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Sample records for recombinant xylose-utilizing saccharomyces

  1. Xylose utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walfridsson, M.

    1996-04-01

    Through metabolic engineering, S. cerevisiae was provided with the necessary enzymes required for xylose utilisation during ethanolic fermentation of xylose-rich lignocellulose raw materials. For xylitol production, S. cerevisiae was provided with the Pichia stipitis XYL1 gene encoding xylose reductase (XR). The in-vivo reduction and the following excretion of xylitol, requires a co-substrate for maintenance and cofactor regeneration. Xylitol yields close to 100% were obtained with the XYL1 containing S. cerevisiae. Introducing P. stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, enabled S. cerevisiae to convert xylose to xylulose, via xylitol. During the screening work of P. stipitis XDH gene, another gene encoding a polyol dehydrogenase was isolated and cloned in S. cerevisiae. The gene was identified as a D-arabinitol dehydrogenase gene. In P. stipitis it may function as a redox sink by reducing D-ribulose to D-arabinitol. The metabolism through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) was enhanced by over-expressing the native genes TKL1 and TAL1 encoding transketolase and transaldolase, respectively, resulting in improved xylose utilisation. The XR and XDH activities in recombinant S. cerevisiae were produced at different levels by constructing yeast vectors in which the PGK1 and ADHI promoters controlled XYL1 and XYL2. With higher XDH than XR activities, less by-products, in the form of xylitol and glycerol, were formed by the recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The Thermus thermophilus xylA gene encoding a thermostable xylose isomerase was cloned and expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant xylose isomerase was actively produced and a new functional metabolic pathway was established in S. cerevisiae resulting in ethanol production from xylose. 150 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  2. Separate and Simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat hemicellulose with recombinant xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Sørensen, H. R.; Dam, B. P

    2006-01-01

    Fermentations with three different xylose-utilizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (F12, CR4, and CB4) were performed using two different wheat hemicellulose substrates, unfermented starch free fibers, and an industrial ethanol fermentation residue, vinasse. With CR4 and F12...... ethanol concentrations were obtained with SSF. In general, the volumetric ethanol productivity was initially, highest in the SHF, but the overall volumetric ethanol productivity ended up being maximal in the SSF, at 0.013 and 0.010 g/Lh, with starch free fibers and vinasse, respectively....

  3. Isolation and characterization of a mutant recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with high efficiency xylose utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Fukuda, Kohsai; Akamatsu, Takashi; Kida, Kenji

    2013-12-01

    A recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying one copy of heterologous XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis and endogenous XKS1 under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the chromosomal DNA was constructed from the industrial haploid yeast strain NAM34-4C, which showed thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The recombinant S. cerevisiae strain SCB7 grew in minimal medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source, and its shortest generation time (G(short)) was 5 h. From this strain, four mutants showing rapid growth (G(short) = 2.5 h) in the minimal medium were isolated. The mutants carried four mutations that were classified into three linkage groups. Three mutations were dominant and one mutation was recessive to the wild type allele. The recessive mutation was in the PHO13 gene encoding para-nitrophenyl phosphatase. The other mutant genes were not linked to TAL1 gene encoding transaldolase. When the mutants and their parental strain were used for the batch fermentation in a complex medium at pH 4.0 containing 30 g/L xylose at 35 °C with shaking (60 rpm) and an initial cell density (Absorbance at 660 nm) of 1.0, all mutants showed efficient ethanol production and xylose consumption from the early stage of the fermentation culture. In two mutants, within 24 h, 4.8 g/L ethanol was produced, and the ethanol yield was 47%, which was 1.4 times higher than that achieved with the parental strain. The xylose concentration in the medium containing the mutant decreased linearly at a rate of 1 g/L/h until 24 h. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcoholic fermentation of xylose and mixed sugars using recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose utilization.

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    Madhavan, Anjali; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Srivastava, Aradhana; Fukuda, Hideki; Bisaria, Virendra S; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    Previously, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was engineered for xylose assimilation by the constitutive overexpression of the Orpinomyces xylose isomerase, the S. cerevisiae xylulokinase, and the Pichia stipitis SUT1 sugar transporter genes. The recombinant strain exhibited growth on xylose, under aerobic conditions, with a specific growth rate of 0.025 h(-1), while ethanol production from xylose was achieved anaerobically. In the present study, the developed recombinant yeast was adapted for enhanced growth on xylose by serial transfer in xylose-containing minimal medium under aerobic conditions. After repeated batch cultivations, a strain was isolated which grew with a specific growth rate of 0.133 h(-1). The adapted strain could ferment 20 g l(-1) of xylose to ethanol with a yield of 0.37 g g(-1) and production rate of 0.026 g l(-1) h(-1). Raising the fermentation temperature from 30 degrees C to 35 degrees C resulted in a substantial increase in the ethanol yield (0.43 g g(-1)) and production rate (0.07 g l(-1) h(-1)) as well as a significant reduction in the xylitol yield. By the addition of a sugar complexing agent, such as sodium tetraborate, significant improvement in ethanol production and reduction in xylitol accumulation was achieved. Furthermore, ethanol production from xylose and a mixture of glucose and xylose was also demonstrated in complex medium containing yeast extract, peptone, and borate with a considerably high yield of 0.48 g g(-1).

  5. Impact of overexpressing NADH kinase on glucose and xylose metabolism in recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Vemuri, G. N.; Bao, X. M.

    2009-01-01

    During growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose, the redox cofactors NADH and NADPH are predominantly involved in catabolism and biosynthesis, respectively. A deviation from the optimal level of these cofactors often results in major changes in the substrate uptake and biomass formation....... However, the metabolism of xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae carrying xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from the fungal pathway requires both NADH and NADPH and creates cofactor imbalance during growth on xylose. As one possible solution to overcoming this imbalance, the effect...... of overexpressing the native NADH kinase (encoded by the POS5 gene) in xylose-consuming recombinant S. cerevisiae directed either into the cytosol or to the mitochondria was evaluated. The physiology of the NADH kinase containing strains was also evaluated during growth on glucose. Overexpressing NADH kinase...

  6. Heterologous xylose isomerase pathway and evolutionary engineering improve xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Xin eQi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Xylose utilization is one key issue for the bioconversion of lignocelluloses. It is promising approach to engineer heterologous pathway for xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we constructed xylose-fermenting yeast SyBE001 by combinatorial fine-tuning the expression of XylA and endogenous XKS1. Overexpression of genes RKI1, RPE1, TKL1 and TAL1 in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in SyBE002 accelerated xylose utilization by 19%. By repetitive adaptation, the xylose utilization rate increased to about 10 folds in strain SyBE003 evolved from SyBE002. Gene expression analysis identified variety of genes with significantly different expressions in pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle in SyBE003.

  7. Employing a combinatorial expression approach to characterize xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Latimer, Luke N; Lee, Michael E; Medina-Cleghorn, Daniel; Kohnz, Rebecca A; Nomura, Daniel K; Dueber, John E

    2014-09-01

    Fermentation of xylose, a major constituent of lignocellulose, will be important for expanding sustainable biofuel production. We sought to better understand the effects of intrinsic (genotypic) and extrinsic (growth conditions) variables on optimal gene expression of the Scheffersomyces stipitis xylose utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using a set of five promoters to simultaneously regulate each gene. Three-gene (xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), and xylulokinase) and eight-gene (expanded with non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway enzymes and pyruvate kinase) promoter libraries were enriched under aerobic and anaerobic conditions or with a mutant XDH with altered cofactor usage. Through characterization of enriched strains, we observed (1) differences in promoter enrichment for the three-gene library depending on whether the pentose phosphate pathway genes were included during the aerobic enrichment; (2) the importance of selection conditions, where some aerobically-enriched strains underperform in anaerobic conditions compared to anaerobically-enriched strains; (3) improved growth rather than improved fermentation product yields for optimized strains carrying the mutant XDH compared to the wild-type XDH. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Process for Assembly and Transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a Synthetic Yeast Artificial Chromosome Containing a Multigene Cassette to Express Enzymes That Enhance Xylose Utilization Designed for an Automated Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Cox, Elby J; Bang, Sookie S; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Saha, Badal C; Qureshi, Nasib; Gibbons, William R; Fry, Michelle R; Moser, Bryan R; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Sterner, David E; Butt, Tauseef R; Riedmuller, Steven B; Jones, Marjorie A; Riaño-Herrera, Néstor M

    2015-12-01

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system in yeast and to design an assembly process suitable for an automated platform. Expression of XI and XKS from the YAC was confirmed by Western blot and PCR analyses. The recombinant and wild-type strains showed similar growth on plates containing hexose sugars, but only recombinant grew on D-xylose and L-arabinose plates. In glucose fermentation, doubling time (4.6 h) and ethanol yield (0.44 g ethanol/g glucose) of recombinant were comparable to wild type (4.9 h and 0.44 g/g). In whole-corn hydrolysate, ethanol yield (0.55 g ethanol/g [glucose + xylose]) and xylose utilization (38%) for recombinant were higher than for wild type (0.47 g/g and 12%). In hydrolysate from spent coffee grounds, yield was 0.46 g ethanol/g (glucose + xylose), and xylose utilization was 93% for recombinant. These results indicate introducing a YAC expressing XI and XKS enhanced xylose utilization without affecting integrity of the host strain, and the process provides a potential platform for automated synthesis of a YAC for expression of multiple optimized genes to improve yeast strains. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Bulk segregant analysis by high-throughput sequencing reveals a novel xylose utilization gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Jared W Wenger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation of xylose is a fundamental requirement for the efficient production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass sources. Although they aggressively ferment hexoses, it has long been thought that native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot grow fermentatively or non-fermentatively on xylose. Population surveys have uncovered a few naturally occurring strains that are weakly xylose-positive, and some S. cerevisiae have been genetically engineered to ferment xylose, but no strain, either natural or engineered, has yet been reported to ferment xylose as efficiently as glucose. Here, we used a medium-throughput screen to identify Saccharomyces strains that can increase in optical density when xylose is presented as the sole carbon source. We identified 38 strains that have this xylose utilization phenotype, including strains of S. cerevisiae, other sensu stricto members, and hybrids between them. All the S. cerevisiae xylose-utilizing strains we identified are wine yeasts, and for those that could produce meiotic progeny, the xylose phenotype segregates as a single gene trait. We mapped this gene by Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA using tiling microarrays and high-throughput sequencing. The gene is a putative xylitol dehydrogenase, which we name XDH1, and is located in the subtelomeric region of the right end of chromosome XV in a region not present in the S288c reference genome. We further characterized the xylose phenotype by performing gene expression microarrays and by genetically dissecting the endogenous Saccharomyces xylose pathway. We have demonstrated that natural S. cerevisiae yeasts are capable of utilizing xylose as the sole carbon source, characterized the genetic basis for this trait as well as the endogenous xylose utilization pathway, and demonstrated the feasibility of BSA using high-throughput sequencing.

  10. Process for assembly and transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a synthetic yeast artificial chromosome containing a multigene cassette to express enzymes that enhance xylose utilization designed for an automated pla

    Science.gov (United States)

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system ...

  11. Increased expression of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis in anaerobically growing xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermentation of xylose to ethanol has been achieved in S. cerevisiae by genetic engineering. Xylose utilization is however slow compared to glucose, and during anaerobic conditions addition of glucose has been necessary for cellular growth. In the current study, the xylose-utilizing strain TMB 3415 was employed to investigate differences between anaerobic utilization of glucose and xylose. This strain carried a xylose reductase (XYL1 K270R engineered for increased NADH utilization and was capable of sustained anaerobic growth on xylose as sole carbon source. Metabolic and transcriptional characterization could thus for the first time be performed without addition of a co-substrate or oxygen. Results Analysis of metabolic fluxes showed that although the specific ethanol productivity was an order of magnitude lower on xylose than on glucose, product yields were similar for the two substrates. In addition, transcription analysis identified clear regulatory differences between glucose and xylose. Respiro-fermentative metabolism on glucose during aerobic conditions caused repression of cellular respiration, while metabolism on xylose under the same conditions was fully respiratory. During anaerobic conditions, xylose repressed respiratory pathways, although notably more weakly than glucose. It was also observed that anaerobic xylose growth caused up-regulation of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and gluconeogenesis, which may be driven by an increased demand for NADPH during anaerobic xylose catabolism. Conclusion Co-factor imbalance in the initial twp steps of xylose utilization may reduce ethanol productivity by increasing the need for NADP+ reduction and consequently increase reverse flux in glycolysis.

  12. Quantitative metabolomics of a xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron xylose isomerase on glucose and xylose.

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    Mert, M J; Rose, S H; la Grange, D C; Bamba, T; Hasunuma, T; Kondo, A; van Zyl, W H

    2017-10-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot utilize xylose, but the introduction of a xylose isomerase that functions well in yeast will help overcome the limitations of the fungal oxido-reductive pathway. In this study, a diploid S. cerevisiae S288c[2n YMX12] strain was constructed expressing the Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron xylA (XI) and the Scheffersomyces stipitis xyl3 (XK) and the changes in the metabolite pools monitored over time. Cultivation on xylose generally resulted in gradual changes in metabolite pool size over time, whereas more dramatic fluctuations were observed with cultivation on glucose due to the diauxic growth pattern. The low G6P and F1,6P levels observed with cultivation on xylose resulted in the incomplete activation of the Crabtree effect, whereas the high PEP levels is indicative of carbon starvation. The high UDP-D-glucose levels with cultivation on xylose indicated that the carbon was channeled toward biomass production. The adenylate and guanylate energy charges were tightly regulated by the cultures, while the catabolic and anabolic reduction charges fluctuated between metabolic states. This study helped elucidate the metabolite distribution that takes place under Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative conditions when cultivating S. cerevisiae on glucose and xylose, respectively.

  13. Fermentation of mixed glucose-xylose substrates by engineered strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: role of the coenzyme specificity of xylose reductase, and effect of glucose on xylose utilization

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    Klimacek Mario

    2010-03-01

    to BP000. Increase in xylose concentration from 10 to 50 g/L resulted in acceleration of substrate uptake by BP10001 (0.05 - 0.14 g/g CDW/h and reduction of the xylitol yield (0.28 g/g - 0.15 g/g. In mixed substrate batches, xylose was taken up at low glucose concentrations (qxylose that had an initial value of 0.30 ± 0.04 g/g CDW/h and decreased gradually with time. It gave product yields of 0.38 g ethanol/g total sugar and 0.19 g xylitol/g xylose. The effect of glucose on xylose utilization appears to result from the enhanced flux of carbon through glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway under low-glucose reaction conditions. Conclusions Relative improvements in the distribution of fermentation products from xylose that can be directly related to a change in the coenzyme preference of xylose reductase from NADPH in BP000 to NADH in BP10001 increase in response to an increase in the initial concentration of the pentose substrate from 10 to 50 g/L. An inverse relationship between xylose uptake rate and xylitol yield for BP10001 implies that xylitol by-product formation is controlled not only by coenzyme regeneration during two-step oxidoreductive conversion of xylose into xylulose. Although xylose is not detectably utilized at glucose concentrations greater than 4 g/L, the presence of a low residual glucose concentration (qglucose may be useful for optimizing qxylose in processes designed for co-fermentation of glucose and xylose.

  14. Zymomonas with improved xylose utilization in stress conditions

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    Caimi, Perry G; Emptage, Mark; Li, Xu; Viitanen, Paul V; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Zhang, Min

    2013-06-18

    Strains of xylose utilizing Zymomonas with improved xylose utilization and ethanol production during fermentation in stress conditions were obtained using an adaptation method. The adaptation involved continuously growing xylose utilizing Zymomonas in media containing high sugars, acetic acid, ammonia, and ethanol.

  15. Increased ethanol production by deletion of HAP4 in recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Matsushika, Akinori; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-12-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAP4 gene encodes a transcription activator that plays a key role in controlling the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and reductive pathways. This work examines the effect of knockout of the HAP4 gene on aerobic ethanol production in a xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain. A hap4-deleted recombinant yeast strain (B42-DHAP4) showed increased maximum concentration, production rate, and yield of ethanol compared with the reference strain MA-B42, irrespective of cultivation medium (glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures). Notably, B42-DHAP4 was capable of producing ethanol from xylose as the sole carbon source under aerobic conditions, whereas no ethanol was produced by MA-B42. Moreover, the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield (0.44 g/g) from the detoxified hydrolysate of wood chips was markedly improved in B42-DHAP4 compared to MA-B42. Thus, the results of this study support the view that deleting HAP4 in xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains represents a useful strategy in ethanol production processes.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for xylose metabolism exhibits a respiratory response

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    Yong-Su Jin; Jose M. Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2004-01-01

    Native strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae do not assimilate xylose. S. cerevisiae engineered for D-xylose utilization through the heterologous expression of genes for aldose reductase ( XYL1), xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL2), and D-xylulokinase ( XYL3 or XKS1) produce only limited amounts of ethanol in xylose medium. In recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XYL1, XYL2,...

  17. Xylose reductase from Pichia stipitis with altered coenzyme preference improves ethanolic xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose reductase (XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH from Pichia stipitis are the two enzymes most commonly used in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains engineered for xylose utilization. The availability of NAD+ for XDH is limited during anaerobic xylose fermentation because of the preference of XR for NADPH. This in turn results in xylitol formation and reduced ethanol yield. The coenzyme preference of P. stipitis XR was changed by site-directed mutagenesis with the aim to engineer it towards NADH-preference. Results XR variants were evaluated in S. cerevisiae strains with the following genetic modifications: overexpressed native P. stipitis XDH, overexpressed xylulokinase, overexpressed non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and deleted GRE3 gene encoding an NADPH dependent aldose reductase. All overexpressed genes were chromosomally integrated to ensure stable expression. Crude extracts of four different strains overexpressing genes encoding native P. stipitis XR, K270M and K270R mutants, as well as Candida parapsilosis XR, were enzymatically characterized. The physiological effects of the mutations were investigated in anaerobic xylose fermentation. The strain overexpressing P. stipitis XR with the K270R mutation gave an ethanol yield of 0.39 g (g consumed sugars-1, a xylitol yield of 0.05 g (g consumed xylose-1 and a xylose consumption rate of 0.28 g (g biomass-1 h-1 in continuous fermentation at a dilution rate of 0.12 h-1, with 10 g l-1 glucose and 10 g l-1 xylose as carbon sources. Conclusion The cofactor preference of P. stipitis XR was altered by site-directed mutagenesis. When the K270R XR was combined with a metabolic engineering strategy that ensures high xylose utilization capabilities, a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain was created that provides a unique combination of high xylose consumption rate, high ethanol yield and low xylitol yield during ethanolic xylose fermentation.

  18. Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas

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    Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-12-16

    The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

  19. Isolation and characterization of xylitol-assimilating mutants of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Tani, Tatsunori; Taguchi, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kazuhiro E; Sahara, Takehiko; Ohgiya, Satoru; Kamagata, Yoichi; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of xylitol utilization, three xylitol-assimilating mutants were isolated from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains showing highly efficient xylose-utilization. The nucleotide sequences of the mutant genomes were analyzed and compared with those of the wild-type strains and the mutation sites were identified. gal80 mutations were common to all the mutants, and recessive to the wild-type allele. Hence we constructed a gal80Δ mutant and confirmed that the gal80Δ mutant showed a xylitol-assimilation phenotype. When the constructed gal80Δ mutant was crossed with the three isolated mutants, all diploid hybrids showed xylitol assimilation, indicating that the mutations were all located in the GAL80. We analyzed the role of the galactose permease Gal2, controlled by the regulatory protein Gal80, in assimilating xylitol. A gal2Δ gal80Δ double mutant did not show xylitol assimilation, whereas expression of GAL2 under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the GAL80 strain did result in assimilation. These data indicate that Gal2 was needed for xylitol assimilation in the wild-type strain. When the gal80 mutant with an initial cell concentration of A660 = 20 was used for batch fermentation in a complex medium containing 20 g/L xylose or 20 g/L xylitol at pH 5.0 and 30°C under oxygen limitation, the gal80 mutant consumed 100% of the xylose within 12 h, but <30% of the xylitol within 100 h, indicating that xylose reductase is required for xylitol consumption in oxygen-limited conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anaerobic poly-3-D-hydroxybutyrate production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a NADH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase.

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    de Las Heras, Alejandro Muñoz; Portugal-Nunes, Diogo J; Rizza, Nathasha; Sandström, Anders G; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2016-11-18

    Poly-3-D-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) that is a promising precursor for bioplastic with similar physical properties as polypropylene, is naturally produced by several bacterial species. The bacterial pathway is comprised of the three enzymes β-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (AAR) and PHB synthase, which all together convert acetyl-CoA into PHB. Heterologous expression of the pathway genes from Cupriavidus necator has enabled PHB production in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from glucose as well as from xylose, after introduction of the fungal xylose utilization pathway from Scheffersomyces stipitis including xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). However PHB titers are still low. In this study the acetoacetyl-CoA reductase gene from C. necator (CnAAR), a NADPH-dependent enzyme, was replaced by the NADH-dependent AAR gene from Allochromatium vinosum (AvAAR) in recombinant xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae and PHB production was compared. A. vinosum AAR was found to be active in S. cerevisiae and able to use both NADH and NADPH as cofactors. This resulted in improved PHB titers in S. cerevisiae when xylose was used as sole carbon source (5-fold in aerobic conditions and 8.4-fold under oxygen limited conditions) and PHB yields (4-fold in aerobic conditions and up to 5.6-fold under oxygen limited conditions). Moreover, the best strain was able to accumulate up to 14% of PHB per cell dry weight under fully anaerobic conditions. This study reports a novel approach for boosting PHB accumulation in S. cerevisiae by replacement of the commonly used AAR from C. necator with the NADH-dependent alternative from A. vinosum. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of anaerobic PHB synthesis from xylose.

  1. Comparison of the xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase and the xylose isomerase pathways for xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two heterologous pathways have been used to construct recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: i the xylose reductase (XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH pathway and ii the xylose isomerase (XI pathway. In the present study, the Pichia stipitis XR-XDH pathway and the Piromyces XI pathway were compared in an isogenic strain background, using a laboratory host strain with genetic modifications known to improve xylose fermentation (overexpressed xylulokinase, overexpressed non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and deletion of the aldose reductase gene GRE3. The two isogenic strains and the industrial xylose-fermenting strain TMB 3400 were studied regarding their xylose fermentation capacity in defined mineral medium and in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Results In defined mineral medium, the xylose consumption rate, the specific ethanol productivity, and the final ethanol concentration were significantly higher in the XR- and XDH-carrying strain, whereas the highest ethanol yield was achieved with the strain carrying XI. While the laboratory strains only fermented a minor fraction of glucose in the undetoxified lignocellulose hydrolysate, the industrial strain TMB 3400 fermented nearly all the sugar available. Xylitol was formed by the XR-XDH-carrying strains only in mineral medium, whereas in lignocellulose hydrolysate no xylitol formation was detected. Conclusion Despite by-product formation, the XR-XDH xylose utilization pathway resulted in faster ethanol production than using the best presently reported XI pathway in the strain background investigated. The need for robust industrial yeast strains for fermentation of undetoxified spruce hydrolysates was also confirmed.

  2. Mechanisms and Regulation of Mitotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Symington, Lorraine S.; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homology-dependent exchange of genetic information between DNA molecules has a profound impact on the maintenance of genome integrity by facilitating error-free DNA repair, replication, and chromosome segregation during cell division as well as programmed cell developmental events. This chapter will focus on homologous mitotic recombination in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, there is an important link between mitotic and meiotic recombination (covered in the forthcoming chapter by Hunter et al. 2015) and many of the functions are evolutionarily conserved. Here we will discuss several models that have been proposed to explain the mechanism of mitotic recombination, the genes and proteins involved in various pathways, the genetic and physical assays used to discover and study these genes, and the roles of many of these proteins inside the cell. PMID:25381364

  3. Cross-reactions between engineered xylose and galactose pathways in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Garcia Sanchez Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of the PGM2 gene encoding phosphoglucomutase (Pgm2p has been shown to improve galactose utilization both under aerobic and under anaerobic conditions. Similarly, xylose utilization has been improved by overexpression of genes encoding xylulokinase (XK, enzymes from the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (non-ox PPP and deletion of the endogenous aldose reductase GRE3 gene in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying either fungal or bacterial xylose pathways. In the present study, we investigated how the combination of these traits affect xylose and galactose utilization in the presence or absence of glucose in S. cerevisiae strains engineered with the xylose reductase (XR-xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH pathway. Results In the absence of PGM2 overexpression, the combined overexpression of XK, the non-ox PPP and deletion of the GRE3 gene significantly delayed aerobic growth on galactose, whereas no difference was observed between the control strain and the xylose-engineered strain when the PGM2 gene was overexpressed. Under anaerobic conditions, the overexpression of the PGM2 gene increased the ethanol yield and the xylose consumption rate in medium containing xylose as the only carbon source. The possibility of Pgm2p acting as a xylose isomerase (XI could be excluded by measuring the XI activity in both strains. The additional copy of the PGM2 gene also resulted in a shorter fermentation time during the co-consumption of galactose and xylose. However, the effect was lost upon addition of glucose to the growth medium. Conclusions PGM2 overexpression was shown to benefit xylose and galactose fermentation, alone and in combination. In contrast, galactose fermentation was impaired in the engineered xylose-utilizing strain harbouring extra copies of the non-ox PPP genes and a deletion of the GRE3 gene, unless PGM2 was overexpressed. These cross-reactions are of particular relevance for the fermentation

  4. Xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas for ethanol production

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    Viitanen, Paul V.; Chou, Yat-Chen; McCutchen, Carol M.; Zhang, Min

    2010-06-22

    A strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas was engineered with a genetic modification to the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene resulting in reduced expression of GFOR enzyme activity. The engineered strain exhibits reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism. It also consumes more xylose and produces more ethanol during mixed sugar fermentation under process-relevant conditions.

  5. Ethanol production using xylitol synthesis mutant of xylose-utilizing zymomonas

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    Viitanen, Paul V.; McCutchen, Carol M.; Emptage, Mark; Caimi, Perry G.; Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen

    2010-06-22

    Production of ethanol using a strain of xylose-utilizing Zymomonas with a genetic modification of the glucose-fructose oxidoreductase gene was found to be improved due to greatly reduced production of xylitol, a detrimental by-product of xylose metabolism synthesized during fermentation.

  6. An efficient xylose-fermenting recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain obtained through adaptive evolution and its global transcription profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yu; Chen, Xiao; Peng, Bingyin; Chen, Liyuan; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Technology

    2012-11-15

    Factors related to ethanol production from xylose in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contain an exogenous initial metabolic pathway are still to be elucidated. In the present study, a strain that expresses the xylose isomerase gene of Piromyces sp. Pi-xylA and overexpresses XKS1, RPE1, RKI1, TAL1, and TKL1, with deleted GRE3 and COX4 genes was constructed. The xylose utilization capacity of the respiratory deficiency strain was poor but improved via adaptive evolution in xylose. The {mu}{sub max} of the evolved strain in 20 gl{sup -1} xylose is 0.11 {+-} 0.00 h{sup -1}, and the evolved strain consumed 17.83 gl{sup -1} xylose within 72 h, with an ethanol yield of 0.43 gg{sup -1} total consumed sugars during glucose-xylose cofermentation. Global transcriptional changes and effect of several specific genes were studied. The result revealed that the increased xylose isomerase activity, the upregulation of enzymes involved in glycolysis and glutamate synthesis, and the downregulation of trehalose and glycogen synthesis, may have contributed to the improved xylose utilization of the strain. Furthermore, the deletion of PHO13 decreased the xylose growth in the respiration deficiency strain although deleting PHO13 can improve the xylose metabolism in other strains. (orig.)

  7. Regulation of xylose metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable interest in the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol has led to metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation of xylose. In the present study, the transcriptome and proteome of recombinant, xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae grown in aerobic batch cultures on xylose were compared with those of glucose-grown cells both in glucose repressed and derepressed states. The aim was to study at the genome-wide level how signalling and carbon catabolite repression differ in cells grown on either glucose or xylose. The more detailed knowledge whether xylose is sensed as a fermentable carbon source, capable of catabolite repression like glucose, or is rather recognised as a non-fermentable carbon source is important for further engineering this yeast for more efficient anaerobic fermentation of xylose. Results Genes encoding respiratory proteins, proteins of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles, and gluconeogenesis were only partially repressed by xylose, similar to the genes encoding their transcriptional regulators HAP4, CAT8 and SIP1-2 and 4. Several genes that are repressed via the Snf1p/Mig1p-pathway during growth on glucose had higher expression in the cells grown on xylose than in the glucose repressed cells but lower than in the glucose derepressed cells. The observed expression profiles of the transcription repressor RGT1 and its target genes HXT2-3, encoding hexose transporters suggested that extracellular xylose was sensed by the glucose sensors Rgt2p and Snf3p. Proteome analyses revealed distinct patterns in phosphorylation of hexokinase 2, glucokinase and enolase isoenzymes in the xylose- and glucose-grown cells. Conclusion The results indicate that the metabolism of yeast growing on xylose corresponds neither to that of fully glucose repressed cells nor that of derepressed cells. This may be one of the major reasons for the suboptimal fermentation of xylose by

  8. Redox balancing in recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderlund, M.

    1998-09-01

    In metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Pichia stipitis XYL1 and XYL2 genes, encoding xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, xylitol is excreted as the major product during anaerobic xylose fermentation and only low yields of ethanol are produced. This has been interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of XR and the exclusive use of NAD{sup +} by XDH. The excretion of xylitol was completely stopped and the formation of glycerol and acetic acid were reduced in xylose utilising S. cerevisiae strains cultivated in oxygen-limited conditions by expressing lower levels of XR than of XDH. The expression level of XYL1 and XYL2 were controlled by changing the promoters and transcription directions of the genes. A new functional metabolic pathway was established when Thermus thermophilus xylA gene was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was able to ferment xylose to ethanol when cultivated on a minimal medium containing xylose as only carbon source. In order to create a channeled metabolic transfer in the two first steps of the xylose metabolism, XYL1 and XYL2 were fused in-frame and expressed in S. cerevisiae. When the fusion protein, containing a linker of three amino acids, was co expressed together with native XR and XDH monomers, enzyme complexes consisting of chimeric and native subunits were formed. The total activity of these complexes exhibited 10 and 9 times higher XR and XDH activity, respectively, than the original conjugates, consisting of only chimeric subunits. This strain produced less xylitol and the xylitol yield was lower than with strains only expressing native XR and XDH monomers. In addition, more ethanol and less acetic acid were formed. A new gene encoding the cytoplasmic transhydrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii was cloned. The enzyme showed high similarity to the family of pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductase. To analyse the physiological effect of

  9. Stoichiometric network constraints on xylose metabolism by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Su Jin; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2004-01-01

    Metabolic pathway engineering is constrained by the thermodynamic and stoichiometric feasibility of enzymatic activities of introduced genes. Engineering of xylose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has focused on introducing genes for the initial xylose assimilation steps from Pichia stipitis, a xylose-fermenting yeast, into S. cerevisiae, a yeast raditionally...

  10. Disruption of the cytochrome c gene in xylose-utilizing yeast Pichia stipitis leads to higher ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian-Qing. Shi; Brian. Davis; Fred. Sherman; Jose. Cruz; Thomas W. Jeffries

    1999-01-01

    The xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis, has a complex respiratory system that contains cytochrome and non-cytochrome alternative electron transport chains in its mitochondria. To gain primary insights into the alternative respiratory pathway, a cytochrome c gene (PsCYC1, Accession No. AF030426) was cloned from wild-type P. stipitis CBS 6054 by cross-hybridization...

  11. Multifunctional roles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 protein in replication, recombination and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hengyao; Klein, Hannah L

    2017-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srs2 DNA helicase has important roles in DNA replication, recombination and repair. In replication, Srs2 aids in repair of gaps by repair synthesis by preventing gaps from being used to initiate recombination. This is considered to be an anti-recombination role. In recombination, Srs2 plays both prorecombination and anti-recombination roles to promote the synthesis-dependent strand annealing recombination pathway and to inhibit gaps from initiating homologous recombination. In repair, the Srs2 helicase actively promotes gap repair through an interaction with the Exo1 nuclease to enlarge a gap for repair and to prevent Rad51 protein from accumulating on single-stranded DNA. Finally, Srs2 helicase can unwind hairpin-forming repeat sequences to promote replication and prevent repeat instability. The Srs2 activities can be controlled by phosphorylation, SUMO modification and interaction with key partners at DNA damage or lesions sites, which include PCNA and Rad51. These interactions can also limit DNA polymerase function during recombinational repair independent of the Srs2 translocase or helicase activity, further highlighting the importance of the Srs2 protein in regulating recombination. Here we review the myriad roles of Srs2 that have been documented in genome maintenance and distinguish between the translocase, helicase and additional functions of the Srs2 protein. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    OpenAIRE

    Rech, Rosane; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2006-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW) were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v)) was c...

  13. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina

    2015-01-01

    the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting...... the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein....

  14. Engineered xylose utilization enhances bio-products productivity in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tai-Chi; Xiong, Wei; Paddock, Troy; Carrieri, Damian; Chang, Ing-Feng; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Ungerer, Justin; Hank Juo, Suh-Hang; Maness, Pin-Ching; Yu, Jianping

    2015-06-12

    Hydrolysis of plant biomass generates a mixture of simple sugars that is particularly rich in glucose and xylose. Fermentation of the released sugars emits CO2 as byproduct due to metabolic inefficiencies. Therefore, the ability of a microbe to simultaneously convert biomass sugars and photosynthetically fix CO2 into target products is very desirable. In this work, the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis 6803, was engineered to grow on xylose in addition to glucose. Both the xylA (xylose isomerase) and xylB (xylulokinase) genes from Escherichia coli were required to confer xylose utilization, but a xylose-specific transporter was not required. Introducing xylAB into an ethylene-producing strain increased the rate of ethylene production in the presence of xylose. Additionally, introduction of xylAB into a glycogen-synthesis mutant enhanced production of keto acids. Moreover, isotopic tracer studies found that nearly half of the carbon in the excreted keto acids was derived from the engineered xylose metabolism, while the remainder was derived from CO2 fixation.

  15. Effects of the rad52 gene on recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [Comparison of. gamma. -, uv-induced meiotic and spontaneous mitotic recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.; Burke, W.; Montelone, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of the rad52 mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on meiotic, ..gamma..-ray-induced, uv-induced, and spontaneous mitotic recombination were studied. The rad52/rad52 diploids undergo premeiotic DNA synthesis; sporulation occurs but inviable spores are produced. Intra- and intergenic recombination during meiosis were examined in cells transferred from sporulation medium to vegetative medium at different time intervals. No intragenic recombination was observed at the hisl-1/hisl-315 and trp5-2/trp5-48 heteroalleles. Gene-centromere recombination was also not observed in rad52/rad52 diploids. No ..gamma..-ray-induced intragenic mitotic recombination is seen in rad52/rad52 diploids and uv-induced intragenic recombination is greatly reduced. However, spontaneous mitotic recombination is not similarly affected. The RAD52 gene thus functions in recombination in meiosis and in ..gamma..-ray and uv-induced mitotic recombination but not in spontaneous mitotic recombination.

  16. Frequencies of mutagen-induced coincident mitotic recombination at unlinked loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Kathryn M. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States); Hoffmann, George R. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States)]. E-mail: ghoffmann@holycross.edu

    2007-03-01

    Frequencies of coincident genetic events were measured in strain D7 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This diploid strain permits the detection of mitotic gene conversion involving the trp5-12 and trp5-27 alleles, mitotic crossing-over and gene conversion leading to the expression of the ade2-40 and ade2-119 alleles as red and pink colonies, and reversion of the ilv1-92 allele. The three genes are on different chromosomes, and one might expect that coincident (simultaneous) genetic alterations at two loci would occur at frequencies predicted by those of the single alterations acting as independent events. Contrary to this expectation, we observed that ade2 recombinants induced by bleomycin, {beta}-propiolactone, and ultraviolet radiation occur more frequently among trp5 convertants than among total colonies. This excess among trp5 recombinants indicates that double recombinants are more common than expected for independent events. No similar enrichment was found among Ilv{sup +} revertants. The possibility of an artifact in which haploid yeasts that mimic mitotic recombinants are generated by a low frequency of cryptic meiosis has been excluded. Several hypotheses that can explain the elevated incidence of coincident mitotic recombination have been evaluated, but the cause remains uncertain. Most evidence suggests that the excess is ascribable to a subset of the population being in a recombination-prone state.

  17. Improved xylose and arabinose utilization by an industrial recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain using evolutionary engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, R.G.; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Fonseca, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cost-effective fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires efficient mixed sugar utilization. Notably, the rate and yield of xylose and arabinose co-fermentation to ethanol must be enhanced. Results: Evolutionary engineering was used...... to improve the simultaneous conversion of xylose and arabinose to ethanol in a recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying the heterologous genes for xylose and arabinose utilization pathways integrated in the genome. The evolved strain TMB3130 displayed an increased consumption rate...... prolonged continuous culture in xylose and arabinose medium resulted in the improved transport of xylose and arabinose as well as increased levels of the enzymes from the introduced fungal xylose pathway. No mutation was found in any of the genes from the pentose converting pathways. Conclusion: To the best...

  18. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tag......In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C...... at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction...

  19. Engineering xylose utilization in Yarrowia lipolytica by understanding its cryptic xylose pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel M; Hussain, Murtaza Shabbir; Gambill, Lauren; Gao, Difeng; Yaguchi, Allison; Blenner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, has been utilized as an industrial host for about 60 years for various applications. Recently, the metabolic engineering of this host has become increasingly popular due to its ability to accumulate lipids as well as improvements made toward developing new genetic tools. Y. lipolytica can robustly metabolize glucose, glycerol, and even different lipid classes. However, little is known about its xylose metabolizing capability. Given the desirability of having a robust xylose utilizing strain of Y. lipolytica, we performed a comprehensive investigation and elucidation of the existing components of its xylose metabolic pathway. A quick and efficient means of determining functionality of the candidate xylose pathway genes (XYR, XDH, and XKS) from Y. lipolytica was desirable. We challenged Escherichia coli mutants lacking either the xylose isomerase (xylA) gene or the xylulose kinase (xylB) gene to grow on xylose minimal media by expressing the candidate genes from Y. lipolytica. We showed that the XKS of Y. lipolytica is able to rescue xylose growth of E. coli ΔxylB, and the XDH enabled growth on xylitol, but not on xylose, of E. coli ΔxylA. Overexpression of XKS and XDH in Y. lipolytica improved growth on xylitol, indicating that expression of the native enzymes was limiting. Overexpression of XKS and XDH in Y. lipolytica also enables robust growth on xylose under high nitrogen conditions without the need for adaptation. These results prove that a complete xylose pathway exists in Y. lipolytica, but the pathway is poorly expressed. To elucidate the XYR gene, we applied the E. coli ΔxylA xylose growth challenge with 14 candidate XYR genes and XDH. The XYR2 candidate was able to rescue growth of E. coli ΔxylA xylose on minimal media. While a native xylose pathway exists in Y. lipolytica, the microorganism's inability to grow robustly on xylose is an effect of cryptic genetic circuits that control expression of key enzymes

  20. Patterns of heteroduplex formation associated with the initiation of meiotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, Jason D; Dominska, Margaret; Petes, Thomas D

    2003-09-01

    The double-strand break repair (DSBR) model of recombination predicts that heteroduplexes will be formed in regions that flank the double-strand break (DSB) site and that the resulting intermediate is resolved to generate either crossovers or noncrossovers for flanking markers. Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, failed to detect heteroduplexes on both sides of the DSB site. Recent physical studies suggest that some recombination events involve heterodupex formation by a mechanism, synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), that is inherently asymmetric with respect to the DSB site and that leads exclusively to noncrossovers of flanking markers. Below, we demonstrate that many of the recombination events initiated at the HIS4 recombination hotspot are consistent with a variant of the DSBR model in which the extent of heteroduplex on one side of the DSB site is much greater than that on the other. Events that include only one flanking marker in the heteroduplex (unidirectional events) are usually resolved as noncrossovers, whereas events that include both flanking markers (bidirectional events) are usually resolved as crossovers. The unidirectional events may represent SDSA, consistent with the conclusions of others, although other possibilities are not excluded. We also show that the level of recombination reflects the integration of events initiated at several different DSB sites, and we identify a subset of gene conversion events that may involve break-induced replication (BIR) or repair of a double-stranded DNA gap.

  1. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v was chosen for bioreactor experiments. Batch, and fed-batch cultures with linear ascending feeding for 25 (FB25, 35 (FB35, and 50 (FB50 hours, were performed. FB35 and FB50 produced the highest beta-galactosidase specific activities (around 1,800 U/g cells, and also the best productivities (180 U/L.h. Results show the potential use of fed-batch cultures of recombinant S. cerevisiae on industrial applications using supplemented whey as substrate.

  2. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C...... at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction...... and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes....

  3. Mitotic Recombination and Genetic Changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Wine Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Sergi; Querol, Amparo; Barrio, Eladio; Pérez-Ortín, José E.

    2000-01-01

    Natural strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are prototrophic homothallic yeasts that sporulate poorly, are often heterozygous, and may be aneuploid. This genomic constitution may confer selective advantages in some environments. Different mechanisms of recombination, such as meiosis or mitotic rearrangement of chromosomes, have been proposed for wine strains. We studied the stability of the URA3 locus of a URA3/ura3 wine yeast in consecutive grape must fermentations. ura3/ura3 homozygotes were detected at a rate of 1 × 10−5 to 3 × 10−5 per generation, and mitotic rearrangements for chromosomes VIII and XII appeared after 30 mitotic divisions. We used the karyotype as a meiotic marker and determined that sporulation was not involved in this process. Thus, we propose a hypothesis for the genome changes in wine yeasts during vinification. This putative mechanism involves mitotic recombination between homologous sequences and does not necessarily imply meiosis. PMID:10788381

  4. Recombinant production of human Aquaporin-1 to an exceptional high membrane density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bomholt

    Full Text Available In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tagged with yeast enhanced GFP for quantification of functional expression, determination of sub-cellular localization, estimation of in vivo folding efficiency and establishment of a purification protocol. Aquaporin-1 was found to constitute 8.5 percent of total membrane protein content after expression at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15°C almost completely prevented Aquaporin-1 mal-folding. Bioimaging of live yeast cells revealed that recombinant Aquaporin-1 accumulated in the yeast plasma membrane. A detergent screen for solubilization revealed that CYMAL-5 was superior in solubilizing recombinant Aquaporin-1 and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes.

  5. Genome-Wide High-Resolution Mapping of UV-Induced Mitotic Recombination Events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yi; Thomas D Petes

    2013-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV) light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells s...

  6. Genome-wide high-resolution mapping of UV-induced mitotic recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Yin; Thomas D Petes

    2013-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV) light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells s...

  7. Changing flux of xylose metabolites by altering expression of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Su Jin; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    We changed the fluxes of xylose metabolites in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae by manipulating expression of Pichia stipitis genes(XYL1 and XYL2) coding for xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively. XYL1 copy number was kept constant by integrating it into the chromosome. Copy numbers of XYL2 were varied either by integrating XYL2 into...

  8. Industrial PE-2 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: from alcoholic fermentation to the production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Costa, Andrea; Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Andrade, Letícia de Freitas; Catelli, Lucas Ferioli; Bassi, Ana Paula Guarnieri; Ceccato-Antonini, Sandra Regina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2014-01-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important microorganism used in the ethanol fermentation process. The PE-2 strain of this yeast is widely used to produce alcohol in Brazil due to its high fermentation capacity. The aim of the present study was to develop an expression system for recombinant proteins using the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation process. The protein chosen as a model for this system was CaneCPI-1, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor. A plasmid containing the CaneCPI-1 gene was constructed and yeast cells were transformed with the pYADE4_CaneCPI-1 construct. To evaluate the effect on fermentation ability, the transformed strain was used in the fermentation process with cell recycling. During the nine-hour fermentative cycles the transformed strain did not have its viability and fermentation ability affected. In the last cycle, when the fermentation lasted longer, the protein was expressed probably at the expense of ethanol once the sugars were exhausted. The recombinant protein was expressed in yeast cells, purified and submitted to assays of activity that demonstrated its functionality. Thus, the industrial PE-2 strain of S. cerevisiae can be used as a viable system for protein expression and to produce alcohol simultaneously. The findings of the present study demonstrate the possibility of producing recombinant proteins with biotechnological applications during the ethanol fermentation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Intragenic mitotic recombination induced by ultraviolet and gamma rays in radiosensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, I A; Kasinova, G V; Koval'tsova, S V

    1983-01-01

    The effect of UV- and gamma-irradiation on the survival and intragenic mitotic recombination (gene conversion) of 5 radiosensitive mutants was studied in comparison with the wild type. The level of spontaneous conversion was similar for RAD, rad2 and rad15, mutations xrs2 and xrs4 increasing and rad54 significantly decreasing it. The frequency of conversion induced by UV-light was greater in rad2, rad15 and xrs2 mutants and lower in xrs4, as compared to RAD. Gamma-irradiation caused induction of gene conversion with an equal frequency in RAD, rad2, rad15. Xrs2 and xrs4 mutations slightly decreased gamma-induced conversion. In rad54 mutant, UV-and gamma-induced conversion was practically absent. In the wild type yeast, a diploid strain is more resistant than a haploid, whereas in rad54 a diploid strain has the same or an increased sensitivity, as compared to a haploid strain (the "inverse ploidy effect"). This effect and also the block of induced mitotic recombination caused by rad54 indicate the presence in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae of repair pathways of UV- and gamma-induced damages acting in diploid cells and realised by recombination. The data obtained as a result of many years' investigation of genetic effects in radiosensitive mutants of yeast are summarised and considered.

  11. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of solutes. Aquaporins constitute a family of physiologically very important integral membrane proteins that are found in all three kingdoms, eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. As protein channels, they facilitate passive transport of water across cell membranes. In the present study the yeast Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae was exploited as a host for heterologous expression of human aquaporins. Aquaporin cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human aquaporin was C-terminally tagged with yeast-enhanced GFP to quantify functional expression...... transcription factor and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30oC was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15oC almost completely...

  12. Pathways for Holliday Junction Processing during Homologous Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Thomas M; Mankouri, Hocine W; Heidenblut, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rmi1 protein is a component of the highly conserved Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 complex. Deletion of SGS1, TOP3, or RMI1 is synthetically lethal when combined with the loss of the Mus81-Mms4 or Slx1-Slx4 endonucleases, which have been implicated in Holliday junction (HJ) resolution....... To investigate the causes of this synthetic lethality, we isolated a temperature-sensitive mutant of the RMI1 strain, referred to as the rmi1-1 mutant. At the restrictive temperature, this mutant phenocopies an rmi1¿ strain but behaves like the wild type at the permissive temperature. Following a transient...... exposure to methyl methanesulfonate, rmi1-1 mutants accumulate unprocessed homologous recombination repair (HRR) intermediates. These intermediates are slowly resolved at the restrictive temperature, revealing a redundant resolution activity when Rmi1 is impaired. This resolution depends on Mus81-Mms4...

  13. Recombinant Production of an Inulinase in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gal80 Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Hongweon; Sok, Dai-Eun; Choi, Eui-Sung

    2010-11-01

    The inulinase gene (INU1) from Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC2887 strain was overexpressed by using GAL10 promotor in a △gal80 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The inulinase gene lacking the original signal sequence was fused in-frame to mating factor alpha signal sequence for secretory expression. Use of the △gal80 strain allowed the galactose-free induction of inulinase expression using a glucose-only medium. Shake flask cultivation in YPD medium produced 34.6 U/ml of the recombinant inulinase, which was approximately 13-fold higher than that produced by K. marxianus NCYC2887. It was found that the use of the △gal80 strain improved the expression of inulinase in the recombinant S. cerevisiae in both the aerobic and the anaerobic condition by about 2.9- and 1.7-fold, respectively. 5 L fed-batch fermentation using YPD medium was performed under aerobic condition with glucose feeding, which resulted in the inulinase production of 31.7 U/ml at OD600 of 67. Ethanol fermentation of dried powder of Jerusalem artichoke, an inulin-rich biomass, was also performed using the recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing INU1 and K. marxianus NCYC2887. Fermentation in a 5L scale fermentor was carried out at an aeration rate of 0.2 vvm, an agitation rate of 300 rpm, and the pH was controlled at 5.0. The temperature was maintained at 30degrees C and 37degrees C, respectively, for the recombinant S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus. The maximum productivities of ethanol were 59.0 and 53.5 g/L, respectively.

  14. Global gene expression in recombinant and non-recombinant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in three different metabolic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, H; Andrews, B A; Hayes, A; Castrillo, J; Oliver, S G; Asenjo, J A

    2009-01-01

    Global gene expression of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one recombinant (P+), accumulating large amounts of an intracellular protein Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and one non-recombinant (P-) which does not contain the recombinant plasmid, were compared in batch culture during diauxic growth when cells were growing exponentially on glucose, when they were growing exponentially on ethanol, and in the early stationary phase when glycerol was being utilized. When comparing the gene expression for P- (and P+) during growth on ethanol to that on glucose (Eth/Gluc), overexpression is related to an increase in consumption of glycerol, activation of the TCA cycle, degradation of glycogen and metabolism of ethanol. Furthermore, 97.6% of genes (80 genes) involved in the central metabolic pathway are overexpressed. This is similar to that observed by DeRisi et al. [DeRisi, J.L., Iyer, V.R. & Brown, P.O. 1997. Exploring the metabolic and genetic control of gene expression on a genomic scale. Science 278:680-686.] but very different from was observed for Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA), where the specific growth rate is lowered to ca. 40%, the fluxes in the TCA cycle are reduced to ca. 40% (to 30% in P+), glycolysis is reduced to virtually 0 and protein synthesis to ca. 50% (to 40% in P+). Clearly it is not possible to correlate in a simple or direct way, quantitative mRNA expression levels with cell function which is shown by the Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA). When comparing the two strains in the 3 growth stages, 4 genes were found to be under or overexpressed in all cases. The products of all of these genes are expressed at the plasma membrane or cell wall of the yeast. While comparing the strains (P+/P-) when growing on glucose, ethanol and in the early stationary phase, many of the genes of the central metabolic pathways are underexpressed in P+, which is similar to the behaviour of the metabolic fluxes of both strains (MFA). Comparing the gene expression for P- (and

  15. Recombination-Mediated Telomere Maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Not Dependent on the Shu Complex.

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    Paula M van Mourik

    Full Text Available In cells lacking telomerase, telomeres shorten progressively during each cell division due to incomplete end-replication. When the telomeres become very short, cells enter a state that blocks cell division, termed senescence. A subset of these cells can overcome senescence and maintain their telomeres using telomerase-independent mechanisms. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these cells are called 'survivors' and are dependent on Rad52-dependent homologous recombination and Pol32-dependent break-induced replication. There are two main types of survivors: type I and type II. The type I survivors require Rad51 and maintain telomeres by amplification of subtelomeric elements, while the type II survivors are Rad51-independent, but require the MRX complex and Sgs1 to amplify the C1-3A/TG1-3 telomeric sequences. Rad52, Pol32, Rad51, and Sgs1 are also important to prevent accelerated senescence, indicating that recombination processes are important at telomeres even before the formation of survivors. The Shu complex, which consists of Shu1, Shu2, Psy3, and Csm2, promotes Rad51-dependent homologous recombination and has been suggested to be important for break-induced replication. It also promotes the formation of recombination intermediates that are processed by the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 complex, as mutations in the SHU genes can suppress various sgs1, top3, and rmi1 mutant phenotypes. Given the importance of recombination processes during senescence and survivor formation, and the involvement of the Shu complex in many of the same processes during DNA repair, we hypothesized that the Shu complex may also have functions at telomeres. Surprisingly, we find that this is not the case: the Shu complex does not affect the rate of senescence, does not influence survivor formation, and deletion of SHU1 does not suppress the rapid senescence and type II survivor formation defect of a telomerase-negative sgs1 mutant. Altogether, our data suggest that the Shu complex is not

  16. Malo-ethanolic fermentation in grape must by recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volschenk, H; Viljoen-Bloom, M; Subden, R E; van Vuuren, H J

    2001-07-01

    Recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the ability to reduce wine acidity could have a significant influence on the future production of quality wines, especially in cool climate regions. L-Malic acid and L-tartaric acid contribute largely to the acid content of grapes and wine. The wine yeast S. cerevisiae is unable to effectively degrade L-malic acid, whereas the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe efficiently degrades high concentrations of L-malic acid by means of a malo-ethanolic fermentation. However, strains of Sz. pombe are not suitable for vinification due to the production of undesirable off-flavours. Heterologous expression of the Sz. pombe malate permease (mae1) and malic enzyme (mae2) genes on plasmids in S. cerevisiae resulted in a recombinant strain of S. cerevisiae that efficiently degraded up to 8 g/l L-malic acid in synthetic grape must and 6.75 g/l L-malic acid in Chardonnay grape must. Furthermore, a strain of S. cerevisiae containing the mae1 and mae2 genes integrated in the genome efficiently degraded 5 g/l of L-malic acid in synthetic and Chenin Blanc grape musts. Furthermore, the malo-alcoholic strains produced higher levels of ethanol during fermentation, which is important for the production of distilled beverages. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Interfering with glycolysis causes Sir2-dependent hyper-recombination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralser, Markus; Zeidler, Ute; Lehrach, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key metabolic regulator implicated in a variety of cellular processes. It functions as a glycolytic enzyme, a protein kinase, and a metabolic switch under oxidative stress. Its enzymatic inactivation causes a major shift in the primary carbohydrate flux. Furthermore, the protein is implicated in regulating transcription, ER-to-Golgi transport, and apoptosis. We found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells null for all GAPDH paralogues (Tdh1, Tdh2, and Tdh3) survived the counter-selection of a GAPDH-encoding plasmid when the NAD(+) metabolizing deacetylase Sir2 was overexpressed. This phenotype required a fully functional copy of SIR2 and resulted from hyper-recombination between S. cerevisiae plasmids. In the wild-type background, GAPDH overexpression increased the plasmid recombination rate in a growth-condition dependent manner. We conclude that GAPDH influences yeast episome stability via Sir2 and propose a model for the interplay of Sir2, GAPDH, and the glycolytic flux.

  18. Interfering with glycolysis causes Sir2-dependent hyper-recombination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasmids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Ralser

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is a key metabolic regulator implicated in a variety of cellular processes. It functions as a glycolytic enzyme, a protein kinase, and a metabolic switch under oxidative stress. Its enzymatic inactivation causes a major shift in the primary carbohydrate flux. Furthermore, the protein is implicated in regulating transcription, ER-to-Golgi transport, and apoptosis. We found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells null for all GAPDH paralogues (Tdh1, Tdh2, and Tdh3 survived the counter-selection of a GAPDH-encoding plasmid when the NAD(+ metabolizing deacetylase Sir2 was overexpressed. This phenotype required a fully functional copy of SIR2 and resulted from hyper-recombination between S. cerevisiae plasmids. In the wild-type background, GAPDH overexpression increased the plasmid recombination rate in a growth-condition dependent manner. We conclude that GAPDH influences yeast episome stability via Sir2 and propose a model for the interplay of Sir2, GAPDH, and the glycolytic flux.

  19. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Expressing P450 in Artificial Digestive Systems: a Model for Biodetoxication in the Human Digestive Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Blanquet, S.; Meunier, J. P.; Minekus, M.; Marol-Bonnin, S.; Alric, M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with a computer simulation to evaluate the survival rate and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase activity of a recombinant model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the plant P450 73A1. The yeasts showed a high ...

  20. Temperature influences β-carotene production in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing carotenogenic genes from Phaffia rhodozyma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Zhan, Wubing; Li, Yongfu; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma is a prominent microorganism able to synthesize carotenoid. Here, three carotenogenic cDNAs of P. rhodozyma CGMCC 2.1557, crtE, crtYB and crtI, were cloned and introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1. The recombinant Sc-EYBI cells could synthesize 258.8 ± 43.8 μg g(-1) dry cell weight (DCW) of β-carotene when growing at 20 °C, about 59-fold higher than in those growing at 30 °C. Additional expression of the catalytic domain of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase from S. cerevisiae (Sc-EYBIH) increased the β-carotene level to 528.8 ± 13.3 μg g(-1) DCW as cells growing at 20 °C, 27-fold higher than cells growing at 30 °C, although cells grew faster at 30 °C than at 20 °C. Consistent with the much higher β-carotene level in cells growing at 20 °C, transcription level of three crt genes and cHMG1 gene in cells growing at 20 °C was a little higher than in those growing at 30 °C. Meanwhile, expression of three carotenogenic genes and accumulation of β-carotene promoted cell growth. These results reveal the influence of temperature on β-carotene biosynthesis and may be helpful for improving β-carotene production in recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  1. Generation of infectious recombinant Adeno-associated virus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barajas

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully employed to establish model systems for a number of viruses. Such model systems are powerful tools to study the virus biology and in particular for the identification and characterization of host factors playing a role in the viral infection cycle. Adeno-associated viruses (AAV are heavily studied due to their use as gene delivery vectors. AAV relies on other helper viruses for successful replication and on host factors for several aspects of the viral life cycle. However the role of host and helper viral factors is only partially known. Production of recombinant AAV (rAAV vectors for gene delivery applications depends on knowledge of AAV biology and the limited understanding of host and helper viral factors may be precluding efficient production, particularly in heterologous systems. Model systems in simpler eukaryotes like the yeast S. cerevisiae would be useful tools to identify and study the role of host factors in AAV biology. Here we show that expression of AAV2 viral proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, AAP, Rep78, Rep52 and an ITR-flanked DNA in yeast leads to capsid formation, DNA replication and encapsidation, resulting in formation of infectious particles. Many of the AAV characteristics observed in yeast resemble those in other systems, making it a suitable model system. Future findings in the yeast system could be translatable to other AAV host systems and aid in more efficient production of rAAV vectors.

  2. Generation of infectious recombinant Adeno-associated virus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-Ubillus, Juan Jose; Akeefe, Hassibullah; Cinek, Tomas; Peltier, Joseph; Gold, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been successfully employed to establish model systems for a number of viruses. Such model systems are powerful tools to study the virus biology and in particular for the identification and characterization of host factors playing a role in the viral infection cycle. Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) are heavily studied due to their use as gene delivery vectors. AAV relies on other helper viruses for successful replication and on host factors for several aspects of the viral life cycle. However the role of host and helper viral factors is only partially known. Production of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors for gene delivery applications depends on knowledge of AAV biology and the limited understanding of host and helper viral factors may be precluding efficient production, particularly in heterologous systems. Model systems in simpler eukaryotes like the yeast S. cerevisiae would be useful tools to identify and study the role of host factors in AAV biology. Here we show that expression of AAV2 viral proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, AAP, Rep78, Rep52 and an ITR-flanked DNA in yeast leads to capsid formation, DNA replication and encapsidation, resulting in formation of infectious particles. Many of the AAV characteristics observed in yeast resemble those in other systems, making it a suitable model system. Future findings in the yeast system could be translatable to other AAV host systems and aid in more efficient production of rAAV vectors. PMID:28355224

  3. Fermentation performance and intracellular metabolite patterns in laboratory and industrial xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaldivar, Jesus; Borges, A.; Johansson, B.

    2002-01-01

    Heterologous genes for xylose utilization were introduced into an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain A, with the aim of producing fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Two transformants, A4 and A6, were evaluated by comparing the performance in 4-1 anaerobic batch cultivations...... to both the parent strain and a laboratory xylose-utilizing strain: S. cerevisiae TMB 3001. During growth in a minimal medium containing a mixture of glucose and xylose (50 g/l each), glucose was preferentially consumed. During the first growth phase on glucose, the specific growth rates were 0.26, 0...

  4. Signal peptide optimization tool for the secretion of recombinant protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Hara, Shoichi; Sugahara, Tomohiro; Kojima, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yugo; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Sahara, Takehiko; Ohgiya, Satoru; Nakano, Hideo

    2015-11-01

    The secretion efficiency of foreign proteins in recombinant microbes is strongly dependent on the combination of the signal peptides (SPs) used and the target proteins; therefore, identifying the optimal SP sequence for each target protein is a crucial step in maximizing the efficiency of protein secretion in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we developed a novel method, named the SP optimization tool (SPOT), for the generation and rapid screening of a library of SP-target gene fusion constructs to identify the optimal SP for maximizing target protein secretion. In contrast to libraries generated in previous studies, SPOT fusion constructs are generated without adding the intervening sequences associated with restriction enzyme digestion sites. Therefore, no extra amino acids are inserted at the N-terminus of the target protein that might affect its function or conformational stability. As a model system, β-galactosidase (LacA) from Aspergillus oryzae was used as a target protein for secretion from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In total, 60 SPs were selected from S. cerevisiae secretory proteins and utilized to generate the SP library. While many of the SP-LacA fusions were not secreted, several of the SPs, AGA2, CRH1, PLB1, and MF(alpha)1, were found to enhance LacA secretion compared to the WT sequence. Our results indicate that SPOT is a valuable method for optimizing the bioproduction of any target protein, and could be adapted to many host strains. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective isolation of genomic loci from complex genomes by transformation-associated recombination cloning in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprina, Natalay; Larionov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Here, we describe a protocol for the selective isolation of any genomic fragment or gene of interest up to 250 kb in size from complex genomes as a circular yeast artificial chromosome (YAC). The method is based on transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae between genomic DNA and a linearized TAR cloning vector containing targeting sequences homologous to a region of interest. Recombination between the vector and homologous sequences in the co-transformed mammalian DNA results in the establishment of a YAC that is able to propagate, segregate and be selected for in yeast. Yield of gene-positive clones varies from 1% to 5%. The entire procedure takes 2 weeks to complete once the TAR vector is constructed and genomic DNA is prepared. The TAR cloning method has a broad application in functional and comparative genomics, long-range haplotyping and characterization of chromosomal rearrangements, including copy number variations.

  6. Dynamic metabolomics differentiates between carbon and energy starvation in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting xylose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergdahl Basti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concerted effects of changes in gene expression due to changes in the environment are ultimately reflected in the metabolome. Dynamics of metabolite concentrations under a certain condition can therefore give a description of the cellular state with a high degree of functional information. We used this potential to evaluate the metabolic status of two recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during anaerobic batch fermentation of a glucose/xylose mixture. Two isogenic strains were studied, differing only in the pathways used for xylose assimilation: the oxidoreductive pathway with xylose reductase (XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH or the isomerization pathway with xylose isomerase (XI. The isogenic relationship between the two strains ascertains that the observed responses are a result of the particular xylose pathway and not due to unknown changes in regulatory systems. An increased understanding of the physiological state of these strains is important for further development of efficient pentose-utilizing strains for bioethanol production. Results Using LC-MS/MS we determined the dynamics in the concentrations of intracellular metabolites in central carbon metabolism, nine amino acids, the purine nucleotides and redox cofactors. The general response to the transition from glucose to xylose was increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA-cycle intermediates, and decreased concentrations of sugar phosphates and redox cofactors. The two strains investigated had significantly different uptake rates of xylose which led to an enhanced response in the XI-strain. Despite the difference in xylose uptake rate, the adenylate energy charge remained high and stable around 0.8 in both strains. In contrast to the adenylate pool, large changes were observed in the guanylate pool. Conclusions The low uptake of xylose by the XI-strain led to several distinguished responses: depletion of key metabolites in glycolysis and NADPH

  7. Dynamic metabolomics differentiates between carbon and energy starvation in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermenting xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The concerted effects of changes in gene expression due to changes in the environment are ultimately reflected in the metabolome. Dynamics of metabolite concentrations under a certain condition can therefore give a description of the cellular state with a high degree of functional information. We used this potential to evaluate the metabolic status of two recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during anaerobic batch fermentation of a glucose/xylose mixture. Two isogenic strains were studied, differing only in the pathways used for xylose assimilation: the oxidoreductive pathway with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) or the isomerization pathway with xylose isomerase (XI). The isogenic relationship between the two strains ascertains that the observed responses are a result of the particular xylose pathway and not due to unknown changes in regulatory systems. An increased understanding of the physiological state of these strains is important for further development of efficient pentose-utilizing strains for bioethanol production. Results Using LC-MS/MS we determined the dynamics in the concentrations of intracellular metabolites in central carbon metabolism, nine amino acids, the purine nucleotides and redox cofactors. The general response to the transition from glucose to xylose was increased concentrations of amino acids and TCA-cycle intermediates, and decreased concentrations of sugar phosphates and redox cofactors. The two strains investigated had significantly different uptake rates of xylose which led to an enhanced response in the XI-strain. Despite the difference in xylose uptake rate, the adenylate energy charge remained high and stable around 0.8 in both strains. In contrast to the adenylate pool, large changes were observed in the guanylate pool. Conclusions The low uptake of xylose by the XI-strain led to several distinguished responses: depletion of key metabolites in glycolysis and NADPH, a reduced GTP/GDP ratio

  8. The pol3-t Hyperrecombination Phenotype and DNA Damage-Induced Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is RAD50 Dependent

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    Alvaro Galli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA polymerase δ (POL3/CDC2 allele pol3-t of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been shown to be sensitive to methylmethanesulfonate (MMS and has been proposed to be involved in base excision repair. Our results, however, show that the pol3-t mutation is synergistic for MMS sensitivity with MAG1, a known base excision repair gene, but it is epistatic with rad50Δ, suggesting that POL3 may be involved not only in base excision repair but also in a RAD50 dependent function. We further studied the interaction of pol3-t with rad50Δ by examining their effect on spontaneous, MMS-, UV-, and ionizing radiation-induced intrachromosomal recombination. We found that rad50Δ completely abolishes the elevated spontaneous frequency of intrachromosomal recombination in the pol3-t mutant and significantly decreases UV- and MMS-induced recombination in both POL3 and pol3-t strains. Interestingly, rad50Δ had no effect on γ-ray-induced recombination in both backgrounds between 0 and 50 Gy. Finally, the deletion of RAD50 had no effect on the elevated frequency of homologous integration conferred by the pol3-t mutation. RAD50 is possibly involved in resolution of replication forks that are stalled by mutagen-induced external DNA damage, or internal DNA damage produced by growing the pol3-t mutant at the restrictive temperature.

  9. Genome-wide high-resolution mapping of UV-induced mitotic recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi; Petes, Thomas D

    2013-10-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH). In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV) light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells stimulate crossovers more than 1000-fold in wild-type cells. In addition, UV stimulates recombination in G1-synchronized cells about 10-fold more efficiently than in G2-synchronized cells. Importantly, at high doses of UV, most conversion events reflect the repair of two sister chromatids that are broken at approximately the same position whereas at low doses, most conversion events reflect the repair of a single broken chromatid. Genome-wide mapping of about 380 unselected crossovers, break-induced replication (BIR) events, and gene conversions shows that UV-induced recombination events occur throughout the genome without pronounced hotspots, although the ribosomal RNA gene cluster has a significantly lower frequency of crossovers.

  10. Genome-wide high-resolution mapping of UV-induced mitotic recombination events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most other eukaryotes, mitotic recombination is important for the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs. Mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes can result in loss of heterozygosity (LOH. In this study, LOH events induced by ultraviolet (UV light are mapped throughout the genome to a resolution of about 1 kb using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarrays. UV doses that have little effect on the viability of diploid cells stimulate crossovers more than 1000-fold in wild-type cells. In addition, UV stimulates recombination in G1-synchronized cells about 10-fold more efficiently than in G2-synchronized cells. Importantly, at high doses of UV, most conversion events reflect the repair of two sister chromatids that are broken at approximately the same position whereas at low doses, most conversion events reflect the repair of a single broken chromatid. Genome-wide mapping of about 380 unselected crossovers, break-induced replication (BIR events, and gene conversions shows that UV-induced recombination events occur throughout the genome without pronounced hotspots, although the ribosomal RNA gene cluster has a significantly lower frequency of crossovers.

  11. Fermentation of Xylose Causes Inefficient Metabolic State Due to Carbon/Energy Starvation and Reduced Glycolytic Flux in Recombinant Industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Nagashima, Atsushi; Goshima, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comprehensive, quantitative metabolome analysis was carried out on the recombinant glucose/xylose-cofermenting S. cerevisiae strain MA-R4 during fermentation with different carbon sources, including glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures. Capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to determine the intracellular pools of metabolites from the central carbon pathways, energy metabolism pathways, and the levels of twenty amino acids. When xylose instead of glucose was metabolized by MA-R4, glycolytic metabolites including 3- phosphoglycerate, 2- phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate were dramatically reduced, while conversely, most pentose phosphate pathway metabolites such as sedoheptulose 7- phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate were greatly increased. These results suggest that the low metabolic activity of glycolysis and the pool of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates are potential limiting factors in xylose utilization. It was further demonstrated that during xylose fermentation, about half of the twenty amino acids declined, and the adenylate/guanylate energy charge was impacted due to markedly decreased adenosine triphosphate/adenosine monophosphate and guanosine triphosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratios, implying that the fermentation of xylose leads to an inefficient metabolic state where the biosynthetic capabilities and energy balance are severely impaired. In addition, fermentation with xylose alone drastically increased the level of citrate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and increased the aromatic amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, strongly supporting the view that carbon starvation was induced. Interestingly, fermentation with xylose alone also increased the synthesis of the polyamine spermidine and its precursor S-adenosylmethionine. Thus, differences in carbon substrates, including glucose and xylose in the fermentation medium, strongly influenced the dynamic metabolism of MA-R4

  12. Fermentation of oat and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol by recombinant industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under diverse oxygen environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we evaluated the capacity of recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH 396 and YRH 400 strains to ferment sugars from oat hull and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol. The strains were genetically modified by chromosomal integration of Pichia stipitis XYLI/XYL...

  13. Modeling the growth and proteinase A production in continuous cultures of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Jochumsen, Kirsten Væver; Emborg, Claus

    1997-01-01

    Overexpression of the homologous protein proteinase A (PrA) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been achieved by inserting the PrA gene (PEP4) with its own promoter on a 2 mu multicopy plasmid. With this system the specific PrA production rate was found to be described well by a linear function...

  14. Transposon mutagenesis to improve the growth of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae on D-xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiying Ni; Jose M. Laplaza; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2007-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2612 transformed with genes for xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase (XYL1 and XYL2) grows well on glucose but very poorly on D-xylose. When a gene for D-xylulokinase (XYL3 or XKS1) is overexpressed, growth on glucose is unaffected, but growth on xylose is blocked. Spontaneous or chemically induced mutants of this engineered yeast that...

  15. Purification and properties of recombinant exopolyphosphatase PPN1 and effects of its overexpression on polyphosphate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Nadeshda; Trilisenko, Ludmila; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana; Dumina, Maria; Eldarov, Michail

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate performs many regulatory functions in living cells. The yeast exopolyphosphatase PPN1 is an enzyme with multiple cellular localization and probably variable functions. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with overexpressed PPN1 was constructed for large-scale production of the enzyme and for studying the effect of overproduction on polyphosphate metabolism. The ΔPPN1 strain was transformed by the vector containing this gene under a strong constitutive promoter of glycerol aldehyde-triphosphate dehydrogenase of S. cerevisiae. Exopolyphosphatase activity in the transformant increased 28- and 11-fold compared to the ΔPPN1 and parent strains, respectively. The content of acid-soluble polyphosphate decreased ∼6-fold and the content of acid-insoluble polyphosphate decreased ∼2.5-fold in the cells of the transformant compared to the ΔPPN1 strain. The recombinant enzyme was purified. The substrate specificity, cation requirement, and inhibition by heparin were found to be similar to native PPN1. The molecular mass of a subunit (∼33 kD) and the amino acid sequence of the recombinant enzyme were the same as in mature PPN1. The recombinant enzyme was localized mainly in the cytoplasm (40%) and vacuoles (20%). The overproducer strain had no growths defects under phosphate deficiency or phosphate excess. In contrast to the parent strains accumulating polyphosphate, the transformant accumulated orthophosphate under phosphate surplus. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing a model cytochrome P450 in the rat digestive environment: viability and bioconversion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrait, G; Jarrige, J F; Blanquet, S; Beyssac, E; Alric, M

    2007-06-01

    An innovative "biodrug" concept, based on the oral administration of living recombinant microorganisms, has recently emerged for the prevention or treatment of various diseases. An engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing plant P450 73A1 (cinnamate-4-hydroxylase [CA4H] activity) was used, and its survival and ability to convert trans-cinnamic acid (CIN) into p-coumaric acid (COU) were investigated in vivo. In rats, the recombinant yeast was resistant to gastric and small intestinal secretions but was more sensitive to the conditions found in the large intestine. After oral administration of yeast and CIN, the CA4H activity was shown in vivo, with COU being found throughout the rat's digestive tract and in its urine. The bioconversion reaction occurred very fast, with most of the COU being produced within the first 5 min. The gastrointestinal sac technique demonstrated that the recombinant yeast was able to convert CIN into COU (conversion rate ranging from 2 to 5%) in all the organs of the rat's digestive tract: stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon. These results promise new opportunities for the development of drug delivery systems based on engineered yeasts catalyzing a bioconversion reaction directly in the digestive tract.

  17. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Expressing a Model Cytochrome P450 in the Rat Digestive Environment: Viability and Bioconversion Activity▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrait, G.; Jarrige, J. F.; Blanquet, S.; Beyssac, E.; Alric, M.

    2007-01-01

    An innovative “biodrug” concept, based on the oral administration of living recombinant microorganisms, has recently emerged for the prevention or treatment of various diseases. An engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing plant P450 73A1 (cinnamate-4-hydroxylase [CA4H] activity) was used, and its survival and ability to convert trans-cinnamic acid (CIN) into p-coumaric acid (COU) were investigated in vivo. In rats, the recombinant yeast was resistant to gastric and small intestinal secretions but was more sensitive to the conditions found in the large intestine. After oral administration of yeast and CIN, the CA4H activity was shown in vivo, with COU being found throughout the rat's digestive tract and in its urine. The bioconversion reaction occurred very fast, with most of the COU being produced within the first 5 min. The gastrointestinal sac technique demonstrated that the recombinant yeast was able to convert CIN into COU (conversion rate ranging from 2 to 5%) in all the organs of the rat's digestive tract: stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon. These results promise new opportunities for the development of drug delivery systems based on engineered yeasts catalyzing a bioconversion reaction directly in the digestive tract. PMID:17416683

  18. Breeding of a xylose-fermenting hybrid strain by mating genetically engineered haploid strains derived from industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Seitaro; Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    The industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae IR-2 is a promising host strain to genetically engineer xylose-utilizing yeasts for ethanol fermentation from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Two IR-2-based haploid strains were selected based upon the rate of xylulose fermentation, and hybrids were obtained by mating recombinant haploid strains harboring heterogeneous xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) (wild-type NAD(+)-dependent XDH or engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH, ARSdR), xylose reductase (XR) and xylulose kinase (XK) genes. ARSdR in the hybrids selected for growth rates on yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) agar and YP-xylose agar plates typically had a higher activity than NAD(+)-dependent XDH. Furthermore, the xylose-fermenting performance of the hybrid strain SE12 with the same level of heterogeneous XDH activity was similar to that of a recombinant strain of IR-2 harboring a single set of genes, XR/ARSdR/XK. These results suggest not only that the recombinant haploid strains retain the appropriate genetic background of IR-2 for ethanol production from xylose but also that ARSdR is preferable for xylose fermentation.

  19. The xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase/xylulokinase ratio affects product formation in recombinant xylose-utilising Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasson, Anna; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Pedler, S.

    2001-01-01

    Data simulations based on a kinetic model implied that under simplified simulation conditions a 1:greater than or equal to 10:greater than or equal to4 relation of the xylose reductase (XR)/xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH)/xylulokinase (XK) ratio was optimal in minimising xylitol formation during xylose...... utilisation in yeast. The steady-state level of the intermediary xylitol depended also, to a great extent, on the NADH and NAD(+) concentrations. Anaerobic xylose utilisation was investigated for three different recombinant. XR-, XDH- and XK-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, TMB 3002, TMB 3003...... and TMB 3004, to verify the model predictions. Overexpression of XK was found to be necessary for ethanol formation from xylose. Furthermore, the xylitol formation decreased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, while the ethanol formation increased. Of the three strains, TMB 3004, which was the strain with a XR/XDH...

  20. Molecular anatomy of the recombination mediator function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seong, C.; Sehorn, M.G.; Plate, Iben

    2008-01-01

    A helical filament of Rad51 on single-strand DNA (ssDNA), called the presynaptic filament, catalyzes DNA joint formation during homologous recombination. Rad52 facilitates presynaptic filament assembly, and this recombination mediator activity is thought to rely on the interactions of Rad52 with ...

  1. Mechanisms of Rad52-independent spontaneous and UV-induced mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïc, Eric; Feldman, Taya; Landman, Allison S; Haber, James E

    2008-05-01

    In wild-type diploid cells, heteroallelic recombination between his4A and his4C alleles leads mostly to His+ gene conversions that have a parental configuration of flanking markers, but approximately 22% of recombinants have associated reciprocal crossovers. In rad52 strains, gene conversion is reduced 75-fold and the majority of His+ recombinants are crossover associated, with the largest class being half-crossovers in which the other participating chromatid is lost. We report that UV irradiating rad52 cells results in an increase in overall recombination frequency, comparable to increases induced in wild-type (WT) cells, and surprisingly results in a pattern of recombination products quite similar to RAD52 cells: gene conversion without exchange is favored, and the number of 2n - 1 events is markedly reduced. Both spontaneous and UV-induced RAD52-independent recombination depends strongly on Rad50, whereas rad50 has no effect in cells restored to RAD52. The high level of noncrossover gene conversion outcomes in UV-induced rad52 cells depends on Rad51, but not on Rad59. Those outcomes also rely on the UV-inducible kinase Dun1 and Dun1's target, the repressor Crt1, whereas gene conversion events arising spontaneously depend on Rad59 and Crt1. Thus, there are at least two Rad52-independent recombination pathways in budding yeast.

  2. Improving ethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in very high-gravity fermentation through chemical mutagenesis and meiotic recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Ding, Wen-Tao; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Wang, Jing-Yu [Tianjin Univ. (China). Dept. of Biochemical Engineering

    2011-08-15

    Genome shuffling is an efficient way to improve complex phenotypes under the control of multiple genes. For the improvement of strain's performance in very high-gravity (VHG) fermentation, we developed a new method of genome shuffling. A diploid ste2/ste2 strain was subjected to EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) mutagenesis followed by meiotic recombination-mediated genome shuffling. The resulting haploid progenies were intrapopulation sterile and therefore haploid recombinant cells with improved phenotypes were directly selected under selection condition. In VHG fermentation, strain WS1D and WS5D obtained by this approach exhibited remarkably enhanced tolerance to ethanol and osmolarity, increased metabolic rate, and 15.12% and 15.59% increased ethanol yield compared to the starting strain W303D, respectively. These results verified the feasibility of the strain improvement strategy and suggested that it is a powerful and high throughput method for development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with desired phenotypes that is complex and cannot be addressed with rational approaches. (orig.)

  3. Genetic evidence for a role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mph1 in recombinational DNA repair under replicative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Evandro Rocco; Ede, Christopher; Schildmann, Michael; Schürer, Kirsten Anke; Kramer, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    In yeast as in human, DNA helicases play critical roles in assisting replication fork progression. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPH1 gene, homologue of human FANCM, has been involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair. We describe a synthetic growth defect of an mph1 deletion if combined with an srs2 deletion that can result-depending on the genetic background-in synthetic lethality. The lethality is suppressed by mutations in homologous recombination (rad51, rad52, rad55, rad57) and in the DNA damage checkpoint (rad9, rad24, rad17). Importantly, rad54 and mph1, epistatic for damage sensitivity, are subadditive for spontaneous mutator phenotype. Therefore, Mph1 could be placed at the Rad51-mediated strand invasion process, with a function distinct from Rad54. Moreover, siz1 mutation is viable with mph1 and additive for DNA damage sensitivity. mph1 srs2 double mutants, isolated in a background where they are viable, are synergistically sensitive to DNA damage. Moderate overexpression of SGS1 partially suppresses this sensitivity. Finally, we observe an epistatic relationship in terms of sensitivity to camptothecin of mms4 or mus81 to mph1. Overall, our results support a role of Mph1 in assisting replication progression. We propose two models for the resumption of DNA synthesis under replicative stress where Mph1 is placed at the sister chromatid interaction step.

  4. Inhibitor tolerance of a recombinant flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain during glucose and xylose co-fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Cheng Li

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Lignocellulose-derived inhibitors have negative effects on the ethanol fermentation capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the effects of eight typical inhibitors, including weak acids, furans, and phenols, on glucose and xylose co-fermentation of the recombinant xylose-fermenting flocculating industrial S. cerevisiae strain NAPX37 were evaluated by batch fermentation. Inhibition on glucose fermentation, not that on xylose fermentation, correlated with delayed cell growth. The weak acids and the phenols showed additive effects. The effect of inhibitors on glucose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: vanillin > phenol > syringaldehyde > 5-HMF > furfural > levulinic acid > acetic acid > formic acid. The effect of inhibitors on xylose fermentation was as follows (from strongest to weakest: phenol > vanillin > syringaldehyde > furfural > 5-HMF > formic acid > levulinic acid > acetic acid. The NAPX37 strain showed substantial tolerance to typical inhibitors and showed good fermentation characteristics, when a medium with inhibitor cocktail or rape straw hydrolysate was used. This research provides important clues for inhibitors tolerance of recombinant industrial xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae.

  5. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future.

  6. Expression of protein engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Hiroshima (Japan). Biomass Technology Research Center; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy

    2008-11-15

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD{sup +}-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP{sup +}. In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP{sup +}-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain. (orig.)

  7. Expression of protein engineered NADP+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-11-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP(+). In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP(+)-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain.

  8. Functional analysis of recombinant human and Yarrowia lipolytica O-GlcNAc transferases expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hye Ji; Moon, Hye Yun; Cheon, Seon Ah; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2016-10-01

    O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is an important post-translational modification in many cellular processes. It is mediated by O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs), which catalyze the addition of O-GlcNAc to serine or threonine residues of the target proteins. In this study, we expressed a putative Yarrowia lipolytica OGT (YlOGT), the only homolog identified in the subphylum Saccharomycotina through bioinformatics analysis, and the human OGT (hOGT) as recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and performed their functional characterization. Immunoblotting assays using antibody against O-GlcNAc revealed that recombinant hOGT (rhOGT), but not the recombinant YlOGT (rYlOGT), undergoes auto-O-GlcNAcylation in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. Moreover, the rhOGT expressed in S. cerevisiae showed a catalytic activity during in vitro assays using casein kinase II substrates, whereas no such activity was obtained in rYlOGT. However, the chimeric human-Y. lipolytica OGT, carrying the human tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain along with the Y. lipolytica catalytic domain (CTD), mediated the transfer of O-GlcNAc moiety during the in vitro assays. Although the overexpression of full-length OGTs inhibited the growth of S. cerevisiae, no such inhibition was obtained upon overexpression of only the CTD fragment, indicating the role of TPR domain in growth inhibition. This is the first report on the functional analysis of the fungal OGT, indicating that the Y. lipolytica OGT retains its catalytic activity, although the physiological role and substrates of YlOGT remain to be elucidated.

  9. Support vector machine for classification of meiotic recombination hotspots and coldspots in Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on codon composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xiao

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiotic double-strand breaks occur at relatively high frequencies in some genomic regions (hotspots and relatively low frequencies in others (coldspots. Hotspots and coldspots are receiving increasing attention in research into the mechanism of meiotic recombination. However, predicting hotspots and coldspots from DNA sequence information is still a challenging task. Results We present a novel method for classification of hot and cold ORFs located in hotspots and coldspots respectively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using support vector machine (SVM, which relies on codon composition differences. This method has achieved a high classification accuracy of 85.0%. Since codon composition is a fusion of codon usage bias and amino acid composition signals, the ability of these two kinds of sequence attributes to discriminate hot ORFs from cold ORFs was also investigated separately. Our results indicate that neither codon usage bias nor amino acid composition taken separately performed as well as codon composition. Moreover, our SVM based method was applied to the full genome: We predicted the hot/cold ORFs from the yeast genome by using cutoffs of recombination rate. We found that the performance of our method for predicting cold ORFs is not as good as that for predicting hot ORFs. Besides, we also observed a considerable correlation between meiotic recombination rate and amino acid composition of certain residues, which probably reflects the structural and functional dissimilarity between the hot and cold groups. Conclusion We have introduced a SVM-based novel method to discriminate hot ORFs from cold ones. Applying codon composition as sequence attributes, we have achieved a high classification accuracy, which suggests that codon composition has strong potential to be used as sequence attributes in the prediction of hot and cold ORFs.

  10. Fine-tuning of NADH oxidase decreases byproduct accumulation in respiration deficient xylose metabolic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin; Suo, Fan; Wang, Chengqiang; Li, Xiaowei; Shen, Yu; Bao, Xiaoming

    2014-02-14

    Efficiently utilizing all available carbon from lignocellulosic feedstock presents a major barrier to the production of economically feasible biofuel. Previously, to enable xylose utilization, we introduced a cofactor-dependent xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway, or a cofactor-independent xylose isomerase (XI) pathway, into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resulting strains metabolized xylose with high efficiency. However, in both pathway recombinant strains, the cofactor imbalance caused accumulation of the byproducts glycerol and/or xylitol and reduced the ethanol production efficiency. In this study, we introduced NADH oxidase from Lactococcus lactis into both XI and XR-XDH pathway recombinant strains. To reduce byproduct accumulation while maintaining xylose metabolism, we optimized the expression level of NADH oxidase by comparing its expression under the control of different promoters and plasmids. In recombinant XI strains, NADH oxidase was expressed at different levels, regulated by the GPD2 promoter or TEF1 promoter in the 2 μ plasmid. The expression under the control of GPD2 promoter decreased glycerol production by 84% and increased the ethanol yield and specific growth rate by 8% and 12%, respectively. In contrast, in the recombinant XR-XDH strains, such expression level was not efficient enough to decrease the byproduct accumulation. Therefore, higher NADH oxidase expression levels were tested. In the strain expressing NADH oxidase under the control of the TEF1 promoter in the centromeric plasmids, xylitol and glycerol production were reduced by 60% and 83%, respectively, without significantly affecting xylose consumption. By fine-tuning NADH oxidase expression, we decreased the glycerol or/and xylitol production in both recombinant XI and XR-XDH xylose-metabolizing yeast strains. The optimal NADH oxidase expression levels depend on metabolic pathways. Similar cofactor engineering strategies could maximize the production of

  11. Effect of tumor promoters on ultraviolet light-induced mutation and mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, B A; Hannan, M A; Haynes, R H

    1980-07-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that mitotic recombination is involved in tumor promotion. On this basis, one might expect tumor promoters to be recombinagenic. D7 is a diploid strain of yeast in which both mutation and mitotic recombination can be measured. We have used this strain to assay the known tumor promoters, iodoacetate, anthralin, and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and the cocarcinogen, catechol, for mutagenicity, recombinagenicity, and the ability to enhance ultraviolet light (UV)-induced genetic events. In the absence of preirradiation with UV, iodoacetate was found to be recombinagenic whereas catechol was mutagenic; however, in both cases, the effects were small. Iodoacetate, anthralin, and catechol potentiated UV-induced mitotic crossing-over, aberrant colony formation, and mutation, while catechol also increased UV-induced gene conversion. We were unable to detect any mutagenic or recombinagenic effect of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in either whole cells or spheroplasts. Our results do not indicate any consistent correlation between tumor-promoting activity and the ability of an agent to induce mitotic recombination in yeast. However, the ability to potentiate UV-induced mutation and mitotic recombination may reflect the cocarcinogenic activity of certain promoters.

  12. Engineering of carbon catabolite repression in recombinant xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Two xylose-fermenting glucose-derepressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed in order to investigate the influence of carbon catabolite repression on xylose metabolism. S. cerevisiae CPB.CR2 (Deltamig1, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) and CPB.MBH2 (Deltamig1, Deltamig2, XYL1, XYL2, XKS1) were...... analysed for changes in xylose consumption rate and ethanol production rate during anaerobic batch and chemostat cultivations on a mixture of 20 g l(-1) glucose and 50 g l(-1) xylose, and their characteristics were compared to the parental strain S. cerevisiae TMB3001 (XYL1, XYL2, XKS1). Improvement...... of CPB.CR2, where the cells are assumed to grow under non-repressive conditions as they sense almost no glucose, invertase activity was lower during growth on xylose and glucose than on glucose only. The 3-fold reduction in invertase activity could only be attributed to the presence of xylose, suggesting...

  13. Replication stress as a source of telomere recombination during replicative senescence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Marie-Noëlle; Churikov, Dmitri; Géli, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    Replicative senescence is triggered by short unprotected telomeres that arise in the absence of telomerase. In addition, telomeres are known as difficult regions to replicate due to their repetitive G-rich sequence prone to secondary structures and tightly bound non-histone proteins. Here we review accumulating evidence that telomerase inactivation in yeast immediately unmasks the problems associated with replication stress at telomeres. Early after telomerase inactivation, yeast cells undergo successive rounds of stochastic DNA damages and become dependent on recombination for viability long before the bulk of telomeres are getting critically short. The switch from telomerase to recombination to repair replication stress-induced damage at telomeres creates telomere instability, which may drive further genomic alterations and prepare the ground for telomerase-independent immortalization observed in yeast survivors and in 15% of human cancer. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Recombination-stable multimeric green fluorescent protein for characterization of weak promoter outputs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Knuf, Christoph; Förster, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) are widely used for visualization of proteins to track localization and expression dynamics. However, phenotypically important processes can operate at too low expression levels for routine detection, i.e. be overshadowed by autofluorescence noise. While GFP...... cultured for 25 generations under strong and slightly toxic expression after which only limited reduction in fluorescence was detectable. Such non-recombinogenic GFPs can help quantify intracellular responses operating a low copy number in recombination-prone organisms....

  15. Efficient Production of γ-GABA Using Recombinant E. coli Expressing Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) Derived from Eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Lu; Yao, Zhong; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong

    2017-12-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (γ-GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which acts as a major regulator in the central nervous system. Glutamate decarboxylase (namely GAD, EC 4.1.1.15) is known to be an ideal enzyme for γ-GABA production using L-glutamic acid as substrate. In this study, we cloned and expressed GAD gene from eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScGAD) in E. coli BL21(DE3). This enzyme was further purified and its optimal reaction temperature and pH were 37 °C and pH 4.2, respectively. The cofactor of ScGAD was verified to be either pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) or pyridoxal hydrochloride. The optimal concentration of either cofactor was 50 mg/L. The optimal medium for E. coli-ScGAD cultivation and expression were 10 g/L lactose, 5 g/L glycerol, 20 g/L yeast extract, and 10 g/L sodium chloride, resulting in an activity of 55 U/mL medium, three times higher than that of using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The maximal concentration of γ-GABA was 245 g/L whereas L-glutamic acid was near completely converted. These findings provided us a good example for bio-production of γ-GABA using recombinant E. coli expressing a GAD enzyme derived from eukaryote.

  16. Utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae recombinant strain incapable of both ethanol and glycerol biosynthesis for anaerobic bioproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Takashi; Furusawa, Chikara; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces ethanol and glycerol as major unwanted byproducts, unless ethanol and glycerol are the target compounds. Minimizing the levels of these byproducts is important for bioproduction processes using yeast cells. In this study, we constructed a yeast strain in which both ethanol and glycerol production pathways were disrupted and examined its culture characteristics. In wild-type yeast strain, metabolic pathways that produce ethanol and glycerol play an important role in reoxidizing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) generated during glycolysis, particularly under anaerobic conditions. Strains in which both pathways were disrupted therefore failed to grow and consume glucose under anaerobic conditions. Introduction of desired metabolic reaction(s) coupled with NADH oxidation enabled the engineered strain to consume substrate and produce target compound(s). Here we introduced NADH-oxidization-coupled L-lactate production mechanisms into a yeast strain incapable of ethanol and glycerol biosynthesis, based on in silico simulation using a genome-scale metabolic model of S. cerevisiae. From the results of in silico simulation based on flux balance analysis, a feasible anaerobic non-growing metabolic state, in which L-lactate yield approached the theoretical maximum, was identified and this phenomenon was verified experimentally. The yeast strain incapable of both ethanol and glycerol biosynthesis is a potentially valuable host for bioproduction coupled with NADH oxidation under anaerobic conditions.

  17. A Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Overproducing Mannoproteins Stabilizes Wine against Protein Haze▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Stabilization against protein haze was one of the first positive properties attributed to yeast mannoproteins in winemaking. In previous work we demonstrated that deletion of KNR4 leads to increased mannoprotein release in laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We have now constructed strains with KNR4 deleted in two different industrial wine yeast backgrounds. This required replacement of two and three alleles of KNR4 for the EC1118 and T73-4 backgrounds, respectively, and the use of three different selection markers for yeast genetic transformation. The actual effect of the genetic modification was dependent on both the genetic background and the culture conditions. The fermentation performance of T73-4 derivatives was clearly impaired, and these derivatives did not contribute to the protein stability of the wine, even though they showed increased mannoprotein release in vitro. In contrast, the EC1118 derivative with both alleles of KNR4 deleted released increased amounts of mannoproteins both in vitro and during wine fermentation assays, and the resulting wines were consistently less susceptible to protein haze. The fermentation performance of this strain was slightly impaired, but only with must with a very high sugar content. These results pave the way for the development of new commercial strains with the potential to improve several mannoprotein-related quality and technological parameters of wine. PMID:18606802

  18. A novel fusion partner for enhanced secretion of recombinant proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Hoon; Sung, Bong Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho; Sohn, Jung-Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Expressing proteins with fusion partners improves yield and simplifies the purification process. We developed a novel fusion partner to improve the secretion of heterologous proteins that are otherwise poorly excreted in yeast. The VOA1 (YGR106C) gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a subunit of vacuolar ATPase. We found that C-terminally truncated Voa1p was highly secreted into the culture medium, even when fused with rarely secreted heterologous proteins such as human interleukin-2 (hIL-2). Deletion mapping of C-terminally truncated Voa1p, identified a hydrophilic 28-amino acid peptide (HL peptide) that was responsible for the enhanced secretion of target protein. A purification tag and a protease cleavage site were added to use HL peptide as a multi-purpose fusion partner. The utility of this system was tested via the expression and purification of various heterologous proteins. In many cases, the yield of target proteins fused with the peptide was significantly increased, and fusion proteins could be directly purified with affinity chromatography. The fusion partner was removed by in vitro processing, and intact proteins were purified by re-application of samples to affinity chromatography.

  19. Enhancement of cloned gene product synthesis via autoselection in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napp, S.J.; Da Silva, N.A. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae autoselection strains with mutations in the ura3, fur1, and urid-k genes have been obtained through a sequential isolation procedure. The effects of medium enrichment on growth and cloned gene product synthesis were examined in batch culture for two autoselection strains. The plasmid gene product [beta]-galactosidase was under the control of the yeast GAL1 promoter, and two methods of induction were employed; one strain was induced via temperature shift while the other was induced by galactose addition. Three nutrient media were investigated: a lean selective medium (SD), a richer semidefined medium (SDC), and a rich complex medium (YPD). Plasmid instability and mutation reversion were not problems for the autoselection strains, even in uracil-containing medium. Short-term plasmid stabilities were approximately 90% in all three media tested. During continuous culture of the autoselection temperature-sensitive strain, long-term plasmid stability was excellent and [beta]-galactosidase expression remained high after more than 25 residence times under inducing conditions. In contrast, both [beta]-galactosidase specific activity and plasmid stability decreased linearly with time for an analogous nonautoselection strain. The introduced fur1 and urid-k mutations were very stable; after more than 50 generation of growth in complex medium, stability values of 99-100% were measured.

  20. Effects of Rho1, a small GTPase on the production of recombinant glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sha; Zhang, Ge-Yuan; Zhang, Huijie; Kitajima, Toshihiko; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiao-Dong

    2016-10-21

    To humanize yeast N-glycosylation pathways, genes involved in yeast specific hyper-mannosylation must be disrupted followed by the introduction of genes catalyzing the synthesis, transport, and addition of human sugars. However, deletion of these genes, for instance, OCH1, which initiates hyper-mannosylation, could cause severe defects in cell growth, morphogenesis and response to environmental challenges. In this study, overexpression of RHO1, which encodes the Rho1p small GTPase, is confirmed to partially recover the growth defect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δalg3Δoch1 double mutant strain. In addition, transmission electron micrographs indicated that the cell wall structure of RHO1-expressed cells have an enhanced glucan layer and also a recovered mannoprotein layer, revealing the effect of Rho1p GTPase on cell wall biosynthesis. Similar complementation phenotypes have been confirmed by overexpression of the gene that encodes Fks2 protein, a catalytic subunit of a 1,3-β-glucan synthase. Besides the recovery of cell wall structure, the RHO1-overexpressed Δalg3Δoch1 strain also showed improved abilities in temperature tolerance, osmotic potential and drug sensitivity, which were not observed in the Δalg3Δoch1-FKS2 cells. Moreover, RHO1 overexpression could also increase N-glycan site occupancy and the amount of secreted glycoproteins. Overexpression of RHO1 in 'humanized' glycoprotein producing yeasts could significantly facilitate its future industrial applications for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins.

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation for improving the xylose utilization of steam exploded corn stover at high solid loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of steam exploded corn stover (SECS) was investigated at 5-25% solid loadings compared with other conversion processes. SECS was washed with a 15-fold excess of deionized water to remove inhibitors of hydrolysis and fermentation. The concentration, yield, and productivity of ethanol was 34.3g/L, 90.0%, 2.61g/L/h in the co-fermentation of 60g/L glucose and 10g/L xylose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae IPE003. Ethanol concentration and productivity increased with increasing solid loading while ethanol yield decreased in all conversion processes of SECS. Glucan and xylan conversion was 82.0% and 82.1% in SSCF at 20% solid loading, respectively, while the concentration, yield and productivity of ethanol was 60.8g/L, 75.3% and 0.63g/L/h. The feeding strategy of SECS addition within 24h improved the SSCF performance. Therefore, SSCF increased ethanol productivity and was an effective conversion process for ethanol production at high solid loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fed-Batch Production of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Using Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; Pessoa, Adalberto; Vitolo, Michele

    The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-181, having the plasmid YEpPGK-G6P (built by coupling the vector YEPLAC 181 with the promoter phosphoglycerate kinase 1), was cultured by fed-batch process in order to evaluate its capability in the formation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC.1.1.1.49). Two liters of culture medium (10.0 g/L glucose, 3.7 g/L yeast nitrogen broth (YNB), 0.02 g/L l-tryptophan, 0.02 g/L l-histidine, 0.02 g/L uracil, and 0.02 g/L adenine) were inoculated with 1.5 g dry cell/L and left fermenting in the batch mode at pH 5.7, aeration of 2.2 vvm, 30°C, and agitation of 400 rpm. After glucose concentration in the medium was lower than 1.0 g/L, the cell culture was fed with a solution of glucose (10.0 g/L) or micronutrients (l-tryptophan, l-histidine, uracil, and adenine each one at a concentration of 0.02 g/L) following the constant, linear, or exponential mode. The volume of the culture medium in the fed-batch process was varied from 2 L up to 3 L during 5 h. The highest glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (350 U/L; 1 U=1 μmol of NADP/min) occurred when the glucose solution was fed into the fermenter through the decreasing linear mode.

  3. Xylose fermentation efficiency and inhibitor tolerance of the recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NAPX37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Cheng; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Gou, Zi-Xi; Gou, Min; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Guo-Ying; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Akamatsu, Takashi; Taguchi, Hisataka; Kida, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Industrial yeast strains with good xylose fermentation ability and inhibitor tolerance are important for economical lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The flocculating industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain NAPX37, harboring the xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase (XR-XDH)-based xylose metabolic pathway, displayed efficient xylose fermentation during batch and continuous fermentation. During batch fermentation, the xylose consumption rates at the first 36 h were similar (1.37 g/L/h) when the initial xylose concentrations were 50 and 75 g/L, indicating that xylose fermentation was not inhibited even when the xylose concentration was as high as 75 g/L. The presence of glucose, at concentrations of up to 25 g/L, did not affect xylose consumption rate at the first 36 h. Strain NAPX37 showed stable xylose fermentation capacity during continuous ethanol fermentation using xylose as the sole sugar, for almost 1 year. Fermentation remained stable at a dilution rate of 0.05/h, even though the xylose concentration in the feed was as high as 100 g/L. Aeration rate, xylose concentration, and MgSO4 concentration were found to affect xylose consumption and ethanol yield. When the xylose concentration in the feed was 75 g/L, a high xylose consumption rate of 6.62 g/L/h and an ethanol yield of 0.394 were achieved under an aeration rate of 0.1 vvm, dilution rate of 0.1/h, and 5 mM MgSO4. In addition, strain NAPX37 exhibited good tolerance to inhibitors such as weak acids, furans, and phenolics during xylose fermentation. These findings indicate that strain NAPX37 is a promising candidate for application in the industrial production of lignocellulosic bioethanol.

  4. Suppression of allelic recombination and aneuploidy by cohesin is independent of Chk1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shay Covo

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion (SCC, which is established during DNA replication, ensures genome stability. Establishment of SCC is inhibited in G2. However, this inhibition is relived and SCC is established as a response to DNA damage, a process known as Damage Induced Cohesion (DIC. In yeast, Chk1, which is a kinase that functions in DNA damage signal transduction, is considered an activator of SCC through DIC. Nonetheless, here we show that, unlike SCC mutations, loss of CHK1 did not increase spontaneous or damage-induced allelic recombination or aneuploidy. We suggest that Chk1 has a redundant role in the control of DIC or that DIC is redundant for maintaining genome stability.

  5. Expression of the vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase gene from a marine macro-alga Corallina pilulifera in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Takashi; Hemrika, Wieger; Aibara, Toshiaki; Wever, Ron; Izumi, Yoshikazu

    2002-07-01

    The vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase from the marine macro-alga Corallina pilulifera was heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme was purified and crystals in "tear drop" form were obtained. The catalytic properties of the recombinant enzyme were studied and compared with those of the native enzyme purified from C. pilulifera. Differences in thermal stability and chloroperoxidase activity were observed. The recombinant enzyme retained full activity after preincubation at 65 degrees C for 20 min, but the native enzyme was completely inactivated under the same conditions. The chlorinating activity of the native enzyme was more than ten times higher than that of the recombinant enzyme. Other properties, such as K(m) values for KBr and H(2)O(2), and optimal temperature and pH, were similar for each source of C. pilulifera bromoperoxidase.

  6. Effect of the reversal of coenzyme specificity by expression of mutated Pichia stipitis xylitol dehydrogenase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, J; Shen, Y; Li, X P; Bao, X M

    2007-08-01

    To determine the effects on xylitol accumulation and ethanol yield of expression of mutated Pichia stipitis xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) with reversal of coenzyme specificity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genes XYL2 (D207A/I208R/F209S) and XYL2 (S96C/S99C/Y102C/D207A/I208R/F209S) were introduced into S. cerevisiae, which already contained the P. stipitis XYL1 gene (encoding xylose reductase, XR) and the endogenously overexpressed XKS1 gene (encoding xylulokinase, XK). The specific activities of mutated XDH in both strains showed a distinct increase in NADP(+)-dependent activity in both strains with mutated XDH, reaching 0.782 and 0.698 U mg(-1). In xylose fermentation, the strain with XDH (D207A/I208R/F209S) had a large decrease in xylitol and glycerol yield, while the xylose consumption and ethanol yield were decreased. In the strain with XDH (S96C/S99C/Y102C/D207A/I208R/F209S), the xylose consumption and ethanol yield were also decreased, and the xylitol yield was increased, because of low XDH activity. Changing XDH coenzyme specificity was a sufficient method for reducing the production of xylitol, but high activity of XDH was also required for improved ethanol formation. The difference in coenzyme specificity was a vital parameter controlling ethanolic xylose fermentation but the XDH/XR ratio was also important.

  7. Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Johan O; Bonander, Nicklas; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Franzén, Carl Johan

    2014-01-01

    Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the encapsulated yeast, and

  8. Stepwise metabolic adaption from pure metabolization to balanced anaerobic growth on xylose explored for recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimacek, Mario; Kirl, Elisabeth; Krahulec, Stefan; Longus, Karin; Novy, Vera; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2014-03-08

    To effectively convert lignocellulosic feedstocks to bio-ethanol anaerobic growth on xylose constitutes an essential trait that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains normally do not adopt through the selective integration of a xylose assimilation route as the rate of ATP-formation is below energy requirements for cell maintenance (mATP). To enable cell growth extensive evolutionary and/or elaborate rational engineering is required. However the number of available strains meeting demands for process integration are limited. In this work evolutionary engineering in just two stages coupled to strain selection under strict anaerobic conditions was carried out with BP10001 as progenitor. BP10001 is an efficient (Yethanol = 0.35 g/g) but slow (qethanol = 0.05 ± 0.01 g/gBM/h) xylose-metabolizing recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that expresses an optimized yeast-type xylose assimilation pathway. BP10001 was adapted in 5 generations to anaerobic growth on xylose by prolonged incubation for 91 days in sealed flasks. Resultant strain IBB10A02 displayed a specific growth rate μ of 0.025 ± 0.002 h-1 but produced large amounts of glycerol and xylitol. In addition growth was strongly impaired at pH below 6.0 and in the presence of weak acids. Using sequential batch selection and IBB10A02 as basis, IBB10B05 was evolved (56 generations). IBB10B05 was capable of fast (μ = 0.056 ± 0.003 h-1; qethanol = 0.28 ± 0.04 g/gBM/h), efficient (Yethanol = 0.35 ± 0.02 g/g), robust and balanced fermentation of xylose. Importantly, IBB10A02 and IBB10B05 displayed a stable phenotype. Unlike BP10001 both strains displayed an unprecedented biphasic formation of glycerol and xylitol along the fermentation time. Transition from a glycerol- to a xylitol-dominated growth phase, probably controlled by CO2/HCO3-, was accompanied by a 2.3-fold increase of mATP while YATP (= 87 ± 7 mmolATP/gBM) remained unaffected. As long as glycerol

  9. Native signal peptide of human ERp57 disulfide isomerase mediates secretion of active native recombinant ERp57 protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Žitkus, Eimantas; Slibinskas, Rimantas

    2013-06-01

    Human ERp57 protein is disulfide isomerase, facilitating proper folding of glycoprotein precursors in the concert with ER lectin chaperones calreticulin and calnexin. Growing amount of data also associates ERp57 with many different functions in subcellular locations outside the ER. Analysis of protein functions requires substantial amounts of correctly folded, biologically active protein, and in this study we introduce yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a perfect host for production of human ERp57. Our data suggest that native signal peptide of human ERp57 protein is recognized and correctly processed in the yeast cells, which leads to protein secretion. Secreted recombinant ERp57 protein possesses native amino acid sequence and is biologically active. Moreover, secretion allows simple one-step purification of recombinant ERp57 protein with the yields reaching up to 10mg/L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitotic recombination and inactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by UV-radiation (254 nm) and hyperthermia depend on UV fluence rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petin, V G; Kim, J K; Rassokhina, A V; Zhurakovskaya, G P

    2001-07-01

    In experiments with wild-type diploid yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synergistic interaction of ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength, 254 nm) and heat (45--60 degrees C) was studied both for mutagenic and inactivation effects. Simultaneous hyperthermia and UV light treatments increase the frequency of UV-induced mitotic intergenic recombination (crossing-over) and cell inactivation. The enhancing effect was a function of UV light fluence rate. It is concluded that the effect of hyperthermia on low fluence UV or high fluence UV irradiation results in comparable effects on survival and mitotic recombination suggesting similar modulation by hyperthermia of the effects induced by UV at different fluence rates. The interpretation of the data obtained was carried out within the widely accepted point of view considering the synergistic effects as a result of repair ability damage.

  11. Selection of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters available for xylose cultivation and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu-Nishida, Yumiko; Sakihama, Yuri; Ishii, Jun; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-28

    To efficiently utilize xylose, a major sugar component of hemicelluloses, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the proper expression of varied exogenous and endogenous genes. To expand the repertoire of promoters in engineered xylose-utilizing yeast strains, we selected promoters in S. cerevisiae during cultivation and fermentation using xylose as a carbon source. To select candidate promoters that function in the presence of xylose, we performed comprehensive gene expression analyses using xylose-utilizing yeast strains both during xylose and glucose fermentation. Based on microarray data, we chose 29 genes that showed strong, moderate, and weak expression in xylose rather than glucose fermentation. The activities of these promoters in a xylose-utilizing yeast strain were measured by lacZ reporter gene assays over time during aerobic cultivation and microaerobic fermentation, both in xylose and glucose media. In xylose media, PTDH3, PFBA1, and PTDH1 were favorable for high expression, and PSED1, PHXT7, PPDC1, PTEF1, PTPI1, and PPGK1 were acceptable for medium-high expression in aerobic cultivation, and moderate expression in microaerobic fermentation. PTEF2 allowed moderate expression in aerobic culture and weak expression in microaerobic fermentation, although it showed medium-high expression in glucose media. PZWF1 and PSOL4 allowed moderate expression in aerobic cultivation, while showing weak but clear expression in microaerobic fermentation. PALD3 and PTKL2 showed moderate promoter activity in aerobic cultivation, but showed almost no activity in microaerobic fermentation. The knowledge of promoter activities in xylose cultivation obtained in this study will permit the control of gene expression in engineered xylose-utilizing yeast strains that are used for hemicellulose fermentation. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient aerobic xylose consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scalcinati, Gionata; Otero, José Manuel; Van Vleet, Jennifer R. H.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial biotechnology aims to develop robust microbial cell factories, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to produce an array of added value chemicals presently dominated by petrochemical processes. Xylose is the second most abundant monosaccharide after glucose and the most prevalent pentose...... flux to biomass production. Such a platform may then be enhanced with complementary metabolic engineering strategies that couple biomass production with high value-added chemical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase, from the native xylose......-metabolizing yeast Pichia stipitis, was constructed, followed by a directed evolution strategy to improve xylose utilization rates. The resulting S. cerevisiae strain was capable of rapid growth and fast xylose consumption producing only biomass and negligible amount of byproducts. Transcriptional profiling...

  13. Increasing cell biomass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases recombinant protein yield: the use of a respiratory strain as a microbial cell factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedfalk Kristina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein production is universally employed as a solution to obtain the milligram to gram quantities of a given protein required for applications as diverse as structural genomics and biopharmaceutical manufacture. Yeast is a well-established recombinant host cell for these purposes. In this study we wanted to investigate whether our respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TM6*, could be used to enhance the productivity of recombinant proteins over that obtained from corresponding wild type, respiro-fermentative strains when cultured under the same laboratory conditions. Results Here we demonstrate at least a doubling in productivity over wild-type strains for three recombinant membrane proteins and one recombinant soluble protein produced in TM6* cells. In all cases, this was attributed to the improved biomass properties of the strain. The yield profile across the growth curve was also more stable than in a wild-type strain, and was not further improved by lowering culture temperatures. This has the added benefit that improved yields can be attained rapidly at the yeast's optimal growth conditions. Importantly, improved productivity could not be reproduced in wild-type strains by culturing them under glucose fed-batch conditions: despite having achieved very similar biomass yields to those achieved by TM6* cultures, the total volumetric yields were not concomitantly increased. Furthermore, the productivity of TM6* was unaffected by growing cultures in the presence of ethanol. These findings support the unique properties of TM6* as a microbial cell factory. Conclusions The accumulation of biomass in yeast cell factories is not necessarily correlated with a proportional increase in the functional yield of the recombinant protein being produced. The respiratory S. cerevisiae strain reported here is therefore a useful addition to the matrix of production hosts currently available as its improved biomass

  14. Reduction of furan derivatives by overexpressing NADH-dependent Adh1 improves ethanol fermentation using xylose as sole carbon source with Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring XR-XDH pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Jun; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-03-01

    Several alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-related genes have been identified as enzymes for reducing levels of toxic compounds, such as, furfural and/or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), in hydrolysates of pretreated lignocelluloses. To date, overexpression of these ADH genes in yeast cells have aided ethanol production from glucose or glucose/xylose mixture in the presence of furfural or 5-HMF. However, the effects of these ADH isozymes on ethanol production from xylose as a sole carbon source remain uncertain. We showed that overexpression of mutant NADH-dependent ADH1 derived from TMB3000 strain in the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, into which xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) pathway of Pichia stipitis has been introduced, improved ethanol production from xylose as a sole carbon source in the presence of 5-HMF. Enhanced furan-reducing activity is able to regenerate NAD(+) to relieve redox imbalance, resulting in increased ethanol yield arising from decreased xylitol accumulation. In addition, we found that overexpression of wild-type ADH1 prevented the more severe inhibitory effects of furfural in xylose fermentation as well as overexpression of TMB3000-derived mutant. After 120 h of fermentation, the recombinant strains overexpressing wild-type and mutant ADH1 completely consumed 50 g/L xylose in the presence of 40 mM furfural and most efficiently produced ethanol (15.70 g/L and 15.24 g/L) when compared with any other test conditions. This is the first report describing the improvement of ethanol production from xylose as the sole carbon source in the presence of furan derivatives with xylose-utilizing recombinant yeast strains via the overexpression of ADH-related genes.

  15. Genome-scale consequences of cofactor balancing in engineered pentose utilization pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Ghosh

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer promising alternative renewable energy sources for transportation fuels. Significant effort has been made to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently ferment pentose sugars such as D-xylose and L-arabinose into biofuels such as ethanol through heterologous expression of the fungal D-xylose and L-arabinose pathways. However, one of the major bottlenecks in these fungal pathways is that the cofactors are not balanced, which contributes to inefficient utilization of pentose sugars. We utilized a genome-scale model of S. cerevisiae to predict the maximal achievable growth rate for cofactor balanced and imbalanced D-xylose and L-arabinose utilization pathways. Dynamic flux balance analysis (DFBA was used to simulate batch fermentation of glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose. The dynamic models and experimental results are in good agreement for the wild type and for the engineered D-xylose utilization pathway. Cofactor balancing the engineered D-xylose and L-arabinose utilization pathways simulated an increase in ethanol batch production of 24.7% while simultaneously reducing the predicted substrate utilization time by 70%. Furthermore, the effects of cofactor balancing the engineered pentose utilization pathways were evaluated throughout the genome-scale metabolic network. This work not only provides new insights to the global network effects of cofactor balancing but also provides useful guidelines for engineering a recombinant yeast strain with cofactor balanced engineered pathways that efficiently co-utilizes pentose and hexose sugars for biofuels production. Experimental switching of cofactor usage in enzymes has been demonstrated, but is a time-consuming effort. Therefore, systems biology models that can predict the likely outcome of such strain engineering efforts are highly useful for motivating which efforts are likely to be worth the significant time investment.

  16. Radiosensitive and mitotic recombination phenotypes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dun1 mutant defective in DNA damage-inducible gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasullo, M; Koudelik, J; AhChing, P; Giallanza, P; Cera, C

    1999-01-01

    The biological significance of DNA damage-induced gene expression in conferring resistance to DNA-damaging agents is unclear. We investigated the role of DUN1-mediated, DNA damage-inducible gene expression in conferring radiation resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The DUN1 gene was assigned to the RAD3 epistasis group by quantitating the radiation sensitivities of dun1, rad52, rad1, rad9, rad18 single and double mutants, and of the dun1 rad9 rad52 triple mutant. The dun1 and rad52 single...

  17. Exploring the potential of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2) promoter for recombinant gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jan Dines; Johanson, Ted; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A control point for keeping redox homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentative growth is the dynamic regulation of transcription for the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (GPD2) gene. In this study, the possibility to steer the activity of the GPD2 promoter was investigated...... at a growth rate of 0.3 h-1 and in conditions with excess oxygen (i.e. with an aeration of 2.5 vvm, and a stirring of 800 rpm). In addition, a clear window of operation where the gpd1Δgpd2Δ strain can be grown with the same efficiency as wild type yeast was identified. In conclusion, the flow cytometry...

  18. Esc2 and Sgs1 act in functionally distinct branches of the homologous recombination repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Hickson, Ian D

    2009-01-01

    homologous recombination repair (HRR) intermediates. These roles are qualitatively similar to those of Sgs1, the yeast ortholog of the human Bloom's syndrome protein, BLM. However, whereas mutation of either ESC2 or SGS1 leads to the accumulation of unprocessed HRR intermediates in the presence of MMS...

  19. The impact of respiration and oxidative stress response on recombinant α-amylase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Meza, Eugenio; Petranovic, Dina

    2016-01-01

    by overexpressing the endogenous HAP1 gene in a S. cerevisiae strain overproducing recombinant α-amylase. We demonstrate how Hap1p can activate a set of oxidative stress response genes and meanwhile contribute to increase the metabolic rate of the yeast strains, therefore mitigating the negative effect of the ROS...

  20. Genealogy-based methods for inference of historical recombination and gene flow and their application in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul A; Song, Yun S; Brem, Rachel B

    2012-01-01

    Genetic exchange between isolated populations, or introgression between species, serves as a key source of novel genetic material on which natural selection can act. While detecting historical gene flow from DNA sequence data is of much interest, many existing methods can be limited by requirements for deep population genomic sampling. In this paper, we develop a scalable genealogy-based method to detect candidate signatures of gene flow into a given population when the source of the alleles is unknown. Our method does not require sequenced samples from the source population, provided that the alleles have not reached fixation in the sampled recipient population. The method utilizes recent advances in algorithms for the efficient reconstruction of ancestral recombination graphs, which encode genealogical histories of DNA sequence data at each site, and is capable of detecting the signatures of gene flow whose footprints are of length up to single genes. Further, we employ a theoretical framework based on coalescent theory to test for statistical significance of certain recombination patterns consistent with gene flow from divergent sources. Implementing these methods for application to whole-genome sequences of environmental yeast isolates, we illustrate the power of our approach to highlight loci with unusual recombination histories. By developing innovative theory and methods to analyze signatures of gene flow from population sequence data, our work establishes a foundation for the continued study of introgression and its evolutionary relevance.

  1. Alcoholic fermentation by wild-type Hansenula polymorpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus recombinant strains with an elevated level of intracellular glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabek-Lejko, Dorota; Kurylenko, Olena O; Sibirny, Vladimir A; Ubiyvovk, Vira M; Penninckx, Michel; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-11-01

    The ability of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of the thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha to produce ethanol during alcoholic fermentation of glucose was compared between wild-type strains and recombinant strains possessing an elevated level of intracellular glutathione (GSH) due to overexpression of the first gene of GSH biosynthesis, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, or of the central regulatory gene of sulfur metabolism, MET4. The analyzed strains of H. polymorpha with an elevated pool of intracellular GSH were found to accumulate almost twice as much ethanol as the wild-type strain during glucose fermentation, in contrast to GSH1-overexpressing S. cerevisiae strains, which also possessed an elevated pool of GSH. The ethanol tolerance of the GSH-overproducing strains was also determined. For this, the wild-type strain and transformants with an elevated GSH pool were compared for their viability upon exposure to exogenous ethanol. Unexpectedly, both S. cerevisiae and H. polymorpha transformants with a high GSH pool proved more sensitive to exogenous ethanol than the corresponding wild-type strains.

  2. Increased ethanol accumulation from glucose via reduction of ATP level in a recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2014-05-15

    The production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation represents the largest scale application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial biotechnology. Increased worldwide demand for fuel bioethanol is anticipated over the next decade and will exceed 200 billion liters from further expansions. Our working hypothesis was that the drop in ATP level in S. cerevisiae cells during alcoholic fermentation should lead to an increase in ethanol production (yield and productivity) with a greater amount of the utilized glucose converted to ethanol. Our approach to achieve this goal is to decrease the intracellular ATP level via increasing the unspecific alkaline phosphatase activity. Intact and truncated versions of the S. cerevisiae PHO8 gene coding for vacuolar or cytosolic forms of alkaline phosphatase were fused with the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) promoter. The constructed expression cassettes used for transformation vectors also contained the dominant selective marker kanMX4 and S. cerevisiae δ-sequence to facilitate multicopy integration to the genome. Laboratory and industrial ethanol producing strains BY4742 and AS400 overexpressing vacuolar form of alkaline phosphatase were characterized by a slightly lowered intracellular ATP level and biomass accumulation and by an increase in ethanol productivity (13% and 7%) when compared to the parental strains. The strains expressing truncated cytosolic form of alkaline phosphatase showed a prolonged lag-phase, reduced biomass accumulation and a strong defect in ethanol production. Overexpression of vacuolar alkaline phosphatase leads to an increased ethanol yield in S. cerevisiae.

  3. Optimizing promoters and secretory signal sequences for producing ethanol from inulin by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying Kluyveromyces marxianus inulinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Dae-Hee; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Inulin is a polyfructan that is abundant in plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and dahlia. Inulinase can easily hydrolyze inulin to fructose, which is consumed by microorganisms. Generally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an industrial workhorse strain for bioethanol production, is known for not having inulinase activity. The inulinase gene from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU), with the ability of converting inulin to fructose, was introduced into S. cerevisiae D452-2. The inulinase gene was fused to three different types of promoter (GPD, PGK1, truncated HXT7) and secretory signal sequence (KmINU, MFα1, SUC2) to generate nine expression cassettes. The inulin fermentation performance of the nine transformants containing different promoter and signal sequence combinations for inulinase production were compared to select an optimized expression system for efficient inulin fermentation. Among the nine inulinase-producing transformants, the S. cerevisiae carrying the PGK1 promoter and MFα1 signal sequence (S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM) showed not only the highest specific KmINU activity, but also the best inulin fermentation capability. Finally, a batch fermentation of the selected S. cerevisiae D452-2/p426PM in a bioreactor with 188.2 g/L inulin was performed to produce 80.2 g/L ethanol with 0.43 g ethanol/g inulin of ethanol yield and 1.22 g/L h of ethanol productivity.

  4. Enhanced d-lactic acid production by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae following optimization of the global metabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Wakita, Kazuki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Ogino, Hiroyasu

    2017-09-01

    Utilization of renewable feedstocks for the production of bio-based chemicals such as d-lactic acid by engineering metabolic pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently become an attractive option. In this study, to realize efficient d-lactic acid production by S. cerevisiae, the expression of 12 glycolysis-related genes and the Leuconostoc mesenteroides d-LDH gene was optimized using a previously developed global metabolic engineering strategy, and repeated batch fermentation was carried out using the resultant strain YPH499/dPdA3-34/DLDH/1-18. Stable d-lactic acid production through 10 repeated batch fermentations was achieved using YPH499/dPdA3-34/DLDH/1-18. The average d-lactic acid production, productivity, and yield with 10 repeated batch fermentations were 60.3 g/L, 2.80 g/L/h, and 0.646, respectively. The present study is the first report of the application of a global metabolic engineering strategy for bio-based chemical production, and it shows the potential for efficient production of such chemicals by global metabolic engineering of the yeast S. cerevisiae. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2075-2084. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reduced dosage of the chromosome axis factor Red1 selectively disrupts the meiotic recombination checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovah E Markowitz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic chromosomes assemble characteristic "axial element" structures that are essential for fertility and provide the chromosomal context for meiotic recombination, synapsis and checkpoint signaling. Whether these meiotic processes are equally dependent on axial element integrity has remained unclear. Here, we investigated this question in S. cerevisiae using the putative condensin allele ycs4S. We show that the severe axial element assembly defects of this allele are explained by a linked mutation in the promoter of the major axial element gene RED1 that reduces Red1 protein levels to 20-25% of wild type. Intriguingly, the Red1 levels of ycs4S mutants support meiotic processes linked to axis integrity, including DNA double-strand break formation and deposition of the synapsis protein Zip1, at levels that permit 70% gamete survival. By contrast, the ability to elicit a meiotic checkpoint arrest is completely eliminated. This selective loss of checkpoint function is supported by a RED1 dosage series and is associated with the loss of most of the cytologically detectable Red1 from the axial element. Our results indicate separable roles for Red1 in building the structural axis of meiotic chromosomes and mounting a sustained recombination checkpoint response.

  6. A Delicate Balance Between Repair and Replication Factors Regulates Recombination Between Divergent DNA Sequences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujani; George, Carolyn M; Lyndaker, Amy M; Alani, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Single-strand annealing (SSA) is an important homologous recombination mechanism that repairs DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) occurring between closely spaced repeat sequences. During SSA, the DSB is acted upon by exonucleases to reveal complementary sequences that anneal and are then repaired through tail clipping, DNA synthesis, and ligation steps. In baker's yeast, the Msh DNA mismatch recognition complex and the Sgs1 helicase act to suppress SSA between divergent sequences by binding to mismatches present in heteroduplex DNA intermediates and triggering a DNA unwinding mechanism known as heteroduplex rejection. Using baker's yeast as a model, we have identified new factors and regulatory steps in heteroduplex rejection during SSA. First we showed that Top3-Rmi1, a topoisomerase complex that interacts with Sgs1, is required for heteroduplex rejection. Second, we found that the replication processivity clamp proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is dispensable for heteroduplex rejection, but is important for repairing mismatches formed during SSA. Third, we showed that modest overexpression of Msh6 results in a significant increase in heteroduplex rejection; this increase is due to a compromise in Msh2-Msh3 function required for the clipping of 3' tails. Thus 3' tail clipping during SSA is a critical regulatory step in the repair vs. rejection decision; rejection is favored before the 3' tails are clipped. Unexpectedly, Msh6 overexpression, through interactions with PCNA, disrupted heteroduplex rejection between divergent sequences in another recombination substrate. These observations illustrate the delicate balance that exists between repair and replication factors to optimize genome stability. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Expression of recombinant EARLI1, a hybrid proline-rich protein of Arabidopsis, in Escherichia coli and its inhibition effect to the growth of fungal pathogens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Dan; Schläppi, Michael; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2012-09-10

    EARLI1 is an Arabidopsis gene with pleiotropic effects previously shown to have auxiliary functions in protecting plants against freezing-induced cellular damage and promoting germinability under low-temperature and salinity stresses. Here we determined whether recombinant EARLI1 protein has anti-fungal activity. Recombinant EARLI1 protein lacking its signal peptide was produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction and the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a. Expression of EARLI1 was analyzed by Western blotting and the protein was purified using affinity chromatography. Recombinant EARLI1 protein was applied to fungal cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, and membrane permeability was determined using SYTOX green. Full-length EARLI1 was expressed in S. cerevisiae from the GAL1 promoter using 2% galactose and yeast cell viability was compared to control cells. Our results indicated that application of recombinant EARLI1 protein to B. cinerea and F. oxysporum could inhibit the growth of the necrotrophic fungi. Besides, addition of the recombinant protein to liquid cultures of S. cerevisiae significantly suppressed yeast growth and cell viability by increasing membrane permeability, and in vivo expression of the secreted form of EARLI1 in S. cerevisiae also had a remarkable inhibition effect on the growth of yeast cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethanol production from paper sludge by simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation using recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Lynd, Lee R

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of waste paper sludge to ethanol was investigated using two recombinant xylose-fermenting microbes: Zymomonas mobilis 8b and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RWB222. S. cerevisiae RWB222 produced over 40 g/L ethanol with a yield of 0.39 g ethanol/g carbohydrate on paper sludge at 37 degrees C, while similar titers and yields were achieved by Z. mobilis 8b at 30 degrees C. Both S. cerevisiae RWB222 and Z. mobilis 8b exhibited decreasing cell viability at 37 degrees C when producing over 40 g/L ethanol. A high ethanol concentration can account for S. cerevisiae RWB222 viability loss, but ethanol concentration was not the only factor influencing Z. mobilis 8b viability loss at 37 degrees C. Over 3 g/L residual glucose was observed at the end of paper sludge SSCF by Z. mobilis 8b, and a statistical analysis revealed that a high calcium concentration originating from paper sludge, a high ethanol concentration, and a high temperature were the key interactive factors resulting in glucose accumulation. The highest ethanol yields were achieved by SSCF of paper sludge with S. cerevisiae RWB222 at 37 degrees C and Z. mobilis 8b at 30 degrees C. With good sugar consumption at 37 degrees C, S. cerevisiae RWB222 was able to gain an improvement in the polysaccharide to sugar yield compared to that at 30 degrees C, whereas Z. mobilis 8b at 30 degrees C had a lower polysaccharide to sugar yield, but a higher sugar to ethanol yield than S. cerevisiae. Both organisms under optimal conditions achieved a 19% higher overall conversion of paper sludge to ethanol than the non-xylose utilizing S. cerevisiae D5A at its optimal process temperature of 37 degrees C.

  9. Iterative optimization of xylose catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using combinatorial expression tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Luke N; Dueber, John E

    2017-06-01

    A common challenge in metabolic engineering is rapidly identifying rate-controlling enzymes in heterologous pathways for subsequent production improvement. We demonstrate a workflow to address this challenge and apply it to improving xylose utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For eight reactions required for conversion of xylose to ethanol, we screened enzymes for functional expression in S. cerevisiae, followed by a combinatorial expression analysis to achieve pathway flux balancing and identification of limiting enzymatic activities. In the next round of strain engineering, we increased the copy number of these limiting enzymes and again tested the eight-enzyme combinatorial expression library in this new background. This workflow yielded a strain that has a ∼70% increase in biomass yield and ∼240% increase in xylose utilization. Finally, we chromosomally integrated the expression library. This library enriched for strains with multiple integrations of the pathway, which likely were the result of tandem integrations mediated by promoter homology. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1301-1309. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Deleting the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase), PHO13, in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves growth and ethanol production on D-xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Van Vleet; Thomas W. Jeffries; Lisbeth Olsson

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of D-xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for assimilation of xylose results in growth inhibition that is more pronounced at higher xylose concentrations. Mutants deficient in the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase, PHO13, resist growth inhibition on xylose. We studied this inhibition under aerobic growth conditions in well-controlled...

  11. UV but not X rays stimulate homologous recombination between sister chromatids and homologs in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mec1 (ATR) hypomorphic mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasullo, Michael; Sun, Mingzeng

    2008-12-15

    MEC1, the essential yeast ATM/ATR homolog, prevents replication fork collapse and is required for the cellular response to DNA damage. We had previously observed higher rates of spontaneous SCE, heteroallelic recombination and translocations in mec1-21 mutants, which still retain some G2 checkpoint function, compared to mec1 null mutants, which are completely defective in checkpoint function, and wild type. However, the types of DNA lesions that are more recombinogenic in mec1-21, compared to wild type, are unknown. Here, we measured DNA damage-associated SCE, homolog (heteroallelic) recombination, and homology-directed translocations in mec1-21, and characterized types of DNA damage-associated chromosomal rearrangements that occur in mec1-21. Although frequencies of UV-associated recombination were higher in mec1-21, the mutant was defective in double-strand break-associated SCE and heteroallelic recombination. Over-expression of Rad53 in mec1-21 reduced UV-associated recombination but did not suppress the defect in X-ray-associated recombination. Both X ray and UV exposure increased translocation frequencies in mec1-21, but the majority of the UV-associated products were non-reciprocal translocations. We suggest that although recombinational repair of double-stand breaks is less efficient in mec1 mutants, recombinants may be generated by other mechanisms, such as break-induced replication.

  12. Effect of manganese ions on ethanol fermentation by xylose isomerase expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae under acetic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-12-01

    The efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of inhibitors is highly desirable for bioethanol production. Among the inhibitors, acetic acid released during the pretreatment of lignocellulose negatively affects the fermentation performance of biofuel producing organisms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of acetic acid on glucose and xylose fermentation by a high performance engineered strain of xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SXA-R2P-E, harboring a xylose isomerase based pathway. The presence of acetic acid severely decreased the xylose fermentation performance of this strain. However, the acetic acid stress was alleviated by metal ion supplementation resulting in a 52% increased ethanol production rate under 2g/L of acetic acid stress. This study shows the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on an engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain and suggests a simple but effective method to improve the co-fermentation performance under acetic acid stress for efficient bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced production of xylitol from xylose by expression of Bacillus subtilis arabinose:H+ symporter and Scheffersomyces stipitis xylose reductase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoju; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Park, Haeseong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Boles, Eckhard; Chung, Donghwa; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2017-12-01

    Inefficient transport of xylose into Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a major hurdle for production of xylitol, a natural sweetener with five carbons. To facilitate the xylose transport and hence increase xylose conversion to xylitol, the araE gene encoding an arabinose:H+ symporter (AraE) from Bacillus subtilis and the XYL1 gene from Scheffersomyces stipitis were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000, a hxt null mutant. The resulting strain of EXHA exhibited 4.1 fold increases in xylose consumption rate and xylitol productivity, relative to the control strain without AraE. Also, overexpression of AraE in wild type S. cerevisiae D452-2 having all hexose transporters and the XYL1 gene increased both xylose consumption and xylitol production considerably. In a glucose-limited fed-batch culture with intermittent addition of xylose, the DXXA strain with multiple copies of araE and XYL1 produced 177.8g/L xylitol with 2.47g/L-h productivity, which were 26.9 and 17.6 times higher than those for a batch culture of the DX strain expressing the XYL1 gene only, respectively. It was concluded that B. subtilis AraE might be a potent xylose transporter and conferred much higher xylose-consuming and xylitol-producing abilities to S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Studying the ability of Fusarium oxysporum and recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently cooperate in decomposition and ethanolic fermentation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Topakas, Evangelos; Moukouli, Maria

    2011-01-01

    by the addition of commercially available enzymes Celluclast® 1.5 L FG and Novozym® 188 in 3:1 ratio for the treatment of PWS, resulted in a 3-fold increase in the volumetric ethanol productivity without increasing the ethanol production significantly. By direct bioconversion of 110 kg m−3 dry matter of PWS......, ethanol concentration (4.9 kg m−3) and yield (40 g kg−1 of PWS) were similarly obtained by F. oxysporum and the mixed culture, while productivity rates as high as 34 g m−3 h−1 and 108 g m−3 h−1 were obtained by F. oxysporum and the mixed culture, respectively.......Fusarium oxysporum F3 alone or in mixed culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae F12 were used to ferment carbohydrates of wet exploded pre-treated wheat straw (PWS) directly to ethanol. Both microorganisms were first grown aerobically to produce cell mass and thereafter fermented PWS to ethanol under...

  15. Deleting the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase), PHO13, in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves growth and ethanol production on D-xylose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vleet, Jennifer; Jeffries, T.W.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of D-xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for assimilation of xylose results in growth inhibition that is more pronounced at higher xylose concentrations. Mutants deficient in the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase, PHO13, resist growth inhibition on xylose. We studied...... this inhibition under aerobic growth conditions in well-controlled bioreactors using engineered S. cerevisiae CEN.PK. Growth on glucose was not significantly affected in pho13 Delta mutants, but acetate production increased by 75%. Cell growth, ethanol production, and xylose consumption all increased markedly...... in pho13 Delta mutants. The specific growth rate and rate of specific xylose uptake were approximately 1.5 times higher in the deletion strain than in the parental strain when growing on glucose-xylose mixtures and up to 10-fold higher when growing on xylose alone. In addition to showing higher acetate...

  16. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Caligo, Maria Adelaide [Section of Genetic Oncology, University Hospital and University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Galli, Alvaro, E-mail: alvaro.galli@ifc.cnr.it [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene affects growth and UV-induced homologous recombination in yeast. • PARP-1 chemical inhibition impacts yeast growth and UV-induced recombination. • A genome-wide screen identifies 99 yeast genes that suppress the growth defect inferred by PARP-1. • Bioinformatics analysis identifies 41 human orthologues that may have a role in PARP-1 intracellular localization. • The findings suggest that PARP-1 nuclear localization may affect the response to PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. - Abstract: The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the

  17. Structure, biochemical and kinetic properties of recombinant Pst2p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a FMN-dependent NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Karin; Hromic, Altijana; Sorokina, Marija; Strandback, Emilia; Reisinger, Manuel; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes four flavodoxin-like proteins, namely Lot6p, Pst2p, Rfs1p and Ycp4p. Thus far only Lot6p was characterized in detail demonstrating that the enzyme possesses NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity. In the present study, we heterologously expressed PST2 in Escherichia coli and purified the produced protein to conduct a detailed biochemical and structural characterization. Determination of the three-dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography revealed that Pst2p adopts the flavodoxin-like fold and forms tetramers independent of cofactor binding. The lack of electron density for FMN indicated weak binding, which was confirmed by further biochemical analysis yielding a dissociation constant of 20±1μM. The redox potential of FMN bound to Pst2p was determined to -89±3mV and is thus 119mV more positive than that of free FMN indicating that reduced FMN binds ca. five orders of magnitude tighter to Pst2p than oxidized FMN. Due to this rather positive redox potential Pst2p is unable to reduce free FMN or azo dyes as reported for other members of the flavodoxin-like protein family. On the other hand, Pst2p efficiently catalyzes the NAD(P)H dependent two-electron reduction of natural and artificial quinones. The kinetic mechanism follows a ping-pong bi-bi reaction scheme. In vivo experiments with a PST2 knock out and overexpressing strain demonstrated that Pst2p enables yeast cells to cope with quinone-induced damage suggesting a role of the enzyme in managing oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Short-term adaptation during propagation improves the performance of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fredrik; Tomás-Pejó, Elia; Olsson, Lisbeth; Wallberg, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors that are generated during thermochemical pretreatment and hydrolysis impair the performance of microorganisms during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In omitting costly detoxification steps, the fermentation process relies extensively on the performance of the fermenting microorganism. One attractive option of improving its performance and tolerance to microbial inhibitors is short-term adaptation during propagation. This study determined the influence of short-term adaptation on the performance of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF). The aim was to understand how short-term adaptation with lignocellulosic hydrolysate affects the cell mass yield of propagated yeast and performance in subsequent fermentation steps. The physiology of propagated yeast was examined with regard to viability, vitality, stress responses, and upregulation of relevant genes to identify any links between the beneficial traits that are promoted during adaptation and overall ethanol yields in co-fermentation. The presence of inhibitors during propagation significantly improved fermentation but lowered cell mass yield during propagation. Xylose utilization of adapted cultures was enhanced by increasing amounts of hydrolysate in the propagation. Ethanol yields improved by over 30 % with inhibitor concentrations that corresponded to ≥2.5 % water-insoluble solids (WIS) load during the propagation compared with the unadapted culture. Adaptation improved cell viability by >10 % and increased vitality by >20 %. Genes that conferred resistance against inhibitors were upregulated with increasing amounts of inhibitors during the propagation, but the adaptive response was not associated with improved ethanol yields in SSCF. The positive effects in SSCF were observed even with adaptation at inhibitor concentrations that corresponded to 2.5 % WIS. Higher amounts of hydrolysate in the propagation feed further

  19. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuza Nogueira Moysés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review.

  20. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; de Almeida, João Ricardo Moreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review. PMID:26927067

  1. Xylose Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Challenges and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Danuza Nogueira; Reis, Viviane Castelo Branco; de Almeida, João Ricardo Moreira; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2016-02-25

    Many years have passed since the first genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting xylose were obtained with the promise of an environmentally sustainable solution for the conversion of the abundant lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Several challenges emerged from these first experiences, most of them related to solving redox imbalances, discovering new pathways for xylose utilization, modulation of the expression of genes of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and reduction of xylitol formation. Strategies on evolutionary engineering were used to improve fermentation kinetics, but the resulting strains were still far from industrial application. Lignocellulosic hydrolysates proved to have different inhibitors derived from lignin and sugar degradation, along with significant amounts of acetic acid, intrinsically related with biomass deconstruction. This, associated with pH, temperature, high ethanol, and other stress fluctuations presented on large scale fermentations led the search for yeasts with more robust backgrounds, like industrial strains, as engineering targets. Some promising yeasts were obtained both from studies of stress tolerance genes and adaptation on hydrolysates. Since fermentation times on mixed-substrate hydrolysates were still not cost-effective, the more selective search for new or engineered sugar transporters for xylose are still the focus of many recent studies. These challenges, as well as under-appreciated process strategies, will be discussed in this review.

  2. Impact of xylose and mannose on central metabolism of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.P.

    2005-07-01

    In this study, understanding of the central metabolism was improved by quantification of metabolite concentrations, enzyme activities, protein abundances, and gene transcript concentrations. Intracellular fluxes were estimated by applying stoichiometric models of metabolism. The methods were applied in the study of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two separate projects. A xylose project aimed at improved utilization of D- xylose as a substrate for, e.g., producing biomaterial- based fuel ethanol. A mannose project studied the production of GDP-mannose from D-mannose in a strain lacking the gene for phosphomannose isomerase (PMI40 deletion). Hexose, D-glucose is the only sugar more abundant than pentose D-xylose. D-xylose is common in hardwoods (e.g. birch) and crop residues (ca. 25% of dry weight). However, S. cerevisiae is unable to utilize D- xylose without a recombinant pathway where D-xylose is converted to Dxylulose. In this study D-xylose was converted in two steps via xylitol: by D-xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoded by XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, respectively. Additionally, endogenous xylulokinase (XKS1) was overexpressed in order to increase the consumption of D-xylose by enhancing the phosphorylation of D-xylulose. Despite of the functional recombinant pathway the utilization rates of D xylose still remained low. This study proposes a set of limitations that are responsible for the low utilization rates of D-xylose under microaerobic conditions. Cells compensated for the cofactor imbalance, caused by the conversion of D-xylose to D- xylulose, by increasing the flux through the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and by shuttling NADH redox potential to mitochondrion to be oxidized in oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondrial NADH inhibits citrate synthase in citric acid cycle, and consequently lower flux through citric acid cycle limits oxidative phosphorylation. Further, limitations in the uptake of D- xylose, in the

  3. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Galli, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the deubiquitination enzyme gene OTU1, the nuclear pore protein POM152 and the SNT1 that encodes for the Set3C subunit of the histone deacetylase complex. In these strains the PARP-1 level was roughly the same as in the wild type. PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in the snt1Δ than in the wild type strain; after UV radiation, PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in hho1 and pom152 deletion strains than in the wild type indicating that these functions may have a role on regulating PARP-1 level and activity in the nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Xylose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetter, P.; Ciriacy, M. (Institut fuer Mikrobiologie, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    We have performed a comparative study of xylose utilization in Saccaromyces cerevisiae transformants expressing two key enzymes in xylose metabolism, xylose reductase (XR) and xylithol dehydrogenase (XDH), and in a prototypic xylose-utilizing yeast, Pichia stipitis. In the absence of respiration (see text), baker's yeast cells convert half of the xylose to xylitol and ethanol, whereas P. stipitis cells display rather a homofermentative conversion of xylose to ethanol. Xylitol production by baker's yeast is interpreted as a result of the dual cofactor dependence of the XR and the generation of NADPH by the pentose phosphate pathway. Further limitations of xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae cells are very likely caused by an insufficient capacity of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, as indicated by accumulation of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and the absence of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and pyruvate accumulation. By contrast, uptake at high substrate concentrations probably does not limit xylose conversion in S. cerevisiae XYL1/XYL2 transformants. (orig.).

  5. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  6. Regulation of homologous recombination at telomeres in budding yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine; Lisby, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination is suppressed at normal length telomere sequences. In contrast, telomere recombination is allowed when telomeres erode in the absence of telomerase activity or as a consequence of nucleolytic degradation or incomplete replication. Here, we review the mechanisms...... that contribute to regulating mitotic homologous recombination at telomeres and the role of these mechanisms in signalling short telomeres in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae....

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus K; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Regenberg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Microbial biofilms can be defined as multi-cellular aggregates adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The nonpathogenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, follows the common traits of microbial biofilms with cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion. S. cerevisiae is shown...... pathways including the protein kinase A and a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Advanced genetic tools and resources have been developed for S. cerevisiae including a deletion mutant-strain collection in a biofilm-forming strain background and GFP-fusion protein collections. Furthermore, S....... cerevisiae biofilm is well applied for confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorophore tagging of proteins, DNA and RNA. These techniques can be used to uncover the molecular mechanisms for biofilm development, drug resistance and for the study of molecular interactions, cell response to environmental...

  8. Molecular genetic diversity of the Saccharomyces yeasts in Taiwan: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Gennadi I; Lee, Ching-Fu; Naumova, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic hybridization, sequence and karyotypic analyses of natural Saccharomyces yeasts isolated in different regions of Taiwan revealed three biological species: Saccharomyces arboricola, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Intraspecies variability of the D1/D2 and ITS1 rDNA sequences was detected among S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii isolates. According to molecular and genetic analyses, the cosmopolitan species S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii contain local divergent populations in Taiwan, Malaysia and Japan. Six of the seven known Saccharomyces species are documented in East Asia: S. arboricola, S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, and S. paradoxus.

  9. Evaluation of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as the chassis cell for second-generation bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxing; Wu, Meiling; Xu, Lili; Hou, Jin; Guo, Ting; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2015-03-01

    To develop a suitable Saccharomyces cerevisiae industrial strain as a chassis cell for ethanol production using lignocellulosic materials, 32 wild-type strains were evaluated for their glucose fermenting ability, their tolerance to the stresses they might encounter in lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation and their genetic background for pentose metabolism. The strain BSIF, isolated from tropical fruit in Thailand, was selected out of the distinctly different strains studied for its promising characteristics. The maximal specific growth rate of BSIF was as high as 0.65 h(-1) in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium, and the ethanol yield was 0.45 g g(-1) consumed glucose. Furthermore, compared with other strains, this strain exhibited superior tolerance to high temperature, hyperosmotic stress and oxidative stress; better growth performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysate; and better xylose utilization capacity when an initial xylose metabolic pathway was introduced. All of these results indicate that this strain is an excellent chassis strain for lignocellulosic ethanol production. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. High expression of heterologous proteins by Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, Antonius Martinus Johannes van de

    2006-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is of great importance for industrial applications in fields such as pharmaceutical ingredients and industrial enzymes. One of these products are camelid antibody fragments, produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in high cell density fed batch fermentation

  11. Enabling xylose utilization in Yarrowia lipolytica for lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Alper, Hal S

    2016-09-01

    The conversion of lignocellulosic sugars, in particular xylose, is important for sustainable fuels and chemicals production. While the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is a strong candidate for lipid production, it is currently unable to effectively utilize xylose. By introducing a heterologous oxidoreductase pathway and enabling starvation adaptation, we obtained a Y. lipolytica strain, E26 XUS, that can use xylose as a sole carbon source and produce over 15 g/L of lipid in bioreactor fermentations (29.3% of theoretical yield) with a maximal lipid productivity of 0.19 g/L/h. Genomic sequencing and genetic analysis pointed toward increases in genomic copy number of the pathway and resulting elevated expression levels as the causative mutations underlying this improved phenotype. More broadly, many regions of the genome were duplicated during starvation of Yarrowia. This strain can form the basis for further engineering to enhance xylose catabolic rates and conversion. Finally, this study also reveals the flexibility and dynamic nature of the Y. lipolytica genome, and the means at which starvation can be used to induce genomic duplications. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novy, Vera; Wang, Ruifei; Westman, Johan O; Franzén, Carl Johan; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The most advanced strains of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae still utilize xylose far less efficiently than glucose, despite the extensive metabolic and evolutionary engineering applied in their development. Systematic comparison of strains across literature is difficult due to widely varying conditions used for determining key physiological parameters. Here, we evaluate an industrial and a laboratory S. cerevisiae strain, which has the assimilation of xylose via xylitol in common, but differ fundamentally in the history of their adaptive laboratory evolution development, and in the cofactor specificity of the xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). In xylose and mixed glucose-xylose shaken bottle fermentations, with and without addition of inhibitor-rich wheat straw hydrolyzate, the specific xylose uptake rate of KE6-12.A (0.27-1.08 g g CDW -1  h -1 ) was 1.1 to twofold higher than that of IBB10B05 (0.10-0.82 g g CDW -1  h -1 ). KE6-12.A further showed a 1.1 to ninefold higher glycerol yield (0.08-0.15 g g -1 ) than IBB10B05 (0.01-0.09 g g -1 ). However, the ethanol yield (0.30-0.40 g g -1 ), xylitol yield (0.08-0.26 g g -1 ), and maximum specific growth rate (0.04-0.27 h -1 ) were in close range for both strains. The robustness of flocculating variants of KE6-12.A (KE-Flow) and IBB10B05 (B-Flow) was analyzed in high-gravity simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation. As in shaken bottles, KE-Flow showed faster xylose conversion and higher glycerol formation than B-Flow, but final ethanol titres (61 g L -1 ) and cell viability were again comparable for both strains. Individual specific traits, elicited by the engineering strategy, can affect global physiological parameters of S. cerevisiae in different and, sometimes, unpredictable ways. The industrial strain background and prolonged evolution history in KE6-12.A improved the specific xylose uptake rate more substantially than the superior XR, XDH, and xylulokinase

  13. Norovirus recombination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bull, Rowena A; Tanaka, Mark M; White, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    ...{at}unsw.edu.au RNA recombination is a significant driving force in viral evolution. Increased awareness of recombination within the genus Norovirus of the family Calicivirus has led to a rise in the identification of norovirus (NoV...

  14. Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, H. L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the mechanisms of genetic recombination with particular emphasis on the study of the fungus Sordaria brevicollis. The study of recombination is facilitated by the use of mutants of this fungus in which the color of the ascospores is affected. (JR)

  15. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  16. Isolation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from unusual natural habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Finžgar, Bernarda

    2012-01-01

    Baker yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been an eukarontic experimental organism since 1960s, becoming even more significant with the determination of its complete nucleotide genome sequence in 1996. Even though its biochemical function in the fermentation process had long remained unclear, its metabolism and products (eg. bread, beer, wine) have been used for millennia. S. cerevisiae yeast represents an important organism for production of recombinant proteins (gene manipulation). Moreover,...

  17. Direct conversion of starch to ethanol using recombınant Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing glucoamylase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkan, P.; Baktir, A.; Puspaningsih, N. N. T.; Ni'mah, M.

    2017-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known for its high fermentative capacity, high ethanol yield and its high ethanol tolerance. The yeast is inability converting starch (relatively inexpensive substrate) into biofuel ethanol. Insertion of glucoamylase gene in yeast cell of Saccharomyces cerevisiae had been done to increase the yeast function in ethanol fermentation from starch. Transformation of yeast of S. cerevisiae with recombinant plasmid yEP-GLO1 carrying gene encoding glucoamylase (GLO1) produced the recombinant yeast which enable to degrade starch. Optimizing of bioconversion process of starch into ethanol by the yeast of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae [yEP-GLO1] had been also done. Starch concentration which could be digested by recombinant yeast of S. cerevisiae [yEP-GLO1] was 10% (w/v). Bioconversion of starch having concentration 10% (b/v) using recombinant yeast of S. cerevisiae BY5207 [yEP-GLO1] could result ethanol as 20% (v/v) to alcoholmeter and 19,5% (v/v) to gas of chromatography. Otherwise, using recombinant yeast S. cerevisiae S. cerevisiae AS3324 [yEP-GLO1] resulted ethanol as 17% (v/v) to alcoholmeter and 17,5% (v/v) to gas of chromatography. The highest ethanol in starch bioconversion using both recombinant yeasts BY5207 and AS3324 could be resulted on 144 hours of fermentation time as well as in pH 5.

  18. Analysis of recombinant proteins by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, Rainer; Roecklin, D.; Roitsch, C.

    1992-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients (IEF-IPG) was used to analyze three different recombinant proteins. Recombinant leech hirudin (65 amino acids, three disulfide bonds) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a secreted protein and purified by anion-exchange and reversed-phase

  19. High yield recombinant penicillin G amidase production and export into the growth medium using Bacillus megaterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Dieter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last years B. megaterium was continuously developed as production host for the secretion of proteins into the growth medium. Here, recombinant production and export of B. megaterium ATCC14945 penicillin G amidase (PGA which is used in the reverse synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics were systematically improved. Results For this purpose, the PGA leader peptide was replaced by the B. megaterium LipA counterpart. A production strain deficient in the extracellular protease NprM and in xylose utilization to prevent gene inducer deprivation was constructed and employed. A buffered mineral medium containing calcium ions and defined amino acid supplements for optimal PGA production was developed in microscale cultivations and scaled up to a 2 Liter bioreactor. Productivities of up to 40 mg PGA per L growth medium were reached. Conclusion The combination of genetic and medium optimization led to an overall 7-fold improvement of PGA production and export in B. megaterium. The exclusion of certain amino acids from the minimal medium led for the first time to higher volumetric PGA activities than obtained for complex medium cultivations.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldolase mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Z

    1984-01-01

    Six mutants lacking the glycolytic enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been isolated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inositol starvation. The mutants grown on gluconeogenic substrates, such as glycerol or alcohol, and show growth inhibition by glucose and related sugars. The mutations are recessive, segregate as one gene in crosses, and fall in a single complementation group. All of the mutants synthesize an antigen cross-reacting to the antibody raised against yeast aldol...

  1. A multispecies-based taxonomic microarray reveals interspecies hybridization and introgression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ludo A H; McCusker, John H

    2009-02-01

    A multispecies-based taxonomic microarray targeting coding sequences of diverged orthologous genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces paradoxus, Saccharomyces mikatae, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Naumovia castellii, Lachancea kluyveri and Candida glabrata was designed to allow identification of isolates of these species and their interspecies hybrids. Analysis of isolates of several Saccharomyces species and interspecies hybrids demonstrated the ability of the microarray to differentiate these yeasts on the basis of their specific hybridization patterns. Subsequent analysis of 183 supposed S. cerevisiae isolates of various ecological and geographical backgrounds revealed one misclassified S. bayanus or Saccharomyces uvarum isolate and four aneuploid interspecies hybrids, one between S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus and three between S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. Furthermore, this microarray design allowed the detection of multiple introgressed S. paradoxus DNA fragments in the genomes of three different S. cerevisiae isolates. These results show the power of multispecies-based microarrays as taxonomic tools for the identification of species and interspecies hybrids, and their ability to provide a more detailed characterization of interspecies hybrids and recombinants.

  2. Expression of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkaart, G. A.; Harmsen, M. M.; Chua, K. Y.; Thomas, W. R.; Aalberse, R. C.; van Ree, R.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND RESULTS: The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was expressed as a recombinant mature protein in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast produces the protein fused to the invertase signal peptide, leading to the secretion of Der p 2 as a soluble protein into the

  3. Optimization of ordered plasmid assembly by gap repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Pedersen, Mette Louise; Krogh, Berit Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial genetic libraries are powerful tools for diversifying and optimizing biomolecules. The process of library assembly is a major limiting factor for library complexity and quality. Gap repair by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can facilitate in vivo assembly of DNA...

  4. P53 Suppression of Homologous Recombination and Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    plasmid integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Mol Cell Biol 3: 747-749. 214. Orr-Weaver TL, Szostak JW (1983) Yeast recombination: the...Broad network-based predictability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene loss-of-function phenotypes. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R258. 43. Kasper LH, Thomas MC... Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10,000 U/mL penicillin, 10,000 µg/mL streptomycin, and 25 µg/mL Amphotericin B (Cellgro, VA). Cells were grown at 37

  5. Analysis of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen rSmp28 by on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarskov, K.; Roecklin, D.; Bouchon, B.; Sabatie, J.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified by glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography was analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping using on-line reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography pneumatically assisted electrospray mass

  6. Natural hybrids from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii in wine fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sara S; Barrio, Eladio; Gafner, Jürg; Querol, Amparo

    2006-12-01

    Several wine isolates of Saccharomyces were analysed for six molecular markers, five nuclear and one mitochondrial, and new natural interspecific hybrids were identified. The molecular characterization of these Saccharomyces hybrids was performed based on the restriction analysis of five nuclear genes (CAT8, CYR1, GSY1, MET6 and OPY1, located in different chromosomes), the ribosomal region encompassing the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two internal transcribed spacers, and sequence analysis of the mitochondrial gene COX2. This method allowed us to identify and characterize new hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus, as well as a triple hybrid S. bayanusxS. cerevisiaexS. kudriavzevii. This is the first time that S. cerevisiaexS. kudriavzevii hybrids have been described which have been involved in wine fermentation.

  7. Efficient expression of a Paenibacillus barcinonensis endoglucanase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormeneo, María; Pastor, Fi Javier; Zueco, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The endoglucanase coded by celA (GenBank Access No. Y12512) from Paenibacillus barcinonensis, an enzyme with good characteristics for application on paper manufacture from agricultural fibers, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using different domains of the cell wall protein Pir4 as translational fusion partners, to achieve either secretion or cell wall retention of the recombinant enzyme. Given the presence of five potential N-glycosylation sites in the amino acid sequence coded by celA, the effect of glycosylation on the enzymatic activity of the recombinant enzyme was investigated by expressing the recombinant fusion proteins in both, standard and glycosylation-deficient strains of S. cerevisiae. Correct targeting of the recombinant fusion proteins was confirmed by Western immunoblot using Pir-specific antibodies, while enzymatic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose was demonstrated on plate assays, zymographic analysis and colorimetric assays. Hyperglycosylation of the enzyme when expressed in the standard strain of S. cerevisiae did not affect activity, and values of 1.2 U/ml were obtained in growth medium supernatants in ordinary batch cultures after 24 h. These values compare quite favorably with those described for other recombinant endoglucanases expressed in S. cerevisiae. This is one of the few reports describing the expression of Bacillus cellulases in S. cerevisiae, since yeast expressed recombinant cellulases have been mostly of fungal origin. It is also the first report of the yeast expression of this particular endoglucanase.

  8. Choreography of recombination proteins during the DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    . Such genetic alterations are the main causes of cancer and other genetic diseases. Consequently, DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR) is an important process in all living organisms. DSBR is also the driving mechanism in most strategies of gene targeting, which has applications in both genetic and clinical...... research. Here we review the cell biological response to DSBs in mitotically growing cells with an emphasis on homologous recombination pathways in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mammalian cells....

  9. Conversion of an inactive xylose isomerase into a functional enzyme by co-expression of GroEL-GroES chaperonins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temer, Beatriz; Dos Santos, Leandro Vieira; Negri, Victor Augusti; Galhardo, Juliana Pimentel; Magalhães, Pedro Henrique Mello; José, Juliana; Marschalk, Cidnei; Corrêa, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2017-09-09

    Second-generation ethanol production is a clean bioenergy source with potential to mitigate fossil fuel emissions. The engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for xylose utilization is an essential step towards the production of this biofuel. Though xylose isomerase (XI) is the key enzyme for xylose conversion, almost half of the XI genes are not functional when expressed in S. cerevisiae. To date, protein misfolding is the most plausible hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. This study demonstrated that XI from the bacterium Propionibacterium acidipropionici becomes functional in S. cerevisiae when co-expressed with GroEL-GroES chaperonin complex from Escherichia coli. The developed strain BTY34, harboring the chaperonin complex, is able to efficiently convert xylose to ethanol with a yield of 0.44 g ethanol/g xylose. Furthermore, the BTY34 strain presents a xylose consumption rate similar to those observed for strains carrying the widely used XI from the fungus Orpinomyces sp. In addition, the tetrameric XI structure from P. acidipropionici showed an elevated number of hydrophobic amino acid residues on the surface of protein when compared to XI commonly expressed in S. cerevisiae. Based on our results, we elaborate an extensive discussion concerning the uncertainties that surround heterologous expression of xylose isomerases in S. cerevisiae. Probably, a correct folding promoted by GroEL-GroES could solve some issues regarding a limited or absent XI activity in S. cerevisiae. The strains developed in this work have promising industrial characteristics, and the designed strategy could be an interesting approach to overcome the non-functionality of bacterial protein expression in yeasts.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of beta-alanine synthase from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobritzsch, D.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Andersen, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    In eukaryotes and some bacteria, the third step of reductive pyrimidine catabolism is catalyzed by beta-alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6). Crystals of the recombinant enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri were obtained using sodium citrate as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P...

  11. FTIR spectroscopic discrimination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adt, Isabelle; Kohler, Achim; Gognies, Sabine; Budin, Julien; Sandt, Christophe; Belarbi, Abdelkader; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we tested the potential of Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy to screen, on the one hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-S. cerevisiae strains and, on the other hand, to discriminate between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus strains. Principal components analysis (PCA), used to compare 20 S. cerevisiae and 21 non-Saccharomyces strains, showed only 2 misclassifications. The PCA model was then used to classify spectra from 14 Samos strains. All 14 Samos strains clustered together with the S. cerevisiae group. This result was confirmed by a routinely used electrophoretic pattern obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The method was then tested to compare S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus strains. Our results indicate that identification at the strain level is possible. This first result shows that yeast classification and S. bayanus identification can be feasible in a single measurement.

  12. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Goebel, Cristine; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an ubiquitous yeast widely used in industry and it is also a common colonizer of the human mucosae. However, the incidence of invasive infection by these fungi has significantly increased in the last decades. To evaluate the infection by S. cerevisiae in a hospital in southern Brazil during a period of 10 years (2000-2010). Review of medical records of patients infected by this fungus. In this period, 6 patients were found to be infected by S. cerevisiae. The age range of the patients was from 10 years to 84. Urine, blood, ascitic fluid, peritoneal dialysis fluid, and esophageal biopsy samples were analyzed. The predisposing factors were cancer, transplant, surgical procedures, renal failure, use of venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hospitalization in Intensive Care Unit, diabetes mellitus, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use, and parenteral nutrition. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the treatments of choice. Three of the patients died and the other 3 were discharged from hospital. We must take special precautions in emerging infections, especially when there are predisposing conditions such as immunosuppression or patients with serious illnesses. The rapid and specific diagnosis of S. cerevisiae infections is important for therapeutic decision. Furthermore, epidemiological and efficacy studies of antifungal agents are necessary for a better therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  14. Karyotypes of Saccharomyces sensu lato species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Nilsson-Tilgren, Torsten; Piskur, Jure

    1999-01-01

    and Saccharomyces unisporus, 16 in Saccharomyces exiguus and seven in Saccharomyces kluyveri. The sizes of individual chromosomes were resolved and the approximate genome sizes were determined by the addition of individual chromosomes of the karyotypes. Apparently. the genome of S. exiguus, which is the only...... Saccharomyces sensu late yeast to contain small chromosomes, is larger than that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, other species exhibited genome sizes that were 10-25% smaller than that of S. cerevisiae. Well-defined karyotypes represent the basis for future genome mapping and sequencing projects...

  15. Hed1 Promotes Meiotic Crossover Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yoon-Ju; Joo, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Keun Pil; Hong, Soogil

    2017-02-28

    Homologous recombination occurs between homologous chromosomes and is significantly involved in programmed double-strand break (DSB) repair. Activation of two recombinases, Rad51 and Dmc1, is essential for an interhomolog bias during meiosis. Rad51 participates in both mitotic and meiotic recombination, and its strand exchange activity is regulated by an inhibitory factor during meiosis. Thus, activities of Rad51 and Dmc1 are coordinated to promote homolog bias. It has been reported that Hed1, a meiosis-specific protein in budding yeast, regulates Rad51-dependent recombination activity. Here, we investigated the role of Hed1 in meiotic recombination by ectopic expression of the protein after pre-meiotic replication in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA physical analysis revealed that the overexpression of Hed1 delays the DSB-to-joint molecule (JM) transition and promotes interhomolog JM formation. The study indicates a possible role of Hed1 in controlling the strand exchange activity of Rad51 and, eventually, meiotic crossover formation.

  16. Impact of protein uptake and degradation on recombinant protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyo, Keith E. J.; Liu, Zihe; Magnusson, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Protein titers, a key bioprocessing metric, depend both on the synthesis of protein and the degradation of protein. Secreted recombinant protein production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive platform as minimal media can be used for cultivation, thus reducing fermentation costs and simp...

  17. Specific distribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone homolog HHO1p in the chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Freidkin, Ilya; Katcoff, Don J.

    2001-01-01

    In virtually all eukaryotic organisms, linker DNA between nucleosomes is associated with a histone termed linker histone or histone H1. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HHO1 encodes a putative linker histone with very significant homology to histone H1. The encoded protein is expressed in the nucleus, but has not been shown to affect global chromatin structure, nor has its deletion shown any detectable phenotype. In vitro chromatin assembly experiments with recombinant HHO1p have shown that it is...

  18. Three-dimensional Structure of Saccharomyces Invertase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Polo, M. Angela; Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Lafraya, Alvaro; González, Beatriz; Marín-Navarro, Julia; Polaina, Julio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Invertase is an enzyme that is widely distributed among plants and microorganisms and that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose into glucose and fructose. Despite the important physiological role of Saccharomyces invertase (SInv) and the historical relevance of this enzyme as a model in early biochemical studies, its structure had not yet been solved. We report here the crystal structure of recombinant SInv at 3.3 Å resolution showing that the enzyme folds into the catalytic β-propeller and β-sandwich domains characteristic of GH32 enzymes. However, SInv displays an unusual quaternary structure. Monomers associate in two different kinds of dimers, which are in turn assembled into an octamer, best described as a tetramer of dimers. Dimerization plays a determinant role in substrate specificity because this assembly sets steric constraints that limit the access to the active site of oligosaccharides of more than four units. Comparative analysis of GH32 enzymes showed that formation of the SInv octamer occurs through a β-sheet extension that seems unique to this enzyme. Interaction between dimers is determined by a short amino acid sequence at the beginning of the β-sandwich domain. Our results highlight the role of the non-catalytic domain in fine-tuning substrate specificity and thus supplement our knowledge of the activity of this important family of enzymes. In turn, this gives a deeper insight into the structural features that rule modularity and protein-carbohydrate recognition. PMID:23430743

  19. Fermentation performance of engineered and evolved xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonderegger, M.; Jeppsson, M.; Larsson, C.

    2004-01-01

    in the hydrolysate. A particular biological problem are the pentoses, which are not naturally metabolized by the main industrial ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several recombinant, mutated, and evolved xylose fermenting S. cerevisiae strains have been developed recently. We compare here the fermentation...... performance and robustness of eight recombinant strains and two evolved populations on glucose/xylose mixtures in defined and lignocellulose hydrolysate-containing medium. Generally, the polyploid industrial strains depleted xylose faster and were more resistant to the hydrolysate than the laboratory strains...

  20. Comparison of Wine Aroma Compounds Produced by Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Herjavec

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine specific enological characteristics of Saccharomyces paradoxus species, potential differences in production of volatile components between Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and their influence on final wine quality. Samples of young wine were analysed for higher alcohols, fatty acids and volatile esters. At the same time wines were subjected to sensory evaluation. The results showed a notable influence of Saccharomyces paradoxus strain RO88 on chemical and sensory properties of Gewürtztraminer wine and indicated some differences between Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae species.

  1. levadura Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aguilar Uscanga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La pared celular de levaduras representa entre 20 a 30 % de la célula en peso seco. Está compuesta de polisacáridos complejos de β-glucanos, manoproteínas y quitina. Se estudió la composición de los polisacáridos contenidos en la pared celular de la Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113 y se observó el efecto de la variación de la fuente carbono (glucosa, sacarosa, galactosa, maltosa, manosa, etanol y pH (3, 4, 5, 6 en un medio mineral “cell factory”. Las células fueron recolectadas en fase exponencial y se extrajo la pared celular. Los extractos de pared se hidrolizaron con H2SO4 al 72% y las muestras fueron analizadas por cromatografía HPLC. Se realizó una prueba de resistencia al rompimiento celular con una β(1,3-glucanasa, y las células cultivadas a diferentes fuentes carbono y pH. Los resultados del análisis por HPLC, mostraron que la composición de los polisacáridos en la pared celular, varía considerablemente con las modificaciones del medio de cultivo. Se observó que las levaduras cultivadas en sacarosa tienen mayor porcentaje de pared celular (25% y mayor cantidad de glucanos (115µg/mg peso seco y mananos (131µg/mg peso seco, que aquellas levaduras cultivadas en etanol (13% en peso seco. Las levaduras cultivadas a pH 5 presentaron 19% de pared celular en peso seco, mientras que a pH 6 el porcentaje fue menor (14%. El análisis de resistencia al rompimiento celular, mostró que las células cultivadas en etanol y galactosa fueron resistentes al rompimiento enzimático. Se comparó este resultado con el contenido de polisacáridos en la pared celular y concluimos que la resistencia de la célula al rompimiento, no está ligada con la cantidad de β-glucanos contenidos en la pared celular, sino que va a depender del número de enlaces β(1,3 y β(1,6-glucanos, los cuales juegan un rol importante durante el ensamblaje de la pared

  2. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  3. Comparison of Wine Aroma Compounds Produced by Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Stanka Herjavec; Sandi Orlić; Sulejman Redžepović; Nikola Mirošević; Ana Majdak

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine specific enological characteristics of Saccharomyces paradoxus species, potential differences in production of volatile components between Saccharomyces paradoxus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and their influence on final wine quality. Samples of young wine were analysed for higher alcohols, fatty acids and volatile esters. At the same time wines were subjected to sensory evaluation. The results showed a notable influence of Saccharomyces paradoxus...

  4. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  5. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Extragenic Suppressors of the Hyper-Deletion Phenotype of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hpr1δ Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Rosa, H.; Aguilera, A.

    1995-01-01

    The HPR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisae is involved in maintaining low levels of deletions between DNA repeats. To understand how deletions initiate in the absence of the Hpr1 protein and the mechanisms of recombination leading to deletions in S. cerevisiae, we have isolated mutations as suppressors of the hyper-deletion phenotype of the hpr1δ mutation. The mutations defined five different genes called HRS for hyper-recombination suppression. They suppress the hyper-deletion phenotype of hpr...

  6. Expression of three Trichoderma reesei cellulase genes in Saccharomyces pastorianus for the development of a two-step process of hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J; Kricka, W; James, T C; Bond, U

    2014-07-01

    To compare the production of recombinant cellulase enzymes in two Saccharomyces species so as to ascertain the most suitable heterologous host for the degradation of cellulose-based biomass and its conversion into bioethanol. cDNA copies of genes representing the three major classes of cellulases (Endoglucanases, Cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases) from Trichoderma reesei were expressed in Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzymes were secreted by the yeast hosts into the medium and were shown to act in synergy to hydrolyse cellulose. The conditions required to achieve maximum release of glucose from cellulose by the recombinant enzymes were defined and the activity of the recombinant enzymes was compared to a commercial cocktail of T. reesei cellulases. We demonstrate that significantly higher levels of cellulase activity were achieved by expression of the genes in S. pastorianus compared to S. cerevisiae. Hydrolysis of cellulose by the combined activity of the recombinant enzymes was significantly better at 50°C than at 30°C, the temperature used for mesophilic yeast fermentations, reflecting the known temperature profiles of the native enzymes. The results demonstrate that host choice is important for the heterologous production of cellulases. On the basis of the low activity of the T. reesei recombinant enzymes at fermentation temperatures, we propose a two-step process for the hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation into alcohol using cellulases produced in situ. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Recombinant wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Ramón; González Ramos, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for obtaining strains that secrete a higher concentration of mannoproteins to the medium, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deposited at the Spanish Type Culture Collection (CECT) as CECT 13012, and to the uses of said strains.

  8. Selected non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts in controlled multistarter fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are metabolically active during spontaneous and inoculated must fermentations, and by producing a plethora of by-products, they can contribute to the definition of the wine aroma. Thus, use of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for inoculation of wine fermentations is of increasing interest for quality enhancement and improved complexity of wines. We initially characterized 34 non-Saccharomyces yeasts of the genera Candida, Lachancea (Kluyveromyces), Metschnikowia and Torulaspora, and evaluated their enological potential. This confirmed that non-Saccharomyces yeasts from wine-related environments represent a rich sink of unexplored biodiversity for the winemaking industry. From these, we selected four non-Saccharomyces yeasts to combine with starter cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed fermentation trials. The kinetics of growth and fermentation, and the analytical profiles of the wines produced indicate that these non-Saccharomyces strains can be used with S. cerevisiae starter cultures to increase polysaccharide, glycerol and volatile compound production, to reduce volatile acidity, and to increase or reduce the total acidity of the final wines, depending on yeast species and inoculum ratio used. The overall effects of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts on fermentation and wine quality were strictly dependent on the Saccharomyces/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio that mimicked the differences of fermentation conditions (natural or simultaneous inoculated fermentation). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SUMOylation of Rad52-Rad59 synergistically change the outcome of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Sonia; Altmannova, Veronika; Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    for survival after genotoxic stress, it affects the outcome of recombination to promote conservative DNA repair. In some genetic assays, Rad52 and Rad59 SUMOylation act synergistically. Collectively, our data indicate that the described SUMO modifications affect the balance between conservative and non......Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for maintenance of genome stability through double-strand break (DSB) repair, but at the same time HR can lead to loss of heterozygosity and uncontrolled recombination can be genotoxic. The post-translational modification by SUMO (small ubiquitin......-like modifier) has been shown to modulate recombination, but the exact mechanism of this regulation remains unclear. Here we show that SUMOylation stabilizes the interaction between the recombination mediator Rad52 and its paralogue Rad59 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although Rad59 SUMOylation is not required...

  10. Meiotic versus Mitotic Recombination: Two Different Routes for Double-Strand Break Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sabrina L.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Summary Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have validated the major features of the double-strand break repair (DSBR) model as an accurate representation of the pathway through which meiotic crossovers are produced. This success has led to this model being invoked to explain double-strand break (DSB) repair in other contexts. However, most non-crossover recombinants generated during S. cerevisiae meiosis do not arise via a DSBR pathway. Furthermore, and it is becoming increasing clear that DSBR is a minor pathway for recombinational repair of DSBs that occur in mitotically proliferating cells; rather, the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model appears to describe mitotic DSB repair more accurately. Fundamental dissimilarities between meiotic and mitotic recombination are not unexpected, since meiotic recombination serves a very different purpose (accurate chromosome segregation, which requires crossovers) than mitotic recombination (repair of DNA damage, which typically generates non-crossovers). PMID:20967781

  11. Use of specific PCR primers to identify three important industrial species of Saccharomyces genus: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, G V; Ramos, C L; Galvão, C; Souza Dias, E; Schwan, R F

    2010-08-01

    To develop species-specific primers capable of distinguishing between three important yeast species in alcoholic fermentation: Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus. Two sets of primers with sequences complementary to the HO genes from Saccharomyces sensu stricto species were used. The use of the ScHO primers produced a single amplificon of c. 400 or 300 bp with species S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus, respectively. The second pair of primers (LgHO) was also constructed, within the HO gene, composed of perfectly conserved sequences common for S. bayanus species, which generate amplicon with 700 bp. No amplification product was observed in the DNA samples from non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Saccharomyces species have also been characterized via electrophoretic karyotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to demonstrate chromosomal polymorphisms and to determine the evolutionary distances between these species. We conclude that our novel species-specific primers could be used to rapidly and accurately identify of the Saccharomyces species most commonly involved in fermentation processes using a PCR-based assay. The method may be used for routine identification of the most common Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts involved in industrial fermentation processes in less than 3 h.

  12. Cloning of human and mouse genes homologous to RAD52, a yeast gene involved in DNA repair and recombination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.F.R. Muris; O.Y. Bezzubova (Olga); J-M. Buerstedde; K. Vreeken; A.S. Balajee; C.J. Osgood; C. Troelstra (Christine); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); K. Ostermann; H. Schmidt (Henning); A.T. Natarajan; J.C.J. Eeken; P.H.M. Lohmann (Paul); A. Pastink (Albert)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe RAD52 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for recombinational repair of double-strand breaks. Using degenerate oligonucleotides based on conserved amino acid sequences of RAD52 and rad22, its counterpart from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, RAD52 homologs from man and mouse were

  13. Shu proteins promote the formation of homologous recombination intermediates that are processed by Sgs1-Rmi1-Top3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Hickson, Ian D

    2007-01-01

    CSM2, PSY3, SHU1, and SHU2 (collectively referred to as the SHU genes) were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as four genes in the same epistasis group that suppress various sgs1 and top3 mutant phenotypes when mutated. Although the SHU genes have been implicated in homologous recombination...

  14. Saccharomyces species in the Production of Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham G. Stewart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic flavour and aroma of any beer is, in large part, determined by the yeast strain employed and the wort composition. In addition, properties such as flocculation, wort fermentation ability (including the uptake of wort sugars, amino acids, and peptides, ethanol and osmotic pressure tolerance together with oxygen requirements have a critical impact on fermentation performance. Yeast management between fermentations is also a critical brewing parameter. Brewer’s yeasts are mostly part of the genus Saccharomyces. Ale yeasts belong to the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lager yeasts to the species Saccharomyces pastorianus. The latter is an interspecies hybrid between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus. Brewer’s yeast strains are facultative anaerobes—they are able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen and this ability supports their property as an important industrial microorganism. This article covers important aspects of Saccharomyces molecular biology, physiology, and metabolism that is involved in wort fermentation and beer production.

  15. The interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation is species and strain specific

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Mas; Chunxiao Wang; Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeast during alcoholic fermentation is species and strain specific DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00502 The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and To...

  16. Novel two-stage fermentation process for bioethanol production using Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yogender Kumar; Miller, Kristen P; Hodge, David B; Henson, J Michael; Harcum, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic materials has the potential to be economically feasible, if both glucose and xylose released from cellulose and hemicellulose can be efficiently converted to ethanol. Saccharomyces spp. can efficiently convert glucose to ethanol; however, xylose conversion to ethanol is a major hurdle due to lack of xylose-metabolizing pathways. In this study, a novel two-stage fermentation process was investigated to improve bioethanol productivity. In this process, xylose is converted into biomass via non-Saccharomyces microorganism and coupled to a glucose-utilizing Saccharomyces fermentation. Escherichia coli was determined to efficiently convert xylose to biomass, which was then killed to produce E. coli extract. Since earlier studies with Saccharomyces pastorianus demonstrated that xylose isomerase increased ethanol productivities on pure sugars, the addition of both E. coli extract and xylose isomerase to S. pastorianus fermentations on pure sugars and corn stover hydrolysates were investigated. It was determined that the xylose isomerase addition increased ethanol productivities on pure sugars but was not as effective alone on the corn stover hydrolysates. It was observed that the E. coli extract addition increased ethanol productivities on both corn stover hydrolysates and pure sugars. The ethanol productivities observed on the corn stover hydrolysates with the E. coli extract addition was the same as observed on pure sugars with both E. coli extract and xylose isomerase additions. These results indicate that the two-stage fermentation process has the capability to be a competitive alternative to recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based fermentations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......) are downstream of Rad51 function. We propose that Top3 functions in S phase to both process homologous recombination intermediates and modulate checkpoint activity....

  18. Sporulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neiman, Aaron M

    2011-01-01

    In response to nitrogen starvation in the presence of a poor carbon source, diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and package the haploid nuclei produced in meiosis into spores...

  19. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    , 1003 Tunis, Tunisia. ... food processing. Fermentation is a simple and useful operation. Saccharomyces sp. is the safest and most effective microorganism for fermenting sugars to ... Photometric quantification of betalains.

  20. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    André eFrenzel; Michael eHust; Thomas eSchirrmann

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transg...

  1. High-level secretion of native recombinant human calreticulin in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Žitkus, Eimantas; Gold, Leslie I.

    2015-01-01

    , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. RESULTS: Expression of a full-length human CRT precursor including its native signal sequence resulted in high-level secretion of mature recombinant protein into the culture medium by both S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris. To ensure the structural and functional...... recombinant CRT protein with yields reaching 75 % of total secreted protein and with production levels of 60 and 200 mg/l from S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris, respectively. Finally, cultivation of P. pastoris in a bioreactor yielded CRT secretion titer to exceed 1.5 g/l of culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: Yeasts...

  2. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydropyrimidinase from Saccharomyces kluyveri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritzsch, Doreen; Andersen, Birgit; Piskur, Jure

    2005-04-01

    Dihydropyrimidinase (EC 3.5.2.2) catalyzes the second step in the reductive pathway of pyrimidine degradation, the hydrolysis of 5,6-dihydrouracil and 5,6-dihydrothymine to the corresponding N-carbamylated beta-amino acids. Crystals of the recombinant enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri diffracting to 2.6 A at a synchrotron-radiation source have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. They belong to space group P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 91.0, b = 73.0, c = 161.4 A, beta = 91.4 degrees), with one homotetramer per asymmetric unit.

  3. Moderate expression of SEC16 increases protein secretion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jichen; Huang, Mingtao; Petranovic, Dina

    2017-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used to produce biopharmaceutical proteins. However, the limited capacity of the secretory pathway may reduce its productivity. Here, we increased the secretion of a heterologous α-amylase, a model protein used for studying the protein secretory pathwa...... were observed. Finally, the moderate overexpression of SEC16 was shown to improve the secretion of two other recombinant proteins, Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase I and Rhizopus oryzae glucan-1,4-α-glucosidase, indicating that this mechanism is of general relevance....

  4. Genetic relationship and biological status of the industrially important yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus Sampaio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I

    2017-03-01

    The genomes of the recently discovered yeast Saccharomyces eubayanus and traditional S. cerevisiae are known to be found in the yeast S. pastorianus (syn. S. carlsbergensis), which are essential for brewing. The cryotolerant yeast S. bayanus var. uvarum is of great importance for production of some wines. Based on ascospore viability and meiotic recombination of the control parental markers in hybrids, we have shown that there is no complete interspecies post-zygotic isolation between the yeasts S. eubayanus, S. bayanus var. bayanus and S. bayanus var. uvarum. The genetic data presented indicate that all of the three taxa belong to the same species.

  5. Biopharmaceutical protein production bySaccharomyces cerevisiae: current state and future prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Mingtao; Bao, Jichen; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades there has been an increasing demand of biopharmaceutical proteins in the market. Several types of cell factories are applied to produce different pharmaceutical proteins. However, manufacturers prefer to use a few favorable biological platforms to undertake the production...... tasks with low cost, high productivity and proper post-translational modifications. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of these preferred cell factories as it meets many of the requirements. There are several reports on improvement of recombinant protein production by S. cerevisiae through...

  6. Overexpression of the truncated version of ILV2 enhances glycerol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashchenko, Lidiia; Abbas, Charles; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn; Sibirny, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Acetolactate synthase is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyses the conversion of two pyruvate molecules to an acetolactate molecule with release of carbon dioxide. The overexpression of the truncated version of the corresponding gene, ILV2, that codes for presumably cytosolic acetolactate synthase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, led to a decrease in intracellular pyruvate concentration. This recombinant strain was also characterized by a four-fold increase in glycerol production, with a concomitant 1.8-fold reduction in ethanol production, when compared to that of the wild-type strain under anaerobic conditions in a glucose alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Competitive repair by naturally dispersed repetitive DNA during non-allelic homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Margaret L.; Tan, Frederick J.; Lai, David C.; Celniker, Sue E.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Dunham, Maitreya J.; Zheng, Yixian; Koshland, Douglas

    2010-08-27

    Genome rearrangements often result from non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between repetitive DNA elements dispersed throughout the genome. Here we systematically analyze NAHR between Ty retrotransposons using a genome-wide approach that exploits unique features of Saccharomyces cerevisiae purebred and Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Saccharomyces bayanus hybrid diploids. We find that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induce NAHR-dependent rearrangements using Ty elements located 12 to 48 kilobases distal to the break site. This break-distal recombination (BDR) occurs frequently, even when allelic recombination can repair the break using the homolog. Robust BDR-dependent NAHR demonstrates that sequences very distal to DSBs can effectively compete with proximal sequences for repair of the break. In addition, our analysis of NAHR partner choice between Ty repeats shows that intrachromosomal Ty partners are preferred despite the abundance of potential interchromosomal Ty partners that share higher sequence identity. This competitive advantage of intrachromosomal Tys results from the relative efficiencies of different NAHR repair pathways. Finally, NAHR generates deleterious rearrangements more frequently when DSBs occur outside rather than within a Ty repeat. These findings yield insights into mechanisms of repeat-mediated genome rearrangements associated with evolution and cancer.

  8. Significant competitive advantage conferred by meiosis and syngamy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsell, J; Wills, C

    1996-01-01

    The presumed advantages of genetic recombinations are difficult to demonstrate directly. To investigate the effects of recombination and background heterozygosity on competitive ability, we have performed serial-transfer competition experiments between isogenic sexual and asexual strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The members of these diploid pairs of strains differed only in being heterozygous (sexual) or homozygous (asexual) at the mating type or MAT locus. Competing pairs had either a completely homozygous or a heterozygous genetic background, the latter being heterozygous at many different loci throughout the genome. A round of meiotic recombination (automixis) conferred a large and statistically significant enhancement of competitive ability on sexual strains with a heterozygous genetic background. By contrast, in homozygous background competitions, meiosis decreased the sexual strains' initial relative competitive ability. In all cases, however, the sexual strains outcompeted their isogenic asexual counterparts, whether meiotic recombination had occurred or not. In some genetic backgrounds, this was due in part to an overdominance effect on competitive advantage of heterozygosity at the MAT locus. The advantage of the sexual strains also increased significantly during the course of the homozygous background competitions, particularly when meiosis had occurred. This latter effect either did not occur or was very weak in heterozygous background competitions. Overall, sexual strains with heterozygous genetic backgrounds had a significantly higher initial relative competitive ability than those with homozygous backgrounds. The advantage of mating type heterozygosity in this organism extends far beyond the ability to recombine meiotically. PMID:8570658

  9. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system

  10. 2μ plasmid in Saccharomyces species and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strope, Pooja K; Kozmin, Stanislav G; Skelly, Daniel A; Magwene, Paul M; Dietrich, Fred S; McCusker, John H

    2015-12-01

    We determined that extrachromosomal 2μ plasmid was present in 67 of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 100-genome strains; in addition to variation in the size and copy number of 2μ, we identified three distinct classes of 2μ. We identified 2μ presence/absence and class associations with populations, clinical origin and nuclear genotypes. We also screened genome sequences of S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. uvarum, S. eubayanus, S. mikatae, S. arboricolus and S. bayanus strains for both integrated and extrachromosomal 2μ. Similar to S. cerevisiae, we found no integrated 2μ sequences in any S. paradoxus strains. However, we identified part of 2μ integrated into the genomes of some S. uvarum, S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae and S. bayanus strains, which were distinct from each other and from all extrachromosomal 2μ. We identified extrachromosomal 2μ in one S. paradoxus, one S. eubayanus, two S. bayanus and 13 S. uvarum strains. The extrachromosomal 2μ in S. paradoxus, S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae were distinct from each other. In contrast, the extrachromosomal 2μ in S. bayanus and S. uvarum strains were identical with each other and with one of the three classes of S. cerevisiae 2μ, consistent with interspecific transfer. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ethanol production from inulin and unsterilized meal of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by Saccharomyces sp. W0 expressing the endo-inulinase gene from Arthrobacter sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    After the endo-inulinase gene from Arthrobacter sp. was ligated the expression vectors pMIDSC31 and pMIRSC31, the endo-inulinase gene was inserted into the chromosomal DNA of Saccharomyces sp. W0. It was found that the inulinase activity of the recombinant yeast D5 in which the endo-inulinase gene was inserted into the delta sequence was higher than that of the recombinant yeast R1 in which the endo-inulinase gene was inserted into 18S rDNA sequence. More ethanol from inulin was produced by the recombinant yeast D5 than by the recombinant yeast R1. But Saccharomyces sp. W0 produced the lowest inulinase activity and concentration of ethanol. During the 3-l fermentation, the recombinant yeast D5 could produce 13.6 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium from 30% inulin. The recombinant yeast D5 could actively convert the unsterilized meal of Jerusalem artichoke tubers, yielding 10.1 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gateway Recombinational Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece-Hoyes, John S; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2018-01-02

    The Gateway recombinatorial cloning system was developed for cloning multiple DNA fragments in parallel (e.g., in 96-well formats) in a standardized manner using the same enzymes. Gateway cloning is based on the highly specific integration and excision reactions of bacteriophage λ into and out of the Escherichia coli genome. Because the sites of recombination (" att " sites) are much longer (25-242 bp) than restriction sites, they are extremely unlikely to occur by chance in DNA fragments. Therefore, the same recombination enzyme can be used to robustly clone many different fragments of variable size in parallel reactions. © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS VALIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Ondrejovič

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to optimize of independent variables as temperature, time and reaction ratio to output parameter of simultaneous enzyme saccharification and fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of pretreated wheat straw as model substrate via RSM (response surface methodology approach. As dependent variable, it was chosen ethanol yields characterizing effectivity of process. The optimal conditions were approximately temperature 100 °C, time 1 hour and reaction ratio 26 mL to 1 g of treated wheat straw with ethanol yields 141.9 mg.g-1. After calculating the optimal values, the validation analyze was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variable was in agreement with the optimal parameters (~ 95 %. Proposed model was tested for three lignocellulosic materials (winter wheat straw, alfalfa hay and maize straw as wheat straw used as model substrate and it was confirmed the possibility of its use for other agricultural residues with similar content of lignocellulose.

  14. Lead toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heggen, Maarten; Martins, Sara; Flores, Gisela; Soares, Eduardo V

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Pb on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell structure and function was examined. Membrane integrity was assessed by the release of UV-absorbing compounds and by the intracellular K(+) efflux. No leakage of UV(260)-absorbing compounds or loss of K(+) were observed in Pb (until 1,000 μmol/l) treated cells up to 30 min; these results suggest that plasma membrane seems not to be the immediate and primary target of Pb toxicity. The effect of Pb on yeast metabolism was examined using the fluorescent probe FUN-1 and compared with the ability to reproduce, evaluated by colony-forming units counting. The exposition of yeast cells, during 60 min to 1,000 μmol/l Pb, induces a decrease in the ability to process FUN-1 although the cells retain its proliferation capacity. A more prolonged contact time (120 min) of yeast cells with Pb induces a marked (> 50%) loss of yeast cells metabolic activity and replication competence through a mechanism which most likely requires protein synthesis.

  15. SCUD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ubiquitination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Chul; Lee, Minho; Jung, Jin Woo; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Kim, Dongsup

    2008-09-24

    Ubiquitination is an important post-translational modification involved in diverse biological processes. Therefore, genomewide representation of the ubiquitination system for a species is important. SCUD is a web-based database for the ubiquitination system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast). We first searched for all the known enzymes involved in the ubiquitination process in yeast, including E1, E2, E3, and deubiquitination enzymes. Then, ubiquitinated substrates were collected by literature search. Especially, E3 and deubiquitination enzymes are classified into classes and subclasses by their shared domains and unique functions. As a result, 42 different E3 enzymes were grouped into corresponding classes and subclasses, and 940 ubiquitinated substrates including mutant substrates were identified. All the enzyme and substrate information are interconnected by hyperlinks, which makes it easy to view the enzyme-specific ubiquitination information. This database aims to represent a comprehensive yeast ubiquitination system, and is easily expandable with the further experimental data. We expect that this database will be useful for the research on the ubiquitination systems of other higher organisms. SCUD is accessible at http://scud.kaist.ac.kr.

  16. Integrative Expression of Glucoamylase Gene in a Brewer’s Yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus strain was constructed byintroducing the ilv2:GLA fragment released from pMGI6, carrying glucoamylase gene (GLA and using the yeast α-acetolactate synthase gene (ILV2 as the recombination sequence. The strain was able to utilise starch as the sole carbon source, its glucoamylase activity was 6.3 U/mL and its α-acetolactate synthase activity was lowered by 33.3 %. The introduced GLA gene was integrated at the recipient genomic ILV2 gene, one copy of ILV2 gene was disrupted and the other copy remained intact. Primary wort fermentation test confirmed that the diacetyl and residual sugar concentration in the wort fermented by the recombinant strain were reduced by 65.6 and 34.2 % respectively, compared to that of the recipient strain. Under industrial operating conditions, the maturation time of beer fermented by the recombinant strain was reduced from 7 to 4 days, there were no significant differences in the appearance and mouthfeel, and the beer satisfied the high quality demands. That is why the strain could be used in beer production safely.

  17. Identification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glucosidase that hydrolyzes flavonoid glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Rainieri, Sandra; Witte, Simone; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) whole-cell bioconversions of naringenin 7-O-β-glucoside revealed considerable β-glucosidase activity, which impairs any strategy to generate or modify flavonoid glucosides in yeast transformants. Up to 10 putative glycoside hydrolases annotated in the S. cerevisiae genome database were overexpressed with His tags in yeast cells. Examination of these recombinant, partially purified polypeptides for hydrolytic activity with synthetic chromogenic α- or β-glucosides identified three efficient β-glucosidases (EXG1, SPR1, and YIR007W), which were further assayed with natural flavonoid β-glucoside substrates and product verification by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Preferential hydrolysis of 7- or 4'-O-glucosides of isoflavones, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones was observed in vitro with all three glucosidases, while anthocyanins were also accepted as substrates. The glucosidase activities of EXG1 and SPR1 were completely abolished by Val168Tyr mutation, which confirmed the relevance of this residue, as reported for other glucosidases. Most importantly, biotransformation experiments with knockout yeast strains revealed that only EXG1 knockout strains lost the capability to hydrolyze flavonoid glucosides.

  18. Habitat Predicts Levels of Genetic Admixture in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viranga Tilakaratna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic admixture can provide material for populations to adapt to local environments, and this process has played a crucial role in the domestication of plants and animals. The model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been domesticated multiple times for the production of wine, sake, beer, and bread, but the high rate of admixture between yeast lineages has so far been treated as a complication for population genomic analysis. Here, we make use of the low recombination rate at centromeres to investigate admixture in yeast using a classic Bayesian approach and a locus-by-locus phylogenetic approach. Using both approaches, we find that S. cerevisiae from stable oak woodland habitats are less likely to show recent genetic admixture compared with those isolated from transient habitats such as fruits, wine, or human infections. When woodland yeast strains do show recent genetic admixture, the degree of admixture is lower than in strains from other habitats. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae populations from oak woodlands are genetically isolated from each other, with only occasional migration between woodlands and local fruit habitats. Application of the phylogenetic approach suggests that there is a previously undetected population in North Africa that is the closest outgroup to the European S. cerevisiae, including the domesticated Wine population. Careful testing for admixture in S. cerevisiae leads to a better understanding of the underlying population structure of the species and will be important for understanding the selective processes underlying domestication in this economically important species.

  19. Application of native signal sequences for recombinant proteins secretion in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Do, Duy Duc; Eriksen, Jens C.

    alpha‐mating factor (MF) prepropeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most commonly used. Our aim was to test whether signal peptides from P. pastoris native secreted proteins could be used to direct secretion of recombinant proteins. Results Eleven native signal peptides from P. pastoris were tested......Background Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for recombinant protein production, largely due to its ability to secrete correctly folded heterologous proteins to the fermentation medium. Secretion is usually achieved by cloning the recombinant gene after a leader sequence, where...... for their efficiency to direct secretion of reporter protein invertase SUC2 from S. cerevisiae. Alpha‐MF prepropeptide was a reference leader sequence. All the tested P. pastoris signal peptides could direct secretion of invertase, two of them giving 37‐44% higher activity than alpha‐MF prepropeptide construct...

  20. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  1. Nonradiative recombination in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Abakumov, VN; Yassievich, IN

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in the understandingof recombination processes controlling the number of excessfree carriers in semiconductors under nonequilibrium conditions. As a result, it is now possible to give a comprehensivetheoretical description of these processes. The authors haveselected a number of experimental results which elucidate theunderlying physical problems and enable a test of theoreticalmodels. The following topics are dealt with: phenomenological theory ofrecombination, theoretical models of shallow and deep localizedstates, cascade model of carrier captu

  2. Bioethanol production from hydrolysates of inulin and the tuber meal of Jerusalem artichoke by Saccharomyces sp. W0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Chi, Z; Zhao, C H; Chi, Z M; Gong, F

    2010-11-01

    It has been confirmed that Saccharomyces sp. W0 can produce high concentration of ethanol. However, this yeast strain cannot secrete inulinase. Therefore, in this study, inulin was hydrolyzed into reducing sugar by the recombinant inulinase produced by Pichia pastoris X-33/pPICZaA-INU1. It was found that 38.2U of the recombinant inulinase per gram of inulin was suitable for the inulin hydrolysis and ethanol production by Saccharomyces sp. W0 and the fermentation period was 120 h. At the end of the fermentation, over 14.6 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was produced, the ethanol productivity was over 0.384 g of ethanol/g of inulin and over 98.8% of total sugar was utilized. When the Saccharomyces sp. W0 was grown in the mixture of 4.0% hydrolysate of soybean meal and 20.0% of the hydrolysate of inulin for 120 h, over 14.9 ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was yielded, the ethanol productivity was over 0.393 g of ethanol/g of inulin and 98.9% of total sugar was used by the yeast strain. When Saccharomyces sp. W0 carrying the same inulinase gene was grown in the medium containing 50 g of the tuber meal of Jerusalem artichoke per 100ml for 144 h, over 12.1+/-0.35%ml of ethanol per 100ml of the fermented medium was yielded, the ethanol productivity was 0.319+/-0.9 g of ethanol/g of sugar and 3.7% (w/v) of total sugar and 0.5% (w/v) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented media. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids selected for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HartR

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... compounds levels of red wines processed from Pinot Noir grapes. Anal. Chem. Res. 3:26-36. Snoek T, Nicolino MP, Van den Bremt S, Mertens S, Saels V,. Verplaetse A, Steensels J, Verstrepen KJ (2015). Large-scale robot- assisted genome shuffling yields industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts with ...

  4. Optimization of divalent cation in Saccharomyces pastorianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch fermentations were conducted in batch cultures to optimize the effect of divalent cations on ethanol production with Saccharomyces pastorianus using the central composite rotatable response surface design. Divalent cations used were magnesium (Mg2+), zinc (Zn2+) and calcium (Ca2+). Maximum ethanol ...

  5. Biolistic transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with &beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A β-glucosidase genomic DNA from Cellulomonas biazotea NIAB 442 was isolated and coated onto tungsten microprojectiles for direct transformation of the gene into Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Transformation of β-glucosidase into S. cerevisae conferred the ability to hydrolyse esculin and cellobiose, indicated that the ...

  6. Hybridization of Palm Wine Yeasts ( Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haploid auxotrophic strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected from palm wine and propagated by protoplast fusion with Brewers yeast. Fusion resulted in an increase in both ethanol production and tolerance against exogenous ethanol. Mean fusion frequencies obtained for a mating types ranged between 8 x ...

  7. Biolistic transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, P.O. Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Accepted 27 October 2003. A β-glucosidase genomic DNA from Cellulomonas biazotea NIAB 442 was isolated and coated onto tungsten microprojectiles for direct transformation of the gene into Saccharomyces ...

  8. Flocculation phenomenon of a mutant flocculent Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flocculation phenomenon of a mutant flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain: Effects of metal ions, sugars, temperature, pH, protein-denaturants and ... was in the early stationary growth phase, which coincided with glucose depletion in the batch fermentation for the production of ethanol from kitchen refuse medium.

  9. Optimization of divalent cation in Saccharomyces pastorianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... Optimization of divalent cation in Saccharomyces pastorianus medium conditions for ethanol production. Okon, Anne Anthony1* and Nwabueze, Titus U.2. 1Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Michael ...

  10. Effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to determine the effects of active, inactive and compounded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as natural feed additives on growth performance, visceral organs weight, insulin, thyroxin and growth hormone of Japanese quails. One day old Japanese quails allocated in 4 treatments by 4 ...

  11. Substrate Channelling and Energetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected during the high-cell-density cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 on glucose in a simulated five-phase feeding strategy of fed-batch process, executed on the Universal BIoprocess CONtrol (UBICON) system using 150L bioreactor over a period of 24h have been analysed. The consistency of the ...

  12. Nitrogen Catabolite Repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H Jacob Peider

    1999-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the expression of all known nitrogen catabolite pathways are regulated by four regulators known as Gln3, Gat1, Da180, and Deh1. This is known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). They bind to motifs in the promoter region to the consensus sequence S' GATAA 3'. Gln3...

  13. Fatal Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Aortic Graft Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor); Smith, Davey; Metzgar, David; Wills, Christopher; Fierer, Joshua

    2002-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast commonly used in baking and a frequent colonizer of human mucosal surfaces. It is considered relatively nonpathogenic in immunocompetent adults. We present a case of S. cerevisiae fungemia and aortic graft infection in an immunocompetent adult. This is the first reported case of S. cerevisiue fungemia where the identity of the pathogen was confirmed by rRNA sequencing.

  14. Heterooligomeric phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains five phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase-homologous genes (PRS1-5), which specify PRPP synthase subunits 1-5. Expression of the five S. cerevisiae PRS genes individually in an Escherichia coli PRPP-less strain (Deltaprs) showed that a single PRS...

  15. Tangential Ultrafiltration of Aqueous "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae" Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Neves, Patricia S.; Da Silva, Francisco A.; Xavier, Ana M. R. B.; Eusebio, M. F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental work on ultrafiltration is presented to illustrate the practical and theoretical principles of this separation technique. The laboratory exercise comprises experiments with pure water and with aqueous "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" (from commercial Baker's yeast) suspensions. With this work students detect the characteristic phenomena…

  16. Flocculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tup1 mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipke, P N; Hull-Pillsbury, C

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying a mutation in the TUP1 locus exhibited calcium-dependent flocculation. The flocculation had none of the characteristics of sexual agglutination. The flocculation differed from that exhibited by a FLO1 strain in the effect of pH on cation dependence and sensitivity to chemical inactivation.

  17. Bacterial Recombineering: Genome Engineering via Phage-Based Homologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Gur; Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-20

    The ability to specifically modify bacterial genomes in a precise and efficient manner is highly desired in various fields, ranging from molecular genetics to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Much has changed from the initial realization that phage-derived genes may be employed for such tasks to today, where recombineering enables complex genetic edits within a genome or a population. Here, we review the major developments leading to recombineering becoming the method of choice for in situ bacterial genome editing while highlighting the various applications of recombineering in pushing the boundaries of synthetic biology. We also present the current understanding of the mechanism of recombineering. Finally, we discuss in detail issues surrounding recombineering efficiency and future directions for recombineering-based genome editing.

  18. Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces competition during microvinification under different sugar and nitrogen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Lleixà

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The inoculation of wines with autochthonous yeast allows obtaining complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint characteristic from a wine region. Mixed inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae is of interest for the wine industry for technological and sensory reasons. However, the interactions between these yeasts are not well understood, especially those regarding the availability of nutrients. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of nitrogen and sugar concentration on the evolution of mixed yeast populations on controlled laboratory-scale fermentations monitored by density, plate culturing, PCR-DGGE and sugar and nitrogen consumption. Furthermore, the effect of the time of inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae respect the initial co-inoculation of three non-Saccharomyces yeasts was evaluated over the evolution of fermentation. Our results have shown that S. cerevisiae inoculation during the first 48h conferred a stabilizing effect over the fermentations with non-Saccharomyces strains tested and, generally, reduced yeast diversity at the end of the fermentation. On the other hand, nitrogen limitation increased the time of fermentation and also the proportion of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at mid and final fermentation. High sugar concentration resulted in different proportions of the inoculated yeast depending on the time of S. cerevisiae inoculation. This work emphasizes the importance of the concentration of nutrients on the evolution of mixed fermentations and points to the optimal conditions for a stable fermentation in which the inoculated yeasts survived until the end.

  19. Expression of recombinant Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eFrenzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with human-like post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  20. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  1. Dissociative recombination of HCl+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Åsa; Fonseca dos Santos, Samantha; E. Orel, Ann

    2017-08-01

    The dissociative recombination of HCl+, including both the direct and indirect mechanisms, is studied. For the direct process, the relevant electronic states are calculated ab initio by combining electron scattering calculations to obtain resonance positions and autoionization widths with multi-reference configuration interaction calculations of the ion and Rydberg states. The cross section for the direct dissociation along electronic resonant states is computed by solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. For the indirect process, an upper bound value for the cross section is obtained using a vibrational frame transformation of the elements of the scattering matrix at energies just above the ionization threshold. Vibrational excitations of the ionic core from the ground vibrational state, v = 0 , to the first three excited vibrational states, v = 1 , v = 2 , and v = 3 , are considered. Autoionization is neglected and the effect of the spin-orbit splitting of the ionic potential energy upon the indirect dissociative recombination cross section is considered. The calculated cross sections are compared to measurements.

  2. Functional heterologous protein expression by genetically engineered probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Hudson

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested the potential of probiotic organisms to be adapted for the synthesis and delivery of oral therapeutics. The probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii would be especially well suited for this purpose due to its ability, in contrast to probiotic prokaryotes, to perform eukaryotic post translational modifications. This probiotic yeast thus has the potential to express a broad array of therapeutic proteins. Currently, however, use of wild type (WT S. boulardii relies on antibiotic resistance for the selection of transformed yeast. Here we report the creation of auxotrophic mutant strains of S. boulardii that can be selected without antibiotics and demonstrate that these yeast can express functional recombinant protein even when recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues in mice. A UV mutagenesis approach was employed to generate three uracil auxotrophic S. boulardii mutants that show a low rate of reversion to wild type growth. These mutants can express recombinant protein and are resistant in vitro to low pH, bile acid salts, and anaerobic conditions. Critically, oral gavage experiments using C57BL/6 mice demonstrate that mutant S. boulardii survive and are taken up into gastrointestinal immune tissues on a similar level as WT S. boulardii. Mutant yeast recovered from gastrointestinal immune tissues furthermore retain expression of functional recombinant protein. These data show that auxotrophic mutant S. boulardii can safely express recombinant protein without antibiotic selection and can deliver recombinant protein to gastrointestinal immune tissues. These auxotrophic mutants of S. boulardii pave the way for future experiments to test the ability of S. boulardii to deliver therapeutics and mediate protection against gastrointestinal disorders.

  3. Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Corchero, José Luis; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    ...-translational modifications, proteolytic instability, poor solubility and activation of cell stress responses, among others, they represent convenient and powerful tools for recombinant protein production...

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: population divergence and resistance to oxidative stress in clinical, domesticated and wild isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Diezmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been associated with human life for millennia in the brewery and bakery. Recently it has been recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen. To study the evolutionary history of S. cerevisiae, the origin of clinical isolates and the importance of a virulence-associated trait, population genetics and phenotypic assays have been applied to an ecologically diverse set of 103 strains isolated from clinics, breweries, vineyards, fruits, soil, commercial supplements and insect guts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA sequence data from five nuclear DNA loci were analyzed for population structure and haplotype distribution. Additionally, all strains were tested for survival of oxidative stress, a trait associated with microbial pathogenicity. DNA sequence analyses identified three genetic subgroups within the recombining S. cerevisiae strains that are associated with ecology, geography and virulence. Shared alleles suggest that the clinical isolates contain genetic contribution from the fruit isolates. Clinical and fruit isolates exhibit high levels of recombination, unlike the genetically homogenous soil isolates in which no recombination was detected. However, clinical and soil isolates were more resistant to oxidative stress than any other population, suggesting a correlation between survival in oxidative stress and yeast pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Population genetic analyses of S. cerevisiae delineated three distinct groups, comprising primarily the (i human-associated brewery and vineyard strains, (ii clinical and fruit isolates (iii and wild soil isolates from eastern U.S. The interactions between S. cerevisiae and humans potentiate yeast evolution and the development of genetically, ecologically and geographically divergent groups.

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: population divergence and resistance to oxidative stress in clinical, domesticated and wild isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Stephanie; Dietrich, Fred S

    2009-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been associated with human life for millennia in the brewery and bakery. Recently it has been recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen. To study the evolutionary history of S. cerevisiae, the origin of clinical isolates and the importance of a virulence-associated trait, population genetics and phenotypic assays have been applied to an ecologically diverse set of 103 strains isolated from clinics, breweries, vineyards, fruits, soil, commercial supplements and insect guts. DNA sequence data from five nuclear DNA loci were analyzed for population structure and haplotype distribution. Additionally, all strains were tested for survival of oxidative stress, a trait associated with microbial pathogenicity. DNA sequence analyses identified three genetic subgroups within the recombining S. cerevisiae strains that are associated with ecology, geography and virulence. Shared alleles suggest that the clinical isolates contain genetic contribution from the fruit isolates. Clinical and fruit isolates exhibit high levels of recombination, unlike the genetically homogenous soil isolates in which no recombination was detected. However, clinical and soil isolates were more resistant to oxidative stress than any other population, suggesting a correlation between survival in oxidative stress and yeast pathogenicity. Population genetic analyses of S. cerevisiae delineated three distinct groups, comprising primarily the (i) human-associated brewery and vineyard strains, (ii) clinical and fruit isolates (iii) and wild soil isolates from eastern U.S. The interactions between S. cerevisiae and humans potentiate yeast evolution and the development of genetically, ecologically and geographically divergent groups.

  6. Sites of ubiquitin attachment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Lea M; Lo, Russell S; Eng, Jimmy K; von Haller, Priska D; Fields, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Sites of ubiquitin modification have been identified by mass spectrometry based on the increase in molecular mass of a tryptic peptide carrying two additional glycine residues from the ubiquitin moiety. However, such peptides with GG shifts have been difficult to discover. We identify 870 unique sites of ubiquitin attachment on 438 different proteins of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Genetic Characterization of Pathogenic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    McCusker, J. H.; Clemons, K. V.; Stevens, D. A.; Davis, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates from human patients have been genetically analyzed. Some of the characteristics of these isolates are very different from laboratory and industrial strains of S. cerevisiae and, for this reason, stringent genetic tests have been used to confirm their identity as S. cerevisiae. Most of these clinical isolates are able to grow at 42°, a temperature that completely inhibits the growth of most other S. cerevisiae strains. This property can be considered a virulen...

  8. Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts during Alcoholic Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri

    in completion of anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. For both S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, some 22 different nitrogenous sources were evaluated for effects on growth and fermentation ability during anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. The data revealed that nitrogen preference is a trait......The early death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during mixed culture spontaneous wine fermentation has traditionally been attributed to the lower capacity of these yeast species to withstand high levels of ethanol, low pH, and other media properties that are a part of progressing fermentation. However......, other yeast-yeast interactions, such as cell-cell contact mediated growth arrest and/or toxininduced death may also be a significant factor in the relative fragility of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed culture fermentation. In the present work we evaluate the combined roles of cell-cell contact...

  9. Aerobic physiology of redox-engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains modified in the ammonium assimilation for increased NADPH availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Maria Margarida M. dos; Thygesen, G.; Kotter, P.

    2003-01-01

    , and alternative pathways for ammonium assimilation were overexpressed: GDH2 (NADH-consuming) or GLN1 and GLT1 (the GS-GOGAT system). The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway during aerobic growth on glucose decreased to about half that of the reference strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.KK113-7D......Recombinant strains altered in the ammonium assimilation pathways were constructed with the purpose of increasing NADPH availability. The NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase encoded by GDH1, which accounts for a major fraction of the NADPH consumption during growth on ammonium, was deleted......, indicating a major redox alteration in the strains. The basic growth characteristics of the recombinant strains were not affected to a great extent, but the dilution rate at which the onset of aerobic fermentation occurred decreased, suggesting a relation between the onset of the Crabtree effect and the flux...

  10. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as w...

  11. Increasing ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation by cell recycling of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roca, Christophe Francois Aime; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    (-1). Consequently, the volumetric ethanol productivity increased ten-fold, from 0.5 g l(-1) h(-1) to 5.35 g l(-1) h(-1). By increasing the biomass concentration, the xylose consumption rate increased from 0.75 g xylose l(-1) h(-1) without recycling to 1.9 g l(-1) h(-1) with recycling. The specific...... ethanol productivity was in the range of 0.23-0.26 g g(-1) h(-1) with or without cell recycling, showing that an increased cell-mass concentration did not influence the efficiency of the yeast....

  12. [Interaction of the HSM3 gene with genes initiating homologous recombination repair in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernenkov, A Iu; Fedorov, D V; Gracheva, L M; Evstukhina, T A; Koval'tsova, S V; Peshekhonov, V T; Fedorova, I V; Korolev, V G

    2012-03-01

    It was assumed previously that the mutator phenotype of the hms3 mutant was determined by processes taking place in the D-loop. As a next step, genetic analysis was performed to study the interactions between the hsm3 mutation and mutations of the genes that control the initial steps of the D-loop formation. The mutations of the MMS4 and XRS2 genes, which initiate the double-strand break formation and subsequent repair, were shown to completely block HSM3-dependent UV-induced mutagenesis. Mutations of the RAD51, RAD52, and RAD54 genes, which are also involved in the D-loop formation, only slightly decreased the level of UV-induced mutagenesis in the hsm3 mutant. Similar results were observed for the interaction of hsm3 with the mph1 mutation, which stabilizes the D-loop. In contrast, the shu1 mutation, which destabilizes the D-loop structure, led to an extremely high level of UV-induced mutagenesis and displayed epistatic interactions with the hsm3 mutation. The results made it possible to assume that the hsm3 mutation destabilizes the D-loop, which is a key substrate of both Rad5- and Rad52-dependent postreplicative repair pathways.

  13. Recombination-Mediated Telomere Maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Not Dependent on the Shu Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van Paula M.; de Jong, Jannie; Agpalo, Danielle; Claussin, Clemence; Rothstein, Rodney; Chang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In cells lacking telomerase, telomeres shorten progressively during each cell division due to incomplete end-replication. When the telomeres become very short, cells enter a state that blocks cell division, termed senescence. A subset of these cells can overcome senescence and maintain their

  14. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Borbála; Frankó, Balázs; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2012-03-12

    The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS) unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS), resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L) did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics.

  15. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Borbála

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS, resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and second-generation processes also increases the ethanol concentration, resulting in a reduction in the cost of the distillation step, thus improving the process economics.

  16. Formation of AAV Single Stranded DNA Genome from a Circular Plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Tiziana; Backovic, Ana; Galli, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV). When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls). Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway. PMID:21853137

  17. Formation of AAV single stranded DNA genome from a circular plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Cervelli

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV-based vectors are promising tools for targeted transfer in gene therapy studies. Many efforts have been accomplished to improve production and purification methods. We thought to develop a simple eukaryotic system allowing AAV replication which could provide an excellent opportunity for studying AAV biology and, more importantly, for AAV vector production. It has been shown that yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to replicate and form the capsid of many viruses. We investigated the ability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to carry out the replication of a recombinant AAV (rAAV. When a plasmid containing a rAAV genome in which the cap gene was replaced with the S. cerevisiae URA3 gene, was co-transformed in yeast with a plasmid expressing Rep68, a significant number of URA3(+ clones were scored (more than 30-fold over controls. Molecular analysis of low molecular weight DNA by Southern blotting revealed that single stranded DNA is formed and that the plasmid is entirely replicated. The ssDNA contains the ITRs, URA3 gene and also vector sequences suggesting the presence of two distinct molecules. Its formation was dependent on Rep68 expression and ITR. These data indicate that DNA is not obtained by the canonical AAV replication pathway.

  18. Expression and purification of human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae equilibrative nucleoside transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell-Casteel, Rebba C; Johnson, Jennifer M; Roe-Žurž, Zygy; Duggan, Kelli D; Schmitz, Hannah; Hays, Franklin A

    2018-02-01

    Nucleosides play an essential role in the physiology of eukaryotes by acting as metabolic precursors in de novo nucleic acid synthesis and energy metabolism. Nucleosides also act as ligands for purinergic receptors. Equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) are polytopic integral membrane proteins that aid in regulating plasmalemmal flux of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleobases. ENTs exhibit broad substrate selectivity across different isoforms and utilize diverse mechanisms to drive substrate flux across membranes. However, the molecular mechanisms and chemical determinants of ENT-mediated substrate recognition, binding, inhibition, and transport are poorly understood. To determine how ENT-mediated transport occurs at the molecular level, greater chemical insight and assays employing purified protein are essential. This article focuses on the expression and purification of human ENT1, human ENT2, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScENT1 using novel expression and purification strategies to isolate recombinant ENTs. ScENT1, hENT1, and hENT2 were expressed in W303 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and detergent solubilized from the membrane. After detergent extraction, these ENTs were further purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. This effort resulted in obtaining quantities of purified protein sufficient for future biophysical analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rdh54 DNA translocase at kinetochores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacinskaja, Giedre

    ), which responds to unattached kinetochores or lack of tension between sister chromatids and arrests the cell cycle until all chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle. However, if the trigger activating either the DNA damage checkpoint or the SAC persists, then cell cycle arrest will not necessary...... be maintained indefinitely, because the cell can re-enter the cell cycle through a process termed adaptation. In this study, I investigated the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rdh54 DNA translocase at kinetochores. Rdh54 is involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and is required...... for adaptation to the DNA damage checkpoint. At the cell biological level, fluorescently tagged Rdh54 localizes not only to DNA repair sites but also to kinetochores. To understand the functional importance of Rdh54 localization to kinetochores, I screened for potential interaction partners of Rdh54...

  20. Genetic Approaches to Study Meiosis and Meiosis-Specific Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Yona; Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a long history as a model organism for studies of meiosis and the cell cycle. The popularity of this yeast as a model is in large part due to the variety of genetic and cytological approaches that can be effectively performed with the cells. Cultures of the cells can be induced to synchronously progress through meiosis and sporulation allowing large-scale gene expression and biochemical studies to be performed. Additionally, the spore tetrads resulting from meiosis make it possible to characterize the haploid products of meiosis allowing investigation of meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation. Here we describe genetic methods for analysis progression of S. cerevisiae through meiosis and sporulation with an emphasis on strategies for the genetic analysis of regulators of meiosis-specific genes.

  1. The ecology and evolution of non-domesticated Saccharomyces species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Primrose J; Greig, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    Yeast researchers need model systems for ecology and evolution, but the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not ideal because its evolution has been affected by domestication. Instead, ecologists and evolutionary biologists are focusing on close relatives of S. cerevisiae, the seven species in the genus Saccharomyces. The best-studied Saccharomyces yeast, after S. cerevisiae, is S. paradoxus, an oak tree resident throughout the northern hemisphere. In addition, several more members of the genus Saccharomyces have recently been discovered. Some Saccharomyces species are only found in nature, while others include both wild and domesticated strains. Comparisons between domesticated and wild yeasts have pinpointed hybridization, introgression and high phenotypic diversity as signatures of domestication. But studies of wild Saccharomyces natural history, biogeography and ecology are only beginning. Much remains to be understood about wild yeasts' ecological interactions and life cycles in nature. We encourage researchers to continue to investigate Saccharomyces yeasts in nature, both to place S. cerevisiae biology into its ecological context and to develop the genus Saccharomyces as a model clade for ecology and evolution. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Anti-Oxidant effects of pomegranate juice on Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pomegranate juice increased vitamins, fatty acids and total protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in comparison with the control. Conclusion: Pomegranate juice has a positive effect on fatty acid, vitamin and protein synthesis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Accordingly, we believe that it has significantly ...

  3. Short Communication Effect of forage sources and Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Effect of forage sources and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc 47) on ruminal fermentation ... Yeast culture based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) has a beneficial effect on the rumen via shifting the ..... two basic mechanisms involved in the stimulation of ruminal bacterial growth with the addition of yeast in the rumen.

  4. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  5. Investigation of autonomous cell cycle oscillation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Skov

    2007-01-01

    Autonome Oscillationer i kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae Udgangspunktet for dette Ph.d. projekt var at søge at forstå, hvad der gør det muligt at opnå multiple statiske tilstande ved kontinuert kultivering af Saccharomyces cerevisiae med glukose som begrænsende substrat...

  6. Generation of human ER chaperone BiP in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čiplys, Evaldas; Aučynaitė, Agota; Slibinskas, Rimantas

    2014-02-11

    Human BiP is traditionally regarded as a major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone performing a number of well-described functions in the ER. In recent years it was well established that this molecule can also be located in other cell organelles and compartments, on the cell surface or be secreted. Also novel functions were assigned to this protein. Importantly, BiP protein appears to be involved in cancer and rheumatoid arthritis progression, autoimmune inflammation and tissue damage, and thus could potentially be used for therapeutic purposes. In addition, a growing body of evidence indicates BiP as a new therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing importance of this protein and its involvement in critical human diseases demands new source of high quality native recombinant human BiP for further studies and potential application. Here we introduce yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host for the generation of human BiP protein. Expression of a full-length human BiP precursor in S. cerevisiae resulted in a high-level secretion of mature recombinant protein into the culture medium. The newly discovered ability of the yeast cells to recognize, correctly process the native signal sequence of human BiP and secrete this protein into the growth media allowed simple one-step purification of highly pure recombinant BiP protein with yields reaching 10 mg/L. Data presented in this study shows that secreted recombinant human BiP possesses native amino acid sequence and structural integrity, is biologically active and without yeast-derived modifications. Strikingly, ATPase activity of yeast-derived human BiP protein exceeded the activity of E. coli-derived recombinant human BiP by a 3-fold. S. cerevisiae is able to correctly process and secrete human BiP protein. Consequently, resulting recombinant BiP protein corresponds accurately to native analogue. The ability to produce large quantities of native recombinant human BiP in yeast

  7. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Constitutive Optimized Production of Streptokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Utilizing Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Promoter of Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi N. Vellanki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel expression vector constructed from genes of Pichia pastoris was applied for heterologous gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant streptokinase (SK was synthesized by cloning the region encoding mature SK under the control of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP promoter of Pichia pastoris in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SK was intracellularly expressed constitutively, as evidenced by lyticase-nitroanilide and caseinolytic assays. The functional activity was confirmed by plasminogen activation assay and in vitro clot lysis assay. Stability and absence of toxicity to the host with the recombinant expression vector as evidenced by southern analysis and growth profile indicate the application of this expression system for large-scale production of SK. Two-stage statistical approach, Plackett-Burman (PB design and response surface methodology (RSM was used for SK production medium optimization. In the first stage, carbon and organic nitrogen sources were qualitatively screened by PB design and in the second stage there was quantitative optimization of four process variables, yeast extract, dextrose, pH, and temperature, by RSM. PB design resulted in dextrose and peptone as best carbon and nitrogen sources for SK production. RSM method, proved as an efficient technique for optimizing process conditions which resulted in 110% increase in SK production, 2352 IU/mL, than for unoptimized conditions.

  9. Apoptosis - Triggering Effects: UVB-irradiation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2012-12-01

    The pathogenic disturbance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known as a rare but invasive nosocomial fungal infection. This survey is focused on the evaluation of apoptosis-triggering effects of UVB-irradiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The well-growth colonies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) were irradiated within an interval of 10 minutes by UVB-light (302 nm). Subsequently, the harvested DNA molecules of control and UV-exposed yeast colonies were run through the 1% agarose gel electrophoresis comprising the luminescent dye of ethidium bromide. No unusual patterns including DNA laddering bands or smears were detected. The applied procedure for UV exposure was not effective for inducing apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So, it needs another UV-radiation protocol for inducing apoptosis phenomenon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  10. Rad52 forms DMA repair and recombination centers during S phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, M.; Rothstein, R.; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance of genomic integrity and stable transmission of genetic information depend on a number of DNA repair processes. Failure to faithfully perform these processes can result in genetic alterations and subsequent development of cancer and other genetic diseases. In the eukaryote Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae, homologous recombination is the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. The key role played by Rad52 in this pathway has been attributed to its ability to seek out and mediate annealing of homologous DNA strands. In this study, we find that S. cerevisiae Rad52 fused to green...... fluorescent protein (GFP) is fully functional in DNA repair and recombination. After induction of DNA double-strand breaks by gamma -irradiation, meiosis, or the HO endonuclease, Rad52-GFP relocalizes from a diffuse nuclear distribution to distinct foci. Interestingly, Rad52 foci are formed almost exclusively...

  11. Myo-inositol transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikawa, J; Nagumo, T.; Yamashita, S

    1982-01-01

    myo-Inositol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dependent on temperature, time, and substrate concentration. The transport obeyed saturation kinetics with an apparent Km for myo-inositol of 0.1 mM, myo-Inositol analogs, such as scyllo-inositol, 2-inosose, mannitol, and 1,2-cyclohexanediol, had no effect on myo-inositol uptake, myo-Inositol uptake required metabolic energy. Removal of D-glucose resulted in a loss of activity, and azide and cyanide ions were inhibitory. In the presence of D...

  12. Acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian Tate; Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Moustafa, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a frequently occurring posttranslational modification; however, little is known about the origin and regulation of most sites. Here we used quantitative mass spectrometry to analyze acetylation dynamics and stoichiometry in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that acetylation...... accumulated in growth-arrested cells in a manner that depended on acetyl-CoA generation in distinct subcellular compartments. Mitochondrial acetylation levels correlated with acetyl-CoA concentration in vivo and acetyl-CoA acetylated lysine residues nonenzymatically in vitro. We developed a method to estimate...

  13. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic...... other FLO11-dependent phenotypes: mat formation and invasive growth. Based on these findings, I suggest that there is a common genetic program for phenotypes governing cellular differentiation. Furthermore it is found that the epigenetic switching between Flo11+ and Flo11- phenotypes is required...

  14. Prevention of DNA Rereplication Through a Meiotic Recombination Checkpoint Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Najor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response. Downstream of MEC1, MEK1 is required through its function to inhibit repair between sister chromatids. By contrast, meiotic recombination checkpoint effectors that regulate gene expression and cyclin-dependent kinase activity are not necessary. Phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is catalyzed by Mec1 and the related Tel1 protein kinase in response to DSBs, and can help coordinate activation of the Rad53 checkpoint protein kinase in the mitotic cell cycle, is required for the full checkpoint response. Phosphorylation sites that are targeted by Rad53 in a mitotic S phase checkpoint response are also involved, based on the behavior of cells containing mutations in the DBF4 and SLD3 DNA replication genes. However, RAD53 does not appear to be required, nor does RAD9, which encodes a mediator of Rad53, consistent with their lack of function in the recombination checkpoint pathway that prevents meiotic progression. While this response is similar to a checkpoint mechanism that inhibits initiation of DNA replication in the mitotic cell cycle, the evidence points to a new variation on DNA replication control.

  15. Comparative metabolomics profiling of engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae lead to a strategy that improving β-carotene production by acetate supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Bu

    Full Text Available A comparative metabolomic analysis was conducted on recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain producing β-carotene and the parent strain cultivated with glucose as carbon source using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS based approach. The results showed that most of the central intermediates associated with amino acids, carbohydrates, glycolysis and TCA cycle intermediates (acetic acid, glycerol, citric acid, pyruvic acid and succinic acid, fatty acids, ergosterol and energy metabolites were produced in a lower amount in recombinant strain, as compared to the parent strain. To increase β-carotene production in recombinant strain, a strategy that exogenous addition of acetate (10 g/l in exponential phase was developed, which could enhance most intracellular metabolites levels and result in 39.3% and 14.2% improvement of β-carotene concentration and production, respectively, which was accompanied by the enhancement of acetyl-CoA, fatty acids, ergosterol and ATP contents in cells. These results indicated that the amounts of intracellular metabolites in engineered strain are largely consumed by carotenoid formation. Therefore, maintaining intracellular metabolites pool at normal levels is essential for carotenoid biosynthesis. To relieve this limitation, rational supplementation of acetate could be a potential way because it can partially restore the levels of intracellular metabolites and improve the production of carotenoid compounds in recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  16. Secretory Expression and Characterization of an Acidic Endo-Polygalacturonase Gene from Aspergillus niger SC323 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huoxiang; Li, Xi; Guo, Mingyue; Xu, Qingrui; Cao, Yu; Qiao, Dairong; Cao, Yi; Xu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    The endo-polygalacturonase gene (endo-pgaA) was cloned from DNA of Aspergillus niger SC323 using the cDNA synthesized by overlapping PCR, and successfully expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100 through fusing the α-factor signal peptide of yeast. The full-length cDNA consists of 1,113 bp and encodes a protein of 370 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 38.8 kDa. After induction by galactose for 48 h, the activity of recombinant endo-PgaA in the culture supernatant can reach up to 1,448.48 U/mg. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration column chromatography and subsequently characterized. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified recombinant enzyme were 5.0 and 50°C, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and maximal velocity (Vmax) of the enzyme for pectin were 88.54 μmol/ml and 175.44 μmol/mg/min, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), and Na(+), and strongly inhibited by Pb(2+) and Mn(2+). The pectin hydrolysates were mainly galacturonic acid and other oligo-galacturonates. Therefore, these characteristics suggest that the recombinant endo-PgaA may be of potential use in the food and feed industries.

  17. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Three Decades of Recombinant DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie

    1985-01-01

    Discusses highlights in the development of genetic engineering, examining techniques with recombinant DNA, legal and ethical issues, GenBank (a national database of nucleic acid sequences), and other topics. (JN)

  19. Controlled Release from Recombinant Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed. PMID:24956486

  20. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Recombinant snake venom prothrombin activators

    OpenAIRE

    L?vgren, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Three prothrombin activators; ecarin, which was originally isolated from the venom of the saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus, trocarin from the rough-scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus, and oscutarin from the Taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus, were expressed in mammalian cells with the purpose to obtain recombinant prothrombin activators that could be used to convert prothrombin to thrombin. We have previously reported that recombinant ecarin can efficiently generate thrombin without the need ...

  2. Heterogeneity in recombinant protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Johanson, Ted; Lundin, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    contribute to make a population in a fermenter heterogeneous, resulting in cell-to-cell variation in physiological parameters of the microbial culture. Our study aims at investigating how population heterogeneity and recombinant protein production is affected by environmental gradients in bioreactors...... are simulated in small bioreactors and the population heterogeneity can be visualised by analysing single cells with flow cytometry. This can give new insights to cell physiology and recombinant protein production at the industrial scale....

  3. Monoterpene alcohols release and bioconversion by Saccharomyces species and hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, A; Manzanares, P; Querol, A; Belloch, C

    2011-01-31

    Terpene profile of Muscat wines fermented by Saccharomyces species and hybrid yeasts was investigated. The amount of geraniol decreased in most wines with respect to the initial must except for Saccharomyces bayanus wines. On the other hand, alpha-terpineol amount was higher in wines fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hybrid yeasts. The amount of linalool was similar in all wines and comparable to the amount in the initial must. Lower levels of beta-D-glucosidase activity were found in the hybrid yeasts with respect to S. cerevisiae. Moreover, no relationship between beta-D-glucosidase activity and terpenes profile in Muscat wines fermented with Saccharomyces species and hybrids was found. Growth of yeasts on minimum medium supplemented with geraniol showed bioconversion of geraniol into linalool and alpha-terpineol. Percentages of geraniol uptake and bioconversion were different between Saccharomyces species and hybrids. Strains within S. bayanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and hybrids showed higher geraniol uptake than S. cerevisiae, whereas the percentage of produced linalool and alpha-terpineol was higher in S. cerevisiae and hybrid yeasts than in S. bayanus and S. kudriavzevii. The relationship between geraniol uptake and adaptation of Saccharomyces species to grow at low temperature is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Saccharomyces genome database informs human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Nash, Robert S; Wong, Edith D; MacPherson, Kevin A; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Engel, Stacia R; Karra, Kalpana; Weng, Shuai; Sheppard, Travis K; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R; Cherry, J Michael

    2018-01-04

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is an expertly curated database of literature-derived functional information for the model organism budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SGD constantly strives to synergize new types of experimental data and bioinformatics predictions with existing data, and to organize them into a comprehensive and up-to-date information resource. The primary mission of SGD is to facilitate research into the biology of yeast and to provide this wealth of information to advance, in many ways, research on other organisms, even those as evolutionarily distant as humans. To build such a bridge between biological kingdoms, SGD is curating data regarding yeast-human complementation, in which a human gene can successfully replace the function of a yeast gene, and/or vice versa. These data are manually curated from published literature, made available for download, and incorporated into a variety of analysis tools provided by SGD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Lignocellulosic Fermentation of Wild Grass Employing Recombinant Hydrolytic Enzymes and Fermentative Microbes with Effective Bioethanol Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprativ P. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF studies of steam exploded and alkali pretreated different leafy biomass were accomplished by recombinant Clostridium thermocellum hydrolytic enzymes and fermentative microbes for bioethanol production. The recombinant C. thermocellum GH5 cellulase and GH43 hemicellulase genes expressed in Escherichia coli cells were grown in repetitive batch mode, with the aim of enhancing the cell biomass production and enzyme activity. In batch mode, the cell biomass (A600 nm of E. coli cells and enzyme activities of GH5 cellulase and GH43 hemicellulase were 1.4 and 1.6 with 2.8 and 2.2 U·mg−1, which were augmented to 2.8 and 2.9 with 5.6 and 3.8 U·mg−1 in repetitive batch mode, respectively. Steam exploded wild grass (Achnatherum hymenoides provided the best ethanol titres as compared to other biomasses. Mixed enzyme (GH5 cellulase, GH43 hemicellulase mixed culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida shehatae system gave 2-fold higher ethanol titre than single enzyme (GH5 cellulase single culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae system employing 1% (w/v pretreated substrate. 5% (w/v substrate gave 11.2 g·L−1 of ethanol at shake flask level which on scaling up to 2 L bioreactor resulted in 23 g·L−1 ethanol. 91.6% (v/v ethanol was recovered by rotary evaporator with 21.2% purification efficiency.

  6. Regulators of ribonucleotide reductase inhibit Ty1 mobility in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell John P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ty1 is a long terminal repeat retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a replication cycle similar to retrovirus replication. Structurally, Ty1 contains long terminal repeat (LTR regions flanking the gag and pol genes that encode for the proteins that enable Ty1 mobility. Reverse transcriptase produces Ty1 complementary (cDNA that can either be integrated back into the genome by integrase or recombined into the yeast genome through homologous recombination. The frequency of Ty1 mobility is temperature sensitive, with optimum activity occurring at 24-26°C. Results In this study, we identified two host genes that when deleted allow for high temperature Ty1 mobility: RFX1 and SML1. The protein products of these genes are both negative regulators of the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase, a key enzyme in regulating deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP levels in the cell. Processing of Ty1 proteins is defective at high temperature, and processing is not improved in either rfx1 or sml1 deletion strains. Ty1 mobility at high temperature is mediated by homologous recombination of Ty1 cDNA to Ty1 elements within the yeast genome. We quantified cDNA levels in wild type, rfx1 and sml1 deletion background strains at different temperatures. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that cDNA levels were not markedly different between the wild type and mutant strains as temperatures increased, indicating that the increased Ty1 mobility is not a result of increased cDNA synthesis in the mutant strains. Homologous recombination efficiency was increased in both rfx1 and sml1 deletion strains at high temperatures; the rfx1 deletion strain also had heightened homologous recombination efficiency at permissive temperatures. In the presence of the dNTP reducing agent hydroxyurea at permissive temperatures, Ty1 mobility was stimulated in the wild type and sml1 deletion strains but not in the rfx1 deletion strain. Mobility frequency was greatly

  7. Overexpression of human virus surface glycoprotein precursors induces cytosolic unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasnauskas Kęstutis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human virus surface proteins, as well as other mammalian glycoproteins, is much more efficient in cells of higher eukaryotes rather than yeasts. The limitations to high-level expression of active viral surface glycoproteins in yeast are not well understood. To identify possible bottlenecks we performed a detailed study on overexpression of recombinant mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuHN and measles hemagglutinin (MeH in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combining the analysis of recombinant proteins with a proteomic approach. Results Overexpressed recombinant MuHN and MeH proteins were present in large aggregates, were inactive and totally insoluble under native conditions. Moreover, the majority of recombinant protein was found in immature form of non-glycosylated precursors. Fractionation of yeast lysates revealed that the core of viral surface protein aggregates consists of MuHN or MeH disulfide-linked multimers involving eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A and is closely associated with small heat shock proteins (sHsps that can be removed only under denaturing conditions. Complexes of large Hsps seem to be bound to aggregate core peripherally as they can be easily removed at high salt concentrations. Proteomic analysis revealed that the accumulation of unglycosylated viral protein precursors results in specific cytosolic unfolded protein response (UPR-Cyto in yeast cells, characterized by different action and regulation of small Hsps versus large chaperones of Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 families. In contrast to most environmental stresses, in the response to synthesis of recombinant MuHN and MeH, only the large Hsps were upregulated whereas sHsps were not. Interestingly, the amount of eEF1A was also increased during this stress response. Conclusions Inefficient translocation of MuHN and MeH precursors through ER membrane is a bottleneck for high-level expression in yeast. Overexpression of

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  9. RECOMBINANT HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE FOR ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.M. Egorov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with prospects of using recombinant horseradish peroxidase in analytical biochemistry and biotechnology. Problems of recombinant horseradish peroxidase cloning in different expression systems, possible approaches to their solution, advantages of recombinant recombinant horseradish peroxidase and recombinant horseradish peroxidase-fusion proteins for immunoassays are considered. Possibility for development of mediatorless bienzyme biosensor for peroxide and metabolites, yielding hydrogen peroxide during their transformations, based on co-adsorption of recombinant horseradish peroxidase and the appropriate oxidase was demonstrated. The possibility to produce a fully active recombinant conjugate of recombinant horseradish peroxidase with human heart-type fatty acid binding protein, which may be used in competitive immunoassay for clinical diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, and recombinant conjugates (N- and C-terminus of recombinant horseradish peroxidase with Fab-fragments of the antibody against atrazine, which may be applied for atrazine pesticides detection, are demonstra ted for the first time.

  10. Enoate reductases from non conventional yeasts: bioconversion, cloning, and functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Stefano; Romano, Diego; Amaretti, Alberto; Molinari, Francesco; Rossi, Maddalena

    2011-12-20

    Old yellow enzymes (OYEs, EC 1.6.99.1) are flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the stereoselective trans-hydrogenation of the double bond, representing a promising alternative to metal-based catalysis. Bioconversion of ketoisophorone (KIP) by 28 non-conventional yeasts belonging to 16 different species was investigated. Growing cells of most of the strains reduced KIP via OYE and showed high stereoselectivity, producing R-levodione as major product. Competition by carbonyl reductase (CR) activity was observed in several strains. The best performing yeasts belong to Candida castellii, Kazachstania spencerorum and Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited yields of levodione ≥77% up to 95% e.e., and. Candida freyschussii, the sole strain lacking the OYE gene, reduced KIP only to unsaturated alcohols via CR. Nine unedited OYE genes were cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741ΔOye2, a mutant that showed negligible OYE and CR activities. Compared with the corresponding wild-type yeasts, growing cells of the recombinant strains bioconverted KIP with improved yields of OYE products, minor competition by CR activity, and lower enantioselectivity. In particular, resting cells of recombinant S. cerevisae presented the best performance in KIP bioconversion. Based on the results herein reported, selected strains of non-conventional yeasts and novel OYE genes can be profitably used as innovative biocatalysts in asymmetric reductions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved production of a heterologous amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inverse metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zihe; Liu, Lifang; Österlund, Tobias; Hou, Jin; Huang, Mingtao; Fagerberg, Linn; Petranovic, Dina; Uhlén, Mathias; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-09-01

    The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pathway, which has not been fully exploited. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic engineering to identify novel targets for improving protein secretion. Screening that combined UV-random mutagenesis and selection for growth on starch was performed to find mutant strains producing heterologous amylase 5-fold above the level produced by the reference strain. Genomic mutations that could be associated with higher amylase secretion were identified through whole-genome sequencing. Several single-point mutations, including an S196I point mutation in the VTA1 gene coding for a protein involved in vacuolar sorting, were evaluated by introducing these to the starting strain. By applying this modification alone, the amylase secretion could be improved by 35%. As a complement to the identification of genomic variants, transcriptome analysis was also performed in order to understand on a global level the transcriptional changes associated with the improved amylase production caused by UV mutagenesis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cmr1 protein preferentially binds to UV-damaged DNA in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Do-Hee; Kwon, Sung-Hun; Kim, Joon-Ho; Bae, Sung-Ho

    2012-02-01

    DNA metabolic processes such as DNA replication, recombination, and repair are fundamentally important for the maintenance of genome integrity and cell viability. Although a large number of proteins involved in these pathways have been extensively studied, many proteins still remain to be identified. In this study, we isolated DNA-binding proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA-cellulose columns. By analyzing the proteins using mass spectrometry, an uncharacterized protein, Cmr1/YDL156W, was identified. Cmr1 showed sequence homology to human Damaged-DNA binding protein 2 in its C-terminal WD40 repeats. Consistent with this finding, the purified recombinant Cmr1 protein was found to be intrinsically associated with DNA-binding activity and exhibited higher affinity to UV-damaged DNA substrates. Chromatin isolation experiments revealed that Cmr1 localized in both the chromatin and supernatant fractions, and the level of Cmr1 in the chromatin fraction increased when yeast cells were irradiated with UV. These results suggest that Cmr1 may be involved in DNA-damage responses in yeast.

  13. Evaluation of different co-inoculation time of non-Saccharomyces/Saccharomyces yeasts in order to obtain reduced ethanol wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mestre María Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing ethanol content in wines has become one of the main objectives of winemakers in different areas of the world. The use of selected wine yeasts can be considered one of the most effective and simple tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of co-inoculation times of selected non-Saccharomyces/Saccharomyces yeasts on the reduction of ethanol levels in wines. Hanseniaspora uvarum BHu9, Starmerella bacillaris BSb55 and Candida membranaefasciens BCm71 were co-inoculate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermentative conditions. Treatments assayed were: pure fermentations of S. cerevisiae BSc203 and non-Saccharomyces yeasts BHu9, BSb55 and BCm71; -co-fermentations: A-BHu9/BSc203; B-BSb55/BSc203 and C-BCm71/BSc203. These co-inoculations were carried out under mixed (simultaneous inoculation, and sequential conditions (non-Saccharomyces yeasts inoculated at initial time and S. cerevisiae at 48, 96 and 144 h. Lower fermentative efficiencies were registered when BHu9 and BSb55 remained pure more time. Conversely, the conversion efficiency was reduced in co-inocula of BCm71/BSc203, when both yeasts interact more time. Metabolites produced during all vinification processes were within acceptable concentration ranges according to the current legislations. Conclusion Time interaction during fermentation processes of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts showed influence on ethanol production, and this effect would be dependent on the co-inoculated species.

  14. Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Ellegren, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Selective and/or neutral processes may govern variation in DNA content and, ultimately, genome size. The observation in several organisms of a negative correlation between recombination rate and intron size could be compatible with a neutral model in which recombination is mutagenic for length changes. We used whole-genome data on small insertions and deletions within transposable elements from chicken and zebra finch to demonstrate clear links between recombination rate and a number of attributes of reduced DNA content. Recombination rate was negatively correlated with the length of introns, transposable elements, and intergenic spacer and with the rate of short insertions. Importantly, it was positively correlated with gene density, the rate of short deletions, the deletion bias, and the net change in sequence length. All these observations point at a pattern of more condensed genome structure in regions of high recombination. Based on the observed rates of small insertions and deletions and assuming that these rates are representative for the whole genome, we estimate that the genome of the most recent common ancestor of birds and lizards has lost nearly 20% of its DNA content up until the present. Expansion of transposable elements can counteract the effect of deletions in an equilibrium mutation model; however, since the activity of transposable elements has been low in the avian lineage, the deletion bias is likely to have had a significant effect on genome size evolution in dinosaurs and birds, contributing to the maintenance of a small genome. We also demonstrate that most of the observed correlations between recombination rate and genome contraction parameters are seen in the human genome, including for segregating indel polymorphisms. Our data are compatible with a neutral model in which recombination drives vertebrate genome size evolution and gives no direct support for a role of natural selection in this process.

  15. Expression of TPS1 gene from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in Saccharomyces sp. W0 enhances trehalose accumulation, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian-Shu; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that trehalose plays an important role in stress tolerance in yeasts. Therefore, in order to construct a stably recombinant Saccharomyces sp. W0 with higher ethanol tolerance, the TPS1 gene encoding 6-phosphate-trehalose synthase cloned from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 was ligated into the 18S rDNA integration vector pMIRSC11 and integrated into chromosomal DNA of Saccharomyces sp. W0. The transformant Z8 obtained had the content of 6.23 g of trehalose/100 g of cell dry weight, while Saccharomyces sp. W0 only contained 4.05 g of trehalose/100 g of cell dry weight. The transformant Z8 also had higher ethanol tolerance (cell survival was 25.1 % at 18 ml of ethanol/100 ml of solution) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) activity (1.3 U/mg) and produced more ethanol (16.4 ml of ethanol/100 ml of medium) than Saccharomyces sp. W0 (cell survival was 12.1 % at 18 ml of ethanol/100 ml of solution, Tps1 activity was 0.8 U/mg and the produced ethanol concentration was 14.2 ml of ethanol/100 ml of medium) under the same conditions. The results show that trehalose indeed can play an important role in ethanol tolerance and ethanol production by Saccharomyces sp. W0.

  16. Ethanol Production Potential of Ethanol-Tolerant Saccharomyces and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasittirong, Sutticha Na-Ranong; Chamduang, Thada; Phonrod, Umaporn; Sriroth, Klanarong

    2012-09-28

    Four ethanologenic ethanol-tolerant yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATKU132), Saccharomycodes ludwigii (ATKU47), and Issatchenkia orientalis (ATKU5-60 and ATKU5-70), were isolated by an enrichment technique in yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) ethanol at 30°C. Among non-Saccharomyces yeasts, Sd. ludwigii ATKU47 exhibited the highest ethanol-tolerance and ethanol production, which was similar to S. cerevisiae ATKU132. The maximum range of ethanol concentrations produced at 37°C by S. cerevisiae ATKU132 and Sd. ludwigii ATKU47 from an initial D-glucose concentration of 20% (w/v) and 28% (w/v) sugarcane molasses were 9.46-9.82% (w/v) and 8.07-8.32% (w/v), respectively.

  17. Rapid identification and differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus and their hybrids by multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, S; Zapparoli, G; Malacrinò, P; Suzzi, G; Dellaglio, F

    2004-01-01

    To develop a multiplex PCR assay for the specific identification and differentiation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus and their hybrids. Two sets of primers with sequences complementary to the region YBR033w were used. A single amplicon of 1710 bp or 329 bp was obtained with species S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus, respectively, while the presence of both bands was observed in S. pastorianus because of its hybrid nature. Both amplification products were also obtained after amplification from DNA of several laboratory S. cerevisiae x S. bayanus hybrid strains. Multiplex PCR was optimized for the rapid and reliable identification of S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and their hybrids. The procedure may be used for routine detection of the most common Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts involved in industrial fermentation processes, overcoming the problems of conventional techniques.

  18. Characterization of natural hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Christine; Lollier, Marc; Demuyter, Catherine; Erny, Claude; Legras, Jean-Luc; Aigle, Michel; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2007-06-01

    Nine yeast strains were isolated from spontaneous fermentations in the Alsace area of France, during the 1997, 1998 and 1999 grape harvests. Strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the MET2 gene, delta-PCR, and microsatellite patterns. Karyotypes and MET2 fragments of the nine strains corresponded to mixed chromosomal bands and restriction patterns for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum. They also responded positively to amplification with microsatellite primers specific to both species and were demonstrated to be diploid. However, meiosis led to absolute nonviability of their spores on complete medium. All the results demonstrated that the nine yeast strains isolated were S. cerevisiaexS. bayanus var. uvarum diploid hybrids. Moreover, microsatellite DNA analysis identified strains isolated in the same cellar as potential parents belonging to S. bayanus var. uvarum and S. cerevisiae.

  19. Genetic diversity study of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum reveals introgressed subtelomeric Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Elena S; Naumov, Gennadi I; Michailova, Yulia V; Martynenko, Nikolay N; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Intraspecies polymorphism of the yeast Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum was studied using the polymerase chain reaction with a microsatellite primer (GTG)(5). Sixty-nine strains of different origins were analyzed. There existed a correlation between PCR patterns of the strains and the source of their isolation: the type of wine and the particular winemaking region. Southern hybridization analysis revealed for the first time introgression between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. bayanus var. uvarum. Two strains isolated from alcoholic beverages in Hungary and identified by genetic analysis as S. bayanus var. uvarum were found to harbor a number of S. cerevisiae subtelomeric sequences: Y', SUC, RTM and MAL. Copyright © 2010 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Sequential Inoculation of Native Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Wine Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; Zulian, Laura; Ferreres, Àngela; Pastor, Rosa; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast for wine making is becoming a common trend in many innovative wineries. The application is normally aimed at increasing aromas, glycerol, reducing acidity, and other improvements. This manuscript focuses on the reproduction of the native microbiota from the vineyard in the inoculum. Thus, native selected yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Starmerella bacillaris species and three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated sequentially, or only S. cerevisiae (three native strains together or one commercial) was used. Inoculations were performed both in laboratory conditions with synthetic must (400 mL) as well as in industrial conditions (2000 kg of grapes) in red winemaking in two different varieties, Grenache and Carignan. The results showed that all the inoculated S. cerevisiae strains were found at the end of the vinifications, and when non-Saccharomyces yeasts were inoculated, they were found in appreciable populations at mid-fermentation. The final wines produced could be clearly differentiated by sensory analysis and were of similar quality, in terms of sensory analysis panelists' appreciation.

  1. Sequential Inoculation of Native Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Wine Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Padilla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast for wine making is becoming a common trend in many innovative wineries. The application is normally aimed at increasing aromas, glycerol, reducing acidity, and other improvements. This manuscript focuses on the reproduction of the native microbiota from the vineyard in the inoculum. Thus, native selected yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Starmerella bacillaris species and three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were inoculated sequentially, or only S. cerevisiae (three native strains together or one commercial was used. Inoculations were performed both in laboratory conditions with synthetic must (400 mL as well as in industrial conditions (2000 kg of grapes in red winemaking in two different varieties, Grenache and Carignan. The results showed that all the inoculated S. cerevisiae strains were found at the end of the vinifications, and when non-Saccharomyces yeasts were inoculated, they were found in appreciable populations at mid-fermentation. The final wines produced could be clearly differentiated by sensory analysis and were of similar quality, in terms of sensory analysis panelists’ appreciation.

  2. Gains and Losses of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefke, Bernhard; Wang, Tzi-Yuan; Wang, Chuen-Yi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-07-27

    Gene expression evolution occurs through changes in cis- or trans-regulatory elements or both. Interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites (TFBSs) constitute one of the most important points where these two regulatory components intersect. In this study, we investigated the evolution of TFBSs in the promoter regions of different Saccharomyces strains and species. We divided the promoter of a gene into the proximal region and the distal region, which are defined, respectively, as the 200-bp region upstream of the transcription starting site and as the 200-bp region upstream of the proximal region. We found that the predicted TFBSs in the proximal promoter regions tend to be evolutionarily more conserved than those in the distal promoter regions. Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the fermentation of alcoholic drinks have experienced more TFBS losses than gains compared with strains from other environments (wild strains, laboratory strains, and clinical strains). We also showed that differences in TFBSs correlate with the cis component of gene expression evolution between species (comparing S. cerevisiae and its sister species Saccharomyces paradoxus) and within species (comparing two closely related S. cerevisiae strains). © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Lipid composition of wine strains of Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchoni, Jordi; Rozès, Nicolas; Querol, Amparo; Guillamón, José Manuel

    2012-04-16

    Some species of the Saccharomyces genus have shown better adaptation at low temperature than the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. That is the case of the cryophilic yeast Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Several studies have revealed the importance of the lipid composition in the yeast adaptive response at different environmental temperatures. Thus we analysed the lipid composition of three S. kudriavzevii strains during growth at optimum (28°C) and low temperature (12°C), and compared them with different commercial strains; one S. cerevisiae strain and two hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. Our results show a general increase in the medium-chain fatty acid, triacylglyceride, sterol esters and squalene and a decrease in the chain length of the fatty acids, in phosphatidic acid and in the ratio phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine at low temperatures. The S. kudriavzevii strains had higher percentages of medium-chain fatty acids and squalene and shorter chain lengths regardless of the growth temperature. This differential lipid composition may partially explain the better adaptation of S. kudriavzevii at low temperatures. We have also confirmed the better fermentation performance of the strains of this species at low temperature, being an appealing alternative to S. cerevisiae for cold fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the origins and industrial applications of Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, David; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Barrio, Eladio; Querol, Amparo

    2017-10-12

    Companies based on alcoholic fermentation products, such as wine, beer, and biofuels, use yeasts to make their products. Each industrial process utilizes different media conditions, which differ in sugar content, the presence of inhibitors, and fermentation temperatures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has traditionally been the main yeast responsible for most fermentation processes. However, the market is changing due to the consumer demands or external factors, such as climate change. Some processes, such as biofuel production or winemaking, require new yeasts to solve specific challenges, especially those associated with sustainability, novel flavors, and altered alcohol contents. One of the proposed solutions is the application of yeast hybrids. The lager beer market has been dominated by S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids. However, several less thoroughly studied hybrids have been isolated from other diverse industrial processes. Here we focus on S. cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids, which have been isolated from diverse industrial conditions that include wine, ale beer, cider, and dietary supplements. Emerging data suggest an extended and complex story of adaptation of these hybrids to traditional industrial conditions. S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids are also being explored for new industrial applications, such as biofuels. This review describes the past, present, and future of S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Sequential Inoculation of Native Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Wine Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; Zulian, Laura; Ferreres, Àngela; Pastor, Rosa; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeast for wine making is becoming a common trend in many innovative wineries. The application is normally aimed at increasing aromas, glycerol, reducing acidity, and other improvements. This manuscript focuses on the reproduction of the native microbiota from the vineyard in the inoculum. Thus, native selected yeasts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Starmerella bacillaris species and three different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were inoculated sequentially, or only S. cerevisiae (three native strains together or one commercial) was used. Inoculations were performed both in laboratory conditions with synthetic must (400 mL) as well as in industrial conditions (2000 kg of grapes) in red winemaking in two different varieties, Grenache and Carignan. The results showed that all the inoculated S. cerevisiae strains were found at the end of the vinifications, and when non-Saccharomyces yeasts were inoculated, they were found in appreciable populations at mid-fermentation. The final wines produced could be clearly differentiated by sensory analysis and were of similar quality, in terms of sensory analysis panelists’ appreciation. PMID:28769887

  6. Meiotic versus mitotic recombination: two different routes for double-strand break repair: the different functions of meiotic versus mitotic DSB repair are reflected in different pathway usage and different outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sabrina L; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2010-12-01

    Studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have validated the major features of the double-strand break repair (DSBR) model as an accurate representation of the pathway through which meiotic crossovers (COs) are produced. This success has led to this model being invoked to explain double-strand break (DSB) repair in other contexts. However, most non-crossover (NCO) recombinants generated during S. cerevisiae meiosis do not arise via a DSBR pathway. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that DSBR is a minor pathway for recombinational repair of DSBs that occur in mitotically-proliferating cells and that the synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) model appears to describe mitotic DSB repair more accurately. Fundamental dissimilarities between meiotic and mitotic recombination are not unexpected, since meiotic recombination serves a very different purpose (accurate chromosome segregation, which requires COs) than mitotic recombination (repair of DNA damage, which typically generates NCOs). Copyright © 2010 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  8. [A genetically isolated population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Malaysia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Serpova, E V; Naumova, E S

    2006-01-01

    A divergent population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified in Malaysia by molecular and genetic analysis. It has also demonstrated that the yeast S. bayanus may be found in South America. Problems of the origin of S. cerevisiae are discussed.

  9. Coordination of DNA replication and recombination activities in the maintenance of genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Robyn L; Branagan, Amy M; Morrical, Scott W

    2011-10-01

    Across the evolutionary spectrum, living organisms depend on high-fidelity DNA replication and recombination mechanisms to maintain genome stability and thus to avoid mutation and disease. The repair of severe lesions in the DNA such as double-strand breaks or stalled replication forks requires the coordinated activities of both the homologous recombination (HR) and DNA replication machineries. Growing evidence indicates that so-called "accessory proteins" in both systems are essential for the effective coupling of recombination to replication which is necessary to restore genome integrity following severe DNA damage. In this article we review the major processes of homology-directed DNA repair (HDR), including the double Holliday Junction (dHJ), synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), break-induced replication (BIR), and error-free lesion bypass pathways. Each of these pathways involves the coupling of a HR event to DNA synthesis. We highlight two major classes of accessory proteins in recombination and replication that facilitate HDR: Recombination mediator proteins exemplified by T4 UvsY, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad52, and human BRCA2; and DNA helicases/translocases exemplified by T4 Gp41/Gp59, E. coli DnaB and PriA, and eukaryotic Mcm2-7, Rad54, and Mph1. We illustrate how these factors help to direct the flow of DNA and protein-DNA intermediates on the pathway from a double-strand break or stalled replication fork to a high-fidelity recombination-dependent replication apparatus that can accurately repair the damage. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Molecular Basis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Biofilm Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kaj Scherz

    of translation of FLO11. In conclusion, I have conducted the first global study of the genetic program for yeast biofilm formation on polystyrene. This work provide several target genes as good basis for further research of biofilm, that I believe can contribute to fields such as cell biology, genetics, system......In this study, I sought to identify genes regulating the global molecular program for development of sessile multicellular communities, also known as biofilm, of the eukaryotic microorganism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). Yeast biofilm has a clinical interest, as biofilms can cause chronic......, but only a small subset is previously described as regulators of FLO11. These results reveal that the regulation of biofilm formation and FLO11 is even more complex than what has previously been described. I find that the molecular program for biofilm formation shares many essential components with two...

  11. Beneficial properties of probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomičić Zorica M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces boulardii is unique probiotic and biotherapeutic yeast, known to survive in gastric acidity and it is not adversely affected or inhibited by antibiotics or does not alter or adversely affect the normal microbiota. S. boulardii has been utilized worldwide as a probiotic supplement to support gastrointestinal health. The multiple mechanisms of action of S. boulardii and its properties may explain its efficacy and beneficial effects in acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases that have been confirmed by clinical trials. Caution should be taken in patients with risk factors for adverse events. Its potential application in various dairy foods could offer an alternative probiotic product to people suffering from antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This review discusses the evidence for efficacy and safety of S. boulardii as a probiotic for the prevention and therapy of gastrointestinal disorders in humans.

  12. Probiotic Properties of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech

    to harmless luminal substances is a key feature of the intestinal immune system. In this context, dendritic cells (DCs) present in the tissues lining the human gut are central players involved in microbial sensing and shaping of appropriate adaptive immune responses. Probiotics are live microorganisms which...... when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. While the majority of probiotic microorganisms studied to date are lactic acid bacteria, research in yeasts with potentially beneficial influences on human health has mainly revolved around Saccharomyces boulardii. This yeast...... has shown a positive impact on disease outcome in clinical studies of inflammatory bowel disease, indicating an ability of S. boulardii to influence human immune responses underlying intestinal inflammation. Consequent to this focus on S. boulardii as the fundamental probiotic yeast, very little...

  13. Saccharomyces kluyveri as a model organism to study pyrimidine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Halfdan; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Piskur, Jure

    2008-12-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri (Lachancea kluyveri), a far relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not a widely studied organism in the laboratory. However, significant contributions to the understanding of nucleic acid precursors degradation in eukaryotes have been made using this model organism. Here we review eukaryotic pyrimidine degradation with emphasis on the contributions made with S. kluyveri and how this increases our understanding of human disease. Additionally, we discuss the possibilities and limitations of this nonconventional yeast as a laboratory organism.

  14. Rad10 exhibits lesion-dependent genetic requirements for recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Destaye M; Karlin, Justin; González-Barrera, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    . Here we show that yeast strains expressing fluorescently labeled Rad10 protein (Rad10-YFP) form foci in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by a site-specific restriction enzyme, I-SceI or by ionizing radiation (IR). Additionally, for endonuclease-induced DSBs, Rad10-YFP localization to DSB......In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rad1-Rad10 protein complex participates in nucleotide excision repair (NER) and homologous recombination (HR). During HR, the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease cleaves 3' branches of DNA and aberrant 3' DNA ends that are refractory to other 3' processing enzymes...

  15. Effect of bacterial recA expression on DNA repair in the rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Morais Jr.; Vlcková,V.; I. Fridrichová; Slaninová,M.; Brozmanová, J; Henriques,J.A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular and functional homology between yeast proteins pRad51 and pRad52 and Escherichia coli pRecA involved in recombinational DNA repair led us to investigate possible effects of recA gene expression on DNA repair in rad51 and rad52 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutant cells were subjected to one of the following treatments: preincubation with 8-methoxypsoralen and subsequent irradiation with 360-nm ultraviolet (UVA) (8-MOP + UVA), irradiation with 254-nm UV light or treatment ...

  16. β-Carotene production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with regard to plasmid stability and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used for the production of β-carotene. The episomal plasmid YEplac195YB/I/E was extended by a gene coding for the mevalonate kinase (mvaK1) from Staphylococcus aureus. The adh1 promoter was chosen for constitutive expression of mvaK1. The recombinant strain S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) synthesised β-carotene by expressing the carotenogenic genes of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous together with the mvaK1 gene. Cells of this strain were investigated for their carotenoid contents in YNB and YPD media. A corresponding mvaK1 transcript in the recombinant yeast host was verified. Growth experiments of a specific erg12 deletion mutant showed that the mevalonate kinase (MvaK1) was able to complement the function of the deleted native mevalonate kinase (Erg12) from S. cerevisiae in the MVA pathway under control of the constitutive adh1 promoter. Cells of S. cerevisiae G175 (YEplac-CaroSA) exhibited high plasmid stability under either selective or non-selective cultivation conditions. Time course experiments demonstrated high plasmid stability even over extended cultivation periods. Carotenoid production was therefore also stable in larger culture volumes. Due to the stability of the plasmid, cultivation of the cells in complex YPD medium was possible, and 14.3 mg β-carotene per litre and a cell density of 9 g cell dry matter (CDM) per litre were achieved. The highest amount of 3,897 μg β-carotene per gramme CDM at a cell density of 1 g CDM per litre was measured after cultivation of the cells in YNB medium with glucose as sole carbon source.

  17. Rapid analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome rearrangements by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Chan

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCRs can lead to genetic diseases and the development of cancer. We previously demonstrated that introduction of the repetitive retrotransposon Ty912 onto a nonessential chromosome arm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to increased genome instability predominantly due to increased rates of formation of monocentric nonreciprocal translocations. In this study, we adapted Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA to analyze a large numbers of these GCRs. Using MLPA, we found that the distribution of translocations induced by the presence of Ty912 in a wild-type strain was nonrandom and that the majority of these translocations were mediated by only six translocation targets on four different chromosomes, even though there were 254 potential Ty-related translocation targets in the S. cerevisiae genome. While the majority of Ty912-mediated translocations resulted from RAD52-dependent recombination, we observed a number of nonreciprocal translocations mediated by RAD52-independent recombination between Ty1 elements. The formation of these RAD52-independent translocations did not require the Rad51 or Rad59 homologous pairing proteins or the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease complex that processes branched DNAs during recombination. Finally, we found that defects in ASF1-RTT109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residue 56 (H3K56 resulted in increased accumulation of both GCRs and whole-chromosome duplications, and resulted in aneuploidy that tended to occur simultaneously with GCRs. Overall, we found that MLPA is a versatile technique for the rapid analysis of GCRs and can facilitate the genetic analysis of the pathways that prevent and promote GCRs and aneuploidy.

  18. Experience with Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic in Oncohaematological Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik-Tyszka, Beata; Snarski, Emilian; Niedźwiedzka, Magda; Augustyniak, Małgorzata; Myhre, Thorvald Nilsen; Kacprzyk, Anna; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa; Roszkowska, Marta; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Jadwiga; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław Wiktor; Wróblewska, Marta

    2017-09-25

    Very few reports have been published to date on the bloodstream infections caused by Saccharomyces spp. in oncohaematological patients, and there are no guidelines on the use of this probiotic microorganism in this population. We describe the use of probiotic preparation containing Saccharomyces boulardii in a large group of oncohaematological patients. We retrospectively analysed the data from 32,000 patient hospitalisations at the haematological centre during 2011-2013 (including 196 haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients) in a tertiary care university-affiliated hospital. During the study period, 2270 doses of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic were administered to the oncohaematological patients. In total, 2816 mycological cultures were performed, out of which 772 (27.4%) were positive, with 52 indicating digestive tract colonisation by Saccharomyces spp., mainly in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or multiple myeloma (MM). While colonised, they were hospitalised for 1683 days and 416 microbiological cultures of their clinical samples were performed. In the studied group of patients, there were six blood cultures positive for fungi; however, they comprised Candida species: two C. glabrata, one C. albicans, one C. krusei, one C. tropicalis and one C. parapsilosis. There was no blood culture positive for Saccharomyces spp. Our study indicates that despite colonisation of many oncohaematological patients with Saccharomyces spp., there were no cases of fungal sepsis caused by this species.

  19. Interactions entre levures Saccharomyces cerevisiae et non-Saccharomyces en vinification. : Incidence de facteurs de l’environnement.

    OpenAIRE

    Chasseriaud, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts, naturally found in grape must, can impact wine quality positively or negatively. In recent years, the use of mixed cultures as starters (association of S. cerevisiae species and other species) such as the couple Saccharomyces cerevisiae/Torulaspora delbrueckii is proposed to winemakers. Interactions between these two species have been studied with two commercial strains, T. delbrueckii Zymaflore Alpha and S. cerevisiae Zymaflore X5 (Laffort). Alcoholic fermentations ...

  20. Pure and Mixed Genetic Lines of Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus and Their Contribution to the Lager Brewing Strain Genome†

    OpenAIRE

    Rainieri, Sandra; Kodama, Yukiko; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Mikata, Kozaburo; Nakao, Yoshihiro; Ashikari, Toshihiko

    2006-01-01

    The yeast species Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces pastorianus are of industrial importance since they are involved in the production process of common beverages such as wine and lager beer; however, they contain strains whose variability has been neither fully investigated nor exploited in genetic improvement programs. We evaluated this variability by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 48 genes and partial sequences of 16. Within these two species, we ident...

  1. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of recombinant barley alpha-amylases 1 and 2 secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N; Andersen, Jens S.; Tull, D

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant barley alpha-amylase isozymes 1 and 2 were secreted by Pichia pastoris at up to 50 and 1 mg/liter, respectively, representing approximately a 50-fold increase compared to the levels of the heterologous expression by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The cDNA clones E or pM/C encoding isozymes 1...... and 2, respectively, were placed under the control of regulatory sequences from the Pichia AOX1 gene in the vector pHIL-D2. Both isozymes were effectively secreted to the medium as directed by their own signal sequences and easily purified to homogeneity in quantitative yield by affinity chromatography...

  2. Inheritance of brewing-relevant phenotypes in constructed Saccharomyces cerevisiae × Saccharomyces eubayanus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Castillo, Sandra; Gibson, Brian

    2017-04-21

    Interspecific hybridization has proven to be a potentially valuable technique for generating de novo lager yeast strains that possess diverse and improved traits compared to their parent strains. To further enhance the value of hybridization for strain development, it would be desirable to combine phenotypic traits from more than two parent strains, as well as remove unwanted traits from hybrids. One such trait, that has limited the industrial use of de novo lager yeast hybrids, is their inherent tendency to produce phenolic off-flavours; an undesirable trait inherited from the Saccharomyces eubayanus parent. Trait removal and the addition of traits from a third strain could be achieved through sporulation and meiotic recombination or further mating. However, interspecies hybrids tend to be sterile, which impedes this opportunity. Here we generated a set of five hybrids from three different parent strains, two of which contained DNA from all three parent strains. These hybrids were constructed with fertile allotetraploid intermediates, which were capable of efficient sporulation. We used these eight brewing strains to examine two brewing-relevant phenotypes: stress tolerance and phenolic off-flavour formation. Lipidomics and multivariate analysis revealed links between several lipid species and the ability to ferment in low temperatures and high ethanol concentrations. Unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, and ergosterol were shown to positively influence growth at high ethanol concentrations. The ability to produce phenolic off-flavours was also successfully removed from one of the hybrids, Hybrid T2, through meiotic segregation. The potential application of these strains in industrial fermentations was demonstrated in wort fermentations, which revealed that the meiotic segregant Hybrid T2 not only didn't produce any phenolic off-flavours, but also reached the highest ethanol concentration and consumed the most maltotriose. Our study demonstrates the

  3. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  4. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation is Species and Strain Specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine or glutamine were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae.

  5. The Interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeast during Alcoholic Fermentation Is Species and Strain Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyzes the lack of culturability of different non-Saccharomyces strains due to interaction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation. Interaction was followed in mixed fermentations with 1:1 inoculation of S. cerevisiae and ten non-Saccharomyces strains. Starmerella bacillaris, and Torulaspora delbrueckii indicated longer coexistence in mixed fermentations compared with Hanseniaspora uvarum and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Strain differences in culturability and nutrient consumption (glucose, alanine, ammonium, arginine, or glutamine) were found within each species in mixed fermentation with S. cerevisiae. The interaction was further analyzed using cell-free supernatant from S. cerevisiae and synthetic media mimicking both single fermentations with S. cerevisiae and using mixed fermentations with the corresponding non-Saccharomyces species. Cell-free S. cerevisiae supernatants induced faster culturability loss than synthetic media corresponding to the same fermentation stage. This demonstrated that some metabolites produced by S. cerevisiae played the main role in the decreased culturability of the other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. However, changes in the concentrations of main metabolites had also an effect. Culturability differences were observed among species and strains in culture assays and thus showed distinct tolerance to S. cerevisiae metabolites and fermentation environment. Viability kit and recovery analyses on non-culturable cells verified the existence of viable but not-culturable status. These findings are discussed in the context of interaction between non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae. PMID:27148191

  6. iTRAQ-based proteome profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cryotolerant species Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii during low-temperature wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Estéfani; Querol, Amparo; Guillamón, José Manuel

    2016-09-02

    Temperature is one of the most important parameters to affect the duration and rate of alcoholic fermentation and final wine quality. Some species of the Saccharomyces genus have shown better adaptation at low temperature than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which was the case of cryotolerant yeasts Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. In an attempt to detect inter-specific metabolic differences, we characterized the proteomic landscape of these cryotolerant species grown at 12°C and 28°C, which we compared with the proteome of S. cerevisiae (poorly adapted at low temperature). Our results showed that the main differences among the proteomic profiling of the three Saccharomyces strains grown at 12°C and 28°C lay in translation, glycolysis and amino acid metabolism. Our data corroborate previous transcriptomic results, which suggest that S. kudriavzevii is better adapted to grow at low temperature as a result of enhanced more efficient translation. Fitter amino acid biosynthetic pathways can also be mechanisms that better explain biomass yield in cryotolerant strains. Yet even at low temperature, S. cerevisiae is the most fermentative competitive species. A higher concentration of glycolytic and alcoholic fermentation enzymes in the S. cerevisiae strain might explain such greater fermentation activity. Temperature is one of the main relevant environmental variables that microorganisms have to cope with and it is also a key factor in some industrial processes that involve microorganisms. However, we are still far from understanding the molecular and physiological mechanisms of adaptation at low temperatures. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by temperature in three different species of the genus Saccharomyces with different degree of cryotolerance. These results would facilitate a better understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt at the low temperature of growth. Copyright © 2016

  7. Dissociative Recombination of Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. Brian A.

    1999-10-01

    The FALP-MS apparatus at the University of Rennes allows the measurement of rate coefficients for the recombination of molecular ions to be made (at 300K) even though several ions may be present in the afterglow. The recombination of a number of hydrocarbon ions derived from alkane ( Lehfaoui et al. J. Chem. Phys. 106, 5406, 1997.), alkene ( Rebrion-Rowe et al. J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7185, 1998.) and aromatic (Rebrion-Rowe et al. (Submitted to J. Chem. Phys.)) parent molecules has been studied. Despite the wide range of complexity of these compounds, the measured recombination rates are remarkably similar having values in the range of 4-10-7 cm^3.s-1. Plans are being laid for a new version of this apparatus that will allow pre-prepared ions to be injected into the inert buffer gas flow. This will allow reactive ions to be studied as well as halogen containing ions whose recombination rates would normally be masked by electron attachment to their parent gases in a conventional flowing afterglow apparatus. A high temperature modification to the CRESU supersonic flow apparatus (J.L. Le Garrec et al. J. Chem. Phys. 107, 54, 1997.) in our laboratory will allow electron attachment to radicals to be studied by means of the mass spectrometric detection of products, Langmuir probe measurement of the electron density in the flow and Laser Induced Fluorescent identification of the radical species. Such measurements are needed for the modeling of semiconductor processing plasmas.

  8. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... What is inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months through 8 years of age may need two ...

  9. Molecular Mechanism for Genetic Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Henry M.

    1972-01-01

    Symmetry considerations of proteinnucleic acid interaction suggest the existence of an alternate branched configuration for DNA induced by binding specific structural proteins to symmetrically arranged polynucleotide base sequences. The concept that such sequences exist at the ends of genes or operons leads to a molecular model for genetic recombination in eukaryotic cells. PMID:4115953

  10. Genetic recombination and molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, B; Betancourt, A J; Kaiser, V B; Gordo, I

    2009-01-01

    Reduced rates of genetic recombination are often associated with reduced genetic variability and levels of adaptation. Several different evolutionary processes, collectively known as Hill-Robertson (HR) effects, have been proposed as causes of these correlates of recombination. Here, we use DNA sequence polymorphism and divergence data from the noncrossing over dot chromosome of Drosophila to discriminate between two of the major forms of HR effects: selective sweeps and background selection. This chromosome shows reduced levels of silent variability and reduced effectiveness of selection. We show that neither model fits the data on variability. We propose that, in large genomic regions with restricted recombination, HR effects among nonsynonymous mutations undermine the effective strength of selection, so that their background selection effects are weakened. This modified model fits the data on variability and also explains why variability in very large nonrecombining genomes is not completely wiped out. We also show that HR effects of this type can produce an individual selection advantage to recombination, as well as greatly reduce the mean fitness of nonrecombining genomes and genomic regions.

  11. Recombination in immunoglobulin gene loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komisarenko S. V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Gene network of the lymphoid cell differentiation coordinates precisely the recombination process in immunoglobulin gene loci. In our opinion, cellular microRNAs can contribute to the allelic exclusion through microRNA-directed DNA methylation and participate in retargeting recombinases activity from the gene loci of heavy immunoglobulin chains to the gene loci of light chains

  12. Isolation of the GFA1 gene encoding glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase of Sporothrix schenckii and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, Juan Francisco; González-Ibarra, Joaquín; Álvarez-Vargas, Aurelio; Milewski, Slawomir; Villagómez-Castro, Julio César; Cano-Canchola, Carmen; López-Romero, Everardo

    2015-06-01

    Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlcN-6-P synthase) is an essential enzyme involved in cell wall biogenesis that has been proposed as a strategic target for antifungal chemotherapy. Here we describe the cloning and functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii GFA1 gene which was isolated from a genomic library of the fungus. The gene encodes a predicted protein of 708 amino acids that is homologous to GlcN-6-P synthases from other sources. The recombinant enzyme restored glucosamine prototrophy of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gfa1 null mutant. Purification and biochemical analysis of the recombinant enzyme revealed some differences from the wild type enzyme, such as improved stability and less sensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc. The sensitivity of the recombinant enzyme to the selective inhibitor FMDP [N(3)-(4-methoxyfumaroyl)-l-2,3-diaminopropanoic acid] and other properties were similar to those previously reported for the wild type enzyme. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Esc4 and the Control of Recombination During Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jodie K.; Bashkirov, Vladimir I.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich; Romesberg, Floyd E.

    2010-01-01

    When replication forks stall during DNA synthesis, cells respond by assembling multi-protein complexes to control the various pathways that stabilize the replication machinery, repair the replication fork, and facilitate the reinitiation of processive DNA synthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that cells have evolved scaffolding proteins to orchestrate and control the assembly of these repair complexes, typified in mammalian cells by several BRCT-motif containing proteins, such as Brca1, Xrcc1, and 53BP1. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Esc4 contains six such BRCT domains and is required for the most efficient response to a variety of agents that damage DNA. We show that Esc4 interacts with several proteins involved in the repair and processing of stalled or collapsed replication forks, including the recombination protein Rad55. However, the function of Esc4 does not appear to be restricted to a Rad55-dependent process, as we observed an increase in sensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent methane methylsulfonate (MMS) in a esc4Δ rad55Δ mutant, as well as in double mutants of esc4Δ and other recombination genes, compared to the corresponding single mutants. In addition, we show that Esc4 forms multiple nuclear foci in response to treatment with MMS. Similar behavior is also observed in the absence of damage when either of the S-phase checkpoint proteins, Tof1 or Mrc1, is deleted. Thus, we propose that Esc4 associates with ssDNA of stalled forks and acts as a scaffolding protein to recruit and/or modulate the function of other proteins required to reinitiate DNA synthesis. PMID:16569515

  14. The Smc5-Smc6 complex regulates recombination at centromeric regions and affects kinetochore protein sumoylation during normal growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Yong-Gonzales

    Full Text Available The Smc5-Smc6 complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is both essential for growth and important for coping with genotoxic stress. While it facilitates damage tolerance throughout the genome under genotoxin treatment, its function during unperturbed growth is mainly documented for repetitive DNA sequence maintenance. Here we provide physical and genetic evidence showing that the Smc5-Smc6 complex regulates recombination at non-repetitive loci such as centromeres in the absence of DNA damaging agents. Mutating Smc6 results in the accumulation of recombination intermediates at centromeres and other unique sequences as assayed by 2D gel analysis. In addition, smc6 mutant cells exhibit increased levels of Rad52 foci that co-localize with centromere markers. A rad52 mutation that decreases centromeric, but not overall, levels of Rad52 foci in smc6 mutants suppresses the nocodazole sensitivity of these cells, suggesting that the Smc6-mediated regulation of recombination at centromeric regions impacts centromere-related functions. In addition to influencing recombination, the SUMO ligase subunit of the Smc5-Smc6 complex promotes the sumoylation of two kinetochore proteins and affects mitotic spindles. These results suggest that the Smc5-Smc6 complex regulates both recombination and kinetochore sumoylation to facilitate chromosomal maintenance during growth.

  15. Use of homologous recombination in yeast to create chimeric bovine viral diarrhea virus cDNA clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Arenhart

    Full Text Available Abstract The open reading frame of a Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strain, IBSP4ncp, was recombined with the untranslated regions of the reference NADL strain by homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in chimeric full-length cDNA clones of BVDV (chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#2 and chi-NADL/IBSP4ncp#3. The recombinant clones were successfully recovered, resulting in viable viruses, having the kinetics of replication, focus size, and morphology similar to those of the parental virus, IBSP4ncp. In addition, the chimeric viruses remained stable for at least 10 passages in cell culture, maintaining their replication efficiency unaltered. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a few point mutations; nevertheless, the phenotype of the rescued viruses was nearly identical to that of the parental virus in all experiments. Thus, genetic stability of the chimeric clones and their phenotypic similarity to the parental virus confirm the ability of the yeast-based homologous recombination to maintain characteristics of the parental virus from which the recombinant viruses were derived. The data also support possible use of the yeast system for the manipulation of the BVDV genome.

  16. Initiation of meiotic recombination in Ustilago maydis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kojic, Milorad; Sutherland, Jeanette H; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K

    2013-01-01

    .... Ustilago maydis, a biotrophic fungus that parasitizes maize, has long been utilized as an experimental system for studying recombination, but it has not been clear when in the life cycle meiotic recombination initiates. U...

  17. GARD: a genetic algorithm for recombination detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L; Posada, David; Gravenor, Michael B; Woelk, Christopher H; Frost, Simon D W

    2006-01-01

    .... We developed a likelihood-based model selection procedure that uses a genetic algorithm to search multiple sequence alignments for evidence of recombination breakpoints and identify putative recombinant sequences...

  18. Rapid customised operon assembly by yeast recombinational cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Michael A; Kenyon, Johanna J; Lee, Jason; Reeves, Peter R

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a system called the Operon Assembly Protocol (OAP), which takes advantage of the homologous recombination DNA repair pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to assemble full-length operons from a series of overlapping PCR products into a specially engineered yeast-Escherichia coli shuttle vector. This flexible, streamlined system can be used to assemble several operon clones simultaneously, and each clone can be expressed in the same E. coli tester strain to facilitate direct functional comparisons. We demonstrated the utility of the OAP by assembling and expressing a series of E. coli O1A O-antigen gene cluster clones containing various gene deletions or replacements. We then used these constructs to assess the substrate preferences of several Wzx flippases, which are responsible for translocation of oligosaccharide repeat units (O units) across the inner membrane during O-antigen biosynthesis. We were able to identify several O unit structural features that appear to be important determinants of Wzx substrate preference. The OAP system should be broadly applicable for the genetic manipulation of any bacterial operon and can be modified for use in other host species. It could also have potential uses in fields such as glycoengineering.

  19. Plasmid-mediate transfer of FLO1 into industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 strain creates a strain useful for repeat-batch fermentations involving flocculation-sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel G; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Pereira, Francisco B; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2012-03-01

    The flocculation gene FLO1 was transferred into the robust industrial strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2 by the lithium acetate method. The recombinant strain showed a fermentation performance similar to that of the parental strain. In 10 repeat-batch cultivations in VHG medium with 345 g glucose/L and cell recycling by flocculation-sedimentation, an average final ethanol concentration of 142 g/L and an ethanol productivity of 2.86 g/L/h were achieved. Due to the flocculent nature of the recombinant strain it is possible to reduce the ethanol production cost because of lower centrifugation and distillation costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is the segmented plasma excitation recombination laser a recombination laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V.V.; Sirotkin, A.A. (Institut Obshchei Fiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-10-01

    The role of plasmachemical reactions in the formation of active media in lasers with a sectional plasma source for metal vapor is investigated. It is shown that the population of ionic levels in Cd II and Zn II occurs under recharging with He(+) and in the process of Penning ionization. It is found that these processes are more efficient than recombination and electron impact. 13 refs.

  1. SWITCH: a dynamic CRISPR tool for genome engineering and metabolic pathway control for cell factory construction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Katherina García; Lehka, Beata Joanna; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2017-02-08

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is increasingly used as a cell factory. However, cell factory construction time is a major obstacle towards using yeast for bio-production. Hence, tools to speed up cell factory construction are desirable. In this study, we have developed a new Cas9/dCas9 based system, SWITCH, which allows Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to iteratively alternate between a genetic engineering state and a pathway control state. Since Cas9 induced recombination events are crucial for SWITCH efficiency, we first developed a technique TAPE, which we have successfully used to address protospacer efficiency. As proof of concept of the use of SWITCH in cell factory construction, we have exploited the genetic engineering state of a SWITCH strain to insert the five genes necessary for naringenin production. Next, the naringenin cell factory was switched to the pathway control state where production was optimized by downregulating an essential gene TSC13, hence, reducing formation of a byproduct. We have successfully integrated two CRISPR tools, one for genetic engineering and one for pathway control, into one system and successfully used it for cell factory construction.

  2. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, S.; Biedermann, K.; Emborg, Claus

    1996-01-01

    experimentally and by computer simulations. Experiments and simulations showed that cell mass and product concentration were enhanced by high ratios of recycling. Additional simulations showed that the proteinase A concentration decreased drastically at high dilution rates and the optimal volumetric......Overproduction of proteinase A by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated by cultivations in a cell-recycling bioreactor. Membrane filtration was used to separate cells from the broth. Recycling ratios and dilution rates were varied and the effect on enzyme production was studied both...... productivities were at high dilution rates just below washout and at high ratios of recycling. Cell-recycling fermentation gave much higher volumetric productivities and stable product concentrations in contrast to simple continuous fermentation....

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of beta-alanine synthase from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritzsch, Doreen; Gojković, Zoran; Andersen, Birgit; Piskur, Jure

    2003-07-01

    In eukaryotes and some bacteria, the third step of reductive pyrimidine catabolism is catalyzed by beta-alanine synthase (EC 3.5.1.6). Crystals of the recombinant enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri were obtained using sodium citrate as a precipitant. The crystals belong to space group P2(1) (unit-cell parameters a = 117.2, b = 77.1, c = 225.5 A, beta = 95.0 degrees ) and contain four homodimers per asymmetric unit. Data were collected to 2.7 A resolution. Introduction of heavy atoms into the crystal lattice induced a different set of unit-cell parameters (a = 61.0, b = 77.9, c = 110.1 A, beta = 97.2 degrees ) in the same space group P2(1), with only one homodimer per asymmetric unit.

  4. EasyCloneMulti: A Set of Vectors for Simultaneous and Multiple Genomic Integrations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maury, Jerome; Germann, Susanne Manuela; Jacobsen, Simo Abdessamad

    2016-01-01

    of integrative vectors, EasyCloneMulti, that enables multiple and simultaneous integration of genes in S. cerevisiae. By creating vector backbones that combine consensus sequences that aim at targeting subsets of Ty sequences and a quickly degrading selective marker, integrations at multiple genomic loci......Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used in the biotechnology industry for production of ethanol, recombinant proteins, food ingredients and other chemicals. In order to generate highly producing and stable strains, genome integration of genes encoding metabolic pathway enzymes is the preferred...... option. However, integration of pathway genes in single or few copies, especially those encoding rate-controlling steps, is often not sufficient to sustain high metabolic fluxes. By exploiting the sequence diversity in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of Ty retrotransposons, we developed a new set...

  5. Impact of oxygenation on the performance of three non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Kirti; Bauer, Florian F; Setati, Mathabatha E

    2017-03-01

    The sequential or co-inoculation of grape must with non-Saccharomyces yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains has recently become a common practice in winemaking. The procedure intends to enhance unique aroma and flavor profiles of wine. The extent of the impact of non-Saccharomyces strains depends on their ability to produce biomass and to remain metabolically active for a sufficiently long period. However, mixed-culture wine fermentations tend to become rapidly dominated by S. cerevisiae, reducing or eliminating the non-Saccharomyces yeast contribution. For an efficient application of these yeasts, it is therefore essential to understand the environmental factors that modulate the population dynamics of such ecosystems. Several environmental parameters have been shown to influence population dynamics, but their specific effect remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, the population dynamics in co-fermentations of S. cerevisiae and three non-Saccharomyces yeast species: Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, was investigated as a function of oxygen availability. In all cases, oxygen availability strongly influenced population dynamics, but clear species-dependent differences were observed. Our data show that L. thermotolerans required the least oxygen, followed by T. delbrueckii and M. pulcherrima. Distinct species-specific chemical volatile profiles correlated in all cases with increased persistence of non-Saccharomyces yeasts, in particular increases in some higher alcohols and medium chain fatty acids. The results highlight the role of oxygen in regulating the succession of yeasts during wine fermentations and suggests that more stringent aeration strategies would be necessary to support the persistence of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in real must fermentations.

  6. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  7. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts--the ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeast species are among the most important groups of biotechnological organisms. S. cerevisiae and closely related ascomycetous yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding other groups of industrial microorganisms in productivity and economic revenues. Traditional industrial attributes of the S. cerevisiae group include their primary roles in food fermentations such as beers, cider, wines, sake, distilled spirits, bakery products, cheese, sausages, and other fermented foods. Other long-standing industrial processes involving S. cerevisae yeasts are production of fuel ethanol, single-cell protein (SCP), feeds and fodder, industrial enzymes, and small molecular weight metabolites. More recently, non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) have been utilized as industrial organisms for a variety of biotechnological roles. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are increasingly being used as hosts for expression of proteins, biocatalysts and multi-enzyme pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals and small molecular weight compounds of medicinal and nutritional importance. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts also have important roles in agriculture as agents of biocontrol, bioremediation, and as indicators of environmental quality. Several of these products and processes have reached commercial utility, while others are in advanced development. The objective of this mini-review is to describe processes currently used by industry and those in developmental stages and close to commercialization primarily from non-Saccharomyces yeasts with an emphasis on new opportunities. The utility of S. cerevisiae in heterologous production of selected products is also described.

  8. Sequence analysis of three mitochondrial DNA molecules reveals interesting differences among Saccharomyces yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Casaregola, S.; Ussery, David

    2003-01-01

    The complete sequences of mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) from the two budding yeasts Saccharomyces castellii and Saccharomyces servazzii, consisting of 25 753 and 30 782 bp, respectively, were analysed and compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae mtDNA. While some of the traits are very similar among Sac...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5785 - Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae... Immunological Test Systems § 866.5785 Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test systems. (a) Identification. The Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) antibody (ASCA) test system is...

  10. Cold Osmotic Shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patching, J. W.; Rose, A. H.

    1971-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCYC 366 is susceptible to cold osmotic shock. Exponentially growing cells from batch cultures grown in defined medium at 30 C, after being suspended in 0.8 m mannitol containing 10 mm ethylenedia-minetetraacetic acid and then resuspended in ice-cold 0.5 mm MgCl2, accumulated the nonmetabolizable solutes d-glucosamine-hydrochloride and 2-aminoisobutyrate at slower rates than unshocked cells; shocked cells retained their viability. Storage of unshocked batch-grown cells in buffer at 10 C led to an increase in ability to accumulate glucosamine, and further experiments were confined to cells grown in a chemostat under conditions of glucose limitation, thereby obviating the need for storing cells before use. A study was made of the effect of the different stages in the cold osmotic shock procedure, including the osmotic stress, the chelating agent, and the cold Mg2+-containing diluent, on viability and solute-accumulating ability. Growth of shocked cells in defined medium resembled that of unshocked cells; however, in malt extract-yeast extract-glucose-peptone medium, the shocked cells had a longer lag phase of growth and initially grew at a slower rate. Cold osmotic shock caused the release of low-molecular-weight compounds and about 6 to 8% of the cell protein. Neither the cell envelope enzymes, invertase, acid phosphatase and l-leucine-β-naphthylamidase, nor the cytoplasmic enzyme, alkaline phosphatase, were released when yeast cells were subjected to cold osmotic shock. PMID:5001201

  11. Nickel enhances telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broday, L; Cai, J; Costa, M

    1999-04-06

    Certain nickel compounds including crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) and subsulfide (Ni3S2) are potent human and animal carcinogens. In Chinese hamster embryo cells, an X-linked senescence gene was inactivated following nickel-induced DNA methylation. Nickel also induced the inactivation of the gpt reporter gene by chromatin condensation and a DNA methylation process in a transgenic gpt+ Chinese hamster cell line (G12), which is located near a heterochromatic region. To determine if nickel can cause gene silencing independently of DNA methylation, based only on the induction of changes in chromatin structure, we measured its effect on gene silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth of yeast in the presence of nickel chloride repressed a telomeric marker gene (URA3) and resulted in a stable epigenetic switch. This phenomenon was dependent on the number of cell doubling prior to selection and also on the distance of the marker gene from the end of the chromosome. The level of TPE (telomeric position effect) increased linearly with elevations of nickel concentration. Addition of magnesium inhibited this effect, but magnesium did not silence the reporter gene by itself. The level of silencing was also assessed following treatment with other transition metals: cobalt, copper and cadmium. In the sublethal range, cobalt induced similar effects as nickel, while copper and cadmium did not change the basal level of gene expression. Silencing by copper and cadmium were evident only at concentrations of those metals where the viability was very low. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Sugar and Glycerol Transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Linda F; Fan, Qingwen; Walker, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the process of transport of sugar substrates into the cell comprises a complex network of transporters and interacting regulatory mechanisms. Members of the large family of hexose (HXT) transporters display uptake efficiencies consistent with their environmental expression and play physiological roles in addition to feeding the glycolytic pathway. Multiple glucose-inducing and glucose-independent mechanisms serve to regulate expression of the sugar transporters in yeast assuring that expression levels and transporter activity are coordinated with cellular metabolism and energy needs. The expression of sugar transport activity is modulated by other nutritional and environmental factors that may override glucose-generated signals. Transporter expression and activity is regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally and post-translationally. Recent studies have expanded upon this suite of regulatory mechanisms to include transcriptional expression fine tuning mediated by antisense RNA and prion-based regulation of transcription. Much remains to be learned about cell biology from the continued analysis of this dynamic process of substrate acquisition.

  13. Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cadmium stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ribeiro, Frederico Haddad; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: luamatu@uol.com.br; Porto, Barbara Abranches Araujo; Amaral, Angela M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica], e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br; Rosa, Carlos Augusto [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: carlrosa@icb.ufmg

    2009-07-01

    The intensification of industrial activity has been greatly contributing with the increase of heavy metals in the environment. Among these heavy metals, cadmium becomes a serious pervasive environmental pollutant. The cadmium is a heavy metal with no biological function, very toxic and carcinogenic at low concentrations. The toxicity of cadmium and several other metals can be mainly attributed to the multiplicity of coordination complexes and clusters that they can form. Some aspects of the cellular response to cadmium were extensively investigated in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The primary site of interaction between many toxic metals and microbial cells is the plasma membrane. Plasma-membrane permeabilisation has been reported in a variety of microorganisms following cadmium exposure, and is considered one mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the yeast. In this work, using the yeast strain S. cerevisiae W303-WT, we have investigated the relationships between Cd uptake and release of cellular metal ions (K{sup +} and Na{sup +}) using neutron activation technique. The neutron activation was an easy, rapid and suitable technique for doing these metal determinations on yeast cells; was observed the change in morphology of the strains during the process of Cd accumulation, these alterations were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) during incorporation of cadmium. (author)

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism in ecological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Ponomarova, Olga; Gonzalez, Ramon; Patil, Kiran R.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture and regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolic network are among the best studied owing to its widespread use in both basic research and industry. Yet, several recent studies have revealed notable limitations in explaining genotype–metabolic phenotype relations in this yeast, especially when concerning multiple genetic/environmental perturbations. Apparently unexpected genotype–phenotype relations may originate in the evolutionarily shaped cellular operating principles being hidden in common laboratory conditions. Predecessors of laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, the wild and the domesticated yeasts, have been evolutionarily shaped by highly variable environments, very distinct from laboratory conditions, and most interestingly by social life within microbial communities. Here we present a brief review of the genotypic and phenotypic peculiarities of S. cerevisiae in the context of its social lifestyle beyond laboratory environments. Accounting for this ecological context and the origin of the laboratory strains in experimental design and data analysis would be essential in improving the understanding of genotype–environment–phenotype relationships. PMID:27634775

  15. Exploring the northern limit of the distribution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Guillaume; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Bertin, Chloé; Dubé, Alexandre K; Landry, Christian R

    2014-03-01

    We examined the northern limit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces paradoxus in northeast America. We collected 876 natural samples at 29 sites and applied enrichment methods for the isolation of mesophilic yeasts. We uncovered a large diversity of yeasts, in some cases, associated with specific substrates. Sequencing of the ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 loci allowed to assign 226 yeast strains at the species level, including 41 S. paradoxus strains. Our intensive sampling suggests that if present, S. cerevisiae is rare at these northern latitudes. Our sampling efforts spread across several months of the year revealed that successful sampling increases throughout the summer and diminishes significantly at the beginning of the fall. The data obtained on the ecological context of yeasts corroborate what was previously reported on Pichiaceae, Saccharomycodaceae, Debaryomycetaceae and Phaffomycetaceae yeast families. We identified 24 yeast isolates that could not be assigned to any known species and that may be of taxonomic, medical, or biotechnological importance. Our study reports new data on the taxonomic diversity of yeasts and new resources for studying the evolution and ecology of S. paradoxus. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbial factories for recombinant pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-Espín Joan; Ferrer-Miralles Neus; Corchero José; Vázquez Esther; Villaverde Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Most of the hosts used to produce the 151 recombinant pharmaceuticals so far approved for human use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or by the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) are microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast. This fact indicates that despite the diverse bottlenecks and obstacles that microbial systems pose to the efficient production of functional mammalian proteins, namely lack or unconventional post-translational modifications, proteolytic instability, po...

  17. Surface display of recombinant Drosophila melanogaster acetylcholinesterase for detection of organic phosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingquan Li

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE is commonly used for the detection of organophosphate (OP and carbamate (CB insecticides. However, the cost of this commercially available enzyme is high, making high-throughput insecticide detection improbable. In this study we constructed a new AChE yeast expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the expression of a highly reactive recombinant AChE originating from Drosophila melanogaster (DmAChE. Specifically, the coding sequence of DmAChE was fused with the 3'-terminal half of an α-agglutinin anchor region, along with an antigen tag for the detection of the recombinant protein. The target sequence was cloned into the yeast expression vector pYes-DEST52, and the signal peptide sequence was replaced with a glucoamylase secretion region for induced expression. The resultant engineered vector was transformed into S. cerevisiae. DmAChE was expressed and displayed on the cell surface after galactose induction. Our results showed that the recombinant protein displayed activity comparable to the commercial enzyme. We also detected different types of OP and CB insecticides through enzyme inhibition assays, with the expressed DmAChE showing high sensitivity. These results show the construction of a new yeast expression system for DmAChE, which can subsequently be used for detecting OP and CB insecticides with reduced economic costs.

  18. Role of RNase MRP in viral RNA degradation and RNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaag, Hannah M; Lu, Qiasheng; Schmitt, Mark E; Nagy, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    RNA degradation, together with RNA synthesis, controls the steady-state level of viral RNAs in infected cells. The endoribonucleolytic cleavage of viral RNA is important not only for viral RNA degradation but for RNA recombination as well, due to the participation of some RNA degradation products in the RNA recombination process. To identify host endoribonucleases involved in degradation of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model host, we tested eight known endoribonucleases. Here we report that downregulation of SNM1, encoding a component of the RNase MRP, and a temperature-sensitive mutation in the NME1 gene, coding for the RNA component of RNase MRP, lead to reduced production of the endoribonucleolytically cleaved TBSV RNA in yeast. We also show that the highly purified yeast RNase MRP cleaves the TBSV RNA in vitro, resulting in TBSV RNA degradation products similar in size to those observed in yeast cells. Knocking down the NME1 homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana also led to decreased production of the cleaved TBSV RNA, suggesting that in plants, RNase MRP is involved in TBSV RNA degradation. Altogether, this work suggests a role for the host endoribonuclease RNase MRP in viral RNA degradation and recombination.

  19. Workshop on Radio Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server

    1980-01-01

    Since their first detection 15 years ago, radio recombination lines from several elements have been observed in a wide variety of objects including HII regions, planetary nebulae, molecular clouds, the diffuse interstellar medium, and recently, other galaxies. The observations span almost the entire range from 0.1 to 100 GHz, and employ both single­ djsh and aperture synthesis techniques. The theory of radio recombination lines has also advanced strongly, to the point where it is perhaps one of the best-understood in astro­ physics. In a parallel development, it has become possible over the last decade to study these same highly-excited atoms in the laboratory; this work provides further confirmation of the theoretical framework. However there has been continuing controversy over the astrophysical interpre­ tation of radio recombination line observations, especially regarding the role of stimulated emission. A workshop was held in Ottawa on 24-25 August, 1979, bringing together many of the active scientist...

  20. Production systems for recombinant antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmann, Thomas; Al-Halabi, Laila; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Recombinant antibodies are the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Furthermore, antibodies are key detection reagents in research and diagnostics. The increasing demand for antibodies with regards to amount and quality resulted in the development of a variety of recombinant production systems employing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines as well as mammalian cell lines. More recently, antibodies were also successfully produced in transgenic plants and animals. Currently, the production of recombinant antibodies for therapy is performed in mammalian cell lines to reduce the risk of immunogenicity caused by non-human post-translational modifications, in particular glycosylation. However, novel strategies already allow human-like glycosylation patterns in yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants. Furthermore, therapeutic strategies not requiring glycosylation of the Fc portion have been conceived, most prominently using bispecific antibodies or scFv fusion proteins, which can be produced in bacteria. Here, we review all current antibody production systems considering their advantages and limitations with respect to intended applications.

  1. Expression and Characteristics of an Endoglucanase from Trichoderma atroviride (TaEGII) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qing-Qing; Chen, Xiu-Ling; Fan, Jin-Xia; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Sun, Xu-Dong; Li, Dong-Yu; Zhao, Hong-Xiao

    2017-07-01

    Endoglucanase secreted by the fungus Trichoderma atroviride is a kind of cellulase. An endoglucanase gene egII was cloned from T. atroviride AS3.3013 and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVScI. The open reading frame of the egII gene was composed of 1257 bp, encoding 418 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44.23 kDa plus a signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Based on sequence similarity, TaEGII belonged to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5. Expression of the egII gene in T. atroviride AS3.3013 can be induced by microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), bran, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), rice straw, and corn stalk but is inhibited by glucose. A highly efficient integrated expression vector (pYPIGH-B includes a sequence of the α-mating factor signal peptide (MF-α)) was constructed. The enzymatic activity of the supernatant of recombinant yeast YPIGH-B3 was 1.29 times higher than that of YES2-egII, demonstrating that the MF-α can significantly improve the expression of the recombinant EGII in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant endoglucanase TaEGII produced by S. cerevisiae showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and temperature 60 °C. Under these conditions, the Km and Kcat values for Avicel and raffinose hydrolysis were 1.22 × 10-2 mg ml-1, 9.09 × 10-2 s-1 and 1.06 × 10-2 mg ml-1 , 9.18 × 10-2 s-1, respectively. The enzymatic activity of recombinant TaEGII was stable when incubated from 40 to 60 °C for 1 h. It was stable in a wide range of pH (4.0-7.0) and sensitive to various metal ions. Transgenic yeast strain YPIGH-B3 might be applied to cellulosic ethanol production.

  2. Nondisjunction of chromosome 15: Origin and recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A.; Mutirangura, A.; Ledbetter, D.H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Langlois, S. (Univ. of Britisch Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Morris, M.A.; Malcolm, S.

    1993-09-01

    Thirty-two cases of uniparental disomy (UPD), ascertained from Prader-Willi syndrome patients (N=27) and Angelman syndrome patients (N-5), are used to investigate the pattern of recombination associated with nondisjunction of chromosome 15. In addition, the meiotic stage of nondisjunction is inferred by using markers mapping near the centromere. Two basic approaches to the analysis of recombination in specific pairwise intervals along the chromosome. This method shows a significant reduction in recombination for two of five intervals examined. Second, the observed frequency of each recombinant class (i.e., zero, one, two, three, or more observable crossovers) is compared with expected values. This is useful for testing whether the reduction in recombination can be attributed solely to a proportion of cases with no recombination at all (because of asynapsis), with the remaining groups showing normal recombination (or even excess recombination), or whether recombination is uniformly reduced. Analysis of maternal UPD(15) data shows a slight reduction in the multiple-recombinant classes, with a corresponding increase in both the zero- and one-recombinant classes over expected values. The majority, more than 82%, of the extra chromosomes in maternal UPD(15) cases are due to meiotic I nondisjunction events. In contrast, more paternal UPD(15) cases so far examined appear to have a postzygotic origin of the extra paternal chromosome. 33 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. Consequences of recombination on traditional phylogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Hein, J

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the shape of a phylogenetic tree reconstructed from sequences evolving under the coalescent with recombination. The motivation is that evolutionary inferences are often made from phylogenetic trees reconstructed from population data even though recombination may well occur (mt......DNA or viral sequences) or does occur (nuclear sequences). We investigate the size and direction of biases when a single tree is reconstructed ignoring recombination. Standard software (PHYLIP) was used to construct the best phylogenetic tree from sequences simulated under the coalescent with recombination....... With recombination present, the length of terminal branches and the total branch length are larger, and the time to the most recent common ancestor smaller, than for a tree reconstructed from sequences evolving with no recombination. The effects are pronounced even for small levels of recombination that may...

  4. Evidence of different fermentation behaviours of two indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum isolated from Amarone wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, E; Azzolini, M; Guzzo, F; Zapparoli, G

    2009-07-01

    To explain the role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum strains (formerly Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum) in wine fermentation. Indigenous Saccharomyces spp. yeasts were isolated from Amarone wine (Italy) and analysed. Genotypes were correlated to phenotypes: Melibiose(-) and Melibiose(+) strains displayed a karyotype characterized by three and two bands between 225 and 365 kb, respectively. Two strains were identified by karyotype analysis (one as S. cerevisiae and the other as S. uvarum). The technological characterization of these two strains was conducted by microvinifications of Amarone wine. Wines differed by the contents of ethanol, residual sugars, acetic acid, glycerol, total polysaccharides, ethyl acetate, 2-phenylethanol and anthocyanins. Esterase and beta-glucosidase activities were assayed on whole cells during fermentation at 13 degrees and 20 degrees C. Saccharomyces uvarum displayed higher esterase activity at 13 degrees C, while S. cerevisiae displayed higher beta-glucosidase activity at both temperatures. The strains differed by important technological and qualitative traits affecting the fermentation kinetics and important aroma components of the wine. The contribution of indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum to wine fermentation was ascertained under specific winemaking conditions. The use of these strains as starters in a winemaking process could differently modulate the wine sensory characteristics.

  5. Industrial Relevance of Chromosomal Copy Number Variation in Saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter de Vries, Arthur R.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosomal copy number variation (CCNV) plays a key role in evolution and health of eukaryotes. The unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model for studying the generation, physiological impact, and evolutionary significance of CCNV. Fundamental studies of this yeast have contributed to an extensive set of methods for analyzing and introducing CCNV. Moreover, these studies provided insight into the balance between negative and positive impacts of CCNV in evolutionary contexts. A growing body of evidence indicates that CCNV not only frequently occurs in industrial strains of Saccharomyces yeasts but also is a key contributor to the diversity of industrially relevant traits. This notion is further supported by the frequent involvement of CCNV in industrially relevant traits acquired during evolutionary engineering. This review describes recent developments in genome sequencing and genome editing techniques and discusses how these offer opportunities to unravel contributions of CCNV in industrial Saccharomyces strains as well as to rationally engineer yeast chromosomal copy numbers and karyotypes. PMID:28341679

  6. Analysis of the duodenal microbiotas of weaned piglet fed with epidermal growth factor-expressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Cao, Lili; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Shujin; Zhou, Lin

    2016-07-28

    The bacterial community of the small intestine is a key factor that has strong influence on the health of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in mammals during and shortly after weaning. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the diets of supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-expressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) on the duodenal microbiotas of weaned piglets. Revealed in this study, at day 7, 14 and 21, respectively, the compositional sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA in the duodenum had no marked difference in microbial diversity from the phylum to species levels between the INVSc1(EV) and other recombinant strains encompassing INVSc1-EE(+), INVSc1-TE(-), and INVSc1-IE(+). Furthermore, the populations of potentially enterobacteria (e.g., Clostridium and Prevotella) and probiotic (e.g., Lactobacilli and Lactococcus) also remained unchanged among recombinant S. cerevisiae groups (P > 0.05). However, the compositional sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA in the duodenum revealed significant difference in microbial diversity from phylum to species levels between the control group and recombinant S. cerevisiae groups. In terms of the control group (the lack of S. cerevisiae), these data confirmed that dietary exogenous S. cerevisiae had the feasibility to be used as a supplement for enhancing potentially probiotic (e.g., Lactobacilli and Lactococcus) (P cerevisiae, and then different forms of recombinant EGF, including T-EGF, EE-EGF and IE-EGF, did not appear to make a significant difference to the microbiome of weaned piglets.

  7. How did Saccharomyces evolve to become a good brewer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, Jure; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Polakova, Silvia; Merico, Annamaria; Compagno, Concetta

    2006-04-01

    Brewing and wine production are among the oldest technologies and their products are almost indispensable in our lives. The central biological agents of beer and wine fermentation are yeasts belonging to the genus Saccharomyces, which can accumulate ethanol. Recent advances in comparative genomics and bioinformatics have made it possible to elucidate when and why yeasts produce ethanol in high concentrations, and how this remarkable trait originated and developed during their evolutionary history. Two research groups have shed light on the origin of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase and the process of ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Engineering Saccharomyces pastorianus for the co-utilisation of xylose and cellulose from biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, William; James, Tharappel C; Fitzpatrick, James; Bond, Ursula

    2015-04-28

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a viable source of renewable energy for bioethanol production. For the efficient conversion of biomass into bioethanol, it is essential that sugars from both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of lignocellulose be utilised. We describe the development of a recombinant yeast system for the fermentation of cellulose and xylose, the most abundant pentose sugar in the hemicellulose fraction of biomass. The brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus was chosen as a host as significantly higher recombinant enzyme activities are achieved, when compared to the more commonly used S. cerevisiae. When expressed in S. pastorianus, the Trichoderma reesei xylose oxidoreductase pathway was more efficient at alcohol production from xylose than the xylose isomerase pathway. The alcohol yield was influenced by the concentration of xylose in the medium and was significantly improved by the additional expression of a gene encoding for xylulose kinase. The xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulose kinase genes were co-expressed with genes encoding for the three classes of T. reesei cellulases, namely endoglucanase (EG2), cellobiohydrolysase (CBH2) and β-glucosidase (BGL1). The initial metabolism of xylose by the engineered strains facilitated production of cellulases at fermentation temperatures. The sequential metabolism of xylose and cellulose generated an alcohol yield of 82% from the available sugars. Several different types of biomass, such as the energy crop Miscanthus sinensis and the industrial waste, brewer's spent grains, were examined as biomass sources for fermentation using the developed yeast strains. Xylose metabolism and cell growth were inhibited in fermentations carried out with acid-treated spent grain liquor, resulting in a 30% reduction in alcohol yield compared to fermentations carried out with mixed sugar substrates. Reconstitution of complete enzymatic pathways for cellulose hydrolysis and xylose utilisation in S

  9. Genome Dynamics of Hybrid Saccharomyces cerevisiae During Vegetative and Meiotic Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Dutta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutation and recombination are the major sources of genetic diversity in all organisms. In the baker’s yeast, all mutation rate estimates are in homozygous background. We determined the extent of genetic change through mutation and loss of heterozygosity (LOH in a heterozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome during successive vegetative and meiotic divisions. We measured genome-wide LOH and base mutation rates during vegetative and meiotic divisions in a hybrid (S288c/YJM789 S. cerevisiae strain. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid showed nearly complete reduction in heterozygosity within 31 generations of meioses and improved spore viability. LOH in the meiotic lines was driven primarily by the mating of spores within the tetrad. The S288c/YJM789 hybrid lines propagated vegetatively for the same duration as the meiotic lines, showed variable LOH (from 2 to 3% and up to 35%. Two of the vegetative lines with extensive LOH showed frequent and large internal LOH tracts that suggest a high frequency of recombination repair. These results suggest significant LOH can occur in the S288c/YJM789 hybrid during vegetative propagation presumably due to return to growth events. The average base substitution rates for the vegetative lines (1.82 × 10−10 per base per division and the meiotic lines (1.22 × 10−10 per base per division are the first genome-wide mutation rate estimates for a hybrid yeast. This study therefore provides a novel context for the analysis of mutation rates (especially in the context of detecting LOH during vegetative divisions, compared to previous mutation accumulation studies in yeast that used homozygous backgrounds.

  10. Molecular and process design for rotavirus-like particle production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Tyo, Keith E J; Nielsen, Jens; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2011-05-14

    Virus-like particles (VLP) have an increasing range of applications including vaccination, drug delivery, diagnostics, gene therapy and nanotechnology. These developments require large quantities of particles that need to be obtained in efficient and economic processes. Production of VLP in yeast is attractive, as it is a low-cost protein producer able to assemble viral structural proteins into VLP. However, to date only single-layered VLP with simple architecture have been produced in this system. In this work, the first steps required for the production of rotavirus-like particles (RLP) in S. cerevisiae were implemented and improved, in order to obtain the recombinant protein concentrations required for VLP assembly. The genes of the rotavirus structural proteins VP2, VP6 and VP7 were cloned in four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains using different plasmid and promoter combinations to express one or three proteins in the same cell. Performance of the best constructs was evaluated in batch and fed-batch cultures using a complete synthetic media supplemented with leucine, glutamate and succinate. The strain used had an important effect on recombinant protein concentration, while the type of plasmid, centromeric (YCp) or episomal (YEp), did not affect protein yields. Fed-batch culture of the PD.U-267 strain resulted in the highest concentration of rotavirus proteins. Volumetric and specific productivities increased 28.5- and 11-fold, respectively, in comparison with batch cultures. Expression of the three rotavirus proteins was confirmed by immunoblotting and RLP were detected using transmission electron microscopy. We present for the first time the use of yeast as a platform to express multilayered rotavirus-like particles. The present study shows that the combined use of molecular and bioprocess tools allowed the production of triple-layered rotavirus RLP. Production of VLP with complex architecture in yeasts could lead to the development of new vaccine candidates

  11. 5´-UTR introns enhance protein expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshida, Hisashi; Kondo, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takafumi; Yarimizu, Tohru; Akada, Rinji

    2017-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most suitable microorganisms for recombinant protein production. To enhance protein production, various expression systems have been intensively studied. However, the effect of introns on protein expression has not been examined deeply in S. cerevisiae. In this study, we analyzed the effect of some introns on protein expression. RPS25A, RPS26A, and RPS26B contain single introns within the 5´-untranslated regions (5´-UTRs), and RPS24A has an intron just downstream of the initiation codon. Expression activity of the promoter regions containing introns (intron promoters) were analyzed by luciferase reporter assays. These intron promoters showed higher expression than the TDH3 promoter (TDH3p), which is one of the strongest promoters in S. cerevisiae. Deletion of the introns from these promoters decreased luciferase expression, indicating that introns have a role in enhancing protein expression. To develop artificial strong intron promoters, several chimeric promoters were constructed using the TDH3p and the RPS25A intron promoter. A construct containing the entire TDH3p followed by the RPS25A intron showed about 50-fold higher expression than the TDH3p alone. Inducible expressions driven by the GAL10 promoter and the CUP1 promoter were also enhanced by the RPS25A intron. However, enhancement of mRNA accumulation by the TDH3p and the GAL10 promoter with the RPS25A intron was lower than the effect on luciferase activity, suggesting that the intron affects post-transcriptionally. The chimeric promoter, TDH3p-RPS25A-intron, enhanced expressions of some, but not all proteins examined, indicating that 5'-UTR introns increase production of a certain type of recombinant proteins in S. cerevisiae.

  12. Kinetics of phosphomevalonate kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Garcia

    Full Text Available The mevalonate-based isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is responsible for producing cholesterol in humans and is used commercially to produce drugs, chemicals, and fuels. Heterologous expression of this pathway in Escherichia coli has enabled high-level production of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and the proposed biofuel bisabolane. Understanding the kinetics of the enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway is critical to optimize the pathway for high flux. We have characterized the kinetic parameters of phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK, EC 2.7.4.2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a previously unstudied enzyme. An E. coli codon-optimized version of the S. cerevisiae gene was cloned into pET-52b+, then the C-terminal 6X His-tagged protein was expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 and purified on a Ni²⁺ column. The KM of the ATP binding site was determined to be 98.3 µM at 30°C, the optimal growth temperature for S. cerevisiae, and 74.3 µM at 37°C, the optimal growth temperature for E. coli. The K(M of the mevalonate-5-phosphate binding site was determined to be 885 µM at 30°C and 880 µM at 37°C. The V(max was determined to be 4.51 µmol/min/mg enzyme at 30°C and 5.33 µmol/min/mg enzyme at 37°C. PMK is Mg²⁺ dependent, with maximal activity achieved at concentrations of 10 mM or greater. Maximum activity was observed at pH = 7.2. PMK was not found to be substrate inhibited, nor feedback inhibited by FPP at concentrations up to 10 µM FPP.

  13. Regulation of Cation Balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyert, Martha S.; Philpott, Caroline C.

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker’s yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na+ and K+, the divalent cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, and the trace metal ions, Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+. Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca2+ are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment. PMID:23463800

  14. Regulation of cation balance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyert, Martha S; Philpott, Caroline C

    2013-03-01

    All living organisms require nutrient minerals for growth and have developed mechanisms to acquire, utilize, and store nutrient minerals effectively. In the aqueous cellular environment, these elements exist as charged ions that, together with protons and hydroxide ions, facilitate biochemical reactions and establish the electrochemical gradients across membranes that drive cellular processes such as transport and ATP synthesis. Metal ions serve as essential enzyme cofactors and perform both structural and signaling roles within cells. However, because these ions can also be toxic, cells have developed sophisticated homeostatic mechanisms to regulate their levels and avoid toxicity. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have characterized many of the gene products and processes responsible for acquiring, utilizing, storing, and regulating levels of these ions. Findings in this model organism have often allowed the corresponding machinery in humans to be identified and have provided insights into diseases that result from defects in ion homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of how cation balance is achieved and modulated in baker's yeast. Control of intracellular pH is discussed, as well as uptake, storage, and efflux mechanisms for the alkali metal cations, Na(+) and K(+), the divalent cations, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), and the trace metal ions, Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Mn(2+). Signal transduction pathways that are regulated by pH and Ca(2+) are reviewed, as well as the mechanisms that allow cells to maintain appropriate intracellular cation concentrations when challenged by extreme conditions, i.e., either limited availability or toxic levels in the environment.

  15. CRMAGE: CRISPR Optimized MAGE Recombineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronda, Carlotta; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A bottleneck in metabolic engineering and systems biology approaches is the lack of efficient genome engineering technologies. Here, we combine CRISPR/Cas9 and λ Red recombineering based MAGE technology (CRMAGE) to create a highly efficient and fast method for genome engineering of Escherichia coli...... that are assembled by a USER-cloning approach enabling quick and cost efficient gRNA replacement. CRMAGE furthermore utilizes CRISPR/Cas9 for efficient plasmid curing, thereby enabling multiple engineering rounds per day. To facilitate the design process, a web-based tool was developed to predict both the λ Red...

  16. Post-translocational adaptation drives evolution through genetic selection and transcriptional shift in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosato, Valentina; Sims, Jason; West, Nicole; Colombin, Martina; Bruschi, Carlo V

    2017-05-01

    Adaptation by natural selection might improve the fitness of an organism and its probability to survive in unfavorable environmental conditions. Decoding the genetic basis of adaptive evolution is one of the great challenges to deal with. To this purpose, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been largely investigated because of its short division time, excellent aneuploidy tolerance and the availability of the complete sequence of its genome with a thorough genome database. In the past, we developed a system, named bridge-induced translocation, to trigger specific, non-reciprocal translocations, exploiting the endogenous recombination system of budding yeast. This technique allows users to generate a heterogeneous population of cells with different aneuploidies and increased phenotypic variation. In this work, we demonstrate that ad hoc chromosomal translocations might induce adaptation, fostering selection of thermo-tolerant yeast strains with improved phenotypic fitness. This "yeast eugenomics" correlates with a shift to enhanced expression of genes involved in stress response, heat shock as well as carbohydrate metabolism. We propose that the bridge-induced translocation is a suitable approach to generate adapted, physiologically boosted strains for biotechnological applications.

  17. Evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains with enhanced glutathione production obtained by an evolution-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Francesco; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2014-09-01

    In winemaking, the application of glutathione (GSH) has been the subject of ever-growing interest because of its important role in limiting must and wine oxidation and in protecting various aromatic compounds. Glutathione concentration in wine is highly variable, involving as it does several factors from must, through alcoholic fermentation, to yeast strain activity. Consequently, the development of new wine yeast strains able to improve flavor stability is in great demand. To generate evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with enhanced GSH production, we have applied an evolution-based strategy that combines the sexual recombination of spores with the application of molybdate, which is toxic for the cells at high concentration, as specific selective pressure. Eight molybdate-resistant strains were selected and further screened for GSH production in synthetic grape must and in microvinification assay. By this nongenetically modified strategy, we obtained two evolved strains, Mo21T2-5 and Mo21T2-12, both able to enhance GSH content in wine with an increase of 100% and 36%, respectively, compared with the parental strain 21T2, and 120% and 50% compared with initial GSH content in the must. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Participation of translesion synthesis DNA polymerases in the maintenance of chromosome integrity in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochenova, O V; Soshkina, J V; Stepchenkova, E I; Inge-Vechtomov, S G; Shcherbakova, P V

    2011-01-01

    We employed a genetic assay based on illegitimate hybridization of heterothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (the α-test) to analyze the consequences for genome stability of inactivating translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases. The α-test is the only assay that measures the frequency of different types of mutational changes (point mutations, recombination, chromosome or chromosome arm loss) and temporary changes in genetic material simultaneously. All these events are manifested as illegitimate hybridization and can be distinguished by genetic analysis of the hybrids and cytoductants. We studied the effect of Polζ, Polη, and Rev1 deficiency on the genome stability in the absence of genotoxic treatment and in UV-irradiated cells. We show that, in spite of the increased percent of accurately repaired primary lesions, chromosome fragility, rearrangements, and loss occur in the absence of Polζ and Polη. Our findings contribute to further refinement of the current models of translesion synthesis and the organization of eukaryotic replication fork.

  19. Effects of an unusual poison identify a lifespan role for Topoisomerase 2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polevoda, Bogdan; Rapaport, Matan; Baxter, Bonnie; Van Meter, Michael; Gilbertson, Matthew; Madrey, Joe; Piazza, Gary A.; Rasmussen, Lynn; Wennerberg, Krister; White, E. Lucile; Nitiss, John L.; Goldfarb, David S.

    2017-01-01

    A progressive loss of genome maintenance has been implicated as both a cause and consequence of aging. Here we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that an age-associated decay in genome maintenance promotes aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) due to an inability to sense or repair DNA damage by topoisomerase 2 (yTop2). We describe the characterization of LS1, identified in a high throughput screen for small molecules that shorten the replicative lifespan of yeast. LS1 accelerates aging without affecting proliferative growth or viability. Genetic and biochemical criteria reveal LS1 to be a weak Top2 poison. Top2 poisons induce the accumulation of covalent Top2-linked DNA double strand breaks that, if left unrepaired, lead to genome instability and death. LS1 is toxic to cells deficient in homologous recombination, suggesting that the damage it induces is normally mitigated by genome maintenance systems. The essential roles of yTop2 in proliferating cells may come with a fitness trade-off in older cells that are less able to sense or repair yTop2-mediated DNA damage. Consistent with this idea, cells live longer when yTop2 expression levels are reduced. These results identify intrinsic yTop2-mediated DNA damage as a potentially manageable cause of aging. PMID:28077781

  20. Ergosteryl-β-glucosidase (Egh1) involved in sterylglucoside catabolism and vacuole formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Tani, Motohiro; Ishibashi, Yohei; Endo, Ikumi; Okino, Nozomu; Ito, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Sterylglucosides (SGs) are composed of a glucose and sterol derivatives, and are distributed in fungi, plants and mammals. We recently identified EGCrP1 and EGCrP2 (endoglycoceramidase-related proteins 1 and 2) as a β-glucocerebrosidase and steryl-β-glucosidase, respectively, in Cryptococcus neoformans. We herein describe an EGCrP2 homologue (Egh1; ORF name, Yir007w) involved in SG catabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The purified recombinant Egh1 hydrolyzed various β-glucosides including ergosteryl β-glucoside (EG), cholesteryl β-glucoside, sitosteryl β-glucoside, para-nitrophenyl β-glucoside, 4-methylumberifellyl β-glucoside and glucosylceramide. The disruption of EGH1 in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (egh1Δ) resulted in the accumulation of EG and fragmentation of vacuoles. The expression of EGH1 in egh1Δ (revertant) reduced the accumulation of EG, and restored the morphology of vacuoles. The accumulation of EG was not detected in EGH1 and UGT51(ATG26) double-disrupted mutants (ugt51Δegh1Δ), indicating that EG was synthesized by Ugt51(Atg26) and degraded by Egh1 in vivo. These results clearly demonstrated that Egh1 is an ergosteryl-β-glucosidase that is functionally involved in the EG catabolic pathway and vacuole formation in S. cerevisiae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Glucosidase That Hydrolyzes Flavonoid Glucosides▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Rainieri, Sandra; Witte, Simone; Matern, Ulrich; Martens, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) whole-cell bioconversions of naringenin 7-O-β-glucoside revealed considerable β-glucosidase activity, which impairs any strategy to generate or modify flavonoid glucosides in yeast transformants. Up to 10 putative glycoside hydrolases annotated in the S. cerevisiae genome database were overexpressed with His tags in yeast cells. Examination of these recombinant, partially purified polypeptides for hydrolytic activity with synthetic chromogenic α- or β-glucosides identified three efficient β-glucosidases (EXG1, SPR1, and YIR007W), which were further assayed with natural flavonoid β-glucoside substrates and product verification by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Preferential hydrolysis of 7- or 4′-O-glucosides of isoflavones, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones was observed in vitro with all three glucosidases, while anthocyanins were also accepted as substrates. The glucosidase activities of EXG1 and SPR1 were completely abolished by Val168Tyr mutation, which confirmed the relevance of this residue, as reported for other glucosidases. Most importantly, biotransformation experiments with knockout yeast strains revealed that only EXG1 knockout strains lost the capability to hydrolyze flavonoid glucosides. PMID:21216897

  2. Improvements of tolerance to stress conditions by genetic engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Aytekin, Ali Özhan; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2014-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae, industrial yeast isolate, has been of great interest in recent years for fuel ethanol production. The ethanol yield and productivity depend on many inhibitory factors during the fermentation process such as temperature, ethanol, compounds released as the result of pretreatment procedures, and osmotic stress. An ideal strain should be able to grow under different stress conditions occurred at different fermentation steps. Development of tolerant yeast strains can be achieved by reprogramming pathways supporting the ethanol metabolism by regulating the energy balance and detoxicification processes. Complex gene interactions should be solved for an in-depth comprehension of the yeast stress tolerance mechanism. Genetic engineering as a powerful biotechnological tool is required to design new strategies for increasing the ethanol fermentation performance. Upregulation of stress tolerance genes by recombinant DNA technology can be a useful approach to overcome inhibitory situations. This review presents the application of several genetic engineering strategies to increase ethanol yield under different stress conditions including inhibitor tolerance, ethanol tolerance, thermotolerance, and osmotolerance.

  3. Improvement of ethanol production from crystalline cellulose via optimizing cellulase ratios in cellulolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Inokuma, Kentaro; Ho, Shih-Hsin; den Haan, Riaan; van Zyl, Willem H; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    Crystalline cellulose is one of the major contributors to the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to degradation, necessitating high dosages of cellulase to digest, thereby impeding the economic feasibility of cellulosic biofuels. Several recombinant cellulolytic yeast strains have been developed to reduce the cost of enzyme addition, but few of these strains are able to efficiently degrade crystalline cellulose due to their low cellulolytic activities. Here, by combining the cellulase ratio optimization with a novel screening strategy, we successfully improved the cellulolytic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain displaying four different synergistic cellulases on the cell surface. The optimized strain exhibited an ethanol yield from Avicel of 57% of the theoretical maximum, and a 60% increase of ethanol titer from rice straw. To our knowledge, this work is the first optimization of the degradation of crystalline cellulose by tuning the cellulase ratio in a cellulase cell-surface display system. This work provides key insights in engineering the cellulase cocktail in a consolidated bioprocessing yeast strain. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1201-1207. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Genome rearrangements caused by depletion of essential DNA replication proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Edith; Vaisica, Jessica A; Ou, Jiongwen; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Lu, Yong; Roth, Frederick P; Brown, Grant W

    2012-09-01

    Genetic screens of the collection of ~4500 deletion mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified the cohort of nonessential genes that promote maintenance of genome integrity. Here we probe the role of essential genes needed for genome stability. To this end, we screened 217 tetracycline-regulated promoter alleles of essential genes and identified 47 genes whose depletion results in spontaneous DNA damage. We further showed that 92 of these 217 essential genes have a role in suppressing chromosome rearrangements. We identified a core set of 15 genes involved in DNA replication that are critical in preventing both spontaneous DNA damage and genome rearrangements. Mapping, classification, and analysis of rearrangement breakpoints indicated that yeast fragile sites, Ty retrotransposons, tRNA genes, early origins of replication, and replication termination sites are common features at breakpoints when essential replication genes that suppress chromosome rearrangements are downregulated. We propose mechanisms by which depletion of essential replication proteins can lead to double-stranded DNA breaks near these features, which are subsequently repaired by homologous recombination at repeated elements.

  5. Loop 2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51 protein regulates filament formation and ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Galkin, Vitold E; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the K342E substitution in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51 protein increases the interaction with Rad54 protein in the two-hybrid system, leads to increased sensitivity to the alkylating agent MMS and hyper-recombination in an oligonucleotide-mediated gene targeting assay. K342 localizes in loop 2, a region of Rad51 whose function is not well understood. Here, we show that Rad51-K342E displays DNA-independent and DNA-dependent ATPase activities, owing to its ability to form filaments in the absence of a DNA lattice. These filaments exhibit a compressed pitch of 81 A, whereas filaments of wild-type Rad51 and Rad51-K342E on DNA form extended filaments with a 97 A pitch. Rad51-K342E shows near normal binding to ssDNA, but displays a defect in dsDNA binding, resulting in less stable protein-dsDNA complexes. The mutant protein is capable of catalyzing the DNA strand exchange reaction and is insensitive to inhibition by the early addition of dsDNA. Wild-type Rad51 protein is inhibited under such conditions, because of its ability to bind dsDNA. No significant changes in the interaction between Rad51-K342E and Rad54 could be identified. These findings suggest that loop 2 contributes to the primary DNA-binding site in Rad51, controlling filament formation and ATPase activity.

  6. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improvement in ethanol tolerance by accumulation of trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divate, Nileema R; Chen, Gen-Hung; Wang, Pei-Ming; Ou, Bor-Rung; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2016-11-01

    A genetic recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter with high ethanol tolerance capacities was constructed. In this study, the gene of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (encoded by tps1), which catalyzes the first step in trehalose synthesis, was cloned and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Moreover, the gene of neutral trehalase (encoded by nth1, trehalose degrading enzyme) was deleted by using a disruption cassette, which contained long flanking homology regions of nth1 gene (the upstream 0.26 kb and downstream 0.4 kb). The engineered strain increased its tolerance against ethanol and glucose stress. The growth of the wild strain was inhibited when the medium contained 6 % or more ethanol, whereas growth of the engineered strain was affected when the medium contained 10 % or more ethanol. There was no significant difference in the ethanol yield between the wild strain and the engineered strain when the fermentation broth contained 10 % glucose (p > 0.05). The engineered strain showed greater ethanol yield than the wild type strain when the medium contained more than 15 % glucose (p < 0.05). Higher intracellular trehalose accumulation by overexpression of tps1 and deletion of nth1 might provide the ability for yeast to protect against environmental stress.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atf1p is an alcohol acetyltransferase and a thioesterase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancolas, Bethany; Bull, Ian D; Stenner, Richard; Dufour, Virginie; Curnow, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The alcohol-O-acyltransferases are bisubstrate enzymes that catalyse the transfer of acyl chains from an acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) donor to an acceptor alcohol. In the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae this reaction produces acyl esters that are an important influence on the flavour of fermented beverages and foods. There is also a growing interest in using acyltransferases to produce bulk quantities of acyl esters in engineered microbial cell factories. However, the structure and function of the alcohol-O-acyltransferases remain only partly understood. Here, we recombinantly express, purify and characterize Atf1p, the major alcohol acetyltransferase from S. cerevisiae. We find that Atf1p is promiscuous with regard to the alcohol cosubstrate but that the acyltransfer activity is specific for acetyl-CoA. Additionally, we find that Atf1p is an efficient thioesterase in vitro with specificity towards medium-chain-length acyl-CoAs. Unexpectedly, we also find that mutating the supposed catalytic histidine (H191) within the conserved HXXXDG active site motif only moderately reduces the thioesterase activity of Atf1p. Our results imply a role for Atf1p in CoA homeostasis and suggest that engineering Atf1p to reduce the thioesterase activity could improve product yields of acetate esters from cellular factories. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Gateway vectors for efficient artificial gene assembly in vitro and expression in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu V Giuraniuc

    Full Text Available Construction of synthetic genetic networks requires the assembly of DNA fragments encoding functional biological parts in a defined order. Yet this may become a time-consuming procedure. To address this technical bottleneck, we have created a series of Gateway shuttle vectors and an integration vector, which facilitate the assembly of artificial genes and their expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our method enables the rapid construction of an artificial gene from a promoter and an open reading frame (ORF cassette by one-step recombination reaction in vitro. Furthermore, the plasmid thus created can readily be introduced into yeast cells to test the assembled gene's functionality. As flexible regulatory components of a synthetic genetic network, we also created new versions of the tetracycline-regulated transactivators tTA and rtTA by fusing them to the auxin-inducible degron (AID. Using our gene assembly approach, we made yeast expression vectors of these engineered transactivators, AIDtTA and AIDrtTA and then tested their functions in yeast. We showed that these factors can be regulated by doxycycline and degraded rapidly after addition of auxin to the medium. Taken together, the method for combinatorial gene assembly described here is versatile and would be a valuable tool for yeast synthetic biology.

  9. [Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector maintained stably in Pro3+ transformants in rich medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H Y; Tang, Y; Jiang, W D; He, H Y; Liu, M; Kuang, D R

    2000-01-01

    A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) secretory expression vector containing PRO3 gene was constructed (pCBy310). beta HCG(Human choriogonadotropin beta subunit)-cDNA was inserted into pCBy310 to form a recombinant plasmid pCBy314. Since yeast proline auxotroph will not survive in rich medium (YPD), YPD could be used as a selection pressure, and pCBy314 could be maintained mitotically stable in transformants of yeast Pro3- auxotroph (MB299-7A) in rich medium. At an improved, yet not optimized cultural condition, the expression of beta HCG in culture medium was 650 micrograms/L. Our results showed not only that YPD could be used as a selection medium, but also that yeast grew better in YPD so as to increase the gene expression product, and that the component of YPD was simple and cheap. Our data suggested that PRO genes might be used widely in constructing vectors to clone and express foreign genes in yeast so that rich medium can be used as a selection pressure for direct selection.

  10. Evaluation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter for protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Michael; DaSilva, Nancy A

    2005-04-30

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter (P(ADH2)) is repressed several hundred-fold in the presence of glucose; transcription is initiated once the glucose in the medium is exhausted. The promoter can thus be utilized for effective regulation of recombinant gene expression in S. cerevisiae without the addition of an inducer. To evaluate this promoter in the absence of plasmid copy number and stability variations, the P(ADH2)-lacZ cassette was integrated into the yeast chromosomes. The effects of medium composition, glucose concentration and cultivation time on promoter derepression and expression level were investigated. Maximum protein activity was obtained after 48 h of growth in complex YPD medium containing 1% glucose. The widely used S. cerevisiae GAL1 and CUP1 promoters both require the addition of an inducer [galactose and copper(II) ion, respectively] before regulated genes will be expressed. The strengths of these three different promoters were compared for cells containing one copy of an integrated lacZ gene under their control. The ADH2 promoter was superior for all induction strategies investigated.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Expressing Gp43 Protects Mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis-Marques, Mariana Aprigio; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). It is believed that approximately 10 million people are infected with the fungus and approximately 2% will eventually develop the disease. Unlike viral and bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are the ones against which there is no commercially available vaccine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a suitable vehicle for immunization against fungal infections, as they require the stimulation of different arms of the immune response. Here we evaluated the efficacy of immunizing mice against PCM by using S. cerevisiae yeast expressing gp43. When challenged by inoculation of P. brasiliensis yeasts, immunized animals showed a protective profile in three different assays. Their lung parenchyma was significantly preserved, exhibiting fewer granulomas with fewer fungal cells than found in non-immunized mice. Fungal burden was reduced in the lung and spleen of immunized mice, and both organs contained higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to those of non-vaccinated mice, a finding that suggests the occurrence of Th1 immunity. Taken together, our results indicate that the recombinant yeast vaccine represents a new strategy to confer protection against PCM. PMID:25790460

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Gp43 protects mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aprigio Assis-Marques

    Full Text Available The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. It is believed that approximately 10 million people are infected with the fungus and approximately 2% will eventually develop the disease. Unlike viral and bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are the ones against which there is no commercially available vaccine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a suitable vehicle for immunization against fungal infections, as they require the stimulation of different arms of the immune response. Here we evaluated the efficacy of immunizing mice against PCM by using S. cerevisiae yeast expressing gp43. When challenged by inoculation of P. brasiliensis yeasts, immunized animals showed a protective profile in three different assays. Their lung parenchyma was significantly preserved, exhibiting fewer granulomas with fewer fungal cells than found in non-immunized mice. Fungal burden was reduced in the lung and spleen of immunized mice, and both organs contained higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to those of non-vaccinated mice, a finding that suggests the occurrence of Th1 immunity. Taken together, our results indicate that the recombinant yeast vaccine represents a new strategy to confer protection against PCM.

  13. Tryptophan biosynthesis is important for resistance to replicative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Stephen K; Lee, Alison G; Baird, Jared M; Herken, Benjamin W; Bernstein, Kara A

    2016-05-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion is used to induce low levels of serotonin in the brain. This method has been widely used in psychiatric studies to evaluate the effect of low levels of serotonin, and is generally considered a safe and reversible procedure. Here we use the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study the effects of tryptophan depletion on growth rate upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Surprisingly, we found that budding yeast undergoing tryptophan depletion were more sensitive to DNA-damaging agents such as methyl methanesulphonate (MMS) and hydroxyurea (HU). We found that this defect was independent of several DNA repair pathways, such as homologous recombination, base excision repair and translesion synthesis, and that this damage sensitivity was not due to impaired S-phase signalling. Upon further analysis, we found that the DNA-damage sensitivity of tryptophan depletion was likely due to impaired protein synthesis. These studies describe an important source of variance in budding yeast when using tryptophan as an auxotrophic marker, particularly on studies focusing on DNA repair, and suggest that further testing of the effect of tryptophan depletion on DNA repair in mammalian cells is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. DNA Repair Mechanisms and the Bypass of DNA Damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteux, Serge; Jinks-Robertson, Sue

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are critical for maintaining the integrity of genomic DNA, and their loss is associated with cancer predisposition syndromes. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have played a central role in elucidating the highly conserved mechanisms that promote eukaryotic genome stability. This review will focus on repair mechanisms that involve excision of a single strand from duplex DNA with the intact, complementary strand serving as a template to fill the resulting gap. These mechanisms are of two general types: those that remove damage from DNA and those that repair errors made during DNA synthesis. The major DNA-damage repair pathways are base excision repair and nucleotide excision repair, which, in the most simple terms, are distinguished by the extent of single-strand DNA removed together with the lesion. Mistakes made by DNA polymerases are corrected by the mismatch repair pathway, which also corrects mismatches generated when single strands of non-identical duplexes are exchanged during homologous recombination. In addition to the true repair pathways, the postreplication repair pathway allows lesions or structural aberrations that block replicative DNA polymerases to be tolerated. There are two bypass mechanisms: an error-free mechanism that involves a switch to an undamaged template for synthesis past the lesion and an error-prone mechanism that utilizes specialized translesion synthesis DNA polymerases to directly synthesize DNA across the lesion. A high level of functional redundancy exists among the pathways that deal with lesions, which minimizes the detrimental effects of endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. PMID:23547164

  15. Development of stable flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for continuous Aspergillus niger beta-galactosidase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carla; Teixeira, José A; Lima, Nelson; Da Silva, Nancy A; Domingues, Lucília

    2007-04-01

    A flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was engineered to stably secrete Aspergillus niger beta-galactosidase in a continuous high-cell-density bioreactor. The delta-sequences from the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 were used as target sites for the integration of the beta-galactosidase expression cassette. High-copy-number transformants were successfully obtained using the delta-integration system together with the dominant selection antibiotic, G418. The integration of multiple copies was confirmed by genomic Southern blot analysis. Integrants with the highest beta-galactosidase levels (approximately eight gene copies) had similar beta-galactosidase activities as a recombinant strain carrying the beta-galactosidase expression cassette in a YEp-based vector. The beta-galactosidase expression cassettes integrated into the yeast genome were stably maintained after eight sequential batch cultures in a nonselective medium. In continuous high-cell-density culture under the same operating conditions, the integrant strain was more stable than the plasmid-carrying strain. To our knowledge, this is the first study of multicopy delta-integrant stability in a continuous bioreactor operating at different dilution rates.

  16. Lactic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Christopher D

    2003-01-01

    This work demonstrates the first example of a fungal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expressed in yeast. A L(+)-LDH gene, ldhA, from the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was modified to be expressed under control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adh1 promoter and terminator and then placed in a 2 micro -containing yeast-replicating plasmid. The resulting construct, pLdhA68X, was transformed and tested by fermentation analyses in haploid and diploid yeast containing similar genetic backgrounds. Both recombinant strains utilized 92 g glucose/l in approximately 30 h. The diploid isolate accumulated approximately 40% more lactic acid with a final concentration of 38 g lactic acid/l and a yield of 0.44 g lactic acid/g glucose. The optimal pH for lactic acid production by the diploid strain was pH 5. LDH activity in this strain remained relatively constant at 1.5 units/mg protein throughout the fermentation. The majority of carbon was still diverted to the ethanol fermentation pathway, as indicated by ethanol yields between 0.25-0.33 g/g glucose. S. cerevisiae mutants impaired in ethanol production were transformed with pLdhA68X in an attempt to increase the lactic acid yield by minimizing the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol. Mutants with diminished pyruvate decarboxylase activity and mutants with disrupted alcohol dehydrogenase activity did result in transformants with diminished ethanol production. However, the efficiency of lactic acid production also decreased.

  17. Gateway Vectors for Efficient Artificial Gene Assembly In Vitro and Expression in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.; MacPherson, Murray; Saka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Construction of synthetic genetic networks requires the assembly of DNA fragments encoding functional biological parts in a defined order. Yet this may become a time-consuming procedure. To address this technical bottleneck, we have created a series of Gateway shuttle vectors and an integration vector, which facilitate the assembly of artificial genes and their expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our method enables the rapid construction of an artificial gene from a promoter and an open reading frame (ORF) cassette by one-step recombination reaction in vitro. Furthermore, the plasmid thus created can readily be introduced into yeast cells to test the assembled gene’s functionality. As flexible regulatory components of a synthetic genetic network, we also created new versions of the tetracycline-regulated transactivators tTA and rtTA by fusing them to the auxin-inducible degron (AID). Using our gene assembly approach, we made yeast expression vectors of these engineered transactivators, AIDtTA and AIDrtTA and then tested their functions in yeast. We showed that these factors can be regulated by doxycycline and degraded rapidly after addition of auxin to the medium. Taken together, the method for combinatorial gene assembly described here is versatile and would be a valuable tool for yeast synthetic biology. PMID:23675537

  18. Primers-4-Yeast: a comprehensive web tool for planning primers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yofe, Ido; Schuldiner, Maya

    2014-02-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key model organism of functional genomics, due to its ease and speed of genetic manipulations. In fact, in this yeast, the requirement for homologous sequences for recombination purposes is so small that 40 base pairs (bp) are sufficient. Hence, an enormous variety of genetic manipulations can be performed by simply planning primers with the correct homology, using a defined set of transformation plasmids. Although designing primers for yeast transformations and for the verification of their correct insertion is a common task in all yeast laboratories, primer planning is usually done manually and a tool that would enable easy, automated primer planning for the yeast research community is still lacking. Here we introduce Primers-4-Yeast, a web tool that allows primers to be designed in batches for S. cerevisiae gene-targeting transformations, and for the validation of correct insertions. This novel tool enables fast, automated, accurate primer planning for large sets of genes, introduces consistency in primer planning and is therefore suggested to serve as a standard in yeast research. Primers-4-Yeast is available at: http://www.weizmann.ac.il/Primers-4-Yeast Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with enhanced ethanol tolerance for Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Xu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    High tolerance towards ethanol is a desirable property for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used in the alcoholic beverage industry. To improve the ethanol tolerance of an industrial Chinese rice wine yeast, a sequential batch fermentation strategy was used to adaptively evolve a chemically mutagenized Chinese rice wine G85 strain. The high level of ethanol produced under Chinese rice wine-like fermentation conditions was used as the selective pressure. After adaptive evolution of approximately 200 generations, mutant G85X-8 was isolated and shown to have markedly increased ethanol tolerance. The evolved strain also showed higher osmotic and temperature tolerances than the parental strain. Laboratory Chinese rice wine fermentation showed that the evolved G85X-8 strain was able to catabolize sugars more completely than the parental G85 strain. A higher level of yeast cell activity was found in the fermentation mash produced by the evolved strain, but the aroma profiles were similar between the evolved and parental strains. The improved ethanol tolerance in the evolved strain might be ascribed to the altered fatty acids composition of the cell membrane and higher intracellular trehalose concentrations. These results suggest that adaptive evolution is an efficient approach for the non-recombinant modification of industrial yeast strains.

  20. The use of genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the wine industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Dorit; Casal, Margarida

    2005-08-01

    In recent decades, science and food technology have contributed at an accelerated rate to the introduction of new products to satisfy nutritional, socio-economic and quality requirements. With the emergence of modern molecular genetics, the industrial importance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is continuously extended. The demand for suitable genetically modified (GM) S. cerevisiae strains for the biofuel, bakery and beverage industries or for the production of biotechnological products (e.g. enzymes, pharmaceutical products) will continuously grow in the future. Numerous specialised S. cerevisiae wine strains were obtained in recent years, possessing a wide range of optimised or novel oenological properties, capable of satisfying the demanding nature of modern winemaking practise. The unlocking of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome complexities will contribute decisively to the knowledge about the genetic make-up of commercial yeast strains and will influence wine strain improvement via genetic engineering. The most relevant advances regarding the importance and implications of the use of GM yeast strains in the wine industry are discussed in this mini-review. In this work, various aspects are considered including the strategies used for the construction of strains with respect to current legislation requirements, the environmental risk evaluations concerning the deliberate release of genetically modified yeast strains, the methods for detection of recombinant DNA and protein that are currently under evaluation, and the reasons behind the critical public perception towards the application of such strains.

  1. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of recombination in Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Boesen, Thomas; Mygind, Tina

    2002-01-01

    indicating the presence of recombination. In order to test for intergenic recombination, phylogenetic trees were reconstructed for each of the genes but no well-supported bifurcating phylogenetic trees could be obtained. The genes were tested for intragenic recombination using the correlation between linkage...... disequilibrium and distance between the segregating sites, by the homoplasy ratio (H ratio), and by compatibility matrices. The gap gene showed well-supported evidence for high levels of recombination, whereas recombination was less frequent and not significant within the other genes. The analysis revealed...... intergenic and intragenic recombination in M. hominis and this may explain the high intraspecies variability. The results obtained in the present study may be of importance for future population studies of Mycoplasma species....

  3. Divide and Recombine for Large Complex Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Divide and Recombine (D& R ) statistical approach was developed for analyzing ‘big data’ where the computational complexity...is very high. The analyst divides data into subsets by a D& R division technique, applying analytic methods to each subset independently, without...communication. Outputs of each analytic method are recombined by a D& R recombination procedure, which allows extensive parallel computation. DeltaRho

  4. Gene Mapping with Recombinant Inbreds in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, B; Burr, F A; Thompson, K. H.; Albertson, M. C.; Stuber, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines of maize have been developed for the rapid mapping of molecular probes to chromosomal location. Two recombinant inbred families have been constructed from F(2) populations of T232 X CM37 and CO159 X Tx303. A genetic map based largely on isozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms has been produced that covers virtually the entire maize genome. In order to map a new gene, an investigator has only to determine its allelic distribution among the recombinant in...

  5. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  6. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LORD

    2012-05-25

    May 25, 2012 ... The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal ... intestinal and meat microbial properties of Japanese quails, in the probiotic cases, a significant reduction in the ..... Temporal effects of lactic acid bacteria probiotic culture on Salmonella ...

  7. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-03

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Slow growth, stress response and aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Victor Jacob

    2004-01-01

    The unicellular organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a modelsystem to study aging at the cellular level. It is known that limiting the amount of calories used by cells can lead to an extension of lifespan. This thesis shows that by applying controlled slow growth circumstances, cells

  9. Ragi tapai and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as potential coculture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison study on the ethanol production from 20% (w/v) of unhydrolyzed raw cassava starch using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis was performed and compared with the commercialized ragi tapai. The findings showed that S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis and ragi tapai produced 23, 20 mg/l and 26 g/l of ...

  10. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... about 2ATP per mole of glucose metabolized. This results in the production of ethanol, low biomass yield and high ... mole of glucose oxidized and a high biomass. As the dilution rate exceeds the critical value, the residual ..... An expanded concept for the glucose effect in the Yeast Saccharomyces uvarum: ...

  11. Short Communication Effect of forage sources and Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. Diet composition has been suggested as a factor that influences the variability of responses when. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) is fed to ruminant animals. Diets based on lucerne hay (462 g/kg DM) and maize silage (488 g/kg DM) were fed to determine the effects of 0 or 5 g SC 47 (8x109 cfu/g) on ruminal.

  12. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  13. Effects of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work evaluated the effect of probiotic (live and inactive Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on meat and intestinal microbial properties of Japanese quails. Twenty-four (24) 1-day-old Japanese quails were obtained from a commercial hatchery. The birds were randomly divided into 2 groups. The dietary treatments ...

  14. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the colorants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation of the heated aqueous red beetroot extracts (30, 50 and 60°C) by different concentrations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.50, 0.75 and 1.00%). The optimum experimental temperature value and S. cerevisiae concentration were found to be 50°C and ...

  15. High-rate evolution of Saccharomyces sensu lato chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spirek, M.; Yang, J.; Groth, C.

    2003-01-01

    Forty isolates belonging to the Saccharomyces sensu lato complex were analyzed for one nuclear and two mitochondrial sequences, and for their karyotypes. These data are useful for description and definition of yeast species based on the phylogenetic species concept. The deduced phylogenetic relat...

  16. Analysis of the RNA Content of the Yeast "Saccharomyces Cerevisiae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Marshall, Pamela A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an interconnected set of relatively simple laboratory experiments in which students determine the RNA content of yeast cells and use agarose gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the major species of cellular RNA. This set of experiments focuses on RNAs from the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a…

  17. In vitro characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HM535662 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A predominant yeast designated as SB1 was isolated from Bhaturu, a traditional fermented food of Western Himalayas and was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae - HM535662 on the basis of ribosomal gene (partial 18S, complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), complete 5.8S, complete ITS2 and partial 28S ...

  18. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase as the Sole Anaplerotic Enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, R.M.; Trueheart, J.; Harrison, J.C.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase is the sole anaplerotic enzyme in glucose-grown cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyruvate carboxylase-negative (Pyc–) S. cerevisiae strains cannot grow on glucose unless media are supplemented with C4 compounds, such as aspartic acid. In several

  19. Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... The aim of this work was to select an inoculum concentration and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse. Three concentrations of inoculum (0.4, 4.0 and 8.0 g/L) and two strains of S. cerevisiae. (UFPEDA ...

  20. Effects of mycotoxins on the fermenting activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafont, J.; Romand, A.; Lafont, P.

    1981-05-01

    The rate of fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is partially inhibited by different mycotoxins. This effect is remarkable with T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol, slight with aflatoxin-B1, penicillic acid and patulin. On the contrary, the butenolide appears as a stimulator of the alcoholic fermentation. (Refs. 17).

  1. Transcriptome analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the late ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA microarray analysis was used to investigate the expression profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in response to harsh environment under the late stage of very high gravity (VHG) fermentation. The data show that only a few ...

  2. Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sugar beet pulp and raw juice were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae distillery yeasts and bacterium Zymomonas mobilis. Different medium dilution rate as well as yeasts preparations (Fermiol, Safdistil C-70) were investigated. Fermentation was run for 72 h at 30°C. Quality of obtained raw distillates ...

  3. DSN1 deletion is deleterious to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae while ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... cerevisiae while Dsn1p disrupts nuclear segregation process of Chinese Hamster ... vector containing the Dsn1p. Key words: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, kinetochore, Dsn1p, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO). ... medium for 3 – 4 days incubation at 30°C before the appearance of transformants. Sporulation ...

  4. Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of inoculum size and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane ... (0.4, 4.0 and 8.0 g/L) and two strains of S. cerevisiae (UFPEDA 1238 and UFPEDA 1334) were used to ferment a culture medium containing glucose as the carbon ...

  5. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongedijk, E.J.; Cankar, K.; Ranzijn, J.; Krol, van der A.R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a

  6. Effects of dietary L-threonine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary L-threonine and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance, intestinal morphology and immune response of broiler chickens. ... Growth performance traits including weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded at the end of each week. At the end of the experiment eight birds per ...

  7. Production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass in papaya extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of papaya fruit were used as substrate for single cell protein (SCP) production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 500 g of papaya fruit was extracted with different volumes of sterile distilled water. Extraction with 200 mL of sterile distilled water sustained highest cell growth. Biochemical analysis of dry biomass ...

  8. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...

  9. Effect of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) supple-mentation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total number of one hundred and sixty five (165) unsexed day old Cobb® 500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted into five (5) dietary groups in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on the growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical ...

  10. The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on performance and nutrients digestibility in broilers fed with diet containing different levels of phosphorous. ... CP and mineral utilization in deficient-NPP diets by YC resulted in increased availability of P and Ca to the broilers, which could have led to improved growth performance.

  11. Évaluation du pouvoir fermentaire de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Évaluation du pouvoir fermentaire de Saccharomyces cerevisiae et de S. carlsbergensis dans la production de bioéthanol à partir du jus de la pomme cajou. ... and density, showed a great variability of these parameters during the fermentation process in the presence and absence of urea (CON2H4), used as growth factor.

  12. Mead features fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lalvin k1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is prepared as a handmade product. The origin of the honey used to formulate the mead creates differences on the final product characteristics. In this study, fermentation occurred at temperatures of about 22.1 ± 0.4°C after a previous pasteurization and inoculation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (K1-LALVIN 1116) was used ...

  13. Import of alcohol oxidase into peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Distel, Ben; Veenhuis, Marten; Tabak, Henk F.

    1987-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to grow on methanol because it lacks the enzymes required for its metabolism. To study the possibility of whether or not the methanol oxidation pathway of Hansenula polymorpha can be transferred to S. cerevisiae, the gene coding for alcohol oxidase, a peroxisomal

  14. Applied systems biology - vanillin production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strucko, Tomas; Eriksen, Jens Christian; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    biosynthesis of vanillin in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was recently demonstrated by successfully introducing the metabolic pathway for vanillin production in yeast. Nevertheless, the amount of vanillin produced in this S. cerevisiae strain is insufficient for commercial production and improvements...

  15. Adsorption and Interfacial Electron Transfer of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Glargaard; Boisen, Anja; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption and electron-transfer dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) iso-l-cytochrome c adsorbed on Au(lll) electrodes in aqueous phosphate buffer media. This cytochrome possesses a thiol group dos e to the protein surface (Cysl02) suitable for linking the protein...

  16. The effect of ruminal incubation of bioactive yeast ( Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rising interest in the use of organic and inorganic substances in manipulating rumen function for improved fermentative activity has provided avenues for the inclusion of various species of yeast cultures in ruminant diets. In this study, we investigated the effect of bioactive yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), on rumen ...

  17. Silver Uptake and Reuse of Biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out on the recovery of bound silver and reuse of Chlorella emersonii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass for further silver uptake after they were placed in contact with 20mg/l silver for 30 minutes to allow for maximum binding. It was found that 0.16M nitric acid gave the best recovery rates of silver.

  18. Metabolic impact of redox cofactor perturbations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jin; Lages, Nuno; Oldiges, M.

    2009-01-01

    to induce widespread changes in metabolism. We present a detailed analysis of the impact of perturbations in redox cofactors in the cytosol or mitochondria on glucose and energy metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to aid metabolic engineering decisions that involve cofactor engineering. We enhanced NADH...

  19. Reducing the genetic complexity of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solis Escalante, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, a biochemical pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, is at the core of sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast). Glycolysis is not only a catabolic route involved in energy conservation, but also provides building blocks for anabolism. From an applied perspective,

  20. The effects of different concentrations of probiotic Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, a yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisia var. elipsoidous, acting as probiotic, was administered to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) fry during a period of 21 days and the effects of the yeast on improvement of growth and resistance against environmental stress were evaluated with ...

  1. Investigation of nutrient sensing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine

    2006-01-01

    Gæren Saccharomyces cerevisiae har udviklet komplekse regulatoriske systemer til at kontrollere ekspression af de proteiner, der importerer næringsstoffer, således at disse kun bliver produceret, når der er brug for dem. Dette er tilfældet for hexose-transportører samt aminosyre-transportører (di...

  2. The Red Queen theory of recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, F; Wilkins, J F

    2011-03-01

    Recombination hotspots are small chromosomal regions, where meiotic crossover events happen with high frequency. Recombination is initiated by a double-strand break (DSB) that requires the intervention of the molecular repair mechanism. The DSB repair mechanism may result in the exchange of homologous chromosomes (crossover) and the conversion of the allelic sequence that breaks into the one that does not break (biased gene conversion). Biased gene conversion results in a transmission advantage for the allele that does not break, thus preventing recombination and rendering recombination hotspots transient. How is it possible that recombination hotspots persist over evolutionary time (maintaining the average chromosomal crossover rate) when they are self-destructive? This fundamental question is known as the recombination hotspot paradox and has attracted much attention in recent years. Yet, that attention has not translated into a fully satisfactory answer. No existing model adequately explains all aspects of the recombination hotspot paradox. Here, we formulate an intragenomic conflict model resulting in Red Queen dynamics that fully accounts for all empirical observations regarding the molecular mechanisms of recombination hotspots, the nonrandom targeting of the recombination machinery to hotspots and the evolutionary dynamics of hotspot turnover. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Amy1: An Alpha-Amylase from Cryptococcus flavus Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An extracellular alpha-amylase (Amy1 whose gene from Cryptococcus flavus was previously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was purified to homogeneity (67 kDa by ion-exchange and molecular exclusion chromatography. The enzyme was activated by NH4+ and inhibited by Cu+2 and Hg+2. Significant biochemical and structural discrepancies between wild-type and recombinant α-amylase with respect to Km values, enzyme specificity, and secondary structure content were found. Far-UV CD spectra analysis at pH 7.0 revealed the high thermal stability of both proteins and the difference in folding pattern of Amy1 compared with wild-type amylase from C. flavus, which reflected in decrease (10-fold of enzymatic activity of recombinant protein. Despite the differences, the highest activity of Amy1 towards soluble starch, amylopectin, and amylase, in contrast with the lowest activity of Amy1w, points to this protein as being of paramount biotechnological importance with many applications ranging from food industry to the production of biofuels.

  4. Overexpression of ADH1 and HXT1 genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves the fermentative efficiency during tequila elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Torres-Guzmán, Juan Carlos; González-Hernández, Gloria Angélica; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Ramírez-Córdova, Jose de Jesús

    2008-05-01

    This work assessed the effect of the overexpression of ADH1 and HXT1 genes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AR5 strain during fermentation of Agave tequilana Weber blue variety must. Both genes were cloned individually and simultaneously into a yeast centromere plasmid. Two transformant strains overexpressing ADH1 and HXT1 individually and one strain overexpressing both genes were randomly selected and named A1, A3 and A5 respectively. Overexpression effect on growth and ethanol production of the A1, A3 and A5 strains was evaluated in fermentative conditions in A. tequilana Weber blue variety must and YPD medium. During growth in YPD and Agave media, all the recombinant strains showed lower cell mass formation than the wild type AR5 strain. Adh enzymatic activity in the recombinant strains A1 and A5 cultivated in A. tequilana and YPD medium was higher than in the wild type. The overexpression of both genes individually and simultaneously had no significant effect on ethanol formation; however, the fermentative efficiency of the A5 strain increased from 80.33% to 84.57% and 89.40% to 94.29% in YPD and Agave medium respectively.

  5. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Bellon

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade, has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  6. Introducing a new breed of wine yeast: interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L; Dunn, Barbara L; Chambers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment.

  7. Introducing a New Breed of Wine Yeast: Interspecific Hybridisation between a Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast and Saccharomyces mikatae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Jennifer R.; Schmid, Frank; Capone, Dimitra L.; Dunn, Barbara L.; Chambers, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids are commonplace in agriculture and horticulture; bread wheat and grapefruit are but two examples. The benefits derived from interspecific hybridisation include the potential of generating advantageous transgressive phenotypes. This paper describes the generation of a new breed of wine yeast by interspecific hybridisation between a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strain and Saccharomyces mikatae, a species hitherto not associated with industrial fermentation environs. While commercially available wine yeast strains provide consistent and reliable fermentations, wines produced using single inocula are thought to lack the sensory complexity and rounded palate structure obtained from spontaneous fermentations. In contrast, interspecific yeast hybrids have the potential to deliver increased complexity to wine sensory properties and alternative wine styles through the formation of novel, and wider ranging, yeast volatile fermentation metabolite profiles, whilst maintaining the robustness of the wine yeast parent. Screening of newly generated hybrids from a cross between a S. cerevisiae wine yeast and S. mikatae (closely-related but ecologically distant members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade), has identified progeny with robust fermentation properties and winemaking potential. Chemical analysis showed that, relative to the S. cerevisiae wine yeast parent, hybrids produced wines with different concentrations of volatile metabolites that are known to contribute to wine flavour and aroma, including flavour compounds associated with non-Saccharomyces species. The new S. cerevisiae x S. mikatae hybrids have the potential to produce complex wines akin to products of spontaneous fermentation while giving winemakers the safeguard of an inoculated ferment. PMID:23614011

  8. Epitope tagging of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzard, B; Chubet, R

    2001-05-01

    Epitope tagging is a method of expressing proteins whereby an epitope for a specific monoclonal antibody is fused to a target protein using recombinant DNA techniques. The fusion gene is cloned into an appropriate expression vector for the experimental cell type and host cells are transfected. The fusion protein can then be detected and/or purified using a monoclonal antibody specific for the epitope tag. This unit presents protocols for detection and purification of proteins tagged with a particular epitope, the FLAG tag, although the same general approach can be applied to other epitope tags. The protocols in this unit employ the anti-FLAG M2 antibody to detect and purify FLAG-tagged proteins. The methods presented are immunoprecipitation of FLAG fusion proteins from cells using an anti-FLAG M2 affinity gel, detection of FLAG fusion proteins by western blotting, and purification of FLAG fusion proteins by anti-FLAG M2 affinity chromatography.

  9. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  11. Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant Poliovirus circulation among healthy children immunized with oral polio vaccine in Abidjan. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... In order to assess the level of polio virus with natural recombinant genome and wild polio virus circulating in the environment of healthy children aged 0 to 5 years in Abidjan, 130 ...

  12. Expression and characterization of recombinant human serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was specifically recognized by the anti-human HSA antibody and CP antibody in Western blotting assay. In vitro, the recombinant HSA-CP can stimulate HEK293 cell proliferation. In Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, 12 weeks recombinant HSA-CP treatment could prevent the accumulation of glomerular extracellular matrix, ...

  13. Optimization of the Production of Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus kawachii Cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Jorge Baruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG; EC 3.2.1.15 catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin and/or pectic acid and are useful for industrial applications such as juice clarification and pectin extraction. Growth and heterologous expression of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expresses an acidic PG from Aspergillus kawachii has been studied in batch and fed-batch cultures. Kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the recombinant yeast were determined in batch cultures in a synthetic medium. In these cultures, the total biomass concentration, protein concentration, and enzyme activity achieved were 2.2 g/L, 10 mg/L, and 3 U/mL, respectively, to give a productivity of 0.06 U/(mL·h. In fed-batch cultures, various strategies for galactose feeding were used: (i after a glucose growth phase, the addition of a single pulse of galactose which gave a productivity of 0.19 U/(mL·h; (ii after a glucose growth phase, a double pulse of galactose at the same final concentration was added, resulting in a productivity of 0.21 U/(mL·h; (iii a simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose, yielding a productivity of 1.32 U/(mL·h. Based on these results, the simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose was by far the most suitable strategy for the production of this enzyme. Moreover, some biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme such as a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, an isoelectric point of 3.7 and its ability to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid at pH=2.5 were determined.

  14. The recombinational anatomy of a mouse chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Paigen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Among mammals, genetic recombination occurs at highly delimited sites known as recombination hotspots. They are typically 1-2 kb long and vary as much as a 1,000-fold or more in recombination activity. Although much is known about the molecular details of the recombination process itself, the factors determining the location and relative activity of hotspots are poorly understood. To further our understanding, we have collected and mapped the locations of 5,472 crossover events along mouse Chromosome 1 arising in 6,028 meioses of male and female reciprocal F1 hybrids of C57BL/6J and CAST/EiJ mice. Crossovers were mapped to a minimum resolution of 225 kb, and those in the telomere-proximal 24.7 Mb were further mapped to resolve individual hotspots. Recombination rates were evolutionarily conserved on a regional scale, but not at the local level. There was a clear negative-exponential relationship between the relative activity and abundance of hotspot activity classes, such that a small number of the most active hotspots account for the majority of recombination. Females had 1.2x higher overall recombination than males did, although the sex ratio showed considerable regional variation. Locally, entirely sex-specific hotspots were rare. The initiation of recombination at the most active hotspot was regulated independently on the two parental chromatids, and analysis of reciprocal crosses indicated that parental imprinting has subtle effects on recombination rates. It appears that the regulation of mammalian recombination is a complex, dynamic process involving multiple factors reflecting species, sex, individual variation within species, and the properties of individual hotspots.

  15. Enhanced production of β-carotene by recombinant industrial wine yeast using grape juice as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guo-liang; Liang, Heng-yu; Duan, Chang-qing; Han, Bei-zhong

    2012-02-01

    In this study, both recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae T73-63 and FY-09 derived from the industrial wine yeast T73-4 and laboratory yeast FY1679-01B, respectively, were constructed and compared for their β-carotene production in real grape juice. The results showed that highest β-carotene content (5.89 mg/g) was found in strain T73-63, which was 2.1 fold higher than that of strain FY-09. Although the cell growth was inhibited by the metabolic burden induced by the production of heterogeneous β-carotene, the pigment yield in T73-63 was still 1.7 fold higher than that of FY-09. Furthermore, high contents of ergosterol and fatty acid were also observed in T73-63. These results suggest that industrial wine yeast has highly active metabolic flux in mevalonate pathway, which leads to more carbon flux into carotenoid branch compared to that of laboratory yeast. The results of this study collectively suggest that in the application of recombinant strains to produce carotenoid using agro-industrial by-products as substrate, the suitable host strains should have active mevalonate pathway. For this purpose, the industrial wine yeast is a suitable candidate.

  16. Bioconversion of Agricultural Waste to Ethanol by SSF Using Recombinant Cellulase from Clostridium thermocellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Mutreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different pretreatment methods, temperature, and enzyme concentration on ethanol production from 8 lignocellulosic agrowaste by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using recombinant cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. Recombinant cellulase was isolated from E. coli BL21 cells transformed with CtLic26A-Cel5-CBM11 full-length gene from Clostridium thermocellum and produced in both batch and fed-batch processes. The maximum cell OD and specific activity in batch mode were 1.6 and 1.91 U/mg, respectively, whereas in the fed-batch mode, maximum cell OD and specific activity were 3.8 and 3.5 U/mg, respectively, displaying a 2-fold increase. Eight substrates, Syzygium cumini (jamun, Azadirachta indica (neem, Saracens indica (asoka, bambusa dendrocalmus (bamboo, Populas nigra (poplar, Achnatherum hymenoides (wild grass, Eucalyptus marginata (eucalyptus, and Mangifera indica (mango, were subjected to SSF. Of three pretreatments, acid, alkali, and steam explosion, acid pretreatment Syzygium cumini (Jamun at 30°C gave maximum ethanol yield of 1.42 g/L.

  17. Engineering cellulosic bioreactors by template assisted DNA shuffling and in vitro recombination (TADSir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leroy K

    2014-10-01

    The current study focuses on development of a bioreactor engineering strategy based on exploitation of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Chimeric A. thaliana glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene libraries were assembled using a novel directed evolution strategy (TADSir: template assisted DNA shuffling and in vitro recombination) that promotes DNA recombination by reassembly of DNA fragments on unique gene templates. TADSir was modeled using a set of algorithms designed to simulate DNA interactions based on nearest neighbor base stacking interactions and Gibb's free energy differences between helical coil and folded DNA states. The algorithms allow for target gene prediction and for in silica analysis of chimeric gene library composition. Further, the study investigated utilization of A. thaliana GH sequence space for bioreactor design by evolving 20 A. thaliana genes representing the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH9 and GH10 gene families. Notably, TADSir achieved streamlined engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and spinach mesophyll protoplast bioreactors capable of processing CM cellulose, Avicel and xylan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. [Identification of the yeast species Saccharomyces bayanus in Far East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, G I; Gazdiev, D O; Naumova, E S

    2003-01-01

    The genetic and molecular genetic analyses of nine Far East Asian Saccharomyces isolates allowed us to identify three species (S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. bayanus). The occurrence of the last species in Far East Asia was shown for the first time. A new method for the molecular genetic differentiation of Saccharomyces sensu stricto species is described. The ecogeographical distribution of Saccharomyces yeasts is discussed.

  19. Divergence in wine characteristics produced by wild and domesticated strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hyma, Katie E; Saerens, Sofie M; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Fay, Justin C

    2011-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the primary species used by wine makers to convert sugar into alcohol during wine fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is found in vineyards, but is also found in association with oak trees and other natural sources. Although wild strains of S. cerevisiae as well as other Saccharomyces species are also capable of wine fermentation, a genetically distinct group of S. cerevisiae strains is primarily used to produce wine, consistent with the idea t...

  20. Construction of killer industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and its fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bijender K. Bajaj; S. Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1, a time tested industrial yeast possesses most of the desirable fermentation characteristics like fast growth and fermentation rate, osmotolerance, high ethanol tolerance, ability to ferment molasses, and to ferment at elevated temperatures etc. However, this yeast was found to be sensitive against the killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, killer trait was introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 by protoplast fusion with Saccha...

  1. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing P450 in artificial digestive systems : A model for biodetoxication in the human digestive environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanquet, S.; Meunier, J.P.; Minekus, M.; Marol-Bonnin, S.; Alric, M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of genetically engineered microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts as live vehicles to carry out bioconversion directly in the digestive environment is an important challenge for the development of innovative biodrugs. A system that mimics the human gastrointestinal tract was combined with

  2. The level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity strongly influences xylose fermentation and inhibitor sensitivity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, M.; Johansson, B.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2003-01-01

    than the strain with wild-type G6PDH-activity, which suggested that the availability of intracellular NADPH correlated with tolerance towards lignocellulose-derived inhibitors. Low G6PDH-activity strains were also more sensitive to H2O2 than the control strain TMB3001....... production levels of G6PDH on xylose fermentation. We used a synthetic promoter library and the copper-regulated CUP1 promoter to generate G6PDH-activities between 0% and 179% of the wildtype level. G6PDH-activities of 1% and 6% of the wild-type level resulted in 2.8- and 5.1-fold increase in specific xylose...

  3. Reciprocality of Recombination Events That Rearrange the Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahan, M. J.; Roth, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a genetic system for studying the reciprocality of chromosomal recombination; all substrates and recombination functions involved are provided exclusively by the bacterial chromosome. The genetic system allows the recovery of both recombinant products from a single recombination event. The system was used to demonstrate the full reciprocality of three different types of recombination events: (1) intrachromosomal recombination between direct repeats, causing deletions; (2) intrachr...

  4. Sequential Fermentation with Selected Immobilized Non-Saccharomyces Yeast for Reduction of Ethanol Content in Wine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canonico, Laura; Comitini, Francesca; Oro, Lucia; Ciani, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present study, to reduce ethanol content in wine, a microbiological approach was investigated, using immobilized selected strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts namely Starmerella bombicola...

  5. Influence of organic acids and organochlorinated insecticides on metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejin Dušanka J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to different stress factors during the production: osmotic, temperature, oxidative. The response to these stresses is the adaptive mechanism of cells. The raw materials Saccharomyces cerevisiae is produced from, contain metabolism products of present microorganisms and protective agents used during the growth of sugar beet for example the influence of acetic and butyric acid and organochlorinated insecticides, lindan and heptachlor, on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated and presented in this work. The mentioned compounds affect negatively the specific growth rate, yield, content of proteins, phosphorus, total ribonucleic acids. These compounds influence the increase of trechalose and glycogen content in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a versatile eukaryotic system in virology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breinig Tanja

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established model system for understanding fundamental cellular processes relevant to higher eukaryotic organisms. Less known is its value for virus research, an area in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be very fruitful as well. The present review will discuss the main achievements of yeast-based studies in basic and applied virus research. These include the analysis of the function of individual proteins from important pathogenic viruses, the elucidation of key processes in viral replication through the development of systems that allow the replication of higher eukayotic viruses in yeast, and the use of yeast in antiviral drug development and vaccine production.

  7. Bioethanol production from sweet potato using Saccharomyces diastaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suryani, Irma; Pradia Paundradewa, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sweet potato contains about 16 to 40% dry matter and about 70-90% of the dry matter is a carbohydrate made up of starch, sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin so suitable for used as raw material for bioethanol. In this study focused on the manufacture of bioethanol with changes in temperature and concentration variations of yeast with sweet potato raw materials used yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus. Operating variables used are at a temperature of 30°C; 31,475°C; 35°C; 38,525°C; and 40°C with a yeast concentration of 25.9%; 30%; 40%; 50% and 54.1%. The experimental results obtained, the optimum conditions of ethanol fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus on 36,67 °C temperature and yeast concentration of 43,43 % v / v.

  8. Genome annotation of a Saccharomyces sp. lager brewer's yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marcela De León-Medina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The genome of lager brewer's yeast is a hybrid, with Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sub-genomes. Due to their specific use in the beer industry, relatively little information is available. The genome of brewing yeast was sequenced and annotated in this study. We obtained a genome size of 22.7 Mbp that consisted of 133 scaffolds, with 65 scaffolds larger than 10 kbp. With respect to the annotation, 9939 genes were obtained, and when they were submitted to a local alignment, we found that 53.93% of these genes corresponded to S. cerevisiae, while another 42.86% originated from S. eubayanus. Our results confirm that our strain is a hybrid of at least two different genomes.

  9. Pyruvate decarboxylases from the petite-negative yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Saccharomyces kluyveri is a petite-negative yeast, which is less prone to form ethanol under aerobic conditions than is S. cerevisiae. The first reaction on the route from pyruvate to ethanol is catalysed by pyruvate decarboxylase, and the differences observed between S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae...... was controlled by variations in the amount of mRNA. The mRNA level and the pyruvate decarboxylase activity responded to anaerobiosis and growth on different carbon sources in essentially the same fashion as in S. cerevisiae. This indicates that the difference in ethanol formation between these two yeasts...... is not due to differences in the regulation of pyruvate decarboxylase(s), but rather to differences in the regulation of the TCA cycle and the respiratory machinery. However, the PDC genes of Saccharomyces/Kluyveromyces yeasts differ in their genetic organization and phylogenetic origin. While S. cerevisiae...

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a sexy yeast with a prion problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Amy C; Wickner, Reed B

    2013-01-01

    Yeast prions are infectious proteins that spread exclusively by mating. The frequency of prions in the wild therefore largely reflects the rate of spread by mating counterbalanced by prion growth slowing effects in the host. We recently showed that the frequency of outcross mating is about 1% of mitotic doublings with 23-46% of total matings being outcrosses. These findings imply that even the mildest forms of the [PSI+], [URE3] and [PIN+] prions impart > 1% growth/survival detriment on their hosts. Our estimate of outcrossing suggests that Saccharomyces cerevisiae is far more sexual than previously thought and would therefore be more responsive to the adaptive effects of natural selection compared with a strictly asexual yeast. Further, given its large effective population size, a growth/survival detriment of > 1% for yeast prions should strongly select against prion-infected strains in wild populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. An apoptotic cell cycle mutant in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid

    1996-01-01

    The simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proved to be a useful organism for elucidating the mechanisms that govern cell cycle progression in eukaryotic cells. The excellent in vivo system permits a cell cycle study using temperature sensitive mutants. In addition, it is possible to study...... processes.Programmmed cell death with apoptosis plays a major role in development and homeostatis in most, if not all, animal cells. Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of death, that requires the activation of a highly regulated suicide program. Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides a new system...... in which apoptosis can be studied using the novel, temperature sensitive mutant, cdc77. The cdc77 cells are defective in a G1 process, and die show the characteristc signs of apoptosis: condensation of the chromatin, degradation of the inner nuclear membrane, dilation of the space between the nuclear...

  12. Extracellular expression of glucose inhibition-resistant Cellulomonas flavigena PN-120 β-glucosidase by a diploid strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Aguayo, David J; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; García-Mena, Jaime; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Salgado, Luis M; de la Torre-Martínez, Mayra; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic fraction of the Cellulomonas flavigena PN-120 oligomeric β-glucosidase (BGLA) was expressed both intra- and extracellularly in a recombinant diploid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, under limited nutrient conditions. The recombinant enzyme (BGLA¹⁵) expressed in the supernatant of a rich medium showed 582 IU/L and 99.4 IU/g dry cell, with p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. BGLA¹⁵ displayed activity against cello-oligosaccharides with 2-5 glucose monomers, demonstrating that the protein is not specific for cellobiose and that the oligomeric structure is not essential for β-D-1,4-bond hydrolysis. Native β-glucosidase is inhibited almost completely at 160 mM glucose, thus limiting cellobiose hydrolysis. At 200 mM glucose concentration, BGLA¹⁵ retained more than 50 % of its maximal activity, and even at 500 mM glucose concentration, more than 30 % of its activity was preserved. Due to these characteristics of BGLA¹⁵ activity, recombinant S. cerevisiae is able to utilize cellulosic materials (cello-oligosaccharides) to produce bioethanol.

  13. Inheritance of Mating Fators in Nocardial Recombinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, George H.; Kelly, Karol L.

    1969-01-01

    The segregation of mating loci with other unselected genes was analyzed in recombinants obtained from matings of Nocardia canicruria and N. erythropolis. The loci C/c and E/e control nocardial compatibility. Four mating genotype combinations were observed: cE, Ce, CE, and ce. Strains of N. erythropolis bear the genotype cE and strains of N. canicruria bear the Ce alleles. The CE recombinant mating type is capable of mating with both organisms, whereas the ce-containing recombinant is nonfertile. The E locus was found to segregate with StrA1 (streptomycin-resistance gene) on the N. erythropolis linkage group. The C locus appeared linked to PurB2 (purine-requiring gene) on the N. canicruria linkage group. A few observed recombinants were capable of further segregation of unselected characters after colonial purification, suggesting a possible heterogenomic condition or multiple rounds of mating. Prior treatment of recombinants with acriflavine failed to alter their compatibility or the frequency at which recombinants were recovered. The segregation pattern of the mating loci allowed for specific recombinant class types to be compatible. PMID:5802610

  14. Inheritance of mating factors in nocardial recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, G H; Kelly, K L

    1969-07-01

    The segregation of mating loci with other unselected genes was analyzed in recombinants obtained from matings of Nocardia canicruria and N. erythropolis. The loci C/c and E/e control nocardial compatibility. Four mating genotype combinations were observed: cE, Ce, CE, and ce. Strains of N. erythropolis bear the genotype cE and strains of N. canicruria bear the Ce alleles. The CE recombinant mating type is capable of mating with both organisms, whereas the ce-containing recombinant is nonfertile. The E locus was found to segregate with StrA1 (streptomycin-resistance gene) on the N. erythropolis linkage group. The C locus appeared linked to PurB2 (purine-requiring gene) on the N. canicruria linkage group. A few observed recombinants were capable of further segregation of unselected characters after colonial purification, suggesting a possible heterogenomic condition or multiple rounds of mating. Prior treatment of recombinants with acriflavine failed to alter their compatibility or the frequency at which recombinants were recovered. The segregation pattern of the mating loci allowed for specific recombinant class types to be compatible.

  15. Initiation of meiotic recombination in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Milorad; Sutherland, Jeanette H; Pérez-Martín, José; Holloman, William K

    2013-12-01

    A central feature of meiosis is the pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes. Ustilago maydis, a biotrophic fungus that parasitizes maize, has long been utilized as an experimental system for studying recombination, but it has not been clear when in the life cycle meiotic recombination initiates. U. maydis forms dormant diploid teliospores as the end product of the infection process. Upon germination, teliospores complete meiosis to produce four haploid basidiospores. Here we asked whether the meiotic process begins when teliospores germinate or at an earlier stage in development. When teliospores homozygous for a cdc45 mutation temperature sensitive for DNA synthesis were germinated at the restrictive temperature, four nuclei became visible. This implies that teliospores have already undergone premeiotic DNA synthesis and suggests that meiotic recombination initiates at a stage of infection before teliospores mature. Determination of homologous recombination in plant tissue infected with U. maydis strains heteroallelic for the nar1 gene revealed that Nar(+) recombinants were produced at a stage before teliospore maturation. Teliospores obtained from a spo11Δ cross were still able to germinate but the process was highly disturbed and the meiotic products were imbalanced in chromosomal complement. These results show that in U. maydis, homologous recombination initiates during the infection process and that meiosis can proceed even in the absence of Spo11, but with loss of genomic integrity.

  16. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN TAJIK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  17. Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from ethanol-induced growth inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker-Caprioglio, H M; Rodriguez, R J; Parks, L W

    1985-01-01

    Ethanol caused altered mobility of the lipophilic probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene in plasma membrane preparations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because lipids had been shown to protect yeast cells against ethanol toxicity, sterols, fatty acids, proteins, and combinations of these were tested; however, protection from growth inhibition was not seen. Ethanol-induced, prolonged lag periods and diminished growth rates in S. cerevisiae were reduced by an autoconditioning of the medium by the in...

  18. Regulation of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Homann, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1985-01-01

    The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium resulted in a reduction of CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase; EC 2.7.7.41) activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reduction of activity did not occur in the absence of inositol. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity was not regulated in a S. cerevisiae mutant strain (opi1; an inositol biosynthesis regulatory mutant) by the addition of phospholipid precursors to the growth medium.

  19. Glucose- and nitrogen sensing and regulatory mechanisms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødkaer, Steven V; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2014-01-01

    steps and by numerous different regulators. As numerous of these regulating proteins, biochemical mechanisms, and cellular pathways are evolutionary conserved, complex biochemical information relevant to humans can be obtained by studying simple organisms. Thus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has...... been recognized as a powerful model system to study fundamental biochemical processes. In the present review, we highlight central signaling pathways and molecular circuits conferring nitrogen- and glucose sensing in S. cerevisiae....

  20. Short Communication: Effect of forage sources and Saccharomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diet composition has been suggested as a factor that influences the variability of responses when Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) is fed to ruminant animals. Diets based on lucerne hay (462 g/kg DM) and maize silage (488 g/kg DM) were fed to determine the effects of 0 or 5 g SC 47 (8´109 cfu/g) on ruminal digestion, ...

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Fermented Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Graeme M. Walker; Stewart, Graham G.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages are produced following the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, mainly (but not exclusively) strains of the species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The sugary starting materials may emanate from cereal starches (which require enzymatic pre-hydrolysis) in the case of beers and whiskies, sucrose-rich plants (molasses or sugar juice from sugarcane) in the case of rums, or from fruits (which do not require pre-hydrolysis) in the case of wines and brandies. In the presence of sugars, t...

  2. Reducing the genetic complexity of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Solis Escalante, D.

    2015-01-01

    Glycolysis, a biochemical pathway that oxidizes glucose to pyruvate, is at the core of sugar metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast). Glycolysis is not only a catabolic route involved in energy conservation, but also provides building blocks for anabolism. From an applied perspective, several glycolytic intermediates are key precursors for the production of a wide range of highly valuable compounds. The most obvious case is the production of ethanol from pyruvate. Its ability t...

  3. First-principles study of Frenkel pair recombination in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shi-Yao; Jin, Shuo, E-mail: jinshuo@buaa.edu.cn; Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-15

    The recombination of one Frenkel pair in tungsten has been investigated through first-principles simulation. Two different recombination types have been identified: instantaneous and thermally activated. The small recombination barriers for thermally activated recombination cases indicate that recombination can occur easily with a slightly increased temperature. For both of the two recombination types, recombination occurs through the self-interstitial atom moving towards the vacancy. The recombination process can be direct or through replacement sequences, depending on the vertical distance between the vacancy and the 〈1 1 1〉 line of self-interstitial atom pair.

  4. First-principles study of Frenkel pair recombination in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shi-Yao; Jin, Shuo; Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-02-01

    The recombination of one Frenkel pair in tungsten has been investigated through first-principles simulation. Two different recombination types have been identified: instantaneous and thermally activated. The small recombination barriers for thermally activated recombination cases indicate that recombination can occur easily with a slightly increased temperature. For both of the two recombination types, recombination occurs through the self-interstitial atom moving towards the vacancy. The recombination process can be direct or through replacement sequences, depending on the vertical distance between the vacancy and the line of self-interstitial atom pair.

  5. Production of recombinant proteins by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Owen P

    2012-01-01

    The initial focus of recombinant protein production by filamentous fungi related to exploiting the extraordinary extracellular enzyme synthesis and secretion machinery of industrial strains, including Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium and Rhizopus species, was to produce single recombinant protein products. An early recognized disadvantage of filamentous fungi as hosts of recombinant proteins was their common ability to produce homologous proteases which could degrade the heterologous protein product and strategies to prevent proteolysis have met with some limited success. It was also recognized that the protein glycosylation patterns in filamentous fungi and in mammals were quite different, such that filamentous fungi are likely not to be the most suitable microbial hosts for production of recombinant human glycoproteins for therapeutic use. By combining the experience gained from production of single recombinant proteins with new scientific information being generated through genomics and proteomics research, biotechnologists are now poised to extend the biomanufacturing capabilities of recombinant filamentous fungi by enabling them to express genes encoding multiple proteins, including, for example, new biosynthetic pathways for production of new primary or secondary metabolites. It is recognized that filamentous fungi, most species of which have not yet been isolated, represent an enormously diverse source of novel biosynthetic pathways, and that the natural fungal host harboring a valuable biosynthesis pathway may often not be the most suitable organism for biomanufacture purposes. Hence it is expected that substantial effort will be directed to transforming other fungal hosts, non-fungal microbial hosts and indeed non microbial hosts to express some of these novel biosynthetic pathways. But future applications of recombinant expression of proteins will not be confined to biomanufacturing. Opportunities to exploit recombinant technology to unravel the

  6. Recombinant vaccines against bluetongue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Jabbar, Tamara; Ortego, Javier; de la Poza, Francisco; Marín-López, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), the prototype member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae and is transmitted via biting midges of the genus Culicoides. BTV can be found on all continents except Antarctica, and up to 26 immunologically distinct BTV serotypes have been identified. Live attenuated and inactivated BTV vaccines have been used over the years with different degrees of success. The multiple outbreaks of BTV in Mediterranean Europe in the last two decades and the incursion of BTV-8 in Northern Europe in 2008 has re-stimulated the interest to develop improved vaccination strategies against BTV. In particular, safer, cross-reactive, more efficacious vaccines with differential diagnostic capability have been pursued by multiple BTV research groups and vaccine manufacturers. A wide variety of recombinant BTV vaccine prototypes have been investigated, ranging from baculovirus-expressed sub-unit vaccines to the use of live viral vectors. This article gives a brief overview of all these modern approaches to develop vaccines against BTV including some recent unpublished data. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genomics and Biochemistry of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeast Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldarov, M A; Kishkovskaia, S A; Tanaschuk, T N; Mardanov, A V

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomyces yeasts have been used for millennia for the production of beer, wine, bread, and other fermented products. Long-term "unconscious" selection and domestication led to the selection of hundreds of strains with desired production traits having significant phenotypic and genetic differences from their wild ancestors. This review summarizes the results of recent research in deciphering the genomes of wine Saccharomyces strains, the use of comparative genomics methods to study the mechanisms of yeast genome evolution under conditions of artificial selection, and the use of genomic and postgenomic approaches to identify the molecular nature of the important characteristics of commercial wine strains of Saccharomyces. Succinctly, data concerning metagenomics of microbial communities of grapes and wine and the dynamics of yeast and bacterial flora in the course of winemaking is provided. A separate section is devoted to an overview of the physiological, genetic, and biochemical features of sherry yeast strains used to produce biologically aged wines. The goal of the review is to convince the reader of the efficacy of new genomic and postgenomic technologies as tools for developing strategies for targeted selection and creation of new strains using "classical" and modern techniques for improving winemaking technology.

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 secretes peptides that inhibit the growth of some non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Francisco, Diana; Gori, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the toxic compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 that induce the earlydeath of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii during mixed fermentations, as well as their ability to inhibit the growth of other non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains, was investigated. The killing effect....... Under the growth conditions used for these tests, the (2-10) kDa protein fraction of S. cerevisiae CCMI 885 supernatants exhibited a fungistatic effect against all the strains and a fungicidal effect against K. marxianus....... of mixed supernatants towards H. guilliermondii was inactivated by protease treatments, thus revealing the proteinaceous nature of the toxic compounds. Analysis of the protein pattern of mixed supernatants on Tricine SDS-PAGE showed that this S. cerevisiae strain secretes peptides (

  9. Playing catch-up with Escherichia coli: Using yeast to increase success rates in recombinant protein production experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Mary Bill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several host systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell-lines. This article highlights the benefits of using yeast, especially for more challenging targets such as membrane proteins. On account of the wide range of molecular, genetic and microbiological tools available, use of the well-studied model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provides many opportunities to optimize the functional yields of a target protein. Despite this wealth of resources, it is surprisingly under-used. In contrast, Pichia pastoris, a relative new-comer as a host organism, is already becoming a popular choice, particularly because of the ease with which high biomass (and hence recombinant protein yields can be achieved. In the last few years, advances have been made in understanding how a yeast cell responds to the stress of producing a recombinant protein and how this information can be used to identify improved host strains in order to increase functional yields. Given these advantages, and their industrial importance in the production of biopharmaceuticals, I argue that S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris should be considered at an early stage in any serious strategy to produce proteins

  10. Transcriptome-Based Characterization of Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in Lactose-Grown Chemostat Cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; De Hulster, E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Bron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  11. Transcriptome-based characterization of interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in lactose-grown chemostat cocultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, F.; Sieuwerts, S.; Hulster, de E.; Almering, M.J.; Luttik, M.A.H.; Pronk, J.T.; Smid, E.J.; Baron, P.A.; Daran-Lapujade, P.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and lactic acid bacteria occur in many dairy, food, and beverage fermentations, but knowledge about their interactions is incomplete. In the present study, interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  12. Filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Filamentação em Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal dimorphism is a complex phenomenon triggered by a large variety of environmental factors and consists of a reversible alternating pattern of growth between different elliptical and filamentous forms of cells. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate these events is of major interest because of their implications in fungal pathogenesis, cell differentiation and industry. Diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transform from budding yeast to pseudohyphae when starved for nitrogen, giving the cells an advantage in food foraging, which is sensed by at least two signal transduction pathways: the MAP kinase (MAPK and the PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathways. The output of these signalling pathways is the expression of pseudohypha-specific genes, whose expression profiles change and is accompanied by a G2 delay in the cell cycle and a prolonged period of polarized growth. Haploid yeast strains show a similar growth type after prolonged incubation on rich medium plates. The cells form chains and invade the agar on the edge of the colony, but they do not become elongated. This growth type is referred to as haploid invasive growth. Alcohols can also induce filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae, promoting aberrant and elongated morphology. The three forms of filamentous growth are revised in this article and also the pathways involved in sensing, signaling and signal transduction during filamentous growth.O dimorfismo em fungos é um fenômeno complexo acionado por um grande número de fatores ambientais e consiste num padrão alternante e reversível de crescimento, oscilando entre formas elípticas e filamentosas de células. É de grande importância o entendimento dos mecanismos que regulam esses eventos devido as suas implicações na patogenicidade, diferenciação celular e indústria. Células diplóides de Saccharomyces cerevisiae mudam de células brotantes para pseudohifas quando em condições limitantes de nitrogênio, o que

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids during low temperature winemaking [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Tronchoni; Estéfani García-Ríos; Jose Manuel Guillamón; Amparo Querol; Roberto Pérez-Torrado

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most frequently isolated species in wine fermentation, and the most studied species, other species and interspecific hybrids have greatly attracted the interest of researchers in this field in the last few years, given their potential to solve new winemaking industry challenges. S. cerevisiae x S. kudriavzevii hybrids exhibit good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, and produce wines with smaller alcohol quantities and larger gly...

  14. A multi-level study of recombinant Pichia pastoris in different oxygen conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Brigitte

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeasts are attractive expression platforms for many recombinant proteins, and there is evidence for an important interrelation between the protein secretion machinery and environmental stresses. While adaptive responses to such stresses are extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little is known about their impact on the physiology of Pichia pastoris. We have recently reported a beneficial effect of hypoxia on recombinant Fab secretion in P. pastoris chemostat cultivations. As a consequence, a systems biology approach was used to comprehensively identify cellular adaptations to low oxygen availability and the additional burden of protein production. Gene expression profiling was combined with proteomic analyses and the 13C isotope labelling based experimental determination of metabolic fluxes in the central carbon metabolism. Results The physiological adaptation of P. pastoris to hypoxia showed distinct traits in relation to the model yeast S. cerevisiae. There was a positive correlation between the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic fluxes adaptation of P. pastoris core metabolism to hypoxia, yielding clear evidence of a strong transcriptional regulation component of key pathways such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle. In addition, the adaptation to reduced oxygen revealed important changes in lipid metabolism, stress responses, as well as protein folding and trafficking. Conclusions This systems level study helped to understand the physiological adaptations of cellular mechanisms to low oxygen availability in a recombinant P. pastoris strain. Remarkably, the integration of data from three different levels allowed for the identification of differences in the regulation of the core metabolism between P. pastoris and S. cerevisiae. Detailed comparative analysis of the transcriptomic data also led to new insights into the gene expression profiles of several cellular processes that are not only

  15. High-throughput FTIR-based bioprocess analysis of recombinant cyprosin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Pedro N; Sales, Kevin C; Rosa, Filipa O; Lopes, Marta B; Calado, Cecília R C

    2017-01-01

    To increase the knowledge of the recombinant cyprosin production process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures, it is relevant to implement efficient bioprocess monitoring techniques. The present work focuses on the implementation of a mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy-based tool for monitoring the recombinant culture in a rapid, economic, and high-throughput (using a microplate system) mode. Multivariate data analysis on the MIR spectra of culture samples was conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled capturing the general metabolic status of the yeast cells, as replicated samples appear grouped together in the score plot and groups of culture samples according to the main growth phase can be clearly distinguished. The PCA-loading vectors also revealed spectral regions, and the corresponding chemical functional groups and biomolecules that mostly contributed for the cell biomolecular fingerprint associated with the culture growth phase. These data were corroborated by the analysis of the samples' second derivative spectra. Partial least square (PLS) regression models built based on the MIR spectra showed high predictive ability for estimating the bioprocess critical variables: biomass (R 2 = 0.99, RMSEP 2.8%); cyprosin activity (R 2 = 0.98, RMSEP 3.9%); glucose (R 2 = 0.93, RMSECV 7.2%); galactose (R 2 = 0.97, RMSEP 4.6%); ethanol (R 2 = 0.97, RMSEP 5.3%); and acetate (R 2 = 0.95, RMSEP 7.0%). In conclusion, high-throughput MIR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were effective in identifying the main growth phases and specific cyprosin production phases along the yeast culture as well as in quantifying the critical variables of the process. This knowledge will promote future process optimization and control the recombinant cyprosin bioprocess according to Quality by Design framework.

  16. Analysis of RecA-independent recombination events between short direct repeats related to a genomic island and to a plasmid in Escherichia coli K12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Azpiroz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RecA-independent recombination events between short direct repeats, leading to deletion of the intervening sequences, were found to occur in two genetic models in the Escherichia coli K12 background. The first model was a small E. coli genomic island which had been shown to be mobile in its strain of origin and, when cloned, also in the E. coli K12 context. However, it did not encode a site-specific recombinase as mobile genomic islands usually do. It was then deduced that the host cells should provide the recombination function. This latter was searched for by means of a PCR approach to detect the island excision in E. coli K12 mutants affected in a number of recombination functions, including the 16 E. coli K12 site-specific recombinases, the RecET system, and multiple proteins that participate in the RecA-dependent pathways of homologous recombination. None of these appeared to be involved in the island excision. The second model, analyzed in a RecA deficient context, was a plasmid construction containing a short direct repeat proceeding from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which flanked the cat gene. The excision of this gene by recombination of the DNA repeats was confirmed by PCR and through the detection, recovery and characterization of the plasmid deleted form. In sum, we present new evidence on the occurrence of RecA-independent recombination events in E. coli K12. Although the mechanism underlying these processes is still unknown, their existence suggests that RecA-independent recombination may confer mobility to other genetic elements, thus contributing to genome plasticity.

  17. Comparative evaluation of some oenological properties in wine strains of Candida stellata, Candida zemplinina, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Ildikó; Tóth, Tamás

    2011-02-01

    Due to the recent changes in yeast taxonomy, a novel wine-related species Candida zemplinina as well as a "reinstated" species Saccharomyces uvarum have been accepted in addition to Candida stellata, Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the use of the different taxon names has been inconsistent in the literature of food microbiology. The aim of this work is to make an exact comparison of genetically identified strains of these species, under oenological conditions. Dynamics and some important products of alcoholic fermentation were investigated in laboratory fermentations. The results show that C. zemplinina and C. stellata are similar in their strong fructophilic character. C. stellata produces more glycerol and fare more ethanol, which is comparable with that produced by S. uvarum. Strains of the latter species differed from S. cerevisiae mainly in low acetic acid production and lower ethanol yield. Revision of the oenological traits of these yeasts provides new data for consideration in the control of fermentation, with special regard to botrytized sweet wines, where they are frequently found in mixed population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultramicroscopic observation of recombinant adenoassociated virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultramicroscopic observation of recombinant adenoassociated virus type 2 on the surface of formvarcarbon coated copper grids under different relative humidity and incubation time using negative stain transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  20. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.