Abdoul Hossain Madani
Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this
Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei
Sociodemographic factors in Arab children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. ... by direct observation according to the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) ... Finally, parents rated their child on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist ...
Socio-Demographic Factors Influencing Work-Role Salience Among ... The findings showed that students from lower socio-economic status homes and those ... The need to involve the students\\' parents in career education programmes and ...
Sep 1, 2013 ... Their socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, breastfeeding status, parents ... acute diarrhoea among under five children in Enugu, Nigeria. ... Malnutrition predisposes .... Determinants of the utilization of children's Health.
Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Inthawong, Rungkarn; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Sangthong, Rassamee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Putwatana, Panwadee; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Aekplakorn, Wichai
To estimate daily intake of sodium and examine the relation of socio-demographic factors with sodium intake exceeding the recommendations. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV (NHES IV) conducted during 2008-2009 were used. The 24-hour-dietary-recall data were available for a subsample of 10% of the total participants. All food and beverage data were analyzed for amount of total daily sodium intake for each person. In statistical analyses, descriptive statistics were employed to describe participants' characteristics, quantities of dietary sodium and percentages of participants noncompliant with daily sodium intake recommendations. Logistic regression was used to examine socio-demographic determinants of sodium intake exceeding the recommendations. 2,969 participants participated in this study. Sodium intake varied by socio-demographics. Percentages of participants non-compliant with sodium intake recommendations ranged from 75.3 (> or = 1,500 mg) to 52.0 (> or = 2,400 mg) for those aged or = 1,500 mg) to 67.6 (2,400 mg) for those aged > or = 16 years. In the younger group, age and region were key determinants of consuming sodium exceeding all recommendations. Having family income between 5,000 and < 10,000 baht/month was significantly associated with sodium intake exceeding recommendation targets. In the older group, being female and increasing age reduced a risk of non-compliance with some recommendations; oppositely, region and residential area participants lived significantly, increased non-compliant risk. Most participants consumed dietary sodium exceeding current recommendations. Effective programs to reduce sodium intake in Thais are critical.
This literature review seeks to explore the factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards assisted suicide. A poll conducted by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) showed that 49% of nurses supported assisted suicide while 40% were opposed to it. A literature review resulted in 16 articles being identified for data synthesis using a recognised critiquing framework. The articles revealed four key themes: nursing specialty, level of education, geographical location and religion. It was concluded that these four themes are key to understanding a nurse's attitude towards assisted suicide. Nursing staff need to be aware of their own influences on this topic, since they will inevitably be involved in the process in some way or another, in countries where assisted suicide has been legalised.
Maria Beatriz Trindade de Castro; Rita Adriana Gomes de Souza; Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela; Gilberto Kac
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association between socio-demographic factors and dietary patterns in pregnancy.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with baseline data from a cohort of 421 postpartum women aged 18 and 45 years resident in Rio de Janeiro,Brazil. Dietary intake was evaluated with a validated food frequency questionnaire at 15 days following delivery, having as time frame the second and third pregnancy trimesters. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis for principal compon...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.
Maria Beatriz Trindade De Castro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socio-demographic factors and dietary patterns in pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with baseline data from a cohort of 421 postpartum women aged 18 and 45 years resident in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Dietary intake was evaluated with a validated food frequency questionnaire at 15 days following delivery, having as time frame the second and third pregnancy trimesters. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis for principal components analysis. The association between socio-demographic factors and the identified dietary patterns was assessed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified: i healthy: fruits; green vegetables; vegetables; fish; roots, corn and potato; milk and dairy and herbal tea mate, and negatively loadings for alcohol and coffee and ii mixed: rice; bean; flour and pasta; breads; cake and cookies; soda and juice; sugar and sweets; fatty foods; meats; chicken; and eggs. The linear regression showed that the income (β=0.0002; 95%CI: 0.0002-0.0004 and schooling (β=0.0491; 95%CI: 0.0264-0.0718 were positively associated with healthy pattern, and parity (β=-0.1044; 95%CI: -0.1665- -0.0423 and skin color (β=-0.3102; 95%CI: -0.5256- -0.0947 were negatively associated. Skin color (β=0.1647; 95%CI: 0.0378- 0.2916 and marital status (β=0.1065; 95%CI: 0.0062- 0.2067 were positively associated with mixed pattern and income (β=-0.0001; 95%CI:-0.0002- -0.0001 and schooling (β=-0.0281; 95%CI: -0.0417- -0.0146 were negatively associated. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic factors such as income, schooling, skin color, marital status and parity were associated with dietary patterns in this sample of postpartum women residents in Rio de Janeiro.
Navarro-Meza, Mónica; Morales-Sánchez, Eddic Willie; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermin; Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel
Parkinson's disease (PD), its prevalent in population to 65 years of age, nevertheless can occur earlier. Patients with PD exhibit motor and no motor symptoms these may relate with changes in nutritional habits during disease progression. The prevalence of PD and nutritional factor could be different in rural areas compared to urban regions and can be associated with sociocultural and demographic features. It has been suggested a possible association between excessive intake of saturated fats and low consumption of vitamins such as B6 with EP, however, the results are still not conclusive. Some of significant factors could affect nutritional habits and status in PD in rural areas, are: health status, economic availability, environmental and geographical factors, among others. This review presents some eating habits and sociodemographic factors in PD principally in rural areas.
Maria Lucia Zanetti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo determine if there is a relationship between adherence to nutritional recommendations and sociodemographic variables in Brazilian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.METHODSCross-sectional observational study using a stratified random sample of 423 individuals. The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ was used, and the Fisher's exact test was applied with 95% confidence interval (p<0.05.RESULTSOf the 423 subjects, 66.7% were women, mean age of 62.4 years (SD = 11.8, 4.3 years of schooling on average (SD = 3.6 and family income of less than two minimum wages. There was association between the female gender and adherence to diet with adequate cholesterol content (OR: 2.03; CI: 1.23; 3.34, between four and more years of education and adherence to fractionation of meals (OR: 1 92 CI: 1.19; 3.10, and income of less than two minimum wages and adherence to diet with adequate cholesterol content (OR: 1.74; CI: 1.03, 2.95.CONCLUSIONAdherence to nutritional recommendations was associated with the female gender, more than four years of education and family income of less than two minimum wages.
Bharti T Talreja
Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
Monte-Secades, R; Blanco-Soto, M; Díaz-Peromingo, J A; Sanvisens-Bergé, A; Martín-González, M C; Barbosa, A; Rosón-Hernández, B; Tejero-Delgado, M A; Puerta-Louro, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R
To analyse the influence of epidemiological and sociodemographic factors in complicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). A multicentre, observational prospective study was conducted on consecutively added patients with AWS hospitalised in internal medicine departments. We recorded sociodemographic, epidemiological, clinical and progression data. Complicated AWS was defined as that which progressed with seizures or delirium tremens. We studied 228 episodes of AWS in 219 patients. The mean age was 54.5 years (SD, 11.5), and 90.8% were men. AWS was the cause for hospitalisation in 39.9% of the patients. Some 27.1% of the cases presented seizures, and 32.4% presented delirium tremens. The daily quantity of alcohol ingested was 17.8 standard drink units (SD, 21.4), with 16.6 years of dependence (SD, 11.3). The pattern of alcohol abuse was regular in 82.8% of the patients. Some 38.4% of the patients were married or had a partner, and 45.6% had children. Some 72.7% of the patients were unemployed or retired. Some 68.5% had only completed primary studies. Some 4.8% consumed cannabis, 5.2% consumed cocaine and 3% consumed opioids. The independent variables related to complicated AWS were consumption of a drug other than alcohol (OR, 5.3; 95% CI 1.5-18.7), low education level (OR, 3.4; 95% CI 1.6-7.3) and hospitalisation for AWS (OR, 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.6). The model's receiver operating characteristic area was 0.718 (95% CI 0.643-0.793). Concomitant drug abuse and a low educational level could help identify patients at risk of complicated AWS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Sverre, Elise; Otterstad, Jan Erik; Gjertsen, Erik; Gullestad, Lars; Husebye, Einar; Dammen, Toril; Moum, Torbjørn; Munkhaugen, John
Understanding the determinants of persistent smoking after a coronary event constitutes the basis of modelling interventions of smoking cessation in secondary prevention programs. We aim to identify the potentially modifiable medical, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, comprising the study factors, associated with unfavourable risk factor control after CHD events. A cross-sectional explorative study used logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between study factors and smoking status in 1083 patients hospitalized with myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization. Hospital record data, a self-report questionnaire, clinical examination and blood samples were applied. At the index hospitalization, 390 patients were smoking and at follow-up after 2-36 months 167 (43%) of these had quit, while 230 reported persistent smoking. In adjusted analyses, unemployed or disability benefits (Odds ratio (OR) 4.1), low education (OR 3.5), longer smoking duration (OR 2.3) and not having ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as index event (OR 2.3) were significantly associated with persistent smoking. Psychosocial factors at follow-up were not associated with persistent smoking. Smokers reported high motivation for cessation, with 68% wanting help to quit. Only 42% had been offered nicotine replacement therapy or other cessation aids. Smokers rated use of tobacco as the most important cause of their coronary disease (6.8 on a 1-10 Likert scale). Low socioeconomic status, prior duration of smoking, and not having STEMI as index event were associated with persisting smoking. Persistent smokers in this study seem to have an acceptable risk perception and were motivated to cease smoking, but needed assistance through cessation programs including prescription of pharmacological aids. Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02309255 , registered retrospectively.
Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo
P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care
Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo
P>Title. Socio-demographic factors related to functional limitations and care dependency among older Egyptians. Aim. This paper is a report of a study determining the relationship of socio-demographic factors to functional limitations and care dependency among older care recipients and non-care reci
Full Text Available Khaled Gamal Ibraheem Abueleinen1, Hany El-Mekawey1, Yasser Sayed Saif2, Amr Khafagy1, Hoda Ibrahim Rizk3, Eman M Eltahlawy41Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt; 3Department of Public Health, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Public Health and Community Medicine National Research Center, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate factors behind the delay in diagnosis and treatment among Egyptian patients who present with complicated diabetic retinopathy.Methods: Observational cross-sectional study of diabetic patients with advanced diabetic retinopathy. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire to assess the impact of several sociodemographic factors.Results: A total of 397 patients agreed to take the questionnaire. Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage was the most common ocular complication and was found in 359 patients (90.4%. A total of 158 (39.8% patients knew that diabetes mellitus can be sight threatening, while 240 (60.2% were not aware until they developed sight threatening complication. A total of 179 patients (45.1% had early retirement because of visual loss related to diabetes mellitus. Multivariate logistic regression has shown that education, internist, contact with other patients, and media were respectively significant in predicting the awareness of patients about the sight-threatening effect of diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: Patient education regarding diabetes and diabetic eye disease is essential for early detection and compliance with treatment. Illiteracy has a significant impact on development of sight-threatening diabetic complications. The internist is the first line of prophylaxis. Media has to participate more in patient education.Keywords: blindness, education, laser photocoagulation, macular edema, vitreous hemorrhage
Yoshida, Yilin Xu; Simonsen, Neal; Chen, Liwei; Zhang, L U; Scribner, Richard; Tseng, Tung-Sung
This study aimed to examine whether sociodemographic factors and acculturation affect achievement of selected American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition therapy recommendations among Hispanics with diabetes. Cross-sectional data for Hispanics with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 were used. Achievements of the ADA recommendation for five nutrition components were examined (i.e., daily intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and fiber, and daily servings of alcohol). Acculturation measurement derived from language use, country of birth, and length of residence in the U.S. Logistic regressions were performed. Only 49% of Hispanics with diabetes met three or more recommended criteria. Male gender and younger age (≤45) predicted poor recommendation adherence. More acculturated individuals had around 50% lower odds to achieve saturated fat [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.7], fiber [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9], sodium [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9] and cholesterol intake [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.8] recommendations than their less acculturated counterparts.
Seva Oner; Gulcin Yapici; Ahmet Oner Kurt; Tayyar Sasmaz; Resul Bugdayci
Objective:The adolescent pregnancy is one of the most important problems in the21st century. The adolescent pregnancies pose more health risks to both mothers and babies when compared with the adult pregnancies.Of all the births in the world,11% are given by the adolescents.The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic factors concerning with the adolescent pregnancy.Methods:This study was conducted at18 primary health care centers inMersin, Turkey.The adolescent group was comprised of pregnant women younger than19 years, the adult group was comprised of pregnants aged between20-29 years.The questionnaire was conducted with face-to-face interviews.Results:Respondents included107 pregnant adolescents and 110 pregnant adults.The median age of adolescent group and adult group was18 and26 years, respectively.About61.7% of the pregnant adolescents and94.5% of the pregnant adults were officially married.In the adolescent group, the family frequency without social security was more than that in the adult group.In the adult group, the frequency of opposing the adolescent pregnancy for their families was more than that in the adolescent group.The adolescent pregnancy among sisters and friends of the adolescent pregnants was more frequent compared with that in the adult group.Conclusions:The family frequency without social security was more in the adolescent group.This situation is certain to cause more problems for the adolescents in benefiting from the health care services.We are absolutely think that efforts should be made so as to improve the society in terms of social and cultural aspects.
Khambalia, Amina Z; Lim, Siew S; Gill, Tim; Bulgiba, Awang M
For many developing countries undergoing rapid economic growth and urbanization, trends in nutritional status indicate a decrease in malnutrition with an associated rise in the prevalence of obesity. An understanding of the situation among children in Malaysia is lacking. To examine the prevalence, trends and sociodemographic factors described for underweight and overweight children in Malaysia. The literature from January 1996 to November 2010 on the prevalence of underweight and overweight among children in Malaysia was reviewed. Twelve studies were identified that reported on both underweight and overweight among children in Malaysia, of which only one was a nationally representative survey. Based on the National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006, 13.2% (95% CI, 12.6 to 13.9) of children aged 0 to 18 years were underweight (weight-for-age +2SD). Both underweight and overweight were more prevalent in males than females. Children in rural areas were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than urban children. Ethnic differences between Malays, Chinese, and Indians were inconsistent across studies and less clear. Aborigines were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than the general population. The available evidence, although limited and sparse, suggests that over the past decade the prevalence of both underweight and overweight among children in Malaysia has been stable or has shown an increasing trend. Long-term national monitoring and longitudinal cohort studies will be critical for understanding, preventing, and managing the double burden of malnutrition among children in Malaysia.
Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Seman, Zamtira; Cheong, Kee Chee; Hock, Lim Kuang; Manickam, Mala; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Mustafa, Feisul Idzwan; Mustafa, Amal Nasir
To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults. We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24-64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors. The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren;
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren
.23-0.50) compared with married men with a higher education. Lower incidence rates were also observed among unemployed or early-retirement pensioners, whereas there were no differences in incidence rates across the broad groups of occupations and across the types of districts. Sociodemographic indicators were...
Petrović, Dorde; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Mandić, Vesna
The cervical length is an important factor in the risk evaluation of preterm delivery. The aim of this work was to determine the correlation between the cervical length and the demographic characteristics. A transversal type prospective study was done on a sample of 579 pregnant women at various gestational age of low risk mono-fetal pregnancy. The cervical length was measured by trans-vaginal ultrasound procedure within the regular pregnancy monitoring process. The following data were taken into consideration: the woman's age, her body mass at the beginning of the pregnancy and her height in order to calculate the body mass index as well as her smoking habit at the moment of conception. The mean cervical length was 34.3 mm and 35 mm in the group of women aged 30 and less and 31 and over, respectively. The cervix was insignificantly shorter in younger women (being 34.9 mm/35.9 mm in the 1st trimester, 34.5 mm/35.1 mm in the 2nd one and 33.9 mm/34.7 mm in the 3rd trimester). The sample of 579 pregnant women consisted of 448 non-smokers and 131 smokers. The difference in the length of the cervix in smokers and nonsmokers was not significant (being 32.2 mm/35.9 mm; 35 mm/34 mm and 34.4 mm/33.5 mm in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester, respectively). The correlation between the body mass index and the cervical length was analyzed by trimesters. In the first trimester the increase in the body mass index was followed by the shortening of the cervix; the cervical length was not affected by the BAI in the second trimester, whereas the higher the body mass index the longer the cervix in the third trimester. Our study has shown that the cervical length is affected neither by the age of the woman nor her smoking habit but it is affected by the body mass index at the moment of conception, that linear trend being negative in the 1st trimester but positive in the 3rd one. Since the cervical length may be affected not only by the socio-demographic characteristics but the gynecologic
Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O
Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women.
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition ... Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as well as socio-demographic risk factors associated with childhood overweight and obesity in the Stellenbosch area, Western ...
Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily
Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a pop...
Adebayo, Folasade A; Itkonen, Suvi T; Koponen, Päivikki; Prättälä, Ritva; Härkänen, Tommi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Erkkola, Maijaliisa
We evaluated the consumption of healthy foods among Russian, Somali and Kurdish immigrants in Finland, and examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors and food consumption. We used data from the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study (Maamu), a population-based health interview and examination survey in six different municipalities in Finland between 2010 and 2012. Altogether, 635 men and 737 women, aged 18-64 years, of Russian ( n = 527), Somali ( n = 337) and Kurdish ( n = 508) origin were included. The important socio-demographic determinants of healthy food consumption - sex, age, education, place of residence and household size - were assessed by logistic regression. Based on the consumption frequencies of recommended healthy foods - fruits, berries, vegetables, fish and rye bread - immigrants of Russian origin had higher consumption of healthy foods than their peers of Kurdish and Somali origin. Low consumption of fresh vegetables, fruits and berries was found among Somali immigrants. Sex and age were the most important determinants of healthy food consumption, as women and older age groups had diets closer to the national nutrition recommendations. High educational level was also positively associated with healthy food consumption. We found ethnic differences in the consumption of healthy foods among the immigrant groups of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin in Finland. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, sex and education, seem to also play an important role in immigrants' food consumption. Further studies examining the consumption of fruits, berries and fresh vegetables among Somali immigrants in Finland are needed.
Eapen, Valsamma; Walter, Amelia; Guan, Jane; Descallar, Joseph; Axelsson, Emma; Einfeld, Stewart; Eastwood, John; Murphy, Elisabeth; Beasley, Deborah; Silove, Natalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Woolfenden, Sue; Williams, Katrina; Jalaludin, Bin; The 'Watch Me Grow' Study Group
To examine socio-demographic factors associated with maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns in a longitudinal birth cohort study. An understanding of these factors is critical to improving uptake of services to maximise early identification and intervention for developmental concerns. A birth cohort was recruited from the post-natal wards of two teaching hospitals and through community nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia, between November 2011 and April 2013. Of the 4047 mothers approached, 2025 consented to participate (response rate = 50%). Socio-demographic and service use information was collected after the child's birth and when the child was 18 months of age. Sources of help were divided into three categories (formal health services, other formal services and informal supports) and compound variables were created by summing the number of different sources identified by mothers. Significantly more sources of help were intended to be used and/or actually accessed by mothers born in Australia, whose primary language was English, with higher levels of education and annual household income, and among mothers of first-born children. Developmental concerns are known to increase with increased psychosocial adversity. Our findings of reduced intent to access and use of services by socio-economically disadvantaged families and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds suggests that an inverse care effect is in operation whereby those children with the greatest health needs may have the least access to services. Possible explanations for this, and recommendations for improving service accessibility for these populations through targeted and culturally appropriate services, are discussed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente
Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.
G. J. Eckert
Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.
Kwan, Y. K.; Ip, W. C.; Kwan, P.
Some peculiarly low male-to-female suicide ratios have been reported in the Far Eastern populations. This article attempts to investigate whether there are gender differences in suicide risk by socio-demographic factors in Hong Kong, and hereby to explain the low male-to-female suicide ratios. The effects of marital status, duration-of-residence,…
C.T.M. van Rossum (Caroline); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractThe study objective was to assess the prevalence, level of treatment, and control of hypertension in a general elderly population according to age and sociodemographic factors. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 7983 participants of the Rotterdam Stu
Lechanteur, Y.T.; Ven, J.P. van de; Smailhodzic, D.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Fauser, S.; Groenewoud, J.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation of genetic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors with second eye progression to end-stage AMD. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with end-stage AMD in one or both eyes were included in a retrospective time-to-event analy
Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Greenspan, Susan L
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Osteoporosis screening rates are low, and it is unclear which patient factors are associated with screening and physician recommendations for screening. OBJECTIVE To identify patient characteristics associated with osteoporosis screening recommendations and receipt of screening in older adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional mailed survey. PARTICIPANTS Women and men ≥60 years old living in or near western Pennsylvania. MEASUREMENTS Sociodemographic characteristics and osteoporosis...
Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimanysah; Chong, Siow Ann; Pang, Shirlene; Shafie, Saleha; Chua, Boon Yiang; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Ong, Lue Ping; Tay, Jenny; Subramaniam, Mythily
Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH) are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps, and delays in help-seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF) scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: "Openness to seeking professional help," "Value in seeking professional help," and "Preference to cope on one's own." Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and income were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.
Full Text Available Attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (ATSPPH are complex. Help seeking preferences are influenced by various attitudinal and socio-demographic factors and can often result in unmet needs, treatment gaps and delays in help seeking. The aims of the current study were to explore the factor structure of the ATSPPH short form (-SF scale and determine whether any significant socio-demographic differences exist in terms of help-seeking attitudes. Data were extracted from a population-based survey conducted among Singapore residents aged 18-65 years. Respondents provided socio-demographic information and were administered the ATSPPH-SF. Weighted mean and standard error of the mean were calculated for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to establish the validity of the factor structure of the ATSPPH-SF scale. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine predictors of each of the ATSPPH-SF factors. The factor analysis revealed that the ATSPPH-SF formed three distinct dimensions: ‘Openness to seeking professional help’, ‘Value in seeking professional help’ and ‘Preference to cope on one’s own’. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, and employment status were significantly associated with the ATSPPH-SF factors. Population subgroups that were less open to or saw less value in seeking psychological help should be targeted via culturally appropriate education campaigns and tailored and supportive interventions.
José A Serrano-Sánchez
Full Text Available The aim is to examine the differences between participation at low and zero moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA in relation to their trends and associations with known socio-demographic and health factors. We hypothesised that the number of people at zero MVPA level could be rising despite a parallel increase in the population meeting the recommended MVPA level. We also hypothesised that graded associations of sociodemographic and health factors exist across MVPA levels.Two independent population-based samples (n = 4320  and n = 2176 , were recruited with a stratified and random sampling procedure and interviewed at home by professional interviewers. The MVPA was assessed by validated questionnaire. The participants were classified into three MVPA levels: zero, low and recommended MVPA. The trend of each MVPA level was analysed with the standardized prevalence ratios. Correlates of low and zero MVPA levels were examined using multinomial logistic regression.The population at zero and recommended MVPA levels rose between 1997-2004 by 12% (95% CI, 5-20% and 7% (95% CI,-4-19% respectively, while the population at low MVPA level decreased. At zero MVPA level, associative patterns were observed with sociodemographic and health factors which were different when compared to the population at low MVPA level.Despite the slight increase of population meeting the recommended MVPA level, a higher trend of increase was observed at zero MVPA level. Both recommended and low MPVA levels increased their participation by absorbing participants from the low MVPA level. The sociodemographic profile of those with low MVPA was more similar to the population at recommended MVPA than at zero MVPA level. Methodological implications about the combination of light and moderate-intensity PA could be derived. The prevention of decline in actual low MVPA could change the trend of increase in the population at zero MVPA level, particularly among
Lima, Adman Câmara Soares; Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; de Freitas, Roberto Wagner Júnior Freire; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; de Almeida, Paulo César; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho
Objective identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables. Method cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected. Results the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000), age (p=0.004) and marital status (p=0.012), as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018) and marital status (p=0.007) and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033). Conclusion distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight. PMID:25029061
Adman Câmara Soares Lima
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables.METHOD: cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected.RESULTS: the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000, age (p=0.004 and marital status (p=0.012, as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018 and marital status (p=0.007 and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033.CONCLUSION: distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight.
Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur
The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.
Alnababtah, Khalid; Khan, Salim; Ashford, Robert
In most countries, socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of burns in children. The aims of this literature review were therefore to identify which of those factors are linked to an increase in the prevalence and identify ways of enhancing burn prevention programmes and preventing practices which play a role in the occurrence of burns in children. A comprehensive search (no time limit) of primary studies, titles and abstracts was undertaken in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Socio-demographic factors which were linked to an increased incidence of burns include low household income, living in deprived areas, living in rented accommodation, young mothers, single-parent families and children from ethnic minorities. The level of parental education, parental occupation, and the type and size of accommodation were also cited. A range of socio-demographic factors result in an increase in the prevalence of burns, and the risk is even greater in children who are exposed to a number of these factors. Such information will be useful for planning prevention strategies and identifying further research questions that need to be answered.
Haase, Juan; Lavanderos, Sebastián; Riquelme, Camilo; Morales, Andrea
The association of cardiovascular diseases with socio-demographic factors has not been fully explored. To analyze the association of socio-demographic features with the survival time of individuals who died due to cardiovascular diseases. The death registries published by the Ministry of Health were analyzed. All deaths due to cardiovascular diseases occurred between 2001 and 2013 in people aged over one year were considered. Using a principal component analysis, the age at death was associated with socio-demographic features such as sex, marital status, residence zone, schooling, work status and medical care prior to death. A total of 293,370 cardiovascular deaths were analyzed. The median age at death was 77 years. Not receiving medical care prior to death, was significantly associated with a lower age at the moment of the decease, mainly between 20 and 80 years of age. Among men, being occupationally active (hazard ratio (HR = 1.5 p Socio-demographic profiles are associated with the age at death due to cardiovascular diseases. The effect of not receiving medical care on the age at death is noteworthy and reflects social inequities in the access to health care.
Munagala, Radha; Rai, Shesh N; Ganesharajah, Selvaluxmy; Bala, Nagarajan; Gupta, Ramesh C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic factors, such as clinical, histological and socio-demographic features affecting the event-free and overall survival of the patients with stage I-III carcinoma of the cervix. Eighty-nine patients with International FIGO stage I-III cervical cancer were treated radiation therapy and follow-up of 5-7 years were analyzed for various clinical, histopathological and socio-demographic factors influencing prognosis. Survival estimations were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and were compared using the un-weighted log-rank test and multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. The median age was 46 years (range, 28-65 years). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OAS), along with standard error (SE), were 65.2% (7.0%) and 81.4% (6.1%), respectively. Significant prognostic factors for EFS include, stage (P=0.019), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P=0.013), parametrial (PMT) involvement (P=0.025), number of parametria involved (P=0.000) and tumor size (P=0.034). However, number of parametrial invasion was only significant prognostic factors for overall survival (P=0.015); 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in patients with both PMT involved (58%) than with one PMT involved (>85%). Using a multivariable analysis, we found that number of PMT involved being the only independent significant factor for the development of recurrent disease. None of the socio-demographic factors analyzed were of prognostic importance on event-free and overall survival in cervical cancer patients. Several clinicopathological factors were of prognostic significance but none of the socio-demographic factors analyzed had any role in determining patient outcome. Hence, in cervical cancer, prognosis is more likely dependent on clinical than socio-demographic factors unlike several other cancers where their significant role is well documented. Study of clinical and demographic characteristics
Perez, L G; Elder, J P; Haughton, J; Martinez, M E; Arredondo, E M
This study tested whether socio-demographic factors moderated associations between psychological factors and Latinas' breast cancer screening behaviors. 222 churchgoing Latinas (40-65 years) in San Diego, CA completed surveys assessing socio-demographics (e.g., income and acculturation), psychological factors (e.g., perceived barriers to screening), and cancer screening behaviors. Multilevel models examined associations of socio-demographic and psychological factors (and their interactions) with adherence to annual mammography or clinical breast exam (CBE) screening. Although no main effects were found, there were moderation effects. Acculturation moderated associations between perceived barriers to screening and both screening outcomes, with inverse associations only among the high-acculturation group. Education moderated the relationship between perceived barriers to screening and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among the low-education group. Marital status moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CBE screening, with an inverse association only among single/non-partnered participants. Interventions are needed targeting psychological barriers to breast cancer screening among Latinas.
Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel
Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Cheah, Yong Kang; Tang, Chor Foon
This study examines the role of socio-demographic determinants on individual’s level of happiness. Primary survey data on Penang, Malaysia is used for analysis. Based on the findings, being married and Malay are associated with higher probability of feeling very happy or happy. Nevertheless, individuals who suffer from chronic diseases are more likely to have unhappy or very unhappy feelings. The rest of the factors such as income, education, age, gender, and employment status are found to ha...
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Sebastião Sousa Almeida; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED) in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), theBody Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD) and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE), respectively. Partici...
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Flores Navarro-Pérez, Carmen; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
an adequate monitoring and the compliance of the nutritional requirements are essential for fetal development and successful control of pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the association between sociodemographic factors and the pre-birth monitoring associated with perinatal mortality in pregnant women from Colombia. this was a cross-sectional analysis from the 2010 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and the National Nutritional Survey that included 14 754 pregnant women between 13 and 44 years old. Sociodemographic factors included: new born sex, geographic region, socioeconomic status (SISBEN), pre-birth monitoring (weight control, uterus height, blood pressure, fetal cardiac activity, biochemistry essays, urine analysis) and the supplementation of iron, calcium and folic acid, were collected by structured questionnaire. Associations were established through multivariable and binary regression models. sociodemographic factors such as living in high-density cities, pacific and western regions and low socioeconomic status (SISBEN I) showed a highest perinatal mortality with rates of 1.7%, 1.5%, 1.4% and 1.4%, respectively. After adjustment by new born sex, geographic region and SISBEN score, an adequate monitoring of weight control (OR = 5.12), blood pressure (OR = 5.18), biochemistry essays (OR = 2.19), supplementation of iron (OR = 2.09), calcium (OR=1.73) and folic acid (OR = 2.73) were associated as facilitators of perinatal mortality. perinatal mortality is determined by the sociodemographic factors and pre-birth follow-up included in this study. Government and decision makers can take these results to garbage actions aiming to improve pregnancy monitoring. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Di Mattei, Valentina E; Carnelli, Letizia; Bernardi, Martina; Jongerius, Chiara; Brombin, Chiara; Cugnata, Federica; Ogliari, Anna; Rinaldi, Stefania; Candiani, Massimo; Sarno, Lucio
Background: Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum is a World Health Organization objective and benefits have been demonstrated for both mother and infant. It is important to clarify which factors influence breastfeeding intentions. Our objective was to assess and identify socio-demographic and psychological factors associated with breastfeeding intention in a sample of pregnant Italian women. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 160 pregnant women. The following psychological constructs were measured using standardized questionnaires: anxiety, prenatal attachment, adult attachment, personality traits, and intention to breastfeed. Socio-demographic data were also collected using a self-report questionnaire. Assessment took place after the 20th gestational week. Results: Self-employment, age and feeding received as an infant were significantly related to breastfeeding intention. Regarding psychological factors, we also found that Neuroticism was negatively associated with mother's breastfeeding intentions. Relationships between psychological constructs and breastfeeding attitude were examined and represented within a graphical modeling framework. Conclusion: It may be possible to identify women that are less inclined to breastfeed early on in pregnancy. This may aid healthcare staff to pay particular attention to women who show certain socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, so as to fulfill more focused programs.
Harlow, S D; Becerril, L A; Scholten, J N; Sánchez Monroy, D; Sánchez, R A
The authors interviewed an age- and occupation-stratified sample of 466 women, aged 18-40, from 12 Tijuana neighborhoods, about sociodemographic characteristics, work and reproductive history, and musculoskeletal complaints. A total of 29.8% reported experiencing aches or pain in the low back, 38.3% in the upper back, 26.4% in the neck/shoulders, 18.2% in the hand/wrist, and 28.3% in the legs in the preceding year. Both sociodemographic and occupational factors were associated with these complaints. Very low educational attainment, having substandard housing, being the head of household, and being a migrant were each associated with an increased prevalence of one or more musculoskeletal complaints. In general, working outside the home increased the risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Compared with women who had not worked in the preceding 30-month period, those working in the maquiladora had 40-90% higher risks of upper back, neck/shoulder, and hand/wrist pain. Compared with women working outside the maquiladora, maquiladora women workers had 20% higher risks of low back, upper back, and neck/shoulder complaints. More detailed studies of the incidences of musculoskeletal disorders and of specific etiologic risk factors within the maquiladora industry are warranted. Future studies should concurrently evaluate sociodemographic risk factors.
Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel
All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths
Clara Mockdece NEVES
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of sociodemographic and behavioral factors on theprevalence of overweight and obesity in a representative sample of schoolchildren from MontesClaros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample consisted of 2849 children and adolescents (1457girls and 1392 boys, ranging in age from 6 to 18 years. Overweight and obesity were definedbased on body mass index according to the cut-off values for gender and age suggested by theInternational Obesity Task Force (IOTF. The prevalence rates in the different strata associatedwith sociodemographic and behavioral factors were compared by logistic regression using adjustedodds ratios. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.7% and 4.8%, respectively,among girls, and 14.7% and 2.8% among boys. The results show that, although the prevalenceof overweight and obesity is similar to estimates observed in other Brazilian regions and smallerthan those found in more industrialized areas, the proportion of schoolchildren who presentedoverweight and obesity is a matter of concern. The main sociodemographic and behavioralfactors associated with the occurrence of overweight were economic status, educational level ofthe parents, number of siblings, school menu, distance and means of transportation betweenhome and school, paid work, and leisure-time activity. The data show an urgent need for theimplementation of educational intervention programs designed to promote physical activity andadequate dietary habits.
Van Roy, Betty; Groholt, Berit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne
Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family's psychosocial status should be integrated in the overall
Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family
Maria Isis Freire de Aguiar
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the influence of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life of patients after liver transplant. METHOD Cross-sectional study with 150 patients who underwent liver transplant at a referral center. A sociodemographic instrument and the Liver Disease Quality of Life questionnaire were applied. The analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, as well as multiple comparisons by the Tukey test and Games-Howell tests when p <0.05. RESULTS Old age had influence on domains of symptoms of liver disease (p = 0.049, sleep (p = 0.023 and sexual function (p = 0.03. Men showed better significant mean values than women for the loneliness dimension (p = 0.037. Patients with higher educational level had higher values for the domain of stigma of liver disease (p = 0.014. There was interference of income in the domains of quality of social interaction (p = 0.033 and stigma of the disease (p = 0.046. CONCLUSION In half of the quality of life domains, there was influence of some sociodemographic variable.
Full Text Available This study examined the influence of socio-demographic factors on level of job stress in foreign-owned manufacturing companies in Ogun State, Nigeria with the specific objectives of investigating level of job stress as well as the socio-demographic characteristics influencing the job stress level. This study used cross sectional analytical design with quantitative approach. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and the data collected were statistically analyzed using percentage and weighted mean; while the hypotheses formulated were tested using spearman rank correlation and multiple regressions. The results of the study showed that with the exception of gender (P<0.05; coeff r = -0.003, and employees’ department (P<0.05; coeff r = -0.003 that impacted negatively on employees stress level, other socio-demographic characteristics such as age (P<0.05: coeff r = 0.074, marital status (P<0.05; coeff r = 0.125, educational level (P<0.05; coeff r = 0.037, employees’ cadre (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.038, years of working experience (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.146, income (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.025 and employees’ position (P<0.05; coeff r= 0.103 had positive impacts on the employees’ job stress level. This concludes that socio-demographic factors exert significant influence on employees’ job stress level. It is recommended that employers should always take into consideration employees’ socio-demographic characteristics when assessing their job stress level because it can provide useful information on specific individual characteristics influencing stress level in workplace. Keywords: socio-demographic, stress, employees, cross sectional analytical, Ogun
Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh
Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited by random sampling from March to July 2013. The participants were instructed and asked to complete the NEO FIVE-factor Inventory, the attitude to substance abuse scale, and the demographic questionnaire. Then data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression employing PASW 18. Being male sex and neuroticism had a significant positive role in predicting positive attitude toward substance abuse in university students. In addition, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and socio-economic status had a significant negative role in predicting tendency toward substance abuse (P 0.05). Lower agreeableness, decreased conscientiousness, higher neuroticism, diminished openness, low socio-economic status, and male sex might make university students more inclined to substance abuse. Thus, it is reasonable to show the importance of these factors in tailored prevention programs.
Leinonen, Taina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka
The association between retirement and mental health is assumed to depend on socio-demographic factors, but there is a lack of empirical evidence. We examined antidepressant medication before and after retirement by age, gender, living arrangements, and social class. The material comprised nationally representative register data from Finland. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate changes in antidepressant medication 7.5 years before and after disability (N = 42,937) and old-age (N = 19,877) retirement in 1997-2007 by socio-demographic factors. No changes in antidepressant medication (mean DDD/3-month period) were observed around old-age retirement regardless of the socio-demographic factors. After a slight initial increase in antidepressant medication there was a substantial rise 1.5-0 years before disability retirement, after which there was a marked decrease, particularly during the first 3 years. These effects were less pronounced in retirement due to somatic causes. Age was the strongest modifying factor in retirement due to both depression and somatic causes, with a stronger increase and limited decrease in antidepressant medication among the younger age groups. The post-retirement decrease was also somewhat stronger among men, and among those in higher social classes and those living with a spouse in depression-related retirement. In somatic causes, the pre-retirement increase was stronger among those in higher social classes. Prevention and rehabilitation of mental-health problems in association with work disability should focus particularly on young adults, among whom the strong increase in antidepressant medication before disability retirement, and the continued high levels of medication after the transition signify long periods of morbidity and premature retirement.
Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.
Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South...
Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Davila, Evelyn P; Lam, Byron L; Arheart, Kristopher L; McCollister, Kathryn E; Fernandez, Cristina A; Ocasio, Manuel A; Lee, David J
Research has suggested that adults 40 years old and over are not following eye care visit recommendations. In the United States, the proportion of older adults is expected to increase drastically in the coming years. This has important implications for population ocular disease burden, given the relationship between older age and the development of many ocular diseases and conditions. Understanding individual level determinants of vision health could support the development of tailored vision health campaigns and interventions among our growing older population. Thus, we assessed correlates of eye care visits among participants of the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. We pooled and analyzed 2006-2009 BRFSS data from 16 States (N = 118,075). We assessed for the proportion of survey respondents 40 years of age and older reporting having visited an eye care provider within the past two years, two or more years ago, or never by socio-demographic characteristics. Nearly 80% of respondents reported an eye care visit within the previous two years. Using the 'never visits' as the referent category, the groups with greater odds of having an ocular visit within the past two years included those: greater than 70 years of age (OR = 6.8 [95% confidence interval = 3.7-12.6]), with college degree (5.2[3.0-8.8]), reporting an eye disease, (4.74[1.1-21.2]), diagnosed with diabetes (3.5[1.7-7.5]), of female gender (2.9[2.1-3.9]), with general health insurance (2.7[1.8-3.9]), with eye provider insurance coverage (2.1[1.5-3.0]), with high blood pressure (1.5[1.1-2.2]), and with moderate to extreme near vision difficulties (1.42[1.11-2.08]). We found significant variation by socio-demographic characteristics and some variation in state-level estimates in this study. The present findings suggest that there remains compliance gaps of screening guidelines among select socio-demographic sub-groups, as well as provide evidence and support to the CDC
Caban-Martinez Alberto J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has suggested that adults 40 years old and over are not following eye care visit recommendations. In the United States, the proportion of older adults is expected to increase drastically in the coming years. This has important implications for population ocular disease burden, given the relationship between older age and the development of many ocular diseases and conditions. Understanding individual level determinants of vision health could support the development of tailored vision health campaigns and interventions among our growing older population. Thus, we assessed correlates of eye care visits among participants of the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS survey. We pooled and analyzed 2006–2009 BRFSS data from 16 States (N = 118,075. We assessed for the proportion of survey respondents 40 years of age and older reporting having visited an eye care provider within the past two years, two or more years ago, or never by socio-demographic characteristics. Results Nearly 80% of respondents reported an eye care visit within the previous two years. Using the ‘never visits’ as the referent category, the groups with greater odds of having an ocular visit within the past two years included those: greater than 70 years of age (OR = 6.8 [95% confidence interval = 3.7–12.6], with college degree (5.2[3.0–8.8], reporting an eye disease, (4.74[1.1–21.2], diagnosed with diabetes (3.5[1.7–7.5], of female gender (2.9[2.1–3.9], with general health insurance (2.7[1.8–3.9], with eye provider insurance coverage (2.1[1.5–3.0], with high blood pressure (1.5[1.1–2.2], and with moderate to extreme near vision difficulties (1.42[1.11–2.08]. Conclusion We found significant variation by socio-demographic characteristics and some variation in state-level estimates in this study. The present findings suggest that there remains compliance gaps of screening guidelines among select socio-demographic
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
Akter, Rokeya; Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Tong, Shilu
Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia. This study has explored the spatio-temporal trends of dengue and potential socio- demographic and ecological determinants in Australia. Data on dengue cases, socio-demographic, climatic and land use types for the period January 1999 to December 2010 were collected from Australian National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, and Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences, respectively. Descriptive and linear regression analyses were performed to observe the spatio-temporal trends of dengue, socio-demographic and ecological factors in Australia. A total of 5,853 dengue cases (both local and overseas acquired) were recorded across Australia between January 1999 and December 2010. Most the cases (53.0%) were reported from Queensland, followed by New South Wales (16.5%). Dengue outbreak was highest (54.2%) during 2008-2010. A highest percentage of overseas arrivals (29.9%), households having rainwater tanks (33.9%), Indigenous population (27.2%), separate houses (26.5%), terrace house types (26.9%) and economically advantage people (42.8%) were also observed during 2008-2010. Regression analyses demonstrate that there was an increasing trend of dengue incidence, potential socio-ecological factors such as overseas arrivals, number of households having rainwater tanks, housing types and land use types (e.g. intensive uses and production from dryland agriculture). Spatial variation of socio-demographic factors was also observed in this study. In near future, significant increase of temperature was also projected across Australia. The projected increased temperature as well as increased socio-ecological trend may pose a future threat to the local transmission of dengue in other parts of Australia if Aedes mosquitoes are being established. Therefore, upgraded mosquito and disease surveillance at different ports should
Sales, Cristiane H; Fontanelli, Mariane de M; Vieira, Diva A S; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M
This cross-sectional, population-based study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dietary mineral inadequacies among residents in urban areas of Sao Paulo, to identify foods contributing to mineral intake and to verify possible associations between socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and mineral intake. Data were obtained from the 2008 Health Survey of Sao Paulo (n 1511; mean age 43·6 (sd 23·2), range 14-97 years). Dietary intake of minerals was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were collected. The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated according to Dietary Reference Intakes methods. Associations between mineral intake and baseline factors were determined using multiple linear regression. Na, Ca and Mg showed the highest dietary inadequacies. Some age/sex groups had lower intakes of P, Zn, Cu and Se. Rice, beans and bread were the main foods contributing towards mineral intake. Female sex was negatively associated with K, Na, P, Mg, Zn and Mn intakes. All age groups were positively associated with the intakes of K, P, Mg and Mn. Family income above one minimum wage was positively associated with Se intake. Living in a household whose head completed ≥10 years of education was positively associated with Ca and negatively associated with Na intake. Former smoker status was negatively associated with Ca intake. Current smoker status was inversely associated with K, Ca, P and Cu intakes. Sufficient physical activity was positively associated with K, Ca and Mg intakes. Overall, the intakes of all major minerals were inadequate and were influenced by socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions
Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T; van Dijk, Jitse P
Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71%) from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Our findings for the university students from Slovakia are in line
Jones, Louise R; Steer, Colin D; Rogers, Imogen S; Emmett, Pauline M
To examine the sociodemographic, parental and child factors that predict fruit and vegetable consumption in 7-year-old children. Diet was assessed using three 1d unweighed food diaries. The child's daily fruit and vegetable consumption was calculated by summing the weight of each type of fruit, fruit juice and vegetable consumed. The various others factors measured were assessed by a questionnaire at different time points. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 7285 children aged 7 years residing in the south-west of England during 1999-2000. Median daily fruit and vegetable consumption (201 g) was below the recommendations for this age group (320 g). Girls ate more fruit and vegetables per unit energy (30.3 g/MJ) than boys (26.7 g/MJ; P =parental rules about serving fruit/vegetables every day, food expenditure per person and whether the child was choosy about food. Vegetable consumption was also associated with the other characteristics of the child, such as whether the child enjoyed food and whether the child tried a variety of foods. Children are not eating recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, particularly boys. Consumption of fruit and vegetables appears to be influenced by parental rules about daily consumption and parental consumption and by the child's choosiness. Parent's actions could influence this. These findings may prove useful for those planning healthy eating campaigns for children.
Abdoul Hossain Madani
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Hammad, Shatha S; Tayyem, Reema F; Qatatsheh, Ala A
This study aimed to explore the socio-demographic and dietary factors that may be associated with obesity among female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 406 female students recruited from two universities in Jordan. Data were collected through self-reporting, using a previously validated questionnaire. Weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated to determine the weight status of the participants. High educational level of mothers [odds ratio (OR)=1.25] and monthly pocket money of more than 200 Jordanian Dinars (OR=1.67) were found to be risk factors for obesity, whereas a sibling ranking of more than six was a protective factor (OR=0.31). Those who were eating from the university cafeteria had double the risk for obesity (OR=2.41) than those who did not. Regular eating of meals and snacking between meals were found to be protective factors (OR ranged from 0.42 to 0.79). Regular consumption of milk products, fruit, canned fruit juices, bakery products and legumes were found to be protective factors. In contrast, the regular consumption of potato chips (OR=1.35), chicken (OR=1.51), and fish (OR=1.45) were found to be risk factors for obesity. Using a chi-square test, none of the factors studied showed significant association with obesity. A program to promote healthy eating among university students in Jordan should consider the local socio-demographic and food behavior factors that could be related to obesity to ensure the effectiveness of such a program.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present work was to investigate the relative importance of socio-demographic and physical health status factors for subjective functioning, as well as to examine the role of social support. Methods A cross-sectional health survey was carried out in a Greek municipality. 1356 adults of the general population were included in the study. Personal interviews were conducted with house-to-house visits. The response rate was 91.2%. Functioning has been measured by five indexes: 'The Social Roles and Mobility' scale (SORM, 'The Self-Care Restrictions' scale (SCR, 'The Serious Limitations' scale (SL, 'The Minor Self-care Limitations' scale (MSCR and 'The Minor Limitations in Social Roles and Mobility' scale (MSORM. Results Among the two sets of independent variables, the socio-demographic ones had significant influence on the functional status, except for MSORM. Allowing for these variables, the physical health status indicators had also significant effects on all functioning scales. Living arrangements and marital status had significant effects on four out of five indexes, while arthritis, Parkinson's disease, past stroke and kidney stones had significant effects on the SCR and SL scales. Conclusions These results suggest that socio-demographic factors are as important as physical health variables in affecting a person's ability to function normally in their everyday life. Social support appears to play a significant role in explaining differences in subjective functioning: people living alone or only with the spouse, particularly the elderly, seem to be in greater risk for disability problems and should be targeted by preventive programs in the community.
Levin, Kate A; Currie, Candace
Previous studies have shown that sociodemographic factors are associated with adolescent toothbrushing. While there has been some investigation of parental modelling of oral health behaviour and the association between parental support and oral health, there has been no investigation of the home environment and its effect on oral health behaviour. The current study examines variables related to the family, including mealtime routines and family relationships to determine the best predictors of adolescent toothbrushing. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey were modelled using logistic univariate and multivariable modelling with outcome variable twice-a-day toothbrushing. Higher family socioeconomic and affluence were significantly associated with greater odds of toothbrushing twice a day or more. Family structure was also significantly associated with girls' toothbrushing. However, under the multivariable model, eating breakfast was found to be the best predictor of twice-a-day toothbrushing among boys and girls. The next best predictor of boys' toothbrushing was eating family meals and of girls' toothbrushing, never going to bed hungry, followed by family affluence for both boys and girls. Under the multivariable model, family structure was no longer significantly associated with girls' toothbrushing. The study shows that the family and home environment should play a central role in the promotion of oral health, through mealtime routines, incorporating a fair parenting style and developing open and positive family relationships. Not only are these strongly associated with twice a day toothbrushing but, unlike sociodemographic factors, they may be relatively easy to adopt.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.
Juan A. Valdivia
Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.
Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro
Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.
Islam, Ahmed Zohirul; Rahman, Mosiur; Mostofa, Md Golam
This study aimed to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and contraceptive use among fecund women under 25years old. This study utilized a cross-sectional data (n=3744) extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Differences in the use of contraceptives by socio-demographic characteristics were assessed by χ(2) analyses. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of contraceptive use among young women. This study observed that 71% fecund women aged below 25years used contraceptives. Getting family planning (FP) methods from FP workers increases the likelihood of using contraceptives among young women because outreach activities by FP workers and accessibility of FP related information pave the way of using contraceptives. Husband-wife joint participation in decision making on health care increases the likelihood of using contraceptives. Participation of women in decision making on health care could be achieved by promoting higher education and gainful employment for women. Reproductive and sex education should be introduced in schools to prepare the young for healthy and responsible living. Moreover, policy makers should focus on developing negotiation skills in young women by creating educational and employment opportunities since husband-wife joint participation in decision making increases contraceptive use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pelegrini, Andreia; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Beck, Carmem Cristina; Ghedin, Karoliny Debiasi; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Petroski, Edio Luiz
This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively associated with female gender, with increased waist circumference and with excess weight. On the other hand, the desire to increase body size was negatively associated with the female gender and waist circumference, and was positively associated with ages 16, 17 and 18 + 19 years. Dissatisfaction with body image is highly prevalent among adolescents, though it is manifested differently in boys and girls. Increased abdominal fat, excess weight and female gender were predictors of dissatisfaction due to excess weight, and male gender and advanced age were predictors of dissatisfaction due to thinness.
Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S
The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. © The Author(s) 2016.
Northstone, K; Emmett, P; Rogers, I
Objective To obtain distinct dietary patterns in the third trimester of pregnancy using principal components analysis (PCA); to determine associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Design and methods A total of 12 053 pregnant women partaking in a population-based cohort study recorded current frequency of food consumption via questionnaire in 1991-1992. Dietary patterns identified using PCA were related to social and demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Results Five dietary patterns were established and labelled to best describe the types of diet being consumed in pregnancy. The ‘health conscious’ component described a diet based on salad, fruit, rice, pasta, breakfast cereals, fish, eggs, pulses, fruit juices, white meat and non-white bread. The ‘traditional’ component loaded highly on all types of vegetables, red meat and poultry. The ‘processed’ component was associated with high-fat processed foods. The ‘confectionery’ component was characterized by snack foods with high sugar content and the final ‘vegetarian’ component loaded highly on meat substitutes, pulses, nuts and herbal tea and high negative loadings were seen with red meat and poultry. There were strong associations between various socio-demographic variables and all dietary components; in particular, a ‘health conscious’ diet was positively associated with increasing education and age and non-white women. There was a negative association with increased parity, single, non-working women, those who smoked and who were overweight pre-pregnancy. Opposite associations were seen with the ‘processed’ component. Conclusions Distinct dietary patterns in pregnancy have been identified. There is clear evidence of social patterning associated with the dietary patterns, these social factors need to be accounted for in future studies using dietary patterns. This study will form the basis for further work investigating pregnancy outcome. PMID:17375108
Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.
Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W
BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish...... children for specific injury mechanisms and involved products. METHODS: Information on injuries in 173 504 children treated at emergency departments was recorded for the period 1998-2003. The information was linked to data including parents' education and income and family type, and the results were...... compared with those for a random sample of the population. RESULTS: A total of 50 561 injuries were analysed. The risk was 1.5 (1.5-1.6) for children with mothers having only primary education compared to tertiary education, and 1.5 (1.4-1.6) for children in families with the lowest vs. the highest income...
Galfo, Myriam; D'Addezio, Laura; Censi, Laura; Roccaldo, Romana; Martone, Deborah
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity derived from measured data of weight and height in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents in the Italian region of Lazio and to analyse their association with different socio-demographic factors. The study was conducted in a representative sample of 15-16-year-old adolescents recruited in secondary schools between December 2011 and May 2012. 369 adolescents were investigated. Body weight, height and waist circumference were measured. The BMI of each subject was calculated, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by age and sex using the IOTF reference values and WHO growth standards. Waist circumference/height ratio (WC/Ht) was calculated and the subjects were classified using the cut-off of 0.5: WC/Ht≥0.5 and WC/Htsocio-demographic characteristics were assessed via questionnaire. The percentages of overweight and obesity were high, 15.4% and 7.9%, respectively, with significant difference between males and females (19.1% vs. 12.6% for overweight and 11.1% vs. 5.3% for obese) using the IOFT reference. The ratio WC/Ht≥0.5 was observed in 12.7% of the sample (all the obese and 29.8% of the overweight subjects). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that gender, school municipality, mother's employment status, and family structure had a significant effect on ponderal status (overweight/obesity vs. normal weight). These findings show a high prevalence of body weight excess associated with socio-demographic factors in the Italian sample investigated, and the need for effective public health interventions to combact obesity with particular attention to disadvantaged adolescents.
João Antônio Chula Castro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and verify the association with sociodemographic factors (gender, school shift, ethnicity, age, maternal education and economic status and lifestyle (alcohol consumption, sleep, soft drink consumption, level of physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescents in Southern Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 930 adolescents (490 girls aged 14–19 years, living in the city of São José, SC, Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and lifestyle data. Abdominal obesity was measured through the waist circumference and analyzed according to gender and age. Descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequency, mean and standard deviation and binary logistic regression, expressed as Odds Ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (95%CI were employed, with p<0.05 being considered statistically significant; the SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analyses. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.6% for the total sample (10.5% male, 10.8% female. Adolescents that watched television daily for two or more hours (OR=2.11, 95%CI 1.08–4.13 had a higher chance of having abdominal obesity and adolescents whose mothers had fewer than eight years of schooling (OR=0.56; 95%CI from 0.35 to 0.91 had a lower chance of having abdominal obesity. Conclusions: Approximately one in 10 adolescents had abdominal obesity; the associated factors were maternal schooling (≥8 years and television screen time (≥2h/day.
Ozmert, Elif N; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Soysal, Sebnem; Kulak-Kayikçi, Mavis E; Belgin, Erol; Ozmert, Emin; Laleli, Yahya; Saraçbasi, Osman
Poor primary school performance is a risk factor for low high-school and university graduation, as well as poverty in later life. In this case-control study, the relation between a variety of physical, environmental and sociodemographic factors, and primary school performance was investigated. Grade one students with good and poor school achievement, from different socioeconomic levels were studied. A questionnaire about the sociodemographic characteristics and child's medical history, together with a Child Behavior Checklist, was filled out by parents. Physical examination, visual and hearing screening were performed. Blood count and blood lead levels were determined. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed to determine the IQ. A total of 177 students participated in the study. Stepwise logistic regression revealed an independent positive relation between duration of study (OR, 2.69; Cl, 1.19-6.05; p=0.016), maternal education (OR, 1.47; Cl, 1.14-1.87; p=0.002), full scale score of WISC-R (OR, 1.08; Cl, 1.03-1.3; p=0.002) and school performance. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that the risk of having a below average full scale WISC-R score was higher among children having a hearing loss, uncorrected vision loss, heating house with stove, cigarette smoking of both parents, and low paternal education (less than 8 years). The chance of having an above average full scale WISC-R score was lower among children whose either parent smoked cigarettes, height-for-age percentile was below 10, and maternal education was less than 8 years. Policies for increasing male and female education, growth monitoring, appropriate feeding (breastfeeding and weaning), well-baby and child followup and clean environment (indoor and outdoor) will not only promote the physical health but also promote the cognitive development of the new generations.
Castro, João Antônio Chula; Nunes, Heloyse Elaine Gimenes; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
To estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and verify the association with sociodemographic factors (gender, school shift, ethnicity, age, maternal education and economic status) and lifestyle (alcohol consumption, sleep, soft drink consumption, level of physical activity and sedentary behavior) in adolescents in Southern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 930 adolescents (490 girls) aged 14 to 19 years, living in the city of São José, SC, Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and lifestyle data. Abdominal obesity was measured through the waist circumference and analyzed according to gender and age. Descriptive statistics (absolute and relative frequency, mean and standard deviation) and binary logistic regression, expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were employed, with p<0.05 being considered statistically significant; the SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analyses. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 10.6% for the total sample (10.5% male, 10.8% female). Adolescents that watched television daily for two or more hours (OR=2.11, 95%CI 1.08 to 4.13) had a higher chance of having abdominal obesity and adolescents whose mothers had fewer than eight years of schooling (OR=0.56; 95%CI from 0.35 to 0.91) had a lower chance of having abdominal obesity. Approximately one in 10 adolescents had abdominal obesity; the associated factors were maternal schooling (≥8 years) and television screen time (≥2hours/day). Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Samadi, Mehnoosh; Azam, Kamal; Djafarian, Kurosh
Aging is accompanied by various changes that can cause changes in diet and body composition resulting sometimes in malnutrition and disability in the elderly. Changes in body composition among the elderly are mainly the result of physical inactivity and nutrition. This study was designed to examine the relationship between lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and body composition. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 380 elderly people aged 60 and over in district 5 of Tehran, Iran. Their body composition was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and the Actigraph device was used for assessing physical activity patterns. A three-day food recall was conducted to measure their intake of energy and macronutrients. Lifestyle and socio-demographic information were collected by interview using a pretested questionnaire. Overweight, obesity and central obesity were more prevalent in women than in men (p<0.001). Moreover, 57.1% and 18.7% of participants had high and very high fat mass index, respectively. High fat mass index was seen in 47% of men and 37.5% of women who had normal body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, age, gender, physical activity, energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat and protein, educational level, job, television watching time, smoking, chronic diseases, and taking medicine were significantly associated with anthropometric measurements (p<0.05). Overweight, obesity and high body fat percentage were common among the aged. Considering the factors that are significantly associated with body composition, programs that can increase their awareness about the dietary balance and suitable physical activity should be organized to address these problems.
Samuel N. Forjuoh
Full Text Available Background. This study examined the association between selected sociodemographic, health, and built environmental factors and walking behaviors of middle-aged and older overweight/obese adults. Methods. Subjective data were obtained from surveys administered to community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged ≥50 years residing in four Texas cities from October 2013 to June 2014, along with objective data on neighborhood walkability (Walk Score™. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predicting the odds of walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose. Results. Of 253 participants, the majority were non-Hispanic white (81.8%, married (74.5%, and male (53.4% and reported an annual income of ≥$50,000 (65.5%. Approximately, half were employed (49.6% or had at least a college degree (51.6%. Walking the recommended ≥150 minutes per week for any purpose (n=57, 22.5% was significantly associated with having at least a college degree (OR=5.55, 95% CI = 1.79–17.25, having no difficulty walking a quarter of a mile (OR=5.18, 95% CI = 1.30–20.83, and being unemployed (OR=3.25, 95% CI = 1.18–8.93 as well as perceived presence of sidewalks/protected walkways (OR=3.56, 95% CI = 1.10–11.50 and perceived absence of distracted drivers in the neighborhood (OR=4.08, 95% CI = 1.47–11.36. Conclusion. Addressing neighborhood conditions related to distracted drivers and pedestrian infrastructure may promote walking among middle-aged and older overweight/obese individuals.
Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, K B; Ottesen, B
This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long...... diagnosed with cervical and endometrial cancer as opposed to ovarian cancer, and with working as opposed to being retired. In conclusion, this study found that socio-demographic factors and comorbidity play a role in the probability of experiencing long delays. If delays in diagnosis are to be reduced...
Binkowska-Bury, Monika; Chmiel-Połeć, Zdzisława; Marć, Małgorzata; Januszewicz, Paweł
Tobacco smoking is the most known single factor of the highest impact on the number of cancerous deceases. Chemical compound contained in the tobacco smoke have an affect on strong mutagen and carcinogenic actions. Among 400 chemical compound 40 of them have a proven carcinogenic action for human. From the medical point of view the most important are: nicotine- responsible as well as for the pharmacologic tobacco smoking addiction, carbon monoxide, carcinogenic and irritant substances. Regular monitoring of the tobacco smoking among academic students might be used in the actions considering the health risk management. The aim of the study was identifying the relation among selected socio-demographic factors like: age, sex, major, permanent residence, parent's education, material status, medical profile and tobacco smoking among academic students. The research was carried out among 521: science, humanities and medical stationary students. The research was conducted with a usage of the chi-squared evenness test. The research shows that sex and place of residence are the two factors having the most impact on tobacco smoking among academic students. Academic students originated from town or cities as well as men are more often to make a decision on smoking tobacco.
Arnildo A. Hackenhaar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. METHODS: this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.
Wulff, Hagen; Wagner, Petra
To meet the challenge of obesity, effective therapeutic concepts for adolescents focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. Particularly relevant are nutrition and physical activity patterns associated with media use, which can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. For the optimization of obesity therapy approaches, it is essential to analyze these sociodemographic factors to adjust the aims, content, and methods of interventions, and to use the potential of media in treatment concepts. Thus, the research question is: what are the media and physical activity patterns of 11- to 17-year-old participants in obesity therapy, depending on sociodemographic factors? The national multicenter study was conducted from 2012 to 2013. A questionnaire was administered to 564 participants aged 13.4 ± 1.6 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables physical activity, media use, and sociodemographic factors. Participants were physically active for 1 h on 3.3 ± 1.8 days per week, 8.5 % daily. Televisions, mobile phones, and computers were available in all sociodemographic groups and were used for 2 h per day. Sociodemographic differences can be seen in the extent of media usage (h/day). These differences can be found between girls and boys concerning their usage of mobile phones (2.49 vs. 1.90; p media usage and physical activity. Compared with existing literature, the survey results reveal reduced activity and increased media use, which vary among the groups. Thus, differentiated therapy approaches appear to be reasonable. Future research needs to evaluate to what extent media, despite the risks, can contribute to the methodological support of therapy, training, and aftercare concepts.
Bermedo-Carrasco, Silvia; Waldner, Cheryl L
While cervical cancer (CC) is an important cause of premature mortality in Colombia, the impact of socio-demographic factors on CC mortality in young women is not well understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify differences in CC mortality among Colombian women aged 20-49 years associated with education, type of health insurance, urban or rural and region of residence, and to determine whether differences in mortality associated with education or insurance varied by age. Cervical cancer deaths for 2005-2013 and risk factors were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics. Populations at risk were calculated from age-stratified population projections and the 2010 National and Demographic Health Survey. Negative binomial regression models, stratified by age, were used to examine associations between socio-demographic factors and mortality rates and whether the effects of education and health insurance varied by age. Multiple imputation was used to examine the importance of missing data. Differences of CC mortality were identified among women with limited to no education compared to highly educated women, with the largest disparity in the youngest age group (IRR 26.8, 95 % CI 6.65-108). Differences in mortality associated with health insurance also varied based on age group. Women with contributory and special health insurance had lower mortality rates than women with subsidised or no health insurance, except in the youngest age group. No differences were observed between women with subsidised and those with no insurance in any age group. Mortality rates were high among women who resided in urban areas and in the Atlantic, Central, Pacific, and Amazon-Orinoquía regions of Colombia. Missing values in the mortality database did not impact the findings from this study. Limited education was most strongly associated with premature CC mortality in the youngest women. Subsidised insurance did not appear to provide significant
Gheno, José Nicolau; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sant'ana Filho, Manoel; Weissheimer, Camila; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Martins, Manoela Domingues
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801) using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%). Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed.
Cuadros, José Luis; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo R; López-Baena, María Teresa; Cuadros-Celorrio, Angela M; Fernández-Alonso, Ana María
To assess life satisfaction and related factors in middle-aged Spanish women. This was a cross-sectional study including 235 women aged 40 to 65, living in Granada (Spain), healthy companions of patients visiting the obstetrics and gynecology clinics. They completed the Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Insomnia Severity Index and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Internal consistency of each tool was also calculated. Almost two-thirds (61.3%) of the women were postmenopausal, and 43.8% had abdominal obesity, 36.6% had insomnia, 18.7% had poor menopause-related quality of life, 31.9% performed regular exercise, and 5.1% had severe financial problems. Life satisfaction showed significant positive correlations (Spearman's test) with female and male age, and inverse correlations with menopause-related quality of life, perceived stress and insomnia. In the multiple linear regression analysis, high life satisfaction is positively correlated with having a partner who performed exercise, and inversely with having work problems, perceived stress and the suspicion of partner infidelity. These factors explained 40% of the variance of the multiple regression analysis for life satisfaction in middle-aged women. Life satisfaction is a construct related to perceived stress, work problems, and having a partner, while aspects of menopause and general health had no significant influence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
José Nicolau GHENO
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of oral mucosal lesions and their associations with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral factors in a southern Brazilian population. Information was collected from participants (n = 801 using a structured questionnaire during an oral cancer screening campaign held at an agribusiness show in southern Brazil in 2009. Data were described using frequency distributions or means and standard deviations. Associations between independent variables and outcomes were assessed using the Chi-squared test. A total of 465 lesions were detected (actinic cheilitis: n = 204, 25.5%; candidiasis: n = 50, 6.2%; fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia: n = 42, 5.2%; ulceration, n = 33, 4.1%; hemangioma: n = 14, 1.7%; leukoplakia: n = 11, 1.4%. Candidiasis, actinic cheilitis, and fibrous inflammatory hyperplasia were associated significantly with literacy. Actinic cheilitis was also associated significantly with sun exposure and hat use, and leukoplakia was associated with smoking. The high frequency of oral mucosal lesions observed highlights the importance of education about risk factors. Additionally, training of health professionals, mainly those from public health services, in the use of preventive and community education strategies is needed.
Chung, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Jeeyon
This study examined how socio-demographic factors related to the levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice among college students from Korea, China, and Japan. We used data collected from the Asian Value Survey. The main findings are as follows. First, Chinese students showed the lowest levels of cultural and non-cultural prejudice. Second,…
Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer
This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…
Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer
This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…
Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...
Weller, D; Pinnock, C; Silagy, C; Hiller, J E; Marshall, V R
This study investigates the prevalence and determinants of prostate cancer screening in the South Australian community. An interview-based survey of a probability sample of the SA population (N = 3,016) in 1995 addressed previous PSA testing, beliefs about vulnerability to prostate cancer and efficacy of screening, presence of uncomplicated lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and sociodemographic variables. Of 736 men, 40 years and over with no history of prostate cancer, 24.7% (182/736) reported ever having had a test and 53.9% (397) reported an intention to test; 74% (547) agreed that prostate cancer could be cured if detected early, while only 14.9% (109) believed they were unlikely to suffer from prostate cancer. In a logistic regression model, visit to a doctor for (but not presence of) LUTS was a strong, independent predictor of participation in PSA testing (OR 9.0, 95% CI 5.0, 16.0). Beliefs, occupation and education were not. In a similar model examining intention to test, belief in vulnerability to prostate cancer was the strongest predictor (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.9, 5.9), followed by doctor visit for urinary symptoms. These data are consistent with widespread PSA testing and with seeking treatment for LUTS being a major determinant of previous testing. NHMRC Clinical Guidelines for LUTS recommend against PSA testing for investigation of uncomplicated LUTS. Implementation of those guidelines may therefore have a significant effect on PSA testing rates. Belief in personal vulnerability to prostate cancer remains a significant component of reported future testing, suggesting a focus for community education.
Kraus, Artur; Annunziata, Azzurra; Vecchio, Riccardo
men are more interested in health safety and are more responsible for their health. Among young men, lower self-esteem can be found. The analysis conducted revealed that groups of consumers are significantly different from each other in the evaluation of the significance of each of the variables in the selection of functional food. Sociodemographic factors differentiate the motivations for consumption of functional food.
Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Triaca, Lívia Madeira; da Costa, Flávia Katrein; Hellwig, Franciele
High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population’s welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15–49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20–24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility. PMID:28187167
Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta
Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman's organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.
Garcia, A; Exposto, F; Prieto, E; Lopes, M; Duarte, A; Correia da Silva, R
A study on STDs was conducted among 211 female inmates in a prison in Lisbon, Portugal, in order to establish possible associations between Trichomonas vaginalis infection, sociodemographic factors and other STDs. T. vaginalis was found in 31.2% of the women, from whom only 65.1% presented symptoms. It was more frequently isolated in the 20-40 year age group. On univariate analysis there was an association, although not statistically significant, between the existence of T. vaginalis, multiple sexual partners, drug addiction and no condom use. A statistically significant association was found between trichomoniasis, prostitution and other STDs. These were found in 87% of all women. T. vaginalis was detected alone in 23.8% (15/63) of all women with trichomoniasis, while 76.2% (48/63) of them had multiple infections with trichomonas and other STDs. A statistically significant association was present between trichomoniasis and Mycoplasma hominis and infection with Treponema pallidum. This study showed that the prevalence of T. vaginalis is as high as that of multiple infections with other STDs. Therefore, our findings seem to confirm that trichomoniasis serves as a marker for other STDs. Screening for STDs should then be offered to Portuguese inmates, or, at least, these women should be screened for T. vaginalis, as a marker for the other STDs.
Irinyi, Tamás; Németh, Anikó; Lampek, Kinga
Violence against health care providers is getting more awareness nowadays. This topic is in the focus of international scientific attention also, although in Hungary exact data is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the correlations between violent acts against health care workers and their effects with different sociodemographic and workplace-related factors. A quantitative cross-sectional online survey was conducted enrolling 1201 health care providers. Data were analysed trough chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, where appropriate. Verbal and physical aggression was experienced more frequently by nurses who were males, above the age of fifty, working in in-patient care or in 12 hours shifts or constant night shifts. The same groups of health care providers suffered more from the negative emotional consequences of violent acts. Aggression is a serious problem in the Hungarian health care system, therefore employees have to be prepared for these acts. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(6), 229-237.
Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Triaca, Lívia Madeira; da Costa, Flávia Katrein; Hellwig, Franciele
High fertility rates among disadvantaged subgroups are a public health problem because fertility levels significantly affect socioeconomic conditions and a population's welfare. This paper aims to analyze the sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors associated with fertility rates among Brazilian women aged between 15-49 years. A Poisson regression was used to analyze data from the 2006 PNDS (Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde da Criança e da Mulher), which evaluates socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, reproductive, behavioral, and chronic disease variables. The results show that the following characteristics are positively associated with an increase in the number of children born: being aged 20-24, residing in the North, being nonwhite, not being in paid employment, having lower education levels, having lower socioeconomic status, being in a stable union, having the first sexual intercourse before the age of 16 and having the first child before the age of 20. Thus, it is important to implement efficient family planning policies targeting these subgroups in order to improve life conditions, reduce inequalities and avoid the adverse outcomes of high fertility.
Wieder-Huszla, Sylwia; Szkup, Małgorzata; Jurczak, Anna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Stanisławska, Marzanna; Rotter, Iwona; Karakiewicz, Beata; Grochans, Elżbieta
Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1) Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2) Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT)). (3) Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life. PMID:24972032
Full Text Available Numerous studies show that changes occurring in a woman’s organism during menopause may lower her quality of life. This study involved 630 healthy postmenopausal women from Poland. Its purpose was to assess their quality of life in relation to socio-demographic variables, medical data and personality profiles. The authors used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 to assess quality of life, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory to measure personality traits, and the Blatt-Kupperman Menopausal Index to estimate severity of climacteric symptoms. The study demonstrated significant relationships between quality of life and variables such as: age, education, employment status, and the use of menopausal hormone therapy. An analysis of personality traits revealed correlations between the openness to experience scores and the quality of life within physical functioning, vitality, and mental health. Neuroticism, agreeableness and extroversion significantly correlated with all quality of life domains. Conclusions: (1 Age, education and employment status have significant effects on the selected quality of life domains after menopause. (2 Quality of life within the general health domain was assessed lower by MHT-users (Menopausal hormone theraphy (MHT. (3 Health-related quality of life is also influenced by personality traits, which are relatively stable throughout life.
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child
Hackenhaar, Arnildo A; Albernaz, Elaine P; da Fonseca, Tânia M V
this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR=2.43), age > 29 years (PR=2.49), and smokers (PR=2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR=1.68) and preterm labor, (PR=3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.
George, Babu; Padmam, M S Razeena; Nair, M K C; Leena, M L; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar
To compare the socio-demographic factors among children between 2 and 6 y of age with autism and a control group of normal children. One hundred forty three confirmed cases of 2-6 y-old children with autism, attending autism clinic of Child Development Centre, who had a CARS score of more than 30 were included in the study. Two hundred normal children in the same age group were recruited from the well-baby/immunization clinic of SAT Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. Data was collected using a structured pre-piloted questionnaire consisting of 11 socio-demographic possible risk factors. The multivariate analysis on socio-demographic characteristics as possible risk factors for autism has shown that (i) upper and upper middle socioeconomic status (OR: 7.13; CI: 3.26-15.57) and (ii) male gender (OR: 3.95; CI: 2.22-7.04) were significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rural (OR: 0.41; CI: 0.24-0.68) is a protective factor. This case control study involving 143 children between 2 and 6 y with autism as per CARS criteria and a control group of 200 normal children has shown that upper and upper middle socioeconomic status and (ii) male gender are significant risk factors for autism, whereas place of residence, rule is a protective factor.
Hossain, Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Hayati, K S; Rahman, A K M Fazlur
Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh. A case-control study was conducted, with data collected from the Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey (BHIS) to identify the social-demographic and environmental factors associated with childhood drowning. The participants represented 171,366 households from seven divisions of Bangladesh-Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Barisal, Sylhet, Khulna and Rangpur. The survey was conducted between January and December of 2003. A total of 141 children drowning were identified in the year preceding the survey. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios with 95% CI intervals were estimated for various associated factors for child drowning deaths. In Bangladesh, in 2003, the incidence of drowning deaths was 104.8 per 100,000 among those aged less than 5 years; 168.7 per 100,000 in rural areas; male 32.4 per 100,000; 112.7 per 100,000 between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.; and cannot swim 134.9 per 100,000. The socio-demographic danger factors for child drowning deaths were: being male (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.34-1.78), aged less than 5 years (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.89-3.11), urban areas (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.67-1.87), and mother being illiterate (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.01-2.81). Significant environmental and caring factors included mother/caregiver not being the accompanying person (OR = 25.4, 95% CI = 14.4-45.3) and children cannot swim (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.25-19.4). Drowning is the single largest
Full Text Available Introduction:Oral diseases have underlying socio-behavioral determinants. Oral health promotion programs aimed at behavior modification will be effective if the factors that motivate health behaviors are known. One of the constructs widely used to predict and analyze health behaviors is the health locus of control scale (HLOC. Aim: To determine the association between sociodemographic factors and dental HLOC among a selected sample of urban and rural people in Davangere district, Karnataka state, India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 300 people, 150 each from urban and rural area, aged 18 years and above. Sociodemographic data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Dental HLOC was assessed by a questionnaire prepared by the author in local language. The association between sociodemographic variables and dental HLOC was analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Significantly more number of people in urban area had internal LOC when compared to rural people (P = 0.00. There was significant association between gender in rural areas (P < 0.001, education level (P < 0.001 and socioeconomic status (P < 0.001 with dental HLOC. There was no significant association between age, gender in urban areas and marital status with dental HLOC. Conclusions: Gender, education level and socioeconomic status were associated with dental HLOC beliefs. The findings can be useful in planning effective oral health promotion programs aimed at positive oral health behavior modification for people from varying sociodemographic backgrounds by modifying their health control beliefs.
Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.
Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao
To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, PDemodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sociodemographic factors on the quality of life (QOL in 45-65-year-old women. Material and methods : The research by means of a survey method, postal questionnaire technique, comprised 2143 women – a representative sample of the female population living in Lublin Province. Three standardized questionnaires – WHOQOL-BREF, Women’s Health Questionnaire and SF-36 – as well as an original questionnaire were used as research tools. In statistical analysis Student’s t-test for two groups, an analysis of variance, Dunnett’s T3 test for multiple comparisons, a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA and a stepwise logistic regression analysis were used. Results : In the population of peri- and postmenopausal women a significantly better quality of life in comparison with the rest of the studied women was established in women aged 45-49 years, respondents living permanently in urban areas as well as better educated women, those with full-time employment, especially those doing intellectual work, women remaining in a long-lasting relationship, and women assessing their financial situation and living conditions as well. Logistic regression analysis showed that the strong predictors of poor quality of life were as follows: self-assessment of living conditions as poor, self-assessment of financial situation as poor, permanent place of residence in the country, lower education level (incomplete primary education, primary education. Conclusions : The group of women with worse quality of life should become the main addressee of preventive programmes and health policy programmes designed for peri- and postmenopausal women.
Berg, Martin; Fuchs, Michael; Wirkner, Kerstin; Loeffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Berger, Thomas
Normative data concerning the speaking voice in the general population were gathered with the aim to establish standard values for clinical diagnostics. Associations between the speaking voice and sociodemographic factors were examined. This is a prospective cross-sectional population-based study. Speaking voice profiles were measured for 2472 (1154 male and 1318 female) participants between the ages of 40 and 79 years, using four speaking voice intensity levels: softest speaking voice (I), conversational voice (II), classroom voice (III), and shouting voice (IV). Smoking status and socioeconomic status were assessed. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression. The mean voice frequencies were 111.8 Hz for male and 161.3 Hz for female participants (I), 111.9 Hz for male and 168.5 Hz for female participants (II), 130.2 Hz for male and 198.0 Hz for female participants (III), and 175.5 Hz for male and 246.2 Hz for female participants (IV). Frequencies increased significantly with age for male but not for female participants. Sound pressure levels rose significantly with age at intensity levels I-III for both sexes, but decreased at intensity level IV. Frequencies and sound pressure levels were similar between nonsmokers and former smokers. Current smokers showed significantly lower frequencies as opposed to non- and former smokers. Speaking voice range and dynamics increased with higher socioeconomic status. The data are suitable as age-adjusted normative values for clinical measurement of the speaking voice. The mean fundamental speaking voice frequency of female participants was six to seven semitones lower than previously described. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: evaluate 1 whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2 the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3 which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990 and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5−5 years (Achenbach, Rescorla, 2000 questionnaires. Findings: Child’s externalizing problems decreased within 12 months period. There were no effects of child’s age, gender and age*gender interaction on externalizing problems change within 12 months period. Higher initial level and more negative change within 12 months period of maternal parenting stress related to child characteristics, more stressful events in family life predicted the increase of child’s externalizing problems. Research limitations/implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s externalizing problems are related and may influence each other simultaneously. Child’s externalizing problems decrease within one year period in overall 2−5 years old children group. The change of child’s aggressive behavior and hyperactivity, distractibility should be evaluated individually, separately from each other. Practical implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s behavior problems are closely related to each other, it may be meaningful organize intervention for mothers in order to prevent child’s externalizing problems increase. Keywords: maternal parenting stress, externalizing problems, childhood, toddlerhood, longitudinal research. Research type: research paper.
Sá Silva, Suzana Patrícia de; Sandre-Pereira, Gilza; Salles-Costa, Rosana
To evaluate the prevalence and associated variables in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), by gender, in Duque de Caxias/Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,246 adults. During home visits, questionnaires were applied on LTPA, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric examinations were performed. Physical inactivity was high (70%) (p-value factor that increased the likelihood of men engaging in LTPA (OR = 2.75, p-value = 0.034), whereas among women, those who spent less time on domestic activities (OR = 0.99, p-value = 0.016), did not smoke (OR = 2.63, p-value = 0.039) and had greater accumulation of abdominal fat (OR = 2.72, p -value = 0.023), practiced LTPA. Men chose LTPAs considered masculine. Socio-demographic and anthropometric measures had different associations with LTPA between the genders.
Ko, Linda K; Allicok, Marlyn; Campbell, Marci K; Valle, Carmina G; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Carr, Carol; Dundon, Margaret; Anthony, Tammy
A diet high in fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. This study investigated the relationship between sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial factors and F&V consumption among overweight and obese U.S. veterans. Participants were recruited from two Veterans Affairs medical center sites in 2005. Two hundred eighty-nine participants completed a self-administered survey. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models were built to examine the association between sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables and F&V consumption. Older age (B = 0.01; p obese conditions. Age, race, tobacco use, and psychosocial factors should be considered carefully when developing dietary interventionsamong overweight ana obese U.S. veterans.
Massey, Emma K.; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Garnefski, Nadia
In this study the full array of personal goals pursued by adolescents was examined using an idiographic goal-elicitation procedure. The aims of the study were twofold. Firstly, we investigated individual differences in self-generated goals and goal process appraisals based on sociodemographic characteristics. Secondly, we investigated the…
Antonopoulou, Lina; Christos T. Papadas; Targoutzidis, Antonis
This survey-based paper investigates the impact of socio-demographic factors, along with political perceptions, as expressed by attitudes towards globalization, on consumer attitudes towards GM foods, in Greece. Different aspects of consumer attitudes regarding GM foods are examined, such as general preference, banning, labeling, intention to purchase them at a sufficiently low price, the nutritional category of food product and the proximity of the genetic modification to the final product. ...
Ali Goli; Fatemeh Sadeghipour Kermany; Mehrdad Askarian
Background: Although intellectual disability (ID) is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study...
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Background Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying preval...
Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol
We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and mont...
Bin Zubair, Usama; Mansoor, S; Rana, M H
Military training is a stressful and unusual event. It may predispose individuals towards mental health problems. The stress of military training has been shown to result in depressive symptoms that can potentially influence the combat ability of a soldier. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among recruits during military training in Northern Pakistan and analyse the associated socio-demographic factors. The study was carried out at the Mujahid Force Center, Bhimber, in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) in the North of Pakistan. This is one of the training institutes of the Pakistan Army. The sample population comprised of 313 adult men undergoing military training at Bhimber AJK. General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) was used to screen for any psychiatric illness, and those with a score>4 were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to record the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Age, service type (general duty soldier, cook or clerk), education, level of family income, marital status, tobacco smoking, use of naswar (tobacco based substance), worrying about future and social support status were correlated with depressive symptoms to evaluate the association of these factors with depression in the study population. Out of 313 recruits screened with GHQ-12, 232 were found to have a score of 4 or more as an indicator of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, and had the BDI administered. Of these 232 recruits, 31.5% had no depressive symptoms, 41.4% had mild, 17.7% had moderate and 9.5% had severe depressive symptoms. With logistic regression, we found significant correlation among depressive symptoms and level of family income, worrying about future and lack of social support. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was high among recruits. Special attention should be paid to recruits from low socioeconomic background and those who lack social support and who worry about the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group
Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena
This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.
Full Text Available This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants. Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes. Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population, material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality and migration related (country of origin and length of stay. Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%, visual (1.00% and physical disability (0.38%. Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.
Ya-e ZHAO; Na GUO; Meng XUN; Ji-ru XU; Mei WANG; Duo-lao WANG
To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation,756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an,China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study.Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP).The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6％.Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender,residence,sharing sanitary ware,frequency of face-wash per day,and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation,whereas three variables (age,skin type,and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates.Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years.Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin.Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without.The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count.The inception rates were 21.3％,40.7％,59.2％,and 67.7％ in the negative,mild,moderate,and severe infestation groups,respectively (X2=60.6,P＜0.001).Specifically,the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R2=0.57,moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1,severe infestation OR=10.3).It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age,and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human.Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation.Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris.The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.
Alavi, Nazanin; Roberts, Nasreen; DeGrace, Elizabeth
This study aimed to: (a) examine parental socio-demographic factors in children and adolescents referred to an outpatient service for internalizing and externalizing disorders, and (b) compare the demographic variables and diagnoses for the two diagnostic groups. Parents of all children who were referred to the child and adolescent outpatient service were asked to participate. Following their informed consent, they completed a socio-demographic questionnaire for themselves and a Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for their child. The CBCL scores and the diagnoses assigned by the psychiatrists were then recorded for each child. Diagnoses were classified as internalizing or externalizing based on the primary DSM-IV diagnosis assigned by the psychiatrists. Data for the two groups were compared for study variables using Pearson correlation, t-tests, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression. Children who had externalizing disorders tended to live with unemployed single parents who had lower education levels and lived in rented or assisted housing. Children with internalizing problems tended to live in owned homes with employed parents. There was no significant association between age or gender for either group. Previous literature has reported an association between low SES and more mental health problems; however, the relationship between different indicators of SES and diagnosis is not clear. Despite small numbers, our study revealed significant differences between the parental socio-demographic factors for externalizing compared with internalizing disorders.
Pisa, Pedro T.; Pedro, Titilola M.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.
The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity. PMID:25984738
Sia, Y; Field, K; Rosenthal, M; Drummond, K
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumour. Having a second or subsequent operation at recurrence may be a positive prognostic factor for survival. Recent studies suggest that socio-demographic variables may influence survival, raising the question whether surgical care differs based on these variables. We examined the relationship between selected socio-demographic variables and the number of repeat operations undergone by patients with recurrent GBM. Data from all patients diagnosed with GBM between 2001 and 2011 was obtained from a clinical database maintained across two institutions (one public, one private). The clinical and socio-demographic factors for patients who received one operation were compared to those who had two or more operations, using chi-squared analyses to determine statistical differences between groups. Socioeconomic status was measured using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage scores. Of 553 patients, 449 (81%) had one operation and 104 (19%) had ≥2 operations. Patients who had ≥2 operations were significantly younger (median 55 years versus 64 years, psocio-demographic background. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Alexsandro Silva Coura
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the association between self-care ability and sociodemographic factors of people with spinal cord injury (SCI. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, in all 58 Basic Health Units of Natal/RN, Brazil. Seventy-three subjects completed a sociodemographic form andSelf-Care Agency Scale. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS,including Cronbach’s Alpha, Chi-square, Fisher’s and contingency coefficient tests. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.788. The result verified that sex (p = 0.028, religion (p <0.001, education (p = 0.046, current age (p = 0.027, SCI time (p = 0.020 and the SCI type (p = 0.012 were variables associated with self-care ability of the subjects. It was concluded that sociodemographic factors may interfere with the self-care ability of persons with SCI, and nurses should consider this aspect during the execution of the nursing process.
Pisa, Pedro T; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ) in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11-15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC) scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI) for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26%) was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21%) by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19%) by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients); and PC4 (13%) by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24); p = 0.02) and PC4 (0.10 (-0.01; 0.21); p = 0.05) scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.
Pissinati, Paloma de Souza Cavalcante; Haddad, Maria do Carmo Fernandez Lourenço; Dalmas, José Carlos; Birolim, Marcela Maria
The aim was to analyze socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with gains and losses perceived by employees nearing retirement in a public university. In an exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative survey, employees (n = 164) approaching retirement in a public university in northern Paraná State, Brazil, assigned scales of importance to gains and losses. The data were analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression, based on the sizes of the scales, with socio-demographic and occupational variables as predictors. Employees assigned greater importance to retirement gains than losses. Increasing age was associated with less appreciation for total gains and time for relationships. Longer time on the job contributed to appreciation of total losses and tangible aspects of work. It is necessary to create spaces for reflection in employer institutions that promote listening to workers' needs, especially for older employees with longer time on the job.
Peker, Kadriye; Bermek, Gulcin
To determine oral health control beliefs of Istanbul adults using the Multidimensional Oral Health Locus of Control Scale (MOHLCS) after confirming its factorial validity and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. The MOHLCS was administered to a sample of 1200 subjects aged ≥18 years in Istanbul chosen using a quota-sampling method (response 88%). The relationship between the MOHLCS and oral health behaviors, self-rated oral health and socio-demographic factors was assessed after confirming the factorial validity of the MOHLCS. The MOHLCS demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. Factor analysis results showed a new four-factor solution, namely Internal, Dentist, Chance, and Socialization agents. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, younger age, higher socioeconomic status, more frequent daily toothbrushing, and regular dental check-ups were associated with higher Internal beliefs, while older age, lower educational level, lower socioeconomic status, low toothbrushing frequency, and symptom-orientated dental attendance were associated with higher Chance beliefs. Being unmarried and low toothbrushing frequency were associated with lower Dentist beliefs. Males and older subjects had lower Socialization agents beliefs. Internal, Dentist and Chance beliefs were significantly associated with self-rated oral health. Compared with the original factor structure, the new factor structure had better goodness of fit for this sample. Self-rated oral health, socio-demographic factors, and oral health behaviors were significantly associated with oral health control beliefs. These beliefs may be useful for planning oral health promotion programs and for formulating advice given by oral health professionals about their patients' oral health behaviors.
Milena Sia Perin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.
Letice Ericeira Valente
Full Text Available Caring for a demented family member has been associated with burden. Studies concerning health self-perception of family caregivers are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregivers perceived health and to look into relationships with patients and caregivers' sociodemographic and clinical data. METHOD: Dyads of dementia outpatients and family caregivers (n=137 were assessed with Mini Mental State Examination, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Dementia Rating. Caregivers answered Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Zarit Burden Interview and Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers poor perceived health was associated with emotional exhaustion, burden, depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses revealed caregivers' age, anxiety and physical problem as the main predictors of health self-perception. CONCLUSION: Aged family caregivers with anxiety who also report physical problem characterize a group at risk for poor self-perceived health. Evaluation of health self-perception may be useful for designing interventions to improve anxiety and physical health.
Perin, Milena Sia; Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme
To evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption), 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108). Elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. The data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.
Ruhi Nalcaci; Serhat Demirer; Firat Ozturk; Altan, Burcu A.; Oral Sokucu; Vildan Bostanci
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11–14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) s...
Marqueta de Salas, María; Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Juárez Soto, José Juan
To analyze the adult Spanish sociodemographic characteristics associated with a higher risk of excess weight and obesity. As a second aim, we analyze if there are gender differences regarding the development of overweight and obesity in different age groups. Transversal study of the National Health Survey of 2012. Body mass index was calculated and a number of sociodemographic variables were analyzed. An analysis of multinomial logistic regression was conducted. In 2012 the prevalence of obesity in Spain was 18.5% for obesity and 39.0% for being overweight. The greatest risk of being overweight or obese versus being of normal weight corresponded to men, married, between 65 and 74 years old, in social classes where unskilled work is performed, in the autonomous city of Ceuta, and the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Andalucía, and in municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. On the other hand, obesity risk is 2 times higher in men versus women between 25 and 64 years while overweight risk is higher in all age groups. The sociodemographic characteristics associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese in Spain have changed compared to those published previously. In the year 2012, obesity was more common in males, the maximum peak was between 65 and 74 years and the area with the highest prevalence of obesity was the autonomous city of Ceuta. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nalcaci, Ruhi; Demirer, Serhat; Ozturk, Firat; Altan, Burcu A; Sokucu, Oral; Bostanci, Vildan
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11-14 years). Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI), Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of orthodontic malocclusion with periodontal status, dental caries, and sociodemographic status. Our study population consisted of a sample of 836 school children (384 male and 452 female, aged 11–14 years. Four experienced orthodontists and two experienced periodontists performed the clinical examinations. The Treatment Priority Index (TPI, Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN, decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT scores, and a questionnaire that surveyed socio-demographic status of students were used. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between variables. TPI scores showed that 36.4% of the students had normal occlusion, while 41.2% had slight, 15.7% had definite, 4% had severe, and 2.7% had very severe malocclusion. TPI values did not show any significant differences between pupils in different age, gender, socioeconomic status groups, and CPITN scores, whereas there was a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores. The orthodontic treatment need was not significantly correlated with CPITN or socio-demographic status; however, the correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between TPI and DMFT scores.
Kert, Suzana; Švab, Igor; Sever, Maja; Makivić, Irena; Pavlič, Danica Rotar
Primary care (PC) is the provision of universally accessible, integrated, person-centred, comprehensive health and community services. Professionals active in primary care teams include family physicians and general practitioners (FP/GPs). There is concern in Slovenia that the current economic crisis might change the nature of PC services. Access, one of the most basic requirements of general practice, is universal in Slovenia, which is one of the smallest European countries; under national law, compulsory health insurance is mandatory for its citizens. Our study examined access to PC in Slovenia during a time of economic crisis as experienced and perceived by patients between 2011 and 2012, and investigated socio-demographic factors affecting access to PC in Slovenia. Data were collected as a part of a larger international study entitled Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC) that took place during a period of eight months in 2011 and 2012. 219 general practices were included; in each, the aim was to evaluate 10 patients. Dependent variables covered five aspects of access to PC: communicational, cultural, financial, geographical and organizational. 15 socio-demographic factors were investigated as independent variables. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and multilevel analysis were applied. There were 1,962 patients in the final sample, with a response rate of 89.6%. The factors with the most positive effect on access to PC were financial and cultural; the most negative effects were caused by organizational problems. Financial difficulties were not a significant socio-demographic factor. Greater frequency of visits improves patients' perception of communicational and cultural access. Deteriorating health conditions are expected to lower perceived geographical access. Patients born outside Slovenia perceived better organizational access than patients born in Slovenia. Universal medical insurance in Slovenia protects most patients from PC
Peter Y Bai
Full Text Available To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men.We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis.Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5-117.5 ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL, consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL and drinking more than one can (375mL of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL. Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002 and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (p<0.001, were positively associated with total phthalate levels. There was no significant relationship between total phthalate concentration and socio-demographic status.Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men.
Ji, Feng; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wei; Zheng, Weifang; Cheng, Ce; Lin, Chongguang; Hu, Lirong; Zhuo, Chuanjun
Adverse workplace factors such as job stress are reported to be associated with poor physical and mental health of nurses. However, associations between occupational factors and sexual life satisfaction (SLS) of nurses remain understudied. This study investigated SLS of Chinese female nurses of tertiary general hospitals and socio-demographic and occupational factors associated with reduced SLS of nurses. In this cross-sectional survey, 393 Chinese female nurses of four tertiary general hospitals completed a standardized socio-demographic and occupational characteristics questionnaire, Zung's Self-rating Scale for Depression, Job Content Questionnaire, and a self-report SLS question. Multiple ordinal logistic regression was used to identify factors related to reduced SLS. Fourteen point five percent female nurses were dissatisfied with their current sex lives. In multiple regression, related factors for decreased SLS included being unmarried (OR = 1.49), shift work (OR = 1.92), contract employment (OR = 1.63), high job demands (OR = 2.21), low job control (OR = 1.88), inadequate social support (OR = 2.32), and depression (OR = 3.14). Chinese female nurses of tertiary general hospitals have poor SLS. Reducing job stress and providing psycho-social support may help improve SLS of nurses.
Bai, Peter Y.; Wittert, Gary A.; Taylor, Anne W.; Martin, Sean A.; Milne, Robert W.; Shi, Zumin
Objective To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. Method We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Results Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5–117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (psocio-demographic status. Conclusion Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men. PMID:25875472
Full Text Available Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality. Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January 1, 2004 and December 30, 2014, were included into this retrospective cross-sectional study. Relationship between suicide attempt and mortality was investigated in regard to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they survived or died. Results: Of the 107 patients included in the study, 68.2% were female and 31.8% were male; 34.6% were married. Common reasons for suicide attempt were depression (34.6% and domestic violence (30.8%. Analgesics (33.6% were the most common drugs used in suicide attempts. The analysis of the factors related to suicide attempt and mortality revealed that significant factors were loneliness, being widowed, being retired, having adjustment disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Loneliness, being widowed, being retired, adjustment disorder, and anxiety disorder were found as the risk factors affecting mortality in geriatric suicide attempts.
Bai, Peter Y; Wittert, Gary A; Taylor, Anne W; Martin, Sean A; Milne, Robert W; Shi, Zumin
To investigate the associations between socio-demographic status, lifestyle factors, dietary patterns and urinary total phthalate concentration in a cohort of South Australian men. We randomly selected 1527 males aged 39 to 84 from wave two of the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) study. Total phthalate concentration was examined in fasting morning urine samples. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were constructed using factor analysis. Total phthalates were detected in 99.6% of the urine samples. The overall geometric mean (95% CI) of total phthalate concentration was 112.4 (107.5-117.5) ng/mL. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of total phthalate concentration were significantly higher among people who were obese (127.8 ng/mL), consuming less than two serves fruit per day (125.7 ng/mL) and drinking more than one can (375mL) of carbonated soft drink per day (131.9 ng/mL). Two dietary patterns were identified: a prudent dietary pattern and a western dietary pattern. Both the western dietary pattern (p = 0.002) and multiple lifestyle risk factors including smoking, obesity, insufficient physical activity and the highest quartile of the western dietary pattern (psocio-demographic status. Phthalate exposure is ubiquitous and positively associated with lifestyle risk factors in urban dwelling Australian men.
Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M;
Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites.......Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites....
Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M
Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites.......Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites....
Goli, Ali; Kermany, Fatemeh Sadeghipour; Askarian, Mehrdad
Although intellectual disability (ID) is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran's Index (Moran's I) which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient's prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN)/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs)/10,000 people). We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran's I = 0.36, P socio-demographic factors in national scale. In rural areas, illiteracy has high association with ID especially in the south region of Iran. Urban area has random pattern of ID patients both within and between the Iran counties (Moran's I = 0.01, P > 0.3). According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.
Salomé,Geraldo Magela; Almeida,Sergio Aguinaldo de
Objective: To evaluate the clinical and sociodemographic factors and correlate them to the self-image and self-esteem. Methods: A study conducted at Ostomy Pole of PousoAlegre. The data were collected between December 2012 and May 2013. This was a non-probabilistic, by convenience, sample. For data collection, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale/UNIFESP-EPM and Body Investment Scale were used. For statistical analysis, chi-squared test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation were used. Leve...
Shaheen, Md Mazharul; Raquib, Ahmed; Ahmad, Shaikh Muniruddin
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a common community health disorder of childhood in all developing countries including Bangladesh. In children, it may cause significant delays in speech, cognitive, educational and psychological development. To determine prevalence of CSOM and its relationship with certain socio-demographic factors among rural primary school going children of Bangladesh. 4280 rural primary school children of palash upazilla of Narsingdi district, Bangladesh had underwent ENT check up by doctors trained in ENT and their guardians were interviewed regarding certain socio demographic factors using a pre tested protocol. 48% of them were boys and 52% were girls with a mean age of 8.8 years (SD±2.35). 5.63% of study population revealed to have CSOM and girls were relatively more sufferer than boys (6.6% vs 4.5%). Our study revealed statistically significant association of CSOM with age, sex, guardian's income, maternal education, family size, and sanitation of children. Housing though an important risk factor of CSOM but it was not evident in this study. Thus, improvement of the socio-demographic status and primary ear care education to children, their teachers and guardians can prevent these vulnerable children from developing CSOM and resultant complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Otero-López, José Manuel; Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz
Compulsive buying has become a serious problem affecting a growing number of people in contemporary consumer societies. Nevertheless, research examining its prevalence in representative samples from the general population is still scarce and mainly focused on the exploration of sociodemographic factors, neglecting other aspects like psychological distress and coping styles. Therefore, this study intends to contribute to the cumulative knowledge by assessing compulsive buying prevalence in a representative sample from the general population in the region of Galicia, in Spain. Sociodemographic determinants, psychological symptoms, and coping strategies are also analyzed to clarify their role in this phenomenon. A random routes procedure was employed in the recruitment of the sample which was comprised of 2159 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic determinants, symptoms, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or analyses of variance. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the make up of a risk profile for compulsive buying. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying was 7.1%. Compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers differed significantly in sex and age, with women and younger people showing a higher propensity for this phenomenon. Individuals with compulsive buying presented significantly higher scores on all the psychological symptoms considered. They also employed passive-avoidance coping strategies much more frequently and active strategies of problem solving and cognitive restructuring much less frequently. The logistic regression analysis results confirmed that being female, experiencing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and obsession-compulsion, and employing the passive-avoidance coping strategies of problem avoidance, wishful thinking, and self-criticism, all constituted
Guilherme da Silva Gasparotto
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the association between sociodemographic variables and behaviors and the use of tobacco and alcohol among students of the Federal University of Paraná. Risk behavior of 1.599 students was obtained from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance. The association analysis estimated which college students are more vulnerable to the use of tobacco and alcohol. The subjects who smoked more often were older, unmarried, senior students, residing without family and with low socioeconomic status (p < 0.05.Considering alcohol consumption, the subjects were older, male, single, night period students (p < 0.05. Excessive alcohol consumption was also more likely among older human sciences students, of the night shift and with low socioeconomic status (p < 0.05.
Amir A. Hadi Alakaam
Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable intake as well as physical activity participation in Mississippi is consistently lower than recommendations. We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine fruit and vegetables consumption, fat intake, and moderate-intensity physical activity participation and how these variables relate to socio-demographic factors among medically underserved adults in south Mississippi. Fruit and vegetable consumption and fat intake along with physical activity participation and socio-demographic characteristics was collected from a sample of 161 (48 male and 113 female adults in south Mississippi. A majority (81.9% of participants reported consuming less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day and 54% reported exercising less than three times a week. Only 14% of participants reported eating a low fat diet. Bivariate correlations revealed no significant relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and fat intake as well as no significant relationships between fruit and vegetable consumption and gender, ethnicity, income, marital status, or education. However, there were significant correlations between physical activity and fat intake (r = -0.21, p = 0.01, and physical activity with fruit and vegetable consumption (r = 0.16, p = 0.05. Higher physical activity rates were associated with decreased fat intake and increased fruit and vegetable consumption. Physical activity was also higher among men (r = -0.16, p = 0.05 and positively correlated with income level (r = 0.21 p = 0.01. In order to effectively identify or develop strategies to improve health by promoting increased fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, further research is needed to understand the factors that affect behavior choices regarding nutrition and physical activity in this medically underserved adult population.
Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K
Despite the fact that two thirds of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, risk factors associated with HIV infection in rural areas are not well known. In this study we have collected socio-demographic data of 6406 patients who were tested for HIV infection in a rural hospital of India and we have investigated risk factors associated with HIV. In women the most important risk factor was being a widow and the risk was higher in younger than in older widows. Other variables found to be associated with HIV infection were age between 25 and 45 years in men, low education level (especially those who only completed primary education) and working in a field not related to agriculture in scheduled castes and men from scheduled tribes. The results of this study express the need for HIV screening of widows who live in rural areas of Indian States with high HIV prevalence.
Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.
Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Ohlsson, Henrik; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina
Former studies that have attempted to characterize individual socio-demographic factors associated with long-term benzodiazepine use were based on relatively small sample sizes and/or self-reported data. Our aim was to clarify this using large-scale primary health care data from Sweden. The present study covered 71 primary health care centres containing individual-level data from a total of 919, 941 individuals who visited a primary health care centre (PHCC) during the period 2001-2007. From this database we selected individuals 25 years or older with depression, anxiety and/or insomnia and who were prescribed a benzodiazepine within 0-90 as well as 91-270 days after their first clinical diagnosis of depression, anxiety and/or insomnia. Older age (OR, 2.92, 95% CI, 2.28-3.84), middle SES (OR, 1.22, 95% CI, 1.08-1.38), being on social welfare (OR, 1.40, 95% CI, 1.23-1.62) and not being married were associated with higher long-term benzodiazepine use. The PHCCs only explained a small part of the individual variation in long-term benzodiazepine use. Awareness of the impact on long-term benzodiazepine use of certain individual-level socio-demographic factors is important for health care workers and decision-makers who should aim at targeting general interventions at all primary health care centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moa-Liberty Alausa Waheed
Full Text Available This study examines the influence of self-efficacy and socio-demographic factors on the entrepreneurial intentions of selected Youth Corp members. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a sample size of 300 National Youth Service Corp members were randomly selected in the five divisions of Lagos State with ages ranging from 18 to 30. Three hypotheses were tested using multiple regression and t-tests. The results show that there is a significant joint influence of sex, age, ethnicity and self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions (r2 = 0.90; P <.01]; male participants are more susceptible to entrepreneurial intentions than their female counterparts [t = 26.46, P <.01] and that Youth Corp members with a high self-efficacy rate significantly higher on entrepreneurial intentions (t = 25.09, P <.01]. Based on these findings, the study recommended that a self-efficacy programme should be included in the school curriculum so as to enhance entrepreneurial intentions among fresh graduates and, by so doing, reducing the high rate of unemployment in society. It was also recommended that future studies should use a larger sample and explore experimental methods so as to see if a causal relationship can be established among variables.
Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest a list of interesting items to users based on their prior purchase or browsing behaviour on e-commerce platforms. The continuing research in recommender systems have primarily focused on developing algorithms for rating prediction task. However, most e-commerce platforms provide ‘top-k’ list of interesting items for every user. In line with this idea, the paper proposes a novel machine learning algorithm to predict a list of ‘top-k’ items by optimizing the latent factors of users and items with the mapped scores from ratings. The basic idea is to learn latent factors based on the cosine similarity between the users and items latent features which is then used to predict the scores for unseen items for every user. Comprehensive empirical evaluations on publicly available benchmark datasets reveal that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in recommending good items to a user.
Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua
The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the association between HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative status and the sociodemographic and clinical variables of women with genital HPV infection.METHOD: cross-sectional, retrospective study in a reference service in Ribeirão Preto. A total of 824 women undergoing HIV testing who had high or low grade cervical intraepithelial lesions or condylomatous genital lesions caused by HPV were studied. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis with the calculation of the odds ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were conducted to verify the association.RESULTS: a higher probability of seropositivity was identified for non-white women; with low education; widowed; who consumed alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs; with hepatitis C; who had multiple partners; and that worked as prostitutes.CONCLUSION: the increasing impairment of women due to sexually transmitted infections, considering the influence of the socioeconomic and behavioral context on the course of these infections, highlights the importance of public policies that establish intervention strategies involving the prevention, early diagnosis and timely treatment of these diseases, so that there is the promotion of quality of life in this population.
Manios, Yannis; Birbilis, Manolis; Moschonis, George; Birbilis, George; Mougios, Vassilis; Lionis, Christos; Chrousos, George P
The aim of this study was to develop an index that estimates late childhood obesity risk based on certain perinatal and family sociodemographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional with retrospectively collected data from a representative sample of 2,294 primary schoolchildren, aged 9-13 years, in four counties from north, west, central, and south Greece. Mother's prepregnancy weight status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal educational level, and infant weight gain in the first 6 months of life were combined with children's gender for the development of the Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE) index. The score of the CORE index ranged from 0 to 11 units and each unit was associated with an obesity risk probability (range, 4-40 %). Cutoff point analysis revealed that a score ≤ 5 units best discriminated obese from non-obese children. On the basis of this cutoff point, the sensitivity of the CORE index was 54 % and the corresponding specificity 65 %. The proposed CORE index and the relevant percent risk probability chart could be used by pediatricians and other health professionals to identify children at high risk for obesity from early life. This simple and inexpensive tool could be useful in assisting early childhood obesity preventing initiatives.
Oliveira, D S C; Guimarães, M J B; Portugal, J L; Medeiros, Z
In an ecological study based on the 18 microregions that form the city of Recife, the capital of the Brazilian state of Pernambuco, associations between socio-demographic, environmental and reservoir factors and the incidence of leptospirosis in the city were investigated. Incidence over a 5-year period (2001-2005) and 14 variables were analysed, using central trend and dispersion measurements, Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Variables relating to education, income, housing type, sewage system, rubbish collection and hydrographic factors were found to be significantly correlated with leptospirosis incidence (Plegal minimum (U.S.$83.55/month), and the proportion of households from which rubbish was dumped in skips, lakes, rivers or the sea or on vacant land - explained 60% (P=0.017) of the differences in disease risk observed between the various areas of the city.
Clare R. Wall
Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.
Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe
The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual's sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability.
Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.
Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438
Black, Jennifer L; Carpiano, Richard M; Fleming, Stuart; Lauster, Nathanael
Several studies have identified disparities in access to food retailers among urban neighbourhoods with varied socio-demographic characteristics; but few studies have examined whether key zoning and siting mechanisms described in the urban planning literature explain differences in food store access. This study assessed associations between socio-demographic and urban planning variables with the availability of large supermarkets and stores selling fresh food within one kilometre buffers from residential addresses and the proximity to the closest food stores across 630 census tracts in British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate regression results indicated that neighbourhoods with higher median household income had significantly decreased access to food stores. Inclusion of urban planning factors in multivariate models, particularly housing and transportation considerations, explained much of the relation between area income and food store access, and were significant predictors of food store availability and proximity. Public health research and practice addressing food availability would benefit by incorporating theoretical perspectives from urban planning theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chrostek Maj, Jan; Kamenczak, Aleksandra; Bock, Romana; Polewka, Andrzej; Krawczyk, Elzbieta
The aim of the presented study was the assessment some socio-demographic factors of alcohol dependent patients more times hospitalized in Department of Toxicology in Kraków in the years 1999-2004. The repeatedly hospitalization of 334 patients (298 men and 36 women), aged from 17 to 71 years (mean 45.1 years) due the alcohol problem on the basis of clinic documentation were established. The following socio-demographics traits were taken in analysis: age, sex, marital status, place of living, education, kind of jobs, employment and others sources of money. The patients were admitted from 2 or more 29 times during 6 years. Medical history of addiction of mentioned patients was from 1 to 40 years, mean 25 years. 43.7% persons live single and 53.6% was married. The most patients live in Kraków (80%) and others near the town. The education of them: 15.0% ended high school, 28.7% "medium", 30.5% "low professional" and elementary school--13.8% of them. This factor was similar like regional data. Amount mentioned persons 25.8% worked for salary, 11.7% had own business, and 25.4% was retired, and 29.0% was unemployed. This last factor was worse liked similar from mentioned region. The kind of jobs of persons on the aspect of "social safety" was described. Among the mentioned chronic alcohol addicted persons about 18.8% of them with machines in traffic was worked (bus drivers i.e.) and 7.5% described persons in special jobs was worked (policemen, physician i.e.). The authors were suggested that mentioned factors due health services cost in Poland and propose integration of treatment of alcohol-addicted patients.
Ternhag, Anders; Grünewald, Maria; Nauclér, Pontus; Wisell, Karin Tegmark
Differences in antibiotic consumption between individuals are not only due to differences in primary infection morbidity, other non-medical factors are important. Our objective was to investigate how socio-demographic factors, co-morbidity, and access to primary care affect antibiotic prescribing. The study population included all 2 078 481 persons in Sweden who received at least one antibiotic prescription during 2010, and an unmatched control population of 788 580 individuals. We used record linkage to obtain data on co-morbidity, various socio-demographic variables, and waiting times for doctor appointments in primary care. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for antibiotic prescription. The results showed that over 20% of the population were prescribed antibiotics during 2010. Children aged 0-5 years, persons ≥ 75 years of age, those living in urban areas, and women compared with men, received many prescriptions. Co-morbidity was a strong factor that determined the number of antibiotic prescriptions: those with Charlson's index ≥ 3 had an OR of 3.03 (95% CI: 3.00-3.07) to obtain antibiotics in the adjusted analysis, compared with individuals without co-morbidity (Charlson's index 0). Short waiting times for a doctor's visit in primary care were associated with a higher number of antibiotic prescriptions. Individuals born in Sweden were prescribed more antibiotics compared with those born in another country. Specifically, persons born in any of the 27 EU countries (excluding Scandinavia) had an OR of antibiotic prescription of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.77-0.78) compared with native-born individuals. We conclude that non-medical factors strongly influence antibiotic prescriptions.
Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla
Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pankaj Raj Dhital
Full Text Available Binary logit regression model of econometrics was used to identify the factors affecting adoption of recommended agricultural technology by the commercial farmers of Nepal. A survey was carried out in 2012 in 120 households from Kavre district, Nepal. The objective was to appraise factors affecting adoption of recommended technology of cauliflower, finding out the level of adoption, identifying the constraints of cauliflower cultivation, assessing the perceived level of satisfaction and studying the relationship of certain selected variables on the adoption. Education, Occupation, contact with Personal Localite sources of information, Group membership and Experience were the most influencing factors for adoption of recommended technology. Though, other factors were not strong enough to contribute significantly but indirectly influence the adoption decision of farmers as combined effects. Occupation was found as negatively associated. Landholding size was strongly and positively influencing among the non significant factors. The level of satisfaction and the constraints of cauliflower production were also identified. Transfer of technology will be effective if and only if the client adopts the technology. For an effective transfer of technology, it is better to go for activities for the welfare of the socioeconomic factors of the farmers.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of socio-demographic factors and the clinical profile of individuals diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion (RVO in Albania, a former communist country in South-eastern Europe which has been undergoing a rapid transition in the past decades. Methods: This study was carried out in 2013-2016 at the Primary Health Care Centre No. 2 in Tirana municipality, which is the capital of Albania. During this timeframe, on the whole, 44 patients were diagnosed with RVO at this primary health care centre (17 women and 27 men; overall mean age: 69.5±11.5 years. The diagnosis of RVO was based on signs and symptoms indicating a quick reduction of the sight (vision, fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography and the optical coherence tomography. Data on socio-demographic factors and clinical characteristics were also gathered for each study participant. Results: The prevalence of glaucoma was considerably higher in men than in women (67% vs. 24%, respectively, P=0.01. Diabetic retinopathy was somehow more prevalent in women than in men (18% vs. 11%, respectively, whereas an opposite finding was noted for the presence of hypertensive retinopathy (6% vs. 11%, respectively. The prevalence of cataract was higher in female patients compared with their male counterparts (18% vs. 7%, respectively, P=0.36. Both macular oedema and papillary oedema were almost equally distributed in men and in women (22% vs. 18% and 4% vs. 6%, respectively. All female patients had comorbid conditions compared to 85% of their male counterparts (P=0.15. The prevalence of hypertension was almost identical in both sexes (52% in men vs. 53% in women, whereas the prevalence of diabetes was somehow higher in men than in women (26% vs. 18%, respectively. Conclusion: This is one of the very few studies informing about the distribution of socio-demographic factors and selected clinical characteristics of individuals diagnosed with RVO in
During the last few decades, several studies have analyzed and described knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of populations regarding dengue. However, few studies have applied geometric data analytic techniques to generate indices from KAP domains. Results of such analyses have not been used to determine the potential effects of sociodemographic variables on the levels of KAP. The objective was to determine the sociodemographic factors related to different levels of KAP regarding dengue in two hyper-endemic cities of Colombia, using a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) technique. In the context of a cluster randomized trial, 3,998 households were surveyed in Arauca and Armenia between 2012 and 2013. To generate KAP indexes, we performed a MCA followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis to classify each score in different groups. A quantile regression for each of the score groups was conducted. KAP indexes explained 56.1%, 79.7%, and 83.2% of the variance, with means of 4.2, 1.4, and 3.2 and values that ranged from 1 to 7, 7 and 11, respectively. The highest values of the index denoted higher levels of knowledge and practices. The attitudes index did not show the same relationship and was excluded from the analysis. In the quantile regression, age (0.06; IC: 0.03, 0.09), years of education (0.14; IC: 0.06, 0.22), and history of dengue in the family (0.21; IC: 0.12, 0.31) were positively related to lower levels of knowledge regarding dengue. The effect of such factors gradually decreased or disappeared when knowledge was higher. The practices indexes did not evidence a correlation with sociodemographic variables. These results suggest that the transformation of categorical variables into a single index by the use of MCA is possible when analyzing knowledge and practices regarding dengue from KAP questionnaires. Additionally, the magnitude of the effect of socioeconomic variables on the knowledge scores varies according to the levels of knowledge, suggesting
Rubens, Sonia L; Patrick, Kristina E; Williamson, Ariel A; Moore, Melisa; Mindell, Jodi A
Individual and socio-demographic factors have been found to be associated with sleep disturbances in children. Few studies have examined these factors among children presenting for care at pediatric sleep clinics. This study examined individual and socio-demographic factors in association with presenting problems and diagnostic impressions for new patients at an interdisciplinary pediatric sleep clinic. Data were collected from electronic medical records of 207 consecutive patients (54% male, 59% White, Meanage = 7.73, SD = 5.62). Older age, female gender, and White race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with difficulty falling asleep; younger age, male gender, and Black race were associated with higher likelihood of presenting with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-related concerns. Older age was associated with diagnostic impressions of inadequate sleep hygiene, insufficient sleep, circadian rhythm disorder/delayed sleep phase disorder, periodic limb movement disorder/restless legs syndrome, and insomnia, while younger age was associated with provisional OSA and behavioral insomnia of childhood (BIC) diagnoses. Male gender was associated with provisional OSA. White race was associated with BIC. Age-based analyses were also conducted to further understand the findings within a developmental context. Age- and gender-related findings converged with prevalence literature on pediatric sleep disorders. Race was only associated with presenting concern and BIC, and one association for neighborhood disadvantage was found within the age-based analysis. Results suggest a potential service delivery gap, with racial/ethnic minority youth being less likely to present for sleep services, despite prevalence data on the increased likelihood of sleep disturbances among these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frederiksen, Pernille; Jensen, Kirsten E; Kjaer, Susanne K
The prevalence of obesity has increased in the last decades in the Western world. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between risk-taking behaviour in adolescence and adult obesity in men and women. Furthermore, we wished to describe social differences in obesity in Denmark. Two population-based questionnaire studies (2004-2005 and 2006-2007) were used to collect information on weight and height, sociodemographic factors and factors regarding risk-taking behaviour during adolescence. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Denmark. Individuals aged 18-45 years (men: n 22 827, participation rate 71·0%; women: n 20 870, participation rate 81·4%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was respectively 37·8% and 10·6% in men and 20·1% and 9·7% in women. In both sexes, obesity was found to be associated with older age, low level of schooling and living outside the capital centre. In relation to risk-taking behaviour, young age (≤13 years) at first intercourse significantly increased the odds of being obese in adulthood (men: OR = 1·34, 95% CI 1·04, 1·71; women: OR = 1·66, 95% CI 1·27, 1·99). In women specifically, young age at start drinking alcohol (≤12 years) was associated with obesity. Sociodemographic factors, in particular age, level of schooling and area of residence, are associated with obesity in both men and women. Risk-taking behaviour during adolescence seems to cluster in both obese men and obese women, however most convincingly in women.
Siti Affira, K; Mohd Nasir, M T; Hazizi, A S; Kandiah, M
This study was conducted on 215 working women from four private corporate companies in a suburb in Malaysia to determine the factors related to their physical activity levels. Data were collected using a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), perceived barriers and benefits to physical activity, self-efficacy to physical activity and an 8-item questionnaire on current behavioral stage of physical activity. The majority of the respondents were Malay (81.9%) with 10.2% being Chinese and 7.9% Indian. Most of the respondents were executives (64.2%), while the rest were non-executives (24.7%) and managers (11.2%). The mean weight, height, BMI and waist circumference were 59.4 +/- 13.1 kg, 1.6 +/- 0.6 m, 23.7 +/- 4.8 kg/m2 and 77.0 +/- 12.1cm respectively. In this sample, 24.7% and 7.9% were overweight and obese respectively, while 34% were at risk of abdominal obesity. A total of 28.8% of the respondents had low physical activity level, while 48.8% and 22.3% were in the moderate and high physical activity categories respectively. An association was found between monthly income (chi2 = 110.17; p 0.05). Physical activity category was also positively correlated with perceived barriers (r = 0.227, p socio-demographic and psychosocial factors (except self-efficacy to physical activity) were found to have an association with physical activity level of the respondents. Further studies should be conducted to confirm these findings in the general working women population.
Full Text Available Young people are at high risk of HIV and developing appropriate prevention programmes requires an understanding of the risk factors for HIV in this age group. We investigated factors associated with HIV among participants aged 15-30 years in a 2007-8 cross-sectional survey nested within a community-randomised trial of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention in 20 rural communities in northwest Tanzania.We analysed data for 7259(53% males and 6476(47% females. Using a proximate-determinant conceptual framework and conditional logistic regression, we obtained sex-specific Odds Ratios (ORs for the association of HIV infection with socio-demographic, knowledge, behavioural and biological factors.HSV-2 infection was strongly associated with HIV infection (females: adjOR 4.4, 95%CI 3.2-6.1; males: adjOR 4.2, 95%CI 2.8-6.2. Several socio-demographic factors (such as age, marital status and mobility, behavioural factors (condom use, number and type of sexual partnerships and biological factors (blood transfusion, lifetime pregnancies, genital ulcers, Neisseria gonorrhoeae were also associated with HIV infection. Among females, lifetime sexual partners (linear trend, p<0.001, ≥2 partners in the past year (adjOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, ≥2 new partners in the past year (adjOR 1.9 95%CI 1.2, 3.3 and concurrent partners in the past year (adjOR 1.6 95%CI 1.1, 2.4 were all associated with HIV infection.Efforts must be intensified to find effective interventions to reduce HSV-2. Effective behavioural interventions focusing on reducing the number of sexual partnerships and risk behaviour within partnerships are also needed. An increase in risky sexual behaviour may occur following marriage dissolution or when a young woman travels outside of her community and interventions addressing the needs of these subgroups of vulnerable women may be important.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00248469.
Brazelton, G. Blue; Renn, Kristen A.; Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus
In this chapter, the editors provide a summary of the information shared in this sourcebook about the success of students who have minoritized identities of sexuality or gender and offer recommendations for policy, practice, and further research.
McKenzie, Suzanne Helen; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Passey, Megan; Lyle, David; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Harris, Mark Ford
Anxiety, psychological distress and personality may not be independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however they may contribute via their relationship with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. This study aimed to examine the association between psychological distress, risk behaviours and patient demographic characteristics in a sample of general practice patients aged 40-65 years with at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cross-sectional analytic study. Patients, randomly selected from general practice records, completed a questionnaire about their behavioural risk factors and psychological health as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a general practice based intervention to prevent chronic vascular disease. The Kessler Psychological Distress Score (K10) was the main outcome measure for the multilevel, multivariate analysis. Single-level bi-variate analysis demonstrated a significant association between higher K10 and middle age (p = 0.001), high neuroticism (p = 0), current smoking (p = 0), physical inactivity (p = 0.003) and low fruit and vegetable consumption (p = 0.008). Socioeconomic (SES) indicators of deprivation (employment and accommodation status) were also significantly associated with higher K10 (p = 0). No individual behavioural risk factor was associated with K10 on multilevel multivariate analysis; however indicators of low SES remained significant (p factors were considered, psychological distress was not associated with behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Other underlying factors, such as personality type and socioeconomic status, may be associated with both the behaviours and the distress.
Mazur, Joanna; Tabak, Izabela; Dzielska, Anna; Wąż, Krzysztof; Oblacińska, Anna
Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years) was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence) interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements) were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively). The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors. PMID:28009806
Full Text Available Predictors of high-risk patterns of substance use are often analysed in relation to demographic and school-related factors. The interaction between these factors and the additional impact of family wealth are still new areas of research. The aim of this study was to find determinants of the most common patterns of psychoactive substance use in mid-adolescence, compared to non-users. A sample of 1202 Polish students (46.1% boys, mean age of 15.6 years was surveyed in 2013/2014. Four patterns of psychoactive substance use were defined using cluster analysis: non-users—71.9%, mainly tobacco and alcohol users—13.7%, high alcohol and cannabis users—7.2%, poly-users—7.2%. The final model contained the main effects of gender and age, and one three-way (perceived academic achievement × gender × family affluence interaction. Girls with poor perception of school performance (as compared to girls with better achievements were at significantly higher risk of being poly-users, in both less and more affluent families (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 5.55 and OR = 3.60, respectively. The impact of family affluence was revealed only in interaction with other factors. Patterns of substance use in mid-adolescence are strongly related to perceived academic achievements, and these interact with selected socio-demographic factors.
Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard
This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long...... diagnosed with cervical and endometrial cancer as opposed to ovarian cancer, and with working as opposed to being retired. In conclusion, this study found that socio-demographic factors and comorbidity play a role in the probability of experiencing long delays. If delays in diagnosis are to be reduced...
Kowalkowska, Joanna; Poínhos, Rui; Franchini, Bela; Afonso, Cláudia; Correia, Flora; Pinhão, Sílvia; Vaz de Almeida, Maria Daniel; Rodrigues, Sara
The aims of this study were: (i) to estimate the dependency between BMI and waist:height ratio (WHtR) as measures of general and abdominal adiposity, and (ii) to evaluate the influence of socio-demographic factors on both measures and on their dependency in risk classification. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2009 among a representative sample of 3529 Portuguese adults were used. Height, weight and waist were measured and socio-demographic data (sex, age, education level, occupational status, marital status, region of residence) were obtained. Using logistic regression, crude and adjusted OR for high general (BMI≥25·0 kg/m²) and abdominal (WHtR≥0·5) adiposity, and for incompatible classification between them, were calculated. Above half (50·8%) of the respondents had high BMI and 42·1% had high WHtR, and the rates were higher in men than in women. There was an inverse association between education level and both adiposity measures. The lowest prevalence of high general and abdominal adiposity was observed in students and singles, whereas the highest was found in retired, widowed and respondents from Azores, Madeira and Alentejo. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24·0%) were incompatibly classified by BMI and WHtR, with higher prevalence in men than in women and in low- than in high-educated people. Future surveys should focus on developing at least sex-specific cut-offs for both measures. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing and reducing high adiposity levels in Portugal should be directed primarily to men, older, low-educated individuals, as well as those living in the islands and poor regions of the country.
Prieto-Flores, María Eugenia; Fernández-Mayoralas, Gloria; Rojo-Pérez, Fermina; Lardiés-Bosque, Raúl; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Vicente; Ahmed-Mohamed, Karim; Rojo-Abuín, José Manuel
The study of the emotional state and personal coping resources has drawn an increasing interest in the Quality of Life (QoL) field. Diverse researches have demonstrated its contribution to satisfaction with life, and the interconnection with other life domains of great importance in ageing, as health is. The aim of this work is to analyze the relationships of emotional wellbeing (in terms of affects and coping resources) with sociodemographic and health factors. A survey on QoL among older people living in family housing of Madrid province (CadeViMa-2005) was used. Multivariate analyses were applied for generating an indicator of emotional wellbeing which integrated positive and negative affects, as well as personal coping resources. A logistic regression model was created to explain a positive emotional wellbeing, according to sociodemographic and health characteristics. People without anxiety or depression problems were around three times more likely to evaluate their emotional wellbeing positively than those who had problems. Older adults whose health was better than in the previous 12 months, seemed to be five times more likely to report a high emotional wellbeing, compared to those who experienced a health decline. Individuals with a very good perceived health status were 26 times more likely of having a high emotional wellbeing than people with a negative health perception. Those with middle and upper social class were three times more likely to experience a positive emotional wellbeing than those belonging to a low social class. Health greatly influences emotional wellbeing with a relevant role of the subjective experience of health, together with social class as an indicator of educational level and socioeconomic status.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive alcohol consumption in underage people is a rising phenomenon. A major proportion of the disease burden and deaths of young people in developed nations is attributable to alcohol abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate social, demographic and environmental factors that may raise the risk of Saturday night drinking and binge drinking among Italian school students. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 845 Italian underage school students, by means of an anonymous, self-test questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify independent risk factors for alcohol drinking and binge drinking. Ordered logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for harmful drinking patterns. Results The independent variables that confer a higher risk of drinking in underage students are older age classes, male sex, returning home after midnight, belonging to a group with little respect for the rules, or to a group where young people are not seen as leaders. The higher the perception of alcohol consumption by the group, the higher the risk. Spending time in bars or discos coincides with a two-fold or four-fold increase, respectively, in the risk of alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our findings show that certain environmental and social risk factors are associated with underage drinking. The most important role for preventing young people's exposure to these factors lies with the family, because only parents can exert the necessary control and provide a barrier against potentially harmful situations.
Bernardo, Carla de Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de
To assess the association of parents' nutritional status, and dietary and sociodemographic factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren in Florianópolis Island, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, this cross-sectional epidemiological study examined 2,826 schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old, classified according to body mass index curves for age and sex recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression. The final model showed overweight/obesity in boys associated directly with father's educational level, mother's age, and parents' nutritional status, and inversely with mother's educational level, and number of daily meals. Among girls, it associated directly with parents' nutritional status and the schoolchildren's age, and inversely with consumption of risk foods. The variables that associated with overweight/obesity differed between the sexes, except parents' nutritional status. Boys and girls with both parents overweight or obese were, respectively, 80% and 150% more likely to exhibit the same diagnosis, indicating the need for interventions that include the family environment.
Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G
This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.
Jain, Meha; Lim, Yili; Arce-Nazario, Javier A; Uriarte, María
Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources. We find that households differ in their management strategies depending on the institution that distributes water (i.e. government PRASA vs community-managed non-PRASA), perceptions of institutional efficacy, and perceptions of water quality. Specifically, households in PRASA communities are more likely to boil and filter their tap water due to perceptions of low water quality. Households in non-PRASA communities are more likely to procure water from multiple sources due to perceptions of institutional inefficacy. Based on informal discussions with community members, we suggest that water quality may be improved if PRASA systems improve the taste and odor of tap water, possibly by allowing for dechlorination prior to distribution, and if non-PRASA systems reduce the turbidity of water at the tap, possibly by increasing the degree of chlorination and filtering prior to distribution. Future studies should examine objective water quality standards to identify whether current management strategies are effective at improving water quality prior to consumption.
Magdalena Sylwia Kamińska
Full Text Available Background . A fall is defined as an event which results in a person coming to rest inadvertently on the ground or floor or other lower level. Falls are the leading cause of injuries among geriatrics and a factor which significantly lowers their quality of life. Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify fall risk factors in the elderly with regard to their environmental situation and sociodemographic data. Material and methods. This epidemiological population-based study involved 304 patients from selected outpatient clinics. The median age was 79 years. Our study employed a diagnostic survey-based method using an environmental inquiry of our devising, as well as the Tinetti Test (TT. Results . A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of falls and such variables as age, the family structure and family care efficiency (p 0.05. Regardless of whether the respondents experienced falls or not, a vast majority of them showed a need for information support concerning the reduction of fall risk in the future. Conclusions . 1. Risk factors for falls among geriatric patients include age, falls in the medical history, solitude as an adverse social situation and the unpreparedness of the family for taking non-professional care of their elderly relatives. 2. According to the respondents, information support may improve their knowledge of fall prevention and ways of handling the situation with increasingly limited self- -reliance, and the preparation of their families for taking care of them may reduce the risk of falls.
Full Text Available Identifying which factors influence household water management can help policy makers target interventions to improve drinking water quality for communities that may not receive adequate water quality at the tap. We assessed which perceptional and socio-demographic factors are associated with household drinking water management strategies in rural Puerto Rico. Specifically, we examined which factors were associated with household decisions to boil or filter tap water before drinking, or to obtain drinking water from multiple sources. We find that households differ in their management strategies depending on the institution that distributes water (i.e. government PRASA vs community-managed non-PRASA, perceptions of institutional efficacy, and perceptions of water quality. Specifically, households in PRASA communities are more likely to boil and filter their tap water due to perceptions of low water quality. Households in non-PRASA communities are more likely to procure water from multiple sources due to perceptions of institutional inefficacy. Based on informal discussions with community members, we suggest that water quality may be improved if PRASA systems improve the taste and odor of tap water, possibly by allowing for dechlorination prior to distribution, and if non-PRASA systems reduce the turbidity of water at the tap, possibly by increasing the degree of chlorination and filtering prior to distribution. Future studies should examine objective water quality standards to identify whether current management strategies are effective at improving water quality prior to consumption.
Hallström, Lena; Vereecken, Carine A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Patterson, Emma; Gilbert, Chantal C; Catasta, Giovina; Díaz, Ligia-Esperanza; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; González Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frédéric; Hegyi, Adrienn; Lehoux, Claire; Mouratidou, Theodora; Widham, Kurt; Aström, Annika; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael
Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from 'traditional' families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. 'Hunger', 'taste', 'health concerns' and 'parents or guardian' were the most important influences on the adolescents' food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.
Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Borges-Yáñez, Aida; Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Ángel; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo
We determined the prevalence of hyposalivation and xerostomia in older Mexicans (≥60 years), and its relationship with diverse factors. A cross-sectional study was realized in elderly subjects from Pachuca, Mexico. Chewing-stimulated saliva was collected under standardized conditions and salivary flow was measured; subjects were considered to have hyposalivation if their stimulated salivary flow was less than 0.7 mL per minute. Xerostomia was evaluated by asking subjects ‘Does your mouth feel dry?’. Hyposalivation was present in 59.7%, and xerostomia in 25.2% of subjects. 16.5% of subjects had both conditions. Xerostomia was present in 27.7% of subjects with hyposalivation and 21.4% of subjects without hyposalivation, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Thus, 68.3% of older Mexicans had xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Factors associated with hyposalivation were: using fewer devices in oral hygiene, lacking social benefits for retirement/pension, living in a public retirement home, brushing teeth less than twice a day and lacking teeth without dentures. None of the factors included in this study were associated with xerostomia. We concluded that several variables studied were associated with hyposalivation, but none for xerostomia. Additional research should examine the amount of hyposalivation and factors associated with hyposalivation especially in elderly with increased risk for hyposalivation. PMID:28094800
Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.
Vernon, Mary E. L.; And Others
Analysis of responses on a self-esteem inventory completed by 858 teenagers revealed no significant association with subsequent pregnancy of 95 of the Ss. Twelve factors were found to be related to pregnancy, including mother's occupation, family's attitude, and dating at an early age. (CL)
Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life
Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life
Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed
Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.
Full Text Available Adequate birth intervals are considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. One of the objectives of this study is to compare the birth interval between Nicaraguan immigrant women and local mothers in Costa Rica. Birth intervals among Nicaraguan women are significantly shorter than the local ones (p 0.05. Nicaraguan women are 30% more likely to recur in the following pregnancy as compared with local women. The study of population minorities permits the preparation of public policies on international migration issues.
Amanda de Carvalho Mello
Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.
Maria do Carmo Matias Freire
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the association of untreated traumatic dental injuries (TDI with individual-, sociodemographic- and school-related factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in Midwest Brazil. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil. A random sample of 2075 schoolchildren was examined and interviewed. Untreated TDI in the permanent incisors was assessed using the methodology of the Brazilian National Oral Health Survey. Rao-Scott test and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the associations between independent variables and three categories of TDI, using a hierarchical method. Independent variables were children’s sex, self rated color/race and size of incisal overjet, their mother’s level of schooling, and the schools’ type and geographic location. The prevalence of trauma was 17.3% (CI 95% = 15.2–19.4; enamel fractures were the most common TDI (13.1%. In the adjusted model, a higher chance of having two or more teeth with TDI was found among boys, those whose mothers had lowest level of schooling, and those attending schools located in health districts with lower socioeconomic indicators. It was concluded that the prevalence of TDI was low and that it was associated with individual factors as well as the school environments.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess how the chosen socio-demographic factors effect the quality of life in the patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted in 2007 among 250 women operated in the Department of Reproduction and Gynaecology, the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In this survey-based study, we used a standardized quality of life questionnaire, the Women’s Health Questionnaire (WHQ, developed by Dr Myra Hunter at London University. Results: The most numerous patients were those with sleep disorders (38,8%, 37,6% of the surveyed complained of troublesome menstrual symptoms, 26,8% of respondents had disturbing somatic symptoms, short memory and problems with concentration. The lowest percentage of women (12,4% felt anxiety and fear associated with the past gynaecological surgical procedure. Conclusions: 1. General satisfaction and good disposition is declared by the majority of patients after gynaecological surgical procedures. 2. Age, education, having a partner, place of residence, and the number of children are the factors which have significant effect on the quality of life in women after gynaecological procedures.
Boyanova, Lyudmila; Ilieva, Juliana; Gergova, Galina; Spassova, Zoya; Nikolov, Rossen; Davidkov, Lubomir; Evstatiev, Ivailo; Kamburov, Victor; Katsarov, Nikolai; Mitov, Ivan
The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socio-demographic risk factors for primary Helicobacter pylori antibacterial resistance. In total, 266 consecutive H. pylori strains, from untreated symptomatic adult patients who answered a questionnaire, were evaluated. Strain susceptibility to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clarithromycin and tetracycline was tested by a breakpoint susceptibility test. Metronidazole resistance was found in fewer (17.0 %) peptic ulcer patients than in non-ulcer subjects (28.3 %, P=0.037), as well as in fewer patients born in villages (12.7 %) than in those born in towns (27.6 %, P=0.016). Clarithromycin resistance varied from 8.8 to 23.4 % (P=0.009) within the hospital centres. The highest clarithromycin resistance rate was found in hospital centre A (23.4 %) compared to other centres (12.9 %, P=0.041). The factors sex, age, symptom duration, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, diabetes, type of profession and educational level were not associated with H. pylori resistance. Logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for metronidazole resistance were non-ulcer disease [odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.04-3.65] and a birthplace of a town (OR 2.64, 95 % CI 1.18-5.93). The hospital centre may be a risk factor (OR 2.07, 95 % CI 1.02-4.21) for clarithromycin resistance but further studies are required to verify this suggestion. In conclusion, the knowledge of the risk factors for H. pylori resistance to antibacterials could facilitate the treatment choice for H. pylori eradication.
Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.
Full Text Available Fish are considered as a unique source of protein and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. In Sri Lankan population, fish consumption habits and attitudes are determined by the availability of fish and socio-demography of fish consumers. An extensive survey was carried out among fish consumers (N=1777 in stratified random manner. Among the total studied respondents, 73.3% of the respondents had eaten all type of fish while10% had only sea fishes, 19.5 % brackish water and rest 4.2% had eaten fresh water fishes. Furthermore, of total 19.1 % people had consumed fish daily while 80.9% people had consumed fish weekly or monthly. Results of the study concluded that 64 % studied respondents had fish at both lunch and dinner time while 25% had three times and rest11% consumed only at lunch. The choice of fish in market were determined by various factors such as taste (5.7%, smell (8.5%, appearance (51.5%, nutrition (2.1%, availability (12.7%, prize (37.3%, health (14%, quality (53%, shape (26.7% and considered all (24.2%. However, consumers were drawn their attention more than one factors in selecting fish from market. The results explained that quality of fish considered mostly in selection of fish with factors like prices and availability of fish. Among the studied respondents, the quantity of fish consumption varied with age such as 37.8% respondents which were belongs to the 36- 45 age group had 30-40g, while27.5 % were between ages of 46-55 had 41-50g daily and frequency of consumption was not independent of age (P<0.001. Of the total respondents, the trends of fish consumption for health purpose were varied and 37% respondents consume it to cure from heart diseases, while the 23% had fish to release pressure stroke (15%, eyesight (13% and during pregnancy (7%.
Moniruzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, M S A Mansur; Zaman, Mohammad Mostafa
Low level of physical activity (PA) has become an important public health problem even in low-income countries. The objectives of this study were to measure PA levels, determine the prevalence of low PA and identify socio-demographic factors associated with it in Bangladeshi adults. Data from 792 (urban, 395; rural, 397) Bangladeshi adults (25-64 years) were included in this population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2011. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ-2) was used to measure PA. The metabolic equivalent task (MET) in minutes per week was calculated to determine total PA. Participants were categorized into low, moderate and high PA groups. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic factors associated with low level of PA. Median MET-minute of total PA per week was almost double in the rural area (1720) than the urban area (960). The overall prevalence of low PA was 50.3% (95% CI: 46.8-53.8), urban 59.5% (54.7-64.3) and rural 41.9% (37.0-46.8). Women in general were more inactive (women 63.1% [58.3-67.9], men 39.3% [34.6-44.0]). The main contributions to total PA were from work (urban 40.0%, rural 77.0%) and active commute (57.0%, 21.0%). Leisure-time PA represented a very small proportion (<3.0%). Multiple logistic regressions found a significant association of urban residence (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5-3.2), women (2.1; 1.4-3.9), oldest age group 55-64 years (15.6; 7.5-32.2) compared to youngest age group 25-34 years, graduation or further education (8.6; 4.1-17.7), and higher socio-economic class (2.4; 1.4-4.2) compared to poor with insufficient PA. This study identifies low PA in a rural and urban population in Bangladesh and that further large-scale population studies are warranted.
Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel
This study examined the relationship between socio-demographic factors, screen media time usage, and light, moderate and vigorous activities on weekdays and weekends. Cross-sectional data was collected from 323 Spanish adolescents (mean age 13.59 years) who completed an interview administered recall questionnaire. Structural equation models…
Ezendam, N.P.M.; Burg, J.; Borsboom, G.; Empelen, P.van; Oenema, A.
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the effects on dietary behaviours of a computer-tailored intervention aimed to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents, FATaintPHAT, were moderated by sociodemographic, cognitive and home environmental factors. DESIGN: A two-group cluster randomized trial. Poten
Watt, T; Groenvold, M; Bjorner, J B;
-77 with an equal gender distribution (response rate 67%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five fatigue scales from the questionnaire Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory: General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Activity, Reduced Motivation and Mental Fatigue. RESULTS: Fatigue scores were skewed towards absence of fatigue...... showed that respondents of low social status and respondents with a depression had high fatigue scores on all scales, independent of other factors. Chronic somatic disease had an independent direct effect on Mental Fatigue, but for the rest of the scales, the effect of somatic disease depended on age......, gender and/or whether the person was living alone. For example, General and Physical Fatigue decreased with age among healthy people, whereas scores on these scales increased with age among those with a somatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Physical and mental diseases play essential parts for the level...
Ming YANG; Ying-ming LI; Zhongfei(Mark)ZHANG
In this paper we study the problem of recommending scientifi c articles to users in an online community with a new perspective of considering topic regression modeling and articles relational structure analysis simultane-ously. First, we present a novel topic regression model, the topic regression matrix factorization (tr-MF), to solve the problem. The main idea of tr-MF lies in extending the matrix factorization with a probabilistic topic modeling. In particular, tr-MF introduces a regression model to regularize user factors through probabilistic topic modeling under the basic hypothesis that users share similar preferences if they rate similar sets of items. Consequently, tr-MF provides interpretable latent factors for users and items, and makes accurate predictions for community users. To incorporate the relational structure into the framework of tr-MF, we introduce relational matrix factorization. Through combining tr-MF with the relational matrix factorization, we propose the topic regression collective matrix factorization (tr-CMF) model. In addition, we also present the collaborative topic regression model with relational matrix factorization (CTR-RMF) model, which combines the existing collaborative topic regression (CTR) model and relational matrix factorization (RMF). From this point of view, CTR-RMF can be considered as an appropriate baseline for tr-CMF. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed models on a large subset of the data from CiteULike, a bibliography sharing service dataset. The proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art matrix factorization models with a signifi cant margin. Specifi cally, the proposed models are effective in making predictions for users with only few ratings or even no ratings, and support tasks that are specifi c to a certain fi eld, neither of which has been addressed in the existing literature.
Parro Moreno, Ana; Serrano Gallardo, Pilar; Ferrer Arnedo, Carmen; Serrano Molina, Lucía; de la Puerta Calatayud, M Luisa; Barberá Martín, Aurora; Morales Asencio, José Miguel; de Pedro Gómez, Joan
To analyze the perception of nursing professionals of the Madrid Primary Health Care environment in which they practice, as well as its relationship with socio-demographic, work-related and professional factors. Cross-sectional, analytical, observational study. Questionnaire sent to a total of 475 nurses in Primary Health Care in Madrid (former Health Care Areas 6 and 9), in 2010. Perception of the practice environment using the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) questionnaire, as well as; age; sex; years of professional experience; professional category; Health Care Area; employment status and education level. There was a response rate of 69.7% (331). The raw score for the PES-NWI was: 81.04 [95%CI: 79.18-82.91]. The factor with the highest score was "Support from Managers" (2.9 [95%CI: 2.8-3]) and the lowest "Workforce adequacy" (2.3 [95%CI: 2.2-2.4]). In the regression model (dependent variable: raw score in PES-NWI), adjusted by age, sex, employment status, professional category (coefficient B=6.586), and years worked at the centre (coefficient B=2.139, for a time of 0-2 years; coefficient B=7.482, for 3-10 years; coefficient B=7.867, for over 20 years) remained at p≤0.05. The support provided by nurse managers is the most highly valued factor in this practice environment, while workforce adequacy is perceived as the lowest. Nurses in posts of responsibility and those possessing a higher degree of training perceive their practice environment more favourably. Knowledge of the factors in the practice environment is a key element for health care organizations to optimize provision of care and to improve health care results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Shi, Yipu; De Groh, Margaret; MacFarlane, Amanda J
Mandatory folic acid fortification was implemented in Canada in 1998 to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Our objective was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and folate status in non-supplement-consuming Canadian women of childbearing age. Data on demographic factors, lifestyle factors, physical measures and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration were collected from 1,008 non-supplement-consuming women aged 15-49 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). RBC folate ³906 nmol/L was used as a cut-off for optimal folate status for protection from NTD. Approximately 75% of non-supplement consuming women had an RBC folate concentration ³906 nmol/L. Young age (15-19 years), White ethnicity, less than secondary education, lowest income adequacy, smoking and high body mass index were associated with a higher prevalence of lower folate status. After adjustment, only young age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99-95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.18) was associated with lower folate status. Less than secondary education (adjusted OR 5.66, 95% CI: 1.10-29.04) and lowest income adequacy (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI: 1.06-21.49) were associated with lower folate status in women aged 15-24 and 25-49 years, respectively. Many risk factors for lower folate status identified before food fortification was implemented were not associated with folate status in our representative sample of non-supplement-consuming Canadian women. However, younger women, women aged 15-24 with less than secondary education and women aged 25-49 with low income adequacy remain at risk of lower folate status, supporting the continued promotion of folic acid supplement use to women of childbearing age.
Full Text Available Introduction: The pattern of skin diseases in any community is influenced by genetic constitution, climate, socioeconomic status, occupation, education, hygienic standards, customs and quality of medical care. The burden of skin disease also has an impact on the Quality of Life of adolescents. This study aims to investigate the level of awareness and assess the prevalence of different types of skin diseases among adolescents in Mauritius. Material and Methods: 500 adolescents and young adults of both sexes and aged between 11-23 years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to elicit information and to assess the knowledge status of skin diseases and to determine possible risk factors. In addition, a validated questionnaire based on Quality of Life Index was used to determine the psychosocial effect of adolescents suffering from skin diseases. Data was analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: Incidence of skin diseases was 22.9% in males and 24.7% females respectively. Acne was the most common skin problems in both gender followed by fungal infection (2.9% in males and eczema (2.4% in females. Climatic conditions (e.g summer, consumption of oily and spicy foods, sports practice and familial history were correlated positively with prevalence of skin diseases. Conclusion: Acne, eczema and fungal infection were the most common skin diseases identified. The findings also indicate that more respondents between 15-19 years old were more prone to skin diseases.
Okekunle, Akinkunmi Paul; Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Akinyele, Isaac Olaoluwa
Quality of life (QoL) of premenopausal women (PW) was assessed using primary data collected between September and December 2011. A 26-item questionnaire (WHO-QoL BREF) was administered to 285 apparently healthy women selected from two local government areas in Ibadan. The scores were categorized into poor (≤ 79.53) and good (>79.53) QoL. Multiple logistic regressions were used to study factors associated with QoL. The mean score for the overall QoL (OQoL) was 65.18 ± 11.35 (range = 81.25). The Cronbach's alpha for all domains as well as the OQoL were within an acceptable range. The proportion of women with good OQoL was significantly higher in the urban areas (18.2 percent) than in the rural areas (9.2 percent) (p WHO-QoL BREF is a reliable instrument for measuring QoL among PW in Nigeria. Younger PW and women in the urban areas were more likely to have good QoL.
Pollard, Christina M; Meng, Xingqiong; Hendrie, Gilly A; Hendrie, Delia; Sullivan, Denise; Pratt, Iain S; Kerr, Deborah A; Scott, Jane A
To explore factors associated with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in Australia. Pooled data from Western Australian (WA) and South Australian (SA) 2009 and 2012 nutrition monitoring survey series interviews of 2,832 WA and 10,764 SA adults aged 18 to 64 years. Demographic data were collected and independent samples t-test, analysis of variance, multiple logistic regression performed. Obese participants were more likely to consume SSB than healthy weight participants (SA: OR=1.77; 95% CI 1.56-2.02; WA: OR=1.53; 1.05-2.24). SA obese participants consumed more SSB per day (152.0 mL; 140.7-163.5) than healthy weight (80.1 mL; 73.2-88.2; pfood (4.55; 2.71-7.64) and bought meals away from home the day prior (1.55; 1.15-2.09) were more likely to consume SSB. SA adults rating their health highest were less likely to consume SSB (0.62; 0.54-0.72). SSB consumers are more likely to be male, have little interest in health, or have purchased a meal away from home. Increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of consumption may be a first step in curbing SSB intake. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Toupance, Bruno
Summary Fertility transmission (FT) is a phenomenon with a cultural and/or genetic basis, whereby a positive correlation exists between the number of offspring of an individual and that of his/her parents. Theoretical studies using a haploid individual-based model have shown that FT increases the variance and intergenerational correlation in reproductive success and results in an imbalance in the coalescent tree of sampled genes. This phenomenon has been documented in several demographic studies conducted on the correlation in fertility between generations, or through the reconstruction of the genealogical trees of mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, as mtDNA is a single locus, potentially subject to other forces (e.g. natural selection), it is of interest to extend the theory of FT to nuclear loci. We show that because random mating between individuals leads to a mixing of their fertility profiles, FT in these cases will have less influence on the variance and intergenerational correlation of reproductive success. This, in turn, results in less impact on the shape of the coalescent trees. Nevertheless, in the presence of FT, high heterogeneity in reproductive success and homogamy for family size will increase the imbalance in the coalescent tree. Thus, FT should be easier to detect when occurring in conjunction with these other factors. We also show the utility of analysing different kinds of loci (X-linked, Y-linked, mitochondrial and autosomal) to assess whether FT is matrilineal, patrilineal or biparental. Finally, we demonstrate that the shape of the coalescent tree depends upon population size, in contrast to the classical Kingman's model.
Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B
.... We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place...
Suicidal Ideation vs. Suicide Attempts: Clinical and Psychosocial Profile Differences Among Depressed Patients: A Study on Personality Traits, Psychopathological Variables, and Sociodemographic Factors in 228 Patients.
Lewitzka, Ute; Spirling, Sina; Ritter, Dirk; Smolka, Michael; Goodday, Sarah; Bauer, Michael; Felber, Werner; Bschor, Tom
This study investigated whether personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors in depressed patients differentiate patients with only suicidal thoughts from those who have attempted suicide. We investigated two groups of patients with an affective disorder: 198 patients with a suicide attempt within the last 3 months (sex ratio male to female, 1:1.3; mean age male to female, 44.8/44.7 years) and 30 patients without a suicide attempt but with suicidal thoughts (sex ratio male to female, 1:2; mean age male to female, 39.4/42.6 years) using a comprehensive measurement (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-4 Axis II disorders, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, Beck-Hopelessness Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Impulsivity Rating Scale, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Inventory for the Assessment of Aggression Factors, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Ways of Coping Checklist). Several differences distinguished the two groups, namely, in personality traits such as anxiety or coping strategies and sociodemographics (e.g., education level). Personality traits, psychopathological characteristics, and sociodemographic factors are useful tools for assessing suicidal risk. Our findings encourage us to suggest that clinicians pay particular attention to sociodemographic variables such as separation/divorce and a lower education level when conducting risk assessments on suicidal patients.
Introduction: Caesarean section (CS) can prevent maternal or fetal complications. Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest CS levels in the world but large variations are seen between and within countries. The tertiary hospital, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) in Tanzania has had a high level of CS over years. Objectives: To examine trends in the socio-demographic background of babies born at KCMC from year 2000 to 2013, and trends in the CS percentage, and to identify socio-demographic ...
Melikyan, Elina; Guekht, Alla; Milchakova, Larisa; Lebedeva, Anna; Bondareva, Irina; Gusev, Eugeny
The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic and clinical factors influencing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of adult patients with epilepsy in a naturalistic treatment setting in Russia. The QOLIE-31 questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were completed by 208 patients with a broad clinical spectrum of epilepsy (the mean age was 31.49±13.20 years and ranged from 18 to 74 years). In Russian adult patients with epilepsy, lower mean QOLIE-31 scores were obtained compared with previously published international data for overall HRQOL, emotional well-being, and cognitive functioning and social functioning subscales (pfactor associated with all HRQOL domains, except for medication effects and emotional well-being, whereas gender, education, family status, seizure type, employment, lateralization of epileptic foci, number of antiepileptic drugs, and the reported adverse events did not significantly affect HRQOL. The present study has revealed that longer duration of epilepsy, older age, higher seizure frequency, and depression are the potential predictors of worse HRQOL in adult Russian patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hossain, Md Golam; Wee, Ai-Sze; Ashaie, Maeirah; Kamarul, T
Early onset of menarche has been shown to be associated with breast cancer and ischaemic heart disease. Studies on age at menarche of the Malaysian population are poorly documented. This study aimed to determine the influence of anthropometric and socio-demographic factors on the age at menarche of university students in Malaysia. Data were obtained in 2010-11 from 961 students between the ages of 18 and 25 years from the University of Malaya using stratified sampling, and multiple regression analysis was applied. Sixty-three per cent of students reached menarche at the age of 12 or 13 years, with the mean and median of age at menarche being 12.45 ± 1.17 and 12.01 years, respectively. Menarcheal age was positively associated with height (p<0.05) and negatively associated with BMI (p<0.001). Students from urban areas attained menarche earlier than those from rural areas (p<0.05). Students from small-sized families attained menarche earlier than those from larger families (p<0.05). First-born students experienced menarche earlier than those who were seventh-born or later. Obese and overweight students reached menarche earlier than students who were underweight or of normal weight (p<0.01). The variations in age at menarche among the Malaysian ethnic groups were statistically insignificant. The results suggest that heavier and first-born students from small families are more likely to attain menarche earlier than their counterparts.
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti MBBS, MMed, PhD
Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children presenting with severe acute malnutrition (SAM and pneumonia. Children aged 0 to 59 months with SAM and radiologic pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were studied in Bangladesh. Children with confirmed PTB (by culture and/or X-pert MTB/RIF (cases = 27 and without PTB (controls = 81; randomly selected from 378 children were compared. The cases more often had the history of contact with active PTB patient (P < .01 and exposure to cigarette smoke (P = .04 compared with the controls. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the cases were independently associated with working mother (P = .05 and positive tuberculin skin test (TST; P = .02. Thus, pneumonia in SAM children is a common presentation of PTB and further highlights the importance of the use of simple TST and/or history of contact with active TB patients in diagnosing PTB in such children, especially in resource-limited settings.
Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zou, Shurong; Liu, Weijia; Ba, Lei; Ma, Guansheng
The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents' alcohol use among high school students from China's three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD) per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES), the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents.
Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate the drinking patterns and association between socio-demographic factors and adolescents’ alcohol use among high school students from China’s three metropolises, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 13,811 high school students from 136 schools between May and June 2013. A two-stage stratified sampling method was used for subject selection. The prevalence of lifetime drinking was 52.5%; in addition, 38.5% of the students were past-year drinkers, while 20.1% of them had consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. During the past year, 29.7% of the students reported that they drank once per month or less, and 22.0% of the students drank less than one standard drink (SD per occasion. For the students who were not living with their mothers, as well as the students in higher socioeconomic status (SES, the adjusted odds of past and current drinking were significantly higher, compared with those who lived with both parents and low SES. Due to the high prevalence of alcohol consumption among junior and senior high school students in metropolises, attention should be paid by parents, school administrators, educational and public health agencies for making efforts collectively to reduce alcohol availability and drinking among adolescents.
Azmoude, Elham; Behnam, Haniye; Barati-Far, Saeede; Kabirian, Maryam
ABSTRACT Background: Fertility intention is one of the strongest predictors of couple’s fertility behavior that is affected by many variables. This study aimed to identify the relationship of socio-demographic factors, fertility behavior, and child’s perceived value with fertility intention of women in a region in the east Iran Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 241 married women aged between 15 and 49 years of Torbat Heydariyeh City in 2015, were studied. The data collection scales included a demographic information form, fertility information questionnaire and Trommsdorff’s child value questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, t-independent test and logistic regression. The significance level of Pcosts of children (P=0.001). In addition, in subjects with children of both sexes, intention for childbearing was significantly lower when compared to subjects with only one sex in children (P=0.001). However, when the logistic regression test was performed, being housewife, number of children, having children of both sexes, benefit and costs of children showed statistical significance (Pcurrent children, having children of both sexes, and perceived childbearing costs are important in determining the odds that a woman will intend to have a child. These findings can contribute to the realization of new population programs towards higher fertility rate in the country. PMID:28409166
Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi
To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.
Costa-Tutusaus, Lluís; Guerra-Balic, Myriam
There is a clear relationship between the way of life and the health of individuals, and therefore, we can speak of healthy and unhealthy lifestyles. There are different surveys and questionnaires that evaluate the lifestyles of adolescents, but none of them offers a final score that can quantify the healthfulness of an adolescent's lifestyle. It was with this goal that the VISA-TEEN questionnaire is developed and validated. The objective of this study is to apply the questionnaire to a sample of adolescents who attend school in Catalonia to evaluate the healthfulness of their lifestyles and to relate the scores obtained to different sociodemographic variables. Cross-sectional study. A total of 2,832 students from 25 schools in Catalonia responded to the questionnaire. A descriptive analysis was performed, calculating the mean (Standard deviation), median (p25, p75), and confidence interval. The results were calculated for the total population, factoring according to gender, age, urban/rural population, origin (native/immigrant), and family wealth, which was based on the Family Affluence Scale (FAS II). The significance of the difference was calculated for each factor with the appropriate statistical test. For the total score of healthy lifestyle, the youngest students and those with the highest family wealth obtained higher scores. With respect to eating habits, girls scored higher than boys, and higher scores were observed in natives and those with high family wealth. For physical activity, boys scored higher, as well as younger individuals, natives, and those from rural areas. With respect to substance abuse, the worst scores were found in older individuals, students from rural areas, and natives. The rational use of leisure technology was only associated with age (worsening scores with older age). Lastly, hygiene was better with girls, decreased with age, and was worse with natives than immigrants.
Abu S. Muyibi
Full Text Available Background: The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning.Objective: This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors.Method: The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD,UCH, Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation,Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents.Results: The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points. There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01, parent social class (p = 0.00 and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00.Conclusion: The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.
Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16. Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly associated
El Ghardallou, Meriam; Maatoug, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Fredj, Sihem Ben; Jihene, Sahli; Dendana, Emna; Sana, Bhiri; Zammit, Nawel; Boughammoura, Lamia; Ghannem, Hassen
A better understanding of socio-demographic characteristics of subgroups, which have a high risk to develop chronic diseases, is essential to develop more efficient interventional programs especially for youth. This study aimed to determine the association between clusters of non communicable diseases (NCDs') risk factors and the socio-demographic characteristics among a sample of Tunisian school children. We conducted, in 2013/2014, a cross-sectional study among a proportional and stratified school children sample, selected in 17 elementary public schools in Sousse (Tunisia). A cluster analysis was used to identify different NCDs risk factors clusters, based on tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and excess weight. Subsequent χ2-tests were used to identify differences between the NCDs risk factors clusters in regards to socio-demographic characteristics. Four clusters of NCDs risk factors were found: 1) Cluster 1: physical inactivity behavior with normal weight, 2) Cluster 2: physical inactivity behavior associated to excess weight, 3) Cluster 3: unhealthy diet associated to excess weight and low practice of physical activity, and 4) Cluster 4: smoking behavior with physical activity behavior. The pattern of cluster membership differed across sex (<10-3), school level, and socioeconomic level (<10-3) but there was no significant difference between clusters for mother's education levels and household tenure. This study can have important implications for health policy and practice. Indeed, it found that many subjects have simultaneous multiple NCDs risk factors which leads to identify groups at risk and implement integrated intervention program.
Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina
The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.
Riaz, Haris; Riaz, Talha; Khan, Muhammad Ubaid; Aziz, Sina; Ullah, Faizan; Rehman, Anis; Zafar, Qandeel; Kazi, Abdul Nafey
Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis.Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2%) were males while 33 (41.8%) were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5) years with the dominant age group (46.2%) being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8%) cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2%) cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients.Conflicts of Interest: None.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. Findings The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2% were males while 33 (41.8% were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5 years with the dominant age group (46.2% being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8% cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2% cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. Conclusions The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients. Conflicts of Interest: None
Parslow, Ruth A; Jorm, Anthony F; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew
It has been proposed that active engagement with life may protect against cognitive decline. However, existing instruments for measuring life engagement have covered limited domains. To present a new instrument to measure engagement with life; the RIASEC Activities List draws on activities categorised according to interest categories previously developed by Holland: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional (RIASEC). Participants in a longitudinal, community-based survey were drawn from 3 age groups: 2,404 participants aged 20-24; 2,530 aged 40-44, and 2,551 aged 60-64 years. They provided information on which of 54 selected activities they had performed in the 6 months prior to their survey interview. Other information obtained from participants included measures of sociodemographic characteristics, personality attributes and mental and physical health. Two measures of cognition were also examined. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women in each of the 3 age groups. Confirmatory factor analyses identified six scales of activity types corresponding to Holland's six interest categories. The number of activities of any type undertaken in the past 6 months was significantly associated with cognitive measures, better physical health, and better mental health although these findings varied for men and women across the 3 age groups. Further, for both men and women in all age groups, performing activities of any type was associated with having higher extraversion and mastery scores, and lower levels of neuroticism. Associations were also found between performing specific types of activities and cognitive measures. This instrument has the potential to identify more clearly types of activities that may offer cognitive benefits and warrants further testing in longitudinal studies.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study has been to determine if sociodemographic factors: age, sex and duration of employment as well as the presence of chronic comorbidities exert significant effect on subjective assessment of psychosocial working conditions of nurses. Moreover, we analyzed whether the abovementioned variables influenced the level of absenteeism at work during a year preceding the study. Material and Methods: The study, conducted between December 2012 and January 2013, included 789 nurses employed at public and private healthcare institutions in Białystok. The participants were surveyed by means of the “Psychosocial Working Conditions” questionnaire. Results: Women accounted for significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Well-being Scale as compared to men. Respondents’ age and duration of employment correlated significantly with the scores of the Demands and Desired Changes Scales. Moreover, we documented significant inverse correlations between the age and tenure and the scores of the Social Support and Well-being Scales. Furthermore, duration of employment was inversely correlated with the results of the Control Scale. The respondents with chronic conditions showed significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Control and Well-being Scales. We found an inverse correlation between the number of sick leave days and the value of the Well-being Scale, which was also the case with a subset of nurses without chronic conditions. Conclusions: Similar to other professional groups, a nursing team management requires the use of human resources management techniques and identification of a person being responsible for coordination of the group and diagnosis of its psychosocial needs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(5:615–624
de Morais, Fernanda Dorneles; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo; Rahal, Rosemar Macedo Sousa; Gonzaga, Carolina Maciel Reis
To evaluate the effect of sociodemographic and clinical factors on body image, sexual function and sexual satisfaction in women following breast cancer treatment. Women with breast cancer may experience a wide range of symptoms associated with body image and sexuality that can severely affect their quality of life. Therefore, the health care professional's ability to understand the patient's complaints and her sexual history is highly relevant in specialised multidisciplinary care. A cross-sectional survey. Seventy-seven participants were included. Body image, sexual function and sexual satisfaction were evaluated using the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. Results were shown as means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages. Cronbach's alpha was calculated. Spearman's correlation test, the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis, conducted using the spss statistical software package, version 17.0. Low scores were found in the desire (34·63), frequency (32·03) and sexual satisfaction (45·91) domains, while body image scores were higher (63·57). No strong correlation was found between body image and any of the other domains. Patients without a steady partner experienced more sexual desire (p women with a higher education level and in those using aromatase inhibitors. Sexual function and satisfaction were affected to a greater extent than body image. No association was found between body image and sexual performance. The effect of marital status and education level on sexual function merits particular attention. A well-trained multidisciplinary team should be available to evaluate women's need for support and to provide information on the disease, its treatment and its impact on their lives and on their sexuality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol
We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self-rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36-3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20-0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources.
Robinson, M Renee; Daniel, Lauren C; O'Hara, Emily A; Szabo, Margo M; Barakat, Lamia P
Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for functional limitations and poor health-related quality of life (QoL). This study examined sociodemographic factors that may interact with medical complications to reduce functional ability and QoL among youth with SCD. Fifty-three patient/caregiver pairs (children 8 to 18 years; M=12.3 y) with SCD completed the Functional Disability Inventory and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory questionnaires. Medical database reviews were conducted to collect health care utilization, disease complications, and sociodemographic information; insurance type (public vs. private insurance) and family zip code to access Census tract data reflecting neighborhood distress. Insurance type, but not neighborhood sociodemographic risk indicators, was significantly associated with disease-related complications and QoL. There were significant differences in both health care utilization and QoL by insurance type. Complications were higher in the group with public insurance. Insurance type seems to be more strongly related to disease outcomes and QoL than neighborhood sociodemographic distress. Closer attention to the contribution of insurance type to health outcomes may provide important insight to potential barriers for disease management. These issues are critically important for health care efficiency and equity for poor and underserved children with chronic health conditions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Though adolescence is recognised as a critical period for smoking prevention, there is a lack of research focused on this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this study has been to examine the gender-specific factors of influence (predictors for smoking among adolescents in Pristina, Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised 1002 adolescents at the age of 17–18 (366 boys, 636 girls, all of whom were in the school’s 12th grade. The predictors included sociodemographic variables, familial (i.e., parental monitoring, parents’ educational background, and sport-related factors. The Chi2 and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses with a dichotomous criterion (smoking vs. non-smoking were applied. Results: The incidence of smoking was high (31% and 40% smokers, including 7% and 12% daily smokers for girls and boys, respectively. The regression model revealed more frequent absence from school (odds ratio (OR: 1.544; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–2.243, more unexcused school absences (OR: 1.360; 95% CI: 1.029–1.796, and frequent parental questioning (OR: 1.530; 95% CI: 1.020–2.295 to be significant predictors of smoking among boys. For girls, a higher risk of smoking was associated with lower scholastic achievement (OR: 1.467; 95% CI: 1.089–1.977, more frequent absence from school (OR: 1.565; 95% CI: 1.137–2.155, increased conflict with parents (OR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.405–2.789, and a self-declared perception of less parental care (OR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.377–0.962. Sports were not found to be strongly related to smoking. However, a high risk of daily smoking was found among boys who participated in team sports and subsequently quit. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for gender- and culture-specific approaches to studying the factors that influence smoking among adolescents. Med Pr 2015;66(2:153–163
Background Discretionary salt use varies according to socio-demographic factors. However, it is unknown whether salt knowledge and beliefs mediate this relationship. This study examined the direct and indirect effect of socio-demographic factors on salt knowledge and discretionary salt use in a sample of 530 Australian adults. Methods An internet based cross-sectional survey was used to collect data for this study. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed their salt knowledge, beliefs and salt use behaviour. Mplus was used to conduct structural equation modelling to estimate direct and indirect effects. Results The mean age of the participants was 49.2 years, and about a third had tertiary education. Discretionary salt use was inversely related to age (r=-0.11; psocio-demographic groups in their use of discretionary salt use can potentially be reduced through targeted salt knowledge and awareness campaigns. PMID:23418906
Background It is still not known whether overweight men have different patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported physical activity (PA) compared with normal-weight men. Thus, this study examined the perceived PA patterns and associated socio-demographic factors among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,420 men (aged 44.48.3years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey relating to socio-demographic variables, BMI status, and a short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and binary logistic regression analyses were employed. Results Normal-weight men were significantly more likely to attain 150 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous PA than overweight men (26.6% vs. 21.3%; p=0.035), whereas there were no significant proportional differences in total PA and walking between the two BMI subgroups. With PA, a significant interaction was observed between BMI status and household income (p=0.004 for total PA; p=0.02 for walking). In the subgroup analyses, having a lower household income (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.96) was negatively associated with attaining 150 minutes of walking per week among normal-weight men. No significant associations between household income and attaining 150 minutes per week of total PA and walking were found among overweight men. Conclusions The results revealed that patterns and socio-demographic correlates of self-reported PA in overweight men are different from those in normal-weight men. This finding suggests the necessity of developing specific strategies for PA intervention among overweight men. Socio-demographic correlates of PA may be more important for normal-weight than overweight men. PMID:22490124
Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda
This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use an
Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda
This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use
Hallström, Lena; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; Sjöström, Michael
Objective To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were clas...
Böell, Julia Estela Willrich; da Silva, Denise Maria Guerreiro Vieira; Hegadoren, Kathleen Mary
ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between resilience and sociodemographic variables and the health of people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional observational study performed with 603 people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A tool to collect socio-demographic and health data and the Resilience Scale developed by Connor and Davidson were applied. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed. Results: the study participants had on average 61 years old (SD= 13.2), with a stable union (52.24%), religion (96.7%), retired (49.09%), with primary education (65%) and income up to three minimum wages. Participants with kidney disease showed less resilience than people with diabetes. Conclusion: the type of chronic illness, disease duration, body mass index and religious beliefs influenced the resilience of the study participants. PMID:27598377
Julia Estela Willrich Böell
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the association between resilience and sociodemographic variables and the health of people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method: a cross-sectional observational study performed with 603 people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A tool to collect socio-demographic and health data and the Resilience Scale developed by Connor and Davidson were applied. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed. Results: the study participants had on average 61 years old (SD= 13.2, with a stable union (52.24%, religion (96.7%, retired (49.09%, with primary education (65% and income up to three minimum wages. Participants with kidney disease showed less resilience than people with diabetes. Conclusion: the type of chronic illness, disease duration, body mass index and religious beliefs influenced the resilience of the study participants.
Sontrop, Jessica M; Campbell, M Karen; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Avison, William R
Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to adverse health outcomes; however, these relationships may be confounded by socio-economic status and health behaviours. This study's purpose was to describe the socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates of fish consumption among pregnant women. Pregnant women (n=2394) completed a telephone interview between 10-22 weeks' gestation (London, Ontario, 2002-5) containing questions on socio-demographic, health and lifestyle variables; dietary intake was measured using a 106-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression model. Infrequent fish consumption, socio-economic status and variables indicative of a less healthy lifestyle; these variables may act as confounders in studies evaluating fish consumption and health outcomes.
Sobkin V. S.
Full Text Available Preschool childhood is a time of rapid development. During this period a child`s interaction with significant adults plays a very important role. The parent, as a mediator, defines the “zone of proximal development” (Vygotsky, 1984. The common assumption is that to determine a parent’s position, it is important to acknowledge both socio-demographic factors and the parameters which define the socio-psychological aspects of parent-child relationship. Hence, the type of research where a child’s psychological development is studied in the context of the socio-demographic and socio-psychological factors which determine the social situation of development, is very promising. Based on our previous research (Sobkin, Marich, 2002; Cheie, Veraksa, 2015, a program of experimental research intended to determine the interconnections between the socio-demographic and socio-psychological parameters of parent-child relationships, and the level of a child’s psychic development, was designed. The research was based upon the material obtained through testing 59 children between 5 and 7 years old with specially collected psychological testing methods (Veraksa A.N. etc, as well as from the results of a special sociological questionnaire presented to their mothers (Sobkin V.S. etc. The research was carried out in 2014-2015 in municipal kindergartens of Moscow. Among the socio-demographic factors analyzed, the most significant results were related to the child’s gender, the family structure, and the mother’s education. Thus, boys showed higher results on visual memory tests, and girls scored better on tests for self-control and social intelligence (higher ability to detect the reason for someone else’s negative emotions. Children from single-parent families had better results on verbal memory tests, but scored lower on those for self-control. Also they had less ability for decentration. The differences in mothers’ educational levels influenced the
Gioia, Carmine; Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Jørgensen, Ole;
Background: Professional recommendations to patients concerning hearing instrument (HI) technology levels are not currently evidence-based. Pre-fitting parameters have not been proven to be the primary indicators for optimal patient outcome with different HI technology levels. This results...... in subjective decision-making as regards the technology level recommendation made by professionals. Purpose: The objective of this study is to gain insight into the decision-making criteria utilized by professionals when recommending HI technology levels to hearing-impaired patients....
Papuć, Ewa; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew
Quality of life (QoL) has presently a firmly established position as an important endpoint in medical care. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease with considerable effect on patients' QoL. QoL of MS patients from many European countries has already been assessed but little is known on health-related QoL of Polish subjects with MS. Few studies have taken into consideration multiple predictors of QoL. The aim of this study was to elicit the most relevant factors that determine QoL of Polish group of MS patients. Socio-demographic and clinical factors as well as the influence of disability level were analyzed in this study. 173 MS patients and 86 healthy controls underwent assessment using the Mini Mental Status Examination, WHOQOL-100, Beck Depression Inventory and Fatigue Severity Scale. Data were analyzed by a stepwise linear regression analysis. MS patients had significantly worse global QoL and worse QoL in physical and psychological health domains, lower level of independence, worse social relations and were less satisfied with the surrounding environment they lived in compared with healthy controls (pMS subjects had also higher level of depression and fatigue compared to healthy controls (pQoL of Polish MS patients were depression, disability level and fatigue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pneumococcal Vaccination Recommendations for Children 1 and Adults by Age and/or Risk Factor Routine Recommendations for Pneumococcal Conjugate ... X X X X X 1 For PCV13 vaccination of healthy children, see “Recommen- dations for Pneumococcal ...
Zhang, Liying; Ellis, Deborah A; Naar-King, Sylvie; Moltz, Kathleen; Carcone, April I; Dekelbab, Bassem
Parental monitoring of adolescent diabetes care is an important predictor of adolescent regimen adherence. To date, no studies have investigated whether socio-demographic factors are associated with low levels of parental monitoring or differences in parental monitoring styles, and their moderating effects in families of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether youth and family socio-demographic factors moderated the relationship between monitoring and youth regimen adherence (i.e., mean frequency of blood glucose testing [BGT]). Data were collected from 267 adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed. Socio-demographic factors accounted for 17.1% of the variance in adherence. After parental monitoring scales were entered, R(2) in all eight equations increased and R(2) change score in six of eight equations were significant. All models were significant after the interaction terms were entered. In the adolescent report models, parent age and family structure were both independently associated with adherence and also moderated the association between adolescent-report parental monitoring and adherence to diabetes care, in particular, adolescent report of parental direct observation/presence during diabetes care. In the parent report models, income was moderated the association between parent-report youth disclosure and adherence. Research should focus on identifying additional modifiable factors that place families at risk for low levels of parental monitoring of diabetes care. Future clinical research is needed to help identify risk factors for low levels of parental monitoring and develop interventions to promote optimal parenting skills that can support youth diabetes care.
Gautam, S; Ruchal, S; Timalsina, B; Acharya, D; Khadka, B; Gautam, V; Singh, J K
Childhood wasting although well studied elsewhere, it has not been well understood about in slum area of Nepal. This study aimed to assess effect of socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice in the determination of wasting among the children under five years of age in slum area of Nepal. A community based cross-sectional study was performed among 150 children under five years of age from the slum area of Nepal between 1st January and 28th February 2013 using simple random sampling techniques. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine factors associated with wasting controlling the potential confounders. In a total of 150 under five years children, the prevalence of wasting was 56 (37.33%). The current study demonstrated that children of mothers from dalit Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) 11.5; 95% CI: 03.1 - 41.3), aadibasi/janajati (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 1.2 - 17.0), illiterate mothers (AOR 3.6; 95% CI: 1.1 - 13.6), laborer mothers (AOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-9.4), child age group 25-36 months (AOR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-5.3), multiple child birth order (AOR 10.0; 95% CI: 2.5-25.0), children who were not fed colostrums (AOR 15.0; 95% CI: 1.25-10.0) were more likely to develop wasting compared to their counterparts. As incremental childhood wasting is associated with maternal socio-demographic factors and child feeding practice, health promotion strategies should focus maternal socio-demographic factors, age of children and early initiation of breast feeding for the improved child nutrition in slum area of Nepal.
Ledoux, Tracey; Van Den Berg, Patricia; Leung, Patrick; Berens, Pamela D
Excess adiposity (obesity and excess gestational weight gain, GWG) during pregnancy (EADP) increases risk for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and child and maternal obesity. Personal GWG goals predict total GWG. Some estimates suggest only 30% of pregnant women have personal GWG goals that are congruent with Institute of Medicine GWG recommendations. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived pre-pregnancy weight status, healthcare provider advice, knowledge of EADP risks, and value for healthy GWG predicted knowledge of GWG recommendations. The secondary purpose was to determine sources of GWG information among pregnant women. Pregnant women with a confirmed singleton pregnancy completed a one-time survey in obstetric clinic waiting rooms. Logistic regression analysis was used. 246 predominantly African American, low income, overweight/obese women completed surveys. Average age was 25 (SD 5.3) and gestation age ranged from 7 to 40 weeks. Knowledge of pre-pregnancy weight status was the only unique predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (B = .642, p = .03). The top three sources of GWG information were physicians, internet, and books. The least frequently reported sources of GWG information were other healthcare providers, community programs, and television. In low income diverse overweight/obese pregnant women, accurate pre-pregnancy weight status perception was the only significant unique predictor of knowledge of GWG recommendations. Physicians were the preferred source of GWG information. Clinicians should have frequent, ongoing conversations about weight status with women before, during, and after pregnancy.
Cheah, Y K
Given the importance of physical activity to health, this study investigated the socio-demographic determinants of physical activity participation in a sample of adults in Penang. Through convenience sampling, a total of 398 adults agreed to answer a prepared questionnaire on their socio-demographic background and physical activity participation. The data were analysed using the binary logit model. Frequent physical activity participation is defined as taking part more than 11 times in leisure-time physical activity such as swimming and jogging, each time lasting more than 15 minutes in a typical month, whereas participation that is less than the frequency and time duration specified above is referred to as infrequent physical activity. Age, male, being Chinese, high educational attainment, self-rated excellent health status and presence of family illnesses are positively associated with the likelihood of frequent participation in physical activity. On the contrary, being married, having low income and residing in rural areas are inversely related with the propensity of frequent physical activity participation. The majority in this sample of adults do not participate in physical activity frequently, and the reasons given include lack of health awareness, limited leisure time, budget constraints, and lack of sports amenities.
Full Text Available Background: Renal failure is a chronic disease that can have serious effects on patients’ quality of life (QoL.Objective: Gender, age, education and marital status were investigated in end-stage renal disease patients. Specifically, the relationship of QoL and mental health to sociodemographic variables was examined.Methodology: 144 patients in-centre haemodialysis (HD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD were administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument (WHOQOLBREF, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, the depression CES-D scale, the State-TraitAnxiety Inventory (STAI and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLC.Results: Female patients reported lower scores in the psychological and environmental QoL domains and higher scores in the Trait Anxiety measure. Elder patients reported higher scores in the GHQ-28 sub-scale of social dysfunction and in the CES-D depression scale, while less educated patients presented higher scores in the GHQ-28 sub-scales of anxiety/insomnia and severe depression. Divorced/widowed patients presented lower scores in the physical, social and environmental QoL domains and higher scores in the severe depression sub-scale. Regarding health locus of control, females and less educated patients reported higher scores in the attitudinal dimension of chance, while younger patients in the dimension of internal.Conclusions: Findings provide evidence that sociodemographic variables, like being female, older, less educated and divorced/widowed, relate to a more compromised QoL.
Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte
The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region.
Teixeira, Tatiana Rodrigues de Araujo; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade
This study analyzed the dengue fever epidemic in 2002 and the socio-demographic context of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using spatial analysis and statistical modeling. The incidence rate was calculated for resident dengue cases in the State in 2002. The study analyzed associations between incidence and socio-demographic variables and spatial autocorrelation using the Moran Global Index, which showed spatial dependence for both the outcome and the independent variables. A multivariate linear regression model was used. The variables' proportion of urban population, percentage of the population with running water, and percentage of coverage by the Family Health Program (FHP) explained 30.2% of the total variance in the epidemic's incidence rate. The model's residuals did not show spatial autocorrelation. The associations were in the expected direction, and the findings are corroborated by other studies that showed higher dengue incidence in areas characterized by growing urbanization and deficient running water and water supply, while highlighting the FHP as an important facilitator of vector control strategies.
Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.
Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Abu Haider Mohammad Golam Mustafa; Karar Zunaid Ahsan; Mohammad Shafiqul Islam; Yunus, Mohammad
The study examined noncommunicable diseases risk factors among adults 25 to 64 years old of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System using World Health Organization STEP-wise methodology. The prevalence of smoking was found to be very high for males (53.9%) and it increased initially with age, whereas smoking was almost nil for females (0.8%). About 30% each of males and females used smokeless tobacco and its consumption increased with age. Consumption of vegetable/fruit is very low in this population (90% below recommended level), whereas one third of males and two thirds of female have low levels of physical activities. The raised blood pressure was more prevalent among females than in males (21.0% vs 12.5%, respectively) and the same was true for being overweight (13.9% vs 10.3%, respectively). Raised blood pressure increased with age but overweight did not vary by age for males, whereas it increased initially for females. Smoking (males) and use of smokeless tobacco decreased with increase in education, but both blood pressure and overweight increased.
Hoang Van Minh, MD, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionChronic diseases have emerged as a major health threat to the world’s population, particularly in developing countries. We examined the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables in a representative sample of adults in rural Vietnam.MethodsIn 2005, we selected a representative sample of 2000 adults aged 25 to 64 years using the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. We measured subjects’ blood pressure, calculated their body mass index (BMI, and determined their self-reported smoking status. We then assessed the extent to which hypertension, being overweight (having a BMI ≥25.0, smoking, and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with subjects’ education level, occupational category, and economic status.ResultsMean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.9% among men and 13.7% among women. Sixty-three percent of men were current smokers, and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women, and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. People without a stable occupation were more at risk of having hypertension than were farmers and more at risk of being overweight than were farmers or government employees. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women.ConclusionRural Vietnam is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal
Baltov, Petko; Côte, Julie; Truchon, Manon; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann
Identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors (measured prior to treatment) that were associated with post-treatment self-perceived pain and disability and two secondary outcomes: psychological distress, and return to work in patients undergoing multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Interviews were conducted with 28 patients with chronic WAD at entry to and completion of an intensive rehabilitation program, and a telephone interview was carried out three months later. Participants completed pain and disability, and psychological distress questionnaires, at baseline and at both follow-ups. They also completed psychosocial questionnaires and provided socio-demographic information. The effect of each of the independent variables on the outcomes was first evaluated by simple regressions, and then subsequently by multiple regression analysis. Higher baseline pain and disability predicted higher pain and disability at both follow-ups (p factor that affected pain and disability post-rehabilitation. Psychosocial factors played a role in the prognosis of psychological distress and return to work.
Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Silvis, Katherine; Hummel, Sandra; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M
Infant's age at introduction to certain complementary foods (CF) has in previous studies been associated with islet autoimmunity, which is an early marker for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Various maternal sociodemographic factors have been found to be associated with early introduction to CF. The aims of this study were to describe early infant feeding and identify sociodemographic factors associated with early introduction to CF in a multinational cohort of infants with an increased genetic risk for T1D. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study is a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Infants (N = 6404) screened for T1D high risk human leucocyte antigen-DQ genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9 and DR3/9) were followed for 2 years at six clinical research centres: three in the United States (Colorado, Georgia/Florida, Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland, Germany). Age at first introduction to any food was reported at clinical visits every third month from the age of 3 months. Maternal sociodemographic data were self-reported through questionnaires. Age at first introduction to CF was primarily associated with country of residence. Root vegetables and fruits were usually the first CF introduced in Finland and Sweden and cereals were usually the first CF introduced in the United States. Between 15% and 20% of the infants were introduced to solid foods before the age of 4 months. Young maternal age (12 years) and smoking during pregnancy were significant predictors of early introduction to CF in this cohort. Infants with a relative with T1D were more likely to be introduced to CF later.
Harris, Francesca; Green, Rosemary F; Joy, Edward J M; Kayatz, Benjamin; Haines, Andy; Dangour, Alan D
Agriculture accounts for ~90% of India's fresh water use, and there are concerns that future food production will be threatened by insufficient water supply of adequate quality. This study aimed to quantify the water required in the production of diets in India using the water footprint (WF) assessment method. The socio-demographic associations of dietary WFs were explored using mixed effects regression models with a particular focus on blue (irrigation) WF given the importance for Indian agriculture. Dietary data from ~7000 adults living in India were matched to India-specific WF data for food groups to quantify the blue and green (rainfall) WF of typical diets. The mean blue and green WF of diets was 737l/capita/day and 2531l/capita/day, respectively. Vegetables had the lowest WFs per unit mass of product, while roots/tubers had the lowest WFs per unit dietary energy. Poultry products had the greatest blue WFs. Wheat and rice contributed 31% and 19% of the dietary blue WF respectively. Vegetable oils were the highest contributor to dietary green WF. Regional variation in dietary choices meant large differences in dietary blue WFs, whereby northern diets had nearly 1.5 times greater blue WFs than southern diets. Urban diets had a higher blue WF than rural diets, and a higher standard of living was associated with larger dietary blue WFs. This study provides a novel perspective on the WF of diets in India using individual-level dietary data, and demonstrates important variability in WFs due to different food consumption patterns and socio-demographic characteristics. Future dietary shifts towards patterns currently consumed by individuals in higher income groups, would likely increase irrigation requirements putting substantial pressure on India's water resources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yelany Lima Rabelo
Full Text Available Introducción: el sobrepeso en la adolescencia se relaciona con el desarrollo precoz de aterosclerosis, por lo que se considera una señal aterogénica temprana. Objetivo: determinar la relación del sobrepeso con algunos factores sociodemográficos y estilos de vida. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva de tipo transversal en 252 adolescentes de 16 a 19 años, de una población de 347 adolescentes, del policlínico "Héroes del Moncada", municipio Plaza de la Revolución. Se utilizó el modelo de recolección del dato primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencias de La Habana. Se realizaron mensuraciones del peso, la talla y la circunferencia de la cintura, se determinó el índice de masa corporal, evaluando el estado nutricional según las tablas cubanas. Las variables sociodemográficas estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, escolaridad de los padres, condiciones de la vivienda y estructura familiar. La actividad física, fue clasificada según lo referido por el adolescente. Resultados: el 18,3 % de los adolescentes, presentó sobrepeso y obesidad, con predominio del sexo masculino. En el grupo con sobrepeso el mayor porcentaje de las madres tenían un nivel de escolaridad técnico medio y preuniversitario y procedían de familias monoparenterales. La actividad física intensa fue menor en los adolescentes con sobrepeso.Introduction: the excess weight in adolescence is related to the early development of the atherosclerosis, thus, it is considered an early atherogenic signal. Objective: to determine the relation of excess weight with some sociodemographic factors and lifestyle. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted in 252 adolescents aged 16-19 from a group of 347 adolescents of the "Héroes del Moncada" University Polyclinic, Plaza de La Revolución municipality. Authors used a form of collection of primary datum of the Center of Researches and References of La habana. The weight, height and waist
Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Ogunlesi, Funmilayo B
Poor care-seeking behaviour of families may be responsible for the high prevalence of complications of newborn jaundice in the developing world. To examine the influence of family socio-demographic characteristics and maternal obstetric factors on health care-seeking behaviours for newborn jaundice and the inter-relationship between this behavior and severity of newborn jaundice. Mothers whose babies were referred to a Nigerian tertiary hospital with jaundice were studied in a cross-sectional survey for appropriate health-care seeking behaviours as well as the need for exchange transfusion and the occurrence of kernicterus in their babies. Out of 182 mother-baby pairs, 127 (69.8%) mothers recognized jaundice in their infants, 34.1% delayed care for ≥48 h, 40.6% sought medical care in orthodox health facilities while 20.9% did not seek care outside the home. In all, 61.5% mothers administered various medications to jaundiced babies. Appropriate health care-seeking behaviours were recorded among 28.6% mothers. Low maternal education had a significant relationship with delayed health care-seeking and the use of home remedies for newborn jaundice. A significantly higher proportion of babies who had home remedies had delayed care. Delayed care for ≥48 h was also significantly associated with high Total Serum Bilirubin on admission, higher requirement for exchange transfusion and higher occurrence of kernicterus. Intensive health education of families may help improve their health care-seeking behaviours for neonatal jaundice.
Carpar, Elif; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios; Donmezler, Gizem; Cesur, Ender; Fistikci, Nurhan
Taking predictors of hospitalization characteristics into consideration internationally would broaden our understanding of this population on a local basis. We aimed to examine and compare socio-demographic profiles along with hospitalization characteristics including length of hospital stay (LOS), reasons for admission and diagnoses among older adult inpatients hospitalized in Ireland and Turkey, and to assess factors predicting these features. The admission charts of 356 psychiatric inpatients over 65 years of age who were admitted to two different acute psychiatric hospitals (Sligo/Ireland and Istanbul/Turkey) were analysed by means of descriptive modalities and logistic regression. There were significant differences in several domains of socio-demographics, reasons of admission and diagnoses. LOS was significantly longer in Ireland. Living alone was the only significant predictor for longer LOS in both countries, whereas in addition to living alone, younger age was also a contributor for longer LOS in Turkey. Given that the only factor predicting LOS both in Turkey and Ireland was living alone, helping to identify more acceptable ways of providing social support for living arrangements constitutes an important service to shorten LOS in old age psychiatric population. It is possible to infer that independent from the cultural diversities, living arrangement is a consistent entity to influence length of hospital stay in older adult population.
Jørgensen, K T; Pedersen, B V; Nielsen, N M; Hansen, A V; Jacobsen, S; Frisch, M
Studies addressing possible socio-demographic and reproductive factors in the aetiology of osteoarthritis (OA) are few. We studied possible influences of educational level, household income, marital status and parenting patterns on OA risk overall and at anatomical sites. We linked national register data about socio-demographic variables, reproductive histories and OA hospital contacts to a cohort of 4.6 million Danes. Ratios of first OA hospitalisation rates (RRs) were calculated using Poisson regression. Overall, 100,437 women and 92,020 men had a first OA hospital contact during 91.5 million person-years between 1982 and 2008. Short education, low income and married status were significantly associated with increased OA risk, and persons with children were at higher risk of OA(overall) (RR=1.10 in women; RR=1.22 in men), OA(knee) (RRs 1.14; 1.28), OA(back) (RRs 1.18; 1.33), and OA(hand) (RRs 1.21; 1.43), but not of OA(hip) (RRs 0.96; 1.00) than persons without children. The RR of OA(overall) increased by a factor of 1.05 in women and 1.04 in men per additional child, most notably for OA(knee) in women (1.10 per child). Risk of OA hospitalisation was highest among married persons and persons with short education or low income. The similar or even stronger associations with reproductive factors in men than women suggest that unmeasured lifestyle factors rather than biological factors associated with pregnancy might explain the higher OA risk in persons with children. However, the particularly strong association between parity and risk of OA(knee) in women is compatible with a role of pregnancy-associated factors. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali Khan Khuwaja
Full Text Available Background. We evaluated the prevalence and clustering pattern of cardiovascular disease (CVD related lifestyle factors and their association with CVD among patients with type 2 diabetes. We also examined the association of these factors with various socio-demographic characteristics. Methods. A total of 1000 patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed in a cross-sectional, multi-center study in out-patient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. Results. In this study 30.3% study participants had CVD. Majority of the patients were physically inactive and had adverse psychosocial factors. Forty percent of the study participants were exposed to passive smoking while 12.7% were current smokers. Only 8.8% of study subjects had none of the studied lifestyle factor, 27.5% had one, while 63.7% had two or three factors. CVDs were independently associated with physical inactivity, adverse psychosocial factors, passive smoking and clustering of two or three lifestyle factors. Physical inactivity was more prevalent among females and patients with no/less education. Proportion of adverse psychosocial factors were higher among females, elders and patients with no/less education. Clustering of these lifestyle factors was significantly higher among females, elderly and no/less educated patients. Conclusion. These results suggest the need of comprehensive and integrated interventions to reduce the prevalence of lifestyle factors.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Moussa-Hamouda, E; Mourant, R R
Interviews were conducted with 405 drivers of cars equipped with fingertip reach controls. A high percentage of finding problems was reported when the horn was mounted on a stalk and also when the turn signal was on a right stalk. Drivers of configurations with two left stalks had a large percentage of inadvertent operation problems for the turn signal and for the headlight beam selector. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate modes of operation for the wiper on/off, wiper speed and washer on/off functions. Subjects performed best when the wiper on/off and speed control were actuated by a rotating had switch. Subjects' reactions to stalk mounted controls were much faster than their reactions to dash mounted controls. Recommendations to eliminate finding and inadvertent operation problems associated with fingertip reach controls are given.
Background Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. Methods The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Results Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Conclusions Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in
Cunningham, Joan; Paradies, Yin C
Indigenous Australians are known to be at greater risk of morbidity and mortality from mental health related conditions, but most available data relate to the use of mental health services, and little is known about other aspects of social and emotional wellbeing. Using the first available nationally representative data, we examined the prevalence and patterning of psychological distress among Indigenous Australian adults and compared these with corresponding data from the non-Indigenous population. The analysis used weighted data on psychological distress, as measured by a modified Kessler Psychological Distress score (K5), and a range of socio-demographic measures for 5,417 Indigenous and 15,432 non-Indigenous adults aged 18-64 years from two nationally representative surveys. Very high psychological distress (VHPD) was defined as a K5 score ≥ 15 (possible range = 5-25). Indigenous adults were about three times more likely than non-Indigenous adults to be classified with VHPD: 14.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.9-16.0%) versus 5.5% (95% CI 5.0-5.9%). After adjusting for age, most socio-demographic variables were significantly associated with VHPD in both populations, although the relative odds were generally larger among non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people in remote areas had a lower prevalence of VHPD than their non-remote counterparts, and only marital status, main language, and food insecurity were significantly associated with VHPD in remote areas. Higher absolute levels of VHPD combined with smaller socio-demographic gradients in the Indigenous population suggest the importance of risk factors such as interpersonal racism, marginalization and dispossession, chronic stress and exposure to violence that are experienced by Indigenous Australians with common and/or cross-cutting effects across the socioeconomic spectrum. The lower prevalence of VHPD and lack of association with many socio-demographic variables in remote areas suggests either that the
Full Text Available Association between common mental disorders (CMDs, equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population, were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs. Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.
Peltzer, Karl; Malaka, Dorothy W; Phaswana, Nancy
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships among sociodemographic variables, family background, religiosity, course of study, academic performance, and substance use. The sample included 799 first-year students in the age range of 16 to 49 years (M age 20.1 yr., SD = 3.2) chosen at random from the University of the North in South Africa. A Model Core Questionnaire from the WHO on Substance use was administered. Analysis indicated that women smoked tobacco or cannabis and drank less than men, while women took more stimulants and other opiate type drugs than men. Low scores on religiosity was a predictor for past-month tobacco use alcohol use, binge drinking, cannabis use, and having a drinking or drug problem now. Being a member of a Protestant denominational church or a Roman Catholic was a predictor for past-month tobacco and alcohol use. A family history of drinking or drug problems and being a social science or humanities student were predictive for a current alcohol or drug problem. Economic status, education of parents. living arrangement. and rural-urban differences were not associated with substance use. Findings have implications for prevention programmes.
Jenkins, Rachel; Njenga, Frank; Okonji, Marx; Kigamwa, Pius; Baraza, Makheti; Ayuyo, James; Singleton, Nicola; McManus, Sally; Kiima, David
Association between common mental disorders (CMDs), equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population), were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs). Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.
Becker, Davida; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Juarez, Clara; Garcia, Sandra G; Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Harper, Cynthia C
First-trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City in 2007, and services are now provided at public and private sites throughout the city. However, little is known about the obstacles women face when seeking abortion care. We surveyed women who obtained abortion services (n = 398) at three public sector facilities in Mexico City to identify the obstacles women faced when obtaining abortions. We used logistic regression to test whether obstacles varied by sociodemographic characteristics. Women with low education were more likely than high school-educated women to report difficulty getting appointments. Unmarried women and women with low education were more likely than married women or high school educated women to report difficulty getting time off work for appointments and arranging for transportation to the facility. Separated or divorced women were more likely than married women to report partner or other family member opposition to the abortion. Women who lived outside of Mexico City were more likely than Mexico City residents to report difficulty with transportation. Education, marital status, and place of residence were associated with the obstacles women reported. Strategies to improve access to care should be targeted to the groups at highest risk of experiencing obstacles: Women with primary education or lower, single women, separated/divorced women, and those residing outside of Mexico City. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Lopes, Daniele Almeida; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of functional disability in elderly people living in Ribeirão Preto, SP. This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study with multistage sampling. Design effect was corrected using a weighted sample composed by 536 elderly people. Disability based on daily living activities dependence (outcome) was assessed by using a validated questionnaire for population-based epidemiological studies. Points and 95% confidence intervals estimated crude and stratified prevalence rates of the outcome according to sociodemographic, behavioral, health-related, and self-reported morbidity variables. To identify the correlates, the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression. The crude prevalence of disability was 50.31%. In the multivariate models, after simultaneous intra-group adjustment (final models), the following variables remained independently associated with the outcome: sociodemographic (age, education, and contribution to familiar income); behavioral (daily mean of sitting time); health-related factors (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, medicines taken, and low cognitive performance); and self-reported morbidity (number of diseases and low hearing performance). The high prevalence of disability among elderly people in Ribeirão Preto and the presence of modifiable variables impose the need for specific health promotion and prevention measures, aiming a better quality of life for this population group, which is already well represented in the city's most recent population pyramids.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Children and adolescents comprise a group of individuals representing a large variation in size, competence, maturity, personality, temperament and emotions experience, oral health, family background, culture, etc. Furthermore, a growing child is in a constant state of flux as he grows up and actively interacts with the environment. Many factors contribute to the dental behavior of the child. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sociodemographic factors, general anxiety, body mass index (BMI, and role of multimedia on the child behavior (CB in the dental operatory. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and one children aged 3-14 years and their parents participated in the study. In the first visit, the questionnaire was filled by the parent and general examination was done. During the second visit, the required dental procedure was rendered, and the behavior was recorded by a single examiner. Results: Among sociodemographic factors, increasing age is directly related to child′s positive behavior, whereas other factors such as gender and socioeconomic status (SES are not significantly related. General anxiety significantly affects the child′s behavior. BMI of the child is not related to child′s behavior in dental operatory. Multimedia was not found to be significantly affecting the behavior of the child in dental operatory. Interpretations and Conclusion: The principle conclusion of this study is that there is a significant association of age and treatment procedure rendered with the CB in the dental operatory whereas gender, SES, general anxiety, BMI, and multimedia do not show any significant association with the CB in the dental operatory.
Hu, Peter J; Ley, Sylvia H; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Li, Yanping; Wang, Dong D
Although a high prevalence of anemia and related disease burden have been documented in China, limited evidence is available on the current population-level iron status and risk factors for iron imbalance. We explored the associations of dietary, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors with iron status in Chinese adults. Our study population consisted of 7672 adults aged 18-65 y from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey. Diet was assessed with the use of 3 consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured. The geometric means ± SDs for ferritin concentrations were 135.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL in men and 42.7 ± 3.1 ng/mL in women. After adjustment for potential risk factors, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration, the association between age and ferritin concentration was inverse in men (P-trend ferritin concentration in both men and women (both P-trends ferritin concentration in men (P-trend = 0.002) but not in women. Red meat consumption was positively associated with ferritin concentration both in men (P-trend = 0.002) and in older women (P-trend = 0.009). Lower intakes of grains and higher intakes of pork and poultry were associated with higher ferritin concentrations (all P-trends ≤ 0.05) in men but not in women. We observed variations in ferritin concentrations across different geographic regions (both P ≤ 0.01). Serum ferritin concentrations varied across different sociodemographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors in this Chinese population. A higher intake of red meat was associated with higher ferritin concentrations in men and older women. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available Online friend recommendation is a fast developing topic in web mining. In this paper, we used SVD matrix factorization to model user and item feature vector and used stochastic gradient descent to amend parameter and improve accuracy. To tackle cold start problem and data sparsity, we used KNN model to influence user feature vector. At the same time, we used graph theory to partition communities with fairly low time and space complexity. What is more, matrix factorization can combine online and offline recommendation. Experiments showed that the hybrid recommendation algorithm is able to recommend online friends with good accuracy.
... a latent factor model that caters to both accuracy and efficiency by reducing the number of latent features of either users or items making it less complex than Funk-SVD, where latent features of both users and items are equal and often larger. A comprehensive empirical evaluation of accuracy on two publicly available, amazon and ml-100 k datasets rev...
Böell, Julia Estela Willrich; Silva, Denise Maria Guerreiro Vieira da; Hegadoren, Kathleen Mary
to investigate the association between resilience and sociodemographic variables and the health of people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. a cross-sectional observational study performed with 603 people with chronic kidney disease and / or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A tool to collect socio-demographic and health data and the Resilience Scale developed by Connor and Davidson were applied. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was performed. the study participants had on average 61 years old (SD= 13.2), with a stable union (52.24%), religion (96.7%), retired (49.09%), with primary education (65%) and income up to three minimum wages. Participants with kidney disease showed less resilience than people with diabetes. the type of chronic illness, disease duration, body mass index and religious beliefs influenced the resilience of the study participants. verificar a associação entre resiliência e variáveis sociodemográficas e de saúde de pessoas com diagnóstico de doença renal crônica e/ou diabetes mellitus tipo 2. estudo observacional transversal realizado com 603 pessoas com diagnóstico de doença renal crônica e/ou diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Aplicação de instrumento para coletar dados sociodemográficos e de saúde e Escala de Resiliência desenvolvida por Connor e Davidson. Foi realizada análise descritiva e multivariada dos dados. os participantes do estudo possuíam, em média, 61 anos de idade (DP=13,2), com união estável (52,24%), crença religiosa (96,7%), aposentados (49,09%), com ensino fundamental (65%) e renda de até três salários mínimos. Os participantes com doença renal apresentaram menor resiliência do que pessoas com diabetes. o tipo de doença crônica, o tempo de doença, o índice de massa corporal e a crença religiosa influenciaram a resiliência dos participantes do estudo. verificar la asociación entre resiliencia y variables sociodemográficas y de salud de personas con diagnóstico de
Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group
Bell, L K; Golley, R K; Daniels, L; Magarey, A M
Previous research has shown, in predominantly European populations, that dietary patterns are evident early in life. However, little is known about early-life dietary patterns in Australian children. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of Australian toddlers and their associations with socio-demographic characteristics and adiposity. Principal component analysis was applied to 3 days (1 × 24-h recall and 2 × 24-h record) data of 14 (n=552)- and 24 (n=493)-month-old children from two Australian studies, NOURISH and South Australian Infant Dietary Intake (SAIDI). Associations with dietary patterns were investigated using regression analyses. Two patterns were identified at both ages. At 14 months, the first pattern was characterised by fruit, grains, vegetables, cheese and nuts/seeds ('14-month core foods') and the second pattern was characterised by white bread, milk, spreads, juice and ice-cream ('basic combination'). Similarly, at 24 months the '24-month core foods' pattern included fruit, vegetables, dairy, nuts/seeds, meat and water, whereas the 'non-core foods' included white bread, spreads, sweetened beverages, snacks, chocolate and processed meat. Lower maternal age and earlier breastfeeding cessation were associated with higher 'basic combination' and 'non-core foods' pattern scores, whereas earlier and later solid introduction were associated with higher 'basic combination' and '24-month core foods' pattern scores, respectively. Patterns were not associated with body mass index (BMI) z-score. Dietary patterns reflecting core and non-core food intake are identifiable in Australian toddlers. These findings support the need to intervene early with parents to promote healthy eating in children and can inform future investigations on the effects of early diet on long-term health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the county of Scania, Sweden, antibiotic use among small children is among the highest in the country. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between antibiotic use among 8-month-old children in Malmö and characteristics of the child as well as parental sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and psychosocial support. Methods The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey. The study population consisted of children who visited the Child Health Care (CHC centres in Malmö for their 8-month health checkup during 2003–2006 and whose parents answered a self-administered questionnaire (n = 7266 children. The questionnaire was distributed to parents of children registered with the CHC and invited for an 8-month checkup during the study period. Results The odds of using antibiotics increased as parental educational level decreased. Using high educational level as a reference group, low maternal educational level was associated with an increased antibiotic use for the child, odds ratio (OR = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.34–1.93. Furthermore, children whose parents were born outside Sweden showed higher antibiotic use, OR = 1.43 (95% CI: 1.24–1.65, in comparison with children whose parents were born in Sweden. Exposure to environmental smoking, parental experience of economic stress, and a low level of emotional support increased the odds for antibiotic use. Boys had higher odds of use of antibiotics than girls, OR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.25–1.57. Having a low birth weight, having an allergy and having siblings also increased the odds for early antibiotic use, while breastfeeding seemed to have a protective role. Conclusion There were clear associations between parental factors such as sociodemographic, psychosocial and lifestyle factors and antibiotic use at this early stage of life. Several characteristics of the child also affected the use of antibiotics.
Full Text Available The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1 virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27, hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71, chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16 and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88 and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43. The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08 or for three or more (OR 4.86 risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population.
Arias Vega, Raquel; Pérula de Torres, Luis Angel; Jiménez García, Celia; Carrasco Valiente, Julia; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Cano Castiñeira, Roque; Silva Ayçaguer, Luis Carlos
Renal lithiasis is one of the most important urological diseases. It seems to be related to different socio-demographic and climatic factors, lifestyle and pre-existing comorbidity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables, certain risk factors and chronic diseases and the renal lithiasis. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, selecting the Spanish population aged from 40 to 65 years, combining 2 random samples (PreLiRenA and PreLiRenE studies). Data were collected by personal telephone surveys, gathering information on socio-demographic variables and perceived morbidity. Data on annual average temperatures in each Spanish region were also collected. A bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed. A total of 4,894 subjects were surveyed; 51.3% were women; 25% were aged 40-45 years, 36% had primary school education and 31.4% were of low social class. The overall prevalence of renal lithiasis was 15.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 14.5-15.5). By means of multivariate analysis, the variables that showed a strong statistical relationship with the presence of renal lithiasis were: older age (61-65 years; OR=1.39; 95% CI 1.06-1.80), high social class (OR=1.98; 95% CI 1.29-2.62), family history of renal lithiasis (OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.88-2.65), high blood pressure (OR=1.68; 95% CI 1.39-2.02) and overweight/obesity (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.12-1.54). A correlation was observed between renal lithiasis and average annual temperatures in the Spanish regions (r=0.59; P=.013). A relationship was observed between renal lithiasis and older age, belonging to higher social classes, the existence of a family history of urolithiasis, and hypertension and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of renal lithiasis is greater in warmer climate zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul
Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Beck, Tove Kjær; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, H.
factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot...... ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive...... for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects...
Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl
Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking
Cohen, Joachim; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bilsen, Johan; Deboosere, Patrick; van der Wal, Gerrit; Deliens, Luc
In many European countries, the last decade has been marked by an increasing debate about the acceptability and regulation of euthanasia and other end-of-life decisions in medical practice. Growing public sensibility to a 'right to die' for terminally ill patients has been one of the main constituents of these debates. Within this context, we sought to describe and compare acceptance of euthanasia among the general public in 33 European countries. We used the European Values Study data of 1999-2000 with a total of 41125 respondents (63% response rate) in 33 European countries. The main outcome measure concerned the acceptance of euthanasia (defined as 'terminating the life of the incurably sick', rated on a scale from 1 to 10). Results showed that the acceptance of euthanasia tended to be high in some countries (e.g. the Netherlands, Denmark, France, Sweden), while a markedly low acceptance was found in others (e.g. Romania, Malta and Turkey). A multivariate ordinal regression showed that weaker religious belief was the most important factor associated with a higher acceptance; however, there were also socio-demographic differences: younger cohorts, people from non-manual social classes, and people with a higher educational level tended to have a higher acceptance of euthanasia. While religious belief, socio-demographic factors, and also moral values (i.e. the belief in the right to self-determination) could largely explain the differences between countries, our findings suggest that perceptions regarding euthanasia are probably also influenced by national traditions and history (e.g. Germany). Thus, we demonstrated clear cross-national differences with regard to the acceptance of euthanasia, which can serve as an important basis for further debate and research in the specific countries.
Christopher Izehinosen Okpataku
Full Text Available Background: The co-morbidity of psychoactive substance use and other mental disorders is a major challenge to the management of both conditions in several parts of the world. There is relative dearth of information on co-morbidity and its predictors in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence and socio-demographic risk factors associated with psychoactive substance use in the psychiatric out-patients of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: From routine clinic visits over a 4-month period, each consecutive 4 th adult patients (>18 years who had previously attended the clinic at least for 1 year, completed a socio-demographic and semi-structured drug use questionnaires and interview with the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN to generate substance use diagnosis. Data was analysed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 16. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The lifetime prevalence for the use of substance was 29.3%, while that for multiple substances was 17.7%. The most commonly used substances were alcohol, cannabis and tobacco and they were also the ones mostly used in combination with one or the other. A total of 10.1% of the patients had a psychoactive substance use disorder. Being male, married with at least primary education and unemployed were significant risk factors for substance use. Conclusion: Psychoactive substance is common among the psychiatric outpatients of the hospital with males, those with formal education, the married and unemployed being at high risk of substance use.
Priscilla, Das; Hamidin, Awang; Azhar, Md Zain; Noorjan, Kon; Salmiah, Md Said; Bahariah, Khalid
socio-demographic factors and clinical diagnoses. Efforts should be made to improve the overall quality of life of these patients.
Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are two of the world's most important infectious diseases. Our objective was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc prevalences among adult HIV-infected patients and identify the associations between socio-demographic variables and these HBV infection markers. Methods This study was performed from October 2012 to March 2013. Three hundred HIV-seropositive patients were monitored by the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Professor Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The blood tests included HBsAg, anti-HBc immunoglobulin M (IgM and total anti-HBc. Patients reported their HIV viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts using a questionnaire designed to collect sociodemographic data. Results The mean patient age was 44.6 years, the mean CD4 T-cell count was 525/mm3, the mean time since beginning antiretroviral therapy was 7.6 years, and the mean time since HIV diagnosis was 9.6 years. The overall prevalences of HBsAg and total anti-HBc were 2.3% and 29.3%, respectively. Among the individuals analyzed, 0.3% were positive for HBsAg, 27.3% were positive for total anti-HBc, and 2.0% were positive either for HBsAg or total anti-HBc and were classified as chronically HBV-infected. Furthermore, 70.3% of the patients were classified as never having been infected. Male gender, age >40 years and Caucasian ethnicity were associated with an anti-HBc positive test. Conclusions The results showed an intermediate prevalence of HBsAg among the studied patients. Moreover, the associations between the anti-HBc marker and socio-demographic factors suggest a need for HBV immunization among these HIV-positive individuals, who are likely to have HIV/HBV coinfection.
辛欣; 林钦佑; 魏骁驰; 黄河燕
Data sparsity is a well-known challenge in recommender systems. Previous studies alleviate this problem by incorporating the information within the corresponding social media site. In this paper, we solve this challenge by exploring cross-site information. Specifically, we examine: 1) how to effectively and eﬃciently utilize cross-site ratings and content features to improve recommendation performance and 2) how to make the recommendation interpretable by utilizing content features. We propose a joint model of matrix factorization and latent topic analysis. Heterogeneous content features are modeled by multiple kinds of latent topics. In addition, the combination of matrix factorization and latent topics makes the recommendation result interpretable. Therefore, the above two issues are simultaneously solved. Through a real-world dataset, where user behaviors in three social media sites are collected, we demonstrate that the proposed model is effective in improving recommendation performance and interpreting the rationale of ratings.
Patrão, Ana Luísa; McIntyre, Teresa M
In Mozambique, women are the most affected by HIV/AIDS. Self-efficacy is one of the main predictors of effective use of a condom. Therefore, it is essential to identify the factors that influence condom-use negotiation self-efficacy in vulnerable women. The aim of this paper is to identify socio-demographic, marital, and psychosocial factors associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy among Mozambican women at risk for HIV infection. Participants were women (173) who were patients at the Gynecology Department of the Central Hospital of Beira, Mozambique, and at risk for HIV infection. Women completed measures of condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, HIV prevention knowledge, and perceived barriers against safer sex. The results showed that demographic and marital variables are associated with condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, namely, those having more than 9 years of education, who are younger and not living with a partner, and who talk about AIDS with partners report higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. Regarding psychosocial factors, higher HIV prevention knowledge and fewer perceived barriers to safer sex predict higher condom-use negotiation self-efficacy. These results can contribute to sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in Mozambican women because they identify at-risk groups and marital and psychosocial malleable factors that can be targeted in AIDS prevention among at-risk Mozambican women.
Brusque, Corinne; Alauzet, Aline
In France, as in many other countries, phoning while driving is legally restricted because of its negative impact on driving performance which increases accident risk. Nevertheless, it is still a frequently observed practice and one which has not been analyzed in detail. This study attempts to identify the profiles of those who use mobile phones while at the wheel and determine the forms taken by this use. A representative sample of 1973 French people was interviewed by phone on their driving practices and mobile phone use in everyday life and their mobile phone use while driving. Logistics regressions have been conducted to highlight the explanatory factors of phoning while driving. Strong differences between males and females have been shown. For the male population, age is the main explanatory factor of phoning while driving, followed by phone use for work-related reasons and extensive mobile phone use in everyday life. For females, high mileage and intensive use of mobile phone are the only two explanatory factors. We defined the intensive phone use at the wheel group as drivers who receive or send at least five or more calls per day while driving. There is no socio-demographic variable related to this practice. Car and phone uses in everyday life are the only explanatory factors for this intensive mobile use of the phone at the wheel.
Sánchez-Villegas, A; Delgado-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-González, M A; De Irala-Estévez, J
To ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort 'SUN' and to assess the association of several sociodemographic (including age and gender) and lifestyle variables with the adherence to these dietary patterns. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of 3847 subjects (1587 men and 2260 women) belonging to a prospective cohort study based on self-reported questionnaires. A factor analysis based on 30 predefined food groups was conducted to ascertain the major dietary patterns in the cohort. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the relationship between several sociodemographic and lifestyle variables and the adherence to these dietary patterns (measured using two scores with observed values ranging from -3.2 to +4.6 for the Western pattern and -3.1 to +5.5 for the Mediterranean pattern). Two major dietary patterns were found. The first pattern was labelled as a 'Western' dietary pattern and the other as a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. Younger subjects were more likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern; the coefficient representing the change for every 10 y increase in age was b=-0.24 (P<0.001) for men and b=-0.12 (P<0.001) for women. More physically active subjects were less likely to follow a 'Western' dietary pattern and more likely to follow a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' dietary pattern. An association between a higher level of physical activity during leisure time and adherence to a 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet was apparent. However, the profile of being a young, sedentary and single male was identified as the most likely to exhibit a departure from the traditional 'Spanish-Mediterranean' diet and follow a 'Western' dietary pattern.
Shashaj, Blegina; Graziani, Maria P; Contoli, Benedetta; Ciuffo, Cristina; Cives, Claudia; Facciolini, Sandra; Rigoni, Maria L; Spaterna, Stefania; Taucci, Mauro; Raponi, Massimiliano; Manco, Melania
The obesity epidemic stems from the complex interplay between genetics and environmental factors. Identifying age-specific risk factors in preschoolers may allow implementing more effective intervention strategies. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the association of overweight/obesity with several perinatal, parental, socioeconomic status (SES), and lifestyle-related risk factors in a large sample of Italian preschoolers. One thousand eleven children (age 2.0 to 5.7 years) were included in the study. Family pediatricians measured weight and height and collected information on obesity risk factors by means of questionnaires. Perinatal risk factors were recalled from electronic medical records. Weight status was defined according to cutoffs of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Seven hundred sixty-four children (75.6%) were normal weight, and 247 (24.4%) were overweight/obese. Multivariate analysis showed that skipping breakfast (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-10.51), daily drinking of sugar-sweetened beverages (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.02-4.03), meat consumption risk of obesity. Though exclusive formula or mixed feeding represents an age-specific risk factor for overweight/obesity, lifestyle factors associated with increased risk in Italian preschoolers include habits that are common to school-age children, such as skipping breakfast and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reduced consumption of meat emerged as a risk factor for overweight/obesity, but future research is required to better understand this relationship. Our data suggest, on the whole, that prevention of such unhealthy behaviors must be pursued in preschoolers by means of age-specific interventions.
Clement Ibi Mboto
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in developing countries where intravenous drug use (IDU is uncommon its poorly understood. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence of HCV and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Calabar municipality. Methods: A total of 506 out of 716 antenatal care (ANC patients seen at the General Hospital, Mary Slessor Avenue, Calabar between August and November 2005 and the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH between October and November 2005 were evaluated for their HCV status using the One Step HCV Test kit (Binomial diagnostics, UK, with reference to the subjects' demographic and behavioural risk factors. Results: HCV prevalence was determined to be 0.4% (2/506 and was only seen in women aged 38 years and over. Histories of blood transfusion, surgery, involvement in polygamous marriage, sharing of a toothbrush and female circumcision were all non-significant risk factors for the infection.Conclusions: This study reveals a low HCV prevalence among pregnant women in Calabar municipality with no identifiable risk factor. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the transmission modes of HCV especially in developing countries where intravenous drug use is rare.
Full Text Available Microblog that provides us a new communication and information sharing platform has been growing exponentially since it emerged just a few years ago. To microblog users, recommending followees who can serve as high quality information sources is a competitive service. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a matrix factorization model with structural regularization to improve the accuracy of followee recommendation in microblog. More specifically, we adapt the matrix factorization model in traditional item recommender systems to followee recommendation in microblog and use structural regularization to exploit structure information of social network to constrain matrix factorization model. The experimental analysis on a real-world dataset shows that our proposed model is promising.
Monge, Susana; Del Romero, Jorge; Rodríguez, Carmen; de Mendoza, Carmen; de Górgolas, Miguel; Cosín, Jaime; Dronda, Fernando; Pérez-Cecilia, Elisa; Peña, José María; Santos, Ignacio; Rubio, Rafael; Del Amo, Julia
The objective of this work is to study the impact of HAART at a population level and to identify socio-demographic factors that may affect it, which is essential for deciding interventions. An open, prospective cohort of HIV seroconverters recruited in the Centro Sanitario Sandoval (1986-2009), and followed up in collaboration with referral hospitals in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Cumulative incidence of AIDS and death was calculated by the multiple decrements method, and predictive Fine & Gray models were developed to identify associated factors. A calendar period (factor (HR=0.982; 95% CI: 0.936-1.031; P=.06). HR for progression to death was 0.134 (95% CI: 0.052-0.346; P<.01) for the period after 1997, 0.383 (95% CI: 0.168-0.875; P=.02) in people with high educational level and 1.048 (95% CI: 1.014-1.084; P<.01) for each year increase in age at seroconversion, both latter effects being homogeneous throughout the two periods. HAART has had a great impact on the risk of progression to AIDS and death, but this benefit appears to be influenced by age at HIV infection and educational level of the patient, which highlights the importance of a global approach to case management and of the implementation of policies that address social inequities in health. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the common diseases that are attributed by many factors. Many from the adult population are afflicted with dental caries. This study aimed to determine the predictors of developing dental caries among adults. Three hundred and thirty four adults participated in this study. Information gathered includes their socio-demographic backgrounds, oral health behaviour, physical activity level, body mass index, body fat percentages, visceral fat level, and dental missing filled extracted teeth (DMFX index. All standard protocols were observed and DMFX was examined using the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Prevalence of dental caries was 87.4%, inclusive of 61.3% of female respondents with caries experience. Most of the study participants were overweight. Only the consumption of high sugar food (p=0.03 was found to be connected between dental caries and oral health behaviours. Regression analysis (p<0.001 showed that older age (p<0.001, regular visits to dental clinic per year (p=0.012, lower education level (p=0.025, and lower physical activity (p=0.008 were significant factors in developing dental caries among this study population. Older aged adults, frequent appointment with the dentist, lower education in oral health, and lower physical activity were possible factors for dental caries presence.
MartÍn, Estefanía; Hernán-Losada, Isidoro; Haya, Pablo A.
In the educational context, there is an increasing interest in learning networks. Recommender systems (RSs) can play an important role in achieving educational objectives. Although we can find many papers focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms, in general, less attention has been dedicated to social factors that influence the recommendation process. This process could be improved if we had a deeper understanding of the social factors that influence the quality or validity of a suggestion made by the RS. This work elucidates and analyses the social factors that influence the design and decision-making process of RSs. We conducted a survey in which 126 undergraduate students were asked to extract which are the main factors for improving suggestions when they are interacting with an Online Social Network (OSN) or in an Educational Social Network (ESN). The results show that different factors have to be considered depending on the type of network.
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…
Digby, Cynthia L. B.
Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a…
Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih
Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…
Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yamamoto, Jennifer F; Sharma, Sangita; Hankin, Jean H; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N
Dietary patterns have been used to identify typical combinations of foods that may be associated with disease risks. We defined dietary patterns among 195,298 participants of the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles in 1993-1996. Intakes of Food Guide Pyramid groups were calculated from a quantitative FFQ for subjects of 5 ethnic groups (African Americans, Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites). Three distinct dietary patterns, "Fat and Meat," "Vegetables," and "Fruit and Milk," were identified by exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Similar factor loadings were found for each of 10 ethnic-gender groups in stratified analyses. The odds ratios (OR) for being above the median scores for each factor were calculated. Age, gender, and ethnicity had relatively strong associations with dietary patterns whereas education showed only weak associations. BMI > or = 30 was strongly positively associated with the Fat and Meat pattern (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 2.08-2.20, vs. BMI pattern (OR = 1.67, CI: 1.62-1.72, vs. nonsmokers) and inverse associations with the Vegetables (OR = 0.66, CI: 0.64-0.68) and Fruit and Milk patterns (OR = 0.53, CI: 0.52-0.55). Physical activity was positively associated with the Vegetables and Fruit and Milk patterns but not with the Fat and Meat pattern. These findings support the hypothesis that dietary patterns are influenced by interrelated sociocultural, demographic, and other lifestyle factors and may be useful in investigations of diet-disease relations.
Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen
Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on
Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Singh, Satya Vir; Gupta, Vimal Kishore; Garg, Suneela; Kishore, Jugal
Improving maternal health is one of the goals to be achieved under the Millennium Development Goal (MDG), especially MDG-5. One of the predictors of maternal health is place of child birth. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of home delivery and different socio-demographic factors associated with them. This study was a community-based cross-sectional study. Women who delivered a baby in the past 1 year were included in this study. A total of 300 women responded (93.2%) and gave consent to participate in the study. Prevalence of home delivery was 37.7%. Bivariate analysis showed that religion, caste, education of women and their partners, occupation of the spouse, monthly family income and socioeconomic status had a significant association with the choice of place of delivery. But multivariate regression analysis showed only religion, caste, education of spouse and monthly income to be significant factors in determining place of delivery. The findings of this study suggest that individual countries have to formulate interventions which will target marginalized or vulnerable populations with reference to caste, religion and wealth. A significant improvement in reaching the 5th MDG can be achieved if the first three MDG goals are focused on, i.e., eradication of poverty, achieving universal education and women empowerment. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zubair, Usama Bin; Butt, Batool
To assess the subjective sleep quality and its relationship with the presence of psychiatric morbidity in the patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD) and undergoing the procedure of hemodialysis (HD); and analyze the associated socio-demographic factors. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Nephrology Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, from July to December 2016. Patients of CKD undergoing the HD were included in the final analysis. Quality of sleep was determined by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Psychiatric morbidity was determined by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). Relationship of education, BMI, gender, age, duration of dialysis, dialysis count per week, marital status, level of family income, psychiatric morbidity, occupation, biochemical markers (urea, creatinine, BUN, albumin, calcium, phosphorous and hemoglobin), tobacco smoking, and use of naswar was determined with the sleep quality. One hundred and forty patients were screened through the PSQI; 44 (31.4%) had good quality of sleep while 96 (68.6%) had poor sleep quality. Statistical analysis revealed that presence of psychiatric morbidity, increasing age, female gender, being unmarried, low family income, and low frequency of dialysis had significant association with the poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was highly prevalent among the patients of CKD receiving the hemodialysis. The patients with low family income, more age, and with two or less dialysis sessions per week should be screened thoroughly for the sleep problems. Presence of psychiatric morbidity emerged as an independent factor responsible for the poor sleep quality in our target population.
Madhav P. Bhatta
Full Text Available Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2 years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9 months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16 and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14. Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60 was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences.
Full Text Available Accelerometers, initially waist-worn but increasingly wrist-worn, are used to assess physical activity free from reporting-bias. However, its acceptability by study participants is unclear. Our objective is to assess factors associated with non-consent to a wrist-mounted accelerometer in older adults.Data are from 4880 Whitehall II study participants (1328 women, age range = 60-83, requested to wear a wrist-worn accelerometer 24 h every day for 9 days in 2012/13. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors were assessed by questionnaire and weight, height, blood pressure, cognitive and motor function were measured during a clinical examination.210 participants had contraindications and 388 (8.3% of the remaining 4670 participants did not consent. Women, participants reporting less physical activity and less favorable general health were more likely not to consent. Among the clinical measures, cognitive impairment (Odds Ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-4.00 and slow walking speed (Odds Ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.86 were associated with higher odds of non-consent.The rate of non-consent in our study of older adults was low. However, key markers of poor health at older ages were associated with non-consent, suggesting some selection bias in the accelerometer data.
Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brian E; Thompson, Beti
This study aimed to identify intrapersonal, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with engaging in recommended levels of physical activity among rural Latino middle school youth. Data were from an anonymous survey of 773 Latino youth (51% female) about level of and barriers and motivators to physical activity, risk behaviors, and park use. Logistic regression models identified factors correlated with meeting recommended levels of physical activity (5 days or more 3 60 min/day). Thirty-four percent of girls and 41% of boys reported meeting this physical activity recommendation. Participation in an organized after school activity (p physical education (PE) classes 5 days a week (p physical activity level. Making PE available 5 days a week and creating opportunities for organized after school physical activity programs may increase the number of rural Latino middle school youth who meet recommended physical activity level.
Beck, F; Richard, J-B; Léger, D
Sleep is considered as a major protective factor for good health and quality of life. The epidemiology of chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders has recently been developed in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sleep time and the prevalence of chronic insomnia in the general population aged 15 to 85 years. It was also to investigate factors associated with sleep disorders. Within the framework of the Health Barometer 2010, a French general population survey, 27,653 15 to 85-year-old individuals were questioned about their health behaviors and attitudes, in particular about their sleeping time and habits. The average sleeping time of the 15 to 85-year-old was 7 hours 13 minutes. It was higher for women than for men (7 hours 18 minutes vs 7 hours 07 minutes; Psocio-demographic characteristics. Since the beginning of 1990s, a single-question inquiry on "sleeping problems present during the last 8 days" has been asked in the Health Barometer. The rate of subjects concerned increased from 1995, with a prevalence stabilized at a high level since 2000. Based on these data, we think that the surveillance of sleep disorders is an important public health issue and that prevention and health educational initiatives should be launched in the general population to promote a better quality of sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan
To investigate the factors associated with compliance with recommendations regarding liver cancer screening intervals and methods among individuals at high-risk for liver cancer in the Republic of Korea. We used data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2009. The liver cancer screening rate and factors associated with compliance with recommended screening intervals (6 months) and methods (both abdominal ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein testing) among individuals at high risk for liver cancer such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were investigated. Out of 24,871 KNHANES IV participants, 604 HBV carriers aged ≥ 20 years were included in our analysis. 39.6% of our study sample reported attending liver cancer screening at least once in their lifetime, 12.3% had attended within the previous 6 months, and 14.6% were screened using both recommended methods. Older age was associated with increased compliance with screening intervals (P-trend 0.011) and methods (40-49 year: OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.62-6.51; 50-59 years: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.66; 60-69 years: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.28-7.82). Unawareness of HBV infection status was negatively related to compliance with screening intervals and methods (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26-0.79). Female sex (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), lower household income (P-trend 0.011), and routine and manual occupations (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97) were associated with decreased compliance with screening methods. The liver cancer screening rate among high-risk individuals is much less suboptimal. Considering that those unaware of their HBV infection status got regular and complete liver cancer screening much less often, efforts should be made not only to decrease sociodemographic disparities, but also to better identify the high-risk population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and subsequent liver diseases can be prevented with universal newborn HBV vaccination. The attitudes of health care workers about HBV vaccination and their willingness to recommend vaccine have been shown to impact HBV vaccination coverage and the prevention of vertical transmission of HBV. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the factors associated with health care worker recommendations regarding newborn HBV vaccination. Methods A cross-sectional study of prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis B vaccine was conducted among randomly selected physicians and nurses employed in seven hospitals in Georgia in 2006 and 2007. Self-administered questionnaires included a module on recommendations for HBV, HCV and HIV. Results Of the 1328 participants included in this analysis, 36% reported recommending against hepatitis B vaccination for children, including 33% of paediatricians. Among the 70.6% who provided a reason for not recommending HBV vaccine, the most common concern was an adverse vaccine event. Unvaccinated physicians and nurses were more likely to recommend against HBV vaccine (40.4% vs 11.4%, PR 3.54; 95% CI: 2.38, 5.29. Additionally, health care worker age was inversely correlated with recommendations for HBV vaccine with older workers less likely to recommend it. Conclusion Vaccinating health care workers against HBV may provide a dual benefit by boosting occupational safety as well as strengthening universal coverage programs for newborns.
Cynthia L. B. DIGBY
Full Text Available Multiple factors are likely to influence adult literacy regarding the natural environment and environmental issues, but very little research has been carried out in this area. The research presented in this article is intended to help address this information gap, by investigating influences on adult environmental literacy using data from a Minnesota environmental literacy survey. The article presents the research findings regarding the influence of demographicfactors and of non-formal and informal learning on environmental behavior, one of the key dimensions of environmental literacy. Results from this study indicated that environmental behavior prediction was most improved by adding non-formal and informal learningparticipation. These results suggest that non-formal and informal learning options should be looked at more carefully for predictive possibilities.
Zhao, Cheng-jin; Dang, Xing-bo; Su, Xiao-li; Bai, Jia; Ma, Long-yang
This study aimed to illustrate the characteristics of suicide attempters treated in the Emergency Departments of 7 general hospitals in Xi'an and to provide relevant data for early psychological treatment. Between October 2010 and September 2014, 155 suicide attempters were treated in the Emergency Departments. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multivariate analyses were used to identify the factors associated with suicidal behaviors. Females outnumbered males at a ratio of 3.7 to 1. The greatest proportion of cases was in the age group of 21 to 30 years (52.9%). Patients who finished middle school or high school accounted for most of the suicide attempters (50.3%). The most common method used for attempted suicide was drug ingestion (86.5%). The majority of cases attempted suicide at home (74.8%) during the night. Marriage frustration, work and study problems, family fanaticism and conflict, somatic disease, and history of mental disorders were all significantly associated with suicide attempts. The ratio of patients to be discharged or to die were similar in occupation, marital status, and the place of suicide attempt; however, the results were different in gender, age, educational level, methods used for suicide, time of day, and reason. Suicide is an important public health problem and is multidimensional in nature. Future studies with larger samples are expected to provide more specific knowledge of the effect of each social factor on the suicide risk in Chinese in order to improve the prevention of suicides.
Torres, Essie T; Guido, Joseph; de Monegro, Zahira Quiñones; Diaz, Sergio; Dozier, Ann M; McInstosh, Scott; Ossip, Deborah J
Tobacco use and exposure are serious public health problems that threaten to undermine improvements in maternal and child health, and add to already existing poor pregnancy outcomes in many low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that characterize tobacco use and cessation during pregnancy among women in the Dominican Republic. This study was part of a larger trial and includes a sample of women who participated in baseline surveillance and community assessments (n = 613). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Overall, 93.31 % (n = 572) of women experienced a past/current pregnancy and 22.44 % (n = 127) smoked during a past or current pregnancy. Among women who had smoked, 34.13 % (n = 43) stopped smoking due to a pregnancy, and 46.03 % (n = 58) were advised by a health care provider to quit smoking because of pregnancy. Women who were older, Catholic, and had a mother who used tobacco were three times more likely to smoke during a past or current pregnancy. Inability to read or write was also significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy. Women who were able to read and write and were from a tobacco growing community were three times more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. This study provides a preliminary understanding of factors influencing tobacco use and cessation among pregnant women in the Dominican Republic. It also informs a critical area for public health research and intervention, indicating opportunities to engage the health care provider community in intervening with pregnant women and their families.
sociodemographic factors were assessed. RESULTS: Five percent of Brazilians reported having no religion, 83% considered religion very important in their lives, and 37% attended religious services at least once a week. The most frequent affiliations were Catholicism (68%, Protestant/Evangelicals (23%, and Kardecist Spiritism (2.5%. Ten percent reported attending more than one religion. In line with studies in other countries, older age and female gender were independently associated with higher levels of subjective and organizational religiousness after controlling for other sociodemographic factors. However, educational level, income and black race were not independently associated with religious involvement variables. DISCUSSION: This study shows high levels of religious involvement among Brazilians and suggests that religiousness may have different associations with other variables across different cultures. To better understand the influence of religion on health, it is necessary to expand this kind of survey to other cultures.
Anaedobe, Chinenye Gloria; Fowotade, Adeola; Omoruyi, Chukwuma Ewean; Bakare, Rasheed Ajani
Hepatitis B virus is responsible for 50%-80% of Hepatocellular carcinoma cases worldwide. In Nigeria, vertical transmission remains a major route of Hepatitis B virus infection. Primary (vaccines and post-exposure prophylaxis) and secondary prevention of HBV transmission by appropriate sexual and sanitary practices are not yet optimal in the country yet measures for early detection (serological, molecular) and treatment of infected pregnant women is not a practice. This study aimed at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was done at the Ante-natal clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan. One hundred and eighty pregnant women were recruited from March to August 2013, and tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (BIORAD FRANCE) using third generation ELISA, as well as HIV-1 and 2 using Uni-Gold Recombigen and ALERE determine (a rapid immunoassay designed to detect antibodies to HIV 1 and/or 2). Positive HBsAg samples were tested for Hepatitis B envelope antigen, antibody and Hepatitis B core antibody (DIAPRO Italy) while serum HBV DNA was detected using PCR. Data were obtained using questionnaires to establish and analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. The seroprevalence of HBsAg was 8.3% out of which 26.7% were positive for HBeAg, 53.3% had HBeAb, 20% had neither HBeAg nor HBeAb, 100% had total HBcAb and 86.7% had HBV DNA in their serum. The mean age was 32.1 years, the highest HBV infection rate occurred in 25-29 year age group. Multiple sexual partners (OR- 3.987, P- value=0.026) and early age at sexual debut (OR 11.996, P- value=0.022) were independent risk factors for HBV infection. Hepatitis B virus infection is of high endemicity in Nigeria thus early detection, treatment of infected pregnant women, immunoprophylaxis for exposed newborns and surveillance for those with chronic infection is essential. Health education programs on
Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon
Depression in later life is one of the most prevalent conditions forecasted to rise to the second most burdensome health condition worldwide by 2020. Using data from the 2004 Study of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE: release 1) on 857 Greek males and 1,032 females aged 50 or higher this study explores, firstly, associations of socio-demographic and health related indicators with depressive symptoms (EURO-D) and, secondly, attempts to identify patterns and structures among them. To achieve the first objective, the 12-item summated EURO-D scale is used in binary form with a cut-off point clinically validated by the EURODEP. Use of logistic regression pinpoints strong associations with gender, years of education, co-morbidity, disability, cognitive function and past depression. Women, less educated persons, those with poor physical health, declining cognitive function and a history of depression are significantly more at risk of scoring higher than three at the EURO-D scale. The role of age is not as clear. To achieve the second objective, multiple correspondence analysis is used in the first instance and factor analysis for binary data subsequently; two components are identified within EURO-D and continuous factor scores are produced. These factors are called "affective suffering" and "motivation". Linear regression models reveal that the first component is responsible for the gender while the second for the age differentials in EURO-D; additionally we find that, apart from physical health indicators which are strongly related to both factors, other associations differ. Further exploration of this differentiation seems of interest, particularly as there is an indication that "motivation" may be an affectively neutral condition.
Da Silva Coqueiro, R; Rodrigues Barbosa, A; Ferreti Borgatto, A
To assess the association of nutritional status with sex, age, race/color, education, smoking, physical activity, hypertension, diabetes, and hospitalization in older adults residing in the city of Havana, Cuba. This was a cross-sectional, population-based household survey. A total of 1,905 persons (1,197 women and 708 men; ≥ 60 years) were examined between 1999 and 2000, selected by probabilistic sampling. Nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI): BMI 27.0 kg/m2 = overweight. Multinomial logistic regression analysis (crude and adjusted) was used. The estimation of the prevalence of underweight was 33.0% and that of overweight was 29.6%. The adjusted regression model showed that the probability of underweight was higher in older age groups (OR = 1.63, 70-79 years; OR = 2.05, ≥ 80 years) and among smokers (OR = 1.83). There was negative association between underweight, and hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension (OR = 1.99) was positively associated with overweight. The lower likelihood of overweight was observed among men, smokers, and those aged 80 years and more. The elderly population of Havana presents a vulnerable nutritional status in view of the prevalence of underweight and overweight. Increasing age, smoking, gender, and hypertension are the factors positively associated with vulnerable nutritional status.
Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Ana; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Cuesta, Pedro; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio
To identify predictor variables involved in exacerbated gingival inflammation associated with pregnancy. In this cohort study, 48 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women without periodontitis were included. The pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum, whilst the non-pregnant women were evaluated twice, with a 6-month interval. At each visit, clinical [plaque index (PlI) and gingival index (GI)], hormonal (salivary progesterone and estradiol), immunological [gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin-E(2) ] and microbiological (periodontal pathogens culture) evaluations were performed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using exhaustive chi-square automatic interaction detection (exhaustive CHAID) to analyse the predictive value of the independent outcomes to develop pregnancy GI. PlI was the strongest predictor implicated in the GI throughout pregnancy and after delivery. During the second and third trimesters the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis significantly contributed to the worsening of gingival inflammation. When compared with the non-pregnant group, significant differences were found in TNF-α amounts and concentrations and in the third trimester site-specific GI. Bacterial challenge to the gingival tissues, both quantitatively (PlI) and qualitatively (harbouring P. gingivalis) appears to affect the level of gingival inflammation observed during pregnancy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Chiu, Hannah; Steele, Donna; McAlister, Chryssa; Lam, Wai-Ching
High-risk pathologies for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in otherwise healthy pregnant females are not contraindications for spontaneous vaginal delivery. However, 74% of European obstetrician-gynecologist (OBGYN) respondents in 2008 recommended operative delivery for females at risk for RRD. This discrepancy is likely due to an older study suggesting a causal relation between Valsalva-like manoeuvres and RRD. The purpose of this study is to determine current delivery recommendations for healthy pregnant females with high-risk pathologies for RRD among Canadian ophthalmologists and OBGYNs. Anonymous prospective cross-sectional survey sent via electronic link in 2013. χ(2) test of proportions was used to compare delivery recommendations between the 2 specialties. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors for recommendations. A total of 356 participants responded including 92 ophthalmologists and 27 trainees, and 185 OBGYNs and 52 trainees. For healthy pregnant females with previously treated retinal hole/tear or treated RRD, significantly more OBGYNs recommended cesarean section and significantly more ophthalmologists recommended spontaneous vaginal delivery. Length of practice and type of practice setting were significant predictors among obstetricians in their delivery recommendations. This study is the first to include obstetricians, ophthalmologists, and their trainees in a survey of the recommended mode of delivery for pregnant females with risk factors of RRD. Our results suggest that obstetricians concerned about potential RRD in pregnant patients may be unnecessarily recommending operative management. Educational sessions on the risk for RRD with spontaneous vaginal delivery may reconcile the current differences in recommendations between ophthalmologists and obstetricians. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health of the mentally retarded (MR has received scant attention in the literature compared with the normal child even though they are much sufferer. Aim: To assess the impact of various sociodemographic factors on oral hygiene of MR subjects of Bhopal city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 267 MR subjects enrolled at various institutions of Bhopal city. A pretested proforma was used to record information about demographic data, socioeconomic status, the intelligent quotient of inmates, type of mental retardation, and dietary habits. The clinical examination was done to evaluate oral hygiene of subjects using oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple linear regression analysis was applied using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. Results: The mean OHI-S of MR was found out to be 2.51. Male had mean OHI-S of 2.95 while female had 1.65. Noninstitutionalized had poorer oral hygiene with mean OHI-S of 3.2. According to the degree of mental retardation, profound had the highest OHI-S score, i.e. 3.71 while mild had the lowest score, i.e. 1.01.
Feizi, Awat; Aliyari, Roqayeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza
The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent), variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors' effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender's coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.
Full Text Available Objective. The present paper aimed at investigating the association between perceived stress and major life events stressors in Iranian general population. Methods. In a cross-sectional large-scale community-based study, 4583 people aged 19 and older, living in Isfahan, Iran, were investigated. Logistic quantile regression was used for modeling perceived stress, measured by GHQ questionnaire, as the bounded outcome (dependent, variable, and as a function of most important stressful life events, as the predictor variables, controlling for major lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. This model provides empirical evidence of the predictors’ effects heterogeneity depending on individual location on the distribution of perceived stress. Results. The results showed that among four stressful life events, family conflicts and social problems were more correlated with level of perceived stress. Higher levels of education were negatively associated with perceived stress and its coefficients monotonically decrease beyond the 30th percentile. Also, higher levels of physical activity were associated with perception of low levels of stress. The pattern of gender’s coefficient over the majority of quantiles implied that females are more affected by stressors. Also high perceived stress was associated with low or middle levels of income. Conclusions. The results of current research suggested that in a developing society with high prevalence of stress, interventions targeted toward promoting financial and social equalities, social skills training, and healthy lifestyle may have the potential benefits for large parts of the population, most notably female and lower educated people.
Huis In 't Veld, Diana; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Peltzer, Karl
A high body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference are important health risk factors predisposing for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and certain cancers. Historically, underweight was a diagnostic criterion of HIV-infection. In a cross-sectional study the prevalence of BMI-categories and high waist circumference and its associated factors in patients visiting three outpatient HIV clinics in South Africa were measured with anthropometric measurements and structured questionnaires regarding socio-demographic information, quality of life (QoL), AIDS-related stigma, symptoms of depression, alcohol use, HIV related information and level of adherence to ART. The median age of the 2230 included patients was 37 years, 66.5% were women and 88.6% received antiretroviral therapy. The prevalences of overweight, obesity and high waist circumference were 29.2, 21.9 and 44.6% respectively in women and 12.4, 4.0 and 3.9% respectively in men. Underweight was found in 18.2% of men and 6.3% of women. In multinomial regression analysis compared to a normal BMI, both overweight and obesity were associated with female gender, with being married or cohabiting and with a higher QoL score. Underweight was associated with male gender and tobacco use and negatively associated with being married or cohabiting and the physical domain of the QoL measure. A high waist circumference in men was associated with higher age and negatively associated with tobacco use and stigma score. In women it was negatively associated with never being married. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed in HIV-clinics in South Africa, mainly in women. Since overweight and obesity are important health risk factors, effective weight reduction interventions are desirable.
Wang, Yingning; Sung, Hai-Yen; Yao, Tingting; Lightwood, James; Max, Wendy
To examine the transitions in smoking status among non-daily smokers who transitioned to daily or former smokers or remained as non-daily smokers during a 12-month period. We analyzed factors associated with these transitions, including the use of cigars and smokeless tobacco (SLT). Secondary data analyses using pooled data from the 2003, 2006/07 and 2010/11 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). United States. Self-respondents aged 18+ who have smoked for more than 5 years and were non-daily smokers 12 months before the interview (n = 13 673, or 14.5% of current smokers). Multinomial logistic regression model to determine the correlates of non-daily to daily, stable non-daily and non-daily to former smoking transitions among non-daily smokers at baseline. The model controlled for socio-demographic factors and the use of cigars and SLT. Of the adults in our sample, 2.6% were non-daily smokers at baseline. Among these, 69.7% remained non-daily smokers (stable non-daily smokers), 18.4% became daily smokers (non-daily to daily smokers) and 11.9% quit smoking (non-daily to former smokers) after 12 months. The non-daily to daily versus stable non-daily smoking transition was less likely among those who were aged 65+ (P = 0.018), male (P socio-demographic factors and current use of cigars and smokeless tobacco. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lam, Sandi; Luerssen, Thomas G; Hadley, Caroline; Daniels, Bradley; Strickland, Ben A; Brookshier, Jim; Pan, I-Wen
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine factors associated with adherence to recommended treatment among pediatric patients with positional skull deformity by reviewing a single-institution experience (2007-2014) with the treatment of positional plagiocephaly. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted. Risk factors, treatment for positional head shape deformity, and parent-reported adherence were recorded. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the impact of patient clinical and demographic characteristics on adherence. RESULTS A total of 991 patients under age 12 months were evaluated for positional skull deformity at the Texas Children's Hospital Cranial Deformity Clinic between 2007 and 2014. According to an age- and risk factor-based treatment algorithm, patients were recommended for repositioning, physical therapy, or cranial orthosis therapy or crossover from repositioning/physical therapy into cranial orthosis therapy. The patients' average chronological age at presentation was 6.2 months; 69.3% were male. The majority were white (40.7%) or Hispanic (32.6%); 38.7% had commercial insurance and 37.9% had Medicaid. The most common initial recommended treatment was repositioning or physical therapy; 85.7% of patients were adherent to the initial recommended treatment. Univariate analysis showed differences in adherence rates among subgroups. Children's families with Medicaid were less likely to be adherent to treatment recommendations (adherence rate, 80.2%). Families with commercial insurance were more likely to be adherent to the recommended treatment (89.6%). Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that factors associated with parent-reported adherence to recommended treatment included primary insurance payer, diagnosis (plagiocephaly vs brachycephaly), and the nature of the recommended treatment. Families were less likely to be adherent if they had Medicaid, a child with a diagnosis of brachycephaly, or were initially recommended
Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João
Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.
Friis, Karina; Lyng, Jeppe I; Lasgaard, Mathias; Larsen, Finn B
The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of energy drink consumption and examine the associations of socio-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults in Denmark. The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink and the potential explanatory factors of interest. In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. According to health behaviour, daily smoking, high amounts of alcohol consumption, alcoholic binge drinking and being overweight are associated with weekly energy drink consumption. Compared with other European countries the prevalence of energy drink consumption is relatively low in Denmark. In Denmark energy drink consumption is typically a male phenomenon and there is a clear social gradient in the prevalence of energy drink consumption where the intake is far more common among people with low levels of education than among people with higher levels of education. This study also shows that there is some kind of 'add on' effect of energy drinks, meaning that people who also use other stimulants-such as alcohol and cigarettes-are more inclined to consume energy drinks. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Asthma prevalence disparities and differences in sociodemographic associations with asthma, between Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, Asian, and White adults in Hawaii - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), 2001-2010.
Jessop, H; Li, D; Katz, A R; Hurwitz, E L
Despite high asthma prevalence, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of asthma in Hawaii or among Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). We sought to better characterize racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence and in sociodemographic factors associated with asthma among Hawaii adults. We conducted multivariable logistic regression using 2001-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from Hawaii, and computed adjusted prevalence and ratios. Asthma prevalence markedly varied between self-identified census categories of race in Hawaii, with NHOPI having the highest estimates of both lifetime (20.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.5%-22.4%) and current (12.2%, CI: 11.2%-13.3%) asthma. Highest asthma prevalence among NHOPI persisted after controlling for potential confounders and within most sociodemographic categories. Among females Asians reported the lowest asthma prevalence, whereas among males point estimates of asthma prevalence were often lowest for Whites. Females often had greater asthma prevalence than males of the same race, but the degree to which gender modified asthma prevalence differed by both race and sociodemographic strata. Gender disparities in asthma prevalence were greatest and most frequent among Whites, and for current asthma among all races. Sociodemographic factors potentially predictive of adult asthma prevalence in Hawaii varied by race and gender. Asthma disproportionately affects or is recognized more often among women and NHOPI adults in Hawaii, and occurs less or is under-reported among Asian women. The sociodemographic characteristics included in this study's model did not explain asthma disparities between races and/or gender. This investigation provides a baseline with which to plan additionally needed prevention programs, epidemiological investigations, and surveillance for asthma in Hawaii.
Uratsu Connie S
The effects of reproductive risks factors, Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, smoking history, and alcohol consumption with regard to breast cancer risk in Marin County should be further evaluated. When possible, future comparisons of breast cancer incidence rates between regions should adjust for differences in income and education in addition to age and race/ethnicity, preferably by using a sociodemographically similar comparison group.
Thapa, Pushpa; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Mehata, Suresh; Vaidya, Abhinav; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Dhimal, Meghnath; Pradhan, Shaili; Dhakal, Purushottam; Pandit, Arpana; Pandey, Achyut Raj; Bista, Bihungum; Pokhrel, Ava Upadhyay; Karki, Khem Bahadur
Oral diseases remain a significant public health problem in Nepal, as do oral health behaviours. Socio-demographic factors play a crucial role in driving oral hygiene practices. This study aims to identify oral hygiene practices and associated socio-demographic factors in Nepalese population. This descriptive, cross-sectional study recruited 4200 adults (15-69 years) through multistage cluster sampling. Data obtained from the WHO NCD STEPS instrument version 2.2 were analysed in STATA 13.0 using complex sample weighted analysis. Prevalence of cleaning teeth at least once a day was 94.9 % (95 % CI: 93.7-95.9), while that of cleaning teeth at least twice a day was 9.9 % (95 % CI: 8.2-11.9). Use of fluoridated toothpaste was seen among 71.4 % (95 % CI: 67.9-74.7) respondents. A 3.9 % (95 % CI: 3.1-5.0) made a dental visit in the last 6 months. The 45-69 years age group had lesser odds of cleaning teeth at least once a day (AOR: 0.4; 95 % CI: 0.2-0.8), in comparison to 15-29 years age group. Women had greater odds of cleaning teeth at least twice a day (AOR: 1.7; 95 % CI: 1.1-2.4) and having visited a dentist in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.2; 95 % CI: 1.2-3.8) compared to men. With reference to rural residents, urban population had higher odds of using fluoridated toothpaste (AOR: 2.3; 95 % CI: 1.4-3.4) and making a dental visit within the last 6 months (AOR: 1.9; 95 % CI:1.1-3.6). Inhabitants of the Terai had five-fold (AOR: 4.9; 95 % CI: 3.1-7.8) greater odds of cleaning teeth once per day than did hill residents. Those with higher education had greater odds than non-formal education holders of cleaning teeth at least once a day (AOR: 9.0; 95 % CI: 2.9-27.7), cleaning teeth at least twice a day (AOR: 5.6; 95 % CI: 2.9-10.6), using fluoridated toothpaste (AOR: 13.9; 95 % CI: 8.4-23.1), and having visited a dentist in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.8; 95 % CI: 1.4-5.4). Cleaning teeth at least once a day is widely prevalent in Nepal and a substantial
Willie-Tyndale, Douladel; Holder-Nevins, Desmalee; Mitchell-Fearon, Kathryn; James, Kenneth; Laws, Hazel; Waldron, Norman K; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise
Social participation is critical for maintaining independence and facilitating active ageing. The aim of this paper is to describe participation in social activities among older adults in Jamaica and to identify independently associated socio-demographic and health characteristics. We analysed data from a nationally representative, community-based survey of 2943 persons 60 years and older. Sixty-three percent of older adults attended religious services and 60 % were visited by friends at least once per month in the 12 months preceding the survey. Age was not independently associated with social participation. Persons with post-secondary level education were twice as likely as those with primary education or less, to be visited by friends and to attend meetings of formal organisations. Men, persons not in union, and those with less functional independence had reduced odds of attending meetings of formal organisations. These variables were however not independently associated with having visits with friends. Persons with a positive depression screen were between 42 % and 44 % less likely to be visited by friends. Persons who received an income through livestock/farming were more likely to visit or be visited by friends. The variables independently associated with social participation vary depending on the type of social activity considered. Where possible, health and social interventions should focus on prevention, delay and reversal of risk factors associated with reduced social participation. Social participation programmes should be prioritized and be informed by input from older adults. Future research should include other forms of social interactions and clarify older adults' perceptions of their quality.
Parr John D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh suffers from a lack of healthcare providers. The growing chronic disease epidemic's demand for healthcare resources will further strain Bangladesh's limited healthcare workforce. Little is known about how Bangladeshis with chronic disease seek care. This study describes chronic disease patients' care seeking behavior by analyzing which providers diagnose these diseases. Methods During 2 month periods in 2009, a cross-sectional survey collected descriptive data on chronic disease diagnoses among 3 surveillance populations within the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR, B network. The maximum number of respondents (over age 25 who reported having ever been diagnosed with a chronic disease determined the sample size. Using SAS software (version 8.0 multivariate regression analyses were preformed on related sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 32,665 survey respondents, 8,591 self reported having a chronic disease. Chronically ill respondents were 63.4% rural residents. Hypertension was the most prevalent disease in rural (12.4% and urban (16.1% areas. In rural areas chronic disease diagnoses were made by MBBS doctors (59.7% and Informal Allopathic Providers (IAPs (34.9%. In urban areas chronic disease diagnoses were made by MBBS doctors (88.0% and IAP (7.9%. Our analysis identified several groups that depended heavily on IAP for coverage, particularly rural, poor and women. Conclusion IAPs play important roles in chronic disease care, particularly in rural areas. Input and cooperation from IAPs are needed to minimize rural health disparities. More research on IAP knowledge and practices regarding chronic disease is needed to properly utilize this potential healthcare resource.
Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J
Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with
Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, and oral cancer are the most prevalent dental diseases affecting people in the Indian community. Objective: The study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices on oral hygiene and its association with the sociodemographic factors among patients attending the general Outpatient Department (OPD. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 patients attending the general OPD of the SSKM Hospital, Kolkata, India, from 1 April to 30 April, 2013. The study tool was a pre-designed and pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Results: About 69.20% of the participants used a toothbrush with toothpaste as a method of cleaning their teeth; 35.71% brushed twice in a day; 33.03% brushed both in the morning and at bedtime; and 8.93% used mouthwash. About 40.62% visited the dentist during the last six months; among them 61.18% attended because of pain. Almost three-fourth of the participants knew that tooth decay and bad breath were the effects of not cleaning the teeth. It was known to 71.42, 63.39, 70.53, and 73.21% of the respondents, respectively, that excess sweet, cold drink, alcohol, and smoking/pan chewing were bad for dental health. Television was the source of knowledge to 57.14% of the participants and 35.71% acquired their knowledge from a dentist. Females, literates, urban residents, users of mouthwash, and regular visitors to the dentist had good oral hygiene practices. Conclusion: Oral health awareness and practices among the study population are poor and need to improve.
Boyer, Cherrie B; Greenberg, Lauren; Chutuape, Kate; Walker, Bendu; Monte, Dina; Kirk, Jennifer; Ellen, Jonathan M
The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventional descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact tests, and generalized estimating equations approaches were used to examine associations. Participants (1818, 95.5 % of those screened eligible) were, on average, aged 21.0 years; 42.2 % were males, and 4.6 % were transgender. Almost one-third (32.1 %) identified as gay or lesbian, 18.1 % identified as bisexual; 66.2 % were Black and 21.0 % were Hispanic; 1.3 % was 'living on the street'. A sizeable proportion reported HIV-related risk: 16.3 % exchanged sex, 12.6 % had sex with someone they knew to be HIV-infected, 7.8 % had sex with someone who injected drugs, and 1.3 % injected drugs. Multivariate comparisons identified a number of variables (e.g., being male or transgender, homelessness, sex with a partner who has HIV, STI history, unemployment, job training access, housing instability, crime victimization, perceived community norms) that were significantly associated with exchange of sex (p young adults, particularly as it relates to community context. Longitudinal studies to describe the trajectory of social, health, and physical risks and consequences are needed for development of effective evidence-based prevention strategies.
Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng Je; Chang, Sung Man; Bae, Jae Nam; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Byung-Soo; Chung, In-Won; Ahn, Joon Ho; Lee, Hae Woo; Hong, Jin Pyo
The aim of this study is to examine relationships of sleep duration with sociodemographic and health-related factors, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances in a nationwide sample in Korea. A total of 6510 subjects aged 18-64 years participated in this study. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the covariates, psychiatric disorders and sleep disturbances across the following sleep duration categories: 5 h or less, 6, 7, 8 and 9 h or more per day. Low levels of education, unemployment and physical illness were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Being older and widowed/divorced/separated, high levels of physical activity, pain/discomfort, obesity and high scores on the General Health Questionnaires were associated with sleeping for 5 h or less. Female, being younger and underweight were associated with sleeping for 9 h or more. Alcohol dependence, anxiety disorder and social phobia were associated significantly with sleeping for 5 h or less and 9 h or more. Other psychiatric disorders were more common in subjects who slept for 5 h or less (e.g. alcohol use disorder, mood disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and specific phobia) or 9 h or more (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder). In addition, subjects who slept for 5 h or less reported more sleep disturbances than did subjects who slept for 7 h. Short or long sleep is associated with psychiatric disorders and/or sleep disturbance, therefore attention to the mental health of short or long sleepers is needed.
Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne
This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.
Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Hevia, Henar; Palazuelos, Marta; Ledesma, Francisco
The Perfil-es study demonstrated that, while non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is more frequently used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected naïve patients, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r)-based regimens are the preferred option in patients with advanced infectious stages or high baseline viral load. The present analysis focused on the second phase of the Perfil-es study, where sociodemographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients starting NNRTI- or PI/r-based regimens in order to identify factors that could influence the choice of initial ART. Patients' characteristics were compared by both bivariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 642 patients were evaluated. The main transmission group was men who have sex with men (MSM) (48%), and 24% of patients were coinfected with hepatitis B or C. Patients with cardiovascular risk accounted for 56%, and 15% had a neuropsychiatric history. Anxiolytics (29%), antidepressants (18%) and methadone (18%) were the most frequent concomitant medications. The use of PI/r-based regimens was more frequent in older patients, childbearing potential women patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C, and those with cardiovascular risk and a neuropsychiatric history. The presence of a neuropsychiatric disorder (OR: 1.912; CI 95%: 1.146-3.191; p < .05) and the use of concomitant medication (OR: 1.736; CI 95%: 1.204-2.502; p < .01) were identified as independent factors associated with the selection of PI/r-based regimens. MSM sexual conduct was the only independent factor related to the selection of NNRTI-based ART (OR: 0.699; CI 95%: 0.504-0.970; p < .05). Neither the physicians' characteristics nor the geographical area where HIV patients were attended influenced the choice of ART. In conclusion, patients' comorbidity, pregnancy potential and lifestyle seem to influence the choice of ART. Neuropsychiatric
Benzi, Kirell; Bresson, Xavier; Vandergheynst, Pierre
This work formulates a novel song recommender system as a matrix completion problem that benefits from collaborative filtering through Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) and content-based filtering via total variation (TV) on graphs. The graphs encode both playlist proximity information and song similarity, using a rich combination of audio, meta-data and social features. As we demonstrate, our hybrid recommendation system is very versatile and incorporates several well-known methods while outperforming them. Particularly, we show on real-world data that our model overcomes w.r.t. two evaluation metrics the recommendation of models solely based on low-rank information, graph-based information or a combination of both.
Full Text Available Introduction. Recommended vaccination plays an important role in reducing the risk of complications, which may accompany many dangerous diseases. However, they also generate numerous ambivalent emotions among parents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors which might influence parents’ decision to have their children given the recommended vaccines. Material and methods. 100 parents of children aged between 0 and 5 took part in the study. The survey was carried out by means of a diagnostic poll with the application of a self-designed research questionnaire. Results. Parents’ level of education and knowledge has a significant influence on positive decisions concerning recommended vaccination of their children. The advocacy of anti-vaccination movements does not entail the decision about not having their children vaccinated. Conclusions. Promotional campaigns should be launched in the media, in which solid information should be provided by doctors and nurses. Popularizing free vaccination campaigns among parents will increase the number of vaccinated children.
Zhang, Peter H.
This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…
Porchea, Sameano F.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve; Phelps, Richard P.
We examined the effects of student (academic preparation, psychosocial, socio-demographic, and situational) and institutional characteristics on long-term enrollment outcomes. We tracked enrollments and degrees awarded for students who originally enrolled at two-year institutions across five years. Our findings have implications for identifying…
Washington, Angela E.
The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to investigate the relationship of sociodemographic and personality traits to faculty perceptions and motivations regarding the use of online instruction in radiologic and imaging sciences. A faculty perception and motivations survey of online instruction was administered online in order to…
Zhang, Peter H.
This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…
Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Jung-Kyu; Kweon, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho
Dental insurance coverage has recently expanded in Korea. The number of patients diagnosed with periodontal disease (PD), and the actual number of periodontally compromised patients has increased. However, few studies have investigated the relationships between the prevalence of periodontal disease and the incidence of PD treatment, dental insurance policies, and socio-demographic factors. To determine the incidence of periodontal treatments required, the comprehensive longitudinal data of the National Health Insurance Service were used. This study evaluated changes in the incidence of periodontal treatments, using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Cohort Database. A random stratified sample of 1,025,340 Korean patients was selected from National Health Insurance database, using 1,476 multistage samplings (of sex, age, and income level) for 12 years from 2002 to 2013. Chi-square analysis, and univariate, and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association of socio-demographic factors with the prevalence of PD and the incidence of periodontal treatment. The incidence of periodontal treatment steadily and significantly increased, in both male and female participants, from 2002 to 2013. The increase was associated with socio-demographic factors and changes in national dental insurance policies. The incidence of periodontal treatment evaluated by age is influenced by the changes in national dental policies. These results suggest that the increase in patients diagnosed with PD reflects changes in dental policies and insurance benefits. This study confirms that national dental policies and socio-demographic factors are related to the incidence of periodontal treatments. The incidence of periodontal treatment is significantly related to the expansion of insurance coverage in South Korea.
Lee, Jae-Hong; Lee, Jung-Seok; Choi, Jung-kyu; Kweon, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho
Background Dental insurance coverage has recently expanded in Korea. The number of patients diagnosed with periodontal disease (PD), and the actual number of periodontally compromised patients has increased. However, few studies have investigated the relationships between the prevalence of periodontal disease and the incidence of PD treatment, dental insurance policies, and socio-demographic factors. To determine the incidence of periodontal treatments required, the comprehensive longitudinal...
de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A
This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended.
Associations of pain intensity and pain-related disability with psychological and socio-demographic factors in patients with temporomandibular disorders: a cross-sectional study at a specialised dental clinic.
Su, N; Lobbezoo, F; van Wijk, A; van der Heijden, G J M G; Visscher, C M
The study assessed whether psychological and socio-demographic factors, including somatisation, depression, stress, anxiety, daytime sleepiness, optimism, gender and age, are associated with pain intensity and pain-related disability in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). In total, 320 TMD patients were involved in the study. The psychological status of each patient was assessed with questionnaires, including the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), Epworth Sleeping Scale (ESS), stress questionnaire and Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R). TMD pain, including pain intensity and pain-related disability, was assessed with characteristic pain intensity (CPI) and disability points scales. The associations of psychological and socio-demographic factors with pain intensity and pain-related disability were assessed through logistic regression analyses. Higher pain intensity was significantly associated with more severe anxiety (P = 0·004), more severe somatisation (P socio-demographic factors in this study, somatisation was the best predictor of pain intensity, while depression was the best predictor of pain-related disability. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber
This study investigates the effects of Trust Factors on Customer’s Acceptance of Word of Mouth recommendations. A sample size of 1000 consumers of different brands has been taken randomly on the basis of convenience. Results obtained from statistical analysis using the Logistic regression as a statistical tool which showed that the individual variables like experience, affinity, expertise are displaying no significant impact upon the acceptance of word of mouth.
Fahlén, Elin; Davidsson, Julia
Background: Diabetes is an increasing global health problem and this puts high demands on the health care system. Patients with diabetes demand continuous treatment and monitoring in order to control the disease and avoid complications. Adherence to recommended treatment was important in order for the treatment to give positive effect. In this context adherence was defined as the extent to which the patients follow medical instructions.Aim: The aim of this study was to identify factors that c...
Culverhouse Sarah E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary medicines (CMs are widely used by the Australian public, and pharmacies are major suppliers of these medicines. The integration of CMs into pharmacy practice is well documented, but the behaviours of pharmacists in recommending CMs to customers are less well studied. This study reports on factors that influence whether or not pharmacists in Australia recommend CMs to their customers. Methods Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with twelve practicing pharmacists based in Brisbane, Australia. The qualitative data were analysed by thematic analysis. Results The primary driver of the recommendation of CMs was a desire to provide a health benefit to the customer. Other important drivers were an awareness of evidence of efficacy, customer feedback and pharmacy protocols to recommend a CM alongside a particular pharmaceutical medication. The primary barrier to the recommendation of CMs was safety concerns around patients on multiple medications or with complex health issues. Also, a lack of knowledge of CMs, a perceived lack of evidence or a lack of time to counsel patients were identified as barriers. There was a desire to see a greater integration of CM into formal pharmacy education. Additionally, the provision of good quality educational materials was seen as important to allow pharmacists to assess levels of evidence for CMs and educate them on their safe and appropriate use. Conclusions Pharmacists who frequently recommend CMs identify many potential benefits for patients and see it as an important part of providing a ‘healthcare solution’. To encourage the informed use of CMs in pharmacy there is a need for the development of accessible, quality resources on CMs. In addition, incorporation of CM education into pharmacy curricula would better prepare graduate pharmacists for community practice. Ultimately, such moves would contribute to the safe and effective use of CMs to the benefit of
Full Text Available The design and assessment of the slope stability of small embankment dams is usually not carried out using slope stability calculations but rather by the comparison of proposed or existing dam slopes with those recommended by technical standards or guidelines. Practical experience shows that in many cases the slopes of small dams are steeper than those recommended. However, most of such steeper slopes at existing dams do not exhibit any visible signs of instability, defects or sliding. For the dam owner and also for dam stability engineers, the safety of the slope, expressed e.g. via a factor of safety, is crucial. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety margin provided by recommended slopes. The factor of safety was evaluated for several dam shape and layout variants via the shear strength reduction method using PLAXIS software. The study covers various dam geometries, dam core and shoulder positions and parameter values of utilised soils. Three load cases were considered: one with a steady state seepage condition and two with different reservoir water level drawdown velocities – standard and critical. As numerous older small dams lack a drainage system, variants with and without a toe drain were assessed. Calculated factors of safety were compared with required values specified by national standards and guidelines.
Nikolic, Zeljka; Matejic, Bojana; Kesic, Vesna; Eric Marinkovic, Jelena; Jovic Vranes, Aleksandra
This research was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding Human Papillomavirus infection and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among pediatricians who work in primary health care and to determine their intention to recommend the HPV vaccine as an important measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. We assessed the factors associated with the intention to recommend the vaccine. This cross-sectional study was conducted in March and April 2012. This research included all pediatricians who worked with school children in public primary health care institutions in Belgrade. A research instrument questionnaire had been designed for this study. The response rate was 78.7%. The knowledge of pediatricians related to HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was estimated as poor. However, pediatricians recognized the need for additional education in this field. The most-frequently reported barrier to HPV vaccination was the financial concern (68.2%). Alternatively, according to the pediatricians, the most common parental barrier to vaccination was the lack of information on the vaccine (67.2%). Nearly two-thirds of the pediatricians were willing to recommend the vaccine (60.2%). The factors associated with the pediatricians' intention to recommend the vaccine included the parents' attitudes. The majority of pediatricians accept the HPV vaccine and recommend it to their patients. It is necessary to improve cooperation between parents and pediatricians to increase immunization coverage and develop national consulting strategies with a focus on the prevention of HPV infection. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Orientation: Exploratory factor analysis is the method of choice with objective personality instruments, particularly to establish the construct validity and construct equivalence of trait-based instruments.Research purpose: This article presents more objective methods to determine the number of factors, most notably parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP. The benefits of rotation are also discussed. The article argues for more consistent use of Procrustes rotation and congruence coefficients in factor analytic studies.Motivation for the study: Exploratory factor analysis is often criticised for not being rigorous and objective enough in terms of the methods used to determine the number of factors, the rotations to be used and ultimately the validity of the factor structure.Research design, approach and method: The article adopts a theoretical stance to discuss the best-practice recommendations for factor analytic research in the field of psychology. Following this, an example located within personality assessment and using the NEO-PI-R specifically is presented. A total of 425 students at the University of the Witwatersrand completed the NEO-PI-R. These responses were subjected to a principal components analysis using varimax rotation. The rotated solution was subjected to a Procrustes rotation with Costa and McCrae’s (1992 matrix as the target matrix. Congruence coefficients were also computed.Main findings: The example indicates the use of the methods recommended in the article and demonstrates an objective way of determining the number of factors. It also provides an example of Procrustes rotation with coefficients of agreement as an indication of how factor analytic results may be presented more rigorously in local research.Practical/managerial implications: It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will have best-practice implications for both researchers and practitioners in the field who employ factor
Due to unique social and demographic characteristics, various segments of the population may experience exposures different from those of the general population, which, in many cases, may be greater. When risk assessments do not characterize subsets of the general population, the populations that may experience the greatest risk remain unidentified. When such populations are not identified, the social and demographic data relevant to these populations is not considered when preparing exposure estimates, which can underestimate exposure and risk estimates for at-risk populations. Thus, it is necessary for risk or exposure assessors characterizing a diverse population, to first identify and then enumerate certain groups within the general population who are at risk for greater contaminant exposures. The document entitled Sociodemographic Data Used for Identifying Potentially Highly Exposed Populations (also referred to as the Highly Exposed Populations document), assists assessors in identifying and enumerating potentially highly exposed populations. This document presents data relating to factors which potentially impact an individual or group's exposure to environmental contaminants based on activity patterns (how time is spent), microenvironments (locations where time is spent), and other socio-demographic data such as age, gender, race and economic status. Populations potentially more exposed to various chemicals of concern, relative to the general population
Nikitenko, V V
The author investigates changes in socio-demographic processes and structures in rural areas of the USSR that have occurred as a result of the national food program. Special attention is given to potential changes in migration, both permanent and seasonal, among villages and towns. Future changes in the age and sex distribution and in marital and family structures are estimated. Trends in rural employment and occupational patterns are also considered. (summary in ENG, RUS)
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and diagnosed childhood obesity, after accounting for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics. Methods: An open cohort of all children aged 0-14 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighbourhood deprivation. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Results: During the study period, among a total of 948,062 children, 10,799 were diagnosed with childhood obesity. Age-adjusted cumulative incidence for diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. Incidence of diagnosed childhood obesity increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR for diagnosed childhood obesity for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 2.44 (95% confidence interval (CI = 2.22-2.68. High neighbourhood deprivation remained significantly associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity after adjustment for family- and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.55-1.89. Age, middle level family income, maternal marital status, low level education, living in large cities, advanced paternal and maternal age, family history of obesity, parental history of diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alcoholism and personal history of diabetes were all associated with higher odds of diagnosed childhood obesity. Conclusions: Our results suggest that neighbourhood characteristics affect the odds of diagnosed childhood obesity independently of family- and individual-level socio-demographic
Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga
Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072
Harrold, Leslie R; Reed, George W; Kremer, Joel M; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Solomon, Daniel H; Hochberg, Marc C; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Saunders, Katherine C; Shan, Ying; Spruill, Tanya M; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Greenberg, Jeffrey D
Factors associated with care concordant with the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommendations for the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are unknown. We identified a national cohort of biologic-naive patients with RA with visits between December 2008 and February 2013. Treatment acceleration (initiation or dose escalation of biologic and nonbiologic DMARDs) in response to moderate to high disease activity (using the Clinical Disease Activity Index) was assessed. The population was divided into two subcohorts: (1) methotrexate (MTX)-only users and (2) multiple nonbiologic DMARD users. In both subcohorts, we compared the characteristics of patients who received care consistent with the ACR recommendations (e.g., prescriptions for treatment acceleration) and their providers with the characteristics of those who did not at the conclusion of one visit and over two visits, using logistic regression and adjusting for clustering of patients by rheumatologist. Our study included 741 MTX monotherapy and 995 multiple nonbiologic DMARD users cared for by 139 providers. Only 36.2 % of MTX monotherapy users and 39.6 % of multiple nonbiologic DMARD users received care consistent with the recommendations after one visit, which increased over two visits to 78.3 % and 76.2 %, respectively (25-30 % achieved low disease activity by the second visit without DMARD acceleration). Increasing time since the ACR publication on RA treatment recommendations was not associated with improved adherence. Allowing two encounters for treatment acceleration was associated with an increase in care concordant with the recommendations; however, time since publication was not.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is a rare but severe complication of pregnancy. A recent systematic review highlighted apparent differences in the incidence, with studies estimating the incidence of AFE to be more than three times higher in North America than Europe. The aim of this study was to examine population-based regional or national data from five high-resource countries in order to investigate incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AFE and to investigate whether any variation identified could be ascribed to methodological differences between the studies. Methods We reviewed available data sources on the incidence of AFE in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the USA. Where information was available, the risk factors and outcomes of AFE were examined. Results The reported incidence of AFE ranged from 1.9 cases per 100 000 maternities (UK to 6.1 per 100 000 maternities (Australia. There was a clear distinction between rates estimated using different methodologies. The lowest estimated incidence rates were obtained through validated case identification (range 1.9-2.5 cases per 100 000 maternities; rates obtained from retrospective analysis of population discharge databases were significantly higher (range 5.5-6.1 per 100 000 admissions with delivery diagnosis. Older maternal age and induction of labour were consistently associated with AFE. Conclusions Recommendation 1: Comparisons of AFE incidence estimates should be restricted to studies using similar methodology. The recommended approaches would be either population-based database studies using additional criteria to exclude false positive cases, or tailored data collection using existing specific population-based systems. Recommendation 2: Comparisons of AFE incidence between and within countries would be facilitated by development of an agreed case definition and an agreed set of criteria to minimise inclusion of false positive cases for
Oscar Soto Martínez
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles con el objetivo de identificar factores de riesgo del embarazo en la adolescencia. Se estudiaron a todas las pacientes (37 con edades entre 12 y 19 años, pertenecientes al Policlínico "Emilio Daudinot", embarazadas en el año 1998 (casos y 37 adolescentes (controles que nunca han estado embarazadas, de igual área de salud y edades que los casos. Se aplicó un cuestionario a cada una de las adolescentes. Los datos se procesaron en SPSS 9.0. Estos se presentan en tablas y figuras donde se utilizan las medidas de resumen del nivel analítico. Se obtuvo la significación de la asociación mediante la prueba X2 de Mantell- Haenszel, en el que se prefijó el 95 % para el intervalo de confianza. A las variables significativas se les determinó el grado de asociación mediante el odds ratio. Resultaron significativas de forma bivariada el número de casamientos (OR 6,48 [2,39;15,56], la ocupación (OR 6,13 [2,05;14,23], el estado civil (OR 2,13 [1,26;3,86].A case-control study was conducted aimed at identifying the risk factors of pregnancy in adolescence. All the patients aged 12-19 (37 from "Emilio Daudinot" Polyclinic that got pregnant in 1998 and 37 adolescents (controls who have never been pregnant with the same age and from the same area were studied. Every adolescent answered a questionnaire. Ddata were processed in SPSS 9.0 and they were shown in tables and figures where the summary measures of the analytical level were used. The association significance was obtained by Mantell-Haenszel X2 test, in which 95 % was prefixed as the confidence interval. The association degree was determined in the significant variables by the odds ratio. The number of marriages (OR 6,48 [2,39;15,56], the occupation (OR 6,13 [2,05;14,23], and the marital status (OR 2,13 [1,26;3,86] proved to be significant in a bivariated way.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12-18 from grade 6th-10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adoles-cents PA (PAQ-A. Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates.Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275, 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the ma-jority (43.4% of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2% revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005 for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004 than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001 decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls.Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents.
Barriers and facilitators to enrollment and re-enrollment into the community health funds/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania: a cross-sectional inquiry on the effects of socio-demographic factors and social marketing strategies.
Kapologwe, Ntuli A; Kagaruki, Gibson B; Kalolo, Albino; Ally, Mariam; Shao, Amani; Meshack, Manoris; Stoermer, Manfred; Briet, Amena; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Hoffman, Axel
Introduction of a health insurance scheme is one of the ways to enhance access to health care services and to protect individuals from catastrophic health expenditures. Little is known on the influence of socio-demographic and social marketing strategies on enrollment and re-enrollment in the Community Health Fund/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania. This cross-sectional study employed quantitative methods for data collection between November 2014 and March 2015 in Singida and Shinyanga regions. Relationship between variables was obtained through Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. We recruited 496 participants in the study. Majority (92.7%) of participants consented to participate, with 229 (49.8%) and 231 (50.2%) members and non members of CHF/TIKA respectively. Majority (90.9%) were aware of CHF/TIKA. Majority of CHF/TIKA members and non-members (90% and 68.3% respectively) reported health facility-based sensitization as the most common social marketing approach employed to market the CHF/TIKA. The most popular marketing strategies in the country including traditional dances, football games, radio, television, news papers, and mosques/church were reported by few CHF and non CHF members. Multivariate Logistic regression models revealed no significant association between social marketing strategies and enrollment, but only socio-demographics; including marital status (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and family size (household with ≥ 6 members) (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), were significant factors associated with enrollment/re-enrollment rate. This study indicated that low level of utilization of available social marketing strategies and socio-demographic factors are the barriers for attracting members to join the schemes. There is a need for applying various social marketing strategies and considering different facilitating and impending socio-demographic factors for the growth and sustainability of the scheme as we move towards
Albeit, the implicit feedback based recommendation problem - when only the user history is available but there are no ratings - is the most typical setting in real-world applications, it is much less researched than the explicit feedback case. State-of-the-art algorithms that are efficient on the explicit case cannot be straightforwardly transformed to the implicit case if scalability should be maintained. There are few if any implicit feedback benchmark datasets, therefore new ideas are usually experimented on explicit benchmarks. In this paper, we propose a generic context-aware implicit feedback recommender algorithm, coined iTALS. iTALS apply a fast, ALS-based tensor factorization learning method that scales linearly with the number of non-zero elements in the tensor. The method also allows us to incorporate diverse context information into the model while maintaining its computational efficiency. In particular, we present two such context-aware implementation variants of iTALS. The first incorporates sea...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Three different burnout types have been described: The "frenetic" type describes involved and ambitious subjects who sacrifice their health and personal lives for their jobs; the "underchallenged" type describes indifferent and bored workers who fail to find personal development in their jobs and the "worn-out" in type describes neglectful subjects who feel they have little control over results and whose efforts go unacknowledged. The study aimed to describe the possible associations between burnout types and general sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a multi-occupational sample of randomly selected university employees (n = 409. The presence of burnout types was assessed by means of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36", and the degree of association between variables was assessed using an adjusted odds ratio (OR obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Results Individuals working more than 40 hours per week presented with the greatest risk for "frenetic" burnout compared to those working fewer than 35 hours (adjusted OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.52-12.82; p p = 0.023. Employees with more than sixteen years of service in the organisation presented the greatest risk of "worn-out" burnout compared to those with less than four years of service (adjusted OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.47-14.16; p = 0.009. Conclusions This study is the first to our knowledge that suggests the existence of associations between the different burnout subtypes (classified according to the degree of dedication to work and the different sociodemographic and occupational characteristics that are congruent with the definition of each of the subtypes. These results are consistent with the clinical profile definitions of burnout syndrome. In addition, they assist the recognition of distinct profiles and reinforce the idea of differential characterisation of the syndrome for
Full Text Available Background: Nurses constitute the major professional group offering constant hospital patients’ care. Willingness to recommend their hospital reflects confidence in the offered care, satisfaction and identification with the work place. The aim of the present study has been to investigate which elements of hospital environment and nurse personal related factors predict recommendation of the hospital as a place of care by employed nurses. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional, correlation study was, based on 1723 self-reported, anonymous questionnaires of nurses working in 30 acute hospitals. Data was analyzed using the logistic regression model, with general estimation equations. Results: About 25% of nurses were unwilling to recommend their hospital as the place of care. The odds ratio (OR of the lack of willingness to recommend the hospital was related to assessment of patients’ safety (OR = 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.18–0.46, p = 0.00, decrease in the quality of patient care during the preceding year (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41–0.93, p = 0.02, overall work conditions (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.22–0.57, p = 0.00, weak cooperation between nurses and physicians (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.25–0.54, p = 0.00, poor work schedule flexibility (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55– 0.99, p = 0.04 and educational opportunities (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54–0.95, p = 0.02 and the level of nurses depersonalization (OR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.18–1.68, p = 0.00. Conclusions: The hospital manager should consider strategies which improve patients’ safety and the staff working conditions. Thanks to that they will also achieve better and more competitive image of the hospital in the local community. Med Pr 2016;67(4:447–454
Nomura, Sarah J O; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Lazovich, DeAnn; Robien, Kim
Taller height, family history of breast cancer, greater number of years of potential fertility and nulliparity are established non-modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Greater adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations has previously been shown to be associated with lower breast cancer risk. However, no prior studies have evaluated whether women with non-modifiable risk factors receive similar benefits from recommendation adherence compared to women without these risk factors. In the Iowa Women's Health Study prospective cohort, we investigated whether associations of WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence differed by the presence/absence of non-modifiable breast cancer risk factors. Baseline (1986) questionnaire data from 36,626 postmenopausal women were used to create adherence scores for the WCRF/AICR recommendations (maximum score = 8.0). Overall and single recommendation adherence in relation to breast cancer risk (n = 3,189 cases) across levels of non-modifiable risk factors were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. Mean adherence score was 5.0 points (range: 0.5-8.0). Higher adherence scores (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.67-0.87), and adherence to the individual recommendations for body weight and alcohol intake were associated with a lower breast cancer incidence. While not statistically significant among women with more non-modifiable risk factors (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.36-1.63), hazard ratios were comparable to women with the no non-modifiable risk factors (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.49-0.93) (p-interaction = 0.57). WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence is associated with lower breast cancer risk, regardless of non-modifiable risk factor status.
Oct 1, 2002 ... mothers (aged below 20 years) and older mothers of low birthweight ( ... have unfavourable socio-demographic and obstetric factors like ... having less formal education, being unemployed and having obstetric risks for poor.
Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study.
Dupuy, Marie; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Céline; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet
The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents--an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer and video-games use, smoking
Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable
management, production planning and accessibility of recycled materials. Conclusions: The integration offers new possibilities therefore it is the promising option of actions. In complicated and complex logistic reality, it is more and more difficult to function, in economic sense, without starting and tightening close cooperation. Sometimes it is even not possible at all. The growing popularity of two-way supply chains opens the dimensions of the possible cooperation. However, both science and the practice need the reliable quantitative information covering the conscious creation of the integration in supply chains. Such tool could be a ranking, recommended in this paper, of integration factors from the perspective of three measures of evaluation of global level of functioning of the supply chain.
Carla V.V. Rollemberg
Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.
Obindo, James; Abdulmalik, Jibril; Nwefoh, Emeka; Agbir, Michael; Nwoga, Charles; Armiya'u, Aishatu; Davou, Francis; Maigida, Kurkat; Otache, Emmanuel; Ebiloma, Ajuma; Dakwak, Samuel; Umaru, John; Samuel, Elisha; Ogoshi, Christopher; Eaton, Julian
Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above) were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%), Moderate (31.6%) and Severe (26.3%). History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008); Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years) and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003) were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, pdepression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low levels of life satisfaction.
Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%, Moderate (31.6% and Severe (26.3%. History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008; Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003 were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, p<0.004.Prevalence of depression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low
Sumadhya D Fernando
Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is a relatively neglected area of research in Sri Lanka. Given the number of infections observed, an analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of patients would be valuable in prevention. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 359 newly registered women at a tertiary level sexually transmitted diseases clinic over a period of 18 months. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by culture of vaginal swabs collected from the posterior fornix. Results: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the sample was 7.2%. Of those who tested positive for trichomoniasis, 76% were in the age group of 21-45 years, 68% were married and living with a spouse and 60% were unemployed. A diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was associated with being married (OR, 1.6; CI, 0.56-4.41, age over 33 years (OR=1.3, CI, 0.55-2.9, being employed (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.56 - 2.94, having an education of less than ten years at school (OR, 3.0; CI 1.28-7.26 and not using condoms during the last sexual act (OR 2.0, CI 0.84-4.86. The risk was less among commercial sex workers (OR, 0.3, CI: 0.14-0.85, those with multiple sexual partners (OR, 0.2; CI; 0.073-0.408 and women reporting extramarital sexual relationships (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.128-0.733. Conclusions: Education on safe sex and recognition of symptoms is currently targeted at high risk groups such as commercial sex workers. Extending these programmes to the rest of the community will further reduce the risk of transmission of trichomonas.
Ambugo, Eliva A
Studies based on Western samples generally show that status characteristics like gender or marital status are associated with better mental health for individuals who occupy advantageous positions, such as men or the married. However, these patterns may not hold in developing regions that differ in important ways from the West. Guided by the Stress Process Model (SPM), this study uses logistic regression to examine the effect of gender, education, and other status characteristics on major depressive episode (MDE). Similarities and differences in these associations across two Western and two African countries are also assessed. Nationally representative data for adults ages 18 years and older are from the World Health Surveys (2002-2004) for Norway (N = 943), the United Kingdom (UK: N = 1195), Ghana (N = 3922), and Kenya (N = 4331). Results indicate a mixed pattern of associations between status characteristics and MDE across the four countries. Norwegian men face higher risk of MDE than Norwegian women-an anomalous finding. With some exceptions, education and employment status are not significantly related to MDE across the countries, providing little support for SPM. Marital status differences in risk of MDE are largest for Norway and smallest for Ghana. For the UK, men face lower risk of MDE than women across levels of mastery, and the gender gap in MDE is larger at higher levels of mastery. Overall, there is some heterogeneity in the associations between status characteristics and MDE even in somewhat similar environments like Ghana and Kenya. This study extends the reach of SPM to settings in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes to the sparse empirical literature on the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of MDE in the general populations of Ghana and Kenya.
Turtle, E J; Sule, A A; Webb, D J; Bath, L E
There is a general lack of awareness of the risk of aortic dissection in Turner syndrome (TS) from both patients with TS and their physicians. Patients often ignore symptoms for up to 24 h before seeking medical advice, significantly increasing their risk of death. A clinical profile of those at risk of dissection is emerging and includes the presence of congenital heart defects, aortic dilatation and hypertension. MRI has revolutionised the visualisation of cardiovascular anatomy in TS but remains underutilised, especially in children and adolescents, and there is currently little guidance on blood pressure (BP) assessment or hypertension management. Children and adolescents with TS at risk of dissection could be easily identified by timely imaging and BP assessment. This would allow medical management or surgical intervention to be put in place to reduce the risk of this major, and often fatal, complication. Since guidance is lacking, we have reviewed the literature on the risk factors for dissection in TS during childhood and adolescence, and make recommendations on the assessment and management of these patients.
Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Kristina
The purpose of the study is to examine whether there is an association between neighbourhood deprivation and incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD), after accounting for family- and individual-level potential confounders. All children aged 0 to 11 years and living in Sweden (n = 748,951) were followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Data were analysed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. During the study period, among a total of 748,951 children, 1499 (0.2%) were hospitalised with CHD. Age-adjusted cumulative hospitalisation rates for CHD increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the study population, 1.8 per 1000 and 2.2 per 1000 children in the least and most deprived neighbourhoods, respectively, were hospitalised with CHD. The incidence of hospitalisation for CHD increased with increasing neighbourhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level socio-demographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for hospitalisation for CHD for those living in high-deprivation neighbourhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighbourhoods was 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.46). In the full model, which took account for age, paternal and maternal individual-level socio-economic characteristics, comorbidities (e.g. maternal type 2 diabetes, OR = 3.03; maternal hypertension, OR = 2.01), and family history of CHD (OR = 3.27), the odds of CHD were slightly attenuated but did not remain significant in the most deprived neighbourhoods (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.99-1.45, p = 0.057). This study is the largest so far on neighbourhood influences on CHD, and the results suggest that deprived neighbourhoods have higher rates of CHD, which represents important clinical knowledge. However, the association does not seem to be independent of individual- and family
Calonge, Ned; Petitti, Diana B.; DeWitt, Thomas G.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Harris, Russell; Isham, George; LeFevre, Michael L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Marion, Lucy N.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Ockene, Judith K.; Sawaya, George F.; Siu, Albert L.; Teutsch, Steven M.; Yawn, Barbara P.
Description: New recommendation from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) on the use of nontraditional, or novel, risk factors in assessing the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of asymptomatic persons. Methods: Systematic reviews were conducted of literature since 1996 on 9 proposed non
Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members
Strauss Ronald P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive approach towards disease control that addresses social factors including stigma is now advocated. Patients with TB report fears of isolation and rejection that may lead to delays in seeking care and could affect treatment adherence. Qualitative studies have identified socio-demographic, TB knowledge, and clinical determinants of TB stigma, but only one prior study has quantified these associations using formally developed and validated stigma scales. The purpose of this study was to measure TB stigma and identify factors associated with TB stigma among patients and healthy community members. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in southern Thailand among two different groups of participants: 480 patients with TB and 300 healthy community members. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, TB knowledge, and clinical factors. Scales measuring perceived TB stigma, experienced/felt TB stigma, and perceived AIDS stigma were administered to patients with TB. Community members responded to a community TB stigma and community AIDS stigma scale, which contained the same items as the perceived stigma scales given to patients. Stigma scores could range from zero to 30, 33, or 36 depending on the scale. Three separate multivariable linear regressions were performed among patients with TB (perceived and experience/felt stigma and community members (community stigma to determine which factors were associated with higher mean TB stigma scores. Results Only low level of education, belief that TB increases the chance of getting AIDS, and AIDS stigma were associated with higher TB stigma scores in all three analyses. Co-infection with HIV was associated with higher TB stigma among patients. All differences in mean stigma scores between index and referent levels of each factor were less than two points, except for
Socio-demographic and AIDS-related factors associated with tuberculosis stigma in southern Thailand: a quantitative, cross-sectional study of stigma among patients with TB and healthy community members.
Kipp, Aaron M; Pungrassami, Petchawan; Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Sengupta, Sohini; Poole, Charles; Strauss, Ronald P; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Van Rie, Annelies
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. A comprehensive approach towards disease control that addresses social factors including stigma is now advocated. Patients with TB report fears of isolation and rejection that may lead to delays in seeking care and could affect treatment adherence. Qualitative studies have identified socio-demographic, TB knowledge, and clinical determinants of TB stigma, but only one prior study has quantified these associations using formally developed and validated stigma scales. The purpose of this study was to measure TB stigma and identify factors associated with TB stigma among patients and healthy community members. A cross-sectional study was performed in southern Thailand among two different groups of participants: 480 patients with TB and 300 healthy community members. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, TB knowledge, and clinical factors. Scales measuring perceived TB stigma, experienced/felt TB stigma, and perceived AIDS stigma were administered to patients with TB. Community members responded to a community TB stigma and community AIDS stigma scale, which contained the same items as the perceived stigma scales given to patients. Stigma scores could range from zero to 30, 33, or 36 depending on the scale. Three separate multivariable linear regressions were performed among patients with TB (perceived and experience/felt stigma) and community members (community stigma) to determine which factors were associated with higher mean TB stigma scores. Only low level of education, belief that TB increases the chance of getting AIDS, and AIDS stigma were associated with higher TB stigma scores in all three analyses. Co-infection with HIV was associated with higher TB stigma among patients. All differences in mean stigma scores between index and referent levels of each factor were less than two points, except for incorrectly believing that TB increases the chance of getting
Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G.; Biello, Katie B.; Landers, Stewart J.; Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Novak, David S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.
Objectives To assess factors associated with engagement in transactional sex among MSM recruited from one of the largest Internet sites for men seeking social or sexual interactions with other men in Latin America. Methods Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed to assess factors associated with engagement in transactional sex in 17 Latin American countries. Results Of 24,051 respondents, 1,732 (7.2%) reported being paid for sex in the past 12 months. In a multivariable model, higher country-level unemployment was associated with increased odds of transactional sex (aOR 1.07 per 1-percent increase in unemployment, 95%CI 1.00-1.13). Individual or interpersonal factors associated with increased odds of engagement in transactional sex included self-reported HIV (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.69) or sexually transmitted infection (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.59), childhood sexual abuse history (aOR 1.75, 95%CI 1.48-2.06), intimate partner violence (past 5 years, aOR 1.68, 95%CI 1.45-1.95), and sexual compulsivity (aOR 1.77, 95%CI 1.49-2.11). Conclusions Structural-level economic interventions as well as those that address individual and interpersonal factors may improve HIV prevention efforts among MSM who engage in transactional sex. PMID:25790381
Guthridge, Steven; Li, Lin; Silburn, Sven; Li, Shu Qin; McKenzie, John; Lynch, John
This study investigated the association between early-life risk factors and school education outcomes. This is an historical cohort study of 7601 children (61% were Indigenous) born in the Northern Territory between 1999 and 2004. Information was linked, for each child on: perinatal health, student enrolment and National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Year 3 results. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected risk factors and a NAPLAN result 'below' the national minimum standard (NMS) in reading and numeracy. Indigenous children had much higher odds, than non-Indigenous children, of a result below the NMS for both reading (odds ratio (OR): 8.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.55-9.74) ) and numeracy (OR: 11.52, 95% CI: 9.94-13.35). When adjusted for all other variables, the increased odds were attenuated for both reading (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.46-3.40) and numeracy (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 2.65-3.84). Common risk factors for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children included higher birth order, maternal smoking in pregnancy and being a boy. There were gradients of decreasing risk with increasing education level of primary care giver and increasing maternal age. Among Indigenous children only, risks increased when living in remote areas, with younger age (factors associated with poor education outcomes among Indigenous children are shared with the general population. The results inform a targeted, cross-agency response to address modifiable early-life risk factors for educational disadvantage. Data linkage, using existing administrative datasets, provides a useful addition to methods that identify priority areas for prevention and early intervention. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Pronk, Nicolaas P; Anderson, Louise H; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Sherwood, Nancy E; Whitebird, Robin R
Whereas much is known about single lifestyle-related health risk factor prevalence and covariates, more research is needed to elucidate the interactions among multiple healthy lifestyle factors and variables that may predict adherence to these factors. Such data may guide both clinical and health policy decision making and person-centered approaches to population health improvement. We document the prevalence and cluster patterns of multiple healthy lifestyle factors among a random sample of adolescents (n =616), adults (n =585), and seniors (n =685) from a large Midwestern health plan. Modifiable, lifestyle-related health factors assessed included physical activity, nonsmoking, high-quality diet, and healthy weight for all subjects; adults and seniors were also asked about their alcohol consumption. Second, we sought to identify characteristics associated with the likelihood of meeting recommendations for healthy lifestyle factors. The healthy lifestyle factors sum score was categorized into three levels, that is, 0 to 2, 3, or 4 to 5 healthy lifestyle factors (4 for adolescents), and we used ordinal logistic regression to estimate the odds of meeting each of these criteria from several demographic characteristics and disease states. Overall, only 14.5% of adolescent, adult, and senior health plan members meet recommended guidelines for four common healthy lifestyle factors. Only 10.8% of adults and 12.8% of seniors met all five behavior-related factors. For adolescents, only being nondepressed was associated with an increased likelihood to be in adherence to multiple healthy lifestyle factors (odds ratio [OR]=2.15; p adults, being in the 50- to 64-year-old cohort (OR=1.46, plifestyle factors. For seniors, having a college degree (OR=1.61; p lifestyle factors. A small proportion of health plan members meet multiple recommended healthy lifestyle guidelines at once. This analysis identifies population subgroups of specific interest and importance based on adherence
Jelinek, George A.; De Livera, Alysha M.; Claudia H. Marck; Brown, Chelsea R; Neate, Sandra L; Taylor, Keryn L.; Weiland, Tracey J.
Objective Emerging evidence links modifiable lifestyle risk factors to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought further evidence around this hypothesis through detailed analysis of the association with disability of lifestyle behaviours of a large international sample of people with MS. Materials and Methods A total of 2469 people with MS from 57 countries provided self-reported data via cross-sectional online survey on lifestyle (mostly with validated tools) and the primary ...
Khalaf, Atika; Westergren, Albert; Berggren, Vanja; Ekblom, Örjan; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M
Research about the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity in the Saudi Arabian female population is limited. The aim of the present study was to examine the dietary habits and the prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity and associated factors among female university students. A cross-sectional study. A university centre for female students in south-western Saudi Arabia. The study involved 663 randomly selected female university students who self-reported their physical activities, nutritional habits and socio-economic factors. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with the students' BMI, dietary variables, underweight and overweight/obesity. The majority of the university females were normal weight (56.9%), but a high prevalence of underweight (19.2%) and overweight/obesity (23.8%) occurred. Social factors significantly associated with BMI were the presence of obese parents and siblings as well as physical activity levels, marital status, number of sisters, father's level of education and more frequent intake of French fries/potato chips (>3 times/week). Several variables were found to correlate with dietary habits, underweight and overweight/obesity. Of special interest is the association between the number of siblings and the participants' BMI and dietary intake in both negative and positive ways. The findings of this research have implications for health promotion and prevention of malnutrition among college-aged females. Health-care providers and policy makers need to involve the whole family when promoting females' physical activity. The study serves as an evidence-based background for planning and implementation of interventions targeting improvement of highly educated populations' nutritional habits.
Adams, Margo; Augustyns, Nele; Janssens, Herman; Vriesacker, Bart; Van Hal, Guido
Current literature shows that people with a disability have a lower income than people without a disability. Disabled people often experience difficulties with health care access.The objective of this study is to assess the current financial situation and poverty rate amongst disabled people in Flanders. Furthermore we wanted to analyze factors that contribute to the risk of poverty and problems with financial health care access in adult people with a disability in Flanders. An online and paper survey were constructed and made available through two large organizations for people with different types of disability in Flanders. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. In this convenience sample, 20.9% of the 889 respondents live under the poverty threshold. Important contributing factors to the risk of poverty are having children (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.10-5.59) and a low level of dependence (OR 16.40, 95% CI 6.21-43.28). 25.2% of the respondents did not access health care because of financial shortcomings. A low level of dependence is one important contributing factor (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.41-6.98) to limited financial health care access. This research confirms that disability is associated with a higher risk of poverty and impaired financial health care access.
Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen
This study examined the use of the Pap cervical cancer screening test among women with mental disabilities in Taiwan and analyzed factors related thereto. Data were obtained from three national databases in Taiwan: the 2008 database of physically and mentally disabled persons from the Ministry of the Interior, 2007-2008 Pap smear test data from the Health Promotion Administration, and claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study subjects included 49,642 Taiwanese women aged ≥30 years with mental disabilities. Besides descriptive and bivariate analyses, logistic regression analysis was also performed to examine factors affecting Pap smear use. In 2007-2008, Taiwanese women with mental disabilities had a Pap screening rate of 11.05%. Age, income, education, marital status, catastrophic illness/injury, relevant chronic illnesses, and severity of disability were identified as factors affecting their Pap smear use. Age and severity of disability were negatively correlated with Pap screening, with the odds of screening being 0.37 times as high in ≥70-year-olds as in 30-39-year-olds and 0.49 times as high for very severe disability as for mild disability. Income was positively correlated with Pap screening. Being married (OR=2.55) or divorced or widowed (OR=2.40) relative to being unmarried, and having a catastrophic illness/injury (OR=1.13), cancer (OR=1.47), or diabetes (OR=1.25), were associated with greater odds of screening. In Taiwan, women with mental disabilities receive Pap smears at a far lower rate than women in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alcoholism and other socio-demographic risk factors for adverse TB-drug reactions and unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment – data from ten years’ observation at the Regional Centre of Pulmonology, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Przybylski, Grzegorz; Dąbrowska, Anita; Trzcińska, Hanna
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases and has one of the highest mortality rates. For decades a strong association has been evident between certain socio-economic factors and TB adverse events and failure of treatment, yet there is a limited quantity of literature available on this subject, especially in the Polish literature. Material/Methods We examined epidemiological data from 2025 TB patients treated at the Regional Centre of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz, Poland between 2001 and 2010. This article focuses on the association between all forms of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes or adverse drug reaction (ADR) and socio-demographic characteristics, condition on admission, and other biological, clinical, social, and healthcare access factors. Results The rate of TB-ADR during hospitalization was 38.9%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (P<0.001) and alcohol abuse (P=0.007) were independently associated with the occurrence of TB-ADR. The rate of unsuccessful TB treatment was 10.5%. After adjusting for confounding variables, age (P<0.001), alcohol abuse (P=0.002), and education (P=0.01) were significantly associated with unsuccessful treatment. Smoking did not have any significant influence on occurrence of either TB-ADR during hospitalization or unsuccessful treatment. Conclusions Among our TB patients treated between 2001 and 2010, alcohol abuse significantly worsened the treatment outcome. This information will be crucial in developing strategies targeted at this demographic group. PMID:24643127
Roka, Margarita; Goñi, Pilar; Rubio, Encarnación; Clavel, Antonio
Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-positive people and its association with clinical and socioeconomic factors has been investigated on the mainland of Equatorial Guinea, in order to define the precise measures for improvement of their quality of life. In August 2010, 273 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative were recruited. A sample of faeces, T-CD4+ cell counts, and clinical, socioeconomic and demographic data were collected from each patient. Stool samples were analysed by microscopy and immunochromatography. Data were analysed by Pearson's χ2 test and the risk of each factor was measured by odds ratio bivariate analysis. Two hundred and ten (76.9%) HIV-positive participants were infected by intestinal parasites and 16 parasite species were identified; 246 (48.9%) were pathogenic helminths, 159 (22.9%) pathogenic protozoa and 142 (28.2%) opportunistic protozoa. Trichuris trichiura, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, Ascaris lumbricoides and Giardia duodenalis were the most prevalent parasites; 52 (86.7%) of HIV-negative participants were parasitized. HIV was related to co-infection by Entamoeba spp., E. nana and Blastocystis hominis. The high rates of parasitic infections found highlights the urgent need of environmental sanitation, health education and water distribution actions, as well as early diagnosis and treatment of intestinal parasites.
Full Text Available Surgical site infections (SSIs are one of the main adverse events among surgical patients, being responsible for 20% of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is one of the practices used to prevent SSIs, however, compliance with recommendations is low. A retrospective observational cross-sectional study investigated the index of compliance with redose and its relationship to characteristics of the procedures and individuals. A total of 748 records of cardiac, orthopedic and neurological surgeries were assessed. Of these, 90 had an indication of redose, which was administered in 26.6% of the surgeries. Compliance was significantly higher in cardiac surgeries (34.3% and those of greater SSI risk index. In conclusion, compliance with recommendations for redose administration is low and improving the process of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis use is needed. The use of technologies in association with awareness, motivation of the teams and involvement of the nursing staff may constitute alternatives.
Tarcan, Menderes; Hikmet, Neşet; Schooley, Benjamin; Top, Mehmet; Tarcan, Gamze Yorgancıoglu
Burnout among emergency medical practitioners and personnel negatively affects career satisfaction and job performance and can lead to mental health issues, including anxiety, depression, and suicide. This study investigated the relationship between the perceptions of burnout and job satisfaction of those working in two different hospital's emergency departments assessing the effect of burnout dimensions and additional factors (age, position, marital status, annual income, employment type, gender, patient encounters, and household economic well-being) on job satisfaction. This study addresses a gap in the literature of the relationships between a) burnout and job satisfaction of emergency department's health care personnel (physicians, nurses, technicians) and b) the factors that are associated with emergency department employees' job satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey of two hundred and fifty participants was interviewed, using validated instruments (the Maslach Burnout Scale and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire). Participants include 38 physicians, 89 nurses, and 84 medical technicians, and 39 information technicians. The Maslach Burnout Inventory Scale, which assesses emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA), and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), which assesses intrinsic satisfaction (IS), extrinsic satisfaction (ES) and overall satisfaction (OS), were used for data collection. Study findings indicate that significant relationship exists between burnout and job satisfaction; annual income and household economic-well-being had a positive association with job satisfaction, whereas gender, age, education, marital status had no significant effect on any form of satisfaction. Moreover, this study reveals that emotional exhaustion (EE) is a significant predictor of all three dimensions of job satisfaction while depersonalization (DP) had no significant showing. Results of this study suggest that it is
Automatic systems for music content recommendation have assumed a new role in recent years. These systems have transformed from being just a convenient, standalone tool into an inseparable element of modern living. In addition, not only do these systems strongly influence human moods and feelings with the selection of proper music content, but they also provide significant commercial and advertising opportunities. This research aims to examine and implement two such systems available for the ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Carcinoma cervix is a leading cause of cancer in India. However, majority of the patients face a problem of not being able to complete the treatment. Aim: This study was an attempt to find out the important causes of this non-compliance to treatment in a rural Medical College Hospital where majority of the cancer cases are of cervical cancer. Results: Out of 144 patients studied over 2 years 88 cases could not complete the treatment. The study revealed that due old age 58.33% cases were defaulters, having many children at home meant a burden to 76.92% cases and 63.89% cases had a problem of not been able to travel a far distance of more than 100 km from home to hospital for treatment. Conclusion: These were the important factors of non-compliance and suggested more important than the issues of literacy and poor socio-economic status.
Beck, K L; Jones, B; Ullah, I; McNaughton, S A; Haslett, S J; Stonehouse, W
To investigate associations between dietary patterns, socio-demographic factors and anthropometric measurements in adult New Zealanders. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis in adults 15 years plus (n = 4657) using 24-h diet recall data from the 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey. Multivariate regression was used to investigate associations between dietary patterns and age, gender and ethnicity. After controlling for demographic factors, associations between dietary patterns and food insecurity, deprivation, education, and smoking were investigated. Associations between dietary patterns and body mass index and waist circumference were examined adjusting for demographic factors, smoking and energy intake. Two dietary patterns were identified. 'Healthy' was characterised by breakfast cereal, low fat milk, soy and rice milk, soup and stock, yoghurt, bananas, apples, other fruit and tea, and low intakes of pies and pastries, potato chips, white bread, takeaway foods, soft drinks, beer and wine. 'Traditional' was characterised by beef, starchy vegetables, green vegetables, carrots, tomatoes, savoury sauces, regular milk, cream, sugar, tea and coffee, and was low in takeaway foods. The 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with age, female gender, New Zealand European or other ethnicity, and a secondary school qualification, and inversely associated with smoking, food insecurity, area deprivation, BMI and waist circumference. The 'traditional' pattern was positively associated with age, male gender, smoking, food insecurity and inversely associated with a secondary school qualification. A 'Healthy' dietary pattern was associated with higher socio-economic status and reduced adiposity, while the 'traditional' pattern was associated with lower socio-economic status.
Longo, Giana Zarbato; Segheto, Wellington; Silva, Danielle Cristina Guimarães da; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Franco, Fernanda Silva; Souza, Jacqueline Danesio de; Coelho, France Araujo; Oliveira, Julicristie M
Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los determinantes del perímetro abdominal en adultos que viven en la ciudad de Lages, SC. Diseño: Estudio transversal de base poblacional en adultos 20-59 años de edad, de la zona urbana (n= 2022). La variable dependiente fue el perímetro abdominal y las variables independientes fueron: edad, color de la piel auto dicho, estado civil, número de hijos, renta per cápita, nivel educacional, actividad física, tabaquismo, nutrición, diabetes mellitus auto dicho, presión arterial alta e índice de masa corporal. Las diferencias entre los promedios de perímetros se probaron a través de la ANOVA y de la regresión lineal múltiple, ajustada para los factores de confusión. Resultados: La tasa de respuesta fue de un 98,2%, de los cuales un 52,3% eran mujeres. El perímetro abdominal promedio para los hombres fue 93,66 cm (SD= 13,8 cm) y para las mujeres 92,80 cm (SD= 14,5). Hubo asociación positiva entre la circunferencia abdominal y la edad (p.
Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.
Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Goswami, Anil; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne
Dental health is often neglected in the older persons, and dental conditions associated with aging are complex, adversely affecting the quality of life. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal diseases among older persons from Delhi, India, and to study their association with selected socio-behavioral risk factors. We conducted a community-based cross sectional study among persons aged > or = 60 years from Delhi during 2009-2010. A questionnaire was used to interview elderly regarding dental health. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form was used for examining the study participants. A total of 448 participants were examined and included in the study. Of the dentate, 47.1% had active dental caries. The mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) score for the study population was 14.4. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, periodontal pockets and loss of attachment was 96.6, 89.1, and 80.3%, respectively. The prevalence of tobacco use was 47.9%. Age, frequency of teeth cleaning, and method used for teeth cleaning were statistically associated with the DMFT score. The prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease was high in the study population, and warrants intervention.
Danielle de Mendonça Henrique
Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Infections related to central venous catheter (CVC use constitute an important a problem. It is estimated that approximately 90% of bloodstream infections (BSI are caused by CVC use. This study aims at reviewing the risk factors and current recommendations for prevention of infections associated with central venous catheter use. Methods: A total of 12 articles published in the last 5 years and indexed in the databases of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS, Nursing Database (BDENF, International Literature on Health Sciences (Medline/Pubmed were selected, as well as publications related to the recommendations for BSI prevention, such as: Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. Results: Two categories were identified: prevention and control measures and risk factors for BSI associated with central venous catheter use. Conclusions: Some recommendations that were well-defined over the years have been questioned by some authors and continuing training and education of the multidisciplinary team are the most important factors for the prevention of bloodstream infections associated with CVC use.
Vella, Alyce M; Agius, Paul A; Bowring, Anna L; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C
Background Age at first sex (AFS) is associated with adverse outcomes. We explore associated factors and correlates of 'early' AFS (<16 years). In 2009-11, participants (16-29 years) were recruited. Multivariate Cox regression explored correlates of AFS. Logistic regression analysis explored associations between early AFS and risk behaviours. Of 3563 participants, 79% were sexually active. Median AFS was 17 years. Compared with those aged 25-29 years, younger participants reported younger AFS [16-17 years: adjusted hazard ratio (AHR)=1.87, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AHR=1.47, P<0.01, 20-24 years: AHR=1.19, P<0.01]. Of those sexually active, 29% reported early AFS. Early AFS was associated with being male [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.25, P<0.05], being younger (16-17 years: AOR=11.10, P<0.01; 18-19 years: AOR=3.60, P<0.01; 20-24 years: AOR=1.83, P<0.01; compared with 25-29 years), having no education after high school (AOR=1.52, P<0.01), living alone (AOR=1.84, P<0.01) or with a partner (AOR=1.57, P=0.01), having more than five lifetime sex partners (AOR=3.22, P=0.01), inconsistent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=1.43, P<0.01), ever using illicit drugs (AOR=1.69, P<0.01) and ever injecting drugs (AOR=3.45, P<0.01). The results highlight the importance of comprehensive sex education.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient choice and access to health care is compromised by many barriers including travel distance. Individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV can seek free specialist care in Britain, without a referral, providing flexible access to care services. Willingness to travel beyond local services for preferred care has funding and service implications. Data from an enhanced HIV surveillance system were used to explore geodemographic and clinical factors associated with accessing treatment services. Methods We extracted data on the location, type and frequency of care services utilized by HIV positive persons (n = 3983 accessing treatment in north west England between January 1st 2005 and June 30th 2006. Individuals were allocated a deprivation score and grouped by urban/rural residence, and distance to care services was calculated. Analysis identified independent predictors of distance travelled (general linear modelling and, for those bypassing their nearest clinic, the probability of accessing a specialist service (logistic regression, SPSS ver 14. Inter-relationships between variables and distance travelled were visualised using detrended correspondence analysis (PC-ORD ver 4.1. Results HIV infected persons travelled an average of 4.8 km (95% confidence intervals (CI 4.6–4.9 per trip and had on average 6 visits (95% CI 5.9–6.2 annually for care. Longer trips were made by males (4.8 km vs 4.5 km, white people (6.2 km, the young (>15 years, 6.8 km and elderly (60+ years, 6.3 km, those on multiple therapy (5.3 km vs 4.0 km, and the more affluent living in rural areas (16.1 km, P Conclusion Distance travelled, and type of HIV services used, were associated with socioeconomic status, even after accounting for ethnicity, route of infection and age. Thus despite offering an 'equitable' service, travel costs may advantage those with higher income.
Background The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence for vaccination in the adolescent age group needed for effective strategy and policy formulation is lacking. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of protective immunity against tetanus and to identify risk factors for non-protective immunity among schooling adolescents. Methods Using a three-stage sampling technique, 851 female adolescents were randomly selected from secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics and history of tetanus vaccination. An immuno-chromatographic rapid test kit, “Tetanos Quick Stick” was used to test specific anti-tetanus antibody protective level in venous blood samples. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were done with level of significance set at p = 0.05. Results Mean age of participants was 14.3 ± 1.9 years. Seroprevalence of protective immunity against tetanus was 38.1% and it significantly decreased with increasing age. More adolescents in public (65.4%) than private (44.7%) schools had non-protective level of immunity. A significantly increasing trend in the risk of non-protective immunity was observed with decreasing level of mothers’ education. Also, the Odds of non-protective level of immunity was significantly higher in public than private schools (OR = 2.14; 95% CI =1.39, 3.20) but lower among adolescents who had history of recent tetanus toxoid injection than those who did not (OR = 0.11 95% CI = 0.09, 0.22). However, no significant association was found between protective immunity against tetanus and parents’ marital status as well as family size. Conclusion Protective immunity against tetanus among female adolescents was poor, more so in public
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were
Full Text Available Objective: Given that Iran’s population is Migrant’s young, it is worthwhile (decent to study the quality of life (QOL of this stratum of society. The main objective of this study is to examine socio-demographic factors associated with QOL in a group of Adolescents (18-29 years old of emigrants. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the structured questionnaire designed for 400 migrants, who were selected using systematic random sampling. Statistical methods of Cronbach’s alpha for assessment (tools reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient for testing hypotheses, analysis of variance to test statistical comparison and regression were used in this study. Results: According to research findings there is a significant relationship between the variables including: age (r = −0.241, housing status (t = 22.90, social class identity (f = 14.95, religious orientation (r = 0.41, social capital (r = 0.12, self-esteem (r = 0.34, and the QOL of migrants. Conclusion: Based on research findings, it can be concluded that the variable of QOL is affected by other variables including: Religious orientation, self-esteem, age, education, and changes in each of these variables will change the QOL of Migrant’s young.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP, childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Results Four main themes emerged, including 1 perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination; 2 attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3 organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4 relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Conclusions Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.
Husain, Sohail Z; Morinville, Veronique; Pohl, John; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Bellin, Melena D; Freedman, Steve; Hegyi, Peter; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Ooi, Chee Y; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Usatin, Danielle; Uc, Aliye
Pancreatitis in children can result from metabolic and toxic risk factors, but the evidence linking these factors is sparse. We review the evidence for association or causality of these risk factors in pancreatitis, discuss management strategies, and their rationale. We conducted a review of the pediatric pancreatitis literature with respect to the following risk factors: hyperlipidemia, hypercalcemia, chronic renal failure, smoking exposure, alcohol, and medications. Areas of additional research were identified. Hypertriglyceridemia of 1000 mg/dL or greater poses an absolute risk for pancreatitis; persistent elevations of calcium are predisposing. Further research is necessary to determine whether end-stage renal disease leads to increased pancreatitis in children similar to adults. It is unknown whether cigarette smoking exposure, which clearly increases risk in adults, also increases risk in children. The role of alcohol in pediatric pancreatitis, whether direct or modifying, needs to be elucidated. The evidence supporting most cases of medication-induced pancreatitis is poor. Drug structure, improper handling of drug by host, and bystander status may be implicated. Other pancreatitis risk factors must be sought in all cases. The quality of evidence supporting causative role of various toxic and metabolic factors in pediatric pancreatitis is variable. Careful phenotyping is essential, including search for other etiologic risk factors. Directed therapy includes correction/removal of any agent identified, and general supportive measures. Further research is necessary to improve our understanding of these pancreatitis risk factors in children.
Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda
Exploratory factor analysis (hereafter, factor analysis) is a complex statistical method that is integral to many fields of research. Using factor analysis requires researchers to make several decisions, each of which affects the solutions generated. In this paper, we focus on five major decisions that are made in conducting factor analysis: (i) establishing how large the sample needs to be, (ii) choosing between factor analysis and principal components analysis, (iii) determining the number of factors to retain, (iv) selecting a method of data extraction, and (v) deciding upon the methods of factor rotation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (i) to review the literature with respect to these five decisions, (ii) to assess current practices in nursing research, and (iii) to offer recommendations for future use. The literature reviews illustrate that factor analysis remains a dynamic field of study, with recent research having practical implications for those who use this statistical method. The assessment was conducted on 54 factor analysis (and principal components analysis) solutions presented in the results sections of 28 papers published in the 2012 volumes of the 10 highest ranked nursing journals, based on their 5-year impact factors. The main findings from the assessment were that researchers commonly used (a) participants-to-items ratios for determining sample sizes (used for 43% of solutions), (b) principal components analysis (61%) rather than factor analysis (39%), (c) the eigenvalues greater than one rule and screen tests to decide upon the numbers of factors/components to retain (61% and 46%, respectively), (d) principal components analysis and unweighted least squares as methods of data extraction (61% and 19%, respectively), and (e) the Varimax method of rotation (44%). In general, well-established, but out-dated, heuristics and practices informed decision making with respect to the performance of factor analysis in nursing studies. Based on
Anna B. Costello
Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA is a complex, multi-step process. The goal of this paper is..to collect, in one article, information that will allow researchers and practitioners to..understand the various choices available through popular software packages, and to make..decisions about - best practices- in exploratory factor analysis. In particular, this paper..provides practical information on making decisions regarding (a extraction, (b rotation, (c..the number of factors to interpret, and (d sample size.
... Bacteriuria in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia in a Tertiary Health Facility in South ... infection in developed countries as a cause of morbidity and mortality arising ... with asymptomatic bacteriuria in these children was analyzed using SPSS ...
Anatoly V. Korotkov
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the
del Campo, Marta; Mollenhauer, Brit; Bertolotto, Antonio
the need to establish standardized operating procedures. Here, we merge two previous consensus guidelines for preanalytical confounding factors in order to achieve one exhaustive guideline updated with new evidence for Aβ42, total tau and phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein. The proposed standardized...
Full Text Available The steering committee on factors of safety of winder ropes has appointed a working group to draw up a set of proposals for changing the regulations governing the required rope strength in the Minerals Act. Certain research projects have been...
Perry, John L.; Nicholls, Adam R.; Clough, Peter J.; Crust, Lee
Despite the limitations of overgeneralizing cutoff values for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; e.g., Marsh, Hau, & Wen, 2004), they are still often employed as golden rules for assessing factorial validity in sport and exercise psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness of using the CFA approach with these…
Schaison, G; Eden, OB; Henze, G; Kamps, WA; Locatelli, F; Ninane, J; Ortega, J; Riikonen, P; Wagner, HP
During 1996 and 1997 a panel of European haematologists, oncologists, and neonatologists developed specific paediatric guidelines for the use of colony stimulating factors based on published literature and the clinical experience of these specialists within each of 13 countries. Well established ind
Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn
The prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders vary from 0-19% in male athletes and 6-45% in female athletes. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of eating disorders in adolescent and adult athletes including: (1) prevalence data; (2) suggested sport- and gender-specific risk factors and (3) importance of early detection, management and prevention of eating disorders. Additionally, this paper presents suggestions for future research which includes: (1) the need for knowledge regarding possible gender-specific risk factors and sport- and gender-specific prevention programmes for eating disorders in sports; (2) suggestions for long-term follow-up for female and male athletes with eating disorders and (3) exploration of a possible male athlete triad.
Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right, technology, scale operation, financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors, township enterprises should conduct technological innovation, bring into full play functions of talents, promote corporate culture of township enterprises, attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems, and establish market information platform for township enterprises.
Core competency of township enterprises may be influenced from the property right,technology,scale operation,financial management and talent. In view of these influence factors,township enterprises should conduct technological innovation,bring into full play functions of talents,promote corporate culture of township enterprises,attach great importance to development of core products and innovation of relevant systems,and establish market information platform for township enterprises.
KuÌ luÌ nk, BuÌ lent.
Military aviation is the frontier of implementing leading edge technology. The major objectives of advanced technology aircraft are to increase pilot safety and mission efficiency; the Joint Strike Fighter, the most modern fighter aircraft under development, has many technological innovations for just this purpose. A common fact is that technology develops and is used faster than it can be researched thoroughly. This thesis seeks to identify and mitigate potential human factors concerns relat...
von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse
Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen......, 1993-2001, Denmark. Target groups were identified from the Population Register, screening data came from the health authority, and socio-demographic data from Statistics Denmark. Included were women eligible for at least 3 screens. The crude RR of never use versus always use was 3.21 (95%CI, 3...... women in Copenhagen, irrespective of their socio-demographic characteristics, had low participation. Screening programmes have to find ways to handle this urbanity factor....
Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…
del Campo, Marta; Mollenhauer, Brit; Bertolotto, Antonio; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Hampel, Harald; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Kruse, Niels; Le Bastard, Nathalie; Lehmann, Sylvain; Molinuevo, Jose L; Parnetti, Lucilla; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Sáez-Valero, Javier; Saka, Esen; Urbani, Andrea; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Verbeek, Marcel; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Teunissen, Charlotte
Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PD) is needed to slow down or halt the disease at the earliest stage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers can be a good tool for early diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice is challenging due to the high variability found between centers in the concentrations of both AD CSF biomarkers (Aβ42, total tau and phosphorylated tau) and PD CSF biomarker (α-synuclein). Such a variability has been partially attributed to different preanalytical procedures between laboratories, thus highlighting the need to establish standardized operating procedures. Here, we merge two previous consensus guidelines for preanalytical confounding factors in order to achieve one exhaustive guideline updated with new evidence for Aβ42, total tau and phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein. The proposed standardized operating procedures are applicable not only to novel CSF biomarkers in AD and PD, but also to biomarkers for other neurodegenerative disorders.
Woerner, Andreas; von Scheven-Gête, Annette; Cimaz, Rolando; Hofer, Michaël
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is an inflammatory condition characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash and serositis. Systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that SJIA is an autoinflammatory disorder. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation, continue to be a major issue in SJIA patients' care. Translational research leading to a profound understanding of the cytokine crosstalk in SJIA and the identification of risk factors for SJIA complications will help to improve long-term outcome.
Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results: This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%. Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion: Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training.
Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Nguyen, Christelle; Haddad, Rebecca; Delamarche, Paul; Paris, Guillaume; Palazzo, Clémence; Poiraudeau, Serge; Rannou, François; Roren, Alexandra
In this critical narrative review, we examine the role of physical activity (PA), recreational and elite sports in the development of knee/hip osteoarthritis (OA), taking into account the role of injury in this relationship. The process of article selection was unsystematic. Articles were selected on the basis of the authors' expertise, self-knowledge, and reflective practice. In the general adult population, self-reported diagnosis of knee/hip OA was not associated with low, moderate or high levels of PA. For studies using radiographic knee/hip OA as a primary outcome, the incidence of asymptomatic radiographic OA was higher for subjects with the highest quartile of usual PA than the least active subjects. The risk of incident radiographic knee/hip OA features was increased for subjects with a history of regular sports participation (for osteophyte formation but not joint space narrowing). This risk depended on the type of sport (team and power sports but not endurance and running), and certain conditions (high level of practice) were closely related to the risk of injury. The prevalence of radiographic OA was significantly higher, especially the presence of osteophytes, in former elite athletes than controls. The risk of OA was higher with participation in mixed sports, especially soccer or power sports, than endurance sport. However, the prevalence of clinical OA between former elite athletes and controls was similar, with less hip/knee disability in former athletes. Moderate daily recreational or sport activities, whatever the type of sport, are not a consistent risk factor for clinical or radiographic knee/hip OA. Risk of injury in different sports may be the key factor to understanding the risk of OA related to sport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Onah, Stanley; Osuorah, Donatus Ignatius Chidiebere; Ebenebe, Joy; Ezechukwu, Clement; Ekwochi, Uchenna; Ndukwu, Ifeyinwa
Malnutrition is an underlying factor in more than 50% of the major cause of infant mortality-Pneumonia, diarrhoeal disease and measles which account for 70% of infant mortality. Therefore, programs to promote adequate nutrition for age can help reduce mortality from these disease conditions and indispensible to achievement of MDG 4. To describe the feeding practices of infants below six months of age and determine maternal socio-demographic factors that influences the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among mothers in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria. Four hundred mother-infant pairs attending the infant welfare clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University teaching hospital (NAUTH) during 2012 were consecutively recruited after meeting the study inclusion criteria. Data on breastfeeding were based on infant feeding practice in the previous 24 hours. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as infant feeding with only breast milk. Awareness (95.3%) and knowledge (82.0%) of EBF was high among surveyed mother but the practice of EBF (33.5%) was very low. Positive attitude towards EBF practice was shown by many (71.0%) of surveyed mothers. EBF practice decreased with increasing infant age, OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.34, 1.51) for 1-2 months, OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.23, 1.44) for 3-4 months and OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.06, 0.73) for 5-6 months compared to infants < 1 month old. Maternal education, socioeconomic class, mode of delivery and infants first feed were retained as important maternal predictors of EBF practice after adjustment for confounders. Decreased likelihood of EBF practice was found among mothers of lower educational attainment, OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.81), mothers who delivered through caesarean section, OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.18, 0.84), mothers of higher socio-economic status [(middle class, OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.22, 0.99) and upper class, OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.14, 0.74)] while increased likelihood of EBF practice was seen in mothers who gave their infants breast milk as their first feed
Conejero, Ismael; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Giner, Lucas; Baca-Garcia, Enrique
Suicidal behavior and its prevention constitute a major public health issue. Etiology of suicidal behavior is multifactorial. Whereas current research is mostly focused on clinical and biological risk factors, the sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior, first highlighted by Durkheim, have received less attention. Besides the well-known impact of age and gender, sociodemographic variables such as marital and parental status, education, occupation, income, employment status, religion, migration or minority status, and sexual orientation are repeatedly reported to play an important role in suicidal behavior. This narrative review aimed to summarize recent research on sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behavior and to elicit possible implications for suicide prevention.
Weaver, C M; Gordon, C M; Janz, K F; Kalkwarf, H J; Lappe, J M; Lewis, R; O'Karma, M; Wallace, T C; Zemel, B S
Lifestyle choices influence 20-40 % of adult peak bone mass. Therefore, optimization of lifestyle factors known to influence peak bone mass and strength is an important strategy aimed at reducing risk of osteoporosis or low bone mass later in life. The National Osteoporosis Foundation has issued this scientific statement to provide evidence-based guidance and a national implementation strategy for the purpose of helping individuals achieve maximal peak bone mass early in life. In this scientific statement, we (1) report the results of an evidence-based review of the literature since 2000 on factors that influence achieving the full genetic potential for skeletal mass; (2) recommend lifestyle choices that promote maximal bone health throughout the lifespan; (3) outline a research agenda to address current gaps; and (4) identify implementation strategies. We conducted a systematic review of the role of individual nutrients, food patterns, special issues, contraceptives, and physical activity on bone mass and strength development in youth. An evidence grading system was applied to describe the strength of available evidence on these individual modifiable lifestyle factors that may (or may not) influence the development of peak bone mass (Table 1). A summary of the grades for each of these factors is given below. We describe the underpinning biology of these relationships as well as other factors for which a systematic review approach was not possible. Articles published since 2000, all of which followed the report by Heaney et al.  published in that year, were considered for this scientific statement. This current review is a systematic update of the previous review conducted by the National Osteoporosis Foundation . [Table: see text] Considering the evidence-based literature review, we recommend lifestyle choices that promote maximal bone health from childhood through young to late adolescence and outline a research agenda to address current gaps in knowledge
刘婷; 张曼华; 刘颖; 马妮娜; 朱洁
目的：了解北京市医生的职业幸福感现况及社会人口学因素对职业幸福感的影响。方法：采用分层抽样的方法，从一级（社区卫生服务中心）、二级、三级医院在编医生中按照人数1：1：1随机选取1465人进行问卷调查。结果：医生情感幸福感得分（3．59±0．93）分，认知幸福感（4．16±0．78）分。不同工作年限、科室类别、休息时间的医生职业幸福感存在显著性差异。多元线性回归分析表明，情感幸福感的保护性影响因素为临床专科、医技科室。认知幸福感的保护性因素为正高级职称、临床专科；医生职业幸福感危险性因素主要为休息时间一天、工作年限11－15年。结论：北京而医生职业幸福感水平中等偏低，需要加强对中年人群、低职称、内外科医生的职业幸福感的关注和提升。%Objective To study the status of doctors'occupational well-being in Beijing and analyze the socio-demographic factors on occu-pational well-being.Methods Stratified random sampling method;was used the 1465 respondents were selected according to the proportion of 1:1:1 from 29 hospitals including community health service centers, Two-A hospital and Three-A hospital.Results The score of doctors'affective well-being was 3.59 ±0.93,and Cognitive well-being was 4.16 ±0.78.The differences on occupational well-being score of doctors who were different work seniority, department and rest time were statistically significant.Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the protective fac-tors for affective well-being were clinical specialty and medical laboratory.The protective factors for cognitive well-being were the senior title and clinical specialty.The risk factors of occupational well-being were mainly one-day rest time and wok seniority of 11-15 years.Conclu-sion Occupational well-being of doctors is medium-low level.It needs to pay attention to improve the occupational
Sociodemographic and personal factors related to depressive symptomatology in the Mexican population aged 12 to 65 Fatores sociodemográficos e pessoais relacionados à sintomatologia depressiva na população mexicana entre 12 e 65 anos
Clara Fleiz Bautista
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the Mexican population, aged 12 to 65 years, by identifying the main related socio-demographic and personal factors. METHODS: Data are drawn from the National Survey on Addictions 2008 (ENA 2008, a random, probabilistic, multistage study. A randomly selected sub-sample of 22,962 persons answered the section on depressive symptomatology, measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. RESULTS: The total prevalence for depressive symptomatology was 5.1%; the prevalence was 7.5% for women and 2.5% for men. For women, more evidence of depressive symptoms was seen in the central region, whereas for men, symptoms were homogeneous across the country. Factors related to the presence of depressive symptoms include being divorced (in women or widowed (in men, having lower educational attainment, perceiving one's place of residence as unsafe, displaying alcohol abuse or dependence, being a regular drug consumer (in men and having been sexually abused (males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The regional distribution of depressive symptomatology in women indicates the need for region-specific prevention programs that take into account the different social problems that affect women's emotional well-being. More research is also needed to support the early identification and intervention of men suffering from depression.OBJETIVO: Conhecer a prevalência de sintomas depressivos a nível nacional na população de 12 a 65 anos e identificar os principais fatores sociodemográficos e pessoais associados. MÉTODO: Os dados foram obtidos da Pesquisa Nacional de Adições (ENA 2008, um estudo aleatório e probabilístico. Uma sub-amostra de 22.962 indivíduos responderam a seção de sintomas depressivos medida com a Escala de Depressão do Centro de Estudos Epidemiológicos (CES-D. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 5,2%; 7,5% em mulheres e 2,5% em homens
Chiavarini, Manuela; Lanari, Donatella; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca
Many governments have made commitments to examine inequalities in healthcare access based on studies assessing the association between several socio-demographic factors and late initiation or fewer prenatal examinations...
Chen, Lu; Wang, Lin; Qiu, Xiao Hui; Yang, Xiu Xian; Qiao, Zheng Xue; Yang, Yan Jie; Liang, Yuan
The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population...
Auad, Sheyla Marcia
The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.
Marta Makara-Studzińska; Karolina Kryś-Noszczyką; Grzegorz Jakiel
Introduction: It is considered that the lifestyle conditioned by socio-demographic or socio-economic factors determines the health condition of people to the greatest extent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on the kinds of symptoms occurring during menopause. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 210 women aged 45 to 65, not using hormone replacement therapy, staying at healthcare centers for rehabilitation treatment...
Fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes: prevalência e associação com fatores sociodemográficos Cardiovascular risk factors for adolescents: prevalence and association with sociodemographic factors
José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular (individual e co-ocorrência; e investigar a relação entre esses fatores e indicadores sociodemográficos em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A amostra, selecionada por conglomerados em dois estágios (escolas, turmas, foi constituída de 782 adolescentes (14-17 anos de idade, 54,9% do sexo feminino do ensino médio no município de João Pessoa - PB, Brasil. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade e condição econômica. Os desfechos investigados foram: níveis insuficientes de atividade física, hábitos alimentares inadequados, pressão arterial elevada, etilismo, excesso de peso corporal e tabagismo. RESULTADOS: Níveis insuficientes de atividade física (59,5% e hábitos alimentares inadequados (49,5% foram os fatores de risco cardiovascular mais prevalentes. Pressão arterial elevada, etilismo e excesso de peso foram mais prevalentes no sexo masculino, e níveis insuficientes de atividade física no sexo feminino. Cerca de 10% dos adolescentes não apresentaram nenhum fator de risco, e 51,4% apresentaram dois ou mais fatores de forma simultânea. Os adolescentes do sexo masculino (OR = 1,89; 1,35 - 2,65 e aqueles que pertenciam aos estratos econômicos mais pobres tiveram maiores chances de apresentar um ou mais fatores de risco biológicos (OR = 1,69; IC95% = 1,16 - 2,47. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular foi elevada, com destaque para a exposição simultânea a múltiplos fatores de risco. Os adolescentes do sexo masculino e os mais pobres foram os subgrupos com maior exposição a fatores de risco biológicos de forma simultânea.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (individual and co-occurrence; and to analyze their relationship with demographic and socioeconomic variables in adolescents. METHODS: A two-stage cluster sampling process was used (school and class. The sample
Yeung, Suey; Chan, Ruth; Li, Liz; Leung, Shirley; Woo, Jean
It is recommended that infants from the age of 12 months should be weaned from bottles. However, an overwhelming proportion of young children were still using bottle after the recommended age of bottle-weaning. This cross-sectional study examined the association between utensils for milk drinking and food group consumption, growth and socio-demographic characteristics among young children. Data from the Survey of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Hong Kong were analyzed for 649 children aged 18-48 months old. Dietary outcomes were obtained via 3-day dietary records, while utensils for milk drinking and socio-demographic characteristics were collected from a self-developed questionnaire. Length/height and weight of the children were measured by the nurses. Results showed that daily consumption of formula milk was significantly greater among bottle users or bottle plus cup users than non-bottle users (p socio-economic factors and child's age (p = 0.006). The results showed that the milk drinking utensil was associated with the amount of formula milk and food group consumption as well as BMI z-score. There is a need to actively discourage prolonged bottle use in order to help young children develop good dietary habits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Area-level deprivation is consistently associated with poor health outcomes. Using US census data (2000) and principal components analysis, a priori defined socio-demographic indices of poverty, housing, residential stability, occupation, employment and education were created fo...
Association of parents' nutritional status, and sociodemographic and dietary factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old Associação entre estado nutricional dos pais, variáveis sociodemográficas e dietéticas e o sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de 7 a 14 anos
Carla de Oliveira Bernardo
Full Text Available To assess the association of parents' nutritional status, and dietary and sociodemographic factors with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren in Florianópolis Island, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, this cross-sectional epidemiological study examined 2,826 schoolchildren 7 to 14 years old, classified according to body mass index curves for age and sex recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression. The final model showed overweight/obesity in boys associated directly with father's educational level, mother's age, and parents' nutritional status, and inversely with mother's educational level, and number of daily meals. Among girls, it associated directly with parents' nutritional status and the schoolchildren's age, and inversely with consumption of risk foods. The variables that associated with overweight/obesity differed between the sexes, except parents' nutritional status. Boys and girls with both parents overweight or obese were, respectively, 80% and 150% more likely to exhibit the same diagnosis, indicating the need for interventions that include the family environment.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a associação entre estado nutricional dos pais, variáveis sociodemográficas, dietéticas e o sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de 7-14 anos de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Estudo transversal com 2.826 escolares, classificados com base nas curvas de índice de massa corporal para idade e sexo segundo a International Obesity Task Force. Para as análises utilizou-se a Regressão de Poisson. No modelo final, mostraram associação direta ao sobrepeso/obesidade em meninos: escolaridade do pai, idade da mãe e estado nutricional dos pais; e inversa: escolaridade da mãe e número de refeições diárias. Entre as meninas houve associação direta com estado nutricional dos pais, e inversa com idade do escolar e consumo de alimentos de risco. As variáveis associadas ao sobrepeso