcommittee to review and...

  7. The history and evolution of laser safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliney, D. [USA Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Gunpowder, MD (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Laser safety became a concern within a year of the first successful laser operation in 1960. The first biological research studies and publications on eye hazards appeared in 1961. Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits, threshold limit values (TLVs), or simply Exposure Limits (ELs) have evolved from the mid 1960s. Regardless of the terminology applied, these limits are now virtually the same worldwide (ICNIRP, 2000; ACGIH, 2000; ANSI, 2000; IEC/EN, 2001). This wide consensus has not always existed. Several issues have remained at the forefront of all efforts to set human exposure limits for laser radiation. These issues include concerns over whether there exists any damage mechanisms that are unique to coherent laser radiation, or can one expect differences between damage produced by a laser when compared to incoherent optical radiation within the same wavelength region. Indeed, questions have always existed with regard to the dominance (within any spectral region and exposure duration) of different damage mechanisms (e.g., thermal, photochemical, thermo-acoustic, optical-breakdown) and the role played by various conventional and non-linear optical phenomena in biological tissues. Other issues relate to the geometry of heat flow, the dissipation of energy and the biological response. Practical laser safety owes much to the development of laser safety classification after it was recognized that the probability of an accidental eye injury was very remote in many applications and measurements of the primary beam did little to identify reflection hazards. Unfortunately, the probabilistic risk analysis that led to the rationale and the definitions of the early laser safety classification scheme are now too frequently overlooked. (orig.)

  8. 75 FR 5553 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... NPRM proposes to amend FMVSS No. 116, Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, so that brake fluids would be tested... Date VII. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices VIII. Public Participation I. Background Federal...

  9. 75 FR 22532 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Cargo Carrying Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... for reconsideration of a final rule published December 4, 2007 which amended the Federal motor vehicle... problem of light vehicle, motor home and recreation vehicle trailer overloading by requiring...

  10. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  11. 76 FR 78 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard; Engine Control Module Speed Limiter Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... posted speed limit of 55 mph that was in effect in 1991. \\2\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control... improved truck designs. \\3\\ Comercial Motor Vehicle Speed Control Devices (1991), DOT HS 807 725. TCA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard...

  12. Quality and safety standards in the food industry, developments and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Zuurbier, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Consumer concerns related to food safety scandals and globalization of food production have resulted in a global and interconnected system for the production and distribution of food. In the last decade many public and private standards on food safety and quality have been developed as a result of t

  13. Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W.; Manary, Miriam A.; Hobson, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Safe transportation for wheelchair users who do not transfer to the vehicle seat when traveling in motor vehicles requires after-market wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraint systems (WTORS) to secure the wheelchair and provide crashworthy restraint for the wheelchair-seated occupant. In the absence of adequate government safety standards,…

  14. Safety standards for express roads : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, T.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the SAFESTAR project is the formulation of design standards or recommendations exclusively based on safety arguments. Workpackage 3 (WP3) of SAFESTAR, of which this report is the concluding report, should result in design recommendations for single and dual-carriageway express roads

  15. 48 CFR 1352.271-82 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1352.271-82 Section 1352.271-82 Federal Acquisition... of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-82 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Ship Repair (APR 2010) The contractor, in performance of all...

  16. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  17. Assessment of Offshore Wind System Design, Safety, and Operation Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirnivas, S.; Musial, W.; Bailey, B.; Filippelli, M.

    2014-01-01

    This report is a deliverable for a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entitled National Offshore Wind Energy Resource and Design Data Campaign -- Analysis and Collaboration (contract number DE-EE0005372; prime contractor -- AWS Truepower). The project objective is to supplement, facilitate, and enhance ongoing multiagency efforts to develop an integrated national offshore wind energy data network. The results of this initiative are intended to 1) produce a comprehensive definition of relevant met-ocean resource assets and needs and design standards, and 2) provide a basis for recommendations for meeting offshore wind energy industry data and design certification requirements.

  18. National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" Was Officially Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ May 28 2004, sponsored by Standardization Administration of P.R. China ( SAC ) and Certification and Accreditation Administration of P.R. China (CNCA), China National Accreditation Board For Laboratories (CNAL) organized the press conference on National Standard of "General Request on Biological Safety" in Beijing.

  19. 76 FR 72888 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... release. 571.220 School bus rollover protection. 571.221 School bus body joint strength. 571.222 School... be reduced without reducing safety. II. Plain Language A. Background and Purpose Executive Order... language. Application of the principles of plain language includes consideration of the following...

  20. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We need well-founded means of determining whether software is t for use in safety-critical applications. While software in industries such as aviation has an excellent safety record, the fact that software aws have contributed to deaths illustrates the need for justi ably high con dence in software. It is often argued that software is t for safety-critical use because it conforms to a standard for software in safety-critical systems. But little is known about whether such standards `work.' Reliance upon a standard without knowing whether it works is an experiment; without collecting data to assess the standard, this experiment is unplanned. This paper reports on a workshop intended to explore how standards could practicably be assessed. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Ecacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software (AESSCS) was held on 13 May 2014 in conjunction with the European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). We summarize and elaborate on the workshop's discussion of the topic, including both the presented positions and the dialogue that ensued.

  1. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Towards Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Safe use of software in safety-critical applications requires well-founded means of determining whether software is fit for such use. While software in industries such as aviation has a good safety record, little is known about whether standards for software in safety-critical applications 'work' (or even what that means). It is often (implicitly) argued that software is fit for safety-critical use because it conforms to an appropriate standard. Without knowing whether a standard works, such reliance is an experiment; without carefully collecting assessment data, that experiment is unplanned. To help plan the experiment, we organized a workshop to develop practical ideas for assessing software safety standards. In this paper, we relate and elaborate on the workshop discussion, which revealed subtle but important study design considerations and practical barriers to collecting appropriate historical data and recruiting appropriate experimental subjects. We discuss assessing standards as written and as applied, several candidate definitions for what it means for a standard to 'work,' and key assessment strategies and study techniques and the pros and cons of each. Finally, we conclude with thoughts about the kinds of research that will be required and how academia, industry, and regulators might collaborate to overcome the noted barriers.

  2. Patient safety principles in family medicine residency accreditation standards and curriculum objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Aliya; Sharma, Nishan; Harvie, Margot; O’Beirne, Maeve; Topps, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To conduct a thematic analysis of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s (CFPC’s) Red Book accreditation standards and the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum objectives with respect to patient safety principles. Design Thematic content analysis of the CFPC’s Red Book accreditation standards and the Triple C curriculum. Setting Canada. Main outcome measures Coding frequency of the patient safety principles (ie, patient engagement; respectful, transparent relationships; complex systems; a just and trusting culture; responsibility and accountability for actions; and continuous learning and improvement) found in the analyzed CFPC documents. Results Within the analyzed CFPC documents, the most commonly found patient safety principle was patient engagement (n = 51 coding references); the least commonly found patient safety principles were a just and trusting culture (n = 5 coding references) and complex systems (n = 5 coding references). Other patient safety principles that were uncommon included responsibility and accountability for actions (n = 7 coding references) and continuous learning and improvement (n = 12 coding references). Conclusion Explicit inclusion of patient safety content such as the use of patient safety principles is needed for residency training programs across Canada to ensure the full spectrum of care is addressed, from community-based care to acute hospital-based care. This will ensure a patient safety culture can be cultivated from residency and sustained into primary care practice. PMID:27965349

  3. “The Safety of Tourist” - Required Community Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olguta Ludmila Benescu

    2010-06-01

    be forgotten which would attract tourists.The Romanian State, in order to have had an attractive and profitable tourism it must turn into a leading provider of safety.

  4. Issues and relationships among software standards for nuclear safety applications. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.A.; Preckshot, G.G.; Lawrence, J.D.; Johnson, G.L.

    1996-03-26

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the development of draft regulatory guides for selected software engineering standards. This report describes the results of the initial task in this work. The selected software standards and a set of related software engineering standards were reviewed, and the resulting preliminary elements of the regulatory positions are identified in this report. The importance of a thorough understanding of the relationships among standards useful for developing safety-related software is emphasized. The relationship of this work to the update of the Standard Review Plan is also discussed.

  5. New standard on safety for hydrogen systems in spanish. Keys for understanding and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Aprea, Jose [CNEA, Argentine Atomic Energy Commission - AAH - IRAM - Comahue University, CC 805 - Neuquen (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper approaches all the preliminary, normative and additional elements observed during the work carried out by the Argentine standardization board to count in the country with a normative document that covers the expectations of the local community of users and other Spanish-speaking user, about the integral safety for the hydrogen systems. The antecedents and the process of adoption of an international standard and its adaptation to the local media are analyzed. The result has been the Standard IRAM/ISO 15916 that intends to offer, to all the users and especially to those who are not familiar with the technology, a base to understand the subject of safety, thus enhancing the education of the general public in hydrogen safety matters. (author)

  6. STANDARDIZATION AND TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION FOR EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF PIMPINELLA ANISUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalam N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand of herbal medicine is increasing day by day due to their efficacy, safety (rare chances of side effects in the treatment and good faith of society on herbal medicine and also their products. Therefore standardization and toxicological study of herbal medicine is quite necessary to check quality, Purity, strength and safety of the drugs. The present work is an attempt to evaluate toxicological parameters for safety of an herbal drug Pimpinella anisum L. such as microbial contamination, aflatoxins, pesticide residues and heavy metals. Additional standardization parameters like, physical constants, ash content, solvent residues, and microscopical analysis were also carried out and reported. The results obtained may be helpful to the regulatory authorities, scientific organizations and manufacturers for developing standards and maintaining the quality of drugs.

  7. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  8. The Road to Psychological Safety: Legal, Scientific, and Social Foundations for a Canadian National Standard on Psychological Safety in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin; Arnold, Ian; GermAnn, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    In Part 1 of this article, the legal and scientific origins of the concept of psychological safety are examined as background to, and support for, the new Canadian National Standard on Psychological Health and Safety in the Workplace (CSA Z1003/BNQ 9700). It is shown that five factors influencing psychological safety can be identified as being…

  9. International trade standards for commodities and products derived from animals: the need for a system that integrates food safety and animal disease risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, G R; Penrith, M-L; Atkinson, M W; Thalwitzer, S; Mancuso, A; Atkinson, S J; Osofsky, S A

    2013-12-01

    A case is made for greater emphasis to be placed on value chain management as an alternative to geographically based disease risk mitigation for trade in commodities and products derived from animals. The geographic approach is dependent upon achievement of freedom in countries or zones from infectious agents that cause so-called transboundary animal diseases, while value chain-based risk management depends upon mitigation of animal disease hazards potentially associated with specific commodities or products irrespective of the locality of production. This commodity-specific approach is founded on the same principles upon which international food safety standards are based, viz. hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). Broader acceptance of a value chain approach enables animal disease risk management to be combined with food safety management by the integration of commodity-based trade and HACCP methodologies and thereby facilitates 'farm to fork' quality assurance. The latter is increasingly recognized as indispensable to food safety assurance and is therefore a pre-condition to safe trade. The biological principles upon which HACCP and commodity-based trade are based are essentially identical, potentially simplifying sanitary control in contrast to current separate international sanitary standards for food safety and animal disease risks that are difficult to reconcile. A value chain approach would not only enable more effective integration of food safety and animal disease risk management of foodstuffs derived from animals but would also ameliorate adverse environmental and associated socio-economic consequences of current sanitary standards based on the geographic distribution of animal infections. This is especially the case where vast veterinary cordon fencing systems are relied upon to separate livestock and wildlife as is the case in much of southern Africa. A value chain approach would thus be particularly beneficial to under-developed regions of

  10. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  11. 76 FR 55056 - Toy Safety Standard: Strategic Outreach and Education Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... to test and certify to the toy safety standard. We plan to use traditional and social media to... ensure that the communications message is disseminated widely and to solicit additional outreach ideas... provisions before the requirements go into effect. We believe that issuing FAQs in a timely fashion...

  12. 78 FR 59723 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... health risks while providing no less than the same degree of safety provided by the existing standard. 2... to maintain negative pressure during use of the cleaning system to prevent contamination of the... regulator tampering. 9. The air spray manifold will consist of a schedule 80 steel pipe that has a...

  13. 76 FR 69766 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Iron County, Missouri; Charmian Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 36-03460, 1455 Old Waynesboro Road, Blue Ridge... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of...

  14. 78 FR 7458 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., Annapolis, Missouri 63620, located in Iron County, Missouri; Charmian Mine, MSHA I.D. No. 36-03460, 1455 Old... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine... Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Section 101(c) of...

  15. 75 FR 27734 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... manufacture or import bicycle helmets subject to the standard. There are an estimated 200 different models of... for Bicycle Helmets AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer... of bicycle helmets. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of information...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.84 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. 2543.84 Section 2543.84 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND...

  17. 75 FR 81313 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... modify the application of any mandatory safety standard to a coal or other mine if the Secretary..., and floor heave conditions in the return entry in the C-Mains resulting from multi-seam mining and... gas or other harmful, noxious, or poisonous gases will not be permitted to accumulate in excess...

  18. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  19. ENETOSH Standard of Competence for Instructors and Trainers in Safety and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayravainen, A.; Bollmann, U.; Kobler, R.; Swuste, P.H.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ENETOSH Standard of Competence for Instructors and Trainers in Safety and Health was developed as part of a project funded by the European Commission (LEONARDO DA VINCI, 146 253, 10/2005 – 09/2007). The aim of the project was to set up a “European Network Education and Training in Occupational S

  20. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... risk of injury associated with the product. We are issuing a safety standard for infant bath seats in... that the older user of a bath seat would apply his/her total weight in the head location when in a... out of the water. Infants may be physically capable of lifting their heads, but they may not do so...

  1. 77 FR 15351 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... rule published December 12, 2011, at 76 FR 77183, is extended. Comments must be received on or before... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Docket:...

  2. 78 FR 52679 - Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... automatically according to the terms of the cigarette lighter regulation. Because the adjustment occurs by terms... Federal Regulations, which is published #0;under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of... 1210 Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters AGENCY...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 1720 - Policy Guidance; Safety and Soundness Standards for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., App. C Appendix C to Part 1720—Policy Guidance; Safety and Soundness Standards for Information A..., technical, or physical safeguards used by an Enterprise to access, collect, process, store, use, transmit..., collect, store, use, transmit, protect, or dispose of information; d. Service provider means any person or...

  4. Reconciling Work and Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Helle

    The problems of balancing work and family life have within the last years been heavily debated in the countries of the European Union. This anthology deals with the question of how to obtain a better balance between work and family life. Focus is set on the role of companies. The anthology tries...... to shed some light on questions such as: How can compagnies become more family friendly? What are the barriers and how can they be overcome? What is the social outcome when companies are playing an active role in employees’ possiblities for combining family life and work life? How are the solutions...... on work/ family unbalance/ problems related to the growing social problems related to unemployment? The anthology is the result of a reseach-network on ”Work-place Contributions ro Reconcile Work and Family Life” funded by the European Commission, DG V, and co-coordinated by the editors....

  5. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  6. Assessment of emergency safety showers against proposed EU and ANSI standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Burby

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was carried out with the cooperation of a majorinternational safety shower manufacturer, Hughes Safety Showers Ltd. Thefirst part of this study was to characterise various commercial safetyshower heads with regard to their spray patternation, droplet sizes, dropletvelocities and impact forces. The spray patternation of a number of showerhead designs were compared against the proposed EU and AmericanNational Standard institute (ANSI standard for plumbed in body showers.The results of this work showed that a large proportion of the shower headdeigns failed to meet the proposed EU standard. The second part to thisstudy was to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the emergencysafety shower head designs via a series of decontamination ‘wash-off’tests on a mannequin, with a number of simulated hazardous substancesapplied to its surface.

  7. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2001-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  8. THE CONFORMITY OF MACHINE TOOLS WITH RESPECT TO EUROPEAN SAFETY STANDARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/TE

    2000-01-01

    European regulations require that all motorized machine tools conform to the latest safety standards by the end of the year 2000. CERN must follow these regulations and has already modified most of its machine tools accordingly. However, there is still a small number of machine tools which have not yet been modified as required. These machines should not be used until they are brought up to the required safety standards, failing which the machines should be discarded. One can recognise which machine tools conform with the latest standards by the indication 'CS' on the identification plate of the machine, see foto below. In cases of doubt about the status of a machine tool you should contact K. Altherr/EST or C. Margaroli/TIS for advice.

  9. Food Safety, Market Power and Private Standards: An Analysis of the Emerging Strategies of Food Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Charlier

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Together with expected implications on food safety, the European Regulation 178/2002 has important consequences shaping the agrifood sector.This regulation gives latitude to operators in front of specific food safety objectives and promotes self-control.Private standards are a way of addressing this problem. The paper shows that as soon as producers and retailers have different private standards, a problem of coordination among operators has to be solved. This coordination is important for the sanitary aims but involves strategic aspects too. The coordination problem is tougher when the standards developed by producers and retailers can be considered as two substitutes, even if each operators considers that a coordination of their practices shall be reached.

  10. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Aaron P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  11. Standardized System of Nuclear Safety Information for the Promotion of Transparency and Openness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gihyung; Kim, Sanghyun; Lee, Gyehwi; Yoon, Yeonhwa; Song, Song Hyerim; Jeong, Jina [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jaehyung; Seo, Jonghwan [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    There has been an increasing emphasis on the need for increased disclosure of information through the home page of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), responsible for nuclear safety regulations, and the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) to enhance public understanding of nuclear safety. However, due to the dazzled structure of the existing KINS and NSIC home pages, improvements in accessibility and convenience are necessary. At the same time, content standardization is required to increase operational efficiency and provide coherent information. In this study, the Delphi method was used to select the major contents to make available on the home page as well as the main user base definition for the home page layout development. Also, internal and external expert groups were created to conduct AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis and develop the comparative analysis items for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(NRC)/KINS/NSIC home pages. Afterwards, problems and points of improvements for the home page system, design, and profile were derived using heuristic analysis. The implications arising from the Delphi analysis results were applied to the home page layout. In the nuclear safety information standardized system construction process, the comparative analysis conducted using the AHP and heuristic analyses of the NRC home page resulted in deriving improvements for the Guidance, Organization, and Trustworthy items of the KINS/NSIC home page. Furthermore, through the Delphi analysis, a clear purpose and core values were set for the KINS web site, and the needs of the main user base were identified. By developing the home page layout, user interest and utility were raised to improve the organization method and layout. Through this study, KINS was able to construct a nuclear safety information standardized system and increase transparency and openness by providing feature enhancements in information provision as well as user accessibility and

  12. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  13. Standards and IAEA safety services; Las normas y los servicios de seguridad del OIEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, E.

    2009-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has the statutory mandate to develop safety standards applicable to all kind of nuclear and radiation practices and activities and to provide for its application Member States and in its own radiological practices and activities. since its inception in the mid-fifties, the IAEA has an active rulemaking program that reached full maturity in the mid-nineties and keeps today. This program is complemented by a wide variety of safety review services provided by the Agency to Member states that request it. (Author)

  14. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to...

  15. The WHO EMF Project: Legitimating the Imaginary of Global Harmonization of EMF Safety Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mercer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An important topic for studies of STS and globalization are the ways “global” institutions create and attempt to implement health guidelines and safety standards to address risks associated with new technologies. In the following discussion this topic is examined through a case study of the activities of the World Health Organization’s Electric and Magnetic Field Project (WHO EMF Project. EMF exposures are associated with telecommunications and electrical infrastructure, most notably high voltage power-lines, radio and cell towers and the use of mobile telephones. The controversy over setting international safety standards and health guidelines has simmered for a number of decades. The mainstream “regulatory science” position has been that it is unlikely EMF’s constitute a significant health risk and therefore minimal regulatory intervention or significant precautionary considerations are required. A small but persistent stream of scientific studies nevertheless have continued to raise significant health concerns and have led to calls for regulators to build stronger precautionary approaches into EMF standards and guidelines. The WHO EMF project was established in 1996 in an attempt to discourage this situation leading to different nation states adopting strong precautionary approaches and developing a diversity of national EMF safety standards and health guidelines. In the following discussion I will explore the history of the WHO EMF Project and the strategies it has used to pursue its goal of global harmonization of EMF science, safety standards and guidelines. Three important strategies used by the WHO EMF Project have involved: appeals to technological determinism, developing bespoke models for sound science, and setting the boundaries between science and policy to attempt to exclude their opponents from the policy making arena.

  16. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care...

  17. 75 FR 73998 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR... Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) that applies to new pneumatic tires for use on vehicles with... (NPRM) proposing to upgrade FMVSS No. 119 (49 CFR 571.119), which applies to new pneumatic tires...

  18. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  19. Electrical safety of conducted electrical weapons relative to requirements of relevant electrical standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panescu, Dorin; Nerheim, Max; Kroll, Mark

    2013-01-01

    TASER(®) conducted electrical weapons (CEW) deliver electrical pulses that can inhibit a person's neuromuscular control or temporarily incapacitate. TASER X26, X26P, and X2 are among CEW models most frequently deployed by law enforcement agencies. The X2 CEW uses two cartridge bays while the X26 and X26P CEWs have only one. The TASER X26P CEW electronic output circuit design is equivalent to that of any one of the two TASER X2 outputs. The goal of this paper was to analyze the nominal electrical outputs of TASER X26, X26P, and X2 CEWs in reference to provisions of several international standards that specify safety requirements for electrical medical devices and electrical fences. Although these standards do not specifically mention CEWs, they are the closest electrical safety standards and hence give very relevant guidance. The outputs of two TASER X26 and two TASER X2 CEWs were measured and confirmed against manufacturer and other published specifications. The TASER X26, X26P, and X2 CEWs electrical output parameters were reviewed against relevant safety requirements of UL 69, IEC 60335-2-76 Ed 2.1, IEC 60479-1, IEC 60479-2, AS/NZS 60479.1, AS/NZS 60479.2 and IEC 60601-1. Prior reports on similar topics were reviewed as well. Our measurements and analyses confirmed that the nominal electrical outputs of TASER X26, X26P and X2 CEWs lie within safety bounds specified by relevant requirements of the above standards.

  20. Addendum: Safety Standards for Gua sha (press-stroking) and Ba guan (cupping).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Arya; Kligler, Ben; Koll, Brian S

    2014-06-01

    Our previous article Safety Standards for Gua sha (press-stroking) and Baguan (cupping) discussed the risk of transfer of blood-borne pathogens with Gua sha and Ba guan, identified Gua sha and Ba guan 'instrument criticality' as semi-critical and offered recommendations for safe practice based on hospital disinfection standards. Based on the article's feedback, we feel the need to clarify that Gua sha and Ba guan instruments, if intended for reuse, must undergo high level disinfection (HLD) or, in the case of 'wet-cupping', sterilization. We update our recommendations to be amenable to both private practice and education settings.

  1. A curated and standardized adverse drug event resource to accelerate drug safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Juan M; Evans, Lee; Vanguri, Rami S; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Ryan, Patrick B; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-05-10

    Identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) during the post-marketing phase is one of the most important goals of drug safety surveillance. Spontaneous reporting systems (SRS) data, which are the mainstay of traditional drug safety surveillance, are used for hypothesis generation and to validate the newer approaches. The publicly available US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data requires substantial curation before they can be used appropriately, and applying different strategies for data cleaning and normalization can have material impact on analysis results. We provide a curated and standardized version of FAERS removing duplicate case records, applying standardized vocabularies with drug names mapped to RxNorm concepts and outcomes mapped to SNOMED-CT concepts, and pre-computed summary statistics about drug-outcome relationships for general consumption. This publicly available resource, along with the source code, will accelerate drug safety research by reducing the amount of time spent performing data management on the source FAERS reports, improving the quality of the underlying data, and enabling standardized analyses using common vocabularies.

  2. Using standardized insulin orders to improve patient safety in a tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mary-Anne; Brez, Sharon; Sicoli, Silvana; De Sousa, Filomena; Keely, Erin; Malcom, Janine C

    2014-04-01

    To standardize insulin prescribing practices for inpatients, improve management of hypoglycemia, reduce reliance on sliding scales, increase use of basal-bolus insulin and improve patient safety. Patients with diabetes were admitted to 2 pilot inpatient units followed by corporate spread to all insulin-treated patients on noncritical care units in a Canadian tertiary care multicampus teaching hospital. Standardized preprinted insulin and hypoglycemia management orders, decision support tools and multidisciplinary education strategies were developed, tested and implemented by way of the Model for Improvement and The Ottawa Model for Research Process. Clinical and balance measures were evaluated through statistical process control. Patient safety was improved through a reduction in hypoglycemia and decreased dependence on correctional scales. Utilization of the preprinted orders approached the target of 70% at the end of the test period and was sustained at 89% corporately 3 years post-implementation. The implementation of a standardized, preprinted insulin order set facilitates best practices for insulin therapy, improves patient safety and is highly supported by treating practitioners. The utilization of formal quality-improvement methodology promoted efficiency, enhanced sustainability, increased support among clinicians and senior administrators, and was effective in instituting sustained practice change in a complex care centre. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconciling Medical Expenditure Estimates from the MEPS...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Reconciling Medical Expenditure Estimates from the MEPS and NHEA, 2007, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review, provides a...

  4. Wage Dynamics: Reconciling Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Jean Blanchard; Lawrence Katz

    1999-01-01

    U.S. macroeconomic evidence shows a negative relation between the rate of change of wages and unemployment. In contrast, most theories of wage determination imply a negative relation between the level of wages and unemployment. In this paper, we ask whether one can reconcile the empirical evidence with theoretical wage relations. We reach three main conclusions. First, we derive the condition under which the two can indeed be reconciled. We show the constraints that such a condition imposes o...

  5. Developing legally defensible physiological employment standards for prominent physically demanding public safety occupations: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamnik, V; Gumienak, R; Gledhill, N

    2013-10-01

    Canadian court decisions and human rights legislation impose strict legal criteria for developing applicant and incumbent physiological employment standards to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement. These legal criteria compel researchers and employers to ensure that the standards are criterion-based and validly linked to the critical life threatening physically demanding tasks of the occupation, and this has led to the establishment of a systematic research process template to ensure this connection. Validation of job-related physiological employment standards is achieved using both construct and content procedures and reliability is established via test-retest procedures. The 1999 Supreme Court of Canada Meiorin Decision also obliges employers to demonstrate that it is impossible to accommodate an individual applicant or employee who is adversely impacted by lowering the physiological employment standards without imposing undue hardship on the employer. Recent evidence has demonstrated convincingly that familiarization opportunities, motivational feedback/coaching during test performance, and participation in a 6-week job-specific physical fitness training program can overcome the adverse impact of a physiological employment standards on a sub-group of participants, thereby providing "de facto" accommodation. In this article, the authors review the physiological employment standards for prominent Canadian physically demanding public safety occupations; police, correctional officers, nuclear emergency personnel, structural fire fighters, and wildland fire fighters, to illustrate the steps, challenges, and solutions involved in developing and implementing physiological employment standards designed to meet the requirements to qualify as a bona fide occupational requirement.

  6. Safety in construction--a comprehensive description of the characteristics of high safety standards in construction work, from the combined perspective of supervisors and experienced workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törner, Marianne; Pousette, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The often applied engineering approach to safety management in the construction industry needs to be supplemented by organizational measures and measures based on how people conceive and react to their social environment. This requires in-depth knowledge of the broad preconditions for high safety standards in construction. The aim of the study was to comprehensively describe the preconditions and components of high safety standards in the construction industry from the perspective of both experienced construction workers and first-line managers. Five worker safety representatives and 19 first-line managers were interviewed, all strategically selected from within a large Swedish construction project. Phenomenographic methodology was used for data acquisition and analysis and to categorize the information. Nine informants verified the results. The study identified four main categories of work safety preconditions and components: (1) Project characteristics and nature of the work, which set the limits of safety management; (2) Organization and structures, with the subcategories planning, work roles, procedures, and resources; (3) Collective values, norms, and behaviors, with the subcategories climate and culture, and interaction and cooperation; and (4) Individual competence and attitudes, with the subcategories knowledge, ability and experience, and individual attitudes. The results comprehensively describe high safety standards in construction, incorporating organizational, group, individual, and technical aspects. High-quality interaction between different organizational functions and hierarchical levels stood out as important aspects of safety. The results are discussed in relation to previous research into safety and into the social-psychological preconditions for other desired outcomes in occupational settings. The results can guide construction companies in planning and executing construction projects to a high safety standard.

  7. Reliability study: digital engineered safety feature actuation system of Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarno [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Batan (Indonesia); Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    The usage of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) in a nuclear power plant becomes more extensive, including safety related systems. The PSA application of these new designs are very important in order to evaluate their reliability. In particular, Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPPs), typically Ulchin 5 and 6 (UCN 5 and 6) reactor units, adopted the digital safety-critical systems such as Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) and Digital Engineered Safety Feature Actuation System (DESFAS). In this research, we developed fault tree models for assessing the unavailability of the DESFAS functions. We also performed an analysis of the quantification results. The unavailability results of different DESFAS functions showed that their values are comprised from 5.461E-5 to 3.14E-4. The system unavailability of DESFAS AFAS-1 is estimated as 5.461E-5, which is about 27% less than that of analog system if we consider the difference of human failure probability estimation between both analyses. The results of this study could be utilized in risk-effect analysis of KSNPP. We expect that the safety analysis result will contribute to design feedback.

  8. Pesticide food safety standards as companions to tolerances and maximum residue limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carl K Winter; Elizabeth A Jara

    2015-01-01

    Alowable levels for pesticide residues in foods, known as tolerances in the US and as maximum residue limits (MRLs) in much of the world, are widely yet inappropriately perceived as levels of safety concern. A novel approach to develop scientiifcaly defensible levels of safety concern is presented and an example to determine acute and chronic pesticide food safety standard (PFSS) levels for the fungicide captan on strawberries is provided. Using this approach, the chronic PFSS level for captan on strawberries was determined to be 2000 mg kg–1 and the acute PFSS level was determined to be 250 mg kg–1. Both levels are far above the existing tolerance and MRLs that commonly range from 3 to 20 mg kg–1, and provide evidence that captan residues detected at levels greater than the tolerance or MRLs are not of acute or chronic health concern even though they represent violative residues. The beneifts of developing the PFSS approach to serve as a companion to existing tolerances/MRLs include a greater understanding concerning the health signiifcance, if any, from exposure to violative pesticide residues. In addition, the PFSS approach can be universaly applied to al potential pesticide residues on al food commodities, can be modiifed by speciifc jurisdictions to take into account differences in food consumption practices, and can help prioritize food residue monitoring by identifying the pesticide/commodity combinations of the greatest potential food safety concern and guiding development of ifeld level analytical methods to detect pesticide residues on prioritized pesticide/commodity combinations.

  9. Quality management and safety culture in medicine – Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wischet, Werner

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM published the landmark report “To err is human: building a safer healthcare system” highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 were analysed with respect to the appearance of indicators for the presence of a safety culture. Results suggest that despite the huge awareness for patient safety caused by the IOM report, the topic of safety culture does not get the anticipated attention within the quality reports. This may indicate that the current requirements for the quality reports do not facilitate transparency when it comes to the human factor of patient safety.

  10. The 'experimental stable' of the BCG vaccine: safety, efficacy, proof, and standards, 1921-1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonah, Christian

    2005-12-01

    The anti-tuberculosis BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine was conceived and developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes in France. Between 1921 and A. Calmette's death in 1933, the vaccine went through a first period of national and international production and distribution for its use in humans. In France these activities were exclusively carried out by Calmette and his collaborators at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Initially improvised production in a small room in the cellar gave way in 1931 to the construction of the spacious and magnificent 'New laboratories for research on tuberculosis and the preparation of the BCG' within the premises of the Pasteur Institute. Presentation and image-building of the vaccine in France insisted on the fact that the BCG was not a commercial specialty but distributed free of charge. The technical monopoly of its production nevertheless lay with the Paris Pasteur Institute and standardization of scientific proof of safety, efficacy and stability was dominated by that Institute in France. In contrast, the international production and distribution of the vaccine was entrusted and transferred, free of charge, to trustworthy laboratories outside France. Multiplication of producers and users led to an increased need for standardization. For this process the analysis distinguishes between the standardization of scientific proof concerning safety, efficacy and stability of the vaccine and standardization of its medical uses. Whereas standardization was rather successful in the inter-war period in France, the international efforts remained rather unsuccessful. Only after world war II under Scandinavian leadership and in the context of mass vaccination programs supported by the WHO and UNICEF was the international standardization effectively implemented and succeeded at least to some extend.

  11. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  13. 77 FR 22564 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Full- Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Compliance Form AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As...), except through www.regulations.gov . Submit written submissions in the following way: Mail/Hand delivery...

  14. Why the Joint Commission's proposed combining of safety and security under new EC standards is a mistake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, William H

    2008-01-01

    The following statement was filed by the author with the Joint Commission to point out the flaws and potential adverse consequences of combining the disciplines of Safety and Security in a consolidated Environment of Care Standard.

  15. Compliance of Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit with IEC standard - Radiation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, G; Kumar, Munish; Dash Sharma, P K; Sharma, D N; Chhokra, Kanta; Mishra, Bibekananda; Agarwal, S P; Kher, R K

    2009-04-28

    Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India designed and developed a telecobalt unit, which was named as Bhabhatron-II. In this paper, the results pertaining to radiation safety of indigenously developed Bhabhatron-II telecobalt unit are reported. The various tests were carried out as per requirements of International Electrotechnical Commission standard and acceptance criteria developed nationally. Various devices such as CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescent dosimeters, farmer type ionization chamber, water phantom and radiographic films were used. All the parameters pertaining to radiation leakage/transmission were within the tolerance limits as per IEC-60601-2-11 standard except the collimator transmission through X collimators (upper jaw), which marginally exceeds the tolerance limit.

  16. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahtab Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people’s safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  17. Surveying wearable human assistive technology for life and safety critical applications: standards, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-05-23

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  18. Relationship between patient safety climate and standard precaution adherence: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, A J; Larson, E L

    2016-04-01

    Standard precaution (SP) adherence is universally suboptimal, despite being a core component of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention and healthcare worker (HCW) safety. Emerging evidence suggests that patient safety climate (PSC) factors may improve HCW behaviours. Our aim was to examine the relationship between PSC and SP adherence by HCWs in acute care hospitals. A systematic review was conducted as guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Three electronic databases were comprehensively searched for literature published or available in English between 2000 and 2014. Seven of 888 articles identified were eligible for final inclusion in the review. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using a validated quality tool. The seven articles were assigned quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 of 10 possible points. Five measured all aspects of SP and two solely measured needlestick and sharps handling. Three included a secondary outcome of HCW exposure; none included HCAIs. All reported a statistically significant relationship between better PSC and greater SP adherence and used data from self-report surveys including validated PSC measures or measures of management support and leadership. Although limited in number, studies were of high quality and confirmed that PSC and SP adherence were correlated, suggesting that efforts to improve PSC may enhance adherence to a core component of HCAI prevention and HCW safety. More clearly evident is the need for additional high-quality research.

  19. Quality management and safety culture in medicine – Do standard quality reports provide insights into the human factor of patient safety?

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In 1999 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published the landmark report "To err is human: building a safer healthcare system" highlighting critical deficiencies within the area of patient safety. As a consequence, safety culture evolved as a core component of quality management in medicine. Purpose of the investigation at hand was to find out to what extent this is reflected in standard quality reports issued by German hospitals providing maximum medical care. Reports issued for the year 2006 w...

  20. 487 Safety of Sublingual Immunotherapy with Standardized Vaccines of Domestic Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mirta; Castro, Raúl; Gutierrez, Daniel; Labrada, Alexis; Enriquez, Irene; Ronquillo, Mercedes; Rodríguez, José; García, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy consists of administering gradually increasing doses of the allergen, to which the patient is sensitized, aiming at achieving tolerance to it and decreasing clinical symptoms. The sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced as an alternative to subcutaneous route. Its use is being increased in the world and in Cuba, using standardized vaccines owing to greater safety. The objective of this study was to determine the safety of sublingual standardized vaccines of 3 domestic mite species (Valergen, Cuba) and its adverse events in allergic patients from the Calixto García University Hospital in Havana, as well as the frequency of its prescription. Methods Descriptive and cross sectional study design, which included 130 patients with treatment of SLIT with VALERGEN-DP (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), VALERGEN-DS (D. siboney) and VALERGEN-BT (Blomia tropicalis) (BIOCEN, Cuba), who attended the Allergy Service in the period January-September 2010. Age distribution: mean 19.6 years (range 1–75), 40.7 % was younger than 18 years. Results The multiallergen vaccine was the type of vaccine most used (63.8%). The most common allergen was D. pteronyssinus followed by B. tropicalis. 71.55% of administered allergens vaccines were in maintenance phase. We found 4 adverse events (3.1% of patients), all local, mild, and not requiring treatment or change of vaccination dosing schedule. Conclusions The Valergen vaccines by sublingual route are safe and well tolerated in Cuban allergic patients.

  1. Food safety standards for Beijing 2008 Olympics-Hastening the parturition of international brands of Chinese meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ According to the predicted statistics of the Beijing Municipal Food Safety Office, during the period of Beijing 2008 Olympics, over 13 millions of meals will be served to the athlete delegations, work personnel and journalists of various countries and the on-site spectators. To ensure the safety of food serving, the Beijing municipal government has specially worked out and initiated an outline for action on food safety. The strict standard on food safety required by the International Olympics Committee will also promote the pace of internationalization of Chinese food and drinks.

  2. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ...As required by the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act (PSEA) of 2010 this rule proposes to establish a Federal motor vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) setting minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. This new standard would require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs), medium and heavy duty, trucks, and buses, low speed vehicles (LSVs), and motorcycles to produce sounds meeting the requirements of this standard. This proposed standard applies to electric vehicles (EVs) and to those hybrid vehicles (HVs) that are capable of propulsion in any forward or reverse gear without the vehicle's internal combustion engine (ICE) operating. This standard would ensure that blind, visually-impaired, and other pedestrians are able to detect and recognize nearby hybrid and electric vehicles, as required by the PSEA, by requiring that hybrid and electric vehicles emit sound that pedestrians would be able to hear in a range of ambient environments and contain acoustic signal content that pedestrians will recognize as being emitted from a vehicle. The benefit of reducing the pedestrian injury rate per registered vehicle of HVs to ICE vehicles when 4.1% of the fleet is HV and EV would be 2790 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries. We also estimate that this proposal will result in 10 fewer pedestrian and pedalcyclist injuries caused by LSVs. Thus, 2800 total injured pedestrians are expected to be avoided due to this proposal representing 35 equivalent lives saved. We do not estimate any quantifiable benefits for EVs because it is our view that EV manufacturers would have installed alert sounds in their cars without passage of the PSEA and this proposed rule. Comparison of costs and benefits expected due to this rule provides a cost of $0.83 to $0.99 million per equivalent life saved across the 3 and 7 percent discount levels for the light EV and HV and LSV fleet. According to our present model, a countermeasure that allows a vehicle

  3. From optimal to practical safety standards for dike-ring areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijgenraam, C J J

    2007-01-01

    After the flood disaster in 1953 in the southwestern part of the Netherlands, Van Dantzig tried to solve the economic decision problem concerning the optimal height of dikes. His solution has a fixed probability of flooding after each investment. However, when there is economic growth, not the probability of flooding but the expected yearly loss by flooding is the key variable in the real optimal safety strategy. Under some conditions, it is optimal to keep this expected loss within a constant interval. Therefore, when the potential damage increases by economic growth, the flooding probability has to decline in the course of time in order to keep the expected loss between the fixed boundaries. The purpose of the paper is to show the implications of the optimal solution in case there are differences between costs and benefits among dike-ring areas. Further, the paper focuses on the translation of the theoretical results into new legal standards that can work well in practice.

  4. 29 CFR 500.133 - Substantive Federal and State safety and health standards defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant Workers Housing Safety and Health § 500.133 Substantive Federal and State safety and...

  5. Description of the food safety system in hotels and how it compares with HACCP standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Stephanie M; Maharaj, Satnarine R; James, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is an important earner of foreign exchange in Jamaica; hence, the protection of the visitors' health is very important. A study of travelers to Jamaica in 1996 to 1997 found that travelers' diarrhea (TD) affected almost 25% of visitors. The Ministry of Health (Jamaica) initiated a program for the prevention and control of TD aimed at reducing attack rates from 25.0% to 12.0% over a 5-year period through environmental health and food safety standards of hotels. This article examines the food safety systems in Jamaican hotels located in a popular resort area to find out how comparable they are with the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) strategy. A cross-sectional study was done of hotels in St. Mary and St. Ann. Quantitative data were obtained from food and beverage/sanitation staff and qualitative data through in-depth interviews with hotel managers. Observation of the food safety operations was also done. The majority (75%) of larger hotels used a combination of HACCP and Ministry of Health food safety strategies (p = 0.02) and offered all-inclusive services (r =-0.705, p = 0.001). Larger hotels were more likely to have a better quality team approach, HACCP plan, and monitoring of critical control points (CCPs) and more likely to receive higher scores (p hotel staff were knowledgeable of HACCP. Significantly smaller hotels (87.5%) received less than 70% in overall score (r = 0.75, p = 0.01). Identification of CCPs and monitoring of CCPs explained 96.6% of the change in the overall HACCP scores (p = 0.001). Hotel managers felt that some hotels' systems were comparable with HACCP and that larger properties were ready for mandatory implementation. Conclusions. While some components of the HACCP system were observed in larger hotels, there were serious shortcomings in its comparison. Mandatory implementation of HACCP would require that sector-specific policies be developed for smaller hotels and implemented on a phased basis.

  6. Development of food establishments to ensure compliance with food safety standard Pom Prap Sattru Phai District, Bangkok

    OpenAIRE

    Chawsithiwong; Dendara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of this survey research were: 1to determine compliance with food safety standard of food establishments in the Pom Prap Sattru Phai District, Bangkok 2) to analyze the factors associated with compliance with food safety and 3) to investigate problems, obstacles and guidelines for the development of food establishments in the studied area. Data Collection by a questionnaire of 120 samples from a population of 168 between April –June,2013 was accomplished. The computer statistical an...

  7. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  8. Assuring food safety: the complementary tasks and standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slorach, S A

    2006-08-01

    The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures of the World Trade Organization specifically recognises the international standards developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). OIE standards focus on animal health and zoonoses and those of the CAC on food safety, but since zoonoses can affect food safety, it is vital that the two organisations cooperate closely to avoid duplication of effort, gaps and conflicting standards. The OIE has established an Animal Production Food Safety Working Group to promote cooperation with the CAC and to act as a steering committee for the OIE's work programme on the development of standards aimed at protecting consumers from foodborne hazards arising from animals at the production level of the food chain. This paper describes briefly how standards are developed by the OIE and the CAC and gives examples of how the tasks and standards of the two organisations complement each other in helping to assure food safety. The areas covered include meat hygiene, the identification and traceability of live animals, model certificates for international trade, antimicrobial resistance, veterinary drugs, animal feed, and salmonellosis.

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. Efficacy and safety of totally tubeless standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patients with kidney stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Aydın

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL is the first- line treatment for large and complex renal calculi. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the totally tubeless PNL versus the standard PNL. Methods:Between January 2012 and July 2013, 73 selected patients were treated standard or totally tubeless PNL, nephrostomy tube and ureteral stent was not placed at the end of the operation in 35 (39.7% (Group 1 of them and 38 (43.1% (Group 2 patient underwent standard PNL. Stone disintegration was performed with a pneumatic lithotripter. We retrospectively compared patient and stone characteristics, operation time, duration of hospitalization, analgesia requirements, stone-free rate, operative findings, blood loss, and perioperative complications between two groups. Results:The mean operation time, excluding the preparation course, was 38,3±15,4 minutes vs 51,2±12,9 minutes and mean fluoroscopy time was 4,5±2,4 minutes vs 4,8±2,1 minutes, respectively. No significant intraoperative complication or indication additional access or second-look PNL due to residual stones was observed. In both groups none of the patients demonstrated a urinoma, hemorrhage or residual stones in postoperative ultrasonography and plain radiograph. Blood transfusion was needed only in a patient vs two patients for group 1 and 2, respectively. There were no significant differences in preoperative patient characteristics, postoperative complications between two groups, but the totally tubeless PNL group showed a shorter hospitalization and a lesser analgesic requirement compared with other group. Conclusion: Absence of the nephrostomy tube and ureteral stent may help in keeping the patient comfortable after the operation and reduction in the analgesia requirement and length of hospital stay. We believe totally tubeless PNL is safe and effective management option in properly selected cases.

  11. Yttrium-90 Radioembolization for Unresectable Standard-chemorefractory Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Survival, Efficacy, and Safety Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafi, Shoaib; Piduru, Sarat M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States); El-Rayes, Bassel; Kauh, John S. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology (United States); Kooby, David A.; Sarmiento, Juan M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Surgical Oncology in Surgery (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@emory.edu [Emory University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology and Image Guided Medicine, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-04-15

    To assess the overall survival, efficacy, and safety of radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y90) for unresectable standard-chemorefractory intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Patients with unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC treated with Y90 were studied. Survival was calculated from the date of first Y90 procedure. Tumor response was assessed with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria on follow-up computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria (NCI CTCAE), version 3, were used for complications. Statistical analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier estimator by the log rank test. Nineteen patients underwent a total of 24 resin-based Y90 treatments. Median survival from the time of diagnosis and first Y90 procedure was 752 {+-} 193 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 374-1130] and 345 {+-} 128 (95 % CI 95-595) days, respectively. Median survival with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 1 (n = 15) and ECOG performance status 2 (n = 4) was 450 {+-} 190 (95 % CI 78-822) and 345 {+-} 227 (95 % CI 0-790) days, respectively (p = .214). Patients with extrahepatic metastasis (n = 11) had a median survival of 404 {+-} 309 (95 % CI 0-1010) days versus 345 {+-} 117 (95 % CI 115-575) days for patients without metastasis (n = 8) (p = .491). No mortality was reported within 30 days from first Y90 radioembolization. One patient developed grade 3 thrombocytopenia as assessed by NCI CTCAE. Fatigue and transient abdominal pain were observed in 4 (21 %) and 6 (32 %) patients, respectively. Y90 radioembolization is effective for unresectable standard-chemorefractory ICC.

  12. Reconciling economics and psychology on intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes how the debate on intrinsic motivation was imported from psychology into economics. The most important differences between the two disciplines are in the definition of intrinsic motivation and in the timing of the undermining effect of rewards. The economic framework of inter-temporal choices is proposed to reconcile the different empirical and theoretical results arising in the literature, and it is shown how rewards induce substitution and income effects depending on whet...

  13. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  14. 78 FR 10107 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... central framework for, the modern food safety system envisioned by Congress in the FDA Food Safety..., prevention-based food safety system. Among other things, FSMA requires FDA to issue regulations requiring... concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) that was pioneered by industry in the...

  15. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 91, 121, 125 and 135 Policy Statement on Occupational Safety... a proposed policy statement regarding the regulation of some occupational safety and health conditions affecting cabin crewmembers on aircraft by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration...

  16. Using a Wheelchair as a Seat in a Motor Vehicle: An Overview of Wheelchair Transportation Safety and Related Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Larry

    2007-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six articles on the topic of transportation safety for wheelchair-seated travelers and will highlight some of the basic issues and principles that have been considered in the development of voluntary standards for wheelchair tiedown and occupant restraints systems (WTORS) as well as for wheelchairs that are used as…

  17. 75 FR 25927 - Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part II Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 213 and 238 Vehicle/Track Interaction Safety Standards; High-Speed and High Cant Deficiency Operations; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol....

  18. 20 CFR 667.274 - What health and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... working conditions of participants in activities under title I of WIA? 667.274 Section 667.274 Employees... and safety standards apply to the working conditions of participants in activities under title I of... working conditions of employees are equally applicable to working conditions of participants engaged...

  19. Investigating performance, reliability and safety parameters of photovoltaic module inverter: Test results and compliances with the standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Saiful; Belmans, Ronnie [Department of Electrical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, ESAT/ELECTA, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Woyte, Achim [Verenigingsstraat 39, B-1000 Brussel (Belgium); Heskes, P.J.M.; Rooij, P.M. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    Reliability, safety and quality requirements for a new type of photovoltaic module inverter have been identified and its performance has been evaluated for prototypes. The laboratory tests have to show whether the so-called second generation photovoltaic module inverter can comply with the expectations and where improvements are still necessary. Afterwards, the test results have been compared with the internationals standards. (author)

  20. 76 FR 11415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Standards; Power-Operated Window, Partition, and Roof Panel Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... requirements for automatic reversal systems (ARS) for power windows and to make a final decision. The agency... any new requirements for automatic reversal systems (ARS) and are withdrawing our 2009...

  1. Introducing standardized “readbacks” to improve patient safety in surgery: a prospective survey in 92 providers at a public safety-net hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Hari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication breakdowns represent the main root cause of preventable complications which lead to harm to surgical patients. Standardized readbacks have been successfully implemented as a main pillar of professional aviation safety for decades, to ensure a safe closed-loop communication between air traffic control and individual pilots. The present study was designed to determine the perception of staff in perioperative services regarding the role of standardized readbacks for improving patient safety in surgery at a single public safety-net hospital and level 1 trauma center. Methods A 12-item questionnaire was sent to 180 providers in perioperative services at Denver Health Medical Center. The survey was designed to determine the individual participants’ perception of (1 appropriateness of current readback processes; (2 willingness to attend a future training module on this topic; (3 specific scenarios in which readbacks may be effective; and (4 perceived major barriers to the implementation of standardized readbacks. Survey results were compared between departments (surgery versus anesthesia and between specific staff roles (attending or midlevel provider, resident physician, nursing staff, using non-parametric tests. Results The response rate to the survey was 50.1 % (n = 92. Respondents overwhelmingly recognized the role of readbacks in reducing communication errors and improving patient safety. There was a strong agreement among respondents to support participation in a readbacks training program. There was no difference in the responses between the surgery and anesthesia departments. There was a statistically significant difference in the healthcare providers willingness to attend a short training module on readbacks (p  The main challenge for respondents, which emanated from their responses, appeared to relate to determining the ideal scenarios in which readbacks may be most appropriately used. Overall

  2. Updated laser safety & hazard analysis for the ARES laser system based on the 2007 ANSI Z136.1 standard.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2007-08-01

    A laser safety and hazard analysis was performed for the temperature stabilized Big Sky Laser Technology (BSLT) laser central to the ARES system based on the 2007 version of the American National Standards Institutes (ANSI) Standard Z136.1, for Safe Use of Lasers and the 2005 version of the ANSI Standard Z136.6, for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The ARES laser system is a Van/Truck based mobile platform, which is used to perform laser interaction experiments and tests at various national test sites.

  3. Effects of Food Safety Standards on Seafood Exports to US, EU and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Van Nguyen, Anh Thi; Wilson, Norbert L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the panel gravity model with bilateral pair and country-by-time fixed-effects separately for each seafood product, we found that food safety regulations have differential effects across seafood products. In all three industrialized markets, shrimp is most sensitive, while fish is the least sensitive to changing food safety policies. The enforcement of the US HACCP, the EU Minimum Required Performance Level and the Japanese Food Safety Basic Law caused a loss of 90.45%, 99.47%, and ...

  4. 78 FR 77660 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Safety Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... contact: Robert H. Squibb, Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814... information technology. Dated: December 19, 2013. Todd A. Stevenson, Secretary, Consumer Product...

  5. Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen Safety, Codes and Standards Program. Part 4: Hydrogen Sensors; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William J.; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Brosha, Eric; Mukundan, Rangachary; James, C. Will; Keller, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen sensors are recognized as a critical element in the safety design for any hydrogen system. In this role, sensors can perform several important functions including indication of unintended hydrogen releases, activation of mitigation strategies to preclude the development of dangerous situations, activation of alarm systems and communication to first responders, and to initiate system shutdown. The functionality of hydrogen sensors in this capacity is decoupled from the system being monitored, thereby providing an independent safety component that is not affected by the system itself. The importance of hydrogen sensors has been recognized by DOE and by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Safety and Codes Standards (SCS) program in particular, which has for several years supported hydrogen safety sensor research and development. The SCS hydrogen sensor programs are currently led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The current SCS sensor program encompasses the full range of issues related to safety sensors, including development of advance sensor platforms with exemplary performance, development of sensor-related code and standards, outreach to stakeholders on the role sensors play in facilitating deployment, technology evaluation, and support on the proper selection and use of sensors.

  6. Employers' perceptions and attitudes toward the Canadian national standard on psychological health and safety in the workplace: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyk, Diane; Craig-Broadwith, Morgan; Morris, Heather; Diaz, Ruth; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Wang, JianLi

    2016-01-01

    The estimated societal and economic costs of mental illness and psychological injury in the workplace is staggering. Governments, employers and other stakeholders have been searching for policy solutions. This qualitative, exploratory study sought to uncover organizational receptivity to a voluntary comprehensive standard for dealing with psychological health and safety in the workplace. A series of five focus groups were conducted in a large Western Canadian city in November 2013. The seventeen participants were from the fields of healthcare, construction/utilities, manufacturing industries, business services, and finance. They worked in positions of management, consulting, human resources, health promotion, health and safety, mediation, and occupational health and represented organizations ranging in size from 20 to 100,000 employees. The findings confirm and illustrate the critical role that psychological health and safety plays across workplaces and occupations. This standard resonated across the represented organizations and fit with their values. This alignment posed challenges with articulating its added value. There appears to be a need for simplified engagement and implementation strategies of the standard that can be tailored to the nuanced differences between types and sizes of industries. It appears that organizations in the most need of improving psychological health and safety may be the least receptive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconciling dark matter, solar and atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Peltoniemi, J T

    1993-01-01

    We present models that can reconcile the solar and atmospheric neutrino data with the existence of a hot dark matter component in the universe. This dark matter is a quasi-Dirac neutrino whose mass $m_{DM}$ arises at the one-loop level. The solar neutrino deficit is explained via nonadiabatic conversions of electron neutrino to a sterile neutrino and the atmospheric neutrino data via maximal muon neutrino to tau neutrino oscillations generated by higher order loop diagrams. For $m_{DM} \\sim 30$ eV the radiative neutrino decay can lead to photons that can ionize interstellar hydrogen. In one of the models one can have observable $\

  8. 75 FR 6123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK57 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... final rule that amended the child restraint systems (CRSs) prescribed in Appendix A of Federal Motor... Manufacturers (Alliance),\\5\\ Ford Motor Company (Ford), Evenflo Company, Incorporated (Evenflo), IEE S.A....

  9. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Safety I and C Related Verification and Validation Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, G.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness of safety I and C related verification and validation activities within nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. (Author)

  10. 29 CFR 500.103 - Activities not subject to vehicle safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Motor Vehicle Safety and Insurance for Transportation of Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers, Housing Safety and Health for Migrant... the Act and these regulations do not apply to the transportation of any seasonal or...

  11. 28 CFR 97.20 - Standards to ensure the safety of violent prisoners during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prisoners during transport. 97.20 Section 97.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... safety of violent prisoners during transport. Companies covered under this section must comply with applicable State and federal laws that govern the safety of violent prisoners during transport. In...

  12. Discussion on relations between the construction of enterprise safety culture and the construction of safety standardization%浅议企业安全文化建设与安全标准化建设的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凯; 吕淑然

    2012-01-01

    At present the construction of enterprise safety standardization is carried out in the domestic enterprise, at the same time with the construction of safety culture in all sectors in advance, the modern enterprises in its improvement and development pay more and more attention to the effect and influence, of the enterprise safety culture. For many enterprises, the relationship between the construction of safety standardization and construction of enterprise safety culture is confused. The levels of the enterprise safety culture and the relationships between levels and the relevant contents of the construction of enterprise safety standardization were firstly introduced in this paper, then the relationship between the construction of enterprise safety culture and construction of safety standardization was analyzed, finally the conclusion that construction of safety standardization is an important component of enterprise safety culture was drawn. The construction of safety standardization is one of the important measures for building safety culture. Through the construction of safety standardization, enterprises can improve their deficiencies in the safety culture in construction. This paper can provide a reference for the enterprise about the implementation of construction of safety standardization and the safety culture, and enable enterprises to achieve the purpose of production safety.%目前由于国内各企业正在开展企业安全标准化建设工作,很多企业对安全标准化建设与企业安全文化建设之间的关系感到困惑.本文首先介绍了企业安全文化的层次和各层次间的关系以及安全标准化建设的相关内容,然后分析了企业安全文化建设与安全标准化建设之间的关系,最后得出安全标准化建设是企业安全文化的重要组成这一结论.安全标准化建设是建设安全文化的重要措施之一,企业可以通过安全标准化的建设来完善其在安全文化建设中的

  13. 78 FR 6762 - Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules To Establish Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-009), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch... amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) to establish the foundation of...

  14. Hazard Communication Standard for Chemical Labels and Safety Data Sheets In GHS Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the required contents of Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) and chemical hazard labels, and includes tips on how these materials can be used to better protect health and the environment.

  15. 78 FR 18965 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert H. Squibb, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission... collection to the federal government is $344,618. Dated: March 25, 2013. Todd A. Stevenson,...

  16. 77 FR 76003 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request- Safety Standard for Automatic Residential Garage Door...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...: Robert H. Squibb, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814... industries: http://www.bls.gov/ncs ). Dated: December 20, 2012. Todd A. Stevenson, Secretary,...

  17. Transposition of the basic safety standards. Potential impact on French laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godet, J.L.; Perrin, M.M.; Saad, N.; Bardelay, C. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire (ASN), Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    The new proposal for a Council Directive laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation is about to be adopted. Member States shall bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this Directive within 4 years after adoption of the final text. As far as France is concerned, these evolutions will mainly impact the labour code (for occupational issues) and the public health code for both legal and regulatory requirements. The most significant improvements of the current version of the project are the introduction of graded approach to regulatory control and the enhancement of requirements for protection against natural radiation sources (in particular exposure to radon and naturally occurring radioactive material). This project also aims at achieving a better harmonisation between Member States for topics such as the organization of radiation protection for workers, the justification of medical devices and non-medical imaging exposure situations. ASN has already identified major issues for the transposition of the Directive concerning both French laws and regulations. Main topics should concern the impact of ICRP terminology (planned exposure situation, existing exposure situation versus lasting exposure situation, reference level versus maximum activity level for exposure to radon..) and the extension of both justification and optimisation principles to new activities involving natural radiation sources, such as industries processing naturally occurring radioactive material. Furthermore, France will have to decide whether it will adjust some positions about the prohibition of nonmedical imaging exposures and the release of materials from regulatory control according to generic values. Indeed, the project mentions the possibility to introduce derogations to those major principles. Finally, and according to the graded approach, the project introduces a new

  18. SRAM-Based FPGA Systems for Safety-Critical Applications:A Survey on Design Standards and Proposed Methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cinzia Bernardeschi; Luca Cassano; Andrea Domenici

    2015-01-01

    As the ASIC design cost becomes affordable only for very large-scale productions, the FPGA technology is currently becoming the leading technology for those applications that require a small-scale production. FPGAs can be considered as a technology crossing between hardware and software. Only a small-number of standards for the design of safety-critical systems give guidelines and recommendations that take the peculiarities of the FPGA technology into consideration. The main contribution of this paper is an overview of the existing design standards that regulate the design and verification of FPGA-based systems in safety-critical application fields. Moreover, the paper proposes a survey of significant published research proposals and existing industrial guidelines about the topic, and collects and reports about some lessons learned from industrial and research pro jects involving the use of FPGA devices.

  19. Inventory of Safety-related Codes and Standards for Energy Storage Systems with some Experiences related to Approval and Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to identify laws, rules, model codes, codes, standards, regulations, specifications (CSR) related to safety that could apply to stationary energy storage systems (ESS) and experiences to date securing approval of ESS in relation to CSR. This information is intended to assist in securing approval of ESS under current CSR and to identification of new CRS or revisions to existing CRS and necessary supporting research and documentation that can foster the deployment of safe ESS.

  20. Effects of reconcile (fluoxetine) chewable tablets plus behavior management for canine separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Barbara Sherman; Landsberg, Gary M; Reisner, Ilana R; Ciribassi, John J; Horwitz, Debra; Houpt, Katherine A; Kroll, Tracy L; Luescher, Andrew; Moffat, Kelly S; Douglass, Genefer; Robertson-Plouch, Carol; Veenhuizen, Melissa F; Zimmerman, Alan; Clark, Terrence P

    2007-01-01

    Canine separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem presented to veterinarians. Associated behaviors are distressing to both dog and owner, have the potential to disrupt the human-companion animal bond, and may lead to euthanasia. The results of this study demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of Reconcile (fluoxetine, 1 to 2 mg/kg/day [0.45 to 0.91 mg/lb/day]), in conjunction with behavior management, for the treatment of canine separation anxiety. The beef flavored chewable formulation was palatable to treated dogs and easy to administer. This study provides to veterinarians and owners valuable information about an effective separation anxiety treatment plan that combines use of Reconcile with behavior modification.

  1. Reconciling Knowledge in Social Tagging Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín

    Sometimes we want to search for new information about topics but we can not find relevant results using our own knowledge (for example, our personal bookmarks). A potential solution could be the use of knowledge from other users to find what we are searching for. This solution implies that we can achieve some agreement on implicit semantics used by the other users. We call it Reconciliation of Knowledge. The aim of this paper is to show an agent-based method which lets us reconcile two different knowledge basis (associated with tagging systems) into a common language, obtaining a new one that allows the reconcilitiation of (part of) this knowledge. The agents use Formal Concept Analysis concepts and tools and it has been implemented on the JADE multiagent platform.

  2. Reconciling controversies about the 'global warming hiatus'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Stolpe, Martin B; Fischer, Erich M; Knutti, Reto

    2017-05-03

    Between about 1998 and 2012, a time that coincided with political negotiations for preventing climate change, the surface of Earth seemed hardly to warm. This phenomenon, often termed the 'global warming hiatus', caused doubt in the public mind about how well anthropogenic climate change and natural variability are understood. Here we show that apparently contradictory conclusions stem from different definitions of 'hiatus' and from different datasets. A combination of changes in forcing, uptake of heat by the oceans, natural variability and incomplete observational coverage reconciles models and data. Combined with stronger recent warming trends in newer datasets, we are now more confident than ever that human influence is dominant in long-term warming.

  3. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. 78 FR 3843 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic and Certain Specialty Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... well with the vehicle to which it is attached. Either of these mismatches could present safety risks... asserted that this will result in a more demanding test that could lead to increased tire quality and... for spare tires would be a potential disincentive for a vehicle manufacturer to supply a spare tire...

  5. 78 FR 70321 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... conveyor tailpiece along with a sufficient amount of fire hose to reach the farthest point of penetration... current December 31, 2013, deadline (to the possible) will result in a diminution of safety to miners; and... approval are common throughout the industry as reflected by the current absence of approved chambers. (6...

  6. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ..., is able to exert undue influence on current FAA employees with whom he or she had established close... responsibilities; and (2) a former FAA employee working for an operator were to attempt to exert undue influence on... Secretary of Transportation Mary E. Peters on May 1, 2008 to examine the FAA's safety culture and its...

  7. 75 FR 37343 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Programs B. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Europe C. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Japan D. Seat Belt... the negative consumer reaction, Congress adopted a provision, as part of the Motor Vehicle and School... seats. C. Seat Belt Reminder Systems in Japan Japan's National Agency for Automobile Safety and Victim's...

  8. 77 FR 14426 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... indicator of the position of cage, skip, bucket or cars in the shaft be provided, also applies to underground mines where there may not be visual contact at all, and safety and position indicators rely on.... Regulation Affected: 30 CFR 56.19009 (position indicators). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a...

  9. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... requirements; exposure to radiation; cabin air quality issues; food/beverage carts; and ergonomics. OSHA's... cosmic, galactic and solar ionizing radiation exposure, cabin air quality, food and beverage cart and... believed that a voluntary, data-based system or a Safety Management System (SMS)-based approach should be...

  10. 76 FR 41181 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal... of your submissions.\\4\\ \\4\\ Optical character recognition (OCR) is the process of converting an image... economically significant as defined under E.O. 12866, and (2) concerns an environmental, health or safety...

  11. 78 FR 2662 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Safety Standard for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... ] personal information provided, to http://www.regulations.gov . Do not submit confidential business... description of each model of lighter, results of surrogate qualification tests for compliance with...

  12. 77 FR 59673 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...) (Safety defects; examination, correction and records). Modification Request: The petitioner requests a... operations is of the utmost importance, and believes that the request in this petition would not distract... petitioner states that due to the remote location of the mine it has become burdensome to keep two...

  13. 19 CFR 12.85 - Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subpart B, 33 CFR part 181. (2) A boat hull subject to subpart C, 33 CFR part 181 will have affixed to it... identification number, if affixed, or date of manufacture if hull identification number not affixed, of any boat... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coast Guard boat and associated equipment safety...

  14. 75 FR 22303 - Safety Standard for Bassinets and Cradles: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Engineering Sciences, Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East-West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814... Australian study, ``The Danger of Freely Rocking Cradles,'' by S.M. Beal et al., Journal of Pediatric Child... section at the beginning of this notice. G. Effective Date The Administrative Procedure Act (``APA...

  15. 78 FR 70415 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... travel, and occupant ejection in rollovers. NHTSA's safety research on seat belts in large buses (greater... traveled over 1.8 billion miles yearly. Approximately 3,100 of the carriers were chartered U.S. carriers... price for leisure and/or sightseeing) (8.2 percent of the miles driven), special operations...

  16. The Relationship between Using Electronic Health Records and Meeting Accreditation Standards for Client Safety in Residential Aged Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the benefits of using electronic health records (EHR) for client safety in residential aged care (RAC) homes. The aged care accreditation reports published between 27 April 2011 and 3 December 2013 were downloaded and analysed. It could be seen from these reports that only 1,031(37.45%) RAC homes in Australia had adopted an EHR system by 2013. 13 RAC homes failed one or more accreditation standards. Only one of these was using an EHR system and this one met the accreditation standards on information systems. Our study provides empirical evidence to suggest that adopting and using EHR can be one of the effective organisational mechanisms to meeting accreditation standards in RAC homes.

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  19. American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society chemotherapy administration safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Joseph O; Polovich, Martha; McNiff, Kristen K; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Cummings, Charmaine; Galioto, Michele; Bonelli, Katherine R; McCorkle, Michele R

    2009-11-01

    Standardization of care can reduce the risk of errors, increase efficiency, and provide a framework for best practice. In 2008, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) invited a broad range of stakeholders to create a set of standards for the administration of chemotherapy to adult patients in the outpatient setting. At the close of a full-day structured workshop, 64 draft standards were proposed. After a formal process of electronic voting and conference calls, 29 draft standards were eliminated, resulting in a final list of 35 draft measures. The proposed set of standards was posted for 6 weeks of open public comment. Three hundred twenty-two comments were reviewed by the Steering Group and used as the basis for final editing to a final set of standards. The final list includes 31 standards encompassing seven domains, which include the following: review of clinical information and selection of a treatment regimen; treatment planning and informed consent; ordering of treatment; drug preparation; assessment of treatment compliance; administration and monitoring; assessment of response and toxicity monitoring. Adherence to ASCO and ONS standards for safe chemotherapy administration should be a goal of all providers of adult cancer care.

  20. LIMITATION OF POPULATION EXPOSURE INDOORS DUE TO NATURAL IRRADIATION SOURCES: IAEA NEW SAFETY STANDARDS PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article contains the analysis of the main expected changes in the setting standards of population exposure from natural sources in connection with the publication of the new IAEA standard «Protection of the Public against Exposure Indoors due to Natural Sources of Radiation».

  1. 78 FR 49996 - Pipeline Safety: Periodic Updates of Regulatory References to Technical Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Participation in the Development and Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment... cracking. At the same time, PHMSA and the API formed a working group to evaluate the need for a truck... ASTM D2513-09a, ``Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Gas Pressure Pipe, Tubing, and...

  2. 77 FR 14438 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... listed above. MSHA will consider only comments postmarked by the U.S. Postal Service or proof of delivery from another delivery service such as UPS or Federal Express on or before the deadline for comments... Standards, Regulations, and Variances. 4. Hand-Delivery or Courier: MSHA, Office of Standards,...

  3. Safe China final report. Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of environmental protection and industrial safety in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Guntrum, R.; Liu, Y. (eds.)

    2013-07-01

    This document presents the results of the international technology transfer and cooperation project SafeChina (''Promoting the EU and German standards and practices of Environmental Protection and Industrial Safety in China'', www.safechina.risk-technologies.com). The purpose of the project was to build an education, training and certification infrastructure and to offer to Chinese engineers and other professionals the possibility to learn about the EU HSE practices and regulation and qualify as Environmental- and Safety engineers according to the EU criteria, guidelines and practice. The main partners in the project have been Steinbeis University Berlin/Steinbeis Transfer Institute Advanced Risk Technologies, and the OEG mbH (Deutsche lnvestitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH), subsidiary of KfW Banking Group, Germany. Main Chinese partners were Beijing Municipal Institute of Labour Protection and Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing.

  4. R&D for Safety Codes and Standards: Materials and Components Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A principal challenge to the widespread adoption of hydrogen infrastructure is the lack of quantifiable data on its safety envelope and concerns about additional risk from hydrogen. To convince regulatory officials, local fire marshals, fuel suppliers, and the public at large that hydrogen refueling is safe for consumer use, the risk to personnel and bystanders must be quantified and minimized to an acceptable level. Such a task requires strong confidence in the safety performance of high pressure hydrogen systems. Developing meaningful materials characterization and qualification methodologies in addition to enhancing understanding of performance of materials is critical to eliminating barriers to the development of safe, low-cost, high-performance high-pressure hydrogen systems for the consumer environment.

  5. New tool aims to standardize handoffs in the ED, boosting safety and preventing communication failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    To address identified patient safety risks in the handoff process, a group of emergency providers developed Safer Sign Out, a paper-based template that prompts clinicians to jointly review issues of concern on patients who are being passed from one clinician to another at the end of a shift. Already in practice at 12 hospitals in the Mid-Atlantic region, the approach is now being disseminated nationwide with the help of the non-profit Emergency Medicine Patient Safety Foundation. Advocates of the new tool say very few EDs have a clear, agreed-upon process for how to conduct handoffs. Safer Sign Out seeks to prevent communications failures by putting structure into the handoff process. In addition to prompting incoming and outgoing physicians to discuss each patient being handed off, the approach involves having both physicians round at the bedside of these patients so that patients fully understand when their care is being transitioned to a new provider.

  6. Critical features of an auditable management system for an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health and safety standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S; Dyjack, D T

    1997-04-01

    An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 1994-harmonized occupational health and safety (OHS) management system has been written at the University of Michigan, and reviewed, revised, and accepted under the direction of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) Task Force and the Board of Directors. This system is easily adaptable to the ISO 14001 format and to both OHS and environmental management system applications. As was the case with ISO 9001: 1994, this system is expected to be compatible with current production quality and OHS quality systems and standards, have forward compatibility for new applications, and forward flexibility, with new features added as needed. Since ISO 9001: 1987 and 9001: 1994 have been applied worldwide, the incorporation of harmonized OHS and environmental management system components should be acceptable to business units already performing first-party (self-) auditing, and second-party (contract qualification) auditing. This article explains the basis of this OHS management system, its relationship to ISO 9001 and 14001 standards, the philosophy and methodology of an ISO-harmonized system audit, the relationship of these systems to traditional OHS audit systems, and the authors' vision of the future for application of such systems.

  7. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aim

  8. Safety effects of road design standards in Europe. Contribution to the International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design Practices, Session on Safety and Human Factors Considerations, Boston, Massachusetts, August 30 - September 1, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Slop, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the result of a study carried out for the European Commission by the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, in co-operation with a number of other European institutes, and which was reported in 1994. The title of the study is "Safety Effects of Road Design Standards." The aim

  9. On promotion of architectural safety standards by learning New Safety Production Standard%深入学习新安法扎实推进建筑安全标准化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芸

    2015-01-01

    Combining with the architectural fact,the paper introduces the new demands for the New Safety Production Standard in the basic man-agement of architectural construction from the administrative department supervision in architectural industry and architectural enterprise manage-ment,so as to enhance the standardized construction of the architectural construction enterprises.%结合建筑行业实际,从建筑行业施工行政主管部门监管和建筑企业管理两方面出发,对新安法在建筑施工安全基础管理中的新要求进行介绍,以扎实推进建筑施工企业安全标准化建设。

  10. 76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For non-legal issues, you may call Ms. Carla Rush, Office of Crashworthiness Standards... fasten together belt webbing (lap and shoulder portion) at a sliding latch plate, to prevent the...

  11. 76 FR 37831 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... states that: (1) The Troy Mine is an underground room and pillar mine with five stratabound copper/silver... the existing standard to permit an alternative method of compliance for leaving barrier pillars around...

  12. 75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... issuing this final rule to facilitate the development and introduction of fuel cell vehicles, a type of... so by revising the agency's standard regulating electrolyte spillage and electrical shock...

  13. 76 FR 23255 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... associated equipment'' listed in Table III of Standard 108. Table III listed lamps such turn signal lamps, reflectors such as reflex reflectors, and associated equipment such as turn signal operating units. Further...

  14. 77 FR 43811 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request-Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request--Safety Standards for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs; Compliance Form AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... http://www.regulations.gov , under Docket No. CPSC-2010-0088, or by mail/hand delivery/courier (for...

  15. A novel standard to evaluate the impact of therapeutic agents on patient safety – The BURDEN OF THERAPY™©∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad K. Abdulahad

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: BOTh is a highly sensitive method to evaluate the comparative burden experienced by patients during treatment, and can facilitate better informed treatment selection. We propose BOTh as the new standard for analyzing safety during clinical studies.

  16. Safety Standard for Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems: Guidelines for Hydrogen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage and Transportation. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Safety Standard, which establishes a uniform process for hydrogen system design, materials selection, operation, storage, and transportation, is presented. The guidelines include suggestions for safely storing, handling, and using hydrogen in gaseous (GH2), liquid (LH2), or slush (SLH2) form whether used as a propellant or non-propellant. The handbook contains 9 chapters detailing properties and hazards, facility design, design of components, materials compatibility, detection, and transportation. Chapter 10 serves as a reference and the appendices contained therein include: assessment examples; scaling laws, explosions, blast effects, and fragmentation; codes, standards, and NASA directives; and relief devices along with a list of tables and figures, abbreviations, a glossary and an index for ease of use. The intent of the handbook is to provide enough information that it can be used alone, but at the same time, reference data sources that can provide much more detail if required.

  17. Patient safety certification in a Department of Intensive Care Medicine: our experience with standard UNE 179003:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Bustamante, E; Campillo-Artero, C; Bartual, E; Tuero, G; Marí, J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic and structured methods must be used to ensure that healthcare risks are effectively managed. Spanish standard UNE 179003:2013 provides healthcare organizations with a framework and a systematic protocol for managing patient safety from a clinical and organizational perspective. Furthermore, it is useful in securing an efficient balance among health risk, health outcomes and costs. The UNE 179003:2013 certifies that a clinical service complies with rules and operating procedures aimed at reducing the incidence of adverse events. It also requires mandatory continuous improvement, given that the standard entails frequent monitoring of the risk management system through periodic audits. The aims of this paper are to describe the UNE 179003:2013 certification process in an Intensive Care Unit, propose a risk management program for critical patients, and offer some recommendations regarding its implementation.

  18. On Physical Education Safety Standard%体育教学安全规范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴春

    2015-01-01

    在我国的体育教学中,一直坚持的是"以人为本"的教学理念,这就要求在体育课堂上,要更加注重安全教育的问题,不仅要让学生们身体素质得到锻炼和提高,还要让他们获取到更多的安全知识,从而提升安全意识,使他们的身心均得到健康的发展,本文就高校体育的安全问题进行了探讨,并提出了一些有效的防范措施.%In physical education in our country, has always insisted the"people-oriented"teaching philosophy, which requi-res the PE class, we should pay more attention to the issue of safety education, not only to enable students to get exercise and improve their physical fitness, but also let them Get more security expertise, so as to enhance safety awareness, so that they are healthy physical and mental development of college sports article on security issues were discussed, put forward and some effective preventive measures.

  19. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for stroke prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Dan; Li, Da-Bing; Yu, Xin; Shi, Guo-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous study indicated that high-dose statin treatment might increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and adverse reactions. We aim to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. Methods: A thorough search was performed of multiple databases for publications from 1990 to June 2015. We selected the randomized clinical trials comparing standard-dose statin with placebo and intensive-dose statin with standard-dose statin or placebo for the prevention of stroke events in patients. Duplicate independent data extraction and bias assessments were performed. Data were pooled using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity was present. Results: For the all stroke incidences, intensive-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment and standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment showed a significant 21% reduction in relative risk (RR) (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.71, 0.87], P statin treatment compared with standard dose or placebo was effective reducing fatal stroke (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.39, 0.96], P = 0.03) and the RR was 1.01 (95% CI [0.85, 1.20], P = 0.90) in standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that intensive-dose statin treatment might be more favorable for reducing the incidences of all strokes than standard-dose statin treatment, especially for patients older than 65 years in reducing the incidences of all stroke incidences. PMID:27684837

  20. 75 FR 7370 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Door Locks and Door Retention Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    .... NHTSA's Part I Response To accommodate manufacturers' design and production cycles while allowing the... inertial testing consistent with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J211 (Instrumentation for... not ensure the same degree of fail-safe redundancy as would a mechanical secondary latching system...

  1. 77 FR 19132 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Bus Emergency Exits and Window Retention and Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... rating (GVWR) greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) (``large school buses''). The standard... does not have any significant impact on the quality of the human environment. Executive Order 13132... open the exit. Each release mechanism shall operate without the use of remote controls or tools,...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 570 - Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Internal controls and information systems. B. Internal audit system. C. Loan documentation. D. Credit... standards relating to: (1) Internal controls, information systems and internal audit systems, in accordance.... Internal audit system. An institution should have an internal audit system that is appropriate to the......

  3. 76 FR 22152 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... cables that supply 995-Volt 3 Phase AC current to Continuous Miners and Mobile Bridge Conveyors; and (2) trailing cables which supply 480-volt 3 phase AC current to Roof Bolters and Shuttle Cars. The cables will... standard to permit the use of extended trailing cables on Mobile Bridge Conveyors, Dual Boom Roof Bolters...

  4. 76 FR 59742 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... not detected could result in misfires. (9) The current standard requires unnecessary risk of increased... in the Pocahontas No. 6 coal seam, where the seam height averages 42'' to 48'', and the conveyor belt...'' to 50'', and the conveyor belt is installed adjacent to the roadway with ventilation directed from...

  5. 77 FR 32698 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Safety Standards for Roof Bolts in Metal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Greg Moxness, Chief, Economic Analysis Division, Office of Standards... that: Evaluate whether the collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the.... OMB Number: 1219-0121. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit. Cite/Reference/Form/ etc. 30...

  6. 75 FR 21567 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 108; Lamp, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...: BMW of North America, LLC (BMW) requested a modification to the motorcycle headlighting system... and mounted at the same height. BMW requested that the location requirements be based on the axes of... we note that a modification of the standard, as requested by BMW, would effectively remove...

  7. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... George Soodoo, Division Chief, Vehicle Dynamics (NVS-122), Office of Crash Avoidance Standards (Email... technologies would help prevent the introduction of unsafe motorcycle brake systems on the road. Moreover... the proper grade of brake fluid. If the service brake system is a split hydraulic type, a...

  8. 76 FR 77183 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Theft Protection and Rollaway Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... adjoining a home. We believe that taking precautionary action now, before these non- standardized systems... brake as I tried desperately to stop the car while the front wheels were spinning and burning rubber. I... rolling through a parking lot at a library that is frequented by children. Now I am adamant about...

  9. 77 FR 751 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Pavements Using a Two-Wheel Trailer,'' issued 1965, into Sec. 571.208. (29) ASTM E274-70, ``Standard Method...) SAE Recommended Practice J972, ``Moving Rigid Barrier Collision Tests,'' revised May 2000, into Sec... systems. * * * * * S4 * * * Skid number means the frictional resistance of a pavement measured in...

  10. 77 FR 27086 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... stations, ] laser distance meters, 36-volt battery drills, and data collectors. Other testing and... standard exists which will at all times guarantee no less than the same measure of protection afforded the... permissible and proper operating condition as defined in 30 CFR 75.320. (6) Except for time necessary to...

  11. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  12. A Survey of Algorithms to Efficiently Reconcile Sets of Infomation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    TECHNICAL DOCUMENT 3297 August 2015 A Survey of Algorithms to Efficiently Reconcile Sets of Infomation Ryan Gabrys Mark...2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Survey of Algorithms to Efficiently Reconcile Sets of Infomation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... algorithms into three general classes. For each class of algorithms , we provide an ideal brief description of the algorithm and then comment on its complexity

  13. US veterinary support to standardization of food and water safety and animal care and use within NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ronald L; Mann, Kelly A; Richards, Steven; Stevenson, Timothy H

    2013-01-01

    NATO requires all standardization agreements and Al-lied Medical Publications to be reviewed at least once every 3 years to ensure they reflect current technologies and national military policies and procedures. This is particularly applicable with regard to veterinary medi-cine and food and water safety where advances in scientific knowledge and practices may result in documents quickly becoming obsolete. Such is the case with the 8 standardization agreements for which the FWSVS has responsibility; all are currently undergoing major revisions. With each revision, national representatives, including US veterinary and preventive medicine personnel, must review the documents to ensure there are no significant issues which would prevent ratification and implementation. This improves standardization and enhances interoperability between NATO partners to minimize duplication. This is accomplished by leveraging other national military capabilities, while maintaining confidence that the food, water, and veterinary support provided to their Warriors, support personnel, and animals in the field is safe and high in quality. Adherence to such standards is a major factor in maintaining the operational readiness of all alliance armed forces.

  14. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  15. Problems of NPP construction project standardization and operational safety increase in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Main causes of slackening paces of the USA nuclear power engineering development are considered using the experience of the USA NPP design, construction and operation. Data on increase in capital investments for the NPP construction and variation of their structure to enhancing waste of capital are given. Problems of improvement of operational safety of water-cooled and water-moderated reactors as well as NPP separate assemblies are considered. Ways for reducing periods of NPP design realization are described taking as an example the USA leading power, construction and reactor construction companies. It is shown that the optimization of existing methods for designing NPPs and nuclear reactor structures, systems for construction management and control as well as complex standartization of equipment, construction methods and operational procedures for NPPs are main factors.

  16. Nordic Nuclear Safety Research 1994 - 2008: From standardized 4-year classics to customized R and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennerstedt, T.N.O. (TeknoTelje HB, Torhamn (Sweden))

    2011-10-15

    This is a presentation of NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), its work and achievements in the years 1994 - 2008, during which the author served as Nordic secretary and (later) as coordinator. NKS and the Nordic perspective are briefly introduced together with the NKS support structure, organization and administration: Owners, Board, Nordic secretary, Bureau and Secretariat. The author then embarks on a journey through the modern history of NKS work. The last two of the six fixed 4-year programs are described as regards planning, contents, project work, administration, dissemination of results, evaluations and conclusions. The trip continues to the land of R and B and the present (2011) structure of two general frameworks, namely, NKS-R: reactor safety, and NKS-B: emergency preparedness; each consisting of a set of flexible activities; hence, R and B. The reasoning behind this makeover is touched upon together with the new organization and simpler administration that developed. Major activities and the produced results are introduced and the evaluations summarized. The author's own conclusions and recommendations are followed by a short and subjective list of references. In a number of appendices some important background material has been compiled: bullet point versions of minutes of Owners Group and Board meetings; economic contributions and budgets; the NKS policy document; an overview of all NKS programs and evaluations; lists of R and B activities and funding; the author's personal remarks; a list of some NKS documents (other than technical reports and minutes); and a list of acronyms used in this report. (Author)

  17. Revision of the energy conservation requirements in the manufactured home construction and safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, C C; Lee, A D; Lucas, R G; Taylor, Z T

    1992-02-01

    Thermal requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes in response to legislation requiring the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise its thermal standards for manufactured homes. A life-cycle cost minimization from the home owner's perspecetive was used to establish an optimum in a large number of cities for several prototype homes. The development of the economic, financial, and energy conservation measure parameters input into the life-cycle cost analysis was documented. The optimization results were aggregated to zones which were expressed as a maximum overall home U-value (thermal transmittance) requirement. The revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. 50 refs.

  18. On the road toward the development of clothing size standards and safety devices for Chilean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñate, Esteban; Meyer, Felipe; Espinoza, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The range of sizes used in Chile for clothing comes from criteria developed in continental Europe, mainly the EN 13402 standard. Any standard adopted by a country should consider the anthropometric dimensions of the user population, particularly to discern the ratio of garments for different size. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to propose standards for the size of clothing based on anthropometric characteristics of a sample of Chilean miners. The study was conducted in 447 male workers. The age and body weight were measured in each workers as well as their percentage of body fat. Anthropometric measurements for garments were made according to the criteria of the European Community (EN 13402-1) and ISO (8559- 1989). Body dimensions for the design of gloves, shoes, helmets and caps, clothes that cover the upper part of the body and clothes that cover the lower part were measured. The results obtained made it possible to establish the percentage of workers falling within the range of sizes that manufacturers consider as reference. One of the main conclusions of the study is the need to carefully consider a set of complementary anthropometric measures, which can help to improve the comfort of costumes, to the extent that the providers adapt their designs to the characteristics of Chilean workers.

  19. Evaluation of information in nanomaterial safety data sheets and development of international standard for guidance on preparation of nanomaterial safety data sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kuk, Won Kwen; Kwon, Miran; Lee, Jong Han; Lee, Kwon Sub; Yu, Il Je

    2013-05-01

    Safety data sheets (SDSs) and labelling are the basic hazard communication tools for hazardous chemicals as regards their manufacture, storage, transport and other handling activities. Thus, in the context of the growing use of nanomaterials and nanomaterial-containing materials, this study evaluated the information provided in 97 nanomaterial-related SDSs according to the criteria set by the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals) and found that most of the SDSs did not include sufficient information on the safety of nanomaterials, such as their toxicity and physicochemical properties. The reasons for this lack of information in the nanomaterial SDSs can mainly be attributed to (1) a lack of toxicity and physicochemical property information on nanomaterials, (2) unawareness of the effectiveness of conventional exposure controls, such as local exhaust ventilation and encapsulation, and personal protective equipment (PPE), in protecting against nanomaterial exposure, (3) a lack of information on emergency and firefighting measures and (4) a lack of knowledge on how existing regulations apply to nanomaterials. Therefore, to create a consistent standard for the information provided on safety, health and environmental matters for manufactured nanomaterial-containing products, guidance for the preparation of nanomaterial-specific SDSs, including both nanomaterials and mixtures of nanomaterials with conventional non-nanoscale materials, was recently initiated by the ISO TC 229. Their guidance, in the form of a technical report, recommends that nanomaterial-related SDSs should be prepared based on a precautionary approach in terms of the toxicity and other risks associated with the nanomaterial contents within the mixture in question. One of the key recommendations in the technical report is to include additional physicochemical properties, including the particle size (average and range), size distribution aggregation

  20. Liver safety assessment: required data elements and best practices for data collection and standardization in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avigan, Mark I; Bjornsson, Einar S; Pasanen, Markku; Cooper, Charles; Andrade, Raul J; Watkins, Paul B; Lewis, James H; Merz, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A workshop was convened to discuss best practices for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in clinical trials. In a breakout session, workshop attendees discussed necessary data elements and standards for the accurate measurement of DILI risk associated with new therapeutic agents in clinical trials. There was agreement that in order to achieve this goal the systematic acquisition of protocol-specified clinical measures and lab specimens from all study subjects is crucial. In addition, standard DILI terms that address the diverse clinical and pathologic signatures of DILI were considered essential. There was a strong consensus that clinical and lab analyses necessary for the evaluation of cases of acute liver injury should be consistent with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance on pre-marketing risk assessment of DILI in clinical trials issued in 2009. A recommendation that liver injury case review and management be guided by clinicians with hepatologic expertise was made. Of note, there was agreement that emerging DILI signals should prompt the systematic collection of candidate pharmacogenomic, proteomic and/or metabonomic biomarkers from all study subjects. The use of emerging standardized clinical terminology, CRFs and graphic tools for data review to enable harmonization across clinical trials was strongly encouraged. Many of the recommendations made in the breakout session are in alignment with those made in the other parallel sessions on methodology to assess clinical liver safety data, causality assessment for suspected DILI, and liver safety assessment in special populations (hepatitis B, C, and oncology trials). Nonetheless, a few outstanding issues remain for future consideration.

  1. Acucise™ endopyelotomy in a porcine model: procedure standardization and analysis of safety and immediate efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoni Cássio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The study here presented was done to test the technical reliability and immediate efficacy of the Acucise device using a standardized technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 56 Acucise procedures were performed in pigs by a single surgeon who used a standardized technique: insert 5F angiographic catheter bilaterally up to the midureter, perform retrograde pyelogram, Amplatz super-stiff guidewire is advanced up to the level of the renal pelvis, angiographic catheters are removed, Acucise catheter balloon is advanced to the ureteropelvic junction (UPJ level, the super-stiff guide-wire is removed and the contrast medium in the renal pelvis is aspirated and replaced with distilled water, activate Acucise at 75 watts of pure cutting current, keep the balloon fully inflated for 10 minutes, perform retrograde ureteropyelogram to document extravasation, remove Acucise catheter and pass an ureteral stent and remove guide-wire. RESULTS: In no case did the Acucise device present malfunction. The electrocautery activation time was 2.2 seconds (ranging from 2 to 4 seconds. The extravasation of contrast medium, visible by fluoroscopy, occurred in 53 of the 56 cases (94.6%. In no case there was any evidence of intraoperative hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that performing Acucise endopyelotomy routinely in a standardized manner could largely preclude intraoperative device malfunction and eliminate complications while achieving a successful incision in the UPJ. With the guidelines that were used in this study, we believe that Acucise endopyelotomy can be completed successfully and safely in the majority of selected patients with UPJ obstruction.

  2. A toxicological safety assessment of a standardized extract of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Timothy S; Hirka, Gábor; Szakonyiné, Ilona Pasics; Gericke, Nigel; Endres, John R

    2014-12-01

    A well-characterized standardized hydroethanolic extract of a traditionally recognized mak (mild) variety of Sceletium tortuosum, a South African plant with a long history of traditional ingestion, is marketed under the trade name Zembrin(®) as an ingredient for use in functional foods and dietary supplements. It is standardized to contain 0.35-0.45% total alkaloids (mesembrenone and mesembrenol ≥60%, and mesembrine <20%). A 14-day repeated oral toxicity study was conducted at 0, 250, 750, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg bw/day. A 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study was conducted at 0, 100, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg bw/day. Because S. tortuosum has a long history of human use for relieving stress and calming, a functional observation battery, including spontaneous locomotor activity measured using LabMaster ActiMot light-beam frames system, was employed. Several parameters, such as locomotion, rearing behavior, spatial parameters, and turning behavior were investigated in the final week of the study. No mortality or treatment-related adverse effects were observed in male or female Crl:(WI)BR Wistar rats in the 14- or 90-day studies. In the 14- and 90-day studies, the NOAELs were concluded as 5000 and 600 mg/kg bw/d, respectively, the highest dose groups tested.

  3. International Standards in Vocational Education and Training for Financial Services Sector to Ensure Sustainable Development and Environmental Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the Triple E Project developed by EBTN for the purpose to work out qualifications standards for finance services sector in the focus of sustainable development and environmental safety. The Triple E is based on the three instruments – European qualification framework and concept of learning outcomes (EQF, credit system (ECVET and quality assurance (EQAVET for vocational education and training. These three systems are the building blocks of European policy in vocational education and qualifications system with the task to strengthen the integration processes in the European educational area. They also take into account the concept of UNESCO in the field of education and sustainable development. Besides, the article traces the history of relations between educational providers, employers and public authorities in the Russian Federation in the context of setting requirements for learning outcomes and qualifications. The concepts of qualification, velocity of changes in educational standards, the establishment of a national system of qualifications of the Russian Federation, the emergence of professional standards are carefully analyzed. Current and potential problems in the assessment of qualifications are referred to. It is stressed that the volume of open data in the area of professional development, education and labor should be increased and the quality thereof significantly improved.

  4. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  5. Innovative sub sea pipeline maintenance in line with emerging offshore trends and maintenance safety standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, George [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Sub sea hot tapping of pipelines is performed for a variety of reasons, including tie-ins, pipeline repair, insertion of instrumentation, facilitating chemical injection or providing access for temporary isolation tools. The full hot tap process - that is, installing the hot tap assembly, performing the tap and recovering the hot tap machine - is normally conducted with diver assistance. After bolting the assembly of the machine, isolation valve and fitting to the pipeline (or machine and isolation valve to a pre-installed flanged membrane on the pipeline), the divers then operate the machine to perform the tap, under instructions from - and supervision by - hot tap technicians located on deck of the diving support vessel (DSV). Subsequent unbolting and removal of the hot tap machine is also carried out by the divers. The demands of deep water have necessitated development of a totally diver-less, remote-controlled system. Diver operations are limited to a maximum of 300 meters of water depth, whereas a significant portion of existing sub sea field infrastructure, as well as projected future developments, are in deeper waters in depths up to 3,000 meters. In addition, diver safety concerns in shallow water, as well as impaired diver efficiency in difficult environmental conditions such as wave breaking zones, prompts the call for a reduction of diver exposure or complete elimination of diver assistance. The recent completion of a remote-controlled hot tap machine (the Sub sea 1200RC Tapping Machine) is a first step toward developing a totally diver-less system. The installation of the hot tap assembly and subsequent removal of the machine still require diver assistance, but the performance of the tap itself is remotely controlled by a hot tap technician from the deck of the DSV. The concept is a topside-driven hot tap machine with 'passive Remote Operating Vehicle (ROV) interface', which means a stationary ROV with its hydraulics and control system

  6. Reconciling atmospheric temperatures in the early Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, E. C.; Rosing, M.; Bird, D. K.; Albarede, F.

    2012-12-01

    Average surface temperatures of Earth in the Archean remain unresolved despite decades of diverse approaches to the problem. As in the present, early Earth climates were complex systems dependent on many variables. With few constraints on such variables, climate models must be relatively simplistic, and consider only one or two factors that drive Archean climate (e.g. a fainter young sun, a low albedo, the extent and effect of cloud cover, or the presence and abundance of a wide array of greenhouse and icehouse gasses). Compounded on the limitations of modeling is the sparse and often ambiguous Archean rock record. The goal of this study is to compile and reconcile Archean geologic and geochemical features that are in some way controlled by surface temperature and/or atmospheric composition, so that at the very least paleoclimate models can be checked by physical limits. Data used to this end include the oxygen isotope record of chemical sediments and ancient ocean crust, chemical equilibria amongst primary phases in banded iron formations (BIFs), sedimentary features indicative of temperate or glacial environments, and paleosol indicators of atmospheric CO2. Further, we explore the extent to which hydrogen isotopes contribute to the geologic record as a signal for glaciations, continental growth and atmospheric methane levels. Oceanic serpentinites and subduction-related volcanic and hydrothermal environments obtain their hydrogen isotope signature from seawater, and thus may be used to calculate secular variation in δDSEAWATER which may fluctuate significantly due to hydrogen escape, continental growth and large-scale glaciation events. Further, ancient records of low-δD meteoric fluids signal both cooler temperatures and the emergence of large continents (increasing the effects of continental weathering on climate). Selective alteration of δD in Isua rocks to values of -130 to -100‰ post-dates ca. 3.55Ga Ameralik dikes, but may be associated with a poorly

  7. Practice of OHSMS into Safety Standardization in Guixi Smelter%贵冶安全标准化植入OHSMS的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹民福

    2015-01-01

    基于安全标准化和职业健康安全管理体系(OccupationHealthSafetyManagementSystem.英文简写为"OHSMS",以下部分简称"OHSMS")是现阶段企业安全管理的两种必不可少、相辅相成的管理手段,两种管理体系的相互融合是当前很多企业面临的一个实际问题.分析了两者的区别和联系,阐述了贵溪冶炼厂安全标准化植入OHSMS的必要性、可行性,并就贵冶安全标准化植入OHSMS的实践进行了描述.%Based on the standardization of Safety and occupational Health and Safety Management System (Occupation Health Safety Management System, English abbreviated as "OHSMS", the following section "OHSMS" for short) are two essential and complementary management means for safety management of present enterprise. The two kinds of mutual integration management System is a real problem which current enterprises faced. In this article, the difference and connection are analyzed, the necessity and feasibility of OHSMS implanted into safety standardization in Guixi smelter are expounded, and the practice of OHSMS in GuiYe safety standardization is described.

  8. Revision of the Energy-Efficiency Requirements in the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, Craig C.; Dillon, Heather E.; Lucas, Robert G.; Lubliner, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Energy-efficiency requirements were developed for manufactured (mobile) homes, which are regulated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. A life-cycle cost analysis from the homeowner's perspective was used to establish parameters for a least-cost home in a large number of cities. Economic, financial, and energy-efficiency measures for the life-cycle cost analysis were selected and documented. The resulting energy-efficiency levels were aggregated to zones that were expressed as a maximum overall home U-factor (thermal transmittance) requirement for the building envelope. The proposed revised standard's costs, benefits, and net value to the consumer were quantified. This analysis updates a similar effort completed in 1992, which was the basis for the existing HUD code overall U-factor requirement.

  9. Preparation, standardization and in vitro safety testing of Mycobacterium nosodes (Emtact- polyvalent nosode).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suvarna; Mukerjee, Sandeepan; Vaidya, Shashikant; Talele, Gitanjali; Chowdhary, Abhay; Shah, Rajesh

    2016-08-01

    Most of the nosodes in the homeopathic pharmacopeia have been sourced from obscure pathological material over a century ago; of which no scientific documentation is available. A method for preparation and standardization of univalent and polyvalent Mycobacterium nosodes (labeled as Emtact), using different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was developed. The committee comprising microbiologists, scientist, pharmacist, homeopaths and clinicians had reviewed and approved the method of preparation of nosode. Preparation of the nosode was based on the reference in the Homeopathy Pharmacopoeia of India (HPI), group N-IV. Strains of M. tuberculosis viz. Standard strain H37Rv, multi-drug resistant (MDR) M. tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis (BCG vaccine) and Mycobacterium avium were identified, procured and documented. Twenty billion viable cells for each strain were taken for Original Stock Nosode (OSN). The original stock was prepared by suspending the microbial cells into water for injection (WFI) (1 ml). As per the Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) monograph, sterility testing was done for different potencies. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed for 30c potency for detection of any DNA material of the source organisms. A polyvalent (multi-strain) and univalent M. tuberculosis nosodes were prepared for research and clinical use. No growth of Mycobacterium was observed in any of the samples above 5c potency. The in-vitro testing for nosode (30c) was found to be free from any organism and DNA material. Mycobacterium nosodes sourced from individual strain and polyvalent Emtact nosode in vitro testing results found to be satisfactory for its handling and utilization. The nosode seems to be safe and may be tested further in vivo to explore its therapeutic application. Copyright © 2016 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Patient Safety for Quality Improvement Based on Joint Commission International Accreditation Standards in Farabi Eye Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Hadi Musavi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality improvement and patient safety are the most important aspects of health care delivery systems. Improving quality and safety in health care organizations is assured through accreditation. To evaluate patient safety in Farabi Eye Hospital by Joint Commission International (JCI accreditation standards for quality improvement. Materials and Methods:This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in 2014. The data collection instrument was the translated version of JCI checklist, the validity of which was confirmed by a panel of Iranian experts. The data were obtained through interviews with all heads of departments (n=80 and observation of documentation in each department by appraisers in Farabi Hospital. To analyze the data, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney U tests were run using SPSS Version 16. Results: The highest rate of compliance with JCI standards was 91.1%, pertaining to infection control and adopting an approach to reduce contamination. The lowest rate was associated with management monitoring of patients’ demographic information. In general, Farabi Eye Hospital observed the standards to a high level. Conclusion: Our findings exhibited that Farabi Eye Hospital is relatively efficient as to patient safety as a quality improvement factor. However, there were some shortcomings regarding some standards, which indicate deficient compliance with the JCI standards in this hospital. Absence of comprehensive training programs and defective policies and documentation are the key factors for patient safety quality improvement.

  11. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  12. Standardization Safety Management of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Supervision in Colleges and Universities%高校核与辐射安全监管规范化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪霞; 刘朋; 陈永清

    2016-01-01

    针对目前高校核与辐射安全监管方面存在的问题,以苏州大学核与辐射安全监管为研究对象,对高校核与辐射安全监管进行探索与实践。规范化核与辐射的安全监管可以促进大学的安全监管水平。%It has the important meaning to formulate university related safety administrative regulations and security standard, specially regarding standardized safety supervision of the nuclear and radiation, It can promote the university security supervision being scientiifc, standardized normative, and raise the university safety supervision being level. In view of the problems which exist in present university safety supervision on nuclear and radiation, taking the actual situation of Suzhou University safety supervision on nuclear and radiation as an example, it has been explored about the safety supervision on nuclear and radiation.

  13. Adoption and adaptation of the International Basic Safety Standards to Cuban reality; Adopcion y adaptacion de las normas basicas internacionales de seguridad a la realidad cubana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.; Alonso Gonzalez, I.; Guillen Campos, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: regulacion@cnsn.cu

    2001-07-01

    The new Cuban regulatory document homologous to the 'International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' (IBSS) will be published in the near future. The document was accomplished on the basis of the IAEA Safety Series No 115 to which text it was performed the needed changes in order adapt it to the national reality in the field of protection and safety. The document is published with the consensus of the principal organizations and entities with specific responsibilities in relation to protection and safety as well as the consensus of the entities providing services in this field. The present paper presents and discusses the basic aspects included in the Cuban document that in one or another way should be considered as precision in reference to the IBSS. (author)

  14. LED灯具光辐射安全相关标准介绍%Standards about Optical Radiation Safety of LED Luminaires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓晨; 蔡喆; 彭振坚

    2011-01-01

    This is a introduction of standard publications about optical radiation safety of LED luminaries,including ICNIRP optical radiation guidelines,IEC laser products safety,and the IEC,CIE,EU,ANSI/IESNA standards for photobiological safety of lamp and lamp systems.The difference and relations of these standards are analyzed.%介绍了关于LED光辐射安全的主要标准,包括国际非电离辐射防护委员会的光辐射导则、国际照明委员会、国际电工委员会、欧盟、北美的激光产品或灯和灯系统的光生物安全性标准,分析了这些标准的差异和联系。

  15. Standard model for the safety analysis report of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Modelo padrao para relatorio de analise de seguranca de usinas de reprocessamento de combustiveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-15

    This norm establishes the Standard Model for the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants, comprehending the presentation format, the detailing level of the minimum information required by the CNEN for evaluation the requests of Construction License or Operation Authorization, in accordance with the legislation in force. This regulation applies to the following basic reports: Preliminary Safety Analysis Report - PSAR, integrating part of the requirement of Construction License; and Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) which is the integrating part of the requirement for Operation Authorization.

  16. Survey of Yogurt Powder Storage in Ambient Export Countries A Safety Evaluation Standard Compliance and Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Kyeong; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Ha-Jung; Oh, Sejong; Imm, Jee-Young; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Kim, Jin-Man

    2015-01-01

    Yogurt powder is fermented milk processed in the form of dry yogurt, and has advantages such as stability, storability, convenience, and portability. China and Vietnam are important export target countries because of the increased demand for dairy products. Therefore, we surveyed dairy product standardization in order to establish an export strategy. Lactic acid bacteria counts are unregulated in Korea and Vietnam. In China, lactic acid bacteria counts are regulated at 1×10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and detected at 6.24±0.33 Log CFU/mL. All three countries have regulated standards for total bacterial counts. In China, total bacterial counts of milk powder are regulated to n=5, c=2, m=50,000, M=200,000 and detected at 6.02±0.12 Log CFU/mL, exceeding the acceptable level. Lactic acid bacterial counts appeared to exceed total bacterial counts. Coliform group counts, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species were not detected. Acidity is not regulated in Korea and Vietnam. In China, acidity was regulated to over 70°T and detected 352.38±10.24°T. pH is unregulated in all three countries. pH was compared to that of general fermented milk, which is 4.2, and that of the sample was 4.28±0.01. Aflatoxin levels are not regulated in Korea and China. In Vietnam, aflatoxin level is regulated at 0.05 ppb. Therefore, all ingredients of the yogurt powder met the safety standards. This data obtained in this study can be used as the basic data in assessing the export quality of yogurt powder.

  17. 南非矿山安全及其标准化体系研究%Study on Mining Safety of South Africa and Its Standardization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彤荔

    2013-01-01

    In view of the actual situation of the mining safety standardization in South Africa, the paper outlines the development of mining safety standards and supervision bodies and analyzes the laws and regulations system of mining safety,as well as the inspiration from mining safety standard system of South Africa, provides for four proposals of development and revision for mining safety production standards.%文章从南非矿山安全及其标准化实际情况入手,概述了南非矿山安全标准的制定和监管机构,分析了南非矿山安全法律法规体系、南非矿山安全标准体系等内容,以及南非矿山安全健康标准对我国矿山安全生产的启示。提出加强我国矿山安全生产标准制修订工作的4点建议。

  18. DOE Handbook: Supplementary guidance and design experience for the fusion safety standards DOE-STD-6002-96 and DOE-STD-6003-96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-01-01

    Two standards have been developed that pertain to the safety of fusion facilities. These are DOE- STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements, and DOE-STD-6003-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Guidance. The first of these standards identifies requirements that subscribers to that standard must meet to achieve safety in fusion facilities. The second standard contains guidance to assist in meeting the requirements identified in the first This handbook provides additional documentation on good operations and design practices as well as lessons learned from the experiences of designers and operators of previous fusion facilities and related systems. It is intended to capture the experience gained in the various fields and pass it on to designers of future fusion facilities as a means of enhancing success and safety. The sections of this document are presented according to the physical location of the major systems of a fusion facility, beginning with the vacuum vessel and proceeding to those systems and components outside the vacuum vessel (the "Ex-vessel Systems"). The last section describes administrative procedures that cannot be localized to specific components. It has been tacitly assumed that the general structure of the fusion facilities addressed is that of a tokamak though the same principles would apply to other magnetic confinement options.

  19. Reconciling consumption inequality with income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Lepetyuk; C.A. Stoltenberg

    2012-01-01

    The rise in consumption inequality in response to the increase in income inequality over the last three decades in the U.S. is puzzling to expected-utility-based incomplete market models. The two-sided lack of commitment models exhibit too little consumption inequality while the standard incomplete

  20. Emergency department patient safety incident characterization: an observational analysis of the findings of a standardized peer review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Zach K; Darling, Chad E; Kotkowski, Kevin A; Bird, Steven B; Arce, Michael W; Volturo, Gregory A; Reznek, Martin A

    2014-08-08

    Emergency Department (ED) care has been reported to be prone to patient safety incidents (PSIs). Improving our understanding of PSIs is essential to prevent them. A standardized, peer review process was implemented to identify and analyze ED PSIs. The primary objective of this investigation was to characterize ED PSIs identified by the peer review process. A secondary objective was to characterize PSIs that led to patient harm. In addition, we sought to provide a detailed description of the peer review process for others to consider as they conduct their own quality improvement initiatives. An observational study was conducted in a large, urban, tertiary-care ED. Over a two-year period, all ED incident reports were investigated via a standardized, peer review process. PSIs were identified and analyzed for contributing factors including systems failures and practitioner-based errors. The classification system for factors contributing to PSIs was developed based on systems previously reported in the emergency medicine literature as well as the investigators' experience in quality improvement and peer review. All cases in which a PSI was discovered were further adjudicated to determine if patient harm resulted. In 24 months, 469 cases were investigated, identifying 152 PSIs. In total, 188 systems failures and 96 practitioner-based errors were found to have contributed to the PSIs. In twelve cases, patient harm was determined to have resulted from PSIs. Systems failures were identified in eleven of the twelve cases in which a PSI resulted in patient harm. Systems failures were almost twice as likely as practitioner-based errors to contribute to PSIs, and systems failures were present in the majority of cases resulting in patient harm. To effectively reduce PSIs, ED quality improvement initiatives should focus on systems failure reduction.

  1. Addressing the NASM health and safety standard through curricular changes in a brass methods course: an outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Amy; Chesky, Kris

    2014-09-01

    The National Association of Schools of Music (NASM) recently ratified a new health and safety standard requiring schools of music to inform students about health concerns related to music. While organizations such as the Performing Arts Medicine Association have developed advisories, the exact implementation is the prerogative of the institution. One possible approach is to embed health education activities into existing methods courses that are routinely offered to music education majors. This may influence student awareness, knowledge, and the perception of competency and responsibility for addressing health risks associated with learning and performing musical instruments. Unfortunately, there are no known lesson plans or curriculum guides for supporting such activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to (1) develop course objectives and content that can be applied to a preexisting brass methods course, (2) implement course objectives into a semester-long brass methods course, and (3) test the effectiveness of this intervention on students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibly of health risks that are related to learning and performing brass instruments. Results showcase the potential for modifying methods courses without compromising the other objectives of the course. Additionally, students' awareness, knowledge, perception of competency, and responsibility were positively influenced as measured by changes in pre to post responses to survey group questions.

  2. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes.

  3. Comprehensive quantitative and qualitative liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry analysis for safety testing of tolbutamide metabolites without standard samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozuka, Zenzaburo; Aoyama, Shinsuke; Nozawa, Kohei; Akita, Shoji; Oh-Hara, Toshinari; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi

    2011-09-01

    Liquid chromatography-radioisotope-mass spectrometry (LC-RI-MS) analysis was used to determine the structures of 12 (four previously unknown) (14) C-tolbutamide (TB) metabolites in rat biological samples (plasma, urine, bile, feces, and microsomes). The four novel metabolites are ω-carboxy TB, hydroxyl TB (HTB)-O-glucuronide, TB-ortho or meta-glutathion, and tolylsulphoaminocarbo-glutathion. In rat plasma, after oral administration of (14) C-TB at therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg) and microdose (1.67 µg/kg), the total RI and six metabolites [HTB, carboxy TB (CTB), M1: desbutyl TB, M2: ω-hydroxyl TB, M3: α-hydroxyl TB, and M4: ω-1-hydroxyl TB] were quantified by LC-RI-MS. The plasma concentrations were calculated using their response factors (MS-RI intensity ratio) without standard samples, and the area under the curve (AUC) of plasma concentration per time for evaluation of Safety Testing of Drug Metabolites (MIST) was calculated using the ratio of TB metabolites AUC/total RI AUC. The ratios were as follows: TB 94.5% and HTB 2.5% for the microdose (1.67 µg/kg) and TB 95.6%, HTB 0.96%, CTB 0.065%, M1 0.62%, M2 0.0035%, M3 0.077%, and M4 0.015% for the therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg). These values were less than 10% of the MIST criteria.

  4. Road cross-section. Annex VI to SWOV-report `Safety effects of road design standards', R-94-7 (see C 2838 (IRRD 866221).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalski, L.

    1995-01-01

    This volume is one of the annexes to a main report on safety effects of road design standards which was compiled by SWOV in collaboration with other European partners, in 1993-1994. For the covering abstract of the report or the report itself, see C 2838. The main objective of the project presented

  5. GB 19865 & GB 6675 ANNEX A.A —— SAFETY OF ELECTRICAL TOYS Differences Between the new and old Chinese National Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ganghua; He Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    This article anlayzes the different requirements for electrical toys safety between GB 6675-2003 and GB 19865-2005. This information is summed up in table form to make it easy for toy designers and manufacturers to grasp the new standard.

  6. Utilization of internal standard response factors to estimate the concentration of organic compounds leached from pharmaceutical packaging systems and application of such estimated concentrations to safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Odufu, Alex

    2012-03-01

    Substances from packaging systems that are leached into packaged medical products may have a safety impact on patients to whom such medical products are administered. The potential safety impact depends on the identity and concentration of the leached substances. The concentration above which a leachable must be identified in order to assess its safety impact is frequently estimated using an internal standard to "calibrate" the analytical response of a chromatographic system. Such an estimate is accurate to the extent that the responses of the internal standard and leachables are similar. To establish the accuracy of the internal standard approach, a database of gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) responses was generated for thirty-eight leachables and eight internal standard candidates. Although the FID and MS responses of many of the leachables and internal standards fell within a narrow band, acidic and basic compounds produced responses that were discernibly different from those of neutral analytes. While most of the internal standards were suited for concentration estimation, three of the candidates, dimethylphthalate, triphenylphosphate and 4,4-dibromobiphenyl, produced the smallest mean error in estimated concentration for the analytes examined. As the FID and MS responses were linear, internal standards could be used to estimate leachables concentrations even when the difference in leachable versus internal standard concentrations was as great as a factor of 25. A multiplier may be appropriate to adjust an estimated concentration to its greatest possible value, and it is this value that is used to convert an estimated Analytical Evaluation Threshold (AET) into a working or final AET.

  7. Randomized study on the safety and efficacy of dual-axis rotational versus standard coronary angiography in the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hui-liang; JIN Zhi-geng; YANG Sheng-li; LUO Jian-ping; MA Dong-xing; LIU Ying; HAN Wei

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual-axis rotational coronary angiography (DARCA) was developed as an innovative adaptation of rotational angiography (RA),but it requires a longer coronary injection compared to standard coronary angiography (SA).As the body of the average Chinese patient is smaller than that of most western patients,with the same contrast injection time,the risk of complications from the contrast agent is increased in this population.The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of DARCA in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Chinese population by directly comparing it to SA.Methods Two hundred Chinese patients were randomized to either the SA group (n=100) or DARCA group (n=100).Contrast utilization,radiation exposure and procedure time were recorded for each modalities.Blood pressure (BP),heart rate (HR) pre and post injection symptoms and any arrhythmias were recorded.Results Compared to the SA group,there was a 42% reduction in contrast utilization,55% reduction in radiation exposure and a 31% shorter procedure time in the DARCA group.In both groups,there were slight declines in the systolic BP values in the left coronary artery (LCA) post injection (P <0.01).Moreover,post injection HRs for the LCA were also reduced in the DARCA group (P <0.01).But all of these changes were small,transient and without clinical importance.Only one patient (1%) in the DARCA group had an attack of ventricular tachycardia immediately post injection and it resolved by itself during LCA angiography.No arrhythmias occurred in the SA group.Conclusion DARCA is a safe,efficient,and clinically comparable altemative to SA in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in the Chinese population with less contrast utilized,which is less radiation exposure and a shorter procedure time than SA.

  8. Observations on the relationship between European standards for safety barrier impact severity and the degree of injury sustained

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roque

    2013-07-01

    The empirical results show that the effect of safety barriers functional characteristics on road safety only depends on impact severity levels adopted if level C is considered. As a result impact severity levels A and B are similar and their discriminating thresholds need to be revised.

  9. Research on the Making of Local Food Safety Standard%地方食品安全标准制定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕怡

    2014-01-01

    地方食品安全标准制定既要强调其合法性又要强调其合理性,合法性的实现多仰赖于行政机关的规范守法;合理性的实现,则着重于以多元化的视角对各种观点加以整合平衡。针对实践中食品安全中较为常见的问题,食品安全标准的制定须注重标准制定与标准执行的连贯性,提升食品安全标准的公信力,强化非政府组织的作用,引导公民对市场作用的理性思考。%The making of local food safety standard should necessarily emphasize its legitimacy and rational-ity. The legitimacy relies more on the specification and compliance of administrative organs and the ratio-nality focuses on the integrative balance of diverse perspectives and various viewpoints. Based on these principles and treated at common problems in food safety in practice, the paper proposes that the making of the food safety standard must focus on the consistency of standard making and standard implementation, en-hance the credibility of the food safety standard, strengthen the role of NGO and guide citizens to think the role of the market rationally.

  10. 农产品质量安全标准的研究综述%Review on Produce Quality and Safety Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁艳丽; 周源; 康晓玲

    2011-01-01

    对涉及农产品质量安全标准的企业动机、制定或采用该标准的生产商行为及影响因素、消费者行为和影响因素、标准化的理论和实践及企业行为能力等方面的国内外文献进行了概括和梳理,提出国内应从产业经济学、制度经济学和博弈论角度完善农产品质量安全标准的理论和实证分析;要运用竞争战略和竞争优势理论,并从制度环境、农产品特征、农产品市场的结构和产业链等方面对国内私人标准的形成、制定和影响进行深入研究.%Internal or external documents what involved motivation and formulation of produce quality and safety standards, manufacturer' s be havior and influencing factors,consumers behavior and influencing factors,standardized theory and practice as well as enterprise's disposing ca pacity were summarized and analyzed. Tlien,relative research directions were pointed out:theory research and empirical analysis of produce quali ty and safety standards were perfected using industry economics, institutional economics, game theory; enhancing the competitiveness of agricultur al products for China through private products quality and safety standards based on the competition strategy and competitive advantage theory; formation mechanism of private produce quality and safety standards in China from institutional environment,product characteristics,agricultural market structure and participants of agricultural industry chain.

  11. Essence of demands of standard ISO 22000:2005 in aspect of assurances of milk health safety Istota wymagań standardu ISO 22000:2005 w aspekcie zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa zdrowotnego mleka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the essence of demands of ISO 22000 as a standard which allows of control milk health safety in a more effective way. The implementation of system HACCP in the dairy companies undoubtedly make for more safety health products, however microbiological research of pasterized milk shows that it is scarce. The elementary advantage for organization which comes from food quality management system meeting demands included in standard ISO 22000 is undoubtedly assurance of legal demands concerning production of food safety and more effective control of risk of food safety. The dairy companies should aspire for implementation of more rigorous standard ISO 22000:2005.

  12. Reconciling Psychology with Economics - Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating

    OpenAIRE

    Trenton Smith

    2006-01-01

    Reconciling Psychology with Economics: Obesity, Behavioral Biology, and Rational Overeating Abstract: The modern phenomenon of obesity is an archetypal example of a behavior whose explanation simultaneously falls within the purview of psychology, economics, and the biological sciences. While psychologists and advocates of public health have long viewed overeating as a weakness or disease in need of treatment, economists have pointed out that "like any other consumer behavior" choices about di...

  13. How secret interactions can reconcile sterile neutrinos with cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Hannestad, Steen; Tram, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Short baseline neutrino oscillation experiments have shown hints of the existence of additional sterile neutrinos in the eV mass range. However, such neutrinos seem incompatible with cosmology because they have too large an impact on cosmic structure formation. Here we show that new interactions in the sterile neutrino sector can prevent their production in the early Universe and reconcile short baseline oscillation experiments with cosmology.

  14. Influence of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure: a standardized examination of workers in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsmann, Elke; Noll, Ulrike; Ellegast, Rolf; Hermanns, Ingo; Kraus, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Working conditions, such as walking and standing on hard surfaces, can increase the development of musculoskeletal complaints. At the interface between flooring and musculoskeletal system, safety shoes may play an important role in the well-being of employees. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different safety shoes on gait and plantar pressure distributions on industrial flooring. Twenty automotive workers were individually fitted out with three different pairs of safety shoes ( "normal" shoes, cushioned shoes, and midfoot bearing shoes). They walked at a given speed of 1.5 m/s. The CUELA measuring system and shoe insoles were used for gait analysis and plantar pressure measurements, respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by ANOVA analysis for repeated measures. Walking with cushioned safety shoes or a midfoot bearing safety shoe led to a significant decrease of the average trunk inclination (pindustrial accident, but in addition, safety shoes could be a long-term preventive instrument for maintaining health of the employees' musculoskeletal system, as they are able to affect gait parameters. Further research needs to focus on safety shoes in working situations.

  15. Establishment and application of medication error classification standards in nursing care based on the International Classification of Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Zhu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Application of this classification system will help nursing administrators to accurately detect system- and process-related defects leading to medication errors, and enable the factors to be targeted to improve the level of patient safety management.

  16. Impact of private food safety standards on Codex standards%食品安全私营标准对法典标准的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田静; 邵懿; 樊永祥

    2011-01-01

    私营标准的快速发展对法典标准产生了巨大影响.本文从标准的制定速度、严格程度、制定依据、认证成本、透明度等几个方面,对私营标准与法典标准的区别和联系进行分析,探讨私营标准对法典标准可能产生的影响,以及如何在确保食品法典标准权威性的情况下,使私营食品安全标准能够健康发展.并建议我国政府为企业改善基础设施条件、提高技术能力提供支持.同时,还应加强对私营标准的研究,及时跟踪私营标准的发展动态,尽可能降低私营标准对我国贸易的负面影响,保障食品行业健康发展,最终达到保护消费者健康的目的.%The rapid development of private standards possesses a tremendous impact on Codex standards. The difference and relationship between private standards and Codex standards in terms of the speed of developing standards, extent of stringency, evidence of enacting standards, costs of certification and transparency etc. were analyzed in this paper. The possible impacts of private standards on Codex standards and the sound development of private standards while ensuring the authority of Codex standards were considered. It is suggested that technical support on industries for improving their infrastructure of establishments should be provided. Furthermore, it should be strengthened on investigating into private standards, following their developments, and reducing the negative impacts on China's trade as low as possible, in order to ensure the sound development of food industries and ultimately to protect consumers' health.

  17. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Most international health-related standards are voluntary per se. However, the incorporation of international standard-making into WTO agreements like the SPS Agreement has drastically changed the status and effectiveness of the standards. WTO members are urged to follow international standards, even when not required to comply fully with them. Indeed, such standards have attained great influence in the trade system. Yet evidence shows that the credibility of the allegedly scientific approach of these international standard-setting institutions, especially the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) governing food safety standards, has been eroded and diluted by industrial and political influences. Its decision-making is no longer based on consensus, but voting. The adoption of new safety limits for the veterinary drug ractopamine in 2012, by a very close vote, is simply another instance of the problematic operations of the Codex. These dynamics have led skeptics to question the legitimacy of the standard setting body and to propose solutions to rectify the situation. Prior WTO rulings have yet to pay attention to the defect in the decision-making processes of the Codex. Nevertheless, the recent Appellate Body decision on Hormones II is indicative of a deferential approach to national measures that are distinct from Codex formulas. The ruling also rejects the reliance on those experts who authored the Codex standards to assess new measures of the European Community. This approach provides an opportunity to contemplate what the proper relationship between the WTO and Codex ought to be. Through a critical review of WTO rulings and academic proposals, this article aims to analyze how the WTO ought to define such interactions and respond to the politicized standard-making process in an optimal manner. This article argues that building a more systematic approach and normative basis for WTO judicial review of standard-setting decisions and the selection of technical

  18. Reconciling the observed all-sky CMB flux with its expected value from an inhomogeneous Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lieu, R

    2004-01-01

    In the expanding near Universe where $\\approx$ 50 % of the matter is clumped into galaxies and their halos, it was known from an earlier work that the angular magnification of a large CMB emission feature depends on the statistical balance between light beam convergence by clumps and divergence within the voids for the majority of the sightlines to the feature. The total flux, however, reflects this balance for {\\it all} sightlines to the feature, including those minority ones which are associated with galaxy strong lensing. Thus the brightness of the entire CMB sky is inevitably enhanced by at least a factor corresponding to the average strong lensing amplification for a random direction. The only way of reconciling this with the COBE/FIRAS measurement is to envisage a galaxy number density (or central mass) two orders of magnitude below the observed value. The evidence brought forth here represents another formidable inconsistency between the standard cosmological model and reality.

  19. Efficient exploration of the space of reconciled gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllõsi, Gergely J; Rosikiewicz, Wojciech; Boussau, Bastien; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Gene trees record the combination of gene-level events, such as duplication, transfer and loss (DTL), and species-level events, such as speciation and extinction. Gene tree-species tree reconciliation methods model these processes by drawing gene trees into the species tree using a series of gene and species-level events. The reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alone almost always involves choosing between statistically equivalent or weakly distinguishable relationships that could be much better resolved based on a putative species tree. To exploit this potential for accurate reconstruction of gene trees, the space of reconciled gene trees must be explored according to a joint model of sequence evolution and gene tree-species tree reconciliation. Here we present amalgamated likelihood estimation (ALE), a probabilistic approach to exhaustively explore all reconciled gene trees that can be amalgamated as a combination of clades observed in a sample of gene trees. We implement the ALE approach in the context of a reconciliation model (Szöllősi et al. 2013), which allows for the DTL of genes. We use ALE to efficiently approximate the sum of the joint likelihood over amalgamations and to find the reconciled gene tree that maximizes the joint likelihood among all such trees. We demonstrate using simulations that gene trees reconstructed using the joint likelihood are substantially more accurate than those reconstructed using sequence alone. Using realistic gene tree topologies, branch lengths, and alignment sizes, we demonstrate that ALE produces more accurate gene trees even if the model of sequence evolution is greatly simplified. Finally, examining 1099 gene families from 36 cyanobacterial genomes we find that joint likelihood-based inference results in a striking reduction in apparent phylogenetic discord, with respectively. 24%, 59%, and 46% reductions in the mean numbers of duplications, transfers, and losses per gene family. The open source

  20. 76 FR 47436 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Incorporation by Reference of Successor Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... addition to multiple drains, UL 1563 requires that the suction fittings be installed with separation on... Consumer Product Safety Commission (``Commission,'' ``CPSC,'' or ``we'') finds the successor drain cover... prevent drain entrapment and child drowning in swimming pools and spas. The VGB Act requires that...

  1. Efficacy and safety of TachoSil® versus standard treatment of air leakage after pulmonary lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marta, Gabriel Mihai; Facciolo, Francesco; Ladegaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar air leakage remains a serious problem in lung surgery, being associated with increased postoperative morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and greater health-care costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sealing efficacy and safety of the surgical patch, TachoSil®, in lung surgery....

  2. Validation of an Interdisciplinary Food Safety Curriculum Targeted at Middle School Students and Correlated to State Educational Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Skolits, Gary; Burney, Janie; Pedigo, Ashley; Draughon, F. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Providing effective food safety education to young consumers is a national health priority to combat the nearly 76 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States annually. With the tremendous pressures on teachers for accountability in core subject areas, the focus of classrooms is on covering concepts that are tested on state performance…

  3. 78 FR 73692 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Infant Bath Seats, Toddler Beds, and Full-Size Baby Cribs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., and Full-Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Direct final rule... or toddler products, including infant bath seats, toddler beds, and full-size baby cribs. These... . Submit written submissions by: Mail/Hand delivery/Courier (for paper, disk, or CD-ROM submissions...

  4. Validation of an Interdisciplinary Food Safety Curriculum Targeted at Middle School Students and Correlated to State Educational Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer; Skolits, Gary; Burney, Janie; Pedigo, Ashley; Draughon, F. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Providing effective food safety education to young consumers is a national health priority to combat the nearly 76 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States annually. With the tremendous pressures on teachers for accountability in core subject areas, the focus of classrooms is on covering concepts that are tested on state performance…

  5. RECONCILE THE RELIGION AND SCIENCE EDUCATION MANAGEMENT IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Kurniawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to reconcile science and religion, and to seek its relevance in the management of non-dichotomous Islamic education.In addition, this research departs from the researcher’s anxiety in response to the dichotomous thought between religion and science which in turn manifests in the separation of science and religion in the history of Islamic education management. This results in the current Islamic education that suffers a setback in the development of science. Therefore, in the management of Islamic education, reintegration needs to be done without any dichotomy between religion and science.

  6. Reconciling CMB and structure growth measurements with dark energy interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Tram, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study a coupled quintessence model with pure momentum exchange and present the effects of such an interaction on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and matter power spectrum. For a wide range of negative values of the coupling parameter β structure growth is suppressed and the model can reconcile the tension between cosmic microwave background observations and structure growth inferred from cluster counts. We find that this model is as good as Λ CDM for CMB and baryon acoustic oscillation data, while the addition of cluster data makes the model strongly preferred, improving the best-fit χ2 value by more than 16.

  7. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  8. Putting Safety in the Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Jean O’Keeffe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses’ safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS, patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used “frames” built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses’ decisions about WHS: (a communicating builds knowledge, (b experiencing situations guides decisions, (c adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d team working promotes safe working. Nurses’ frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses’ safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  9. 78 FR 2236 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... Standards; New Pneumatic Tires for Motor Vehicles With a GVWR of More Than 4,536 Kilograms (10,000 Pounds... Standard (FMVSS) No. 119, New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR... first issued in 1973 until it was inadvertently omitted in 2003. The breaking energy requirement...

  10. Creating symbiosis in research and education. Preserve nuclear competencies for Germany and provide highest safety standards to international markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Stefan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Research and Development, Innovations and Patent Management

    2015-06-15

    AREVA participates actively in networks of industry and science via university cooperation and gives new ideas born from practical experience for the academic training of future nuclear engineers. Thus, the company ensures both the availability of new talents for its export strategy and relevant expertise for nuclear safety in Germany. When it comes to education and science after the German nuclear phase-out decision, the efforts must focus on internationalization. Greater integration in international networks can contribute to keeping the nuclear know-how in Germany alive. This concerns both industry and science. By having foreign experts use German training facilities, participate in research projects and gather professional practice, they contribute to the safe operation here and experience first-hand our safety culture grown over decades. In this context, AREVA outlines its university cooperation in Germany and abroad.

  11. Effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery: A patient-based survey at a pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancha karma is a modality of treatments commonly used in Ayurvedic hospitals. It has elaborate textual reference of its usage in various clinical conditions forming the basis of its extensive use in Ayurvedic clinical practice. Unfortunately, despite its unquestionable popularity and usage among Ayurvedic physicians and patients, it has not been evaluated rigorously on scientific parameters to identify its effectiveness, safety, and procedural standards. Considering the patient′s opinion as an important determinant in this perspective, this study aims at identifying the patient′s (actual recipients of pancha karma therapy perception toward the effectiveness, safety, and standard of service delivery concerning pancha karma through a structured survey at a pre-identified pancha karma therapy unit in a secondary care Ayurvedic hospital. Majority of the survey respondents considered these therapies as safe and effective (88%. Ninety-four percent respondents have expressed their satisfaction to the standard of services provided to them at the pancha karma unit of the hospital concerned.

  12. ORNL necessary and sufficient standards for environment, safety, and health. Final report of the Identification Team for other industrial, radiological, and non-radiological hazard facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) set of standards is for Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These facility classifications are based on a laboratory-wide approach to classify facilities by hazard category. An analysis of the hazards associated with the facilities at ORNL was conducted in 1993. To identify standards appropriate for these Other Industrial, Radiological, and Non-Radiological Hazard Facilities, the activities conducted in these facilities were assessed, and the hazards associated with the activities were identified. A preliminary hazards list was distributed to all ORNL organizations. The hazards identified in prior hazard analyses are contained in the list, and a category of other was provided in each general hazard area. A workshop to assist organizations in properly completing the list was held. Completed hazard screening lists were compiled for each ORNL division, and a master list was compiled for all Other Industrial, Radiological Hazard, and Non-Radiological facilities and activities. The master list was compared against the results of prior hazard analyses by research and development and environment, safety, and health personnel to ensure completeness. This list, which served as a basis for identifying applicable environment, safety, and health standards, appears in Appendix A.

  13. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  14. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Dam Safety Monitoring System: ( Ⅱ ) Evaluation Standards%大坝安全监测系统综合评价(Ⅱ)评价标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金平; 逄智堂; 马传彬

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation standards are the base to measure the working status of single evaluation index of a dam monitoring system. However, there are no uniform evaluation standards to most of the evaluation indexes. Based on the current technical specifications and equipment standards for dam monitoring, according to practical experience, the method for determining the evaluation standards are studied, and the evaluation standards for some single quantitative and qualitative indexes are proposed. The research results can provide some reference suggestions for both the engineering practices and making out specifications in comprehensive evaluation of the dam safety monitoring system.%评价标准是衡量监测系统各单项评价指标状态的依据,目前,大部分评价指标尚缺乏明确的评价标准.依据现行监测技术规范和监测仪器技术标准,结合工程实践经验,研究了监测系统各单项评价指标的确定方法,提出了部分单项定量评价指标及其评价标准,为大坝安全监测系统综合评价的具体实践和将来评价规范的制定提供了参考性建议.

  16. The effect of learning via module versus lecture teaching methods on the knowledge and practice of oncology nurses about safety standards with cytotoxic drugs in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abbasi, Khadijeh; Hazrati, Maryam; Mohamadi, Nasrin Pourali; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, the effect of teacher-centered (lecture) and student-centered (module) teaching methods in relation to safety standards with cytotoxic drugs on the knowledge and practice of oncology nurses was compared...

  17. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for stroke prevention: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Dan; Li, Da-Bing; Yu, Xin; Shi, Guo-Bing

    2016-09-01

    Previous study indicated that high-dose statin treatment might increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke and adverse reactions. We aim to compare the efficacy and safety of intensive-dose and standard-dose statin treatment for preventing stroke in high-risk patients. A thorough search was performed of multiple databases for publications from 1990 to June 2015. We selected the randomized clinical trials comparing standard-dose statin with placebo and intensive-dose statin with standard-dose statin or placebo for the prevention of stroke events in patients. Duplicate independent data extraction and bias assessments were performed. Data were pooled using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity was present. For the all stroke incidences, intensive-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment and standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo treatment showed a significant 21% reduction in relative risk (RR) (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.71, 0.87], P statin treatment compared with standard dose or placebo was effective reducing fatal stroke (RR 0.61, 95% CI [0.39, 0.96], P = 0.03) and the RR was 1.01 (95% CI [0.85, 1.20], P = 0.90) in standard-dose statin treatment compared with placebo. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that intensive-dose statin treatment might be more favorable for reducing the incidences of all strokes than standard-dose statin treatment, especially for patients older than 65 years in reducing the incidences of all stroke incidences.

  18. Evaluation of human exposure to complex waveform magnetic fields generated by arc-welding equipment according to European safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoppetti, Nicola; Bogi, Andrea; Pinto, Iole; Andreuccetti, Daniele

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a procedure is described for the assessment of human exposure to magnetic fields with complex waveforms generated by arc-welding equipment. The work moves from the analysis of relevant guidelines and technical standards, underlining their strengths and their limits. Then, the procedure is described with particular attention to the techniques used to treat complex waveform fields. Finally, the procedure is applied to concrete cases encountered in the workplace. The discussion of the results highlights the critical points in the procedure, as well as those related to the evolution of the technical and exposure standards.

  19. 遵循JCI标准的门诊手术室安全核查%The Surgery Safety Check for Outpatient Following JCI Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧芬; 毛美蓉; 张兰兰

    2014-01-01

    目的遵循JCI标准,探讨实施门诊手术安全核查的效果与体会。方法制定门诊手术安全核查表,落实门诊手术安全核查制度,并随机抽查实施安全核查制度前后各300例患者,比较实施安全核查前后护理措施漏项人数、漏项数以及患者满意度。结果实施门诊手术安全核查后,护理措施漏项人数及漏项数有显著下降,患者满意度有显著提高,两者相比有显著统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论门诊手术安全核查的实施,确保了门诊手术患者的安全,提高了患者的满意度,符合JCI的标准,值得继续推行。%Objective To explore the effect and experience of the implementation of outpatient surgery safety check following JCI standards. Method 300 patients were chosen randomly to compare the number of patients with nursing omissions, number of omitted interventions and patient satisfaction before and after development of outpatient surgery safety check list and implementation of the check system. Results After the implementation of outpatient surgery safety check, the number of patients with nursing omissions and omitted interventions decreased significantly while patient satisfaction improved significantly and all result are with statistically significance (P<0.01). Conclusion Implementation of the outpatient surgery safety check in compliance with JCI standards can ensure the safety of outpatient surgery and improve patient satisfaction. It is worthy of continued implementation.

  20. Reconciling transport models across scales: The role of volume exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. R.; Yates, C. A.; Simpson, M. J.; Baker, R. E.

    2015-10-01

    Diffusive transport is a universal phenomenon, throughout both biological and physical sciences, and models of diffusion are routinely used to interrogate diffusion-driven processes. However, most models neglect to take into account the role of volume exclusion, which can significantly alter diffusive transport, particularly within biological systems where the diffusing particles might occupy a significant fraction of the available space. In this work we use a random walk approach to provide a means to reconcile models that incorporate crowding effects on different spatial scales. Our work demonstrates that coarse-grained models incorporating simplified descriptions of excluded volume can be used in many circumstances, but that care must be taken in pushing the coarse-graining process too far.

  1. On first attempts to reconcile quantum principles with gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Rocci, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In his 1916's first paper on gravitational waves Einstein began to speculate on interactions between the principles of the old quantum theory and his theory of gravitation. With this contribution Einstein has stimulated a lot of similar speculations, during the dawn and the development of Quantum Mechanics. These speculations have culminated with the first attempt to quantize the gravitational field, that was provided by Rosenfeld in 1930. In this paper we briefly explain why this period (1916-1930) should be inserted into the history of Quantum Gravity and then we focus on Klein's approach to the problem of reconciling Wave Mechanics with gravity, during the two-years period 1926-1927. His attempt should be looked as the prehistory of Quantum Field Theory in a curved background.

  2. Food webs: reconciling the structure and function of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross M; Brose, Ulrich; Dunne, Jennifer A; Hall, Robert O; Hladyz, Sally; Kitching, Roger L; Martinez, Neo D; Rantala, Heidi; Romanuk, Tamara N; Stouffer, Daniel B; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2012-12-01

    The global biodiversity crisis concerns not only unprecedented loss of species within communities, but also related consequences for ecosystem function. Community ecology focuses on patterns of species richness and community composition, whereas ecosystem ecology focuses on fluxes of energy and materials. Food webs provide a quantitative framework to combine these approaches and unify the study of biodiversity and ecosystem function. We summarise the progression of food-web ecology and the challenges in using the food-web approach. We identify five areas of research where these advances can continue, and be applied to global challenges. Finally, we describe what data are needed in the next generation of food-web studies to reconcile the structure and function of biodiversity.

  3. Reconciling controversies about the ‘global warming hiatus’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Stolpe, Martin B.; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto

    2017-05-01

    Between about 1998 and 2012, a time that coincided with political negotiations for preventing climate change, the surface of Earth seemed hardly to warm. This phenomenon, often termed the ‘global warming hiatus’, caused doubt in the public mind about how well anthropogenic climate change and natural variability are understood. Here we show that apparently contradictory conclusions stem from different definitions of ‘hiatus’ and from different datasets. A combination of changes in forcing, uptake of heat by the oceans, natural variability and incomplete observational coverage reconciles models and data. Combined with stronger recent warming trends in newer datasets, we are now more confident than ever that human influence is dominant in long-term warming.

  4. Standard versus atrial fibrillation-specific management strategy (SAFETY) to reduce recurrent admission and prolong survival: pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Simon; Ball, Jocasta; Horowitz, John D; Marwick, Thomas H; Mahadevan, Gnanadevan; Wong, Chiew; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Chan, Yih K; Esterman, Adrian; Thompson, David R; Scuffham, Paul A; Carrington, Melinda J

    2015-02-28

    Patients are increasingly being admitted with chronic atrial fibrillation, and disease-specific management might reduce recurrent admissions and prolong survival. However, evidence is scant to support the application of this therapeutic approach. We aimed to assess SAFETY--a management strategy that is specific to atrial fibrillation. We did a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in patients admitted with chronic, non-valvular atrial fibrillation (but not heart failure). Patients were recruited from three tertiary referral hospitals in Australia. 335 participants were randomly assigned by computer-generated schedule (stratified for rhythm or rate control) to either standard management (n=167) or the SAFETY intervention (n=168). Standard management consisted of routine primary care and hospital outpatient follow-up. The SAFETY intervention comprised a home visit and Holter monitoring 7-14 days after discharge by a cardiac nurse with prolonged follow-up and multidisciplinary support as needed. Clinical reviews were undertaken at 12 and 24 months (minimum follow-up). Coprimary outcomes were death or unplanned readmission (both all-cause), measured as event-free survival and the proportion of actual versus maximum days alive and out of hospital. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTRN 12610000221055). During median follow-up of 905 days (IQR 773-1050), 49 people died and 987 unplanned admissions were recorded (totalling 5530 days in hospital). 127 (76%) patients assigned to the SAFETY intervention died or had an unplanned readmission (median event-free survival 183 days [IQR 116-409]) and 137 (82%) people allocated standard management achieved a coprimary outcome (199 days [116-249]; hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·76-1·23; p=0·851). Patients assigned to the SAFETY intervention had 99·5% maximum event-free days (95% CI 99·3-99·7), equating to a median

  5. 合理用药与用药安全的规范管理%Standardized Management of Rational Drug Use and Drug Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆利; 刘吉霞

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug abuse or blind application, no indication the prevention and treatment of drug use, the drug of choice and compatibility infusion unreasonable, inappropriate combination therapy and in combination to the same recep-tors or reuse similar drugs for clinical irrational drug use s reason. To comply with laws and regulations and establish a sound management system, strengthen the overall control of rational drug use, so that the standard management of rational drug use. To standardize the drug safety management system, strengthen chemical management and strengthen clinical inter-ventions full medication guide and standardize the management of drug safety.%抗菌药物的滥用或盲目应用﹑无指征预防和治疗用药﹑不合理选择药物和配伍输液﹑不恰当的联合用药和联合应用作用于同一受体或重复使用同类药物为临床不合理用药的原因. 要遵守法律法规并建立健全管理制度,加强合理用药的全程控制,做到合理用药的规范管理.要通过规范用药安全管理制度﹑强化药剂管理和加强临床全程用药干预指导,规范用药安全管理.

  6. 关于开展食品安全标准认证的讨论%A Discussion about Food Safety Standard Authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晖; 狄琳娜

    2014-01-01

    The principle contradiction of Chinese food safety supervision is contradiction of limited supervision resource and unlimited supervised objects. The method to solve the contradiction is to develop food safety standard authentication. We should classify the food products to several kinds and supervise organizations take charge of different kinds of food separately. By authenticating and supervise food producer and seller on condition ,the businesses received authentication can set up business reputation under the help of government and some of them will change into big businesses. Supervise organizations can concentrate on supervision of authenticated businesses and save labor and capital. The businesses that are not authenticated will be punished seriously as authenticated if there happened food safety problems by them. The paper also imagined the earlier stage work of food safety standard authentication.%我国食品安全监管的主要矛盾是有限的监管资源和无限的监管对象之间的矛盾。化解这一矛盾的手段是开展食品安全标准认证。要将食品分成几大类别,各监管机构分别负责不同类别食品的监管。通过对有条件的食品生产、销售企业实施认证和监管,可使部分接受认证的企业在政府的帮助下树立信誉,做大做强。食品安全监管机构可以把主要精力放在接受认证企业的监管上,从而节约人力物力。未接受认证的企业如果发生食品安全问题,将同认证企业一样,遭到严肃处理。本文还对开展食品安全认证的前期工作提出了设想。

  7. Reconciling international human rights and cultural relativism: the case of female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stephen A

    1994-01-01

    How can we reconcile, in a non-ethnocentric fashion, the enforcement of international, universal human rights standards with the protection of cultural diversity? Examining this question, taking the controversy over female circumcision as a case study, this article will try to bridge the gap between the traditional anthropological view that human rights are non-existent -- or completely relativised to particular cultures -- and the view of Western naturalistic philosophers (including Lockeian philosophers in the natural rights tradition, and Aquinas and neo-Thomists in the natural law tradition) that they are universal -- simply derived from a basic human nature we all share. After briefly defending a universalist conception of human rights, the article will provide a critique of female circumcision as a human rights violation by three principal means: by an internal critique of the practice using the condoning cultures' own functionalist criteria; by identifying supra-national norms the cultures subscribe to which conflict with the practice; and by the identification of traditional and novel values in the cultures, conducive to those norms. Through this analysis, it will be seen that cultural survival, diversity and flourishing need not be incompatible with upholding international, universal human rights standards.

  8. Safety and effectiveness of a circumferential clip-based vascular closure device for hemostasis in off-label applications: Comparison with standard applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Kim, Chang Won [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan Pusan National University Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    We investigated the efficacy and safety of a circumferential nitinol clip based arterial closure device following arteriotomy, especially in off-label applications. Consecutive patients who underwent the procedure with arteriotomy from January 2011 to February 2014 were included in this study. We defined standard use as the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the common femoral artery (CFA) and off-label use as the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the superficial femoral artery (SFA), antegrade puncture of the CFA or SFA, puncture of the brachial artery or puncture of the vascular graft. The procedures performed included percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and thrombolysis. Technical success was defined as complete hemostasis achieved within 3 minute after the closure. Complications, and laboratory findings associated with coagulation function, were also investigated. There were 146 cases of standard applications and 111 cases of off-label applications. Technical success was achieved in all cases. The off-label group comprised the use of StarClose for retrograde puncture of the SFA (n = 19), antegrade puncture of the CFA or SFA (n = 74), brachial artery puncture (n = 5), larger sheath than 6 Fr (n = 7) and vascular graft puncture (n = 6). Minor complications were noted in both groups (standard group: 7.5%, off-label group: 2.7%). Off-label use of StarClose is safe and feasible.

  9. The origins of a global standard for food quality and safety: Codex Alimentarius Austriacus and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojir, Franz; Schübl, Erwin; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    In the second half of the 19(th) century the incidence of food adulterations increased very rapidly, prompting many European countries to put into force food laws to fight these practices. A number of parallel attempts were undertaken to establish a collection of instructions for the assessment of food samples to warrant the comparability of results obtained and interpreted by different experts. The first official steps towards such a standardization was made in 1891 at an international meeting of food chemists and microscopic scientists in Vienna. As a consequence, Austria installed a “Scientific Commission” in 1891, which drafted chapters for a future Codex Alimentarius Austriacus. In 1907, a Codex Commission was installed by the Ministry of Interior, but it took about four years, from 1907 to 1911, before the first edition of this compendium was published. So far, four editions have followed. The Codex Alimentarius Austriacus is a set of standards and guidelines for stakeholders, authorities, and law courts as a base for their activities. It has evolved over the past 100 years to become a flexible instrument, which has become indispensable for Austria. After 1945, attempts were made in different parts of the world to develop standardized rules for the testing of food samples to prevent trade barriers within the respective region. In Europe for instance, the development of a Codex Alimentarius Europaeus initiated by the Austrian Hans Frenzel, and based upon the model of the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus, made good progress. A number of other European countries were involved in this project. However, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations were intent on impeding such regional activities to prevent trade barriers at a global level. Between 1960 and 1963, steps were taken to install a FAO/WHO Codex partly in close cooperation with the Codex Alimentarius Europaeus. Since 1963, the FAO/WHO Codex

  10. How meaningful are risk determinations in the absence of a complete dataset? Making the case for publishing standardized test guideline and ‘no effect’ studies for evaluating the safety of nanoparticulates versus spurious ‘high effect’ results from single investigative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warheit, David B.; Donner, E. Maria

    2015-06-01

    A recent review article critically assessed the effectiveness of published research articles in nanotoxicology to meaningfully address health and safety issues for workers and consumers. The main conclusions were that, based on a number of flaws in study designs, the potential risk from exposures to nanomaterials is highly exaggerated, and that no ‘nano-specific’ adverse effects, different from exposures to bulk particles, have been convincingly demonstrated. In this brief editorial we focus on a related tangential issue which potentially compromises the integrity of basic risk science. We note that some single investigation studies report specious toxicity findings, which make the conclusions more alarming and attractive and publication worthy. In contrast, the standardized, carefully conducted, ‘guideline study results’ are often ignored because they can frequently report no adverse effects; and as a consequence are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes, and therefore they are never considered as newsworthy in the popular press. Yet it is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) type test guideline studies that are the most reliable for conducting risk assessments. To contrast these styles and approaches, we present the results of a single study which reports high toxicological effects in rats following low-dose, short-term oral exposures to nanoscale titanium dioxide particles concomitant with selective investigative analyses. Alternatively, the findings of OECD test guideline 408, standardized guideline oral toxicity studies conducted for 90 days at much higher doses (1000 mg kg-1) in male and female rats demonstrated no adverse effects following a very thorough and complete clinical chemical, as well as histopathological evaluation of all of the relevant organs in the body. This discrepancy in study findings is not reconciled by the fact that several biokinetic studies in rats and humans demonstrate little or

  11. Road safety audit tools, procedures, and experiences : a literature review and recommendations : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, R.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    This report describes tools and procedures established in different countries which apply Road Safety Audits (RSA). These RSAs are utilized to identify potential safety problems and they concentrate on safety measures to overcome these problems. This technique is used to detect possible safety hazar

  12. Road safety audit tools, procedures, and experiences : a literature review and recommendations : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 8.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, R.M. van der

    1999-01-01

    This report describes tools and procedures established in different countries which apply Road Safety Audits (RSA). These RSAs are utilized to identify potential safety problems and they concentrate on safety measures to overcome these problems. This technique is used to detect possible safety hazar

  13. The safety of higher than standard dose of doxylamine-pyridoxine (Diclectin) for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanackovic, G; Navioz, Y; Moretti, M E; Koren, G

    2001-08-01

    A delayed-release combination of doxylamine-pyridoxine (D-P) (Diclectin) is the only approved antiemetic medication for use in pregnancy in Canada. The standard recommended dose is up to 4 tablets a day, regardless of body weight or severity of symptoms. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of adverse maternal and fetal effects and pregnancy outcome in 225 women taking Diclectin at the recommended (n = 123) or higher than recommended (n = 102) doses. In this observational, prospective study, one-third (33.6%) of women reported having adverse effects (sleepiness, tiredness, and/or drowsiness) temporally related to the medication. There was no association between the dose per kg and rates of reported maternal adverse effects with doses ranging from 0.1 mg/kg to 2.0 mg/kg (1-12 tablets). Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) was reported as severe by the majority (75.8%) of women. Mean birth weight (BW) was 3,400 g and gestational age (GA) 39 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that only prepregnancy weight and GA predicted lower BW, not the dose of D-P or the severity of NVP. There were two pregnancies with major malformation, a finding that is consistent with the rates of birth defects in the general population. It was concluded that the higher than standard dose of Diclectin, when calculated per kg of body weight, does not affect either the incidence of maternal adverse effects or pregnancy outcome. If needed, Diclectin can be given at doses higher than 4 tablets/day to normalize for body weight or optimize efficacy.

  14. Reconciling projections of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Holden, Philip; Edwards, Neil; Wernecke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Two recent studies of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise this century had best estimates that differed by an order of magnitude (around 10 cm and 1 m by 2100). The first, Ritz et al. (2015), used a model calibrated with satellite data, giving a 5% probability of exceeding 30cm by 2100 for sea level rise due to Antarctic instability. The second, DeConto and Pollard (2016), used a model evaluated with reconstructions of palaeo-sea level. They did not estimate probabilities, but using a simple assumption here about the distribution shape gives up to a 5% chance of Antarctic contribution exceeding 2.3 m this century with total sea level rise approaching 3 m. If robust, this would have very substantial implications for global adaptation to climate change. How are we to make sense of this apparent inconsistency? How much is down to the data - does the past tell us we will face widespread and rapid Antarctic ice losses in the future? How much is due to the mechanism of rapid ice loss ('cliff failure') proposed in the latter paper, or other parameterisation choices in these low resolution models (GRISLI and PISM, respectively)? How much is due to choices made in the ensemble design and calibration? How do these projections compare with high resolution, grounding line resolving models such as BISICLES? Could we reduce the huge uncertainties in the palaeo-study? Emulation provides a powerful tool for understanding these questions and reconciling the projections. By describing the three numerical ice sheet models with statistical models, we can re-analyse the ensembles and re-do the calibrations under a common statistical framework. This reduces uncertainty in the PISM study because it allows massive sampling of the parameter space, which reduces the sensitivity to reconstructed palaeo-sea level values and also narrows the probability intervals because the simple assumption about distribution shape above is no longer needed. We present reconciled probabilistic

  15. Reconciling Radar Remote-Sensing with MER Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Larsen, K. W.; Jurgens, R. F.; Golombek, M. P.

    2004-11-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) carried out Earth-based delay-Doppler radar observations of Mars with four receiving stations during the oppositions in 2001 and 2003, supporting Mars Exploration Rover landing site selection. This interferometric technique demonstrated radar mapping of Mars with a 5 km to 10 km spatial resolution. The data for both Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum indicated smooth terrains, consistent with, but somewhat different from, previous lower spatial resolution Earth-based radar data. Now, with quantitative ground-truth roughness measurements by Spirit and Opportunity, along with THEMIS visible camera images, we can begin to reconcile these differing remote-sensing observations. For Gusev crater, older λ =3.5 cm wavelength data did not directly sample the crater but were of nearby terrain of the same map unit as Gusev's floor. The reported Hagfors scattering model parameters were θ rms=4.7±1.6 degrees, and ρ 0=0.04±0.02. These quasi-specular parameters refer to roughness in the range 10 λ to 100 λ . The higher resolution data from 2003, averaged over the whole MER Gusev ellipse were θ rms=1.3+1.0-0.5 degrees and ρ 0=0.02±0.01. The ρ 0 for the 5 km pixel where Spirit landed was like the average, but θ rms=1.6+1.0-0.5. The roughness derived from stereo images from Spirits first 30 sols, available on the PDS, implies near-nadir scattering from 3 m scales is dominant. We examine the spatial coverage of the older data, as well as other radar data to reconcile the differing observations. For Meridiani, GSSR made direct observations at 3.5 cm at both 5 km resolution and at 10×150 km resolution in 2001. We will carry out our comparative analyses once rover navigation data beyond Eagle crater, obtained after Sol 58, are released to the PDS, and expect to have them for presentation at the meeting.

  16. A national standard for psychosocial safety climate (PSC): PSC 41 as the benchmark for low risk of job strain and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health.

  17. In vivo safety evaluation of UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone aloesin formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2014-08-01

    Safety profiles of the aloe chromone aloesin or Aloe vera inner leaf fillet (Qmatrix) as a well tolerated entity have been reported separately. UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet, has shown a significant beneficial effect in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin resistance in human. Here we evaluate the safety of UP780 after a repeated 14 and 90-day oral administration in CD-1 mice. UP780 was given at doses of 100mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 1000mg/kg/day to groups of 10 male and 10 female for 90days or administered by oral gavage at a dose of 2g/kg/day to groups of 5 male and 5 female for 14days. Body weight, feed consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathologic evaluation were performed. UP780 at a dose of 1000mg/kg/day or at 2000mg/kg/day produced no treatment-related toxicity or mortality. Body weight gain or feed consumption was similar between groups. There was no test article-related microscopic change. Spontaneously occurring minor changes in clinical chemistry and hematology were observed. However, these changes were limited to one sex or were not dose correlated. UP780 was well tolerated in this strain. A dose of 2000mg/kg/day was identified as the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level).

  18. A review of the global pesticide legislation and the scale of challenge in reaching the global harmonization of food safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Caroline E; Elliott, Christopher T; Campbell, Katrina

    2015-10-01

    Pesticide use is important in agriculture to protect crops and improve productivity. However, pesticides have the potential to cause adverse human health or environmental effects, depending on exposure levels. This review examines existing pesticide legislation worldwide, focusing on the level of harmonization and impacts of differing legislation on food safety and trade. Pesticide legislation varies greatly worldwide, because countries have different requirements, guidelines, and legal limits for plant protection. Developed nations have more stringent regulations than developing countries, which lack the resources and expertise to adequately implement and enforce legislation. Global differences in pesticide legislation act as a technical barrier to trade. International parties such as the European Union (EU), Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex), and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have attempted to harmonize pesticide legislation by providing maximum residue limits (MRLs), but globally these limits remain variable. Globally harmonized pesticide standards would serve to increase productivity, profits, and trade and also enhance the ability to protect public health and the environment.

  19. 可燃制冷剂标准修订进展%Progress on the Revision of Safety Standards for Flammable Refrigerants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴克安; 郭智恺; 郑冬芳; 谢品赞; 张建君

    2014-01-01

    This paper focused on the revision of safety standards related to the refrigerants and systems’ flammability all over the world. The attitude towards the strongly flammable refrigerant applications such as hydrocarbons was discussed. Result showed that most of the states’ attitudes towards the weaker flammable refrigerants were relaxed, but there were still disagreements for the strongly flammable hydrocarbons.%阐述了全球各主要地区制冷剂及系统关于可燃性的安全标准的修订情况,并介绍了各国对于HCs类易可燃性制冷剂的应用态度。各国对弱可燃制冷剂的态度有所松动,但对于HCs类易燃制冷剂的应用仍有较大分歧。

  20. New aspects from legislation, guidelines and safety standards for MRI; Neues aus Gesetzen, Richtlinien und Sicherheitsstandards fuer die MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenweg, M. [Krankenhaus Martha-Maria Halle-Doelau, Institut fuer Radiologie, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schaefers, G. [MR:comp GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Trattnig, S. [Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-Magnetresonanz, Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    Many aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) operation are not directly regulated by law but in standards, guidelines and the operating instructions of the MR scanner. The mandatory contents of the operating instructions are regulated in a central standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60601-2-33. In this standard, the application of static magnetic fields in MRI up to 8 Tesla (T) in the clinical routine (first level controlled mode) has recently been approved. Furthermore, the equally necessary CE certification of ultra-high field scanners (7-8 T) in Europe is expected for future devices. The existing installations will not be automatically certified but will retain their experimental status. The current extension of IEC 60601-2-33 introduces a new add-on option, the so-called fixed parameter option (FPO). This option might also be switched on in addition to the established operating modes and defines a fixed device constellation and certain parameters of the energy output of MR scanners designed to simplify the testing of patients with implants in the future. The employment of pregnant workers in an MRI environment is still not generally regulated in Europe. In parts of Germany and Austria pregnant and lactating employees were prohibited from working in the MR control zone (0.5 mT) in 2014. This is based on the mostly unresolved question of the applicability of limits for employees (exposure of extremities to static magnetic fields up to 8 T allowed) or the thresholds for the general population (maximum 400 mT). According to the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), the discarding of breast milk after i.v. administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents in the case of a breastfeeding woman is only recommended when using contrast agents in the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) high-risk category. (orig.) [German] Viele Belange des MR-Betriebs sind nicht direkt gesetzlich geregelt, sondern in Normen, Richtlinien und der

  1. Reconciling LGB and Christian Identities in the Rural South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi Woodell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on in-depth interviews with rural Christians living in the South who identify as lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB, this study analyzes how they negotiate their religious, geographic, and sexual identities. We find that most interviewees employed two strategies to reconcile their Christian and gay identities: emphasizing a personal connection to an accepting God and finding a local church in their rural community in which they felt accepted. We argue that rural contexts influenced interviewees’ reliance on these strategies and show how individuals can construct multiple interpretations about themselves, which do not always align with existing cultural assumptions. In addition, we argue that gender differences exist with regard to participants’ residential choices and the importance they place on “community”. We find that, in general, women value the privacy and freedom afforded to them in rural areas, a sentiment that is echoed in their religious choices while many of the men value the close knit community they find in their small towns.

  2. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  3. Reconciling societal and scientific definitions for the monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Mathew; Stephenson, David

    2014-05-01

    Science defines the monsoon in numerous ways. We can apply these definitions to forecast data, reanalysis data, observations, GCMs and more. In a basic research setting, we hope that this work will advance science and our understanding of the monsoon system. In an applied research setting, we often hope that this work will benefit a specific stakeholder or community. We may want to inform a stakeholder when the monsoon starts, now and in the future. However, what happens if the stakeholders cannot relate to the information because their perceptions do not align with the monsoon definition we use in our analysis? We can resolve this either by teaching the stakeholders or learning from them about how they define the monsoon and when they perceive it to begin. In this work we reconcile different scientific monsoon definitions with the perceptions of agricultural communities in Bangladesh. We have developed a statistical technique that rates different scientific definitions against the people's perceptions of when the monsoon starts and ends. We construct a probability mass function (pmf) around each of the respondent's answers in a questionnaire survey. We can use this pmf to analyze the time series of monsoon onsets and withdrawals from the different scientific definitions. We can thereby quantitatively judge which definition may be most appropriate for a specific applied research setting.

  4. Steps to Reconcile Inflationary Tensor and Scalar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Vinícius; Adshead, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The recent BICEP2 B-mode polarization determination of an inflationary tensor-scalar ratio $r=0.2^{+0.07}_{-0.05}$ is in tension with simple scale-free models of inflation due to a lack of a corresponding low multipole excess in the temperature power spectrum which places a limit of $r<0.11$ (95% CL) on such models. Single-field inflationary models that reconcile these two observations, even those where the tilt runs substantially, introduce a scale into the scalar power spectrum. To cancel the tensor excess, and simultaneously explain the excess already present in $\\Lambda$CDM, ideally the model should introduce this scale as a relatively sharp transition in the tensor-scalar ratio around the horizon at recombination. We consider models which generate such a step in this quantity and find that they can improve the joint fit to the temperature and polarization data by up to $2\\Delta \\ln{\\cal L} \\approx -17$ without changing cosmological parameters. Precision E-mode polarization measurements should be able ...

  5. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of ...

  6. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  7. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  8. Safety of a single low-dose of primaquine in addition to standard artemether-lumefantrine regimen for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaiswelo, Richard; Ngasala, Billy E; Jovel, Irina; Gosling, Roland; Premji, Zul; Poirot, Eugenie; Mmbando, Bruno P; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

    2016-06-10

    This study assessed the safety of the new World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation of adding a single low-dose of primaquine (PQ) to standard artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), regardless of individual glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) status, for treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tanzania. Men and non-pregnant, non-lactating women aged ≥1 year with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were enrolled and randomized to either standard artemether-lumefantrine (AL) regimen alone or with a 0.25 mg/kg single-dose of PQ. PQ was administered concomitantly with the first AL dose. All drug doses were supervised. Safety was evaluated between days 0 and 28. G6PD status was assessed using rapid test (CareStart™) and molecular genotyping. The primary endpoint was mean percentage relative reduction in haemoglobin (Hb) concentration (g/dL) between days 0 and 7 by genotypic G6PD status and treatment arm. Overall, 220 patients, 110 per treatment arm, were enrolled, of whom 33/217 (15.2 %) were phenotypically G6PD deficient, whereas 15/110 (13.6 %) were genotypically hemizygous males, 5/110 (4.5 %) homozygous females and 22/110 (20 %) heterozygous females. Compared to genotypically G6PD wild-type/normal [6.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.67-8.96], only heterozygous patients in AL arm had significant reduction in day-7 mean relative Hb concentration (14.3, 95 % CI 7.02-21.55, p=0.045), however, none fulfilled the pre-defined haemolytic threshold value of ≥25 % Hb reduction. After adjustment for baseline parasitaemia, Hb, age and sex the mean relative Hb reduction was not statistically significant in both heterozygous and hemizygous/homozygous patients in both arms. A majority of the adverse events (AEs) were mild and unrelated to the study drugs. However, six (4.4 %) episodes, three per treatment arm, of acute haemolytic anaemia occurred between days 0 and 7. Three occurred in phenotypically G6PD deficient

  9. Reconciling the Bio Safety Protocol and the WTO Regime: Problems, Perspectives and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Gayathri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The issue of regulation of international trade in Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs evokes a very unique, passionate and emotional debate between environmentalists and businesses. At the conceptual level itself, like most other multilateral environmental agreements, the Cartagena Protocol appears to be incompatible with the WTO Rules. Approach: Further, since there is precious little scientific certainty on the actual and potential impact of GMOs on environment and human health, and because the debate spans cultural and philosophical contours, domestic regulation of GMOs vary substantially. The most vocal among such divergences has been the trans-atlantic rift between the US and the European Community regarding the application and interpretation of the precautionary principle. All these negatively hamper international trade and fragment international market, thereby decreasing economies of scale, which in turn is a huge setback to the massive research and development costs involved in the production of GMOs. It is a particularly challenging scenario for developing countries, as it directly affects their exports, even of organic products. Results: The authors strongly believe that the benefits of bio-technology shall not be wholly abandoned without proper scientific evidence; because the evolution of an environmentally safe and risk-free GM product has the potential to become the panacea for global food shortage and inequity. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study will first examine the apparent conflict and tension between the Cartagena Protocol and the WTO regime. Secondly, the language of the savings clause in the Cartagena Protocol would be analyzed, to emphasize that the Protocol was envisaged to be in force with equal primacy to the WTO regime and that WTO rules can be harmoniously interpreted with the Protocol, in a manner that is beneficial to both. Next, it would be elaborated on how the Cartagena Protocol in effect supports and strengthens the existing WTO regime by better defining the precautionary principle. Therefore, through this study, we seek to suggest a possible way forward to sustainable development-by arguing that the Cartagena Protocol and WTO regime are capable of a mutually beneficial existence. In the years to come, such a harmonious interpretation would definitely become crucial for stabilizing and strengthening the international regime governing trade in GMOs.

  10. Using GIS to reconcile crime scenes with those indicated by serial criminals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Conference, Dallas, Texas 1 – 4 December 2001 Using GIS to reconcile crime scenes with those indicated by serial criminals Primary author: Antony K Cooper, Divisional Fellow, Information and Communications Technology, CSIR, PO Box 395...

  11. Using GIS to reconcile crime scenes with those indicated by serial criminals.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Conference, Dallas, Texas 1 – 4 December 2001 Using GIS to reconcile crime scenes with those indicated by serial criminals Primary author: Antony K Cooper, Divisional Fellow, Information and Communications Technology, CSIR, PO Box 395...

  12. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  13. Reconcilability of Socio-Economic Development and Environmental Conservation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudi, Lisa-Marie; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Are the achievements of sustainable development and the improvement of environmental standards mutually exclusive in the 21st century? Is there a possibility to combine the two? This study is an effort to investigate the mutual exclusiveness of the two policy areas and asks for the necessity and possibility to combine the two with a reference to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). After describing the historical, geographical, and climatic backgrounds of SSA, negative effects of global warming and local environmentally harmful practices are discussed. Subsequently, the appropriate development measures for the region are elaborated in order to understand their compatibility with regards to improving the environment. It is concluded that to change the dependency on agriculture, the economy needs to be restructured towards technologies. Furthermore, it is found that there is a direct link between global warming and economic efficiency. Theories, which imply that some regions are simply 'too poor to be green', are investigated and rebutted by another theory, which states that it is indeed possible to industrialize in an environmentally friendly way. It follows that environmental and development measures are interconnected, equally important and can be reconciled. The paper finally concludes that the threat posed by global warming and the previously practised environmentally-harmful local measures might be so pressing that it may be too tragic to go for 'develop first and clean up later' approach.

  14. Reconciling results of LSND, MiniBooNE and other experiments with soft decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Farzan, Yasaman; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2008-01-01

    We propose an explanation of the LSND signal via quantum-decoherence of the mass states, which leads to damping of the interference terms in the oscillation probabilities. The decoherence parameters as well as their energy dependence are chosen in such a way that the damping affects only oscillations with the large (atmospheric) $\\Delta m^2$ and rapidly decreases with the neutrino energy. This allows us to reconcile the positive LSND signal with MiniBooNE and other null-result experiments. The standard explanations of solar, atmospheric, KamLAND and MINOS data are not affected. No new particles, and in particular, no sterile neutrinos are needed. The LSND signal is controlled by the 1-3 mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ and, depending on the degree of damping, yields $0.0014 < \\sin^2\\theta_{13} < 0.034$ at $3\\sigma$. The scenario can be tested at upcoming $\\theta_{13}$ searches: while the comparison of near and far detector measurements at reactors should lead to a null-result a positive signal for $\\theta_{13...

  15. Women versus men with chronic atrial fibrillation: insights from the Standard versus Atrial Fibrillation spEcific managemenT studY (SAFETY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocasta Ball

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gender-based clinical differences are increasingly being identified as having significant influence on the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD, including atrial fibrillation (AF. OBJECTIVE: To perform detailed clinical phenotyping on a cohort of hospitalised patients with chronic forms of AF to understand if gender-based differences exist in the clinical presentation, thrombo-embolic risk and therapeutic management of high risk patients hospitalised with chronic AF. METHODS: We are undertaking the Standard versus Atrial Fibrillation spEcific managemenT studY (SAFETY - a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of an AF-specific management intervention versus usual care. Extensive baseline profiling of recruited patients was undertaken to identify gender-specific differences for risk delineation. RESULTS: We screened 2,438 patients with AF and recruited 335 into SAFETY. Of these, 48.1% were women who were, on average, 5 years older than their male counterparts. Women and men displayed divergent antecedent profiles, with women having a higher thrombo-embolic risk but being prescribed similar treatment regimens. More women than men presented to hospital with co-morbid thyroid dysfunction, depression, renal impairment and obesity. In contrast, more men presented with coronary artery disease (CAD and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even when data was age-adjusted, women were more likely to live alone (odds ratio [OR] 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47 to 3.69, have non-tertiary education (OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.61 to 4.48 and be symptomatic (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.06 to 3.52. CONCLUSION: Health care providers should be cognisant of gender-specific differences in an attempt to individualise and, hence, optimise the management of patients with chronic AF and reduce potential morbidity and mortality.

  16. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamb, Frank W [UNWIN CORPORATION

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ

  17. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  18. Automated carbon dioxide digital angiography for lower-limb arterial disease evaluation: safety assessment and comparison with standard iodinated contrast media angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Filippo; Novelli, Eugenio; Auguadro, Carla; Casali, Valentina; Manfredi, Mariella; Zannoli, Romano

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been validated as a contrast agent in a large series of studies. A particular advantages of CO2 over iodinated contrast medium (ICM) is the absence of nephrotoxicity and allergic reactions. One of the limitations of CO2 angiography is the difficulty of CO2 manual injection due to its compressibility. The manual gas injection does not permit optimal control of the gas output. Development of an automated CO2 injector has overcome these problems. This study compares the feasibility, safety, and diagnostic accuracy of automated CO2 digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with ICM-DSA in the evaluation of critical limb ischemic (CLI) patients. We performed DSA with both CO2 and ICM on 40 consecutive CLI patients and directly compared the two techniques. Sixteen females and 24 males participated in the study (mean age, 71.7 years). We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of CO2 in identifying arterial stenosis in the lower limb, with ICM-DSA used as the gold standard. The overall diagnostic accuracy of CO2-DSA was 96.9% (sensitivity, 99.0%; specificity, 96.1%; positive predictive value, 91.1%; negative predictive value, 99.6%). Tolerable minor symptoms occurred in 3 patients. No allergic reactions or significant decline in renal function were observed in patients receiving the CO2 injection. Carbon dioxide DSA is a valuable and safe alternative to traditional ICM-DSA for evaluating CLI patients. This modality should be considered as the standard choice for CLI patients undergoing angiographic evaluation who are known to have renal insufficiency or contrast allergy.

  19. Reconciling malicious and accidental risk in cyber security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Lukszo, Zofia; Hadžiosmanović, Dina; Berg, van den Jan

    2014-01-01

    Consider the question whether a cyber security investment is cost-effective. The result will depend on the expected frequency of attacks. Contrary to what is referred to as threat event frequencies or hazard rates in safety risk management, frequencies of targeted attacks are not independent from sy

  20. Safety first!

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Among the many duties I assumed at the beginning of the year was the ultimate responsibility for Safety at CERN: the responsibility for the physical safety of the personnel, the responsibility for the safe operation of the facilities, and the responsibility to ensure that CERN acts in accordance with the highest standards of radiation and environmental protection.   The Safety Policy document drawn up in September 2014 is an excellent basis for the implementation of Safety in all areas of CERN’s work. I am happy to commit during my mandate to help meet its objectives, not least by ensuring the Organization makes available the necessary means to achieve its Safety objectives. One of the main objectives of the HSE (Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection) unit in the coming months is to enhance the measures to minimise CERN’s impact on the environment. I believe CERN should become a role model for an environmentally-aware scientific research laboratory. Risk ...

  1. 食品安全标准的贸易效应分析--以中国农产品出口为例%Trade Effect of Food Safety Standards---Take China's Agricultural Products Export as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊芳; 武拉平

    2014-01-01

    Food safety standards have been the main obstacle of China's agricultural products export. Gravity model and panel data were applied to proof the influence of food safety standards on China's agricultural products export in this paper. The results showed that, food safety standards could contain trade in the short term and support trade in the long term. Hence, it is necessary to understand the potential effect of the food safety standards on China's agricultural products export. We need expand the market that food safety standards was looser and diversify export markets in the short term, and in the long term improve the quality of the products constantly.%食品安全标准已经成为中国农产品出口的主要障碍。运用扩展引力模型,使用面板数据分析了食品安全标准对中国农产品出口的影响。结果表明,短期内,食品安全标准抑制贸易,长期内则促进贸易。因此,应充分理解食品安全标准对中国农产品出口的潜在影响,短期内可开拓食品安全标准较宽松的市场,使出口市场多元化;长期内需要不断提高产品的质量水平。

  2. 76 FR 75782 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... is revising its Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to a standard... and Explanation of Revisions to the Acetylene Standard IV. Procedural Determinations A....

  3. Research on application of reliability and validity in meta-evaluation of work safety standardization%信效度在安全生产标准化元评估中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏荃; 张耀庭; 秦言杰

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation of work safety standardization is a process to make value judgments about work safety standardization in enterprise through collecting and analyzing the information systematically based on certain ac-creditation objectives and standards of work safety standardization.In order to evaluate scientifically the deviation of accreditation and unify the accreditation scale, based on the reliability and validity theory, it was put forward that when the meta-evaluation of work safety standardization is carried out by the accrediting agency and accrediting or-ganization agency, the reliability of assessor and criterion related validity are proposed to investigate the reliabil-ity and validity for the accreditation of work safety standardization.Taking the accreditation of work safety stan-dardiza-tion on hazardous chemicals enterprises as example, the realization method of reliability and validity on the meta-e-valuation of work safety standardization was discussed from the aspects of selection of analytical method, calculation and acceptability of reliability and validity.The results showed that it can provide the basis for the ob-jective evalu-ation on the accreditation result of work safety standardization through analyzing the advantages and disadvantages in accreditation of work safety standardization by the reliability and validity method.%安全生产标准化评审是根据一定的安全生产标准化评审目标和标准,通过系统地收集信息和科学分析,对企业安全生产标准化工作做出价值判断的过程。为了科学评估评审偏差和统一评审尺度,基于信效度理论,提出在评审单位和评审组织单位进行安全生产标准化元评估时,应用评审者信度和效标关联效度,研究安全生产标准化评审的可靠程度和有效程度;并以危险化学品从业单位安全生产标准化评审为例,从信效度的分析方法选择、信效度的计算和信效度的可接受

  4. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Adequacao das normas brasileiras de radioprotecao aos principios fundamentais de seguranca da International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities.

  5. QUALITY - SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY - HEALTH AND SAFETY INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AUDIT ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF ISO9001:2008, SA 8000:2008, OHSAS 18001:2007 AND ISO 19011:2011 STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina TUDOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a method of perfecting the audit of the social requirements of the quality social accountability-health and safety integrated management system with the social requirements of BusinessSocial Compliance Initiative (BSCI and Supplier Ethical Data Exchange (SEDEX. The method used was tosupplement the social requirement of SA 8000:2008 standard with the additional requirements of BSCI and SEDEX.The results are based on a correspondence between the requirements of SA 8000:2008 standard and therequirements of BSCI and SEDEX codes of conducts, because some of BSCI and SEDEX requirements are moredetailed than SA 8000:2008 standard requirements which are the base for the implementation of socialrequirements of the quality-social accountability-health and safety integrated management system. A check list waselaborated with the integrated social requirements of SA 8000:2008, BSCI and SEDEX. The check list is related tochild labour, forced and compulsory labour, health and safety, freedom of association & right to collective bargaining, discrimination, disciplinary practices, working hours, remuneration and management system. Theconclusion of the paper is that the elaborated check list allows the quality-social accountability-health and safety integrated management system audit to match to the requirements of BSCI and SEDEX.

  6. 非煤矿山安全标准化与风险管理的关系%The Relationship between the Non-coal Mine Safety Standardization and Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海洋; 王少宇; 姜福川

    2014-01-01

    通过近几年全国非煤矿山事故死亡人数统计表,简要的分析了事故原因。实施安全标准化能够提高非煤矿山企业安全管理和本质安全水平,降低非煤矿山的安全事故发生率。本文在介绍标准化体系组成和主要内容的基础上,分析《金属非金属矿山安全标准化规范》的核心思想和理论基础-风险管理。%Based on the national non-coal mine accident fatalities statistics in recent years, we briefly analyzes the cause of the accident. Implementation of Safety Standardization to improve safety management and essential safety level in non-coal mines enterprises, reduce the accident rates in non-coal mines. Based on introduces the composition and main content of standardization system, we analyzes the core ideology and theoretical basis of Metal and Nonmetal Mines Safety Standardization Norms:risk management.

  7. Comparison of intraclass correlation coefficient estimates and standard errors between using cross-sectional and repeated measurement data: the Safety Check cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Wasserman, Richard; Barkin, Shari

    2011-03-01

    Designing cluster randomized trials in clinical studies often requires accurate estimates of intraclass correlation, which quantifies the strength of correlation between units, such as participants, within a cluster, such as a practice. Published ICC estimates, even when available, often suffer from the problem of wide confidence intervals. Using data from a national, randomized, controlled study concerning violence prevention for children--the Safety Check--we compare the ICC values derived from two approaches only baseline data and using both baseline and follow-up data. Using a variance component decomposition approach, the latter method allows flexibility in handling complex data sets. For example, it allows for shifts in the outcome variable over time and for an unbalanced cluster design. Furthermore, we evaluate the large-sample formula for ICC estimates and standard errors using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that ICC estimates range from 0.012 to 0.11 for providers within practice and range from 0.018 to 0.11 for families within provider. The estimates derived from the baseline-only and repeated-measurements approaches agree quite well except in cases in which variation over repeated measurements is large. The reductions in the widths of ICC confidence limits from using repeated measurement over baseline only are, respectively, 62% and 42% at the practice and provider levels. The contribution of this paper therefore includes two elements, which are a methodology for improving the accuracy of ICC, and the reporting of such quantities for pediatric and other researchers who are interested in designing clustered randomized trials similar to the current study.

  8. 小微企业安全生产标准化体系建设研究%Research on safety production standardization system construction of micro enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 张景钢; 黄艳涛; 索诚宇; 任俏妮

    2015-01-01

    with the rapid and sound development of national economy , the small businesses is playing the more and more major role in our country economy development.However , the development of small businesses lacks of unified management and health plan , especially their hidden danger in safe production.The paper ex-plain the small and micro businesses how to produce safely and prompt the feasible suggestion from basic man -agement , equipment and facilities , safe working environment and health occupation.These will give the refer-ence and guidance significance for the work safety standardization of the small and micro industry and trading .%随着我国经济的持续健康发展,小微企业在我国经济中起的作用越来越大,但由于小微企业往往在发展中缺乏统一管理和健康规划,其在安全生产方面也有着很大的隐患。本文从基础管理、设备设施、作业环境安全与职业健康等几个方面阐述了小微企业如何实现安全生产标准化,并提出了可行性建议,对小微工贸企业的安全生产标准化创建工作具有一定的借鉴和指导意义。

  9. Construction of a questionnaire for readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Stammel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Post-conflict reconciliation is supposed to have a positive impact on survivors of war and conflict. However, knowledge is limited as validated questionnaires to assess individual readiness to reconcile in the context of human rights violations are still missing.Objectives:This study aimed to develop and pilot-test a questionnaire to assess individual readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations.Methods:The questionnaire was developed and pilot-tested in a sample of 60 adult Kurdish refugees from Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire, trauma exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, depression, anxiety, perceived emotional closeness to the Kurdish people as well as the participants’ ability to differentiate between perpetrators and the people in general were assessed in structured interviews, and their associations with readiness to reconcile were analyzed.Results:Factor and item analysis resulted in an 18-item questionnaire with three subscales (openness to interactions; absence of feelings of revenge; openness to conflict resolution. Cronbach's α for the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, explaining 61% of the total variance. The ability to differentiate between perpetrators and people in general and perceived emotional closeness were the best predictors for readiness to reconcile. The level of trauma exposure was not linked to readiness to reconcile. Although readiness to reconcile was negatively related to PTSD, depression and anxiety, none of these associations reached statistical significance.Conclusions:The questionnaire appears to be a reliable measure with good psychometric properties. Further validations in different samples are needed.

  10. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  11. Generic safety documentation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  12. Effect Survey of Safety Culture Education Training for Nursing Interns Based on JCI Standards%基于JCI标准的护理实习生安全文化教育培训的效果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白煜峡; 张辉; 张青

    2016-01-01

    The relevant training of hospital safety and adverse events for 173 nursing interns in an Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and score comparison before and after the Patient Safety Culture Knowledge training obtained by the survey scale show that the safety culture education training plays a major role in the patient safety management in the hospital, which can standardize the safety behavior of people and organize and coordinate the safety management. At the same time, it can comb and upgrade the existing hospital safety training system and put forwards feasible suggestions of es-tablishing a better hospital safety culture environment.%对新疆医科大学一附院173名护理实习生进行院内安全及不良事件的相关培训,通过调查量表获得患者安全文化知识培训前后的得分对比,结果显示安全文化教育培训在医院内部患者安全管理有重要作用,能够规范人的安全行为、组织协调安全管理。同时对已有医院安全培训体系进行梳理与升级,为建设更优良的医院安全文化环境提出可实行建议。

  13. 民用爆炸物品安全生产可接受风险研究%Research on Acceptable Risk Standards of Civil Explosives Safety Production Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘治兵; 吴洁红; 秦广艺

    2015-01-01

    可接受风险标准是民用爆炸物品安全生产风险评价的评判准则。WJ9048—2010《民用爆炸物品行业安全评价导则》基于事故发生周期,划分了民爆行业和企业事故概率等级,并将企业事故概率作为风险评价的可接受风险标准,该准则仅适用于现场作业人员。基于公众视角,界定可接受风险标准是民用爆炸物品安全生产风险评价的关键组成部分。总结了国内外安全生产可接受风险标准研究现状,介绍了安全生产可接受风险确定准则和计算方法,结合国内民爆安全生产形势、危险场所区域分布和风险评价特点,在参考国内外事故死亡率和可接受风险标准的基础上,建议了民用爆炸物品安全生产风险评价的个人和社会可接受风险标准。%The acceptable risk standard was the evaluation criteria of civil explosives production risk evaluation. The WJ9048-2010 "Guidelines for Safety Assessment of Civil Explosives Materials" put forward the explosive indus-try and enterprise accident probability level on the basis of the accident period. The accident probability was consid-ered as the acceptable risk assessment criteria only applied in the field operation personnel. The definition of accepta-ble risk standard was the key part of civil explosives safety risk assessment. Based on the research status of accepta-ble risk standards of production safety at home and abroad,the acceptable risk standards and calculation methods of production safety was also introduced and the personal and social acceptable risk standard of civil explosives safety production was proposed. Combined with domestic civil explosive situation of production safety,regional distribution of dangerous places and risk assessment features,the acceptable risk standard of other accidents was put forward.

  14. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  15. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. Study of safety of laser and light emitting diodes (LED) for human body; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Laser, oyobi hakko diode (LED) ni taisuru jintai eno anzensei no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    LD and LED are used in a wide range from telecommunication systems to residential/commercial equipment. Optical semiconductor devices existing in the domain between LD and LED are also being commercialized. In the field of this project, there are a lot of contradictions about the international standards. For the purpose of promoting the common understanding of standards and improving the consistency, the paper examined mainly safety, principles of motion and various applications of laser and LED, and developed international standards for the output measuring method. At the same time, the paper systematically studied the biological safety, determined regulatory values which were backed up as safety standards, and proposed/worked out a draft for new international standardization for safety of LED. Further, by the definition of laser in general, standards related to a lot of TCs among ISO and IEC standards were harmonized for the common understanding on the basis of a common idea. 40 refs., 163 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Teaching for Transfer: Reconciling the Framework with Disciplinary Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the tension between information literacy as a generalizable skill and as a skill within the disciplines. The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education addresses many challenges facing the previous ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, but the tension between disciplinary…

  17. Teaching for Transfer: Reconciling the Framework with Disciplinary Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuglitsch, Rebecca Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the tension between information literacy as a generalizable skill and as a skill within the disciplines. The new ACRL Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education addresses many challenges facing the previous ACRL Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education, but the tension between disciplinary…

  18. Electromagneticai Safety and Limited Standard of Magnetic Resonance Imaging%磁共振成像的电磁安全与限值标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀倩倩; 包家立; 李宇波; 朱朝阳

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) , comprising of static magnetic fields, radio-frequency (RF) ' fields and time-varying gradient magnetic fields, is a diagnostic technique that a physical-effect is being transformed an image information for human after the immigrated electromagnetic energy imports ones. The electro magnetic fields may possibly have some risks for human health, such as nerve stimulation of gradient fields and thermal-effects of RF fields. During recently decades, FDA of USA has given a safety alert of MRI related death of patients with aneurysm clip, a public health notification of MRI-caused injuries in patients with implanted neurological stimulators and an advisory of risk of burns during MRI scans from transdermal drug patches with metallic backings. Nevertheless, MRI can be safe under a limited intensity electromagnetic fields. This review reports the bio-effects and health risk associated with three fields and some national and international standards about the limited electromagnetic fields in MRI.%磁共振成像(MRI)是一种将外源电磁能量输入人体后产生物理效应并转换为医学图像信息的技术,包括静磁场、射频场、梯度场共3种电磁场.这3种电磁场均对生物体产生效应,并且在足够的强度下会对人体产生健康危险,如梯度场的神经刺激、射频场(RF)的热效应等电磁危险性.近10年来,美国食品药品监督管理局(FDA)发出MRI检查导致带动脉夹患者死亡的警告、MRI对带植入性神经刺激器患者伤害的通告、MRI对带金属背衬经皮给药帖片患者带来灼伤的通告.然而,当电磁场强度被限制在一定范围内时,MRI仍然是安全的.分析这3种电磁场主要的生物效应和健康危险,讨论国内外有关MRI电磁安全的限值标准.

  19. Analysis of the EU Woodworking Machines Safety Standard EN 691-1:2012%解析欧盟木工机械安全标准EN 691-1:2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海强; 路东琪

    2013-01-01

      对欧盟最新的木工机械安全标准EN 691-1:2012进行了分析,旨在通过对相关安全标准条款的解读及应用来应对国外贸易技术壁垒,以促进我国木工机械行业的发展。%  The latest EU Woodworking Machinery Safety Standard EN 691-1:2012 is analyzed, with the aim to cope with foreign technical barriers to trade through the interpretation and application of relevant clauses of the safety standard to promote the development of China’s woodworking machinery industry.

  20. Origin and Subsequent Modifications of Explosive Safety Quantity- Distance (ESQD) Standards for Mass Detonating Explosives with Special Reference to Naval Vessels. Volume 2. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    1964. 7 Minutes of the Seventh Explosives Safety Seminar held at Cocoa Beach, Florida. AD 368 108. Aug 1965.. 8 Minutes of the Eighth Explosives Safety...ASSIGNMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL AMMUNITION SINGLETERRY, MR. C.C. SITE PLANS SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES SMITH. mR: C.B. SMOKELESS POWDER SOLID...solution is considered highly desirable, and there are so sany situations needina improvenent, that benefits comparable to a signi- ficant new

  1. Reconciling Ourselves to Reality: Arendt, Education and the Challenge of Being at Home in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the educational significance of the work of Hannah Arendt through reflections on four papers that constitute this special issue. I focus on the challenge of reconciling ourselves to reality, that is, of being at home in the world. Although Arendt's idea of being at home in the world is connected to her explorations of…

  2. Reconciling research and community priorities in participatory trials: application to Padres Informados/Jovenes Preparados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Bastian, Tiana; Hurtado, G Ali; Linares, Roxana; Svetaz, María Veronica

    2017-06-01

    Participatory research (PR) trials aim to achieve the dual, and at times competing, demands of producing an intervention and research process that address community perspectives and priorities, while establishing intervention effectiveness. To identify research and community priorities that must be reconciled in the areas of collaborative processes, study design and aim and study implementation quality in order to successfully conduct a participatory trial. We describe how this reconciliation was approached in the smoking prevention participatory trial Padres Informados/Jovenes Preparados (Informed Parents/Prepared Youth) and evaluate the success of our reconciled priorities. Data sources to evaluate success of the reconciliations included a survey of all partners regarding collaborative group processes, intervention participant recruitment and attendance and surveys of enrolled study participants assessing intervention outcomes. While we successfully achieved our reconciled collaborative processes and implementation quality goals, we did not achieve our reconciled goals in study aim and design. Due in part to the randomized wait-list control group design chosen in the reconciliation process, we were not able to demonstrate overall efficacy of the intervention or offer timely services to families in need of support. Achieving the goals of participatory trials is challenging but may yield community and research benefits. Innovative research designs are needed to better support the complex goals of participatory trials.

  3. Creative Minds: The Search for the Reconciling Principles of Science, the Humanities, Arts and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Since before the time of writers such as Plato in his "Republic" and "Timaeus"; Martianus Capella in "The Marriage of Mercury and Philology"; Boethius in "De institutione musica"; Kepler in "The Harmony of the Universe"; and many others, there have been attempts to reconcile the various disciplines in the sciences, arts, humanities, and religion…

  4. Reconciling Leadership Paradigms: Authenticity as Practiced by American Indian School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, David; Carjuzaa, Jioanna; Ruff, William G.

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the complexity American Indian K-12 school leaders face on reservations in Montana, USA The study described how these leaders have to reconcile their Westernized educational leadership training with their traditional ways of knowing, living, and leading. Three major themes emerged that enabled these leaders to…

  5. At Odds: Reconciling Experimental and Theoretical Results in High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    For this experiment, students are divided into 2 groups and presented with a static equilibrium force-balance problem to solve. One group works entirely experimentally and the other group theoretically, using Newton's laws. The groups present their seemingly dissimilar results and must reconcile them through discussion. (Contains 3 figures.)

  6. Reconciling cold dark matter with COBE/IRAS plus solar and atmospheric neutrino data

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, A S; Valle, J W F

    1994-01-01

    We present a model where an unstable MeV Majorana tau neutrino can naturally reconcile the cold dark matter model (CDM) with cosmological observations of large and small scale density fluctuations and, simultaneously, with data on solar and atmospheric neutrinos. The solar neutrino deficit is explained through long wavelength, so-called {\\sl just-so} oscillations involving conversions of \

  7. Reconciling the Perspective of Practitioner and Service User: Findings from The Aphasia in Scotland Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Huby, Guro; Irving, Anne-Marie; Pringle, Ann-Marie; Conochie, Douglas; Haworth, Catherine; Burston, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that service users should be actively involved in new service developments, but there remain issues about how best to consult with them and how to reconcile their views with those of service providers. Aims: This paper uses data from The Aphasia in Scotland study, set up by NHS Quality Improvement Scotland to…

  8. 中国与欧美木工机械通用安全标准差异分析%Analysis of the Differences between Chinese and European and US General Safety Standards for Woodworking Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褥铜; 张海强

    2014-01-01

    Chinese safety standards for woodworking machinery and the latest European and US relevant general safety standards are analyzed to find out the difference between China’s GB 12557-2010 and EN 691-1:2012& ANSI O1.1-2009 to determine the shortages of Chinese safety standards, which can provide reference for coping with technical barriers involved in international trade and elevating the international competition of China’s woodworking machinery industry.%对我国木工机械安全标准与目前欧美最新相关安全通用标准进行比较分析,找出我国标准GB 12557-2010与EN 691-1:2012、ANSI O1.1-2009之间存在的差异与不足,为应对国际间贸易技术壁垒,提升我国木工机械行业国际竞争力提供参考。

  9. Overview of Food Safety Laws & Regulations and Standards System in South Africa%南非食品安全法律法规标准体系概览

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兰; 胡坚; 何宏恺; 吴雪原; 朱梦栩

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了南非食品安全法律法规概况以及食品安全的相关标准化管理情况,主要阐述了南非与食品安全相关的14种法律法规和3种标准,以及这些法律法规和标准的制定、管理、实施机构。对建立与完善我国的食品安全体系具有较强的借鉴作用,对以南非为主要贸易国的进出口食品企业也有一定的参考作用。%This paper briefs laws & regulations and standardization administration related to food safety of South Africa. It focuses on 14 laws & regulations as well as 3 standards of food safety, and the development, management, and implementation organizations of these standards, which is valuable reference to establish and perfect Chinese food safety system, and is useful for import and export food enterprises mainly trading with South Africa.

  10. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li; Mahnken, Andreas [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany); Domroese, Sascha [University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Philipps University of Marburg, Division of Controlling, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 EUR to 294 EUR, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 EUR to 500 EUR, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 EUR. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 EUR. With increased revenue of 10,000 EUR in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 EUR. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. (orig.)

  11. Criteria for roadside safety of motorways and express roads : a proposal for road authorities in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackage 1.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    To protect occupants of vehicles that leave the road from serious injuries, safe roadsides and medians are important. This report describes the way to make safe roadsides by means of obstacle-free zones, slopes, frangible poles, crash cushions and safety barriers. The research performed here aims to

  12. Safety survives privatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunnigham, P. [Health and Safety Executive, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1995-01-01

    The privatisation of British Coal will have no effect on safety standards in the industry since the new companies will still be governed by the same safety regulations. The Health and Safety Executive does not just inspect, it relies also on information exchange, in the surface mining sector particularly through the quarries National Interest Group, since good health and safety working practices save money. Future trends include compliance with the European Community directives on health and safety, although much of this is covered already. 3 figs.

  13. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine Safety Smallpox Vaccine Safety Common Concerns Adjuvants Autism CDC Statement: 2004 Pediatrics Paper on MMR and Autism Fainting (Syncope) Febrile ...

  14. Neutrinos help reconcile Planck measurements with the local universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Mark; Rudd, Douglas H; Vanderveld, R Ali; Hu, Wayne

    2014-02-07

    Current measurements of the low and high redshift Universe are in tension if we restrict ourselves to the standard six-parameter model of flat ΛCDM. This tension has two parts. First, the Planck satellite data suggest a higher normalization of matter perturbations than local measurements of galaxy clusters. Second, the expansion rate of the Universe today, H0, derived from local distance-redshift measurements is significantly higher than that inferred using the acoustic scale in galaxy surveys and the Planck data as a standard ruler. The addition of a sterile neutrino species changes the acoustic scale and brings the two into agreement; meanwhile, adding mass to the active neutrinos or to a sterile neutrino can suppress the growth of structure, bringing the cluster data into better concordance as well. For our fiducial data set combination, with statistical errors for clusters, a model with a massive sterile neutrino shows 3.5σ evidence for a nonzero mass and an even stronger rejection of the minimal model. A model with massive active neutrinos and a massless sterile neutrino is similarly preferred. An eV-scale sterile neutrino mass--of interest for short baseline and reactor anomalies--is well within the allowed range. We caution that (i) unknown astrophysical systematic errors in any of the data sets could weaken this conclusion, but they would need to be several times the known errors to eliminate the tensions entirely; (ii) the results we find are at some variance with analyses that do not include cluster measurements; and (iii) some tension remains among the data sets even when new neutrino physics is included.

  15. Express roads in Europe : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.2 & 3.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    1999-01-01

    Express roads are a rather miscellaneous road category hierarchically situated between motorways and ordinary single carriageway interurban roads. In general, the safety record of express roads is bad, in particular when compared to motorways. Nevertheless, they exist, and they will continue to

  16. Occupational safety and health in Thailand : a country report for ILO/ADB RETA Project: 5887: strengthening the role of labour standards in selected developing member countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the organization of occupational safety and health (OSH) at the national level in Thailand and, based on a survey of 23 small and medium size enterprises, examines the situation in manufacturing industries. Outlines a development plan for OSH and the environment and makes recommendations for strengthening OSH, particularly in small and medium size enterprises.

  17. The CE-mark and the new European approach to product law: a system of fundamental legal safety requirements and technical specification standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brack, Antoni

    1999-01-01

    European product law consists of three parts: product liability law, a general product safety regulation and an increasing number of provisions with requirements on product group level. In recent years this third part has been revised in order to speed up the completion of the European single market

  18. Express roads in Europe : research in the framework of the European research project Safety Standards for Road Design and Redesign SAFESTAR, Workpackages 3.2 & 3.3.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    1999-01-01

    Express roads are a rather miscellaneous road category hierarchically situated between motorways and ordinary single carriageway interurban roads. In general, the safety record of express roads is bad, in particular when compared to motorways. Nevertheless, they exist, and they will continue to exis

  19. 企业建立基于ISO 22000标准的食品安全管理体系的探讨%The Enterprises Establishes Based on the ISO 22000 Standard Food Safety Control System′s Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代雨滨

    2009-01-01

    介绍了ISO 22000标准,分别从明确管理职责、建立前提方案、危害分析等方面入手,阐述了基于ISO 22000标准的食品安全管理体系建立的主要措施,提出了企业食品安全管理体系的控制措施,以期为企业建立有效的食品安全管理体系提供参考.%The Standard ISO 22000 was introduced. The main methods of establishment on food safety control system were expounded based on the ISO 22000 standard through the factors such as definituding management responsibilities,establishing the premise of program and hazard analysis. The control measures on food safety control system were put forward to provide reference for the enterprises to establish effective food safety control system.

  20. Hurricane Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Hurricane Safety Checklist - Arabic Hurricane Safety Checklist - Chinese Hurricane Safety Checklist - French Hurricane Safety Checklist - Haitian ... Cross serves in the US, its territories and military installations around the world. Please try again. Your ...

  1. 化工企业安全生产标准化“三项达标”建设探讨%Chemical Enterprise Work Safety Standardization “Three Standard” Construction Discussed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东

    2014-01-01

    Chemical enterprises to carry out the construction of work safety standardization,is an important basis for the government to implement safety classification guidance and supervision. It is to carry out the safe production responsi-bility, regulating the behavior of safe production, enhance the level of safety management, effective way and important means to prevent the accident. This paper focuses on the chemical enterprise work safety standardization“three standard”construction?meaning?relationship and ways of implementation and puts forward four suggestions to create work.%化工企业开展安全生产标准化建设,是政府实施安全生产分类指导、分级监管的重要依据,是落实安全生产主体责任、规范安全生产行为、提升安全管理水平,有效防范事故发生的必要途径和重要手段。重点论述化工企业安全生产标准化“三项达标”建设的含义、关系、实施途径并提出4点创建工作建议。

  2. Evaluation of the level of knowledge and compliance with standart precautions and the safety standard (NR-32) amongst physicians from a public university hospital, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Rotta, Ehidee Isabel Gómez; Garcia, Clerison Stelvio; Barbosa, Felipe; dos Santos, Amanda Ferreira; Vieira, Gabriela Mazzarolo Marcondes; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-09-01

    Brazil is the first country in the world to have broad coverage standard (NR-32) focused on protecting health workers exposed to biological risks. This study evaluated the degree of knowledge of the NR-32 Standard and the level of knowledge and compliance with the standard precautions. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 208 randomly selected health professionals; 93 of them were residents and 115 were physicians at a Brazilian Clinical Hospital. To collect information, the participants were interviewed and/or they completed semi-structured questionnaires divided into three domains: knowledge of the standard, knowledge of biosafety, and compliance with standard precautions. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency of the scales of knowledge and compliance with values above +0.75 indicating excellent agreement. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the predictors for compliance with NR-32, biosafety, and standard precautions. Mean knowledge of the NR-32 Standard was 2.2 (± 2.02) points (minimum 0 and maximum 7 points). The minimum expected mean was 5.25 points. The mean knowledge of biosafety was 12.31 (± 2.10) points (minimum 4 and maximum 16 points). The minimum expected mean was 12.75 points. The mean compliance with standard precautions was 12.79 (± 2.6) points (minimum 6 and maximum 18 points). The minimum expected mean was 13.5 points. The individual means for using gloves, masks and goggles during procedures and for not recapping needles were 2.69, 2.27, 1.20 and 2.14, respectively. The factors associated with knowledge of the NR-32 were: greater knowledge amongst those who studied at a public university and who had knowledge of biosafety. The knowledge of the NR-32 Standard was low, but there was a good level of knowledge of biosafety issues. The compliance with standard precautions was acceptable in general, but was low for some of the evaluated precautions.

  3. Putting Safety in the Frame: Nurses' Sensemaking at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Valerie Jean; Thompson, Kirrilly Rebecca; Tuckey, Michelle Rae; Blewett, Verna Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Current patient safety policy focuses nursing on patient care goals, often overriding nurses' safety. Without understanding how nurses construct work health and safety (WHS), patient and nurse safety cannot be reconciled. Using ethnography, we examine social contexts of safety, studying 72 nurses across five Australian hospitals making decisions during patient encounters. In enacting safe practice, nurses used "frames" built from their contextual experiences to guide their behavior. Frames are produced by nurses, and they structure how nurses make sense of their work. Using thematic analysis, we identify four frames that inform nurses' decisions about WHS: (a) communicating builds knowledge, (b) experiencing situations guides decisions, (c) adapting procedures streamlines work, and (d) team working promotes safe working. Nurses' frames question current policy and practice by challenging how nurses' safety is positioned relative to patient safety. Recognizing these frames can assist the design and implementation of effective WHS management.

  4. Roads to Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  5. Improving Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The government takes a tougher stance on processors and producers violating food safety standards Awave of recent contaminated food incidents,exemplified by an E.coli outbreak in Germany and the discovery of industrial plasticizers in

  6. Reconciling multiple data sources to improve accuracy of large-scale prediction of forest disease incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, E.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Baker, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological spatial data often come from multiple sources, varying in extent and accuracy. We describe a general approach to reconciling such data sets through the use of the Bayesian hierarchical framework. This approach provides a way for the data sets to borrow strength from one another while allowing for inference on the underlying ecological process. We apply this approach to study the incidence of eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) in Minnesota black spruce (Picea mariana). A Minnesota Department of Natural Resources operational inventory of black spruce stands in northern Minnesota found mistletoe in 11% of surveyed stands, while a small, specific-pest survey found mistletoe in 56% of the surveyed stands. We reconcile these two surveys within a Bayesian hierarchical framework and predict that 35-59% of black spruce stands in northern Minnesota are infested with dwarf mistletoe. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  7. Services in the Forests: How Can Conservation and Development Be Reconciled?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Gemora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available - This study attempted to examine how conservation and development can be reconciled and if there have been initiatives to demonstrate the ability to encourage forest conservation through market mechanisms involving direct involvement in forestation. The study was a qualitative study. The present study focused on the services in the forests, how conservation and development be reconciled. This study, based on in-depth interview, reveal that to be effective in the long-run, programs have to consider the needs and priorities of forest dwellers, which are indeed beyond market-based incentives; a win-win discourse combining forest conservation and poverty alleviation through appropriate provision may hide vested interests of developed communities. Finally, proving the workability of activities and their quantification for emissions credit will be critical for the launching of reducing emissions from forestation and degradation in the future climate agreement.

  8. The problems of labor safety and health protection in construction – EU experiences and standards and legal regulations in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Gavanski

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work in 2004 a special attention was paid to the field of constructions with an accent on a one-week action “Building in Safety”. The research covered all stages of the construction process from planning to exploitation of a structure. Since in our country the new Low on safety and health at work is about to pass the procedure in the Parliament, and according to the tendency of harmonization of regulations and codes with EU countries, it is considered that it is necessary to carry out a comparative analysis of knowledge in this area in European countries and future legal measures and technical regulations in Serbia consequently. The aim of this paper is contribution to viewing the variety of problems and a unique approach to their solution in the direction of further improvement of sustainable development and humanization of working environment.

  9. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 2. Radiological health and related standards for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V.; Wong, Y.C.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the status and basis of radiation protection standards, with a view to identifying how they particularly apply to nuclear power plants. The national and international organizations involved in the setting of standards are discussed, paying explicit attention to their jurisdictions and to the considerations they use in setting standards. The routine and accidental radioactive emissions from nuclear power plants are characterized, and the effect of these emissions on ambient radiation levels is discussed. The state of information on the relationship between radiation exposures and health effects is summarized.

  10. ¨ A Dilemma of Abundance: Governance Challenges of Reconciling Shale Gas Development and Climate Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karena Shaw

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas proponents argue this unconventional fossil fuel offers a “bridge” towards a cleaner energy system by offsetting higher-carbon fuels such as coal. The technical feasibility of reconciling shale gas development with climate action remains contested. However, we here argue that governance challenges are both more pressing and more profound. Reconciling shale gas and climate action requires institutions capable of responding effectively to uncertainty; intervening to mandate emissions reductions and internalize costs to industry; and managing the energy system strategically towards a lower carbon future. Such policy measures prove challenging, particularly in jurisdictions that stand to benefit economically from unconventional fuels. We illustrate this dilemma through a case study of shale gas development in British Columbia, Canada, a global leader on climate policy that is nonetheless struggling to manage gas development for mitigation. The BC case is indicative of the constraints jurisdictions face both to reconcile gas development and climate action, and to manage the industry adequately to achieve social licence and minimize resistance. More broadly, the case attests to the magnitude of change required to transform our energy systems to mitigate climate change.

  11. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... on whether the adaptation mechanisms are enacted or not. The proposed approach reconciles black- and white-box perspectives by proposing several notions of coherence between the adaptivity as observed by the two perspectives: These notions provide useful criteria for the system developer to assess...

  12. Safety of lornoxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain: a post-marketing study of analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam compared with standard analgesic treatment in 3752 day-case surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Narinder; Krøner, Karsten; Simin-Geertsen, Marija; Hejl, Charlotte; Likar, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Post-marketing surveillance studies can provide supplemental data on the safety of medications in the general population. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of analgesic regimens including the NSAID lornoxicam in the short-term treatment of postoperative pain in a clinically relevant population. Randomized, open-label, multicentre, multinational, observational cohort study of 4 days' duration. In-hospital postoperative setting, with discharge to home treatment within 24 hours of surgery. Adults aged > or =18 years expected to be in need of analgesic treatment after day-case surgery. Analgesic regimens containing lornoxicam were compared with a standard analgesic treatment, which was defined as the treatment that the patient would normally receive at the centre. Following day-case surgery, patients were provided with appropriate analgesic medication, and adverse events (AEs; defined as all recorded events with symptoms) were recorded by the investigator during the in-hospital stay and by the patient for the next 3 days using entries recorded morning and evening in a patient diary. Statistical analyses tested for between-treatment differences in AEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs; defined as events probably, possibly or unlikely to be related to treatment) and gastrointestinal AEs (GI-AEs). A total of 4152 patients were randomized to treatment. Since 400 patients did not take any analgesic, the safety population consisted of 1838 patients for lornoxicam and 1914 patients for standard analgesic treatment. Demographic and disease characteristics were similar between the two treatment groups, as were the type of surgery and the anaesthesia used in surgery. In the safety population, 16.9% of patients received no analgesic in hospital, and when analgesics were provided they were often administered in combination. Similarly, approximately 17% of patients did not take any analgesics at home. AEs were reported in 27.1% and 29.4% of patients in the lornoxicam and standard

  13. The Prototype Database for Management of Revision and Compilation of Nuclear & Radiation Safety Regulations and Standards%核与辐射安全法规标准制修订管理原型数据库系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文海; 张弛; 樊赟; 杨丽丽; 刘黎明; 李小丁

    2011-01-01

    介绍了核与辐射安全法规标准制修订管理系统的基本需求,原型数据库系统的数据结构、终端软件的功能以及原型数据库系统的应用情况。%The article describes basic needs of users of a database for management of revision and compilation of nuclear radiation safety regulations and standards,the data structure of the Prototype Database, the function of the Client software of the Prototype Database and the application of the Prototype Database.

  14. High-resolution crystal structures of protein helices reconciled with three-centered hydrogen bonds and multipole electrostatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kuster

    Full Text Available Theoretical and experimental evidence for non-linear hydrogen bonds in protein helices is ubiquitous. In particular, amide three-centered hydrogen bonds are common features of helices in high-resolution crystal structures of proteins. These high-resolution structures (1.0 to 1.5 Å nominal crystallographic resolution position backbone atoms without significant bias from modeling constraints and identify Φ = -62°, ψ = -43 as the consensus backbone torsional angles of protein helices. These torsional angles preserve the atomic positions of α-β carbons of the classic Pauling α-helix while allowing the amide carbonyls to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds as first suggested by Némethy et al. in 1967. Molecular dynamics simulations of a capped 12-residue oligoalanine in water with AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Applications, a second-generation force field that includes multipole electrostatics and polarizability, reproduces the experimentally observed high-resolution helical conformation and correctly reorients the amide-bond carbonyls into bifurcated hydrogen bonds. This simple modification of backbone torsional angles reconciles experimental and theoretical views to provide a unified view of amide three-centered hydrogen bonds as crucial components of protein helices. The reason why they have been overlooked by structural biologists depends on the small crankshaft-like changes in orientation of the amide bond that allows maintenance of the overall helical parameters (helix pitch (p and residues per turn (n. The Pauling 3.6(13 α-helix fits the high-resolution experimental data with the minor exception of the amide-carbonyl electron density, but the previously associated backbone torsional angles (Φ, Ψ needed slight modification to be reconciled with three-atom centered H-bonds and multipole electrostatics. Thus, a new standard helix, the 3.6(13/10-, Némethy- or N-helix, is proposed. Due to the use of

  15. High-resolution crystal structures of protein helices reconciled with three-centered hydrogen bonds and multipole electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Daniel J; Liu, Chengyu; Fang, Zheng; Ponder, Jay W; Marshall, Garland R

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for non-linear hydrogen bonds in protein helices is ubiquitous. In particular, amide three-centered hydrogen bonds are common features of helices in high-resolution crystal structures of proteins. These high-resolution structures (1.0 to 1.5 Å nominal crystallographic resolution) position backbone atoms without significant bias from modeling constraints and identify Φ = -62°, ψ = -43 as the consensus backbone torsional angles of protein helices. These torsional angles preserve the atomic positions of α-β carbons of the classic Pauling α-helix while allowing the amide carbonyls to form bifurcated hydrogen bonds as first suggested by Némethy et al. in 1967. Molecular dynamics simulations of a capped 12-residue oligoalanine in water with AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Applications), a second-generation force field that includes multipole electrostatics and polarizability, reproduces the experimentally observed high-resolution helical conformation and correctly reorients the amide-bond carbonyls into bifurcated hydrogen bonds. This simple modification of backbone torsional angles reconciles experimental and theoretical views to provide a unified view of amide three-centered hydrogen bonds as crucial components of protein helices. The reason why they have been overlooked by structural biologists depends on the small crankshaft-like changes in orientation of the amide bond that allows maintenance of the overall helical parameters (helix pitch (p) and residues per turn (n)). The Pauling 3.6(13) α-helix fits the high-resolution experimental data with the minor exception of the amide-carbonyl electron density, but the previously associated backbone torsional angles (Φ, Ψ) needed slight modification to be reconciled with three-atom centered H-bonds and multipole electrostatics. Thus, a new standard helix, the 3.6(13/10)-, Némethy- or N-helix, is proposed. Due to the use of constraints from

  16. Questioning the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dairy quality standards trigger further controversy China’s dairy industry is once again being scrutinized as suspicions abound that major dairy enterprises played a hand in manipulating and lowering quality standards to save costs.The new standards released in March 2010 set the maximum safety limit for bacteria in raw milk at 2 million cells per milliliter, four times

  17. Safety and security profiles of industry networks used in safety- critical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária FRANEKOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the mechanisms of safety and security profiles of industry and communication networks used within safety – related applications in technological and information levels of process control recommended according to standards IEC 61784-3,4. Nowadays the number of vendors of the safety – related communication technologies who guarantees besides the standard communication, the communication amongst the safety – related equipment according to IEC 61508 is increasing. Also the number of safety – related products is increasing, e. g. safety Fieldbus, safety PLC, safety curtains, safety laser scanners, safety buttons, safety relays and other. According to world survey the safety Fieldbus denoted the highest growth from all manufactured safety products.The main part of this paper is the description of the safety-related Fieldbus communication system, which has to guaranty Safety Integrity Level.

  18. Lift truck safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  19. Agribusiness Safety. Module SH-15. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on agribusiness safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. Following the introduction, 11 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is expected to accomplish are listed (e.g., List at least two reasons for agribusiness safety standards). Then each objective is taught in detail, sometimes…

  20. 基于可信性安全准则的模糊动态投资组合模型%Fuzzy Dynamic Portfolio Selection Model Based on the Safety Standards of Credibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金凤; 曹学明; 邱根胜

    2012-01-01

    研究了模糊环境下的动态投资组合模型,将证券的收益率描述为模糊变量,提出了基于可信性测度的安全准则,可信性安全准则反映了投资者对灾难事件的容忍水平.建立了基于可信性安全准则的模糊动态投资组合模型,对建立的模型设计了基于模糊模拟的混合智能算法进行求解,并在Visual C++环境下,用C语言实现了对实例的求解,证明了混合智能算法的有效性和合理性.%This paper studies the dynamic portfolio model in the fuzzy environment. It puts forward the safety criterion based on credibility measure through describing the security yield as fuzzy variable. The safety criterion of credibility reflects the investor's tolerance level of catastrophic events. The fuzzy dynamic portfolio model based on the safety standards of credibility is established. The hybrid intelligent algorithm based on the fuzzy simulation is designed to solve the established model. And in Visual C + + environment, it proves the efficiency and rationality of hybrid intelligent algorithm through solving the living examples by using C language.

  1. Introduction of the New Edition of Air-conditioner Safety Standard%关于新版空调安全标准介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the new major points of the air-conditioner standard GB 4706.32-2012, and points out the key points of changes of new standard, and briefly interprets the concept of software evaluation.%  本文介绍了新版空调标准GB 4706.32-2012的主要新增点,指出了关键性的变化点,对软件评估的概念做了简要解读。

  2. Clima de segurança organizacional e a adesão às precauções padrão entre dentistas Organizational safety climate and adherence to standard precautions among dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Vivan Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a percepção do dentista a respeito do clima de segurança no trabalho em relação à adesão às precauções padrão. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, transversal realizado através da aplicação da escala de Clima de Segurança a uma população de 224 dentistas que atuavam em unidades de Atenção Básica de Saúde de seis municípios do Paraná. RESULTADOS: O escore total de 3,43 (DP=0,88 revela a baixa percepção dos dentistas a respeito do incentivo e apoio organizacional para adoção das PP. CONCLUSÃO: Clima de segurança insatisfatório, onde a percepção do dentista sobre a segurança de seu ambiente de trabalho é deficiente, evidenciando ações gerenciais de apoio à segurança fragilizadas, falta de um programa de treinamento em saúde ocupacional e deficiência do feedback para favorecer a adoção de práticas seguras.OBJECTIVE: Check the perception of dentists about safety climate at work in relation to adherence to standard precautions. METHODS: It is a quantitative, cross-sectional study conducted through the application of the Safety Climate Scale to a population of 224 dentists who worked in units of primary health care in six municipalities of Paraná. RESULTS: The total score of 3.43 (SD = 0.88 reveals that dentists have a poor perception of the incentives and organizational support for adopting standard precautions. CONCLUSION: Unsatisfactory safety climate, where the perception of dentists about safety in their work environment is deficient, demonstrating fragile management actions of support to safety, lack of a training program in occupational health and deficient feedback to favor the adoption of safe practices.

  3. Validation of the implementation of the basic standards of national radiological safety in radioactive facilities of the east Cuba; Valoracion de la implementacion de las normas basicas de seguridad radiologica nacionales en instalaciones radiactivas del oriente de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez G, F.; Fornet R, O.M. [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente. Delegacion Territorial Holguin, Peralta No.16. Rpto Peralta, C.P. 80400 Holguin (Cuba)]. e-mail: ornuc@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    Since with it publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba began to govern the Basic Standards of Radiological Safety (NBSR) its have lapsed five years. In it practical implementation, by part of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), several resources have been applied among those that its find the identification of the nonfulfillment of the requirements of the NBSR in the inspections, the establishment of validity conditions of the authorizations that are granted, emission and the publication of specific Safety Guides by practice. In the work it is carried out a detailed and integral analysis of the execution of those settled down requirements by the Standards in a representative group of radioactive medical and industrial facilities in the east of the country, by means of the valuation of the deficiencies and requirements pointed out in the inspections carried out during those years 2004 and 2005. As a result of the work the particularities of the level of proven implementation of this body are exposed from the point of view of the ARN that one keeps in mind for it later performance and can being of interest for others regulatory authorities. (Author)

  4. The safety of donor skin preserved with glycerol - Evaluating the Euro Skin Bank preservation procedures of human donor skin against the prEN 12442 standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma RE; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2000-01-01

    The procedures for preservation of human donor skin with glycerol, as applied by the Euro Skin Bank (ESB), were evaluated against the prEN 12442 standard: animal tissues and their derivatives used in the manufacture of medical devices. The focus chosen for this review is on risks related to the tran

  5. Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarin, Vida; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Budišić, Mislav; Bošnjak Pašić, Marija; Črnac, Petra; Budinčević, Hrvoje

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Methods A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women) were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Safety indicators included laboratory findings, reported adverse reactions, and clinical examination. Results At the end of 6-month study period, G. biloba 120 and 60 mg showed a statistically significant positive effect in comparison with placebo only on the Clinical Global Impression score (2.6±0.8 vs 3.1±0.7 vs 2.8±0.7, respectively; P=0.038). The Clinical Global Impression score showed a significant deterioration from the baseline values in the placebo group (−0.3±0.5; P=0.021) as opposed to G. biloba groups. No significant differences were found in the transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Adverse reactions were significantly more common and serious in the placebo group (16 subjects) than in either of the two G. biloba extract groups (eight and nine subjects, respectively), whereas laboratory findings and clinical examinations revealed no differences between the groups receiving G. biloba extract and placebo. Conclusion According to our results, G. biloba seemed to slow down the cognitive deterioration in patients with VCI, but the effect was shown in only one of the four neuropsychological tests administered. However, because of this mild effect in combination with a few adverse reactions, we cannot say that it is ineffective or unsafe either. Further studies are still needed to provide

  6. Dosimetry of electromagnetic fields for compliance of radiological safety standards; Dosimetria de campos electromagneticos para el cumplimiento de normativas de seguridad radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M.

    2005-07-01

    The non-ionizing radiation in occupational, public or residential environments shows a wide variety of characteristics regarding its frequency, power, time pattern, orientation, etc. For a correct dosimetry, it is necessary to choose among diverse measurements protocols and equipment: broadband equipment, selective meters, isotropic probes, high frequency, low frequency, personal monitors, area monitors...How should they be chosen? It depends on the more information available, the easier it will be to take the right decision. For this purpose, it is necessary to understand the physics of the electromagnetic fields (electric field, magnetic field, far and near field) and to be familiar with the corresponding safety limits (occupational or public exposure) in each case. Besides, it is very important to understand the differences between the different technologies used in the modern instrumentation and their applications to specific situations. (Author)

  7. Safety culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, L.J. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  8. The rising tide of green unilateralism in world trade law. Options for reconciling the emerging north-south conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.

    2000-12-01

    This paper argues that to reconcile the objectives of free trade and environmental protection, limited reforms of international trade law are required. There is a need to guarantee, first, that universally accepted international environmental agreements that mandate trade-restrictions remain compatible with international trade law, in particular with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Second, it is necessary to ensure that the interests of small and vulnerable states are protected against environmental unilateralism of the major trading nations. This reform agenda could be realized, it is argued, through an authoritative interpretation of international trade law by the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This interpretation should stipulate that environmentally-motivated trade restrictions which are related to processes and production methods, and which are intended to protect environmental goods outside the importing country, be compatible with WTO law, but only if mandated by international environmental agreements that have been previously accepted by the Ministerial Conference. This paper outlines the rationale for such authoritative interpretation and offers a possible legal draft. This clarification of the relationship between international environmental and international trade law would protect the sovereign right of smaller trading nations, particularly developing countries, to enact their own environmental standards as may be appropriate and feasible according to their specific situation. It would also maintain the supremacy of multilateralism in both international trade and environmental policies, as opposed to unilateral action. The principle of international co-operation and the rule of law would be strengthened, and attempts to use the international trade system for the enforcement of unilaterally decided environmental standards would be precluded. (orig.)

  9. 助听器安全专用标准解读及转化建议%Interpretation of the Standard for Safety of Hearing Aid and Suggestions for Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅金德; 陈涛

    2015-01-01

    助听器是用来弥补听力障碍者由于听力损伤所造成缺陷的一种医用电气设备。在过去,助听器一直被认为是安全的,所以业内对于助听器安全的重视程度一直不够。本文介绍了国内外助听器行业标准化的状况,阐述了对安全专用标准转化的迫切需要,解读了IEC60601-2-66《助听器及助听器系统基本安全和主要性能专用要求》,并提出了为了促进行业发展,转化该标准的建议方案。%Hearing aid are used to make up for the hearing impaired due to hearing loss caused by the defect of a kind of medical electrical equipment. In the past, hearing aid has long been regarded as safe, security industry for hearing adi enough emphasis. This paper introduces the status of the hearing aid industry standardization, expounds the transformation of dedicated to safety standards are urgently needed. The author explains the IEC60601-2-66 " Medical electrical equipment – Part 2-66: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of hearing instruments and hearing instrument systems ", and put forward in order to promote the development of the industry, transformation of the standard proposal.

  10. Efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba standardized extract in the treatment of vascular cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demarin V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vida Demarin,1,2 Vanja Bašić Kes,1 Zlatko Trkanjec,1 Mislav Budišić,1 Marija Bošnjak Pašić,3,4 Petra Črnac,5 Hrvoje Budinčević4,5 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice”, 2International Institute for Brain Health, 3Department of Neurology, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb, 4Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Osijek, 5Department of Neurology, Stroke and Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital “Sveti Duh”, Zagreb, Croatia Objectives: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Methods: A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women were randomly allocated (1:1:1 to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Safety indicators included laboratory findings, reported adverse reactions, and clinical examination. Results: At the end of 6-month study period, G. biloba 120 and 60 mg showed a statistically significant positive effect in comparison with placebo only on the Clinical Global Impression score (2.6±0.8 vs 3.1±0.7 vs 2.8±0.7, respectively; P=0.038. The Clinical Global Impression score showed a significant deterioration from the baseline values in the placebo group (-0.3±0.5; P=0.021 as opposed to G. biloba groups. No significant differences were found in the transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings. Adverse reactions were significantly more common and serious in the placebo group (16 subjects than in either of the two G. biloba extract groups (eight and nine subjects

  11. Safety first

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a priority for CERN. That is a message I conveyed in my New Year’s address and that I reiterated at one of the first Enlarged Directorate meetings of 2012 when I outlined five key safety objectives for the year, designed and implemented according to accepted international standards.   As we move from spring to summer, it’s time to take stock of how we are doing. Objective number one for 2012, which overarches everything else, is to limit the number of incidents in the workplace. That means systematically investigating and acting on every incident that involves work stoppage, along with all the most frequent workplace accidents: falls, trips and slips. The performance indicator we set ourselves is the percentage of investigations and follow-ups completed. Year on year, these figures are rising but we can never be complacent, and must strive to reach and sustain 100% follow-up. The second objective is to improve hazard control, with a focus in 2012 on chemical ha...

  12. How the dark energy can reconcile Planck with local determination of the Hubble constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing-Guo; Wang, Ke

    2016-09-01

    We try to reconcile the tension between the local 2.4 % determination of Hubble constant and its global determination by Planck CMB data and BAO data through modeling the dark energy variously. We find that the chi-square is significantly reduced by Δ χ ^2_ {all}=-6.76 in the redshift-binned dark energy model where the 68 % limits of the equation of state of dark energy read w(0≤ z≤ 0.1)=-1.958_{-0.508}^{+0.509}, w(0.11.5) is fixed to -1.

  13. Reconciling the light component and all-particle cosmic ray energy spectra at the knee

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yi; Zhu, Feng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The knee phenomenon of the cosmic ray spectrum, which plays an important role in studying the acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays, is still an unsolved mystery. We try to reconcile the knee spectra measured by ARGO-YBJ and Tibet-III. A simple broken power-law model fails to explain the experimental data. Therefore a modified broken power-law model with non-linear acceleration effects is adopted, which can describe the sharp knee structure. This model predicts that heavy elements dominate at the knee.

  14. 冶金工贸行业小微企业安全标准化管理信息系统的研究%A Preliminary Study on Safety Standardization Management Information System of Small and Micro Metallurgical Businesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程新

    2014-01-01

    分析了冶金等工贸行业小微企业安全标准化管理系统的11个要素,确定管理信息系统的主要目标及使用的关键技术特点,建立了对应的11个功能模块,并对管理信息系统各模块实现的功能进行了介绍。将冶金等工贸行业小微企业安全标准化管理设定的各类安全信息及安全管理内容融入到信息系统管理之中,实现了对安全管理过程中大量积累数据的分析和处理,实时动态地展示工艺、环境、设备、安全、管理状况和员工的危险行为,可以及时有效地进行风险控制,达到降低事故发生的目的。%By analyzing the 11 essentials in safety standardization management system of small and micro metallurgical industry and trade businesses, the main objectives and key technical characteristics of the system are determined, 11 corresponding functional modules are established and realization methods of the modules are introduced. Various types of safety in-formation and management contents set by safety standardization management for small and micro metallurgical industry and trade businesses are integrated into the information system management to achieve analysis and processing lots of accumulated data in safety management process. Thus potential risks in processes, environment, equipment, security, management con-ditions and staff behaviors can be dynamically displayed real-timely, so that risk control can be effectively carried out to reduce accident occurrence.

  15. Efficacy and safety of percutaneous nephrolithotomy with adult standard size instruments in children under 3 years of age: a 10 years single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Basiri, Abbas; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Tabibi, Ali; Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Narouie, Behzad; Sarhangnejad, Reza; Valipour, Reza; Sotoudeh, Mehdi; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Ketabi, Nooshin; Movahed, Saeed

    2016-11-18

    Using percutaneous nephrolitotomy (PCNL) with large adult instruments in treatment of pediatricurolithiasis is still in debate. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PCNL with adult's instrument in treatment of patients less than 3 years old. Data on patient characteristics and outcomes for 261 consecutive children undergoing PCNL at a Labbafinejad University Hospital were collected prospectively from September 2006 to February 2016. Thirty-two children, with 34 renal units, who were treated with PCNL were enrolled in the study. All PCNL procedures were performed via subcostal approach with one access tract in all of them. Postoperative complications were evaluated according to the modified Clavien grading system. The mean age of patients was 19.4 ± 6.2 months. Two patients had bilateral stones; thus, PCNL was performed on 34 kidney units. The mean size of the largest stone diameter was 17.5 ± 7.8 mm. The mean duration of procedures was 121.52 ± 29.05 minutes, ranging from 60 to 180 minutes. The most common complication was fever (n = 9, 26.4%), and hemorrhage that needs transfusion was the second one (n = 4, 11.7%). Seventeen patients with complications were in the first degree of Clavien complication system and five of them were in the second degree. Due to our experience, utilizing PCNL with adult-sized instruments in management of urolithiasis in less than 3 years old children appeared to be effective and relatively safe.

  16. A randomized, open, parallel group, multicenter trial to investigate analgesic efficacy and safety of a new transdermal fentanyl patch compared to standard opioid treatment in cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kress, Hans G; Von der Laage, Dorothea; Hoerauf, Klaus H

    2008-01-01

    trial, in which 220 patients were randomized to receive either the fentanyl patch or standard opioid treatment for 30 days. The primary efficacy variable, pain intensity (PI) on a 0-10-point numerical rating scale, was recorded once daily. The primary endpoint was the relative area under the curve of PI...... expressed as a percentage of the maximum possible PI area under the curve. Any adverse events were recorded; four tolerability endpoints, constipation, nausea, daytime drowsiness, and sleeping disturbances, were assessed daily. Noninferiority was shown; the upper 95% confidence interval limits of the mean...

  17. A randomized, open, parallel group, multicenter trial to investigate analgesic efficacy and safety of a new transdermal fentanyl patch compared to standard opioid treatment in cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kress, H.G.; Laage, D. Von der; Hoerauf, K.H.

    2008-01-01

    , in which 220 patients were randomized to receive either the fentanyl patch or standard opioid treatment for 30 days. The primary efficacy variable, pain intensity (PI) on a 0-10-point numerical rating scale, was recorded once daily. The primary endpoint was the relative area under the curve of PI expressed...... as a percentage of the maximum possible PI area under the curve. Any adverse events were recorded; four tolerability endpoints, constipation, nausea, daytime drowsiness, and sleeping disturbances, were assessed daily. Noninferiority was shown; the upper 95% confidence interval limits os the mean difference...

  18. 浅析大数据思维在食品安全标准制定中的应用%Elementary Discussion on the Developing Food Safety Standards in the Age of Big Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕燕; 韩宏伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective “Big data” has become an important tool of macro design and handling of the complex problems, this study intends to explore the new ideas for the formulation of food safety standards in the age of big data background. Methods The concept, characteristics and application of the “big data” in the public health, and the formulation of the current food safety standard procedures and requirements. Results“Big data”is an important toolin the management of public health, the formulation of current food safety standards are mainly based on experiment data and the food consumption data,not including environmental factors. Conclusion This paper puts forward the basic train of thought of developing food safety standards in the era of big data,that is,to expand the field of usage of the data, on the basis of natural environment monitoring and social informationselection,to a deeper and wider areas,andpromote the interaction between the government and the public to form the cooperative governance in food standards developing.%目的:大数据已成为面对复杂问题时的宏观设计和处理的重要手段,本研究拟探讨在大数据时代背景下食品安全标准制定的新思路。方法梳理大数据的概念、特点和在人群健康领域的应用,以及现行食品安全标准制定的程序和要求。结果大数据思维是创新健康管理的重要手段,现行食品安全标准制定主要利用实验数据和食物消费量数据,对环境因素考虑不足。结论本文提出了大数据在食品安全标准制定中应用的新思路,在利用自然环境监测和社会环境信息的基础上,探讨构建综合分析大数据的数学统计模型,拓展数据的使用范围,从更深层次、更广领域促进标准制定工作与社会公众之间的互动,形成政府主导、公众参与、多元化的标准制定新格局。

  19. Discussions on the standardized safety evaluation of new drugs in phase I clinical trials%Ⅰ期新药临床试验中安全性数据规范化分析探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏敏吉; 王水强; 赵彩芸; 郭旭光

    2014-01-01

    推进创新药物Ⅰ期临床试验的策略是基于药物的获益/风险比分析,因此,在早期临床阶段就进行规范化的药物安全性评价是一个良好的开端。本文对国内完成的Ⅰ期临床试验安全性评价资料进行了分析,发现存在一些需要改进和提高的方面,如不良事件术语需要统一以及规范化呈交、实验室检查指标的分级、需要关注的重要和未期望的不良事件等。针对这些不足,建议按照人用药品注册技术要求国际协调会(ICH)指导原则的要求进行规范化的安全性分析。%The strategies for pushing phase Ⅰ new drug clinical trials for-ward are based on the ratio of benefit to risk.Thus it would be a good starting to perform a standardized safety evaluation when a new drug enters its early phase trial.In the present paper, we evaluated the safety information contained in the phase I clinical study reports of new drugs and found improvements needed to be done in the following areas , such as the standard terminology used for adverse events , presentation of adverse events, classification of laboratory parameters and special atten -tions to the important and unexpected adverse events , etc.Finally, we proposed to adopt a standardized practice based on Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use of International Confer -ence on Harmonization(ICH) guidelines in the assessment of drug safety.

  20. [New aspects of safety assessment and food contamination with antibiotics of tetracycline group in the light of harmonization of hygienic standards in Russia and Customs Union with the international standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Sheveleva, S A; Khotimchenko, S A

    2012-01-01

    To address the issue of harmonization of Russian MRLs for tetracycline in food and on the basis of the tasks of preserving the value of hygienic standard for the more restrictive level than similar standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in this survey we analyzed the evidences of the negative effects of subingibitory amounts of these antibiotics (lying below the MIC for clinically relevant microorganisms). The inadequacy of the microbiological JECFA ADI and the necessity of using of methodology of analyzing the effects of biological active substances in small doses for assessing the risk of food contamination of tetracycline subingibitory concentrations were demonstrated. Current scientific information on the functions of antibiotics as signaling molecules in the microbial world and the role of tetracycline as a leading factor in the regulation of transcription in microorganisms and activation of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes transferred to the family of conjugative transposons Tn916-Tn1545 also was reviewed in paper. Evidence-based data regarding the basic contribution of subingibitory concentrations of tetracycline in the spread of worst transmissible type of antibiotic resistance and the formation of new pathogens, associated with it, are represented. To reduce the risk of direct adverse effects on microbial ecosystem in the human body and its habitat, and to minimize the indirect risk of new infections, the necessity of saving the current Russian level residues of tetracycline (< or = 0.01 mg/kg of product), which is low by contrast to the Codex MRLs (< or = 0.1-1.2 mg/kg), was proved. Tetracycline concentrations in food, regulated in Russian Federation, below 0.1 MIC for clinically significant microorganisms which aren't capable to initiation of the above described negative changes.

  1. Reconciling professional identity: A grounded theory of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Mills, J; Birks, M; Budden, L

    2017-09-05

    Role modelling by experienced nurses, including nurse academics, is a key factor in the process of preparing undergraduate nursing students for practice, and may contribute to longevity in the workforce. A grounded theory study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon of nurse academics' role modelling for undergraduate students. The study sought to answer the research question: how do nurse academics role model positive professional behaviours for undergraduate students? The aims of this study were to: theorise a process of nurse academic role modelling for undergraduate students; describe the elements that support positive role modelling by nurse academics; and explain the factors that influence the implementation of academic role modelling. The study sample included five second year nursing students and sixteen nurse academics from Australia and the United Kingdom. Data was collected from observation, focus groups and individual interviews. This study found that in order for nurse academics to role model professional behaviours for nursing students, they must reconcile their own professional identity. This paper introduces the theory of reconciling professional identity and discusses the three categories that comprise the theory, creating a context for learning, creating a context for authentic rehearsal and mirroring identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study on Fire Safety Standards of Exterior Insulation System%外墙外保温系统防火标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春玲

    2012-01-01

    本文介绍了国外外墙外保温系统防火的主要要求,对比分析了我国规范的不足与差异.在此基础上,提出保温材料的燃烧性能不是评价外保温系统防火性能的唯一指标,应从材料的燃烧性能和系统的防火性能两方面提出要求,全面评价外墙外保温系统的火灾风险和隐患.对于外墙外保温系统的防火问题,应秉承科学、严谨的态度合理解决,建立开放性的、性能化的外墙外保温防火技术标准要求.%In this paper, the main requirements of exterior insulation system in foreign countries were described, and the deficiencies and differences in standards between China and foreign countries were comparatively analyzed. And then,it was pointed out that combustion properties was not the only indicator to evaluate the fire performance of exterior insulation system. To comprehensively evaluate the fire risks and hazards of the external insulation system, the requirements shoud be proposed from the combustion performance of insulation materials and fire performance of the insulation system. As a conclusion,for the fire issue of external thermal insulation system, it should be reasonably solved with the scientific and rigorous attitude. In addition, the open and performance-based standards of fire requirements on the external thermal insulation system should be established.

  3. Radiation safety assessment and development of environmental radiation monitoring technology; standardization of input parameters for the calculation of annual dose from routine releases from commercial reactor effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, I. H.; Cho, D.; Youn, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.; Ahn, H. K. [Soonchunhyang University, Ahsan (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This research is to develop a standard methodology for determining the input parameters that impose a substantial impact on radiation doses of residential individuals in the vicinity of four nuclear power plants in Korea. We have selected critical nuclei, pathways and organs related to the human exposure via simulated estimation with K-DOSE 60 based on the updated ICRP-60 and sensitivity analyses. From the results, we found that 1) the critical nuclides were found to be {sup 3}H, {sup 133}Xe, {sup 60}Co for Kori plants and {sup 14}C, {sup 41}Ar for Wolsong plants. The most critical pathway was 'vegetable intake' for adults and 'milk intake' for infants. However, there was no preference in the effective organs, and 2) sensitivity analyses showed that the chemical composition in a nuclide much more influenced upon the radiation dose than any other input parameters such as food intake, radiation discharge, and transfer/concentration coefficients by more than 102 factor. The effect of transfer/concentration coefficients on the radiation dose was negligible. All input parameters showed highly estimated correlation with the radiation dose, approximated to 1.0, except for food intake in Wolsong power plant (partial correlation coefficient (PCC)=0.877). Consequently, we suggest that a prediction model or scenarios for food intake reflecting the current living trend and a formal publications including details of chemical components in the critical nuclei from each plant are needed. Also, standardized domestic values of the parameters used in the calculation must replace the values of the existed or default-set imported factors via properly designed experiments and/or modelling such as transport of liquid discharge in waters nearby the plants, exposure tests on corps and plants so on. 4 figs., 576 tabs. (Author)

  4. Fatigue Life Safety Assessment System for the Top Hammer Surface-Drill Based on IIW Standard%基于IIW标准的露天顶锤式钻机疲劳寿命安全评估系统∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志刚

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of economic globalization, higher security requirements to the mining enterprises have been put forward. The fatigue life safety assessment system for the top hammer surface-drill based on the IIW standard would monitor the equipment paramenters in real-time, such as strength, fatigue, etc, thus could highly ensure the machine to operate safely and stably. As the current international advanced monitoring method, fatigue life safety evaluation system will be gotten attention in mining machinery enterprises.%随着经济全球化的不断发展,企业对矿山机械的安全工作提出了更高的要求。基于IIW标准的露天顶锤式钻机疲劳寿命安全评估系统实时监测设备强度、疲劳等参数,可以最大限度的保证机器的安全稳定运行。疲劳寿命安全评估系统作为当前国际先进的监测手段,必将在矿山机械企业中受到重视。

  5. 国内外童鞋产品质量安全标准及检测方法%Domistic and Foreign Quality and Safety Standards for Children Shoes and Testing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晶; 董伟; 俞凌云; 吴孟茹; 刘苏锐

    2013-01-01

    简述了我国童鞋产品的使用标准现状,介绍了国内外童鞋的质量安全相关的要求以及有毒有害物质的检测方法.通过童鞋产品需求市场的分析,了解了部分童鞋产品存在的安全隐患,提出了提高我国童鞋产品质量安全水平的相应的建议.%The current standards of children's shoes in China were described. The quality and safety requirements of children's shoes both at home and abroad and the testing methods of hazard substance were introduced. The hidden danger of some of the children's shoes based on the market research was presented and some suggestions on the development strategy of domestic children's shoes industry were offered.

  6. Safety design for medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The use of robots in medicine is increasing, leading to the call for specific safety standards. This is a challenging endeavor, however, because the patient must usually be placed in the robot's workspace and the medical staff must frequently interact with the robot. Although specific safety standards for medical robots do not yet exist, there are several medical device standards and well-established principles of risk analysis and safety design that can and should be applied. This paper presents a tutorial overview of safety design for medical robots, starting with a discussion of high-level safety requirements, followed by methods for risk assessment (or hazard analysis) and a brief discussion of some sample safety strategies.

  7. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  8. Coupling of OECD standardized test and immunomarkers to select the most environmentally benign ionic liquids option--towards an innovative "safety by design" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bado-Nilles, Anne; Diallo, Alpha-Oumar; Marlair, Guy; Pandard, Pascal; Chabot, Laure; Geffard, Alain; Len, Christophe; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposed a potential industrial accompaniment to reduce ionic liquid harmfulness by a novel combination of OECD Daphnia magna standardized test and fish immunomarkers. The combination of these two tests allowed multicriteria examination of ILs impacts in different organisms and trophic levels. The work provided new data for legislation and opened a door towards an integrative environmental evaluation due to direct implications of immune system in fish and ecosystem health. Whatever the species, each IL tested induced deleterious effects suggesting that toxic impact was especially due to IL lipophilicity properties. Nevertheless, cation moieties of ILs seemed to draw overall toxicity of ILs to significant extent as supported by lower cell mortality shown with imidazolium-based ILs compared to phosphonium-based ILs. However, the anions moieties have some additional effect, as revealed by quite dissimilar toxicity within same IL family. Concerning the more integrative biomarkers, the cationic-based ILs tested possessed also dissimilar effect on immune system of fish, especially on leucocyte distribution, lysosomal membrane integrity and phagocytosis activity. These results confirm that ILs toxicity could be influenced by design and that chemical engineering processes can integrate ecological footprint reduction strategies for successful IL utilization in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupling of OECD standardized test and immunomarkers to select the most environmentally benign ionic liquids option—Towards an innovative “safety by design” approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bado-Nilles, Anne, E-mail: Anne.Bado-Nilles@ineris.fr [Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), UMR-I 02 SEBIO, B.P. 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UMR-I 02 SEBIO, Campus Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51687 REIMS cedex (France); Diallo, Alpha-Oumar, E-mail: Alpha-Oumar.Diallo@ineris.fr [INERIS, Pôle Substances et Procédés, B.P. 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Marlair, Guy, E-mail: Guy.Marlair@ineris.fr [INERIS, Pôle Substances et Procédés, B.P. 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pandard, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.Pandard@ineris.fr [INERIS, Unité Expertise et essais en écotoxicologie, B.P. 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Chabot, Laure, E-mail: Laure.Chabot@ineris.fr [INERIS, Unité Expertise et essais en écotoxicologie, B.P. 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Geffard, Alain, E-mail: Alain.Geffard@univ-reims.fr [Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UMR-I 02 SEBIO, Campus Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51687 REIMS cedex (France); Len, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Len@utc.fr [Université Technologique de Compiègne/ESCOM, EA 4297, Transformations Intégrées de la Matière Renouvelable, Centre de Recherches de Royallieu, B.P. 20529, F-60205 Compiègne Cedex (France); Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Development of innovative method for more in depth assessment of ecotoxicity of ILs. • Lower toxicity of imidazolium compared to phosphonium-based ILs. • ILs families possessed dissimilar effect on immune system of fish. • More impact of cation than anion in toxicological and biological activities. - Abstract: This paper proposed a potential industrial accompaniment to reduce ionic liquid harmfulness by a novel combination of OECD Daphnia magna standardized test and fish immunomarkers. The combination of these two tests allowed multicriteria examination of ILs impacts in different organisms and trophic levels. The work provided new data for legislation and opened a door towards an integrative environmental evaluation due to direct implications of immune system in fish and ecosystem health. Whatever the species, each IL tested induced deleterious effects suggesting that toxic impact was especially due to IL lipophilicity properties. Nevertheless, cation moieties of ILs seemed to draw overall toxicity of ILs to significant extent as supported by lower cell mortality shown with imidazolium-based ILs compared to phosphonium-based ILs. However, the anions moieties have some additional effect, as revealed by quite dissimilar toxicity within same IL family. Concerning the more integrative biomarkers, the cationic-based ILs tested possessed also dissimilar effect on immune system of fish, especially on leucocyte distribution, lysosomal membrane integrity and phagocytosis activity. These results confirm that ILs toxicity could be influenced by design and that chemical engineering processes can integrate ecological footprint reduction strategies for successful IL utilization in the future.

  10. Insulin pump risks and benefits: a clinical appraisal of pump safety standards, adverse event reporting, and research needs: a joint statement of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Technology Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lutz; Fleming, G Alexander; Petrie, John R; Holl, Reinhard W; Bergenstal, Richard M; Peters, Anne L

    2015-04-01

    -world setting; such data could provide vital information to help health care teams to educate and support users and thereby prevent AEs. As well as requiring more from the manufacturing companies, we call for public funding of more research addressing clinically important questions in relation to pump therapy: both observational studies and clinical trials. At present, there are significant differences in the regulatory systems between the US and European Union at both pre- and postmarketing stages; improvements in the European system are more urgently required. This statement concludes with a series of recommended specific actions for "meknovigilance" (i.e., a standardized safety approach to technology) that could be implemented to address the shortcomings we highlight.

  11. 78 FR 35585 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... the specifications in Table 1, ``Fundamental Specification of Safety Colors for CIE Standard Source `C..., ``Specification of the Safety Colors for CIE Illuminate C and the CIE 1931, 2 Standard Observer,'' of ANSI Z535.1... as specified in Table 1, ``Fundamental Specification of Safety Colors for CIE Standard Source...

  12. 78 FR 35559 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... the specifications in Table 1, ``Fundamental Specification of Safety Colors for CIE Standard Source `C..., ``Specification of the Safety Colors for CIE Illuminate C and the CIE 1931, 2 Standard Observer,'' of ANSI Z535.1... as specified in Table 1, ``Fundamental Specification of Safety Colors for CIE Standard Source...

  13. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  14. Hand Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  15. Water Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  16. SAFETY FIRST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ensuring safety while peacefully utilizing nuclear energy is a top priority for China A fter a recent earthquake in Japan caused radioactive leaks at a nuclear power plant in Tokyo, the safety of nuclear energy has again aroused public attention.

  17. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  18. Safety analysis for `Fugen`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The improvement of safety in nuclear power stations is an important proposition. Therefore also as to the safety evaluation, it is important to comprehensively and systematically execute it by referring to the operational experience and the new knowledge which is important for the safety throughout the period of use as well as before the construction and the start of operation of nuclear power stations. In this report, the results when the safety analysis for ``Fugen`` was carried out by referring to the newest technical knowledge are described. As the result, it was able to be confirmed that the safety of ``Fugen`` has been secured by the inherent safety and the facilities which were designed for securing the safety. The basic way of thinking on the safety analysis including the guidelines to be conformed to is mentioned. As to the abnormal transient change in operation and accidents, their definition, the events to be evaluated and the standards for judgement are reported. The matters which were taken in consideration at the time of the analysis are shown. The computation programs used for the analysis were REACT, HEATUP, LAYMON, FATRAC, SENHOR, LOTRAC, FLOOD and CONPOL. The analyses of the abnormal transient change in operation and accidents are reported on the causes, countermeasures, protective functions and results. (K.I.)

  19. 生驼乳和驼乳粉食品安全地方标准的研究%Study on the Local Food Safety Standards of Raw Camel Milk and Camel Milk Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 陆东林; 李景芳; 何晓瑞; 叶东东

    2016-01-01

    The nutriment concentration of Xinjiang Bactrian camel milk is higher than cattle milk and sheep milk, and there is a fully kinds of functional active elements in the camel milk which have higher nutritional value and health function. Set the local food safety standards of raw camel milk and camle milk powder has a great significance for standardizing the camel milk market, improving the camel milk product quality supervision, coordinating relationship between the farms and the ifrms, protecting the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, promoting the healthy and stable development of the camel milk industry. This study introduced the distribution of the camel milk resource and enterprises in Xinjiang, the physical-chemical indexes of the camel milk, the main difference among camel milk, camel milk powder, cattle milk, cattle milk powder, sheep milk, sheep milk powder, the analysis of the inlfuence of the camel’s reproductive characteristics and season to the milk’s quality, the concrete suggestions on the physical-chemical indexes of the local food safety standards of raw camel milk and camle milk powder.%双峰驼乳营养物质浓度显著高于牛羊乳,并含有多种活性功能性成分,具有较高的营养价值和保健作用。制定生驼乳和驼乳粉食品安全地方标准,对规范驼乳和驼乳制品市场、加强产品质量监管、协调牧企关系、保护消费者合法权益、促进驼乳产业健康稳定发展具有重要意义。本文介绍了新疆驼乳资源和企业分布、生驼乳的理化指标、驼乳/驼乳粉和牛羊乳/牛羊乳粉的主要区别;分析了骆驼的繁殖特性和季节因素对驼乳质量的影响;对生驼乳和驼乳粉食品安全地方标准中的理化指标提出了具体建议。

  20. 論WTO《SPS協定》與Codex瘦肉精安全標準之適當性 On the Food Safety Standard and Its Adequacy in WTO/SPS Agreement and Codex/Ractopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    譚偉恩 Wei-En Tan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 「貿易障礙」自GATT 到WTO 時期均一直被視為是對貿易自由化此一價值的減損或否定,故應予設法消除或管制。然而,任何「自由化」的追求均不宜是毫無限制的。基於此一思考,本文檢視目前WTO 中涉及維護人體健康及相關食品安全標準的法律文件—《SPS 協定》及其附件A,並以該協定所肯認之一項國際組織的安全標準—瘦肉精(Ractopamine)的殘留值為例,討論維護消費者食品安全法益的貿易障礙是否在追求自由化的國際貿易法律規範中受到過度與不當之限制。經由追溯《SPS 協定》設立的歷史背 景以及Codex 在制定瘦肉精安全標準上之實踐,本文不但發現《SPS 協定》在規範層面上存有缺失,並對新自由制度主義(Neoliberal Institutionalism)的基本理論假設提出質疑與修正。 Trade barriers should be eliminated or managed because they contradict or weaken the value of trade liberalization. However, any promotions of liberalization without limitations or restraints are doubtful. Considering a matter in this aspect, this essay reviews the SPS Agreement and its Annex A which are both legal documents regarding human health protection and food safety standards under the WTO system. Meanwhile, this essay also inspects maximum residue limits (MRLs for the amount of the drug—Ractopamine—allowed in the tissues of animal, an international standard made by the Codex, delegated by the SPS Agreement. By reviewing the two documents above, this essay examines whether or not the WTO is excessive or unjust to block trade barriers regarding human health protection and food safety standards. Based on the historical background about the formation pro- cess of SPS Agreement and the practice of the Codex’s safety standards mentioned in the SPS Agreement’s Annex A, this essay does not only point out the flaws in the SPS Agreement, but also rebuts some

  1. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are popular ...

  2. High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety What is considered a high altitude? How is ...

  3. Food Safety Tips for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety Tips for College Students When students pack up ...

  4. The Effect(s) of Teen Pregnancy: Reconciling Theory, Methods, and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Christina J; Fiel, Jeremy E

    2016-02-01

    Although teenage mothers have lower educational attainment and earnings than women who delay fertility, causal interpretations of this relationship remain controversial. Scholars argue that there are reasons to predict negative, trivial, or even positive effects, and different methodological approaches provide some support for each perspective. We reconcile this ongoing debate by drawing on two heuristics: (1) each methodological strategy emphasizes different women in estimation procedures, and (2) the effects of teenage fertility likely vary in the population. Analyses of the Child and Young Adult Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,661) confirm that teen pregnancy has negative effects on most women's attainment and earnings. More striking, however, is that effects on college completion and early earnings vary considerably and are most pronounced among those least likely to experience an early pregnancy. Further analyses suggest that teen pregnancy is particularly harmful for those with the brightest socioeconomic prospects and who are least prepared for the transition to motherhood.

  5. How the dark energy can reconcile Planck with local determination of the Hubble constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qing-Guo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang, Ke [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-09-15

    We try to reconcile the tension between the local 2.4 % determination of Hubble constant and its global determination by Planck CMB data and BAO data through modeling the dark energy variously. We find that the chi-square is significantly reduced by Δχ{sup 2}{sub all} = -6.76 in the redshift-binned dark energy model where the 68 % limits of the equation of state of dark energy read w(0 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) = -1.958{sub -0.508}{sup +0.509}, w(0.1 < z ≤ 1.5) = -1.006{sub -0.082}{sup +0.092}, and here w(z > 1.5) is fixed to -1. (orig.)

  6. Reconciling thermal and structural data from the polymorphic transitions of malonamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Eugene Y. [TransForm Pharmaceuticals, 29 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States)], E-mail: echeung@its.jnj.com; Peterson, Matthew L. [TransForm Pharmaceuticals, 29 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Although screening for organic polymorphs has become a hot topic in recent years, polymorph screens continue to be largely based on solution crystallization. Other routes to different crystal forms, such as grinding, annealing, and melt crystallization can also be used to look for polymorphs when chemical stability allows. Thermal analysis is often the first method for identifying polymorphic transitions in solids. However, reconciling the thermal data with the structural data is rarely straightforward without a single crystal X-ray structure. By using differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction, the polymorphic transitions of malonamide have now been studied, and two solid state pathways, solid state grinding and annealing, are verified to independently yield the tetragonal polymorph of malonamide from the monoclinic form. In addition, melt recrystallization yields a third polymorph, which has now been confirmed to be the orthorhombic polymorph.

  7. Deference or Interrogation? Contrasting Models for Reconciling Religion, Gender and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the late 1990s, the extension of the equality framework in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by the recognition of religion within that framework and new measures to address religious discrimination. This development has been contested, with many arguing that religion is substantively different to other discrimination grounds and that increased protection against religious discrimination may undermine equality for other marginalized groups – in particular, women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT people. This paper considers these concerns from the perspective of minoritized women in the UK. It analyses two theoretical approaches to reconciling religious claims with gender equality – one based on privileging, the other based on challenging religious claims – before considering which, if either, reflects experiences in the UK in recent years and what this means for gender equality.

  8. How can family policies reconcile fertility and women's employment? Comparisons between South Korea and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Duvander, Ann-Zofie; Zarit, Steven H

    2016-01-01

    South Korea has extremely low rates of fertility and labor force participation by women during their childbearing years, whereas Sweden has high rates for both. Variations in family policy models may explain differences in fertility and women's employment between the two countries. Drawing upon literature that examines the effects of family policies on fertility and women's employment, this paper compares childcare support for very young children and parental leave policies in South Korea and Sweden. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of providing stronger support for dual-earner rather than single-earner families to reconcile the two objectives of increasing fertility and women's workforce participation. Specifically, it is critical to: (a) enhance the quantity and quality of childcare services for very young children, (b) achieve gender equality in parental leave policies, and (c) reduce gaps in the accessibility and utilization of family benefits by working parents from different social classes.

  9. Reconciling contradictory narratives of landscape change using the adaptive cycle: a case study from southeastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rawluk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the methodological challenge of exposing and reconciling contradictory narratives of change in a social-ecological system (SES. Our research occurred in the Ovens Valley in southeastern Australia. Other studies have used the adaptive cycle to interpret change, but those efforts have been based on researcher-derived interpretations. We drew on the Factors Actors Sectors framework as a structure for coding qualitative interview data provided by key informants. Our analysis suggested that interpretations of SES change fell into three groups: farmers, employees of government and local organizations, and local politicians. Those narratives were then overlaid on the adaptive cycle as a way of exposing and interpreting the narratives. To farmers, the SES was based on agriculture and approaching collapse, and intervention was required to prevent a collapse. Employees of government and local organizations thought the SES had already collapsed, and local people were struggling to identify a prosperous new trajectory. The local politicians also thought the system had collapsed but unlike the other stakeholders, considered the SES as having already reorganized. We then drew on a range of secondary data to reconcile those contradictory narratives and form a consolidated interpretation of landscape change. Our synthesis of the primary and secondary data suggested that the SES had collapsed and reorganized as a multifunctional landscape. We suggest our approach may be useful to others attempting to interpret landscape change using a resilience framework. The case study also illustrates the importance of exploring multiple perspectives of landscape change as a way of exposing the role of power as a force shaping discourse and, therefore, policy and planning.

  10. Integrated Futures for Europe's Mountain Regions: Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Human Livelihoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan Mitchley; Martin F. Price; Joseph Tzanopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Europe's mountains cover nearly half of the continent's area and are home to one fifth of the European population. Mountain areas are hotspots of biodiversity and agriculture has played a multifunctional role in defining and sustaining mountain biodiversity. Ongoing trends of agricultural decline are having negative impacts on mountain biodiversity.This paper presents results from an interdisciplinary European research project, BioScene, which investigated the relationship between agriculture and biodiversity in six mountain study areas across Europe to provide recommendations for reconciling biodiversity conservation with social and economic activities through an integrated rural development strategy.BioScene used scenario analysis and stakeholder participation as tools for structuring the analysis of alternative mountain futures. Three main BioScene scenarios were evaluated: Business as Usual (BaU),Agricultural Liberalisation (Lib), Managed Change for Biodiversity (MCB). BioScene brought together ecologists, economists, sociologists and rural geographers, to carry out interdisciplinary analysis of the scenarios: identifying key drivers of change, assessing the biodiversity consequences and evaluating costeffectiveness. BioScene used a sustainability assessment to integrate the research outputs across natural and social science disciplines to assess the broader sustainability of the scenarios in terms of biodiversity,natural resources, rural development, social development, economic development and institutional capacity. The sustainability assessment showed that the MCB scenario was potentially the most sustainable of the three BioScene scenarios. Through the reconciliation of potentially conflicting objectives,such as conservation, economic development and human livelihoods, and with a strong participatory planning approach, the MCB scenario could represent an alternative approach to BaU for sustainable rural development in Europe's mountains. BioScene confirms

  11. Prospects for reconciling the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation with technological progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Brian

    2008-12-01

    The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is understood in portions of academia and sometimes acknowledged in political circles. Nevertheless, there is not a unified response. In political and policy circles, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is posited to solve the conflict between economic growth and environmental protection. In academia, however, the EKC has been deemed fallacious in macroeconomic scenarios and largely irrelevant to biodiversity. A more compelling response to the conflict is that it may be resolved with technological progress. Herein I review the conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation in the absence of technological progress, explore the prospects for technological progress to reconcile that conflict, and provide linguistic suggestions for describing the relationships among economic growth, technological progress, and biodiversity conservation. The conflict between economic growth and biodiversity conservation is based on the first two laws of thermodynamics and principles of ecology such as trophic levels and competitive exclusion. In this biophysical context, the human economy grows at the competitive exclusion of nonhuman species in the aggregate. Reconciling the conflict via technological progress has not occurred and is infeasible because of the tight linkage between technological progress and economic growth at current levels of technology. Surplus production in existing economic sectors is required for conducting the research and development necessary for bringing new technologies to market. Technological regimes also reflect macroeconomic goals, and if the goal is economic growth, reconciliatory technologies are less likely to be developed. As the economy grows, the loss of biodiversity may be partly mitigated with end-use innovation that increases technical efficiency, but this type of technological progress requires policies that are unlikely if the conflict between economic growth

  12. High School Seniors' Styles of Coping with the Nuclear Threat, 1975-1984: Reconciling Theories, Taxonomies, and Empirical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Gregory; Bachman, Jerald G.

    As awareness of the threat of nuclear war has increased over the past decade (1975-1984), young people have learned to cope with the possibility of unimaginable catastrophe. This paper accordingly begins by reviewing literature on how people cope with the threat of nuclear war, in order to reconcile general theories of coping with nuclear anxiety…

  13. Social Constructivism: Does It Succeed in Reconciling Individual Cognition with Social Teaching and Learning Practices in Mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Gulay

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the literature associated with social constructivism. It discusses whether social constructivism succeeds in reconciling individual cognition with social teaching and learning practices. After reviewing the meaning of individual cognition and social constructivism, two views--Piaget and Vygotsky's--accounting for learning…

  14. Adult Education and Social Responsibility: Reconciling the Irreconcilable? 2nd Revised Edition. Studies in Pedagogy, Andragogy and Gerontagogy, Vol. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Danny, Ed.; Finger, Matthias, Ed.; Jansen, Theo, Ed.

    In this book, 16 authors from Europe, Africa, and the United States reflect on the transformations that are currently taking place in the field of adult and continuing education. The 12 chapters are "Reconciling the Irreconcilable? Adult and Continuing Education Between Personal Development, Corporate Concerns, and Public Responsibility"…

  15. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  16. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  17. Study on the Standard on Cold Chain Quality Safety in Central Kitchen Standard and Application of Traceability Information Technology%中央厨房冷链质量安全标准及可追溯信息技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵帅; 李学工

    2016-01-01

    从食品冷链现代化和食品安全出发,建立中央厨房冷链物流质量管理的理论框架,把质量管理的领域拓展到产品整个生命周期.依据冷链物流质量安全管理理论,建立明确的质量安全标准,并通过可追溯信息化技术的应用,协助中央厨房获取冷链质量安全管理需求,并以更有效的方式快速地响应需求,支持中央厨房通过实现产品创新、管理创新、服务创新来提高顾客的满意度,从而保持并扩大企业产品的市场份额,提高企业的综合竞争力.%Starting from the modernization of food cold chain and food safety, this paper tries to establish the theoretical framework for quality management of central kitchen cold-chain logistics, expanses the scope of quality management across the whole product life cycle. According to the theory, quality safety standards shall be developed through the application of traceability information technology, helping to obtain cold chain quality safety management requirements, and in a more efficient way to quickly response to the demand, support the central kitchen to improve customer satisfaction by implementing product innovation, management innovation, service innovation , so as to maintain and enlarge the market share of enterprise products and improve the comprehensive competitiveness of enterprise.

  18. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  19. National Safety Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defensive Driving Workplace Training NSC University International Knowledge Knowledge Introduction Safety at Home Safety at Work Safety on ... or contact us . Measure Measure Safety Measure Safety Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research ...

  20. DOE technical standards list: Department of Energy standards index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standards list (TSL) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31) on the basis of currently available technical information. Periodic updates of this TSL will be issued as additional information is received on standardization documents being issued, adopted, or canceled by DOE. This document was prepared for use by personnel involved in the selection and use of DOE technical standards and other Government and non-Government standards. This TSL provides listings of current DOE technical standards, non-Government standards that have been adopted by DOE, other standards-related documents in which DOE has a recorded interest, and canceled DOE technical standards. Information on new DOE technical standards projects, technical standards released for coordination, recently published DOE technical standards, and activities of non-Government standards bodies that may be of interest to DOE is published monthly in Standards Actions.