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Sample records for recoil proton detection

  1. Nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons on a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Khaydarov, A.; Barsukova, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons and of the detection possibility of the various chemical elements with the use of these secondary nucleus reactions were investigated. The recoil protons are produced on a nuclear reactor in the result of (n, p) inelastic and elastic scattering interaction of fast neutrons with nuclei of hydrogen. It is well known that the share of fast neutrons in energetic spectrum of reactor's neutrons in comparison with the share of thermal neutrons is small. . Consequently, the share of recoil protons produced in the result of fast neutron interaction with nuclei of light elements, capable to cause the nuclear reactions, is also small, des, due to Coulomb barrier of nuclei the recoil protons can cause the nuclear reactions only on nuclei of light and some middle elements. Our studies show that observable yields have radio nuclides excited in the result of nuclear reactions on Li, B, O, V and Cu. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proton activation analysis based on the application of secondary nuclear reactions is useful technique to determine large contents of various light and medium chemical elements. Detection limits for studied chemical elements are estimated better than 10 ppm

  2. The recoil proton polarization in πp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for π + p and π - p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P 3 East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10 7 π - 's/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10 7 π + 's/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Recoil-proton polarization in πp elastic scattering at 547 and 625 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.; Adrian, S.D.; Briscoe, W.J.; Mokhtari, A.; Taragin, M.F.; Sadler, M.E.; Barlow, D.B.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Pillai, C.

    1989-01-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton in π + p and π - p elastic scattering using a liquid-hydrogen target has been measured for backward angles at 547 and 625 MeV/c. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the large-acceptance spectrometer to detect and analyze the momentum of the pions and the JANUS polarimeter to identify and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment agree with other measurements of the recoil polarization, with analyzing-power data previously taken by this group, and with predictions of partial-wave analyses

  4. Recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-12-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  5. Recoil-proton fast-neutron-counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A proton-recoil neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time-of-flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV, presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  6. Automatic detection of recoil-proton tracks and background rejection criteria in liquid scintillator-micro-capillary-array fast neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Ilan; Vartsky, David; Dangendorf, Volker; Tittelmeier, Kai.; Weierganz, Mathias; Goldberg, Mark Benjamin; Bar, Doron; Brandis, Michal

    2018-06-01

    We describe an analysis procedure for automatic unambiguous detection of fast-neutron-induced recoil proton tracks in a micro-capillary array filled with organic liquid scintillator. The detector is viewed by an intensified CCD camera. This imaging neutron detector possesses the capability to perform high position-resolution (few tens of μm), energy-dispersive transmission-imaging using ns-pulsed beams. However, when operated with CW or DC beams, it also features medium-quality spectroscopic capabilities for incident neutrons in the energy range 2-20 MeV. In addition to the recoil proton events which display a continuous extended track structure, the raw images exhibit complex ion-tracks from nuclear interactions of fast-neutrons in the scintillator, capillaries quartz-matrix and CCD. Moreover, as expected, one also observes a multitude of isolated scintillation spots of varying intensity (henceforth denoted "blobs") that originate from several different sources, such as: fragmented proton tracks, gamma-rays, heavy-ion reactions as well as events and noise that occur in the image-intensifier and CCD. In order to identify the continuous-track recoil proton events and distinguish them from all these background events, a rapid, computerized and automatic track-recognition-procedure was developed. Based on an appropriately weighted analysis of track parameters such as: length, width, area and overall light intensity, the method is capable of distinguishing a single continuous-track recoil proton from typically surrounding several thousands of background events that are found in each CCD frame.

  7. A recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV. (author)

  8. Conception of a New Recoil Proton Telescope for Real-Time Neutron Spectrometry in Proton-Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Rodolphe; Arbor, Nicolas; el Bitar, Ziad; Higueret, Stéphane; Husson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Neutrons are the main type of secondary particles emitted in proton-therapy. Because of the risk of secondary cancer and other late occurring effects, the neutron dose should be included in the out-of-field dose calculations. A neutron spectrometer has to be used to take into account the energy dependence of the neutron radiological weighting factor. Due to its high dependence on various parameters of the irradiation (beam, accelerator, patient), the neutron spectrum should be measured independently for each treatment. The current reference method for the measurement of the neutron energy, the Bonner Sphere System, consists of several homogeneous polyethylene spheres with increasing diameters equipped with a proportional counter. It provides a highresolution reconstruction of the neutron spectrum but requires a time-consuming work of signal deconvolution. New neutron spectrometers are being developed, but the main experimental limitation remains the high neutron flux in proton therapy treatment rooms. A new model of a real-time neutron spectrometer, based on a Recoil Proton Telescope technology, has been developed at the IPHC. It enables a real-time high-rate reconstruction of the neutron spectrum from the measurement of the recoil proton trajectory and energy. A new fast-readout microelectronic integrated sensor, called FastPixN, has been developed for this specific purpose. A first prototype, able to detect neutrons between 5 and 20 MeV, has already been validated for metrology with the AMANDE facility at Cadarache. The geometry of the new Recoil Proton Telescope has been optimized via extensive Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainty sources have been carefully studied in order to improve simultaneously efficiency and energy resolution, and solutions have been found to suppress the various expected backgrounds. We are currently upgrading the prototype for secondary neutron detection in proton therapy applications.

  9. Commissioning of a proton-recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.C.; Faught, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of neutron fluence spectra in fields from bare and heavy-water-moderated 252 Cf were made with a commercially available proton-recoil spectrometer (PRS) that covers 50 keV to 4.5 MeV. Data obtained from these measurements were compared with data from Bonner sphere spectrometry, Monte Carlo simulation and the open literature. Alterations to the input data file used in unfolding recoil-proton pulse-height distributions were made. Understanding the reasons for these changes and considering the effects of some of the results in an appreciation of the significance of parameters used in the unfolding. An uncertainty of 10% is estimated for values of fluence and ambient dose equivalent for the energy region covered by this PRS. (author)

  10. A proton-recoil neutron spectrometer for time-dependent ion temperatures on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Ion temperatures from inertial confinement fusion targets are usually determined by measuring the Doppler broadening of the neutron spectrum using the time-of-flight method. Measurement systems are generally designed so that the contribution of the duration of neutron production (∼100 ps) to the width of the neutron signal is negligible. This precludes the possibility of time-dependent ion temperature. If, however, one could measure the neutron energy and arrival time at a detector independently, then time-dependent neutron spectra could be obtained, and ion temperature information deduced. A concept utilizing a proton-recoil neutron spectrometer has been developed in which recoil protons from a small plastic foil are measured. From the energy, arrival time, and recoil angle of the recoil proton, the birth time and energy of the incident neutron can be deduced. The sensitivity of the system is low, but the higher anticipated neutron yields from the proposed National Ignition Facility may make the technique feasible. Large scintillator arrays currently in use on the Nova facility for neutron spectral measurements consist of ∼1,000 channels and detect between 50 and 500 counts for typical time-integrated data. Time-dependent results would then require about an order of magnitude larger system. Key issues for making this system feasible will be keeping the cost per channel low while allowing adequately time (∼ 50 ps), energy (20 keV), and angular resolution (2 mrad) for each of the proton detectors

  11. Recoil proton polarization of neutral pion photoproduction from proton in the energy range between 400 MeV and 1142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.; Miyachi, T.; Sugano, K.; Toshioka, K.; Ukai, K.

    1979-08-01

    The recoil proton polarization of the reaction γp → π 0 p were measured at a C.M. angle of 100 0 for incident photon energies between 451 and 1106 MeV, and at an angle of 130 0 for energies from 400 MeV to 1142 MeV. One photon decayed from a π 0 -meson and a recoil proton were detected in coincidence. Two kinds of polarization scatterers were employed. In the range of proton kinetic energy less than 420 MeV and higher than 346 MeV, carbon plates and liquid hydrogen were used for determining the polarization. Results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses. From the Comparison between the present data and the asymmetry data given by the polarized target, the contribution of the invariant amplitudes A 3 can be estimated to be small at 100 0 . (author)

  12. Proton-recoil proportional counter tests at TREAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; Burrows, D.R.; DeVolpi, A.

    1979-01-01

    A methane filled proton-recoil proportional counter will be used as a fission neutron detector in the fast-neutron hodoscope. To provide meaningful fuel-motion information the proportional counter should have: a linear response over a wide range of reactor powers background ratio (the number of high energy neutrons detected must be maximized relative to low energy neutrons, and gamma ray sensitivity must be kept small); and a detector efficiency for fission neutrons above 1 MeV of approximately 1%. In addition, it is desirable that the detector and the associated amplifier/discriminator be capable of operating at counting rates in excess of 500 kHz. This paper reports on tests that were conducted on several proportional counters at the TREAT reactor

  13. Calculations of Total and Differential Solid Angles for a Proton Recoil Solid State Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijn, J; Lauber, A; Tollander, B

    1963-08-15

    The solid angles have been computed for a proton recoil counter consisting of a circular hydrogenous foil viewed by an isotropic neutron point source at different distances from the target foil. Tables are given for the total subtended solid angle as well as the differential energy distribution function of the proton recoil spectrum. The influence of finite foil thickness has also been studied.

  14. Proceedings of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa

    1986-01-01

    This is a report of the symposium on measurements of neutron energy spectra using recoil proton proportional counters held at the Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University on January 27 in 1986. An energy resolution, wall effects of response functions, n · γ discrimination methods and other fundamental properties of recoil proton counters are discussed for a new development of an application of this counter. (author)

  15. Development of a digital trigger system to identify recoil protons at COMPASS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The GANDALF framework has been developed to deliver a high precision, high performance detector readout and trigger system for particle physics experiments such as the COMPASS-II experiment at CERN. Combining the high performance pulse digitization and feature extraction capabilities of twelve GANDALF modules, each comprising a Virtex-5 SX95T, with the strong computation power of a Virtex-6 SX315T FGPA operated on the TIGER module, we present a digital trigger system for a recoil proton detector. The trigger system was setup and commissioned successfully during a data taking period in 2012. It was mainly used for the calibration of the recoil proton detector and in tagging mode to identify proton tracks online.

  16. Design of magnetic analysis system for magnetic proton recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianmin; Jiang Shilun; Zhou Lin; Peng Taiping

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of the neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. The design of the magnetic analysis system, which is a key part of the compact MPR-type spectrometer, has been completed through two-dimensional beam transport simulations and three-dimensional particle transport simulation. The analysis of the system's parameters and performances was performed, as well as system designs based on preferential principles of energy resolution, detection efficiency, and count rate, respectively. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system can achieve a detection efficiency of 10 -5 ∼ 10 -4 level at the resolution range of 1.5% to 3.0% and fulfill the design goals of the compact MPR spectrometer. (authors)

  17. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianfu, E-mail: zhang_jianfu@163.com [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Ruan, Jinlu [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhang, Guoguang [Applied Institute of Nuclear Technology, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Qiu, Suizheng, E-mail: szqiu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  18. On unfolding counting-rate spectra of recoil-proton neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeivin, Yehuda

    1983-01-01

    This note proposes a possible scheme for unfolding recoil-proton neutron detector data, in which at first the undistorted proton source spectrum is derived. The main argument in favour of this scheme is that, compared with the conventional scheme, it necessitates somewhat weaker assumptions with respect to the unknown spectrum above the detector's upper energy cutoff, and would therefore be more reliable. We also demonstrate a simple, elementary proof of the wall effect correction for spherical detectors, and, in order to gain insight of the potential merits of the proposed unfolding scheme, illustrate our main argument by considering a hypothetic linear range-energy relation, in which case complete unfolding becomes possible with no assumptions at all on the proton spectrum above the cutoff energy. (author)

  19. Measurement of recoil photon polarisation in the electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, Jean

    1965-02-01

    This research thesis reports and discusses an experiment which aimed at checking the validity of the Born approximation at the first order in the elastic scattering of high energy electrons on protons. In this experiment, the recoil proton polarisation is measured in an elastic scattering of electrons with energy of 950 MeV and scattering at about 90 degrees in the mass centre system. The author describes the experimental installation, its operation and data collection, reports the analysis of photos and polarisation calculations and errors [fr

  20. Sensitive detection of hydrogen in a-Si:H by coincidence measurement of elastically scattered 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions and recoil protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Noboru; Imura, Takeshi; Hiraki, Akio [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Itahashi, Takahisa; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Masayoshi

    1982-09-01

    We have drastically improved the sensitivity of the nuclear elastic scattering (NES) method for determining hydrogen concentrations in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films. A beam of 100 MeV /sup 3/He/sup 2 +/ ions was used in the experiment. By taking the coincidence of detection of the scattered /sup 3/He ion with that of the recoil proton, we could achieve a sensitivity of 0.1 atomic percent with a precision of about 1 percent for 1 ..mu..m films.

  1. Commissioning and performance studies of a proton recoil detector at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerg, Philipp; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The COMPASS-II experiment is a fixed target experiment situated at CERN. A tertiary myon beam from the SPS scattered of protons from a liquid hydrogen target is used to measure Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Hard Exclusive Meson Production (HEMP). These processes offer a unique way to determine Generalized Parton Distributions, which are related to the total angular momentum of quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the nucleon by Ji's Sum Rule. One of the major parts of the COMPASS-II upgrade is the CAMERA detector. CAMERA is a proton recoil detector surrounding the COMPASS-II liquid hydrogen target. Its purpose is to measure the recoiled target proton in DVCS and HEMP reactions and viz to act as a veto to ensure the exclusivity of the measurement. The talk gives an outline of the detector and its readout electronics. It is focused on the commissioning and performance of the CAMERA detector and gives a brief insight into the ongoing DVCS analysis.

  2. Detecting neutrons by forward recoil protons at the Energy & Transmutation facility: Detector development and calibration with 14.1-MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, S.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Rogachev, A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2017-05-01

    As part of the Energy & Transmutation project, we are developing a detector for neutrons with energies in the 10-100 MeV range emitted from the target irradiated by a charged-particle beam. The neutron is detected by measuring the time-of-flight and total kinetic energy of the forward-going recoil proton [1] knocked out at a small angle from a thin layer of plastic scintillator, which has to be selected against an intense background created by γ quanta, scattered neutrons, and charged particles. On the other hand, neutron energy has to be measured over the full range with no extra tuning of the detector operation regime. Initial measurements with a source of 14.1-MeV neutrons are reported.

  3. Detection of supernova neutrinos by neutrino-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beacom, John F.; Farr, Will M.; Vogel, Petr

    2002-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν+p→ν+p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from ν(bar sign) e +p→e + +n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , ν(bar sign) μ , and ν(bar sign) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  4. Proton-recoil proportional-counter array for neutron-image construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Eichholz, J.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel-motion measurement capability of the fast-neutron hodoscope has been upgraded by the addition of a 360-detector proton-recoil proportional-counter array, which detects high-energy fission neutrons. The current sensitive amplifier/discriminator module for each detector fits into a 12.7 by 12.7 by 102 mm package and cost less than $100 per module. It has a 50 ns rise time, a noise level of 100 nA, and a deadtime per event of 200 ns. Provision has been provided for the independent adjustment of the input current versus discriminator voltage for each module. The new proportional-counters cost approximately $400 each. Each detector has been tested to have the same gain versus voltage response. A space-charge model relating count-rate changes to space-charge effects has also been developed. The new detector array has been operational for approximately two years and has become the main detector system in fuel-motion analysis. It has significantly improved the linearity, stability, count-rate capability, and setup ease of the hodoscope

  5. Probing the structure of unstable nuclei through the recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Y.; Cao, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recoiled proton tagged knockout reaction experiments were carried-out for 8 He at 82,5 MeV/u in RIKEN and for 6 He at 65 MeV/u in Lanzhou. The very preliminary results for the distinguish of the reaction mechanism are presented and compared to the kinematics calculation. (authors)

  6. Recoil detector test for the day-one experiment at HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, 730000 Lanzhou (China); Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Xu, Huagen; Ritman, James [Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The proposed day-one experiment at HESR is a dedicated measurement of antiproton-proton elastic scattering. The aim of the day-one experiment is to determine the elastic differential parameters (total cross section σ{sub T}, the ratio of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude ρ, and the slope parameter B) by measuring a large range of 4-momentum transfer squared t (0.0008-0.1 GeV{sup 2}). The conceptual design of the day-one experiment is to measure the elastic scattered antiproton and recoil proton, by a tracking detector in the small polar angle range and by an energy detector near 90 , respectively. The recoil arm covers a maximum polar angle range from 71 to 90 and consists of two silicon strip detectors (76.8(length) x 50.0(width) x 1.0(thickness) mm{sup 3}) and two germanium detectors (80.4(length) x 50.0(width) x 5.0 (11.0) (thickness) mm{sup 3}). All detectors are single sided structure with 1.2 mm pitch. The silicon detectors will be used to detect recoil protons with energy up to about 12 MeV and the germanium detectors will be used to detect protons with energy from 12 MeV to 60 MeV. At present, one recoil arm is being constructed and the test for the detectors with radioactive sources is on-going. Preliminary test results indicate that all detectors are operational and work properly. The latest test results of these detectors are presented.

  7. Direct determination of recoil ion detection efficiency for coincidence time-of-flight studies of molecular fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Carnes, K.D.; Ginther, S.G.; Johnson, D.T.; Norris, P.J.; Weaver, O.L.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular fragmentation of diatomic and small polyatomic molecules caused by fast ion impact has been studied. The evaluation of the cross sections of the different fragmentation channels depends strongly on the recoil ion detection efficiency, ε r (single ions proportional to ε r , and ion pairs to ε 2 r , etc.). A method is suggested for the direct determination of this detection efficiency. This method is based on the fact that fast H + + CH 4 collisions produce C 2+ fragments only in coincidence with H + and H + 2 fragments, that is, there is a negligible number of C 2+ singles, if any. The measured yield of C 2+ singles is therefore due to events in which the H + m of the H + m + C 2+ ion pair was not detected and thus is proportional to 1 - ε r . Methane fragmentation caused by 1 MeV proton impact is used to evaluate directly the recoil ion detection efficiency and to demonstrate the method of deriving the cross sections of all breakup channels. (orig.)

  8. The HERMES recoil photon detector and the study of deeply virtual Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, Charlotte van

    2011-03-15

    The study of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) gives information about the contribution of the quark orbital angular momentum to the spin of the proton. DVCS has been studied at the HERMES experiment at DESY in Hamburg. Here 27.6 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons and positrons were scattered off a gaseous proton target. For the analysis of DVCS the recoiling proton could not be detected, but was reconstructed via its missing mass. This method suffers, however, from a 14% background contribution, mainly originating from associated DVCS. In this process the proton does not stay in its ground state but is excited to a {delta}{sup +} resonance. In order to reduce the background contribution down to less than 1%, a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment beginning of 2006. This detector consists of three subcomponents, of which one is the photon detector. The main function of the photon detector is the detection of {delta}{sup +} decay photons. The photon detector was started up and commissioned for the analysis of (associated) DVCS. Subsequently DVCS and associated DVCS were analyzed using the recoil detector. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogen analysis by elastic recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirira, J.; Trocellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    An absolute, quantitative procedure was developed to determine the hydrogen content and to describe its concentration profile in the near-surface region of solids. The experimental technique used was the elastic recoil detection analysis of protons induced by 4 He beam bombardment in the energy range <=1.8 MeV. The hydrogen content was calculated using a new recoil cross section expression. The analyses were performed in silicon crystals implanted with hydrogen at 10 keV. The implantation dose was evaluated with an accuracy of 10% and the hydrogen depth profile with that of +-10 nm around 200 nm. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T.R.H.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I.F.; Short, R.; Johnston, P.N. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T R.H.; Whitlow, H J [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I F; Short, R; Johnston, P N [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  12. A new Recoil Proton Telescope for energy and fluence measurement of fast neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebreton, Lena; Bachaalany, Mario [IRSN / LMDN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete nucleaire / Laboratoire de Metrologie et de dosimetrie des neutrons), Cadarache Bat.159, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance, (France); Husson, Daniel; Higueret, Stephane [IPHC / RaMsEs (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien / Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales), 23 rue du loess - BP28, 67037 Strasbourg cedex 2, (France)

    2015-07-01

    The spectrometer ATHENA (Accurate Telescope for High Energy Neutron metrology Applications), is being developed at the IRSN / LMDN (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete nucleaire / Laboratoire de Metrologie et de dosimetrie des neutrons) and aims at characterizing energy and fluence of fast neutron fields. The detector is a Recoil Proton Telescope and measures neutron fields in the range of 5 to 20 MeV. This telescope is intended to become a primary standard for both energy and fluence measurements. The neutron detection is achieved by a polyethylene radiator for n-p conversion, three 50{sub m} thick silicon sensors that use CMOS technology for the proton tracking and a 3 mm thick silicon diode to measure the residual proton energy. This first prototype used CMOS sensors called MIMOSTAR, initially developed for heavy ion physics. The use of CMOS sensors and silicon diode increases the intrinsic efficiency of the detector by a factor of ten compared with conventional designs. The first prototype has already been done and was a successful study giving the results it offered in terms of energy and fluence measurements. For mono energetic beams going from 5 to 19 MeV, the telescope offered an energy resolution between 5 and 11% and fluence difference going from 5 to 7% compared to other home standards. A second and final prototype of the detector is being designed. It will hold upgraded CMOS sensors called FastPixN. These CMOS sensors are supposed to run 400 times faster than the older version and therefore give the telescope the ability to support neutron flux in the order of 107 to 108cm{sup 2}:s{sup 1}. The first prototypes results showed that a 50 m pixel size is enough for a precise scattering angle reconstruction. Simulations using MCNPX and GEANT4 are already in place for further improvements. A DeltaE diode will replace the third CMOS sensor and will be installed right before the silicon diode for a better recoil proton selection. The final prototype with

  13. Complementary scattered and recoiled ion data from TOF-E heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of Time of Flight and Energy (ToF-E) Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) over Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis is its mass and energy dispersive capabilities. The mass resolution of ToF-E HIERDA deteriorates for very heavy elements. The limitation is related to the poor energy resolution of Si detectors for heavy ions. While the energy spectra from ToF-E HIERDA data are normally used to extract depth profiles, this work discusses the benefits of using the time spectra of both the recoiled and the scattered ions for depth profiling. The simulation of the complementary scattered and recoiled ion time spectra improves depth profiling and reduced current limitations when dealing with very heavy ions, such as Pt, Bi, Ta. (authors)

  14. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-15

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the {delta}{sup +} background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  15. Detection of low momentum protons with the new HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardi, Ignazio

    2008-10-01

    In this theis the recoil detector for the HERMES experiment at HERA is described. It consists of a silicon strip detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon detector for the Δ + background rejection, all surrounded by a superconducting 1 Tesla solenoid. Results of cosmic ray tests are presented. (HSI)

  16. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W B; Johnston, P N; Walker, S R; Bubb, I F [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J F [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Neutron spectrometry for D-T plasmas in JET, using a tandem annular-radiator proton-recoil spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Bond, D.S.; Kiptily, V.; Jarvis, O.N. E-mail: onj@jet.uk; Conroy, S.W

    2002-01-01

    A selection of the 14-MeV neutron spectra obtained at the JET Joint Undertaking tokamak during the deuterium-tritium operating campaign in 1997 are presented and analyzed. While several neutron spectrometers were operational during this campaign, the present paper is concerned solely with one: the tandem annular-radiator proton-recoil spectrometer (or proton recoil telescope, for brevity). During neutral beam heating with combined d- and t-beams, analysis of the spectra can define the core fuel composition (D:T) ratio. The spectra are sensitive to the population balance of the fast ions streaming in directions parallel and opposite to that of the injected beams. During ICRF heating of minority deuterium in bulk tritium plasmas, the spectra provide measurements of the effective temperature of the fast-deuteron energy tail and of its relative strength, which vary with the deuterium concentration. This information contributes to the overall understanding of the fusion performance of the various operating scenarios.

  19. Electric form factor of the proton through recoil polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, V.

    2000-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, G E and G M , describe the charge and current distribution inside the nucleon and thus are quite intimately related to its structure. Jefferson Lab experiment 93-027 measured P l and Pt, the longitudinal and transverse recoil proton polarization, respectively, for the 1 H(e-vector,e'p-vector) reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV 2 , using the Hall A facility with two high resolution spectrometers and a Focal Plane Polarimeter. The ratio G Ep /G Mp is directly proportional to the ratio P t /P l . These data have unprecedented precision, and show for the first time that the Q 2 dependence of G Ep and G Mp is very different. (author)

  20. The design of a proton recoil telescope for 14 MeV neutron spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Bond, D.S.; Croft, S.; Jarvis, O.N. E-mail: onj@jet.uk; Sherwood, A.C

    2002-01-01

    As part of the design effort for a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer for the Joint European Torus (JET), computer codes were developed to calculate the response of a proton recoil telescope comprising a proton radiator film mounted in front of a proton detector. The codes were used to optimise the geometrical configuration in terms of efficiency and resolution, bearing in mind the constraints imposed by the proposed application as a JET neutron diagnostic for the Deuterium-Tritium phase. A prototype instrument was built according to the optimised design, and tested with monoenergetic 14 MeV neutrons from the Harwell 500 keV Van de Graaff accelerator. The measured energy resolution and absolute efficiency were found to be in acceptable agreement with the calculations. Based on this work, a multi-radiator production version of the spectrometer has now been constructed and successfully deployed at JET.

  1. The design of a proton recoil telescope for 14 MeV neutron spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Bond, D.S.; Croft, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sherwood, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the design effort for a 14 MeV neutron spectrometer for the Joint European Torus (JET), computer codes were developed to calculate the response of a proton recoil telescope comprising a proton radiator film mounted in front of a proton detector. The codes were used to optimise the geometrical configuration in terms of efficiency and resolution, bearing in mind the constraints imposed by the proposed application as a JET neutron diagnostic for the Deuterium-Tritium phase. A prototype instrument was built according to the optimised design, and tested with monoenergetic 14 MeV neutrons from the Harwell 500 keV Van de Graaff accelerator. The measured energy resolution and absolute efficiency were found to be in acceptable agreement with the calculations. Based on this work, a multi-radiator production version of the spectrometer has now been constructed and successfully deployed at JET

  2. Measurement of the proton form factors ratio GE/GM to Q2 = 5.6 GeV2 by recoil polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayou, Olivier [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the results of the experiment E99-007, which measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factors of the proton to the four momentum transfer square Q2 = 5.6 GeV2, by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2000 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 4.6 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The polarization of the recoil proton was measured in the Focal Plane Polarimeter, located after one of the two High Resolution Spectrometers in the hall. The ratio of the transverse to longitudinal components of the recoil proton polarization is proportional to the ratio of the form factors. Elastic events were selected by detecting the scattered electron in a large acceptance lead-glass calorimeter. The main result of this experiment is the linear decrease of the form factor ratio with increasing Q2, corresponding to different spatial distributions of the electric charge and the magnetization. Numerous theoretical calculations show that relativistic effects, such as mixing of spin states due to Lorentz boosts, are important to account for the observed data in this critical intermediate kinematic region.

  3. Proton drip-line studies at HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, K.P.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Bryan, R.E.; Davinson, T.; Woods, P.J.; Ginter, T.N.; Hamilton, J. H.; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; MacDonald, B.D.; McConnell, J.W.; Toth, K.S.; Piechaczek, A.; Zganjar, E.F.; Szerypo, J.; Walters, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    Proton radioactivity studies performed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HFBR) within the last few years are reviewed. The discovery of five new proton radioactivities 140 Ho, 141m Ho, 145 Tm, 150m Lu and 151m Lu is presented together with a recent observation of fine structure in proton emission from 146gs,m Tm. These proton emitters were produced by means of fusion-evaporation reactions and studied with the HFBR Recoil Mass Separator and detection system based on a Double-sided Silicon Strip Detector. For 113 Cs and 151 Lu, the studies of level structure were extended beyond the proton-emitting states via the measurements with a clover array Clarion using Recoil Decay Tagging

  4. A recoil detector of Koala experiment at HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Huagen [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The concept of the luminosity detector for the PANDA experiment is based on measuring antiproton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region by 4 planes of HV-MAPS tracking detectors. The absolute precision is limited by the lack of existing data of the physics quantities σ{sub tot}, ρ and b describing the differential cross section as a function of squared 4-momentum transfer t in the relevant beam momentum region. Therefore, the so-called Koala experiment has been proposed to measure antiproton-proton elastic scattering. The goal of Koala experiment is to measure a wide range of t-distribution to determine the parameters σ{sub tot}, ρ and b. The idea is to measure the scattered beam antiprotons at forward angles by tracking detectors and the recoil target protons near 90 {sup circle} by energy detectors. In order to validate this method a recoil detector has been designed and built. Commissioning of the recoil detector by measuring proton-proton elastic scattering has been performed at COSY. Preliminary results of the commissioning are presented.

  5. Limitations to depth resolution in high-energy, heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Palmer, G.R.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.

    1998-01-01

    The depth resolution of heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis was examined for Al and Co thin films ranging in thickness from 100 to 400 nm. Measurements were performed with 154 MeV Au ions as the incident beam, and recoils were detected using a gas ionisation detector. Energy spectra were extracted for the Al and Co recoils and the depth resolution determined as a function of film thickness from the width of the high- and low- energy edges. These results were compared with theoretical estimates calculated using the computer program DEPTH. (authors)

  6. Hydrogen depth profiling using elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Peercy, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique for H profiling in the near surface regions of solids is described. ERD is shown to have the capability of detecting H and its isotopes down to concentrations of approx. 0.01 at. % with a depth resolution of a few hundred angstroms. Is is demonstrated that 2.4-MeV He ions can be used successfully to profile 1 H and 2 D using this technique. 12 figures

  7. Some aspects of the use of proton recoil proportional counters for fast neutron personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, T.J.; Bennett, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    Gas-filled proton recoil proportional counters have been used extensively for the measurement of neutron spectra in degraded fission-spectrum environments. Some considerations relating to the use of these counters for personnel dosimetry are here described. High sensitivity and good accuracy in the determination of dose-equivalent can be obtained if relatively high pressure hydrogen-filled proportional counters are used as the active element in a dosimeter system

  8. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis of optoelectronic and semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Cohen, D.D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Johnston, P.; Walker, S. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Whitlow, H.; Hult, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Oestling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    In recent years, the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil spectrometry (HIERDA) has been applied to analyse multi-phase, thin layer devices used in optoelectronics, semiconductors and solar power generation. HIERDA gives simultaneously, mass resolved elemental concentration vs depth profiles of the matrix constituents, and is particularly suited to the determination of light elements in a heavy matrix. The beam/target interaction process is similar to RBS, but has the difference that the recoiling target atoms are detected instead of the scattered projectile. High energy, heavy ions beams bombard the sample, ejecting recoil atoms which are detected at a forward angle of 45 deg. A time-of-flight and total energy detection system enables the ejected particle`s mass to be identified, and allows energy spectra to be obtained and interpreted in an analogous way to RBS, but with the important difference that the elemental spectra are separated, and not superimposed on a background as in RBS. Some of the measurements made with a HIERDA system on the ANTARES Tandem Accelerator at ANSTO are described. 1 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis of optoelectronic and semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N; Cohen, D D [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Johnston, P; Walker, S [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Whitlow, H; Hult, M [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Oestling, M; Zaring, C [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    In recent years, the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil spectrometry (HIERDA) has been applied to analyse multi-phase, thin layer devices used in optoelectronics, semiconductors and solar power generation. HIERDA gives simultaneously, mass resolved elemental concentration vs depth profiles of the matrix constituents, and is particularly suited to the determination of light elements in a heavy matrix. The beam/target interaction process is similar to RBS, but has the difference that the recoiling target atoms are detected instead of the scattered projectile. High energy, heavy ions beams bombard the sample, ejecting recoil atoms which are detected at a forward angle of 45 deg. A time-of-flight and total energy detection system enables the ejected particle`s mass to be identified, and allows energy spectra to be obtained and interpreted in an analogous way to RBS, but with the important difference that the elemental spectra are separated, and not superimposed on a background as in RBS. Some of the measurements made with a HIERDA system on the ANTARES Tandem Accelerator at ANSTO are described. 1 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Katsioulas, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Giomataris, I.; Papaevangellou, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present results for the detection of low energy nuclear recoils in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An 241Am-9Be fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the keV energy region was measured by observing the 5.9 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source, with energy resolution of 10% (σ). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an 241Am-9Be source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF), the simulation results are compared with the measurements. The potential of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searches (via coherent elastic scattering).

  11. Spectral flux of the p-7Li(C Q-M neutron source measured by proton recoil telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov S.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cyclotron-based fast neutron source at NPI produces mono-energetic neutron fields up to 35 MeV neutron energy using the p + 7Li(carbon backing reactions. To be applied for activation cross-section measurements, not only the intensity of neutron peak, but also the contribution of low-energy continuum in the spectra must be well determined. Simulations of the spectral flux from present source at a position of irradiated samples were performed using CYRIC TOF-data validated in the present work against LA150h by calculations with the transport Monte Carlo code MCNPX. Simulated spectra were tested by absolute measurements using a proton-recoil telescope technique. The recoil-proton spectrometer consisted of a shielded scattering chamber with polyethylene and carbon radiators and the ΔE1-ΔE2-E telescope of silicon-surface detectors located to the neutron beam axis at 45° in the laboratory system. Si-detectors were handled by usual data acquisition system. Dead-time – and pulse-overlap losses of events were determined from the count rate of pulse generator registered during duty cycle of accelerator operation. The proton beam charge and data were taken in the list mode for later replay and analysis. The calculations for 7Li(p,n and 12C(p,n reactions reasonably reproduce CYRIC TOF neutron source spectra. The influence of neutron source set-up (proton beam dimensions, 7Li-foil, carbon stopper, cooling medium, target support/chamber and the geometry-arrangement of irradiated sample on the spectral flux is discussed in details.

  12. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  13. Exclusive compton scattering on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range, and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together, these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same non-forward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged Bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer, currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supersedes E97 - 108 which was approved by PAC13. (author)

  14. Exclusive Compton Scattering on the Proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J. P.; Chudakov, E.; DeJager, C.; Degtyarenko, P.; Ent, R.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Keppel, C.; Klein, F.; Kuss, M.; LeRose, J.; Liang, M.; Michaels, R.; Mitchell, J.; Liyanage, N.; Rutt, P.; Saha, A.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Bouwhuis, M.; Chang, T.H.; Holt, R. J.; Nathan, A. M.; Roedelbronn, M.; Wijesooriya, K.; Williamson, S. E.; Dodge, G.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Radyushkin, A.; Sabatie, F.; Weinstein, L. B.; Ulmer, P.; Bosted, P.; Finn, J. M.; Jones, M.; Churchwell, S.; Howell, C.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Jiang, X.; Ransome, R.; Strauch, S.; Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.; Fonvielle, H.; Roblin, Y.; Bertozzi, W.; Gilad, S.; Rowntree, D.; Zu, Z.; Brown, D.; Chang, G.; Afanasev, A.; Egiyan, K.; Hoohauneysan, E.; Ketikyan, A.; Mailyan, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Shahinyan, A.; Voskanyan, H.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Hines, J.; Strobel, G.; Templon, J.; Feldman, G.; Morris, C. L.; Gladyshev, V.; Lindgren, R. A.; Calarco, J.; Hersman, W.; Leuschner, M.; Gasparian, A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment is proposed to measure the cross sections for Real Compton Scattering from the proton in the energy range 3-6 GeV and over a wide angular range; and to measure the longitudinal and transverse components of the polarization transfer to the recoil proton at a single kinematic point. Together; these measurements will test models of the reaction mechanism and determine new structure functions of the proton that are related to the same nonforward parton densities that determine the elastic electron scattering form factors and the parton densities. The experiment utilizes an untagged bremsstrahlung photon beam and the standard Hall A cryogenic targets. The scattered photon is detected in a photon spectrometer; currently under construction. The coincident recoil proton is detected in one of the Hall A magnetic spectrometers and its polarization components are measured in the existing Focal Plane Polarimeter. This proposal extends and supercedes E97-108 which was approved by PAC13

  15. The HERMES recoil detector. Particle identification and determination of detector efficiency of the scintillating fiber tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xianguo

    2009-11-15

    HERMES is a fixed target experiment using the HERA 27.6 GeV polarized electron/positron beams. With the polarized beams and its gas targets, which can be highly polarized, HERMES is dedicated to study the nucleon spin structure. One of its current physics programs is to measure deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS). In order to detect the recoiling proton the Recoil Detector was installed in the target region in the winter of 2005, taking data until the HERA-shutdown in the summer of 2007. The Recoil Detector measured energy loss of the traversing particles with its sub-detectors, including the silicon strip detector and the scintillating fiber tracker. This enables particle identification for protons and pions. In this work a systematic particle identification procedure is developed, whose performance is quantified. Another aspect of this work is the determination of the detector efficiency of the scintillating fiber tracker. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    using a proton recoil spectroscopy detection system. Comparison was also made between in phantom 10 BF 3 readings made at the BMRR and those made at the RARAF accelerator facility

  17. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.S.; Davies, J.A.; Siegele, R.; Wallace, S.G.; Zelenitsky, D.

    1996-01-01

    Extremely heavy-ion beams such as 209 Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass ≤100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  18. Chemical effects of 13N produced by recoil protons and deuterons in pile-irradiated methanol and methanol-d4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensui, Y.; Tomura, K.; Matsuura, T.

    1982-01-01

    The stabilized chemical forms of 13 N resulting from the reactions 13 C(p,n) 13 N by a recoil proton and 12 C(d,n) 13 N by a recoil deuteron, were studied in pile-irradiated methanol and methanol-d 4 in the temperature range from 77 to 295 K. Contrary to the target of benzene, cyclohexane, acetone and diethyl ether previously studied, the relative yield of 13 N-compounds did not depend on the irradiation temperature in the present media. In the yield of 13 N-compounds no marked change was observed between methanol and methanol-d 4 , differing from the results between benzene and benzene-d 6 . A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. (author)

  19. Proton recoil spectra in spherical proportional counters calculated with finite element and Monte Carlo methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benmosbah, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Rayonnement Alain Chambaudet, UMR CEA E4, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Groetz, J.E. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Rayonnement Alain Chambaudet, UMR CEA E4, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr; Crovisier, P. [Service de Protection contre les Rayonnements, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is/Tille (France); Asselineau, B. [Laboratoire de Metrologie et de Dosimetrie des Neutrons, IRSN, Cadarache BP3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Truffert, H.; Cadiou, A. [AREVA NC, Etablissement de la Hague, DQSSE/PR/E/D, 50444 Beaumont-Hague Cedex (France)

    2008-08-11

    Proton recoil spectra were calculated for various spherical proportional counters using Monte Carlo simulation combined with the finite element method. Electric field lines and strength were calculated by defining an appropriate mesh and solving the Laplace equation with the associated boundary conditions, taking into account the geometry of every counter. Thus, different regions were defined in the counter with various coefficients for the energy deposition in the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX. Results from the calculations are in good agreement with measurements for three different gas pressures at various neutron energies.

  20. High-energy elastic recoil detection heavy ions for light element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goppelt-Langer, P.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Naramoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of light and medium heavy elements in not homogeneous solids is a severe problem in ion beam analysis. Heavy elements can be detected by the well established Rutherford backscattering technique (RBS). In a homogeneous host material most impurities can be easily analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Some isotopes ( 3 He, 6 Li, 10 B) can be measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using thermal neutrons inducing (n, p) or (n, α) reactions. Others can be detected by energetic ion beams by nuclear reactions (e.g. 15 N( 1 H, αγ) 12 C for analysis of hydrogen). A high content of H, D or T can be also determined by elastic recoil detection using an energetic He beam. The latter technique has been developed to a universal method for detection of light and heavy elements in any target, using a high energetic heavy ion beam and a detector system, which is able to identify the recoils and delivers energy and position of the particles. (author)

  1. Hydrogen determination using secondary processes of recoil proton interaction with sample material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, V.A.; Khajdarov, R.A.; Navalikhin, L.V.; Pardaev, Eh.

    1980-01-01

    Possibilities of hydrogen content determination in different materials according to secondary processes of interaction of recoil protons(irradiation in the field of fast neutrons) with sample material resulting in the appearance of characteristic X-ray irradiation are studied. Excitated irradiation is recorded with a detector placed in the protective screen and located at a certain distance from the object analyzed and neutron source. The method is tested taking as an example analysis of bromine-containing samples (30% Br, 0.5% H) and tungsten dioxide. The determination limit of hydrogen content constitutes 0.05% at confidence coefficient of 0.9. Neutron flux constituted 10 3 neutrons/cm 2 xs, the time of measurement being 15-20 minutes, the distance from the sample to the detector being 12-15 cm [ru

  2. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-01

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  3. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickert, N C

    2008-02-15

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  4. Light response of YAP:Ce and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillators to 4–30 MeV protons for applications to Telescope Proton Recoil neutron spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzaniga, C., E-mail: carlo.cazzaniga@stfc.ac.uk [ISIS Facility, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Cremona, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Croci, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola”, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA/CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy); Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milano (Italy); Ericsson, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Fazzi, A. [Department of Energy of the Politecnico di Milano, via Lambruschini 4, I-20156 Milano (Italy); Hjalmarsson, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, EURATOM-VR Association, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Mazzocco, M.; Strano, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova, and INFN, Sez. di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); and others

    2016-06-01

    The light response of two thin inorganic scintillators based on YAP:Ce and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce crystals has been measured with protons in the 4–8 MeV energy range at the Uppsala tandem accelerator and in the 8–26 MeV energy range at the Legnaro tandem accelerator. The crystals have been calibrated in situ with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co γ-ray sources. The relative light yields of protons with respect to gammas have been measured and are here reported to be (96±2)% and (80±2)% for YAP:Ce and LaBr{sub 3}:Ce, respectively. The results open up to the development of a Telescope Proton Recoil spectrometer based on either of the two crystals as alternative to a silicon based spectrometer for applications to high neutron fluxes.

  5. First measurement of the VESUVIO neutron spectrum in the 30-80 MeV energy range using a Proton Recoil Telescope technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Frost, C.; Giacomelli, L.; Grosso, G.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Rebai, M.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Gorini, G.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV < En < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum.

  6. Proton compton scattering in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takanobu.

    1979-12-01

    Differential cross sections of the proton Compton scattering have been measured in the energy range between 400 and 1150 MeV at CMS angles of 130 0 , 100 0 and 70 0 . The recoil proton was detected with a magnetic spectrometer using multi-wire proportional chambers and wire spark chambers. In coincidence with the proton, the scattered photon was detected with a lead glass Cerenkov counter of the total absorption type with a lead plate converter, and horizontal and vertical scintillation counter hodoscopes. The background due to the neutral pion photoproduction, was subtracted by using the kinematic relations between the scattered photon and the recoil proton. Theoretical calculations based on an isobar model with two components, that is, the resonance plus background, were done, and the photon couplings of the second resonance region were determined firstly from the proton Compton data. The results are that the helicity 1/2 photon couplings of P 11 (1470) and S 11 (1535), and the helicity 3/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) are consistent with those determined from the single pion photoproduction data, but the helicity 1/2 photon coupling of D 13 (1520) has a somewhat larger value than that from the single pion photoproduction data. (author)

  7. Enhancing the sensitivity of recoil-beta tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J; Jenkins, D G; Davies, P J; Henry, T W; Joshi, P; Nichols, A J; Ruotsalainen, P; Scholey, C; Auranen, K; Grahn, T; Greenlees, P T; Herzáň, A; Jakobsson, U; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Konki, J; Leino, M; Pakarinen, J; Lotay, G; Obertelli, A

    2013-01-01

    Tagging with β-particles at the focal plane of a recoil separator has been shown to be an effective technique for the study of exotic proton-rich nuclei. This article describes three new pieces of apparatus used to greatly improve the sensitivity of the recoil-beta tagging technique. These include a highly-pixelated double-sided silicon strip detector, a plastic phoswich detector for discriminating high-energy β-particles, and a charged-particle veto box. The performance of these new detectors is described and characterised, and the resulting improvements are discussed.

  8. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huajie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  9. Fast neutron spectroscopy by gas proton-recoil methods at the light water reactor pressure vessel simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.W.

    1980-10-01

    Fast neutron spectrum measurements were made in a Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessel Simulator (PVS) to provide neutron spectral definition required to appropriately perform and interpret neutron dosimetry measurements related to fast neutron damage in LWR-PV steels. Proton-recoil proportional counter methods using hydrogen and methane gas-filled detectors were applied to obtain the proton spectra from which the neutron spectra were derived. Cylindrical and spherical geometry detectors were used to cover the neutron energy range between 50 keV and 2 MeV. Results show that the neutron spectra shift in energy distribution toward lower energy between the front and back of a PVS. The relative neutron flux densities increase in this energy range with increasing thickness of the steel. Neutron spectrum fine structure shapes and changes are observed. These results should assist in the generation of more accurate effective cross sections and fluences for use in LWR-PV fast neutron dosimetry and materials damage analyses

  10. First measurement of the VESUVIO neutron spectrum in the 30–80 MeV energy range using a Proton Recoil Telescope technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzaniga, C; Tardocchi, M; Croci, G; Grosso, G; Rebai, M; Gorini, G; Frost, C; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Giacomelli, L; Hjalmarsson, A

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the fast neutron energy spectrum at the ISIS spallation source are reported. The measurements were performed with a Proton Recoil Telescope consisting of a thin plastic foil placed in the neutron beam and two scintillator detectors. Results in the neutron energy range 30 MeV n < 80 MeV are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron spectrum

  11. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  12. The G_E/G_M-ratio of the proton by recoil polarization measurement in e+parrow e'+p

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Vina; Jones, Mark; Perdrisat, Charles F.; Quemener, Gilles

    1998-10-01

    The recently commissioned Hall A high resolution spectrometers (HRS) and the focal plane polarimeter (FPP) were used to obtain the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton, G_E/G_M. This form factor ratio is proportional to the measured ratio of the transverse, P_t, to longitudinal, P_l, components of the recoiling proton polarization. The method takes advantage of the precession of the proton magnetic moment in the hadron HRS, which rotates the longitudinal polarization component into the plane of the FPP analyzer; this allows simultaneous measurement of both components of the polarization. The ratio P_t/P_l is independent of both the electron beam polarization and the polarimeter analyzing power. Most of the data were obtained with polarized beams of 100 μ A with polarization of ~ 0.39 incident on the 15 cm cell of the high power LH2 target. We will report the results for G_E/GM at several values of Q^2 between 0.5 and 3.5 GeV^2.

  13. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Suter, G F [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A; Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Computer-aided method for recognition of proton track in nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Jinlu; Li Hongyun; Song Jiwen; Zhang Jianfu; Chen Liang; Zhang Zhongbing; Liu Jinliang

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of the manual method for proton-recoil track recognition in nuclear emulsions, a computer-aided track recognition method was studied. In this method, image sequences captured by a microscope system were processed through image convolution with composite filters, binarization by multi thresholds, track grains clustering and redundant grains removing to recognize the track grains in the image sequences. Then the proton-recoil tracks were reconstructed from the recognized track grains through track reconstruction. The proton-recoil tracks in the nuclear emulsion irradiated by the neutron beam at energy of 14.9 MeV were recognized by the computer-aided method. The results show that proton-recoil tracks reconstructed by this method consist well with those reconstructed by the manual method. This compute-raided track recognition method lays an important technical foundation of developments of a proton-recoil track automatic recognition system and applications of nuclear emulsions in pulsed neutron spectrum measurement. (authors)

  16. On the limitations introduced by energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2001-01-01

    Improvements in experimental techniques have led to monolayer depth resolution in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Evaluation of the spectra, however, is not trivial. The spectra, using even the best experimental set-up, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. A proper account for energy spread is necessary to extract the correct depth profile from the measured spectra. With calculation of the correct energy (or depth) resolution of a given method, one can decide in advance whether or not the method will resolve details of interest in the depth profile. To achieve the best depth resolution, it is also possible to find optimum parameters for the experiments. The limitations introduced by the energy spread effects are discussed. An example for simulation is shown for high energy resolution HI-ERDA measurements. Satisfactory agreement between the simulated and the measured HI-ERDA spectra taken by 60 MeV 127 I 23+ ions on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite (HOPG) sample is found, in spite of the non-equilibrium charge state of the recoils and the difference in the stopping powers caused by the given charge state of the incident ion and the recoil, which are not taken into account. To achieve more precise data evaluation these effects should be included in simulation codes, or all the subspectra corresponding to different recoils charge states should be measured and summed

  17. On the limitations introduced by energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E. E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.hu

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in experimental techniques have led to monolayer depth resolution in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Evaluation of the spectra, however, is not trivial. The spectra, using even the best experimental set-up, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. A proper account for energy spread is necessary to extract the correct depth profile from the measured spectra. With calculation of the correct energy (or depth) resolution of a given method, one can decide in advance whether or not the method will resolve details of interest in the depth profile. To achieve the best depth resolution, it is also possible to find optimum parameters for the experiments. The limitations introduced by the energy spread effects are discussed. An example for simulation is shown for high energy resolution HI-ERDA measurements. Satisfactory agreement between the simulated and the measured HI-ERDA spectra taken by 60 MeV {sup 127}I{sup 23+} ions on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite (HOPG) sample is found, in spite of the non-equilibrium charge state of the recoils and the difference in the stopping powers caused by the given charge state of the incident ion and the recoil, which are not taken into account. To achieve more precise data evaluation these effects should be included in simulation codes, or all the subspectra corresponding to different recoils charge states should be measured and summed.

  18. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Acosta, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.

  19. AstroBox: A novel detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollacco, E., E-mail: epollacco@cea.fr [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Trache, L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; McCleskey, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Roeder, B.T., E-mail: broeder@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Saastamoinen, A.; Tribble, R.E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Pascovici, G. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania); Kebbiri, M.; Mols, J.P.; Raillot, M. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-09-21

    An instrument, AstroBox, has been developed to perform low energy proton spectroscopy from β-delayed proton emitters of interest to astrophysics studies. Energetic precursor nuclei are identified and stopped in the gas volume of the detector. The subsequent β or β-proton decay traces ionized paths in the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted in an electric field and are amplified with a Micro Pattern Gas Amplifier Detector (MPGAD). The system was tested in-beam using the β-delayed proton-emitter {sup 23}Al, which was produced with the p({sup 24}Mg,{sup 23}Al)2n reaction and separated with the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS) at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A and M University. Off-beam proton spectra have essentially no β background down to ∼100keV and have a resolution of ∼15keV (fwhm) for proton-decay lines at E{sub p}=197 and 255 keV. Lines with βp-branching as low as 0.02% are observed. In addition, the device also gives good mass and charge resolution for energetic heavy ions measured in-beam.

  20. Detection method of elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region: scintillation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azaiez, Hamza.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of polarization in (p-p) elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region is considered as a valid method for calibrating high energy polarized proton beams. Possibility of using a scintillation target to detect low energy recoil protons in this /t/ region has been studied by using a 4 GeV/c π - beam from CERN PS. The results obtained with a steack of thin plastic scintillators, each 1 mm thick, showed the feasibility of detecting recoil protons in a /t/ range as low a 5.10 -3 (GeV/c) 2 . This method thus confirmed experimentally can be used also to measure, using a polarized beam, polarization in Coulomb interference region [fr

  1. On recoil energy dependent void swelling in pure copper: Theoretical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, S.I.; Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.

    2000-06-01

    Over the years, an enormous amount of experimental results have been reported on damage accumulation (e.g. void swelling) in metals and alloys irradiated under vastly different recoil energy conditions. Unfortunately, however, very little is known either experimentally or theoretically about the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation. Recently, dedicated irradiation experiments using 2.5 MeV electrons, 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons have been carried out to determine the effect of recoil energy on the damage accumulation behaviour in pure copper and the results have been reported in Part I of this paper (Singh, Eldrup, Horsewell, Ehrhart and Dworschak 2000). The present paper attempts to provide a theoretical framework within which the effect of recoil energy on damage accumulation behaviour can be understood. The damage accumulation under Frenkel pair production (e.g. 2.5 MeV electron) has been treated in terms of the standard rate theory (SRT) model whereas the evolution of the defect microstructure under cascade damage conditions (e.g. 3.0 MeV protons and fission neutrons) has been calculated within the framework of the production bias model (PBM). Theoretical results, in agreement with experimental results, show that the damage accumulation behaviour is very sensitive to recoil energy and under cascade damage conditions can be treated only within the framework of the PBM. The intracascade clustering of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and the properties of SIA clusters such as one-dimensional diffusional transport and thermal stability are found to be the main reasons for the recoil energy dependent vacancy supersaturation. The vacancy supersaturation is the main driving force for the void nucleation and void swelling. In the case of Frenkel pair production, the experimental results are found to be consistent with the SRT model with a dislocation bias value of 2 %. (au)

  2. Measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.T.; Cabrera, B.; Dougherty, B.L.; Penn, M.J.; Pronko, J.G.; Tamura, S.

    1996-01-01

    We present measurements of the ballistic-phonon component resulting from nuclear and electron recoils in silicon at ∼380 mK. The detectors used for these experiments consist of a 300-μm-thick monocrystal of silicon instrumented with superconducting titanium transition-edge sensors. These sensors detect the initial wavefront of athermal phonons and give a pulse height that is sensitive to changes in surface-energy density resulting from the focusing of ballistic phonons. Nuclear recoils were generated by neutron bombardment of the detector. A Van de Graaff proton accelerator and a thick 7 Li target were used. Pulse-height spectra were compared for neutron, x-ray, and γ-ray events. A previous analysis of this data set found evidence for an increase in the ballistic-phonon component for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils at a 95% confidence level. An improved understanding of the detector response has led to a change in the result. In the present analysis, the data are consistent with no increase at the 68% confidence level. This change stems from an increase in the uncertainty of the result rather than a significant change in the central value. The increase in ballistic phonon energy for nuclear recoils compared to electron recoils as a fraction of the total phonon energy (for equal total phonon energy events) was found to be 0.024 +0.041 -0.055 (68% confidence level). This result sets a limit of 11.6% (95% confidence level) on the ballistic phonon enhancement for nuclear recoils predicted by open-quote open-quote hot spot close-quote close-quote and electron-hole droplet models, which is the most stringent to date. To measure the ballistic-phonon component resulting from electron recoils, the pulse height as a function of event depth was compared to that of phonon simulations. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  4. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  5. LISA detection of massive black hole binaries: imprint of seed populations and extreme recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, A; Volonteri, M; Haardt, F

    2009-01-01

    All the physical processes involved in the formation, merging and accretion history of massive black holes along the hierarchical build-up of cosmic structures are likely to leave an imprint on the gravitational waves detectable by future space-borne missions, such as LISA. We report here the results of recent studies, carried out by means of dedicated simulations of black hole build-up, aiming at understanding the impact on LISA observations of two ingredients that are crucial in every massive black hole formation scenario, namely: (i) the nature and abundance of the first black hole seeds and (ii) the large gravitational recoils following the merger of highly spinning black holes. We predict LISA detection rates spanning two orders of magnitude, in the range 3-300 events per year, depending on the detail of the assumed massive black hole seed model. On the other hand, large recoil velocities do not dramatically compromise the efficiency of LISA observations. The number of detections may drop substantially (by ∼60%), in scenarios characterized by abundant light seeds, but if seeds are already massive and/or relatively rare, the detection rate is basically unaffected.

  6. Multiple scattering problems in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    A number of groups use Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) to study materials science problems. Nevertheless, there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. To overcome this deficiency we have been establishing codes for 2-dimensional data analysis. A major problem involves the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100 nm) layers of the very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering we have made comparisons between the small-angle model of Sigmund et al. and TRIM calculations. (authors)

  7. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J., E-mail: jrenner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Shuman, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Álvarez, V. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Borges, F.I.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Cárcel, S. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Castel, J.; Cebrián, S. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cervera, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Conde, C.A.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); and others

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  8. The thin-foil magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer MPRu at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson Sunden, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Hellesen, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ronchi, E.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Combo, A.; Cruz, N.; Batista, A.; Pereira, R.; Fortuna, R.; Sousa, J.; Popovichev, S.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrons are produced in fusion energy experiments with both deuterium (D) and deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas. Neutron spectroscopy is a valuable tool in the study of the underlying fuel ion populations. The magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer, originally installed at JET in 1996 for 14-MeV neutron measurements, has been upgraded, with the main aim of improving its signal-to-background ratio (S/B), making measurements of the 2.5-MeV neutron emission in D plasmas possible. The upgrade includes a new focal-plane detector, based on the phoswich technique and consequently less sensitive to background, and a new custom-designed digital data acquisition system based on transient recorder cards. Results from JET show that the upgraded MPRu can measure 2.5-MeV neutrons with S/B=5, an improvement by a factor of 50 compared with the original MPR. S/B of 2.8x10 4 in future DT experiments is estimated. The performance of the MPRu is exemplified with results from recent D plasma operations at JET, concerning both measurements with Ohmic, ion cyclotron resonance (ICRH) and neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating, as well as measurements of tritium burn-up neutrons. The upgraded instrument allows for 2.5-MeV neutron emission and deuterium ion temperature measurements in plasmas with low levels of tritium, a feature necessary for the ITER experiment.

  9. Detection of forward-scattered protons in photon-induced reactions on the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koop, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The study of excitation spectra of hadrons can contribute to a better understanding of the strong interaction. A method is the photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon. Because of the width of the excited states a consideration of polarization observables is helpful in order to be abble to separate overlapping states. In this thesis an experiment for the study of the polarization of the recoil proton is presented. The setup presented here is part of the BGO-OD experiment at the ELSA electron accelerator of the Bonn university. BGO-OD consists of an electromagnetic calorimeter, which surrounds the target, several track detectors in forward direction, and a dipole magnet for the momentum measurement of charged particles. The presented detector is located immediately behind the liquid hydrogen target. In order to be able to determine the polarization of the recoil proton these are scattered on an analyzer, whereby the distribution of the scattering angles is polarization dependent. In this thesis a detector was developed in order to determine the track of the charged particles before and behind the target and by this the scattering angle. Furthermore simulations were performed, which show the realizability of the experiment.

  10. Neutron spectrometry with proton recoil proportional counters at the research and measurement reactor Braunschweig - status of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, K.; Wittstock, J.

    1987-07-01

    This status report is concerned with the facilities set up for neutron spectrometry at the Research and Measurement Reactor Braunschweig, based on proton recoil proportional counters. Cylindrical counters for irradiation by a neutron beam normal to the counter wire and commercial spherical counters are employed. They can be filled with hydrogen or a hydrogeneous gas up to a pressure of 1 MPa depending on their use. The filling method and the electronic pulse processing are described. The pulse analysis system includes a pulse shape discrimination branch in order to separate γ-ray induced pulses. Finally, experimental investigations with spherical counters are discussed regarding the region of proportionality and the influence of the counter voltage on the shape of the response function. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Nuclear-Recoil Energy Scale in CDMS II Silicon Dark-Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.

    2018-03-07

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment aims to detect dark matter particles that elastically scatter from nuclei in semiconductor detectors. The resulting nuclear-recoil energy depositions are detected by ionization and phonon sensors. Neutrons produce a similar spectrum of low-energy nuclear recoils in such detectors, while most other backgrounds produce electron recoils. The absolute energy scale for nuclear recoils is necessary to interpret results correctly. The energy scale can be determined in CDMS II silicon detectors using neutrons incident from a broad-spectrum $^{252}$Cf source, taking advantage of a prominent resonance in the neutron elastic scattering cross section of silicon at a recoil (neutron) energy near 20 (182) keV. Results indicate that the phonon collection efficiency for nuclear recoils is $4.8^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$% lower than for electron recoils of the same energy. Comparisons of the ionization signals for nuclear recoils to those measured previously by other groups at higher electric fields indicate that the ionization collection efficiency for CDMS II silicon detectors operated at $\\sim$4 V/cm is consistent with 100% for nuclear recoils below 20 keV and gradually decreases for larger energies to $\\sim$75% at 100 keV. The impact of these measurements on previously published CDMS II silicon results is small.

  12. Generalized z-scaling in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zborovsky, I.; Tokarev, M.

    2006-01-01

    New generalization of z-scaling in inclusive particle production is proposed. The scaling variable z is a fractal measure which depends on kinematical characteristics of the underlying subprocess expressed in terms of the momentum fractions x 1 and x 2 of the incoming protons. In the generalized approach, the x 1 and x 2 are functions of the momentum fractions y a and y b of the scattered and recoil constituents carried out by the inclusive particle and recoil object, respectively. The scaling function ψ(z) for charged and identified hadrons produced in proton-proton collisions is constructed. The fractal dimensions and heat capacity of the produced medium entering definition of the z are established to obtain energy, angular and multiplicity independence of the ψ(z). The scheme allows unique description of data on inclusive cross sections of charged particles, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and lambdas at high energies. The obtained results are of interest to use z-scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production in high transverse momentum and high multiplicity region at the proton-proton colliders RHIC and LHC

  13. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors)

  15. Detector for recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Mkrtchyan, G.G.; Pikhtelev, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    A detector consisting of the combination of a drift and a wide gap spark chambers and designed to detect recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas is described. It is shown, that by using an appropriate discrimination the detector allows to detect reliably the recoil nuclei in the presence of intensive electron and γ-quanta beams

  16. First measurement of the ionization yield of nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sangiorgio, Samuele [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foxe, Michael P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Hagmann, Chris [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering; Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Norman, E. B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pereverzev, S. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rebassoo, Finn O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sorensen, Peter F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Liquid phase argon has long been used as a target medium for particle detection via scintillation light. Recently there has been considerable interest in direct detection of both hypothetical darkmatter particles and coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering. These as-yet unobserved neutral particle interactions are expected to result in a recoiling argon atom O(keV), generally referred to in the literature as a nuclear recoil. This prompts the question of the available electromagnetic signal in a liquid argon detector. In this Letter we report the first measurement of the ionization yield (Qy), detected electrons per unit energy, resulting from nuclear recoils in liquid argon, measured at 6.7 keV. This is also the lowest energy measurement of nuclear recoils in liquid argon.

  17. Multiple scattering effects in depth resolution of elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S.; Harding, G.L. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Telecommunications and Industrial Physics; Szilagyi, E. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, (Hungary)

    1998-06-01

    Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) is used to profile hydrogen and other low mass elements in thin films at surface and interfaces in a similar way that Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) is used to detect and profile heavy elements. It is often assumed that the depth resolutions of these two techniques are similar. However, in contrast to typical RBS, the depth resolution of ERD is limited substantially by multiple scattering. In experimental data analysis and/or spectra simulations of a typical RBS measurement multiple scattering effects are often ignored. Computer programs used in IBA, such as RUMP, HYPRA or RBX do not include multiple scattering effects at all. In this paper, using practical thin metal structures with films containing intentionally introduced hydrogen, we demonstrate experimental ERD depth resolution and sensitivity limitations. The effects of sample material and scattering angle are also discussed. (authors). 19 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  19. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure (≤ ns) and high intensity (≥10 7 p/cm 2 ) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are applicable for

  20. Measurement of recoil proton polarization in the process of. pi. /sup -/ photoproduction from neutrons in the energy range between 700 and 1200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H; Arai, I; Fujii, T; Ikeda, H; Iwasaki, H; Kajiura, N; Kamae, T; Kawabata, S; Ogawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1980-05-01

    The recoil proton polarization for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p was measured around the third resonance region. Both momentum vectors of the proton and the pion were determined by the magnetic spectrometers. The proton polarization was measured by means of proton-carbon scattering in the polarization analyzer located behind the proton spectrometer. Below 900 MeV incident photon energy, our data are consistent with the other existing experimental data (THETA*sub..pi.. = 90/sup 0/) and the predictions of partial-wave analyses. Above 1000 MeV, however, a large discrepancy was observed between our data and the predictions of the partial-wave analyses. This discrepancy stands out as the pion c.m. angle increases. A new partial-wave analysis was made for ..gamma..n ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/p including our polarization data, and the accuracy of the experimentally determined electromagnetic coupling constants of the third resonances were greatly improved. In particular, a finite amount of the helicity 3/2 amplitude for the ..gamma..n ..-->.. F/sub 15/(1688) resonance was obtained against the predictions of the quark models, by Copley, Karl and Obryk and by Feynman, Kislinger and Ravendal but in agreement with the relativistic quark models of Sugimoto and Toya, and Kubota and Ohta.

  1. Measurement of the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Weddigen, C.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have measured the analysing power of elastic proton-proton scattering at 582 MeV for 14 angles from 20 to 80 0 CM. The angular range was limited to >20 0 by the energy loss of the recoil protons. The experiment was performed at the PM1 beam line at SIN. A beam intensity of about 10 8 particles s -1 was used. (Auth.)

  2. Structure of events with a particle at large transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of events with a particle with large transverse momentum has been studied for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of √s=62.2 GeV. The experiment was performed with the Split-Field-Magnet detector at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings and events were recorded with high-psub(T) particles with psub(T)>2 GeV/c produced at polar angles around 45 0 and 20 0 . The distributions of charged particles in the jet recoiling against the high-psub(T) particle have been measured as a function of the fragmentation variable xsub(E)=psub(T)/psub(T)sup(tri). The production of high-psub(T) particles is usually interpreted in the quark parton model as the hard collision of proton constituents. The asymmetry and charge composition of the recoil jet and their correlation with the flavour of the high-psub(T) particle supports this qualitative picture. Model calculations using first order Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and phenomenological fragmentation model cannot explain the particle distribution in the recoil jet. (orig.) [de

  3. Forward angle quasi-free proton-neutron analyzing powers at 0.8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    As the first step in determining the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes at small momentum transfers at 0.8 GeV, quasi-free p vector + n and p vector + p analyzing powers were obtained at laboratory scattering angles from 6 0 to 32.9 0 by scattering 800-MeV polarized protons from a liquid deuterium target. Forward-scattered protons were detected by the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS), while recoil neutrons and protons were detected in coincidence with the event detected with the HRS by a 5 x 5 array of scintillators. A thin scintillator placed between the target and the array enabled discrimination of recoil particle type and facilitated the simultaneous measurement of both p vector n and n vector p analyzing powers. A comparison of the results with previously measured free p vector p and n vector p analyzing powers shows excellent agreement between the free and quasi-free p vector p analyzing powers. Poorer agreement is seen for the p vector n analyzing powers. The results of phase-shift analyses are presented in order to study the effects of the quasi-free analyzing power measurements on the determination of the pn scattering amplitudes. Amplitudes obtained from the phase-shift analyses are then used in KMT calculations. The results indicate that further nucleon-nucleon measurements are necessary in order to determine the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes unambiguously at 800 MeV

  4. Detection Efficiency of a ToF Spectrometer from Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, E. de; Marti, G. V.; Capurro, O. A.; Fimiani, L.; Mingolla, M. G.; Negri, A. E.; Arazi, A.; Figueira, J. M.; Pacheco, A. J.; Martinez Heimann, D.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.

    2010-01-01

    The detection efficiency of a time-of-flight system based on two micro-channel plates (MCP) time zero detectors plus a conventional silicon surface barrier detector was obtained from heavy ion elastic recoil measurements (this ToF spectrometer is mainly devoted to measurements of total fusion cross section of weakly bound projectiles on different mass-targets systems). In this work we have used beams of 7 Li, 16 O, 32 S and 35 Cl to study the mass region of interest for its application to measurements fusion cross sections in the 6,7 Li+ 27 Al systems at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier (0.8V B ≤E≤2.0V B ). As the efficiency of a ToF spectrometer is strongly dependent on the energy and mass of the detected particles, we have covered a wide range of the scattered particle energies with a high degree of accuracy at the lowest energies. The different experimental efficiency curves obtained in that way were compared with theoretical electronic stopping power curves on carbon foils and were applied.

  5. Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Francois Arvieux; Razmik Asaturyan; Todd Averett; Stephanie Bailey; Guillaume Batigne; Douglas Beck; Elizabeth Beise; Jay Benesch; Louis Bimbot; James Birchall; Angela Biselli; Peter Bosted; Elodie Boukobza; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; R. Carr; Nicholas Chant; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Russell Clark; Silviu Covrig; Anthony Cowley; Daniel Dale; C. Davis; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; Gregg Franklin; Christophe Furget; David Gaskell; Joseph Grames; Keith Griffioen; Klaus Grimm; Benoit Guillon; Hayko Guler; Lars Hannelius; R. Hasty; A. Hawthorne Allen; Tanja Horn; Kathleen Johnston; Mark Jones; Peter Kammel; Reza Kazimi; Paul King; Ameya Kolarkar; Elie Korkmaz; Wolfgang Korsch; Serge Kox; Joachim Kuhn; Jeff Lachniet; Lawrence Lee; Jason Lenoble; Eric Liatard; J. Liu; Berenice Loupias; A. Lung; Glen MacLachlan; Dominique Marchand; J.W. Martin; Kenneth McFarlane; Daniella Mckee; Robert McKeown; Fernand Merchez; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Bryan Moffit; M. Morlet; Itaru Nakagawa; Kazutaka Nakahara; Melissa Nakos; Retief Neveling; Silvia Niccolai; S. Ong; Shelley Page; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Sarah Phillips; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; Gilles Quemener; Brian Quinn; William Ramsay; Aamer Rauf; Jean-Sebastien Real; Julie Roche; Philip Roos; Gary Rutledge; Jeffery Secrest; Neven Simicevic; G.R. Smith; Damon Spayde; Samuel Stepanyan; Marcy Stutzman; Vincent Sulkosky; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Jacques Van de Wiele; Willem van Oers; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; G. Warren; S.P. Wells; Steven Williamson; S.A. Wood; Chen Yan; Junho Yun; Valdis Zeps

    2005-06-01

    We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q{sup 2} < 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q{sup 2} dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.

  6. Simulation Study of Using High-Z EMA to Suppress Recoil Protons Crosstalk in Scintillating Fiber Array for 14.1 MeV Neutron Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qinggang; Hu, Huasi; Zhang, Fengna; Zhang, Tiankui; Lv, Wei; Zhan, Yuanpin; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-12-01

    This paper studies the effect of a high-Z extra mural absorber (EMA) to improve the spatial resolution of a plastic (polystyrene) scintillating fiber array for 14.1 MeV fusion neutron imaging. Crosstalk induced by recoil protons was studied, and platinum (Pt) was selected as EMA material, because of its excellent ability to suppress the recoil protons penetrating the fibers. Three common fiber arrays (cylindrical scintillating fibers in square and hexagonal packing arrangements and square scintillating fibers) were simulated using the Monte Carlo method for evaluating the effect of Pt-EMA in improving spatial resolution. It is found that the resolution of the 100 μm square fiber array can be improved from 1.7 to 3.4 lp/mm by using 10- μm-thick Pt-EMA; comparatively, using an array with thinner square fibers (50 μm) only obtains a resolution of 2.1 lp/mm. The packing fraction decreases with the increase of EMA thickness. Our results recommend the use of 10 μm Pt-EMA for the square and the cylindrical (hexagonal packing) scintillating fiber arrays with fibers of 50-200 μm in the cross-sectional dimension. Besides, the dead-zone material should be replaced by high-Z material for the hexagonal packing cylindrical fiber array with fibers of 50-200 μm in diameter. Tungsten (W) and gold (Au) are also used as EMA in the three fiber arrays as a comparison. The simulation results show that W can be used at a lower cost, and Au does not have any advantages in cost and resolution improvement.

  7. Direct fast neutron detection: A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Hansen, R.R.; Craig, R.A.; Hensley, W.K.; Hubbard, C.W.; Keller, P.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the status of efforts to develop direct fast-neutron detection via proton recoil within plastic scintillator. Since recording proton recoil events is of little practical use without a means to discriminate effectively against gamma-ray interactions, the present effort is concentrated on demonstrating a method that distinguishes between pulse types. The proposed method exploits the different pulse shapes that are to be expected primarily on the basis of the slower speed of the recoiling fission neutrons. Should this effort ultimately prove successful, the resulting novel technology will have the potential to significantly lower cost and increase capability for a number of critical neutron-detection applications. Considerable progress has been made toward a clear and compelling demonstration of this new technique. An exhaustive theoretical and numerical investigation of the method has been completed. The authors have been able to better understand the laboratory results and estimate the performance that could ultimately be achieved using the proposed technique. They have assessed the performance of a number of different algorithms for discriminating between neutron and gamma ray events. The results of this assessment will be critical when the construction of low-cost, field-portable neutron detectors becomes necessary. Finally, a laboratory effort to realize effective discrimination is well underway and has resulted in partial success

  8. Cosmic ray-induced spallation recoil tracks in meteoritic phosphates: simulation at the CERN synchrocyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perron, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Inst. d` Astrophysique; [Museum National d` Histoire Naturelle, 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    Annealed meteoritic phosphate crystals have been irradiated by 600 MeV protons to simulate cosmic ray irradiation in space. Spallation recoil tracks were then revealed, which mimic fission tracks, specially when observed in the SEM. A production yield of 9.3 {+-} 2.2 x 10{sup 8} spallation track per proton has been obtained for merrillite, and a substantially lower value (2.5 per proton) for apatite. A nominal production yield in space of 6 tracks per year has been derived, which may be used for a rough estimate of spallation track densities in chondritic merrillite. (Author).

  9. Recoil properties of antimony isotopes produced by the reaction of 570 MeV and 18.2 GeV protons with uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Hagebø, E

    1969-01-01

    Using the method of thick target and thick catchers, the ranges and other recoil properties of 13 (12) antimony isotopes between A = 115 and A = 131 (130) have been measured for the reaction of 570 MeV (18·2 GeV) protons with uranium. The kinetic energies T are almost independent of product mass number at 570 MeV but show a strong dependence at 18·2 GeV, the lightest isotopes having only about half the kinetic energy of the heavy ones. \\\\ \\\\The cascade deposition energies for production of antimony isotopes are almost equal at 570 MeV and 18·2 GeV and fit well to straight lines of the form E$^{∗}$ (A, Z) = E$^{∗}$ (A$_{0}$, Z) + b(A − A$_{0}$). Exceptions are the cascade deposition energies for $^{115}$Sb and $^{116}$Sb which seem to be somewhat too high at 18·2 GeV. By comparison with other work it seems that the slope $b$ of these lines is independent of product element, target and of proton irradiation energy above 450 MeV. \\\\ \\\\If we assume at 570 MeV, that the fissioning nucleus is a uranium ...

  10. Determination of the Jet Neutron Rate and Fusion Power using the Magnetic Proton Recoil Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoestrand, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis a new independent method has been developed to enable precise measurements of neutron yields and rates from fusion plasmas and thereby determining the fusion power and fusion energy. The new method, together with the associated diagnostics, can provide information of great importance to present and future high fusion yield experiments, such as the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER). The method has been applied to data from high fusion rate experiments from the tritium campaign at JET. By using the count-rate from the Magnetic Proton Recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer the number of neutrons in the spectrometer's line of sight has been calculated. To be able to do this, all relevant factors between the plasma and the instrument have been evaluated. The number of neutrons in the MPR line of sight has been related to the total number of produced neutrons in the plasma by using information on the neutron emission profile. The achieved results have been compared with other JET neutron diagnostic data and the agreement is shown to be very good.

  11. Self-triggering detectors for recoil nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.I.; Gasparyan, A.O.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid α-detectors consisting of wide gap spark chambers and signal α detectors are described. The investigations have been carried out with γ-beams of Yerevan Electron Synchrotron. The possibility of using such detectors in the experiments on particle photoproduction on gas helium with the determination of the interaction point, emission angle of the recoil nucleus and its energy by means of range measurement has been shown. It has been shown that self - triggering wide gap spark chamber allows to detect and measure the range of the recoil nuclei α-particles with energies Esub(α) > or approximately (1 - 2) Mev which correspond to momentum transfers apprxomation (10 -2 - 10 -3 ) (GeV/c) 2

  12. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-01-01

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q ∼> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q min ≅ 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s –1 in the direction within an angle ∼< 40° relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  13. A detection system for very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); CEA/IRFU Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-11-20

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from {beta}-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the {beta}-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to {approx}80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  14. A detection system for very low-energy protons from β-delayed proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiridon, A.; Pollacco, E.; Trache, L.; Simmons, E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Tribble, R. E.; Pascovici, G.; Riallot, M.; Mols, J. P.; Kebbiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently developed a gas based detection system called AstroBox, motivated by nuclear astrophysics studies. The goal was to detect very low-energy protons from β-delayed p-decay with reduced beta background and improved energy resolution. The detector was tested using the β-delayed proton-emitter 23Al previously studied with a set-up based on thin double-sided Si strip detectors. The proton spectrum obtained with AstroBox showed no beta background down to ∼80 keV. The low energy (206 keV, 267 keV) proton peaks were positively identified, well separated, and the resolution was improved.

  15. High-resolution elastic recoil detection utilizing Bayesian probability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumaier, P.; Dollinger, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Genchev, I.; Goergens, L.; Fischer, R.; Ronning, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2001-01-01

    Elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis is improved in view of depth resolution and the reliability of the measured spectra. Good statistics at even low ion fluences is obtained utilizing a large solid angle of 5 msr at the Munich Q3D magnetic spectrograph and using a 40 MeV 197 Au beam. In this way the elemental depth profiles are not essentially altered during analysis even if distributions with area densities below 1x10 14 atoms/cm 2 are measured. As the energy spread due to the angular acceptance is fully eliminated by ion-optical and numerical corrections, an accurate and reliable apparatus function is derived. It allows to deconvolute the measured spectra using the adaptive kernel method, a maximum entropy concept in the framework of Bayesian probability theory. In addition, the uncertainty of the reconstructed spectra is quantified. The concepts are demonstrated at 13 C depth profiles measured at ultra-thin films of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). Depth scales of those profiles are given with an accuracy of 1.4x10 15 atoms/cm 2

  16. Proton GE/GM from beam-target asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark Jones; Aram Aghalaryan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Razmik Asaturyan; Frederic Bloch; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Cedric Carasco; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Jian-Ping Chen; Michael Christy; Leon Cole; Luminita Coman; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; Emil Frlez; David Gaskell; Liping Gan; Javier Gomez; Bitao Hu; Juerg Jourdan; Christopher Keith; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Andreas Klein; Laird Kramer; Yongguang Liang; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; David Mack; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; David Meekins; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Kristoff Normand; Blaine Norum; Dinko Pocanic; Yelena Prok; Brian Raue; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Daniela Rohe; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Nikolai Savvinov; Bradley Sawatzky; Mikell Seely; Ingo Sick; Karl Slifer; C. Smith; Gregory Smith; S. Stepanyan; Liguang Tang; Shigeyuki Tajima; Giuseppe Testa; William Vulcan; Kebin Wang; Glen Warren; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Lulin Yuan; Junho Yun; Markus Zeier; Hong Guo Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of the proton's electric to magnetic form factor, G E /G M , can be extracted in elastic electron-proton scattering by measuring either cross sections, beam-target asymmetry or recoil polarization. Separate determinations of G E /G M by cross sections and recoil polarization observables disagree for Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 . Measurement by a third technique might uncover an unknown systematic error in either of the previous measurements. The beam-target asymmetry has been measured for elastic electron-proton scattering at Q 2 = 1.51 (GeV/c) 2 for target spin orientation aligned perpendicular to the beam momentum direction. This is the largest Q 2 at which G E /G M has been determined by a beam-target asymmetry experiment. The result, μG E /G M = 0.884 +/- 0.027 +/- 0.029, is compared to previous world data

  17. Neutron-proton bremsstrahlung studies using the white neutron source at the LAMPF/WNR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.; Nelson, R.O.; Schillaci, M.E.; Blann, M.

    1990-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung is a few-body radiative process that provides insight into several areas of nuclear physics. It is one of the simplest systems for studying the off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon potential. The physics involved in neutron-proton bremsstrahlung (NPB) is significantly different from that of proton-proton bremsstrahlung (PPB). In particular, NPB cross sections are much larger than PPB cross sections because NPB allows E1 radiation, and the contribution to the cross section from the meson exchange currents has been calculated to be as large as the contributions from external radiation. To date there have been essentially four NPB experiments. These measurements have covered only a small part of the available phase space. A major experimental problem in performing these measurements has been the lack of a suitable intense, high-energy neutron beam. We are planning a measurement of the NPB cross section using the white neutron source at the WNR target area at the LAMPF accelerator. We plant to implement the experiment in three phases. In this first state, we shall measure inclusive hard-photon production using a multi-element gamma-ray telescope that is insensitive to neutrons. In the second phase, we shall measure the bremsstrahlung gamma-rays in coincidence with recoil protons. In the last phase, we shall detect the scattered neutrons in coincidence with the recoil protons and gamma rays. 8 refs., 6 figs

  18. Proton Radioactivity Measurements at HRIBF: Ho, Lu, and Tm Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akovali, Y.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Davinson, T.; Ginter, T.N.; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J.H.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Kim, S.H.; MacDonald, B.D.; Mas, J.F.; McConnell, J.W.; Piechaczek, A.; Ressler, J.J.; Rykaczewski, K.; Slinger, R.C.; Szerypo, J.; Toth, K.S.; Weintraub, W.; Woods, P.J.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1998-01-01

    Two new isotopes, 145 Tm and 140 Ho and three isomers in previously known isotopes, 141m Ho, 150m Lu and 151m Lu have been discovered and studied via their decay by proton emission. These proton emitters were produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) by heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions, separated in A/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer (RMS), and detected in a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). The decay energy and half-life was measured for each new emitter. An analysis in terms of a spherical shell model is applied to the Tm and Lu nuclei, but Ho is considerably deformed and requires a collective model interpretation

  19. Detection of supernova neutrinos in the liquid-scintillator experiment LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jurgen Michael Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The LENA project (Low-Energy Neutrino Astronomy) is a planned large-volume liquid-scintillator detector. The good energy resolution, low-energy threshold, and its large mass allow to perform real-time spectroscopy of low-energy neutrinos with high statistics. This is especially beneficial for the observation of rare events such as a galactic core-collapse supernova. In a liquid scintillator, interactions by different particle types cause different scintillation light pulse shapes. They can be used to identify proton recoils induced by neutrino-proton scattering from supernova neutrinos or by cosmogenic knock-out neutrons. In order to evaluate the performance of the detector, a precise characterization of the liquid scintillator is necessary. In the course of this work, an experiment has been set up at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium in Garching in order to determine the pulse shape of proton and electron recoils in different liquid-scintillator mixtures. Neutrons produced via 11 B(p,n) 11 C or an americiumberyllium source were used to induce proton recoils. Compton scattering of simultaneously emitted γs provided information on the electron recoils. A time-of-flight measurement allows for an easy identification of neutron and γ induced events and thus effective background reduction. The tail-to-total and the Gatti method are used in order to determine the energy-dependent discrimination power of proton and electron recoils in liquid scintillator. Combining both methods, a proton recoil identification efficiency of (99.70±0.05)% can be achieved between 1-1.5 MeV, while suppressing 99% of the γ induced recoils for the probable liquid scintillator mixture for LENA, linear alkylbenzene (LAB) as solvent and 3 g/l 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 20mg/l 1,4-bis-(o-methylstyryl)-benzole (bisMSB) as fluors. Moreover, the decay constants τ i and the respective amplitudes n i are determined for various liquid scintillator mixtures. It can be observed that the decay times

  20. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Dynamical effects in proton breakup from exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaccorso, Angela; Kumar, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    This contribution discusses dynamical effects in proton breakup from a weakly bound state in an exotic nucleus on a heavy target. The Coulomb interactions between the proton and the core and the proton and the target are treated to all orders, including also the full multipole expansion of the Coulomb potential. The dynamics of proton Coulomb breakup is compared to that of an equivalent neutron of larger binding energy in order to elucidate the differences with the well understood neutron breakup mechanism. A number of experimentally measurable observables such as parallel momentum distributions, proton angular distributions and total breakup cross sections can be calculated. With respect to nuclear breakup it is found that a proton behaves exactly as a neutron of larger binding energy. The extra “effective energy” is due to the combined core-target Coulomb barrier. In Coulomb breakup we distinguish the effect of the core-target Coulomb potential (called recoil effect), with respect to which the proton behaves again as a more bound neutron, from the direct proton-target Coulomb potential. The latter gives cross sections about an order of magnitude larger than the recoil term. The two effects give rise to complicated interferences in the parallel momentum distributions. They are instead easily separable in the proton angular distributions which are therefore suggested as a very useful observable for future experimental studies.

  2. Some recoil corrections to the hydrogen hyperfine splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    We compute all of the recoil corrections to the ground-state hyperfine splitting in hydrogen, with the exception of the proton polarizability, that are required to achieve an accuracy of 1 ppm. Our approach includes a unified treatment of the corrections that would arise from a pointlike Dirac proton and the corrections that are due to the proton's non-QED structure. Our principal new results are a calculation of the relative order-α 2 (m/sub e//m/sub p/) contributions that arise from the proton's anomalous magnetic moment and a systematic treatment of the relative order-α(m/sub e//m/sub p/) contributions that arise from form-factor corrections. In the former calculation we introduce some new technical improvements and are able to evaluate all of the expressions analytically. In the latter calculation, which has been the subject of previous investigations by other authors, we express the form-factor corrections in terms of two-dimensional integrals that are convenient for numerical evaluation and present numerical results for the commonly used dipole parametrization of the form factors. Because we use a parametrization of the form factors that differs slightly from the ones used in previous work, our numerical results are shifted from older ones by a small amount

  3. Measurement of Polarization Observables in the Electro-Excitation of the Proton to its First Excited State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Rikki [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2003-08-01

    This thesis reports results from the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Hall A experiment E91-011, which measured double-polarization observables in the pion electroproduction reaction from the proton. Specifically, the experiment measured the recoil proton polarization, polarized response functions, and cross section for the p($\\vec{e}$, e' $\\vec{p}$) π° reaction at a center-of-mass energy centered at W = 1232 MeV--the peak of the Δ(1232) resonance--and at a four-momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 1.0 GeV2/c2. Both the recoil proton polarization and polarized response function results will be presented in this thesis. Data were collected at Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News, Virginia during the summer of 2000. A 4.53 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off of a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton polarization was measured in the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP), located in one of the two High Resolution Spectrometers (HRS) in Hall A. A maximum likelihood method was used to determine the polarized response functions directly from the measured polarizations and cross sections. A simultaneous fit of the cross sections, the recoil proton polarizations, and angular distributions of the polarized response functions will provide a determination of individual multipole amplitudes. Some of these multipole amplitudes are related to the concept of proton deformation. Both the recoil proton polarizations and polarized response functions were compared to two phenomenological models: MAID and SAID, which have all free parameters fixed, based on fits to previous world data. The measured helicity dependent observables, which are dominated by imaginary parts of Δ(1232)-resonance excitation multipole amplitudes, agree very well with the two models. The measured helicity independent observables, which are dominated by real parts of background multipole amplitudes, do not agree completely with

  4. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiaohui [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio μpGE/GM in the range of Q2 = 0.3-0.7(GeV/c)2 by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 1.2 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton was detected in the left HRS in coincidence with the elasticly scattered electrons tagged by the BigBite spectrometer. The proton polarization was measured by the focal plane polarimeter (FPP). In this low Q2 region, previous measurement from Jefferson Lab Hall A (LEDEX) along with various fits and calculations indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. For this new measurement, the proposed statistical uncertainty (< 1%) was achieved. These new results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, which indicate a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the new results also have implications in determining the proton Zemach radius and the strangeness form factors from parity violation experiments.

  5. A Measurement of the Recoil Polarization of Electroproduced Λ(1116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAleer, Simeon B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory was used to study the reaction e + p → e' + K+ + Λ(1116) for events where Λ(1116) subsequently decayed via the channel Λ(1116) → p + π-. Data were taken at incident electron beam energies of 2.5, 4.0, and 4.2 GeV during the 1999 E1C run period. They hyperon production spectra span the Q2 range from 0.5 to 2.8 GeV2 and nearly the entire range in the center of mass angles. The proton angular distribution in the Λ(1116) rest frame is used to deduce the recoil polarization of the hyperon, and the W and cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ dependence of the recoil polarization will be presented. The data show sizeable negative polarizations for the Λ(1116) as a function of both cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ and W.

  6. β-particle energy-summing correction for β-delayed proton emission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, Z., E-mail: meisel@ohio.edu [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements (United States); Santo, M. del [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Crawford, H.L. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cyburt, R.H. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Grinyer, G.F. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), CEA/DRF-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, Caen 14076 (France); Langer, C. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements, Institute for Applied Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Montes, F. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Schatz, H. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Smith, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics – Center for the Evolution of the Elements, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A common approach to studying β-delayed proton emission is to measure the energy of the emitted proton and corresponding nuclear recoil in a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSD) after implanting the β-delayed proton-emitting (βp) nucleus. However, in order to extract the proton-decay energy, the measured energy must be corrected for the additional energy implanted in the DSSD by the β-particle emitted from the βp nucleus, an effect referred to here as β-summing. We present an approach to determine an accurate correction for β-summing. Our method relies on the determination of the mean implantation depth of the βp nucleus within the DSSD by analyzing the shape of the total (proton + recoil + β) decay energy distribution shape. We validate this approach with other mean implantation depth measurement techniques that take advantage of energy deposition within DSSDs upstream and downstream of the implantation DSSD.

  7. A new recoil filter for {gamma}-detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, J; Lahmer, W; Maier, K H [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Janicki, M; Meczynski, W; Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    A considerable improvement of gamma spectra recorded in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation residues can be achieved when gamma rays are detected in coincidence with the recoiling evaporations residues. This coincidence suppresses gamma rays from fission processes, Coulombic excitation, and reactions with target contaminations, and therefore cleans gamma spectra and improves the peak to background ratio. A sturdy detector for evaporation residues has been designed as an additional detector for the OSIRIS spectrometer. The recoil filter consists of two rings of six and twelve detector elements. In each detector element, nuclei hitting a thin Mylar foil produce secondary electrons, which are electrostatically accelerated and focussed onto a thin plastic scintillator. Recoiling evaporation residues are discriminated from other reaction products and scattered beam by the pulse height of the scintillation signal and time of flight. The detector signal is fast enough to allow the detection of an evaporation residue even if the scattered beam hits the detector first. In-beam experiment were performed with the reactions {sup 40}Ar+{sup 124}Sn, {sup 40}Ar+{sup 152}Sm at 185 MeV beam energy, and {sup 36}Ar+{sup 154,156}Gd at 175 MeV. In the latter two cases, fission amount to 50-75% of the total fusion cross section. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Mahlstedt, J.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Ramírez García, D.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V /cm , 154 V /cm and 366 V /cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to extract the photon yields and recombination fluctuations from the experimental data. The photon yields measured at the two lower fields are in agreement with those from literature; additional measurements at a higher field of 366 V /cm are presented. The electronic and nuclear recoil discrimination as well as its dependence on the drift field and photon detection efficiency are investigated at these low energies. The results provide new measurements in the energy region of interest for dark matter searches using liquid xenon.

  9. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Grimes, S.M.; Brient, C.E.; Massey, T.N.; Wasson, O.A.; Carlson, A.D.; Zhou, H.

    1995-01-01

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH 2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  10. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  11. Studies of (p, γ) reactions with the Daresbury Recoil Separator at ORNL'S HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.; Abbotoy, E.; Bardayan, D.W.; Blackmon, J.C.; Champagne, A.E.; Chen, A.A.; Greife, U.; Hill, D.W.; James, A.N.; Kozub, R.L.; Lewis, T.A.; Livesay, R.; Ma, Z.; Mahan, S.L.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Moazen, B.H.; Parker, P.D.; Pierce, D.E.; Roettger, M.E.; Sahin, L.; Shapira, D.; Smith, M.S.; Strieder, F.; Swartz, K.B.; Thomas, J.S.; Visser, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    The fusion of protons with radioactive nuclei is important in stellar explosions such as novae and X-ray bursts and for the production of neutrinos in the sun. The Daresbury Recoil Separator and a windowless gas target system have been installed at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) for measurements of proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics with radioactive ion beams. The performance of the system has been characterized with a number of experiments using stable ion beams. We report on results from these commissioning measurements and plans for measurements of the 1 H( 17 F, 18 Ne) and 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B) reactions

  12. Recoil properties of radionuclides formed in the interaction of 1--300-GeV protons with gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, S.B.; Steinberg, E.P.; Weisfield, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The thick-target recoil properties of a number of nuclides, varying from 22 Na to 196 AU, formed in the interaction of 1--300-GeV protons with 197 Au have been measured in order to study the systematics of their variation with product mass and incident energy. The forward-to-backward ratios (F/B) of many of the products have a peak at 3 GeV and decrease at higher energies, with products in the mass region 46 or approx. = 140 decrease montonically between 1 and 300 GeV. The results are analyzed by the two-step model of high-energy reactions and discussed in terms of the different reaction mechanisms, spallation, fission and fragmentation. Fission contributes appreciably to the formation of products in the mass region 46 < or = A < or =103 at 1 GeV bombarding energy, but other mechanisms predominate at and above 11.5 GeV. The results are compared to the predictions of intranuclear cascade-evaporation calculations, and are in reasonable agreement at 1 and 3 GeV, although the calculations predict more forward momentum transfer than is observed. At higher energies the relation between forward momentum and mean deposition energy derived from the calculations must break down, because nuclides requiring high deposition energies for their formation have little or no forward momentum. Some possible explanations for this phenomenon are discussed

  13. Electrochemical etching amplification of low-let recoil particle tracks in polymers for fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Morgan, K.Z.

    1975-11-01

    An electrochemical etching method for the amplification of fast-neutron-induced recoil particle tracks in polymers was investigated. The technique gave superior results over those obtained by conventional etching methods especially when polycarbonate foils were used for recoil particle track amplification. Electrochemical etching systems capable of multi-foil processing were designed and constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the techniques for large-scale neutron dosimetry. Electrochemical etching parameters were studied including the nature or type of the polymer foil used, foil thickness and its effect on etching time, the applied voltage and its frequency, the chemical composition, concentration, and temperature of the etchant, distance and angle between the electrodes, and the type of particles such as recoil particles including protons. Recoil particle track density, mean track diameter, and optical density as functions of the mentioned parameters were determined. Each parameter was found to have a distinct effect on the etching results in terms of the measured responses. Several new characteristics of this fast neutron dosimetry method were studied especially for personnel dosimetry using various radiation sources such as nuclear reactors, medical cyclotrons, and isotopic neutron sources. The dose range, neutron energy dependence, directional response, fading characteristics, neutron threshold energy, etc. were investigated

  14. Nuclear breakup of 17Ne and its two-proton halo structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix; Aumann, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Bertulani, Carlos [Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce (United States); Chulkov, Leonid; Heil, Michael; Simon, Haik [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); JINA, Notre Dame (United States); Plag, Ralf [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    {sup 17}Ne is a proton-dripline nucleus that has raised interest in nuclear-structure physics in recent years. As a ({sup 15}O+2p) Borromean 3-body system, it is often considered to be a 2-proton-halo nucleus, yet lacking concluding experimental quantification of structure. We have studied breakup reactions of 500 AMeV {sup 17}Ne secondary beams in inverse kinematics using the R3B-LAND setup at GSI. The foci were on (p,2p) quasi-free scattering on a CH{sub 2} target, and on one-proton-knockout reactions on a carbon target. Recoil protons have been detected with Si-Strip detectors and a surrounding 4{pi} NaI spectrometer. Furthermore, projectile-like forward protons after one-proton knockout from {sup 17}Ne have been measured in coincidence with the {sup 15}O residual core. The resulting relative-energy spectrum of the unbound {sup 16}F, as well as proton-removal cross sections with CH{sub 2} and C targets, and the transverse-momentum distributions of the residual fragments are presented. Conclusions on the ground-state structure of {sup 17}Ne are discussed.

  15. Cage effect in recoil studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berei, K.

    1983-09-01

    The role of cage effect is one of the most discussed questions of hot atom chemistry in condensed organic systems. So far no direct evidence is available for assessing the exact contribution of thermal recombinations occurring in the liquid cage to the stabilization processes of recoil atoms. However, some conclusions can be drawn from experimental observations concerning the influence on product yield of hot atom recoil spectra, the effects of density, phase and long range order of the medium as well as from comparisons with systems providing cage walls of different chemical reactivities towards the recoil atom. Recent developments in this field are reviewed based primarily on the investigations of recoil halogen reactions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and their haloderivatives. (author)

  16. Recoil Distance Method lifetime measurements via gamma-ray and charged-particle spectroscopy at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Philip Jonathan

    The Recoil Distance Method (RDM) is a well-established technique for measuring lifetimes of electromagnetic transitions. Transition matrix elements derived from the lifetimes provide valuable insight into nuclear structure. Recent RDM investigations at NSCL present a powerful new model-independent tool for the spectroscopy of nuclei with extreme proton-to-neutron ratios that exhibit surprising behavior. Neutron-rich 18C is one such example, where a small B(E2; 2+1 → 0+gs) represented a dramatic shift from the expected inverse relationship between the B(E2) and 2+1 excitation energy. To shed light on the nature of this quadrupole excitation, the RDM lifetime technique was applied with the Koln/NSCL plunger. States in 18C were populated by the one-proton knockout reaction of a 19N secondary beam. De-excitation gamma rays were detected with the Segmented Germanium Array in coincidence with reaction residues at the focal plane of the S800 Magnetic Spectrometer. The deduced B(E2) and excitation energy were both well described by ab initio no-core shell model calculations. In addition, a novel extension of RDM lifetime measurements via charged-particle spectroscopy of exotic proton emitters has been investigated. Substituting the reaction residue degrader of the Koln/NSCL plunger with a thin silicon detector permits the study of short-lived nuclei beyond the proton dripline. A proof of concept measurement of the mean lifetime of the two-proton emitter 19Mg was conducted. The results indicated a sub-picosecond lifetime, one order of magnitude smaller than the published results, and validate this new technique for lifetime measurements of charged-particle emitters.

  17. Accurate measurements of E2 lifetimes using the coincidence recoil-distance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, R.K.; Poletti, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mean lives of four E2 transitions in the (2s, 1d) shell have been measured using the recoil-distance method (RDM). γ-rays de-exciting the level of interest were detected in coincidence with particles detected in an annular detector at a backward angle thereby reducing the background and producing a beam of recoiling nuclei of well-defined energy and recoil direction. Lifetimes measured were: 22 Ne, 1.275 MeV level (2 + -> 0 + ), 5.16 +- 0.13 ps; 26 Mg, 3.588 MeV level (0 + -> 2 + ), 9.29 +- 0.23 ps; 30 Si, 3.788 MeV level (0 + -> 2 + ), 12.00 +- 0.70 ps; 38 Ar, 3.377 MeV level (0 + -> 2 + ), 34.5 +- 1.5 ps. The present measurements are compared to those of previous investigators. For the 22 Ne level, averaged results from four different measurement techniques are compared and found to be in good agreement. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of Polarization Observables in the Electro-Excitation of the Proton to its First Excited State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikki Roche

    2003-01-01

    This thesis reports results from the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) Hall A experiment E91-011, which measured double-polarization observables in the pion electroproduction reaction from the proton. Specifically, the experiment measured the recoil proton polarization, polarized response functions, and cross section for the p(rvec e), e(prime) (rvec p) π o reaction at a center-of-mass energy centered at W = 1232 MeV--the peak of the Δ(1232) resonance--and at a four-momentum transfer squared of Q 2 = 1.0 GeV 2 /c 2 . Both the recoil proton polarization and polarized response function results will be presented in this thesis

  19. On the Proton Spectrum in Free Neutron beta-decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bunatian, G G

    2000-01-01

    We consider the calculations which are appropriate to acquire with a high precision, of ~1% or better, the general characteristics of weak interactions from the experiments on the free neutron beta-decay; the principle emphasis is placed on the phenomena associated with the recoil of protons. The part played by electromagnetic interactions in beta-decay is visualized, with special attention drawn to the influence of the gamma-radiation on the momentum distribution of the particles in the final state. The effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton recoil spectrum is studied, in the light of the experiments which are carried out and planned for now. The results of the calculations, which are to be confronted with the experimental data, are presented upright in terms of the effective Lagrangian underlying the inquiry. Owing to electromagnetic interactions, the corrections to the energy distribution of protons prove to amount to the value of a few per cent. Nowadays, this is substantial to obtain with a...

  20. Measurement of proton momentum distributions using a direct geometry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senesi, R; Andreani, C; Kolesnikov, A I

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of inelastic neutron scattering measurements on bulk water and ice using the direct geometry SEQUOIA chopper spectrometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (USA), with incident energy E i = 6 eV. In this set up the measurements allow to access the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering regime. The scattering is centred at the proton recoil energy given by the impulse approximation, and the shape of the recoil peak conveys information on the proton momentum distribution in the system. The comparison with the performance of inverse geometry instruments, such as VESUVIO at the ISIS source (UK), shows that complementary information can be accessed by the use of direct and inverse geometry instruments. Analysis of the neutron Compton profiles shows that the proton kinetic energy in ice at 271 K is larger than in room temperature liquid water, in agreement with previous measurements on VESUVIO

  1. ZZ RECOIL/B, Heavy Charged Particle Recoil Spectra Library for Radiation Damage Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Amburgey, J.D.; Greene, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Format: GAM-II group structure; Number of groups: 104 neutron and Recoil-energy groups; Nuclides: Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, B-10, Cu, B-11, Zr, N, Nb, Li-6, Mo, Li-7, Ta (Data for Ta-181,Ta-182), O, Origin: ENDF/B-IV cross-section data. A heavy charged-particle recoil data base (primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra) and an analysis program have been created to assist experimentalists in studying, evaluating, and correlating radiation-damage effects in different neutron environments. Since experimentally obtained controlled thermo-nuclear-reactor-type neutron spectra are not presently available, the data base can be extremely useful in relating currently obtainable radiation damage to that which is anticipated in future fusion devices. However, the usefulness of the data base is not restricted to just CTR needs. Most of the elements of interest to the radiation-damage community and all neutron reactions of any significance for these elements have been processed, using available ENDF/B-IV cross-section data, and are included in the data base. Calculated data such as primary recoil spectra, displacement rates, and gas-production rates, obtained with the data base, for different radiation environments are presented and compared with previous calculations. Primary neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV have been considered. The elements included in the data base are listed in Table I. All neutron reactions of significance for these elements (i.e., elastic, inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,sigma), (n,gamma), etc.,) which have cross sections available from ENDF/B-IV have been processed and placed in the data base. Table I - Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, 10 B, Cu, 11 B, Zr, N, Nb, 6 Li, Mo, 7 Li, Ta (Data for Ta 181 ,Ta 182 ), O. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron

  2. Monte-Carlo simulation of heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis data to include the effects of large angle plural scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; Franich, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) is becoming widely used to study a range of problems in materials science, however there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. Major impediments are the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100nm) layers of very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering a fast FORTRAN version of TRIM has been adapted to simulate the spectrum of backscattered and recoiled ions reaching the detector. Two problems have been initially investigated. In the first, the detector is positioned beyond the critical angle for single scattering from a pure vanadium target where traditional slab analysis would not predict any scattered yield. In the second, a thin Au layer on a Si substrate is modelled for two different thicknesses of the substrate to investigate the effect of the substrate chosen. The use of multiple processors enabled the acquisition of statistically reasonable simulation spectra for scattered and recoiled ions. For each target modelled, 10 9 incident ions were tracked. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental measurements performed using ToF-E HIERDA at Lucas Heights and show good agreement except in the long tails due to Plural Scattering

  3. A polarimeter for GeV protons of recirculating synchrotron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, F

    1999-01-01

    A polarimeter for use in recirculating beams of proton synchrotrons with energies from 300 MeV up to several GeV has been developed. The polarimetry is based on the asymmetry measurement of elastic p->p scattering on an internal CH sub 2 fiber target. The forward going protons are detected with two scintillator systems on either side of the beam pipe close to the angle THETA sub f of maximum analyzing power A sub N. Each one operates in coincidence with a broad (DELTA THETA sub b =21.4 deg. ), segmented detector system for the recoil proton of kinematically varying direction THETA sub b; this position resolution is also used for a concurrent measurement of the p->C and nonelastic p->p background. The CH sub 2 fiber can be replaced by a carbon fiber for detailed background studies; 'false' asymmetries are accounted for with a rotation of the polarimeter around the beam axis. Polarimetry has been performed in the internal beam of the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at fixed energies as well as during proton acceleratio...

  4. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  5. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  6. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallows, Scott Mathew [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for \\background- free" operation of CDMS II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space.

  7. On the proton spectrum in free neutron β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the calculations which are appropriate to acquire with a high precision, of ∼ 1% or better, the general characteristics of weak interactions from the experiments on the free neutron β-decay; the principle emphasis is placed on the phenomena associated with the recoil of protons. The part played by electromagnetic interactions in β-decay is visualized, with special attention drawn to the influence of the γ-radiation on the momentum distribution of the particles in the final state. The effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton recoil spectrum is studied, in the light of the experiments which are carried out and planned for now. The results of the calculations, which are to be confronted with the experimental data, are presented upright in terms of the effective Lagrangian underlying the inquiry. Owing to electromagnetic interactions, the corrections to the energy distribution of protons prove to amount to the value of a few per cent. Nowadays, this is substantial to obtain with a high accuracy the characteristics of weak interactions by processing the data of the experiments on the proton distribution in the free neutron β-decay

  8. Proton polarization in the photodisintegration of the deuteron by linearly polarized 400- and 500-MeV γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratashevskii, A.S.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Gushchin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The polarization of the recoil protons at the angle theta(/sub p/ = 90 0 has been measured in the photodisintegration of the deuteron by linearly polarized 400- and 500-MeV γ rays. For the first time, all of the following observables have been determined under identical experimental conditions: Σ, the asymmetry of the cross sections; P/sub y/, the polarization of the recoil proton; and T 1 , the asymmetry of the nucleon polarization for the case of linearly polarized γ rays

  9. D0-brane recoil revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [California Institute of Technology 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakamura, Shin [Physics Department, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    One-loop string scattering amplitudes computed using the standard D0-brane conformal field theory (CFT) suffer from infrared divergences associated with recoil. A systematic framework to take recoil into account is the worldline formalism, where fixed boundary conditions are replaced by dynamical D0-brane worldlines. We show that, in the worldline formalism, the divergences that plague the CFT are automatically cancelled in a non-trivial way. The amplitudes derived in the worldline formalism can be reproduced by deforming the CFT with a specific 'recoil operator', which is bilocal and different from the ones previously suggested in the literature.

  10. Detection of nuclear recoils in prototype dark matter detectors, made from Al, Sn and Zn superheated superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abplanalp, M.; Van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector for cold dark matter and neutrinos. The response of SSG devices to nuclear recoils has been explored irradiating SSG detectors with a 70 MeV neutron beam. The aim of the experiment was to test the sensitivity of Sn, Al and Zn SSG detectors to nuclear recoil energies down to a few keV. The detector consisted of a hollow teflon cylinder (0.1 cm 3 inner volume) filled with tiny superconducting metastable granules embedded in a dielectric medium. The nuclear recoil energies deposited in the SSG were determined measuring the neutron scattering angles with a neutron hodoscope. Coincidences in time between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. In this paper the results of the neutron irradiation experiments at different SSG intrinsic thresholds are discussed and compared to Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that SSG are sensitive to recoil energies down to similar 1 keV. The limited angular resolution of the neutron hodoscope prevented us from measuring the SSG sensitivity to even lower recoil energies. (orig.)

  11. Accurate measurements of E2 lifetimes using the coincidence recoil-distance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, R. K.; Poletti, A. R.

    1984-05-01

    Mean lives of four E2 transitions in the (2s, 1d) shell have been measured using the recoil-distance method (RDM), γ-rays de-exciting the level of interest were detected in coincidence with particles detected in an annular detector at a backward angle thereby reducing the background and producing a beam of recoiling nuclei of well-defined energy and recoil direction. Lifetimes measured were: 22Ne, 1.275 MeV level (2 + → 0 +), 5.16±0.13 ps; 26Mg, 3.588 MeV level (0 + → 2 +), 9.29±0.23 ps; 30Si, 3.788 MeV level (0 +→ 2 +), 12.00±0.70 ps; 38Ar, 3.377 MeV level (0 + → 2 +), 34.5±1.5 ps. The present measurements are compared to those of previous investigators. For the 22Ne level, averaged results from four different measurement techniques are compared and found to be in good agreement. The experimental results are compared to shell-model calculations.

  12. Potku – New analysis software for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arstila, K.; Julin, J.; Laitinen, M.I.; Aalto, J.; Konu, T.; Kärkkäinen, S.; Rahkonen, S.; Raunio, M.; Itkonen, J.; Santanen, J.-P.; Tuovinen, T.; Sajavaara, T.

    2014-01-01

    Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection (ToF-ERD) analysis software has been developed. The software combines a Python-language graphical front-end with a C code computing back-end in a user-friendly way. The software uses a list of coincident time-of-flight–energy (ToF–E) events as an input. The ToF calibration can be determined with a simple graphical procedure. The graphical interface allows the user to select different elements and isotopes from a ToF–E histogram and to convert the selections to individual elemental energy and depth profiles. The resulting sample composition can be presented as relative or absolute concentrations by integrating the depth profiles over user-defined ranges. Beam induced composition changes can be studied by displaying the event-based data in fractions relative to the substrate reference data. Optional angular input data allows for kinematic correction of the depth profiles. This open source software is distributed under the GPL license for Linux, Mac, and Windows environments

  13. Potku – New analysis software for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arstila, K., E-mail: kai.arstila@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); Julin, J.; Laitinen, M.I. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); Aalto, J.; Konu, T.; Kärkkäinen, S.; Rahkonen, S.; Raunio, M.; Itkonen, J.; Santanen, J.-P.; Tuovinen, T. [Department of Mathematical Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); Sajavaara, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection (ToF-ERD) analysis software has been developed. The software combines a Python-language graphical front-end with a C code computing back-end in a user-friendly way. The software uses a list of coincident time-of-flight–energy (ToF–E) events as an input. The ToF calibration can be determined with a simple graphical procedure. The graphical interface allows the user to select different elements and isotopes from a ToF–E histogram and to convert the selections to individual elemental energy and depth profiles. The resulting sample composition can be presented as relative or absolute concentrations by integrating the depth profiles over user-defined ranges. Beam induced composition changes can be studied by displaying the event-based data in fractions relative to the substrate reference data. Optional angular input data allows for kinematic correction of the depth profiles. This open source software is distributed under the GPL license for Linux, Mac, and Windows environments.

  14. Anomalous transition strength in the proton-unbound nucleus {sup 109}{sub 53}I{sub 56}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procter, M.G., E-mail: mark.procter@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Scholey, C.; Ruotsalainen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Angus, L. [University of The West of Scotland, High Street, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Baeck, T.; Cederwall, B. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Dewald, A.; Fransen, C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937, Koeln (Germany); Grahn, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Greenlees, P.T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hackstein, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, D-50937, Koeln (Germany); Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Liotta, R. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lumley, N.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Schuster Laboratory, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-13

    A lifetime measurement has been made for the first excited 11/2{sup +} state in the proton-unbound nucleus {sup 109}{sub 53}I{sub 56} using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift method in conjunction with recoil-proton tagging. The experimental reduced transition probability is considerably smaller than the prediction of theoretical shell-model calculations using the CD-Bonn nucleon-nucleon potential. The discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental reduced transition strengths in this work most likely arises from the inability of the current shell-model calculations to accurately account for the behavior of the unbound nuclear states.

  15. Measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT. Study of systematic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Gertrud Emilie

    2012-01-24

    Free neutron decay, n{yields}pe anti {nu}{sub e}, is the simplest nuclear beta decay, well described as a purely left-handed, vector minus axial-vector interaction within the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles and fields. Due to its highly precise theoretical description, neutron beta decay data can be used to test certain extensions to the SM. Possible extensions require, e.g., new symmetry concepts like left-right symmetry, new particles, leptoquarks, supersymmetry, or the like. Precision measurements of observables in neutron beta decay address important open questions of particle physics and cosmology, and are generally complementary to direct searches for new physics beyond the SM in high-energy physics. In this doctoral thesis, a measurement of the proton recoil spectrum with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT is described. From the proton spectrum the antineutrinoelectron angular correlation coefficient a can be derived. In our first beam time at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany (2005-2006), background instabilities due to particle trapping and the electronic noise level of the proton detector prevented us from presenting a new value for a. In the latest beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France (2007-2008), the trapped particle background has been reduced sufficiently and the electronic noise problem has essentially been solved. For the first time, a silicon drift detector was used. As a result of the data analysis, we identified and fixed a problem in the detector electronics which caused a significant systematic error. The target figure of the latest beam time was a new value for a with a total relative error well below the present literature value of 4 %. A statistical accuracy of about 1.4% was reached, but we could only set upper limits on the correction of the problem in the detector electronics, which are too high to determine a meaningful result. The present

  16. Measurement of the proton recoil spectrum in neutron beta decay with the spectrometer aSPECT. Study of systematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Gertrud Emilie

    2012-01-01

    Free neutron decay, n→pe anti ν e , is the simplest nuclear beta decay, well described as a purely left-handed, vector minus axial-vector interaction within the framework of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles and fields. Due to its highly precise theoretical description, neutron beta decay data can be used to test certain extensions to the SM. Possible extensions require, e.g., new symmetry concepts like left-right symmetry, new particles, leptoquarks, supersymmetry, or the like. Precision measurements of observables in neutron beta decay address important open questions of particle physics and cosmology, and are generally complementary to direct searches for new physics beyond the SM in high-energy physics. In this doctoral thesis, a measurement of the proton recoil spectrum with the neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT is described. From the proton spectrum the antineutrinoelectron angular correlation coefficient a can be derived. In our first beam time at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz in Munich, Germany (2005-2006), background instabilities due to particle trapping and the electronic noise level of the proton detector prevented us from presenting a new value for a. In the latest beam time at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France (2007-2008), the trapped particle background has been reduced sufficiently and the electronic noise problem has essentially been solved. For the first time, a silicon drift detector was used. As a result of the data analysis, we identified and fixed a problem in the detector electronics which caused a significant systematic error. The target figure of the latest beam time was a new value for a with a total relative error well below the present literature value of 4 %. A statistical accuracy of about 1.4% was reached, but we could only set upper limits on the correction of the problem in the detector electronics, which are too high to determine a meaningful result. The present doctoral

  17. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L S [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1997-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  20. Jet energy measurement with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vujicic, Miroslav; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-03-02

    The jet energy scale (JES) and its systematic uncertainty are determined for jets measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in proton-proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 38 inverse pb. Jets are reconstructed with the anti-kt algorithm with distance parameters R=0.4 or R=0.6. Jet energy and angle corrections are determined from Monte Carlo simulations to calibrate jets with transverse momenta pt > 20 GeV and pseudorapidities eta 50 GeV after a dedicated correction for this effect. The JES is validated for jet transverse momenta up to 1 TeV to the level of a few percent using several in situ techniques by comparing a well-known reference such as the recoiling photon pt, the sum of the transverse momenta of tracks associated to the jet, or a system of low-pt jets recoiling against a high-pt jet. More sophisticated jet calibration schemes are presented based on calorimeter cell energy density weighting or hadronic properties of jets, p...

  1. High energy proton simulation of 14-MeV neutron damage in Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, D.W.; Bunch, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-energy protons are a potentially useful tool for simulating the radiation damage produced by 14-MeV neutrons in CTR materials. A comparison is given of calculations and measurements of the relative damage effectiveness of these two types of radiation in single-crystal Al 2 O 3 . The experiments make use of the prominent absorption band at 206 nm as an index to lattice damage, on the assumption that peak absorption is proportional to the concentration of lattice vacancies. The induced absorption is measured for incident proton energies ranging from 5 to 15 MeV and for 14-MeV neutrons. Recoil-energy spectra are calculated for elastic and inelastic scattering using published angular distributions. Recoil-energy spectra also are calculated for the secondary alpha particles and 12 C nuclei produced by (p,p'α) reactions on 16 O. The recoil spectra are converted to damage-energy spectra and then integrated to yield the damage-energy cross section at each proton energy and for 14 MeV neutrons. A comparison of the calculations with experimental results suggests that damage energy, at least at high energies, is a reasonable criterion for estimating this type of radiation damage. (auth)

  2. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10 6 per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic range

  3. Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Xiang, Liangzhong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-1101 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10{sup 6} per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton

  4. The detection of neutron clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, F.M.; Labiche, M.; Orr, N.A.; Angelique, J.C. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire] [and others

    2001-11-01

    A new approach to the production and detection of bound neutron clusters is presented. The technique is based on the breakup of beams of very neutron-rich nuclei and the subsequent detection of the recoiling proton in a liquid scintillator. The method has been tested in the breakup of {sup 11}Li, {sup 14}Be and {sup 15}B beams by a C target. Some 6 events were observed that exhibit the characteristics of a multi-neutron cluster liberated in the breakup of {sup 14}Be, most probably in the channel {sup 10}Be+{sup 4}n. The various backgrounds that may mimic such a signal are discussed in detail. (author)

  5. Recoil mixing in high-fluence ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmark, U.; Hofer, W.O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of recoil mixing on the collection and depth distribution of implanted projectiles during high-fluence irradiation of a random solid is investigated by model calculations based on a previously published transport theoretical approach to the general problem of recoil mixing. The most pronounced effects are observed in the maximum implantable amount of projectiles and in the critical fluence for saturation. Both values are significantly increased by recoil mixing. (Auth.)

  6. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O 6+ + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O 4+ (1s 2 nln ' l ' ) populated after double electron-capture events

  7. Helium concentration in tungsten nano-tendril surface morphology using Elastic Recoil Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, K.B.; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.; Doerner, R.P.; De Temmerman, G.

    2013-01-01

    Helium (He) concentrations in tungsten nano-tendrils (W fuzz) have been measured for the first time using Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD). Fuzzy and non-fuzzy W surfaces were analyzed in order to illuminate the role of He in the transition in surface morphologies. Samples grown in the PISCES-A and PILOT-PSI experiments allowed a survey of surface temperature ranging from T s = 470–2595 K and of He fluence on the order of Φ He ∼ 10 24 –10 27 ions/m 2 . He concentrations measured in the bulk of W fuzz layers are roughly uniform with bulk He concentration 1–4 at.% while samples with just He in the near surface peaked at 1–2 at.%. This confirms that the nano-tendrils are filled with high pressure He bubbles since the solubility of He in W is ∼10 −5 at.%. This indicates that the ∼1000 K temperature fuzz-growth threshold is determined by the response of the W, not the near-surface He concentration

  8. Range calculations for spallation recoils in ThF4 by use of the computer code 'Marlowe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmeier, W.; Roessler, K.

    1978-12-01

    The determination of cross sections of spallation reactions requires a knowledge of the target thickness since only the products recoiling from the target are measured and their yield depends on the range. The effective target thickness is a function of the projectile's Z, A and spallation recoil energy and, thus, varies for the individual products. The computer code MARLOWE was used to evaluate energy vs. range curves in the binary collisions approximation. The program was extended to the high energy regime taking into account the stripping of electrons from the projectile and the concomitant changes in the interaction potentials especially for the inelastic part of the collisions. A complementary computer program LATTIC was developed for the parameterization of the lattice description. This code enables the application of MARLOWE to target materials with complicated crystallographic structure. Test calculations for a series of projectile/target combinations showed a reasonable agreement with experimental recoil ranges of Pd, Ag, Os and Ir isotopes from proton induced spallation in Ag, In and Pb targets, respectively. MARLOWE was then applied to calculate product ranges of the 232 Th(p,spall)X-reaction in the ployatomic system ThF 4 . The calculated energy vs. range curves enabled the evaluation of the mean spallation recoil ranges for all possible products, e.g. 170.8 μg/cm 2 for 192 Tl, 115.2 μg/cm 2 for 208 At and 37.1 μg/cm 2 for 223 Ac. (orig.)

  9. Scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F; Badertscher, A; Benetti, P; Bernardini, E; Bettini, A; Borio di Tigliole, A A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A G; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, M; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, Sandro; Cesana, A; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Ferrari, A; Gigli-Berzolari, A; Matthey, C; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, Adriano; Petrera, S; Periale, L; Piano Mortari, G; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, André; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D A; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Tian, W; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, Z

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a test done with a Liquid Xenon (LXe) detector for 'Dark Matter' search, exposed to a neutron beam to produce nuclear recoil events simulating those which would be generated by WIMP's elastic scattering. The aim of the experiment was to measure directly the scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil. The nuclear recoil considered in the test was in the tens of keV range. The ratio of measured visible energy over the true recoil energy was evaluated to be about 20%, in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate differences between the X- and Z-cuts

    CERN Document Server

    Nekvindova, P; Cervena, J; Budnar, M; Razpet, A; Zorko, B; Pelicon, P; 10.1016/S0925-3467(01)00186-0

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes results and assessments of our systematic fabrication and characterization of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides in lithium niobate. This study focused on different behavior of crystallographically diverse X(1120) and Z (0001) substrate cuts during waveguide fabrication, and differences in characteristics of the resulting waveguides. Non-toxic adipic acid was used as a proton source, and the waveguides properties were defined by mode spectroscopy (waveguide characteristics) and neutron depth profiling (NDP, lithium concentration and distribution), infrared vibration spectra and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, concentration and depth distribution of hydrogen). It was discovered that the X-cut structure is more permeable for moving particles (lithium and hydrogen ions), which leads to a higher effectiveness of the PE process within the X-cut. The explanation of this phenomenon is based on fitting X-cut orientation towards cleavage planes of lithium niobate c...

  11. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jiayin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Center for Future High Energy Physics; Li, Ying-Ying [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Physics

    2017-10-15

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process (e{sup +}e{sup -}→ν anti νh) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z (e{sup +}e{sup -}→hZ, Z→ν anti ν). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, m{sup p}{sub recoil}, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can better separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events than the original recoil mass variable m{sub recoil}. Consequently, the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies.

  12. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  13. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, G. E-mail: glaurent@ganil.fr; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A

    2003-05-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O{sup 6+} + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O{sup 4+} (1s{sup 2}nln{sup '}l{sup '}) populated after double electron-capture events.

  14. Chemical effects of fission recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisels, G.G.; Freeman, J.P.; Gregory, J.P.; Richardson, W.C.; Sroka, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The production of nitrogen from nitrous oxide at high density was employed to investigate the energy deposition efficiency of fission recoils produced from fission of U 235 in uranium-palladium foils clad with platinum. Nitrogen production varied linearly with fission recoil dose from 1.1 x 10 20 to 9.0 x 10 20 eV, and was independent of density between 12.5 and 127.5 g l -1 N 2 O. 16.2 +- 0.8% of the fission recoil energy was deposited external to the foil. Electron microprobe analysis showed some unevenness of new foil and polymer buildup on the surface after irradiation of ethylene-oxygen mixtures. Subsequent irradiation in the presence of nitrous oxide restored some of the original efficiency. This is ascribed to chemical oxidation of the polymer induced by reactive intermediates produced from nitrous oxide. (author)

  15. Quasi-free knockout reactions with the proton-dripline nucleus {sup 17}Ne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamers, Felix; Aumann, Thomas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU, Darmstadt (Germany); Heil, Michael [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Marganiec, Justyna [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Plag, Ralf [Kernreaktionen und Nukleare Astrophysik, GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe Universitaet, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    {sup 17}Ne is a proton-dripline nucleus that has raised special interest in nuclear-structure physics in recent years. As a ({sup 15}O+2p) Borromean 3-body system, it is often considered to be a 2-proton-halo nucleus, yet lacking concluding experimental evidence about its structure. We have studied breakup reactions of 500 AMeV {sup 17}Ne secondary beams using the R{sup 3}B-LAND setup at GSI. One focus was on the quasi-free one-proton knockout in a proton-rich paraffin (CH{sub 2}) target in inverse kinematics, i.e., {sup 17}Ne(p,2p){sup 16}F{yields}{sup 15}O+p, in comparison to the one-proton knockout with a carbon target. Recoil protons have been detected with Si-Strip detectors and the surrounding 4{pi} NaI spectrometer ''Crystal Ball'', thus providing a clean signature for quasi-free knockout. First results on two-proton removal cross sections with CH{sub 2} and C targets will be presented, as well as transverse momentum distributions of the {sup 15}O core in {sup 17}Ne. Projectile-like forward protons after one-proton knockout from {sup 17}Ne have been measured in coincidence with the {sup 15}O residual core, leading to the relative-energy spectrum of the unbound {sup 16}F. Possible interpretations and implications regarding the structure of {sup 17}Ne are discussed.

  16. An Evaluation of Magneto Rheological Dampers for Controlling Gun Recoil Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of magneto rheological dampers for controlling recoil dynamics is examined, using a recoil demonstrator that includes a single-shot 50 caliber BMG rifle action and a MR damper. The demonstrator is selected such that it can adequately represent the velocities that commonly occur in weapons with a recoil system, and can be used for collecting data for analyzing the effects of MR dampers on recoil dynamics. The MR damper is designed so that it can work effectively at the large velocities commonly occurring in gun recoil, and also be easily adjusted to reasonably optimize the damper performance for the recoil demonstrator. The test results show that it is indeed possible to design and use MR dampers for recoil applications, which subject the damper to relative velocities far larger than the applications that such dampers have commonly been used for (i.e., vehicle applications. Further, the results indicate that the recoil force increases and the recoil stroke decreases nonlinearly with an increase in the damping force. Also of significance is the fact that the adjustability of MR dampers can be used in a closed-loop system such that the large recoil forces that commonly occur upon firing the gun are avoided and, simultaneously, the recoil stroke is reduced. This study points to the need for several areas of research including establishing the performance capabilities for MR dampers for gun recoil applications in an exact manner, and the potential use of such dampers for a fire out of battery recoil system.

  17. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  18. Analysis of hard exclusive scattering processes of the HERMES recoil experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodski, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Deeply virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), ep → epγ is the simplest reaction giving indication of generalized parton distributions (GPD) of the nucleon. The DVCS process has the same final state as the Bethe-Heitler process (BH). For this reason the access is taken not through the cross-sections directly but through asymmetries between DVCS events depending on charge and polarization of the 27.6 GeV beam. For the first time the azimuthal asymmetry amplitudes according the charge of the lepton beam are extracted using a kinematically complete reconstruction method at the HERMES experiment. The recoil detector installed in 2006 allows the reconstruction of recoiling protons that completes the measurements of the forward detector to cover almost the complete angle range around the vertex. This approach allows suppressing the background processes by almost a complete magnitude compared to the traditional method using only the information of the forward spectrometer. The analysis of the asymmetries was carried out at different values of the kinematic variables t c' x B and Q 2 to investigate the dependence of these variables. This work pushes the limits of the readability of data and shows which periods have been found to be unstable in the data acquisition. It points out the impact of this finding to previous HERMES publications.

  19. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Ying-Ying

    2018-02-01

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}{{h}}) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{hZ}},{{Z}}\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, {m}{{recoil}}p, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events better than the original recoil mass variable m recoil. Consequently, the {m}{{recoil}}p variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the {m}{{recoil}}p variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies. JG is Supported by an International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program between the Office of the National Administrative Committee of Postdoctoral Researchers of China (ONACPR) and DESY. YYL is Supported by Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (HKPFS) and the Collaborative Research Fund (CRF) (HUKST4/CRF/13G)

  20. Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)

  1. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harinder J; Wereley, Norman M

    2014-01-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events. (paper)

  2. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events.

  3. Detection of exclusive reactions in the Hermes Recoil Fiber Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keri, Tibor

    2008-08-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes successfully the fundamental constituents and forces in our world; nevertheless, many details of the subatomic world are still beyond the scope of theoretical predictions. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it was found that the nucleon spin budget, i.e. the composition of the nucleon spin by the spin and orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons is not yet understood. It has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A recently developed formalism allows to describe the internal structure of the nucleon by so-called GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) in a more complete way than the previously used PDFs (Parton Density Functions). The GPDs are linked by the Ji sum rule to the angular momentum contributions of quarks and gluons. These GPDs can be accessed by the investigation of hard exclusive reactions. DVCS (deeply virtual Compton scattering) is the cleanest exclusive reaction to determine some of these distributions, using lepton beams with different helicity states and charges. HERMES (HERA measurements of spin) is one of the experiments which were carried out to complete the information about the nucleon spin budget. It is located at HERA which is an e ± -p-collider at DESY but uses only the polarized electron- and positron-beam, which is scattered off a gaseous internal target. The HERMES forward spectrometer consists of a set of detectors that are used for tracking, while another set of detectors provides information on particle identification and triggering. In the first phase of HERMES, only forward going particles were detected. Exclusive reactions have been measured using a missing invariant mass technique. In order to improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables the HERMES collaboration decided to remove the equipment for the polarized target and to install the RD

  4. Detection of exclusive reactions in the Hermes Recoil Fiber Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keri, Tibor

    2008-08-15

    The standard model of particle physics describes successfully the fundamental constituents and forces in our world; nevertheless, many details of the subatomic world are still beyond the scope of theoretical predictions. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it was found that the nucleon spin budget, i.e. the composition of the nucleon spin by the spin and orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons is not yet understood. It has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A recently developed formalism allows to describe the internal structure of the nucleon by so-called GPDs (Generalized Parton Distributions) in a more complete way than the previously used PDFs (Parton Density Functions). The GPDs are linked by the Ji sum rule to the angular momentum contributions of quarks and gluons. These GPDs can be accessed by the investigation of hard exclusive reactions. DVCS (deeply virtual Compton scattering) is the cleanest exclusive reaction to determine some of these distributions, using lepton beams with different helicity states and charges. HERMES (HERA measurements of spin) is one of the experiments which were carried out to complete the information about the nucleon spin budget. It is located at HERA which is an e{sup {+-}}-p-collider at DESY but uses only the polarized electron- and positron-beam, which is scattered off a gaseous internal target. The HERMES forward spectrometer consists of a set of detectors that are used for tracking, while another set of detectors provides information on particle identification and triggering. In the first phase of HERMES, only forward going particles were detected. Exclusive reactions have been measured using a missing invariant mass technique. In order to improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables the HERMES collaboration decided to remove the equipment for the polarized target and to install

  5. Hydrogen depth resolution in multilayer metal structures, comparison of elastic recoil detection and resonant nuclear reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S. E-mail: leszekw@optushome.com.au; Grambole, D.; Kreissig, U.; Groetzschel, R.; Harding, G.; Szilagyi, E

    2002-05-01

    Four different metals: Al, Cu, Ag and Au have been used to produce four special multilayer samples to study the depth resolution of hydrogen. The layer structure of each sample was analysed using 2 MeV He Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, 4.5 MeV He elastic recoil detection (ERD) and 30 MeV F{sup 6+} HIERD. Moreover the hydrogen distribution was analysed in all samples using H({sup 15}N, {alpha}{gamma}){sup 12}C nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with resonance at 6.385 MeV. The results show that the best depth resolution and sensitivity for hydrogen detection are offered by resonance NRA. The He ERD shows good depth resolution only for the near surface hydrogen. In this technique the depth resolution is rapidly reduced with depth due to multiple scattering effects. The 30 MeV F{sup 6+} HIERD demonstrated similar hydrogen depth resolution to He ERD for low mass metals and HIERD resolution is substantially better for heavy metals and deep layers.

  6. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z C; Wang, J

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment. (paper)

  7. Monte carlo calculation of energy deposition and ionization yield for high energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.; McDonald, J.C.; Coyne, J.J.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Recent calculations of event size spectra for neutrons use a continuous slowing down approximation model for the energy losses experienced by secondary charged particles (protons and alphas) and thus do not allow for straggling effects. Discrepancies between the calculations and experimental measurements are thought to be, in part, due to the neglect of straggling. A tractable way of including stochastics in radiation transport calculations is via the Monte Carlo method and a number of efforts directed toward simulating positive ion track structure have been initiated employing this technique. Recent results obtained with our updated and extended MOCA code for charged particle track structure are presented here. Major emphasis has been on calculating energy deposition and ionization yield spectra for recoil proton crossers since they are the most prevalent event type at high energies (>99% at 14 MeV) for small volumes. Neutron event-size spectra can be obtained from them by numerical summing and folding techniques. Data for ionization yield spectra are presented for simulated recoil protons up to 20 MeV in sites of diameters 2-1000 nm

  8. Neutron-proton elastic diffusion study at low transfer between 400-1000 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellers, F.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis presents the first complete results of forward differential cross-section, over the entire range of the intermediate energies, in the neutron-proton system. The neutron beam is produced with the synchrotron Saturne II, using the reaction of deuteron break-up, which gives it a relatively high intensity and a small energy dispersion. The experimental apparatus is a drift ionization chamber, IKAR, filled with high pressure gas which plays the double role of target and detector of the recoil proton. The use of a neutral beam requires new procedures in the analysis, more elaborate than in the case of charged projectiles, where scattered particles were detected in coincidence in wire chambers. The results are then normalized and discussed, using a phenomenological parametrization, and integrated in a continuously energy-dependent phase-shifts analysis. An entirely analytic Glauber calculation allows us to estimate the validity of the normalization method [fr

  9. Proton detection in the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, Christian [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18 (Germany); Collaboration: PENeLOPE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Although neutron lifetime plays an important role in the Standard Model of particle physics, τ{sub n} is not very precisely know and often discussed. The official PDG mean value has been lowered during the last years by more than 6σ to the new value of 880.3 ± 1.1 s. The new precision experiment PENeLOPE, which is currently developed at Technische Universitaet Muenchen, will help to clear this up. Ultra-cold neutrons are lossless stored in a magneto-gravitational trap, formed by superconducting coils. The combined determination of τ{sub n} by counting the surviving neutrons after each storage cycle on one side and in-situ detection of the decay protons on the other side together with a very good handle on systematic errors leads to an unprecedented precision of the neutron lifetime value of 0.1s. This contribution will give an overview of the challenges concerning proton detection under the exceptional requirements of this experiment. The developed concept of using avalanche photodiodes for direct proton detection will be presented as well as results from first measurements with a prototype detector read out by particular developed electronics.

  10. A new recoil distance technique using low energy coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rother, W., E-mail: wolfram.rother@googlemail.com [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Dewald, A.; Pascovici, G.; Fransen, C.; Friessner, G.; Hackstein, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Ilie, G. [Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Iwasaki, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Jolie, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Melon, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) I-50019 (Italy); Petkov, P. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); INRNE-BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Pfeiffer, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Pissulla, Th. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Robert-Schuman-Platz 3, D - 53175 Bonn (Germany); Zell, K.-O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Jakobsson, U.; Julin, R.; Jones, P.; Ketelhut, S.; Nieminen, P.; Peura, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); and others

    2011-10-21

    We report on the first experiment combining the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift technique and multistep Coulomb excitation in inverse kinematics at beam energies of 3-10 A MeV. The setup involves a standard plunger device equipped with a degrader foil instead of the normally used stopper foil. An array of particle detectors is positioned at forward angles to detect target-like recoil nuclei which are used as a trigger to discriminate against excitations in the degrader foil. The method has been successfully applied to measure lifetimes in {sup 128}Xe and is suited to be a useful tool for experiments with radioactive ion beams.

  11. Scintillating anticoincidence detection elements design and tests with muons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliot, M.; Chabaud, J.; Baronick, J.P.; Colonges, S.; Laurent, P.

    2010-01-01

    Design, construction and tests of anticoincidence detection elements are presented. Initially planned to be used as active shielding parts of the anticoincidence detector of the Simbol-X mission, they are aimed to detect cosmic protons and provide veto signal against charged-particle background induced on imaging detectors. The sample is made of a scintillator plate into which grooves are machined and waveshifting fibers glued. The fibers are connected to multianode photomultiplier (PM) tubes. The tubes characteristics have been evaluated for this application. The device has been tested with atmospheric muons that deposit similar energy to that of cosmic protons thanks to a specially designed muon telescope also described in this paper. Tests have also been performed with protons of a tandem accelerator beam line. The response is on average above 10 photoelectrons, which is not complicated to detect, which allows very good detection efficiency as well as very good ability to reject noise. In addition many evolution and performance improvements appear possible.

  12. Scintillating anticoincidence detection elements design and tests with muons and protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliot, M.; Chabaud, J.; Baronick, J. P.; Colonges, S.; Laurent, P.

    2010-09-01

    Design, construction and tests of anticoincidence detection elements are presented. Initially planned to be used as active shielding parts of the anticoincidence detector of the Simbol-X mission, they are aimed to detect cosmic protons and provide veto signal against charged-particle background induced on imaging detectors. The sample is made of a scintillator plate into which grooves are machined and waveshifting fibers glued. The fibers are connected to multianode photomultiplier (PM) tubes. The tubes characteristics have been evaluated for this application. The device has been tested with atmospheric muons that deposit similar energy to that of cosmic protons thanks to a specially designed muon telescope also described in this paper. Tests have also been performed with protons of a tandem accelerator beam line. The response is on average above 10 photoelectrons, which is not complicated to detect, which allows very good detection efficiency as well as very good ability to reject noise. In addition many evolution and performance improvements appear possible.

  13. Scintillating anticoincidence detection elements design and tests with muons and protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliot, M., E-mail: mickael.gilliot@univ-reims.f [Laboratoire APC, AstroParticules and Cosmologie, Batiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Chabaud, J.; Baronick, J.P.; Colonges, S. [Laboratoire APC, AstroParticules and Cosmologie, Batiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Laurent, P. [Laboratoire APC, AstroParticules and Cosmologie, Batiment Condorcet, 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); CEA/DSM/Irfu/SAp, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2010-09-21

    Design, construction and tests of anticoincidence detection elements are presented. Initially planned to be used as active shielding parts of the anticoincidence detector of the Simbol-X mission, they are aimed to detect cosmic protons and provide veto signal against charged-particle background induced on imaging detectors. The sample is made of a scintillator plate into which grooves are machined and waveshifting fibers glued. The fibers are connected to multianode photomultiplier (PM) tubes. The tubes characteristics have been evaluated for this application. The device has been tested with atmospheric muons that deposit similar energy to that of cosmic protons thanks to a specially designed muon telescope also described in this paper. Tests have also been performed with protons of a tandem accelerator beam line. The response is on average above 10 photoelectrons, which is not complicated to detect, which allows very good detection efficiency as well as very good ability to reject noise. In addition many evolution and performance improvements appear possible.

  14. Recoil effects in multiphoton electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kaminski, J. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Triply differential probability rates for electron-positron pair creation in laser-nucleus collisions, calculated within the S-matrix approach, are investigated as functions of the nuclear recoil. Pronounced enhancements of differential probability rates of multiphoton pair production are found for a nonzero momentum transfer from the colliding nucleus. The corresponding rates show a very dramatic dependence on the polarization of the laser field impinging on the nucleus; only for a linearly polarized light are the multiphoton rates for electron-positron pair production considerably large. We focus therefore on this case. Our numerical results for different geometries of the reaction particles demonstrate that, for the linearly polarized laser field of an infinite extent (which is a good approximation for femtosecond laser pulses), the pair creation is far more efficient if the nucleus is detected in the direction of the laser-field propagation. The corresponding angular distributions of the created particles show that the high-energy pairs are predominantly produced in the plane spanned by the polarization vector and the laser-field propagation direction, while the low-energy pairs are rather spread around the latter of the two directions. The enhancement of differential probability rates at each energy sector, defined by the four-momentum conservation relation, is observed with varying the energy of the produced particles. The total probability rates of pair production are also evaluated and compared with the corresponding results for the case when one disregards the recoil effect. A tremendous enhancement of the total probability rates of the electron-positron pair creation is observed if one takes into account the nuclear recoil.

  15. Empirical assessment of the detection efficiency of CR-39 at high proton fluence and a compact, proton detector for high-fluence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mrosenbe@mit.edu; Séguin, F. H.; Waugh, C. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Orozco, D.; Frenje, J. A.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Hohenberger, M.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors are widely used in physics and in many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, and under ideal conditions these detectors have 100% detection efficiency for ∼0.5–8 MeV protons. When the fluence of incident particles becomes too high, overlap of particle tracks leads to under-counting at typical processing conditions (5 h etch in 6N NaOH at 80 °C). Short etch times required to avoid overlap can cause under-counting as well, as tracks are not fully developed. Experiments have determined the minimum etch times for 100% detection of 1.7–4.3-MeV protons and established that for 2.4-MeV protons, relevant for detection of DD protons, the maximum fluence that can be detected using normal processing techniques is ≲3 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}. A CR-39-based proton detector has been developed to mitigate issues related to high particle fluences on ICF facilities. Using a pinhole and scattering foil several mm in front of the CR-39, proton fluences at the CR-39 are reduced by more than a factor of ∼50, increasing the operating yield upper limit by a comparable amount.

  16. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  17. Solid-state NMR analysis of membrane proteins and protein aggregates by proton detected spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Donghua H.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Berthold, Deborah A.; Comellas, Gemma; Sperling, Lindsay J.; Tang, Ming; Shah, Gautam J.; Brea, Elliott J.; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state NMR has emerged as an important tool for structural biology and chemistry, capable of solving atomic-resolution structures for proteins in membrane-bound and aggregated states. Proton detection methods have been recently realized under fast magic-angle spinning conditions, providing large sensitivity enhancements for efficient examination of uniformly labeled proteins. The first and often most challenging step of protein structure determination by NMR is the site-specific resonance assignment. Here we demonstrate resonance assignments based on high-sensitivity proton-detected three-dimensional experiments for samples of different physical states, including a fully-protonated small protein (GB1, 6 kDa), a deuterated microcrystalline protein (DsbA, 21 kDa), a membrane protein (DsbB, 20 kDa) prepared in a lipid environment, and the extended core of a fibrillar protein (α-synuclein, 14 kDa). In our implementation of these experiments, including CONH, CO(CA)NH, CANH, CA(CO)NH, CBCANH, and CBCA(CO)NH, dipolar-based polarization transfer methods have been chosen for optimal efficiency for relatively high protonation levels (full protonation or 100 % amide proton), fast magic-angle spinning conditions (40 kHz) and moderate proton decoupling power levels. Each H–N pair correlates exclusively to either intra- or inter-residue carbons, but not both, to maximize spectral resolution. Experiment time can be reduced by at least a factor of 10 by using proton detection in comparison to carbon detection. These high-sensitivity experiments are especially important for membrane proteins, which often have rather low expression yield. Proton-detection based experiments are expected to play an important role in accelerating protein structure elucidation by solid-state NMR with the improved sensitivity and resolution.

  18. Recoil momenta distributions in the double photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Liverts, E Z; Drukarev, E G; Mikhai, A I

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the distributions in recoil momenta for the high energy double photoionization of helium caused by quasifree mechanism. The distributions obtain local maxima at small values of the recoil momenta. This agrees with earlier predictions and recent experimental data. Angular correlations which reach the largest value for 'back-to-back' configuration of photoelectrons are also obtained.

  19. Neutron Fluence and Energy Reconstruction with the LNE-IRSN/MIMAC Recoil Detector MicroTPC at 27 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Querre, Ph. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, site of Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bosson, G.; Guillaudin, O.; Muraz, J.F.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie - LPSCCNRSIN2P3/ UJF/INP, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), designated by the French Metrology Institute (LNE) for neutron metrology, is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: microTPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 5 MeV with a primary procedure. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulation of the detector response. The μTPC is a new reliable detector able to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without unfolding procedure or prior neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The microTPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27 keV and 144 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector response simulation. This work

  20. Proton detection for signal enhancement in solid-state NMR experiments on mobile species in membrane proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Meaghan E.; Ritz, Emily [University of Guelph, Department of Physics (Canada); Ahmed, Mumdooh A. M. [Suez University, The Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Egypt); Bamm, Vladimir V.; Harauz, George [University of Guelph, Biophysics Interdepartmental Group (Canada); Brown, Leonid S.; Ladizhansky, Vladimir, E-mail: vladizha@uoguelph.ca [University of Guelph, Department of Physics (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Direct proton detection is becoming an increasingly popular method for enhancing sensitivity in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Generally, these experiments require extensive deuteration of the protein, fast magic angle spinning (MAS), or a combination of both. Here, we implement direct proton detection to selectively observe the mobile entities in fully-protonated membrane proteins at moderate MAS frequencies. We demonstrate this method on two proteins that exhibit different motional regimes. Myelin basic protein is an intrinsically-disordered, peripherally membrane-associated protein that is highly flexible, whereas Anabaena sensory rhodopsin is composed of seven rigid transmembrane α-helices connected by mobile loop regions. In both cases, we observe narrow proton linewidths and, on average, a 10× increase in sensitivity in 2D insensitive nuclear enhancement of polarization transfer-based HSQC experiments when proton detection is compared to carbon detection. We further show that our proton-detected experiments can be easily extended to three dimensions and used to build complete amino acid systems, including sidechain protons, and obtain inter-residue correlations. Additionally, we detect signals which do not correspond to amino acids, but rather to lipids and/or carbohydrates which interact strongly with membrane proteins.

  1. Line-narrowing in proton-detected nitrogen-14 NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavadini, Simone; Vitzthum, Veronika; Ulzega, Simone; Abraham, Anuji; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In solids spinning at the magic angle, the indirect detection of single-quantum (SQ) and double-quantum (DQ) 14N spectra ( I = 1) via spy nuclei S = 1/2 such as protons can be achieved in the manner of heteronuclear single- or multiple-quantum correlation (HSQC or HMQC) spectroscopy. The HMQC method relies on the excitation of two-spin coherences of the type T11IT11S and T21IT11S at the beginning of the evolution interval t1. The spectra obtained by Fourier transformation from t1 to ω1 may be broadened by the homogenous decay of the transverse terms of the spy nuclei S. This broadening is mostly due to homonuclear dipolar S- S' interactions between the proton spy nuclei. In this work we have investigated the possibility of inserting rotor-synchronized symmetry-based C or R sequences and decoupling schemes such as Phase-Modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) sequences in the evolution period. These schemes reduce the homonuclear proton-proton interactions and lead to an enhancement of the resolution of both SQ and DQ proton-detected 14N HMQC spectra. In addition, we have investigated the combination of HSQC with symmetry-based sequences and PMLG and shown that the highest resolution in the 14N dimension is achieved by using HSQC in combination with symmetry-based sequences of the R-type. We show improvements in resolution in samples of L-alanine and the tripeptide ala-ala-gly (AAG). In particular, for L-alanine the width of the 14N SQ peak is reduced from 2 to 1.2 kHz, in agreement with simulations. We report accurate measurements of quadrupolar coupling constants and asymmetry parameters for amide 14N in AAG peptide bonds.

  2. Time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Ion scattering and recoiling spectrometry consists of directing a collimated beam of monoenergetic ions towards a surface and measuring the flux of scattered and recoiled particles from this surface. When the neutral plus ion flux is velocity selected by measuring the flight times from the sample to the detector, the technique is called time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry (TOF-SARS). TOF-SARS is capable of (1) surface elemental analysis by applying classical mechanics to the velocities of the particles, (2) surface structural analysis by monitoring the angular anisotropies in the particle flux, and (3) ion-surface electron exchange probabilities by analysis of the ion/neutral fractions in the particle flux. Examples of these three areas are presented herein

  3. Nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Collatz, R; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Folger, H; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Blunt, D; Durell, JL; Varley, BJ; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; JONES, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Amzal, N; Meliani, Z; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Passoja, A; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    The main features of nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers used in nuclear spectroscopic investigations involving in-beam multi-e-gamma spectrometers are discussed. The relative importance of the F-ray background due to the accelerated ion-target and the recoil-ion-target

  4. In-situ, real-time, studies of film growth processes using ion scattering and direct recoil spectroscopy techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smentkowski, V. S.

    1999-04-22

    Time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) enables the characterization of the composition and structure of surfaces with 1-2 monolayer specificity. It will be shown that surface analysis is possible at ambient pressures greater than 3 mTorr using TOF-ISARS techniques; allowing for real-time, in situ studies of film growth processes. TOF-ISARS comprises three analytical techniques: ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which detects the backscattered primary ion beam; direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), which detects the surface species recoiled into the forward scattering direction; and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), which is 3 variant of DRS capable of isotopic resolution for all surface species--including H and He. The advantages and limitations of each of these techniques will be discussed. The use of the three TOF-ISARS methods for real-time, in situ film growth studies at high ambient pressures will be illustrated. It will be shown that MSRI analysis is possible during sputter deposition. It will be also be demonstrated that the analyzer used for MSRI can also be used for time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) under high vacuum conditions. The use of a single analyzer to perform the complimentary surface analytical techniques of MSRI and SIMS is unique. The dwd functionality of the MSRI analyzer provides surface information not obtained when either MSRI or SIMS is used independently.

  5. Recoil separators for radiative capture using radioactive ion beams. Recent advances and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Chris [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Greife, Uwe; Hager, Ulrike [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Radiative capture reactions involving the fusion of hydrogen or helium are ubiquitous in the stellar history of the universe, and are some of the most important reactions in the processes that govern nucleosynthesis and energy generation in both static and explosive scenarios. However, radiative capture reactions pose some of the most difficult experimental challenges due to extremely small cross sections. With the advent of recoil separators and techniques in inverse kinematics, it is now possible to measure radiative capture reactions on very short-lived radioactive nuclei, and in the presence of high experimental backgrounds. In this paper we review the experimental needs for making measurements of astrophysical importance on radiative capture reactions. We also review some of the important historical advances in the field of recoil separators as well as describe current techniques and performance milestones, including descriptions of some of the separators most recently working at radioactive ion beam facilities, such as DRAGON at TRIUMF and the DRS at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility. We will also summarize some of the scientific highlight measurements at the RIB facilities. (orig.)

  6. The effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton spectrum in free neutron β-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.

    2000-01-01

    In the β decay of an unpolarized free neutron, the effect of electromagnetic interactions on the proton recoil spectrum is studied in the light of the experiments which are carried out and planned for now. The corrections to the energy distribution of protons prove to amount to the value of a few per cent. Nowadays, this is substantial for obtaining with a high accuracy, of ∼ 1% or better, the characteristics of weak interactions by processing the data of the experiments on the proton distribution in the free neutron β-decay

  7. Solar neutrinos as a signal and background in direct-detection experiments searching for sub-GeV dark matter with electron recoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven; Sholapurkar, Mukul; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2018-05-01

    Direct-detection experiments sensitive to low-energy electron recoils from sub-GeV dark matter interactions will also be sensitive to solar neutrinos via coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering (CNS), since the recoiling nucleus can produce a small ionization signal. Solar neutrinos constitute both an interesting signal in their own right and a potential background to a dark matter search that cannot be controlled or reduced by improved shielding, material purification and handling, or improved detector design. We explore these two possibilities in detail for semiconductor (silicon and germanium) and xenon targets, considering several possibilities for the unmeasured ionization efficiency at low energies. For dark-matter-electron-scattering searches, neutrinos start being an important background for exposures larger than ˜1 - 10 kg -years in silicon and germanium, and for exposures larger than ˜0.1 - 1 kg -year in xenon. For the absorption of bosonic dark matter (dark photons and axion-like particles) by electrons, neutrinos are most relevant for masses below ˜1 keV and again slightly more important in xenon. Treating the neutrinos as a signal, we find that the CNS of 8B neutrinos can be observed with ˜2 σ significance with exposures of ˜2 , 7, and 20 kg-years in xenon, germanium, and silicon, respectively, assuming there are no other backgrounds. We give an example for how this would constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions. Neutrino components at lower energy can only be detected if the ionization efficiency is sufficiently large. In this case, observing pep neutrinos via CNS requires exposures ≳10 - 100 kg -years in silicon or germanium (˜1000 kg -years in xenon), and observing CNO neutrinos would require an order of magnitude more exposure. Only silicon could potentially detect 7Be neutrinos. These measurements would allow for a direct measurement of the electron-neutrino survival probability over a wide energy range.

  8. Recoil effects of neutron-irradiated metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of sup(56)Mn and sup(38)Cl recoil species following radiative neutron capture permanganates, chlorates and perchlorates has been investigated by using ion-exchange chromatography method. The whole of the sup(56)Mn radioactivity in permanganates appeared in two valence states, the sup(38)Cl radioactivity in chlorates in two valence states and also the sup(38)Cl radioactivity in perchlorates in three valence states. Recoil energy was calculated. The internal conversion of sup(38m)Cl isomer transition affects the retention value. The greater the radii of the cation, the higher is the probability of the recoil atom breaking through the secondary cage. In ammonium salt, the ammonium ion behaves as a reducing agent. Crystal structures with their greater free space have shown by retention. (Author)

  9. Cross sections for pion, proton, and heavy-ion production from 800 MeV protons incident upon aluminum and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicello, J.F. (Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (USA)); Schillaci, M.E.; Liu Lonchang (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    When high-energy cosmic rays interact with electronics or other materials in a spacecraft, including the occupants themselves, pions are produced as secondary particles. These secondary pions interact further in the materials producing nuclear secondaries, including nuclear recoils and heavy-ion tertiaries. The secondary pions and the the tertiary particles are capable of producing single-event upsets and other damage in integrated circuits and damage in biological systems. Negative pions stopping in materials are particularly effective because of their unique ability to produce short-range heavy particles from pion stars. With the Los Alamos National Laboratory's version of the intranuclear cascade evaporation code, VEGAS, we have calculated the number of pions produced per energy interval per incident proton from 800 MeV protons on aluminum-27 and silicon-28 along with corresponding results for neutrons, protons, and heavier ions. (orig.).

  10. Astrophysical limitations to the identification of dark matter: Indirect neutrino signals vis-a-vis direct detection recoil rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    A convincing identification of dark matter (DM) particles can probably be achieved only through a combined analysis of different detections strategies, which provides an effective way of removing degeneracies in the parameter space of DM models. In practice, however, this program is made complicated by the fact that different strategies depend on different physical quantities, or on the same quantities but in a different way, making the treatment of systematic errors rather tricky. We discuss here the uncertainties on the recoil rate in direct-detection experiments and on the muon rate induced by neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Sun, and we show that, contrarily to the local DM density or overall cross section scale, irreducible astrophysical uncertainties affect the two rates in a different fashion, therefore limiting our ability to reconstruct the parameters of the dark matter particles. By varying within their respective errors astrophysical parameters such as the escape velocity and the velocity dispersion of dark matter particles, we show that the uncertainty on the relative strength of the neutrino and direct-detection signal is as large as a factor of 2 for typical values of the parameters, but can be even larger in some circumstances.

  11. Heavy quark symmetry at large recoil: The case of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, J.G.; Kroll, P.

    1992-02-01

    We analyze the large recoil behaviour of heavy baryon transition form factors in semi-leptonic decays. We use a generalized Brodsky-Lepage hard scattering formalism where diquarks are considered as quasi-elementary constituents of baryons. In the limit of infinitely heavy quark masses the large recoil form factors exhibit a new model-independent heavy quark symmetry which is reminiscent but not identical to the Isgur-Wise symmetry at low recoil. (orig.)

  12. Fine Structure in Proton Emission from the Deformed 141g.sHo and 141mHo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karny, M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Grzywacz, R.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Goodin, C. T.; Gross, Carl J.; Hamilton, J.H.; Korgul, A.; Krolas, W.; Liddick, S. N.; Li, K.; Maier, Karl; Mazzocchi, C.; Piechaczek, A.; Shapira, Dan; Simpson, D.; Tantawy, M.N.; Winger, J.A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Zganjar, E. F.

    2007-01-01

    Fine structure in proton emission from the deformed states 141g.s Ho (T 1/2 = 4.1 ms) and 141 mHo (T 1/2 = 7.4 (micro)s) has been discovered at Oak Ridge by detecting fusion evaporation residues with the Recoil Mass Spectrometer, Si-detectors and digital signal processing electronics. The branching ratios to the first 2 + excited state in 140 Dy were measured to be I p g.s. (2 + ) = 0.9±0.1% and I p m (2 + ) = 1.7±0.5%. A comparison of the available calculations to the experimental values calls for further development of the theoretical models

  13. Recoil release of fission products from nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical approximation is developed for calculating recoil release from nuclear fuel into gas filled interspaces. This expression is evaluated for a number of interspace geometries and shown to be generally accurate to within about 10% by comparison with numerical calculations. The results are applied to situations of physical interest and it is demonstrated that recoil can be important when modelling fission product release from low temperature CAGR pin failures. Furthermore, recoil can contribute significantly in experiments on low temperature fission product release, particularly where oxidation enhancement of this release is measured by exposing the fuel to CO 2 . The calculations presented here are one way of allowing for this, other methods are suggested. (orig.)

  14. Shallow doping of gallium arsenide by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.; Souza, J.P. de; Rutz, R.F.; Cardone, F.; Norcott, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Si atoms were recoil-implanted into GaAs by bombarding neutral (As + ) or dopant (Si + ) ions through a thin Si cap. The bombarded samples were subsequently rapid thermally or furnace annealed at 815-1000 degree C in Ar or arsine ambient. The presence of the recoiled Si in GaAs and resulting n + -doping was confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and Hall measurements. It was found that sheet resistance of 19 cm 3 and the annealing temperature was > 850 degree C. The present electrical data show that the recoil implant method is a viable alternative to direct shallow implant for n + doping of GaAs. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Integrated PC-based system for detecting and parameter monitoring at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Polyakov, A.N.; Sukhov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    New detection system of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) was put into operation in May 2012. It includes 32-strip position sensitive PIPS detector manufactured by CANBERRA NV, 24-strip back side PIPS detector, 8-strip V ETO P IPS detector, time-of-flight low pressure (∼1.7 Torr) pentane-filled gaseous detector, CAMAC fast ADC's with 5 μs dead time per three signals (energy, top position, bottom position), modified CC012 crate controller and PC-based C ++ Builder code for spectrometry data acquisition. New parameter monitoring system (project) is reported too together with the brief review of the present system. It is planned to put into operation with this system during 2013-2014. Examples of applications in the long-term experiments aimed at the synthesis of superheavy elements in 48 Ca induced complete fusion nuclear reactions are also presented. Namely with the DGFRS facility 45 new isotopes of superheavy nuclei were synthesized since 2001

  16. The Differential Cross Section and Λ Recoil Polarization from γδ -> Κ0(ρ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compton, Nicholas [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-04-30

    Presented is the analysis of the differential cross section and Λ recoil polarization from the reaction γδ -> Κ0(ρ). This work measured these observables over beam energies from 0.90 GeV to 3.0 GeV. These measurements are the first in this channel to cover such a wide range of energies. The data were taken using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB) along with a tagged photon beam. This analysis was completed by identifying events of interest that decayed into the final state topology of π-π+,π-&rho'(ρ). Through conservation of energy and momentum, the Κ0, Λ and missing mass of the spectator proton were reconstructed. Utilizing the same analysis techniques, the observables were measured on two different experiments with good agreement. Photoproduction of strange mesons from the neutron are difficult to measure, consequently there are only a few measurements of this kind. Despite that, these reactions supply essential complementary data to those on the proton. The differential cross sections and the recoil polarization extracted, span the region where new nucleon resonances have been found from studies of the reaction γρ -> Κ+Λ. Comparisons between the Κ+Λ and Κ0Λ cross section demonstrate that possible interference terms near 1900 MeV are less pronounced in the latter. This unexpected result inspired a partial wave analyses (PWA) to be fitted to the data. The fit solution shows that this measurement fostered an improvement on the knowledge of observed resonance parameters, necessary to understanding these excited states. The study of nucleon resonances is a key motivating factor since the resonance masses can be calculated from the theory of the strong nuclear force, called quantum chromodynamics, or QCD.

  17. Detecting Boosted Dark Matter from the Sun with Large Volume Neutrino Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua; /SLAC; Cui, Yanou; /Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Zhao, Yue; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2015-04-02

    We study novel scenarios where thermal dark matter (DM) can be efficiently captured in the Sun and annihilate into boosted dark matter. In models with semi-annihilating DM, where DM has a non-minimal stabilization symmetry, or in models with a multi-component DM sector, annihilations of DM can give rise to stable dark sector particles with moderate Lorentz boosts. We investigate both of these possibilities, presenting concrete models as proofs of concept. Both scenarios can yield viable thermal relic DM with masses O(1)-O(100) GeV. Taking advantage of the energetic proton recoils that arise when the boosted DM scatters off matter, we propose a detection strategy which uses large volume terrestrial detectors, such as those designed to detect neutrinos or proton decays. In particular, we propose a search for proton tracks pointing towards the Sun. We focus on signals at Cherenkov-radiation-based detectors such as Super-Kamiokande (SK) and its upgrade Hyper-Kamiokande (HK). We find that with spin-dependent scattering as the dominant DM-nucleus interaction at low energies, boosted DM can leave detectable signals at SK or HK, with sensitivity comparable to DM direct detection experiments while being consistent with current constraints. Our study provides a new search path for DM sectors with non-minimal structure.

  18. SIMULATIONS OF RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN THE VIA LACTEA HALO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, J.; Madau, P.; Diemand, J.; Kuhlen, M.; Zemp, M.

    2009-01-01

    The coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary leads to the gravitational-wave recoil of the system and its ejection from the galaxy core. We have carried out N-body simulations of the motion of a M BH = 3.7 x 10 6 M sun MBH remnant in the 'Via Lactea I' simulation, a Milky Way-sized dark matter halo. The black hole receives a recoil velocity of V kick = 80, 120, 200, 300, and 400 km s -1 at redshift 1.5, and its orbit is followed for over 1 Gyr within a 'live' host halo, subject only to gravity and dynamical friction against the dark matter background. We show that, owing to asphericities in the dark matter potential, the orbit of the MBH is highly nonradial, resulting in a significantly increased decay timescale compared to a spherical halo. The simulations are used to construct a semi-analytic model of the motion of the MBH in a time-varying triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo plus a spherical stellar bulge, where the dynamical friction force is calculated directly from the velocity dispersion tensor. Such a model should offer a realistic picture of the dynamics of kicked MBHs in situations where gas drag, friction by disk stars, and the flattening of the central cusp by the returning black hole are all negligible effects. We find that MBHs ejected with initial recoil velocities V kick ∼> 500 km s -1 do not return to the host center within a Hubble time. In a Milky Way-sized galaxy, a recoiling hole carrying a gaseous disk of initial mass ∼M BH may shine as a quasar for a substantial fraction of its 'wandering' phase. The long decay timescales of kicked MBHs predicted by this study may thus be favorable to the detection of off-nuclear quasar activity.

  19. Natural alpha recoil particle radiation and ionizing radiation sensitivities in quartz detected with EPR: implications for geochronometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, W.J.; Odom, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance EPR signals in granitic quartz samples of known age are studied. Time-integrated alpha recoil activity and EPR signal intensity are more significantly correlated than sample age and EPR signal intensity. Neutron activation analysis for internal uranium and thorium in quartz are reported. Natural germanium EPR signals are observed in pegmatitic quartz samples and one granitic quartz. Pegmatitic quartz exhibits germanium EPR center growth competing strongly with E' center growth, apparently leading to depleted natural concentrations of E' centers. Calculations of lattice vacancy accumulation associated with alpha recoil damage are presented and compared with concentrations of paramagnetic oxygen vacancies in the quartz. Based on the results reported, the potential and problems associated with dating quartz are discussed, relating both to accumulated lattice damage and the additive dose methods. (author)

  20. Submillisecond Elastic Recoil Reveals Molecular Origins of Fibrin Fiber Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E.; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin’s elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin’s mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375

  1. Measurement of the analyzing power for pion-proton elastic scattering between 471 and 687 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari-Amirmajdi, A.

    1984-01-01

    The analyzing power, A/sub N/, has been measured for π/sup +/-/p → π/sup +/-/p at 471, 547, 625, and 687 MeV/c in an angular range corresponding to -0.9 less than or equal to cos(theta)/sub cm/ less than or equal to 0.8. A polarized proton target with polarization axis normal to the scattering plane was used. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence, using a magnetic spectrometer and a wire chamber/scintillator array, except in cases where one of the particles was kinematically inaccessible. Statistical uncertainties in the data are as low as 0.02; systematic uncertainties are estimated to be less than 5%. The π - p data are characterized by large values of analyzing power, and rapid variations in the angular distribution with incident momentum. The measurements are compared with the results of existing partical wave analysis

  2. Irradiation of Methane by Recoiling Fission-Fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, G. R.; Galley, M. R. [Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    Pure methane gas (containing <0.003% oxygen and <5 mg H{sub 2}O per m{sup 3}) has been irradiated at pressures ranging from 5 to 50 atmospheres pressure and at 30{sup o}C with recoiling fission - fragments. The gas is contained in a silica ampoule of volume about 9 cm{sup 3} and which also contains a platinum cylinder coated on the inside with 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} highly enriched uranium oxide. When the ampoule is irradiated in a nuclear reactor with thermal neutrons, about half the fission-fragments recoil from the uranium and dissipate their energy in the methane. In a typical irradiation, methane at 10 atm pressure receives a dose of 5 x 10{sup 21} eV at an integrated reactor flux of 5 x 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. Neutron flux i s measured by means of a gold-foil flux monitor. The activity of the Au{sup 198} is counted in a 4 {pi} proportional counter. The irradiation products have been detected by using beta-ionization detectors for gas-phase chromatography with suitable columns. The following products have been found: hydrogen, ethane, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, iso-pentane, neo-pentane, the seven hexanes. Traces of higher hydrocarbons are undoubtedly present but the analysis of these has not been attempted. Hydrogen is present in greatest yield and the yields of the hydrocarbons decrease in the order given above. Despite previously reported yields of ethylene (G-value-0.1) from gamma and fast - electron irradiations, no ethylene or other unsaturated products have been detected in this work. It would have been possible to detect 10 ppm in the products. This is to be expected as any double bonds which may be produced would almost immediately be hydrogenated by the hydrogen present. Yields for hydrogen, ethane and propane lie within the range of values that have been reported by other workers for gamma and fast electron irradiations. (author)

  3. Search for Light Dark Matter Produced in a Proton Beam Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Remington Tyler [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological observations indicate that our universe contains dark matter (DM), yet we have no measurements of its microscopic properties. Whereas the gravitational interaction of DM is well understood, its interaction with the Standard Model is not. Direct detection experiments, the current standard, search for a nuclear recoil interaction and have a low-mass sensitivity edge of order 1 GeV. A path to detect DM with mass below 1 GeV is the use of accelerators producing boosted low-mass DM. Using neutrino detectors to search for low-mass DM is logical due to the similarity of the DM and neutrino signatures in the detector. The MiniBooNE experiment, located at Fermilab on the Booster Neutrino Beamline, has produced the first proton beam-dump light DM search results. Using dark matter scattering from nucleons 90% confidence limits were set over a large parameter space and, to allow tests of other theories, a model independent DM rate was extracted.

  4. Direct Measurement of Photon Recoil from a Levitated Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay; Gieseler, Jan; Moritz, Clemens; Dellago, Christoph; Quidant, Romain; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The momentum transfer between a photon and an object defines a fundamental limit for the precision with which the object can be measured. If the object oscillates at a frequency Ω0 , this measurement backaction adds quanta ℏΩ0 to the oscillator's energy at a rate Γrecoil, a process called photon recoil heating, and sets bounds to coherence times in cavity optomechanical systems. Here, we use an optically levitated nanoparticle in ultrahigh vacuum to directly measure Γrecoil. By means of a phase-sensitive feedback scheme, we cool the harmonic motion of the nanoparticle from ambient to microkelvin temperatures and measure its reheating rate under the influence of the radiation field. The recoil heating rate is measured for different particle sizes and for different excitation powers, without the need for cavity optics or cryogenic environments. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions and provide valuable guidance for the realization of quantum ground-state cooling protocols and the measurement of ultrasmall forces.

  5. An Antiproton Ion Collider (AIC) for Measuring Neutron and Proton Distributions in Stable and Radioactive Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, Paul

    2005-01-01

    An antiproton-ion collider is proposed to independently determine mean square radii for protons and neutrons in stable and short lived nuclei by means of antiproton absorption at medium energies. The experiment makes use of the electron ion collider complex (ELISE) of the GSI FAIR project with appropriate modifications of the electron ring to store, cool and collide antiprotons of 30 MeV energy with 740A MeV energy ions.The total absorption cross-section of antiprotons by the stored ions will be measured by detecting their loss by means of the Schottky noise spectroscopy method. Cross sections for the absorption on protons and neutrons, respectively, will be studied by detection of residual nuclei with A-1 either by the Schottky method or by analysing them in recoil detectors after the first dipole stage of the NESR following the interaction zone. With a measurement of the A-1 fragment momentum distribution, one can test the momentum wave functions of the annihilated neutron and proton, respectively. Furthermore by changing the incident ion energy the tails of neutron and proton distribution can be measured.The absorption cross section is at asymptotic energies in leading order proportional to the mean square radius of the nucleus. Predicted cross sections and luminosities show that the method is applicable to nuclei with production rates of about 105 s-1 or lower, depending on the lifetime of the ions in the NESR, and for half-lives down to 1 second

  6. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data

  7. Theoretical detection limit of PIXE analysis using 20 MeV proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keizo; Hitomi, Keitaro

    2018-02-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is usually performed using proton beams with energies in the range 2∼3 MeV because at these energies, the detection limit is low. The detection limit of PIXE analysis depends on the X-ray production cross-section, the continuous background of the PIXE spectrum and the experimental parameters such as the beam currents and the solid angle and detector efficiency of X-ray detector. Though the continuous background increases as the projectile energy increases, the cross-section of the X-ray increases as well. Therefore, the detection limit of high energy proton PIXE is not expected to increase significantly. We calculated the cross sections of continuous X-rays produced in several bremsstrahlung processes and estimated the detection limit of a 20 MeV proton PIXE analysis by modelling the Compton tail of the γ-rays produced in the nuclear reactions, and the escape effect on the secondary electron bremsstrahlung. We found that the Compton tail does not affect the detection limit when a thin X-ray detector is used, but the secondary electron bremsstrahlung escape effect does have an impact. We also confirmed that the detection limit of the PIXE analysis, when used with 4 μm polyethylene backing film and an integrated beam current of 1 μC, is 0.4∼2.0 ppm for proton energies in the range 10∼30 MeV and elements with Z = 16-90. This result demonstrates the usefulness of several 10 MeV cyclotrons for performing PIXE analysis. Cyclotrons with these properties are currently installed in positron emission tomography (PET) centers.

  8. Detection system for neutron β decay correlations in the UCNB and Nab experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broussard, L.J., E-mail: broussardlj@ornl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zeck, B.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Adamek, E.R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Baeßler, S. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Birge, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Blatnik, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Bowman, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Brandt, A.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Brown, M. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Burkhart, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Callahan, N.B. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Clayton, S.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Crawford, C. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Cude-Woods, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Currie, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Dees, E.B. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ding, X. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fomin, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Frlez, E.; Fry, J. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2017-03-21

    We describe a detection system designed for precise measurements of angular correlations in neutron β decay. The system is based on thick, large area, highly segmented silicon detectors developed in collaboration with Micron Semiconductor, Ltd. The prototype system meets specifications for β electron detection with energy thresholds below 10 keV, energy resolution of ∼3 keV FWHM, and rise time of ∼50 ns with 19 of the 127 detector pixels instrumented. Using ultracold neutrons at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, we have demonstrated the coincident detection of β particles and recoil protons from neutron β decay. The fully instrumented detection system will be implemented in the UCNB and Nab experiments to determine the neutron β decay parameters B, a, and b.

  9. Characterization of the energy distribution of neutrons generated by 5 MeV protons on a thick beryllium target at different emission angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P., E-mail: paolo.colautti@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@tin.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Introini, M.V.; Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Neutron energy spectra at different emission angles, between 0 Degree-Sign and 120 Degree-Sign from the Be(p,xn) reaction generated by a beryllium thick-target bombarded with 5 MeV protons, have been measured at the Legnaro Laboratories (LNL) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics research (INFN). A new and quite compact recoil-proton spectrometer, based on a monolithic silicon telescope, coupled to a polyethylene converter, was efficiently used with respect to the traditional Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. The measured distributions of recoil-protons were processed through an iterative unfolding algorithm in order to determine the neutron energy spectra at all the angles accounted for. The neutron energy spectrum measured at 0 Degree-Sign resulted to be in good agreement with the only one so far available at the requested energy and measured years ago with TOF technique. Moreover, the results obtained at different emission angles resulted to be consistent with detailed past measurements performed at 4 MeV protons at the same angles by TOF techniques.

  10. Proton tungsten reactions at 400 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cincheza, J.; Cohen, J.; Marin, A.

    1979-03-01

    We report from an experiment where 400 GeV protons interact with tungsten nuclei in thin wires laminated into nuclear emulsion. The mean multiplicities of black, grey and shower track producing particles are found to be 11.5+-0.4, 5.2+-0.2 and 20.0+-0.6 respectively. The correlations between different particle categories are studied and we find that the correlation between black and grey prongs is dependent on the target mass, while the correlation between the grey prongs and the shower particles are similar to the one found when lighter elements are used as targets. This provides evidence that the grey prong particles (recoiling protons) is a measure of the number of collisions inside the nucleus. (author)

  11. Approaches to proton single-event rate calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the fundamentals of proton-induced single-event upsets and of the various methods that have been developed to calculate upset rates. Two types of approaches are used based on nuclear-reaction analysis. Several aspects can be analyzed using analytic methods, but a complete description is not available. The paper presents an analytic description for the component due to elastic-scattering recoils. There have been a number of studies made using Monte Carlo methods. These can completely describe the reaction processes, including the effect of nuclear reactions occurring outside the device-sensitive volume. They have not included the elastic-scattering processes. The article describes the semiempirical approaches that are most widely used. The quality of previous upset predictions relative to space observations is discussed and leads to comments about the desired quality of future predictions. Brief sections treat the possible testing limitation due to total ionizing dose effects, the relationship of proton and heavy-ion upsets, upsets due to direct proton ionization, and relative proton and cosmic-ray upset rates

  12. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the DarkSide-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edkins, Erin Elisabeth [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2017-05-01

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a j oint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, $f_{90}$, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the $f_{90}$ distributio n of nuclear

  13. On the M\\"ossbauer effect and the rigid recoil question

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Various theories for the M\\"ossbauer rigid-recoil effect, which enables a crystal to absorb momentum but not appreciable energy, are compared. These suggest that the recoil may not be instantaneous, and that the recoil time could be used to distinguish between them. An experiment is proposed to measure this time. The idea is to use a small sphere whose outer surface is coated with an electrically charged M\\"ossbauer-active element, and then to measure the amount of energy lost due to Bremmsst...

  14. Detailed Characterization of Nuclear Recoil Pulse Shape Discrimination in the Darkside-50 Direct Dark Matter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludert, Erin Edkins

    While evidence of non-baryonic dark matter has been accumulating for decades, its exact nature continues to remain a mystery. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a well motivated candidate which appear in certain extensions of the Standard Model, independently of dark matter theory. If such particles exist, they should occasionally interact with particles of normal matter, producing a signal which may be detected. The DarkSide-50 direct dark matter experiment aims to detect the energy of recoiling argon atoms due to the elastic scattering of postulated WIMPs. In order to make such a discovery, a clear understanding of both the background and signal region is essential. This understanding requires a careful study of the detector's response to radioactive sources, which in turn requires such sources may be safely introduced into or near the detector volume and reliably removed. The CALibration Insertaion System (CALIS) was designed and built for this purpose in a joint effort between Fermi National Laboratory and the University of Hawaii. This work describes the design and testing of CALIS, its installation and commissioning at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) and the multiple calibration campaigns which have successfully employed it. As nuclear recoils produced by WIMPs are indistinguishable from those produced by neutrons, radiogenic neutrons are both the most dangerous class of background and a vital calibration source for the study of the potential WIMP signal. Prior to the calibration of DarkSide-50 with radioactive neutron sources, the acceptance region was determined by the extrapolation of nuclear recoil data from a separate, dedicated experiment, ScENE, which measured the distribution of the pulse shape discrimination parameter, f 90, for nuclear recoils of known energies. This work demonstrates the validity of the extrapolation of ScENE values to DarkSide-50, by direct comparison of the f90 distribution of nuclear recoils from Sc

  15. Multiplicity fluctuations of pions and protons at SPS energy – An in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but none of them can explain all the datasets simultaneously. ... in a collision, a new parameter named as 'compound multiplicity' (nc = ng + ns ... sion plates by 32S beam with 200 A GeV incident energy at CERN SPS. ... (b) Grey particles: They are mainly fast target recoil protons with energy up to ..... occurs reverse result.

  16. Localized proton MR spectroscopic detection of nonketotic hyperglycinemia in an infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Yoon, Jong Hyun [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a rare metabolic brain disease caused by deficient activity of the glycine cleveage system. Localized proton MR spectroscopy (echo-time 166 msec), performed in an infant with the typical clinical and biochemical features of neonatal NKH, showed a markedly increased peak intensity at 3.55 ppm, which was assigned to glycine. Serial proton MR spectrosocpic studies indicated that glycine/choline and glycine/total creatine ratios correlated closely with the patient's clinical course. Proton MR spectroscopy was useful for the non-invasive detection and monitoring of cerebral glycine levels in this infant with NKH.

  17. Submillisecond elastic recoil reveals molecular origins of fibrin fiber mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O'Brien, E Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Falvo, Michael R

    2013-06-18

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin's elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin's mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards 100Sn with GASP + Si-ball + Recoil Mass Spectrometer: High-spin states of 105Sn and 103In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Sferrazza, M.; Ackermann, D.; Bazzacco, D.; Bednarczyk, P.; Bizzeti, P.G.; Bizzeti Sona, A.M.; Brandolini, F.; Burch, R.; Buscemi, A.; De Acuna, D.; De Poli, M.; Fahlander, C.; Li, Y.; Lipoglavsek, M.; Lunardi, S.; Makishima, A.; Menegazzo, R.; Mueller, L.; Napoli, D.; Ogawa, M.; Pavan, P.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Scarlassara, F.; Segato, G.F.; Seweryniak, D.; Soramel, F.; Spolaore, P.; Zanon, R.

    1995-01-01

    Very proton rich nuclei in the A∼100 region have been investigated using the GASP array coupled with the Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) and the GASP Si-ball. High-spin states of 105 Sn and 103 In nuclei formed with the reaction 58 Ni+ 50 Cr at 210MeV have been investigated up to similar 10 and 7MeV of excitation energy respectively. We have confirmed the known excited states for both nuclei and extended to higher spin the level scheme. The experimental level schemes are compared with shell model calculations. ((orig.))

  19. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Arq+ - Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar q+ -- Ar (8≤q≤16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar 8-16+ , recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar 10-16+ , there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy

  20. RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric emission of gravitational waves produced during the coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary imparts a velocity 'kick' to the system that can displace the hole from the center of its host. Here, we study the trajectories and observability of MBHs recoiling in three (one major, two minor) gas-rich galaxy merger remnants that were previously simulated at high resolution, and in which the pairing of the MBHs had been shown to be successful. We run new simulations of MBHs recoiling in the major merger remnant with Mach numbers in the range 1≤M≤6 and use simulation data to construct a semi-analytical model for the orbital evolution of MBHs in gas-rich systems. We show the following. (1) In major merger remnants the energy deposited by the moving hole into the rotationally supported, turbulent medium makes a negligible contribution to the thermodynamics of the gas. This contribution becomes significant in minor merger remnants, potentially allowing for an electromagnetic signature of MBH recoil. (2) In major merger remnants, the combination of both deeper central potential well and drag from high-density gas confines even MBHs with kick velocities as high as 1200 km s -1 within 1 kpc from the host's center. (3) Kinematically offset nuclei may be observable for timescales of a few Myr in major merger remnants in the case of recoil velocities in the range 700-1000 km s -1 . (4) In minor merger remnants the effect of gas drag is weaker, and MBHs with recoil speeds in the range 300-600 km s -1 will wander through the host halo for longer timescales. When accounting for the probability distribution of kick velocities, however, we find that the likelihood of observing recoiling MBHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers is very low even in the best-case scenario.

  1. A clinically feasible method for the detection of potential collision in proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Wei; Lin Haibo; Plastaras, John P.; Wang Huanshu; Bui, Viet; Vapiwala, Neha; McDonough, James; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Potential collision between the patient/couch and the gantry could delay the start of the treatment and reduce clinical efficiency. The ability to accurately detect possible collisions during the treatment planning phase is desired. Such collision detection should account for the specific proton gantry design, the treatment beam configuration, couch orientation, and the patient specific geometry. In this paper the authors developed an approach to detect possible patient-machine collisions using patient treatment plan data. Methods: The geometry of the machine and the patient was reconstructed relative to the isocenter of the proton treatment room. The surface contour of the gantry was first captured from the proton computer aided design and reconstructed to account for specific gantry rotation, snout position, collimator rotation, and range compensator dimensions based on the patient treatment plan data. The patient body and couch contours were captured from the patient's CT DICOM structure file. They were reconstructed relative to the isocenter taking into account treatment couch rotation. For potential collision that occurs at body portions where no CT images exist, scout images are used to construct the body contour. A software program was developed using a ray casting algorithm that was applied to detect collisions by determining if any of the patient and couch contour points fall into the spatial polygons formed by the proton gantry surfaces. Results: Twenty-four patient plans with or without potential collisions were retrospectively identified and analyzed using the collision detection software. In addition, five collision cases were artificially generated using an anthropomorphic phantom. The program successfully detected the collisions in all cases. The calculation time for each case was within 20 s. The software program was implemented in the authors' clinic to detect patient-gantry or gantry-couch collisions in the treatment planning

  2. Elastic neutron-proton differential cross section at 647 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.L.

    1979-04-01

    The differential cross section for n-p elastic scattering in the angular range 51 0 was measured with high statistical accuracy using the 647 MeV monoenergetic neutron beam of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. A proton recoil magnetic spectrometer was used for momentum analysis of the charge exchange protons from the reaction n+p→p+n. Absolute normalization of the cross section was established to within 7% using existing cross section data for the reaction p+p→π + +d. The results differ significantly from previous Dubna and PPA cross sections but agree well with recent Saclay data except at extreme backward angles. 41 references

  3. Comparison of the Recoil of Conventional and Electromagnetic Cannon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The recoil from an electromagnetic (EM railgun is discussed and compared with that from conventional, propellant gas driven cannon. It is shown that, under similar launch conditions, the recoil of the EM gun is less than that of the powder gun; however, use of a muzzle brake on a powder gun can alter this relative behavior.

  4. Energy calibration for the INDRA multidetector using recoil protons from {sup 12}C+{sup 1}H scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinski, A.; Lukasik, J.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Trautmann, W.; Zwieglinski, B. E-mail: bzw@fuw.edu.pl; Auger, G.; Bacri, Ch.O.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Bellaize, N.; Bittiger, R.; Bocage, F.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bouriquet, B.; Buchet, Ph.; Charvet, J.L.; Chbihi, A.; Dayras, R.; Dore, D.; Durand, D.; Frankland, J.D.; Galichet, E.; Gourio, D.; Guinet, D.; Hudan, S.; Hurst, B.; Lautesse, P.; Lavaud, F.; Laville, J.L.; Leduc, C.; Le Fevre, A.; Legrain, R.; Lopez, O.; Lynen, U.; Nalpas, L.; Orth, H.; Plagnol, E.; Rosato, E.; Saija, A.; Schwarz, C.; Sfienti, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tabacaru, G.; Tamain, B.; Turzo, K.; Vient, E.; Vigilante, M.; Volant, C

    2003-04-01

    An efficient method of energy scale calibration for the CsI(Tl) modules of the INDRA multidetector (rings 6-12) using elastic and inelastic {sup 12}C+{sup 1}H scattering at E({sup 12}C)=30 MeV per nucleon is presented. Background-free spectra for the binary channels are generated by requiring the coincident detection of the light and heavy ejectiles. The gain parameter of the calibration curve is obtained by fitting the proton total charge spectra to the spectra predicted with Monte-Carlo simulations using tabulated cross section data. The method has been applied in multifragmentation experiments with INDRA at GSI.

  5. Vector analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the vector analyzing power (VAP) for the elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons from protons at low energies using an effective theory of electrons, protons, and photons. We study all contributions through second order in E/M, where E and M are the electron energy and nucleon mass, respectively. The leading-order VAP arises from the imaginary part of the interference of one- and two-photon exchange amplitudes. Subleading contributions are generated by the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius as well as recoil corrections to the leading-order amplitude. Working to O(E/M) 2 , we obtain a prediction for A n that is free of unknown parameters and that agrees with the recent measurement of the VAP in backward angle ep scattering

  6. A storage ring experiment to detect a proton electric dipole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastassopoulos, V. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece; Andrianov, S. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Processes, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Baartman, R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3, Canada; Baessler, S. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA; Bai, M. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Benante, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Berz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Bowcock, T. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Brown, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Casey, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Conte, M. [Physics Department and INFN Section of Genoa, 16146 Genoa, Italy; Crnkovic, J. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; D’Imperio, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics NCSR Demokritos, GR-15310 Aghia Paraskevi Athens, Greece; Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Fierlinger, P. [Technical University München, Physikdepartment and Excellence-Cluster “Universe,” Garching, Germany; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Gaisser, M. O. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Giomataris, Y. [CEA/Saclay, DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France; Grosse-Perdekamp, M. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA; Guidoboni, G. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Hacıömeroğlu, S. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Hoffstaetter, G. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Incagli, M. [Physics Department, University and INFN Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Ivanov, A. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Control Processes, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia; Kawall, D. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA; Kim, Y. I. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; King, B. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Koop, I. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia; Lazarus, D. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Lebedev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Lee, M. J. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lee, S. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lee, Y. H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Lehrach, A. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Lenisa, P. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Levi Sandri, P. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy; Luccio, A. U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Lyapin, A. [Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, United Kingdom; MacKay, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Maier, R. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Makino, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA; Malitsky, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Metodiev, E. M. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Harvard College, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA; Miceli, L. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Moricciani, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Univ. di Roma “Tor Vergata” and INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; Morse, W. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Nayak, S. K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Orlov, Y. F. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Ozben, C. S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul 34469, Turkey; Park, S. T. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Pesce, A. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Petrakou, E. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Podobedov, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Polychronakos, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Pretz, J. [RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Ramberg, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Raparia, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Rathmann, F. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Rescia, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Kamal Sayed, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Semertzidis, Y. K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Senichev, Y. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Sidorin, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia; Silenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region, Russia; Research Institute for Nuclear Problems of Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus; Simos, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Stahl, A. [RWTH Aachen University and JARA-Fame, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, 52056 Aachen, Germany; Stephenson, E. J. [Indiana University Center for Spacetime Symmetries, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA; Ströher, H. [Institut für Kernphysik and JARA-Fame, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany; Syphers, M. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Talman, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Talman, R. M. [Laboratory for Elementary-Particle Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA; Tishchenko, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Touramanis, C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, I-00044 Frascati, Rome, Italy; Vetter, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Vlassis, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece; Won, E. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141, South Korea; Physics Department, Korea University, Seoul 02841, South Korea; Zavattini, G. [University of Ferrara, INFN of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA; Zioutas, K. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Rio-Patras, Greece

    2016-11-01

    A new experiment is described to detect a permanent electric dipole moment of the proton with a sensitivity of $10^{-29}e\\cdot$cm by using polarized "magic" momentum $0.7$~GeV/c protons in an all-electric storage ring. Systematic errors relevant to the experiment are discussed and techniques to address them are presented. The measurement is sensitive to new physics beyond the Standard Model at the scale of 3000~TeV.

  7. A storage ring experiment to detect a proton electric dipole moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, V; Andrianov, S; Baartman, R; Baessler, S; Bai, M; Benante, J; Berz, M; Blaskiewicz, M; Bowcock, T; Brown, K; Casey, B; Conte, M; Crnkovic, J D; D'Imperio, N; Fanourakis, G; Fedotov, A; Fierlinger, P; Fischer, W; Gaisser, M O; Giomataris, Y; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guidoboni, G; Hacıömeroğlu, S; Hoffstaetter, G; Huang, H; Incagli, M; Ivanov, A; Kawall, D; Kim, Y I; King, B; Koop, I A; Lazarus, D M; Lebedev, V; Lee, M J; Lee, S; Lee, Y H; Lehrach, A; Lenisa, P; Levi Sandri, P; Luccio, A U; Lyapin, A; MacKay, W; Maier, R; Makino, K; Malitsky, N; Marciano, W J; Meng, W; Meot, F; Metodiev, E M; Miceli, L; Moricciani, D; Morse, W M; Nagaitsev, S; Nayak, S K; Orlov, Y F; Ozben, C S; Park, S T; Pesce, A; Petrakou, E; Pile, P; Podobedov, B; Polychronakos, V; Pretz, J; Ptitsyn, V; Ramberg, E; Raparia, D; Rathmann, F; Rescia, S; Roser, T; Kamal Sayed, H; Semertzidis, Y K; Senichev, Y; Sidorin, A; Silenko, A; Simos, N; Stahl, A; Stephenson, E J; Ströher, H; Syphers, M J; Talman, J; Talman, R M; Tishchenko, V; Touramanis, C; Tsoupas, N; Venanzoni, G; Vetter, K; Vlassis, S; Won, E; Zavattini, G; Zelenski, A; Zioutas, K

    2016-11-01

    A new experiment is described to detect a permanent electric dipole moment of the proton with a sensitivity of 10 -29 e ⋅ cm by using polarized "magic" momentum 0.7 GeV/c protons in an all-electric storage ring. Systematic errors relevant to the experiment are discussed and techniques to address them are presented. The measurement is sensitive to new physics beyond the standard model at the scale of 3000 TeV.

  8. Determination of the extraction efficiency for {sup 233}U source α-recoil ions from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Following the α decay of {sup 233}U, {sup 229}Th recoil ions are shown to be extracted in a significant amount from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell. The produced recoil ions and subsequent daughter nuclei are mass purified with the help of a customized quadrupole mass spectrometer. The combined extraction and mass purification efficiency for {sup 229}Th{sup 3+} is determined via MCP-based measurements and via the direct detection of the {sup 229}Th α decay. A large value of (10±2)% for the combined extraction and mass purification efficiency of {sup 229}Th{sup 3+} is obtained at a mass resolution of about 1u/e. In addition to {sup 229}Th, also other α-recoil ions of the {sup 233,} {sup 232}U decay chains are addressed. (orig.)

  9. Beam Phase Detection for Proton Therapy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Getta, Markus; Kolesov, Sergej; Pupeter, Nico; Stephani, Thomas; Timmer, J

    2005-01-01

    The industrial application of proton cyclotrons for medical applications has become one of the important contributions of accelerator physics during the last years. This paper describes an advanced vector demodulating technique used for non-destructive measurements of beam intensity and beam phase over 360°. A computer controlled I/Q-based phase detector with a very large dynamic range of 70 dB permits the monitoring of beam intensity, phase and eventually energy for wide range of beam currents down to -130 dBm. In order to avoid interference from the fundamental cyclotron frequency the phase detection is performed at the second harmonic frequency. A digital low pass filter with adjustable bandwidth and steepness is implemented to improve accuracy. With a sensitivity of the capacitive pickup in the beam line of 30 nV per nA of proton beam current at 250 MeV, accurate phase and intensity measurements can be performed with beam currents down to 3.3 nA.

  10. Proton induced single event upset cross section prediction for 0.15 μm six-transistor (6T) silicon-on-insulator static random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Zhou Wanting; Liu Huihua

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient physics-based method to estimate the saturated proton upset cross section for six-transistor (6T) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) static random access memory (SRAM) cells using layout and technology parameters is proposed. This method calculates the effects of radiation based on device physics. The simple method handles the problem with ease by SPICE simulations, which can be divided into two stages. At first, it uses a standard SPICE program to predict the cross section for recoiling heavy ions with linear energy transfer (LET) of 14 MeV-cm 2 /mg. Then, the predicted cross section for recoiling heavy ions with LET of 14 MeV-cm 2 /mg is used to estimate the saturated proton upset cross section for 6T SOI SRAM cells with a simple model. The calculated proton induced upset cross section based on this method is in good agreement with the test results of 6T SOI SRAM cells processed using 0.15 μm technology. (author)

  11. Neutron fluence and energy reconstruction with the IRSN recoil detector μ-TPC at 27 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Richer, J.P. [IRSN, PRP-HOM, SDE, LMDN, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Guillaudin, O.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D. [CNRS/IN2P3-UJF-INPG, LPSC, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), associated to the French Metrology Institute (LNE), is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: μ-TPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize with a primary procedure the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 1 MeV. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors, which are able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulated detector response. The μ-TPC is a new reliable detector which enables to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without deconvolution or neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The μ-TPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27.2 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector simulation. This work shows the first direct

  12. D-particle Recoil Space Times and "Glueball" Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the properties of matter in a D-dimensional anti-de-Sitter-type space time induced dynamically by the recoil of a very heavy D(irichlet)-particle defect embedded in it. The particular form of the recoil geometry, which from a world-sheet view point follows from logarithmic conformal field theory deformations of the pertinent sigma-models, results in the presence of both infrared and ultraviolet (spatial) cut-offs. These are crucial in ensuring the presence of mass gaps in scalar matter propagating in the D-particle recoil space time. The analogy of this problem with the Liouville-string approach to QCD, suggested earlier by John Ellis and one of the present authors, prompts us to identify the resulting scalar masses with those obtained in the supergravity approach based on the Maldacena's conjecture, but without the imposition of any supersymmetry in our case. Within reasonable numerical uncertainties, we observe that agreement is obtained between the two approaches for a particular value of the ra...

  13. Helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, E.; Furget, C.; Knox, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    The study of the hadron structure in the high Q{sup 2} range contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the confinement of quarks and gluons. Among the numerous experimental candidates sensitive to these mechanisms, the helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton is a privileged observable since it is controlled by non-perturbative effects. The authors investigate here the feasibility of high Q{sup 2} measurements of this form factor by means of the recoil polarization method in the context of the CEBAF 8 GeV facility. For that purpose, they discuss the development of a high energy proton polarimeter, based on the H({rvec p},pp) elastic scattering, to be placed at the focal plane of a new hadron spectrometer. It is shown that this experimental method significantly improves the knowledge of the helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton up to 10 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}.

  14. Low-energy neutron-proton analyzing power and the new Bonn potential and Paris potential predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Roberts, M.L.; Felsher, P.D.; Chen, Z.M.; Walter, R.L.; Mertens, G.; Slaus, I.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumental asymmetries recently observed by Haeberli and co-workers, limit the accuracy of neutron-proton analyzing power A/sub y/(θ) data. These instrumental effects are discussed and calculated for previously published n-p A/sub y/(θ) data at 16.9 MeV. To enable these calculations, the analyzing power for the 2 H(d-arrow-right,n) 3 He reaction was measured at small angles. Additional n-p A/sub y/(θ) data at extreme backward angles, obtained via proton recoil detection, are also reported for this energy in this paper. The composite data set is compared to calculations based on the new Bonn NN potential, the Paris NN potential, and to the recent NN phase-shift solution of Arndt. In addition, a detailed comparison between A/sub y/(θ) calculated from the new Bonn and the Paris potentials between 10 and 50 MeV is shown to reveal unexpectedly large relative differences. The experimental data in this energy range are better described by the Paris potential than by the new Bonn potential

  15. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Olchanski, K.; Ruiz, C.; Akers, C.; Connolly, D.

    2014-01-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product (γ-ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON, which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the E c.m. = 1113 keV resonance in the 20 Ne(p, γ) 21 Na radiative proton capture reaction. (orig.)

  16. Karakteristike trzanja elektromagnetskog topa / Recoil characteristics of an electromagnetic rail gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B. Ristić

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available U radu je razmatrano trzanje elektromagnetskog šinskog topa i upoređeno sa trzanjem konvencionalnog topa sa barutnim punjenjem. Zaključuje se da je kod elektromagnetskog topa trzanje manje nego kod topa sa barutnim punjenjem. Takođe, pokazano je da pri istim uslovima lansiranja upotreba gasne kočnice topa sa barutnim punjenjem može izmeniti karakteristike trzanja i više ih približiti ponašanju elektromagnetskog topa. / In this paper the electromagnetic rail gun recoil is discussed and compared with the recoil of a conventional, propellant gas driven gun. It is shown that, under similar launch conditions, the recoil of an electromagnetic gun is weaker than that of the powder-driven gun. The use of a muzzle brake on a powder-driven gun can alter its recoil characteristics and make its behavior closer to that of the electromagnetic rail gun.

  17. Inverted dipole feature in directional detection of exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Directional dark matter detection attempts to measure the direction of motion of nuclei recoiling after having interacted with dark matter particles in the halo of our Galaxy. Due to Earth's motion with respect to the Galaxy, the dark matter flux is concentrated around a preferential direction. An anisotropy in the recoil direction rate is expected as an unmistakable signature of dark matter. The average nuclear recoil direction is expected to coincide with the average direction of dark matter particles arriving to Earth. Here we point out that for a particular type of dark matter, inelastic exothermic dark matter, the mean recoil direction as well as a secondary feature, a ring of maximum recoil rate around the mean recoil direction, could instead be opposite to the average dark matter arrival direction. Thus, the detection of an average nuclear recoil direction opposite to the usually expected direction would constitute a spectacular experimental confirmation of this type of dark matter.

  18. Detection of individual spin transitions of a single proton confined in a cryogenic Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kracke, Holger

    2013-02-27

    The presented experiment for the determination of the magnetic moment of the proton is based on the measurement of the ratio of cyclotron frequency and Larmor frequency of a single proton confined in a cryogenic double-Penning trap. In the course of this thesis, the simultaneous non-destructive measurement of two of the three eigenfrequencies of the proton in thermal equilibrium with corresponding detection systems was demonstrated, which reduces the measurement time of the cyclotron frequency by a factor of two. Furthermore, this thesis presents the first detection of individual spin transitions of a single proton, which allows for the determination of the Larmor frequency. The continuous Stern-Gerlach effect is utilized to couple the magnetic moment to the axial mode of the trapped proton by means of a magnetic bottle. Thus, a spin flip causes a jump of the axial frequency, which can be measured non-destructively with highly-sensitive detection systems. However, not only the spin momentum is coupled to the axial motion but also the angular momentum. Thus, the main experimental challenge is the elimination of energy fluctuations in the radial modes in order to maintain spin flip resolution. Due to systematic studies on the stability of the axial frequency and a complete revision of the experimental setup, this goal was achieved. The spin state of the proton can be determined with very high fidelity for the very first time. Thus, this thesis represents an important step towards a high-precision determination of the magnetic moment of the proton.

  19. Particle unstable excited states in /sup 9/Be influence of beta recoil and width on delayed particle spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Nyman, G H; Jonson, B; Kratz, K L; Larsson, P O; Mattsson, S; Ziegert, W

    1981-01-01

    The light nucleus /sup 9/Be has been studied through the emission of beta-delayed neutrons and alpha particles from /sup 9/Li. The activity is produced at the ISOLDE facility in fragmentation reactions induced either by 600 MeV proton or 910 MeV /sup 3/He beams from the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. After mass separation neutron spectra are recorded using /sup 3/He-filled proportional counters, while surface barrier detectors are used for the spectroscopy of alpha particles. Effects on the spectrum shape induced by recoil and polarization phenomena as well as large widths of the intermediate states are discussed. (14 refs).

  20. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathe, E

    2002-01-01

    A principal challenge faced by the U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Benet Laboratories in the design of armaments for lightweight future fighting vehicles with lethality overmatch is mitigating the deleterious effects of large caliber cannon recoil...

  1. Gravitational-wave memory revisited: Memory from the merger and recoil of binary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational-wave memory refers to the permanent displacement of the test masses in an idealized (freely-falling) gravitational-wave interferometer. Inspiraling binaries produce a particularly interesting form of memory-the Christodoulou memory. Although it originates from nonlinear interactions at 2.5 post-Newtonian order, the Christodoulou memory affects the gravitational-wave amplitude at leading (Newtonian) order. Previous calculations have computed this non-oscillatory amplitude correction during the inspiral phase of binary coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' description calibrated with the results of numerical relativity simulations, the evolution of the memory during the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases, as well as the memory's final saturation value, are calculated. Using this model for the memory, the prospects for its detection are examined, particularly for supermassive black hole binary coalescences that LISA will detect with high signal-to-noise ratios. Coalescing binary black holes also experience center-of-mass recoil due to the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation. These recoils can manifest themselves in the gravitational-wave signal in the form of a 'linear' memory and a Doppler shift of the quasi-normal-mode frequencies. The prospects for observing these effects are also discussed.

  2. Recoil implantation of boron into silicon by high energy silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, L.; Lu, X. M.; Wang, X. M.; Rusakova, I.; Mount, G.; Zhang, L. H.; Liu, J. R.; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2001-07-01

    A recoil implantation technique for shallow junction formation was investigated. After e-gun deposition of a B layer onto Si, 10, 50, or 500 keV Si ion beams were used to introduce surface deposited B atoms into Si by knock-on. It has been shown that recoil implantation with high energy incident ions like 500 keV produces a shallower B profile than lower energy implantation such as 10 keV and 50 keV. This is due to the fact that recoil probability at a given angle is a strong function of the energy of the primary projectile. Boron diffusion was showed to be suppressed in high energy recoil implantation and such suppression became more obvious at higher Si doses. It was suggested that vacancy rich region due to defect imbalance plays the role to suppress B diffusion. Sub-100 nm junction can be formed by this technique with the advantage of high throughput of high energy implanters.

  3. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials

  4. Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry advancement in detection of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.

    2012-01-01

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a mass spectrometric technique based on chemical ionization, which provides very rapid measurements (within seconds) of volatile organic compounds in air, usually without special sample preparation, and with a very low detection limit. The detection and study of product ion patterns of threat agents such as explosives and drugs and some major environmental pollutants (isocyanates and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) is explored in detail here using PTR-MS, specifically Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). The proton transfer reaction (PTR) principle works on the detection of the compound in the vapor phase. For some compounds, which have extremely low vapor pressures, both sample and inlet line heating were needed. Generally, the protonated parent molecule (MH+) is found to be the dominant product ion, which therefore provides us with a higher level of confidence in the assignment of a trace compound. However, for several compounds, dissociative proton transfer can occur at various degrees resulting in other product ions. Analysis of other compounds, such as the presence of taggants and impurities were carried out, and in certain compounds unusual E/N anomalies were discovered (E/N is an instrumental set of parameters, where E is the electric field strength and N is the number density). Head space measurements above four different drinks (plain water, tea, red wine and white wine) spiked with four different 'date rape' drugs were also conducted. (author)

  5. Proton induced target fragmentation studies on solid state nuclear track detectors using Carbon radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.; Strádi, A.; Bilski, P.; Swakoń, J.; Stolarczyk, L.

    2018-04-01

    One of the limiting factors of an astronaut's career is the dose received from space radiation. High energy protons, being the main components of the complex radiation field present on a spacecraft, give a significant contribution to the dose. To investigate the behavior of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) if they are irradiated by such particles, SSNTD stacks containing carbon blocks were exposed to high energy proton beams (70, 100, 150 and 230 MeV) at the Proteus cyclotron, IFJ PAN -Krakow. The incident protons cannot be detected directly; however, tracks of secondary particles, recoils and fragments of the constituent atoms of the detector material and of the carbon radiator are formed. It was found that as the proton energy increases, the number of tracks induced in the PADC material by secondary particles decreases. From the measured geometrical parameters of the tracks the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum and the dosimetric quantities were determined, applying appropriate calibration. In the LET spectra the LET range of the most important secondary particles could be identified and their abundance showed differences in the spectra if the detectors were short or long etched. The LET spectra obtained on the SSNTDs irradiated by protons were compared to LET spectra of detectors flown on the International Space Station (ISS): they were quite similar, resulting in a quality factor difference of only 5%. Thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were applied in each case to measure the dose from primary protons and other lower LET particles present in space. Comparing and analyzing the results of the TLD and SSNTD measurements, it was obtained that proton induced target fragments contributed to the total absorbed dose in 3.2% and to the dose equivalent in 14.2% in this particular space experiment.

  6. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    The self-scattering of alpha-active substances has long been recognized and is attributed to expulsion of aggregates of atoms from the surface of alpha-active materials by alpha emission recoil energy, and perhaps to further propulsion of these aggregates by subsequent alpha recoils. Workers at the University of Lowell recently predicted that this phenomenon might affect the retention of alpha-active particulate matter by HEPA filters, and found support in experiments with 212 Pb. Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter media, such as that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.9 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter were observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers by subsequent alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow

  7. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  8. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G., E-mail: espinosa@fisica.unam.mx; Golzarri, J. I. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Circuito de la Investigación Científica, Ciudad Universitaria. México, DF (Mexico); Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico); Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simón Bolivar, Laboratorio de Física Nuclear, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  9. Measurement of neutron spectra generated from bombardment of 4 to 24 MeV protons on a thick 9Be target and estimation of neutron yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Sunil, C.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sharma, S. C.; Ramjilal,; Ninawe, N. G.; Gupta, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study on the measurement of neutron spectra emitted from the interaction of protons of various energies with a thick beryllium target has been carried out. The measurements were carried out in the forward direction (at 0° with respect to the direction of protons) using CR-39 detectors. The doses were estimated using the in-house image analyzing program autoTRAK-n, which works on the principle of luminosity variation in and around the track boundaries. A total of six different proton energies starting from 4 MeV to 24 MeV with an energy gap of 4 MeV were chosen for the study of the neutron yields and the estimation of doses. Nearly, 92% of the recoil tracks developed after chemical etching were circular in nature, but the size distributions of the recoil tracks were not found to be linearly dependent on the projectile energy. The neutron yield and dose values were found to be increasing linearly with increasing projectile energies. The response of CR-39 detector was also investigated at different beam currents at two different proton energies. A linear increase of neutron yield with beam current was observed

  10. Investigation of fractional momentum transfer: measurement of forward recoil ranges in 16O + natTm collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Rakesh Kumar; Golda, K.S.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    For better understanding of complete fusion and incomplete fusion in heavy ion reactions a programme of precise measurements of excitation functions, recoil range distribution and angular distributions of recoils has been undertaken. In the present contribution the recoil range distribution for the residues have been measured at ≅ 6 MeV/nucleon, using recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-spectroscopy

  11. Measurements of recoil and projectile momentum distributions for 19-MeV F9+ + Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohne, V.; Cheng, S.; Ali, R.M.; Raphaelian, M.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The collision system of 19-MeV F 9+ on Ne has been studied using recoil and projectile momentum spectroscopy. For each event, identified by final recoil and projectile charge state, the three-dimensional momentum vector of the recoil ion and the transverse momentum vector of the projectile ion were measured. The transverse momenta of the recoil and projectile ions were found to be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, indicating that the transverse momentum exchange is dominated by interactions between the two ion cores. The transverse momentum distributions are well described by nCTMC calculations. The longitudinal momentum distributions of the recoil ions show that a large fraction of the momentum transferred to the projectile is carried off by continuum electrons. The recoil ions are scattered slightly backward, in partial agreement with predictions of nCTMC calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E., E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  13. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  14. In-beam spectroscopy study of the proton emitter 151Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K.S.; Akovali, Y.; Baktash, C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gross, C.J.; Paul, S.D.; Radford, D.C.; Batchelder, J.C.; Gross, C.J.; Bingham, C.R.; Grzywacz, R.; Kim, S.H.; Weintraub, W.; Ginter, T.N.; Grzywacz, R.; Rykaczewski, K.; Karny, M.; MacDonald, B.D.; Szerypo, J.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma rays decaying from the excited states of the proton-unbound 151 Lu were observed for the first time in an experiment using the 96 Ru( 58 Ni,p2n) 151 Lu reaction. These γ rays were identified by correlating prompt γ radiations at the target position with 151 Lu proton radioactivities at the focal plane of a recoil mass separator. Systematic data on N=80 isotones suggest a possible isomeric level at high spin in 151 Lu. Our measurement was unable to observe such an isomer, but provided an upper limit on its half-life. The observed γ rays in 151 Lu can be interpreted in terms of two possible level structures. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  15. Exclusive ρ0 production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-01

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  16. Model-based fault detection for proton exchange membrane fuel cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an intelligent model-based fault detection (FD) is developed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) dynamic systems using an independent radial basis function (RBF) networks. The novelty is that this RBF networks is used to model the PEMFC dynamic systems and residuals are generated based ...

  17. Investigating proton emitters at the limits of stability with radioactive beams from the Oak Ridge facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Batchelder, J.C.; Zganjar, E.F. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bingham, C.R.; Wauters, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Davinson, T.; MacKenzie, J.A.; Woods, P.J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    By using beams from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL, it should be possible to identify many new ground-state proton emitters in the mass region from Sn to Pb. In these investigations nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions will be separated from incident ions and dispersed in mass/charge with a recoil mass separator and then implanted into a double-sided Si strip detector for study of proton (and {alpha}-particle) radioactivity. This paper summarizes data presently extant on proton emitters and then focuses on tests and initial experiments that will be carried out with stable beams and with radioactive ions as they are developed at the Oak Ridge facility.

  18. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  19. Hard two-photon contribution to elastic lepton-proton scattering determined by the OLYMPUS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, B.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ice, L.D. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Khaneft, D. [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: OLYMPUS Collaboration; and others

    2016-12-15

    The OLYMPUS collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R{sub 2γ}, a direct measure of the contribution of hard two- photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ∼20 to 80 . The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved GEM and MWPC detectors at 12 , as well as symmetric Moeller/Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29 . A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb{sup -1} was collected. In the extraction of R{sub 2γ}, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R{sub 2γ}, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456<ε<0.978, are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  20. A G/NARRLI Effort. Measuring the Ionization Yield of Low-Energy Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Tenzing Henry Yatish [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liquid argon has long been used for particle detection due to its attractive drift properties, ample abundance, and reasonable density. The response of liquid argon to lowenergy O(102 -1044 eV) interactions is, however, largely unexplored. Weakly interacting massive particles such as neutrinos and hypothetical dark-matter particles (WIMPs) are predicted to coherently scatter on atomic nuclei, leaving only an isolated low-energy nuclear recoil as evidence. The response of liquid argon to low-energy nuclear recoils must be studied to determine the sensitivity of liquid argon based detectors to these unobserved interactions. Detectors sensitive to coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering may be used to monitor nuclear reactors from a distance, to detect neutrinos from supernova, and to test the predicted behavior of neutrinos. Additionally, direct detection of hypothetical weakly interacting dark matter would be a large step toward understanding the substance that accounts for nearly 27% of the universe. In this dissertation I discuss a small dual-phase (liquid-gas) argon proportional scintillation counter built to study the low-energy regime and several novel calibration and characterization techniques developed to study the response of liquid argon to low-energy O(102 -104 eV) interactions.

  1. Cold-target recoil-ion momentum-spectroscopy: First results and future perspectives of a novel high resolution technique for the investigation of collision induced many-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Doerner, R.; Mergel, V.; Jagutzki, O.; Spielberger, L.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1994-09-01

    In order to investigate many-particle reaction dynamics in atomic collisions a novel high-resolution technique has been developed, which determines the momentum and the charge state of the slowly recoiling target ions. Using a very cold, thin, and localized supersonic gas jet target a momentum resolution of better than 0.05 a.u. is obtained by measuring the recoil-ion time-of-flight and the recoil-ion trajectory. Because of the very high detection efficiency of nearly 100% this technique is well suited for many-particle coincidence measurements in ionizing collisions. First experimental results for fast ion and electron impact on helium targets are presented. Future applications in atomic collision physics and related areas are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Combined proton-recoil and neutron time-of-flight spectrometer for 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosshoeg, G.; Aronsson, D.; Arvidsson, E.; Beimer, K.-H.; Pekkari, L.-O.; Rydz, R.; Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1983-05-01

    The main effort put into this work is the foundation of a reliable physical basis for a 12-16 MeV neutron-spectrometer at JET. The essential problem is the amount of scatterer that can be incorporated without losing resolution. We have found two possible methods, the use of a pure hydrogen scatterer and the use of a polyethylene foil scatterer. The pure hydrogen solution gives a very complicated spectrometer with large detectors. The polyethylene solution is limited by the thickness and the width of the foil. We judge the solution with the polyethylene foil to be the most promising one for a reliable spectrometer. However, a large foil area is needed. This gives a spectrometer design with an annular foil, an annular neutron detection system, and a central proton-detector. An efficiency of 10 - 6 counts/s per n/cm 2 ,s at the foil can be obtained with a resolution in the order of 100 keV for 14 MeV neutrons. Following the General Requirements given in the contract of this work, we concluded that an instrument with the desired properties can be made. The instruments is able to give useful information about the plasma from plasma temperatures of about 5 keV. (Authors)

  3. Proton Neutron Gamma-X Detection (PNGXD): An introduction to contrast agent detection during proton therapy via prompt gamma neutron activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, James L.

    2017-09-01

    experimental work are required to determine the feasibility of this new technique termed Proton Neutron Gamma-X Detection (PNGXD). The initial concept of this procedure is presented in this paper as well as future research directions.

  4. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Energy calibration for the INDRA multidetector using recoil protons from sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 1 H scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Trzcinski, A; Müller, W F J; Trautmann, W; Zwieglinski, B; Auger, G; Bacri, C O; Begemann-Blaich, M L; Bellaize, N; Bittiger, R; Bocage, F; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Bouriquet, B; Buchet, P; Charvet, J L; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Doré, D; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Gourio, D; Guinet, D; Hudan, S; Hurst, B; Lautesse, P; Lavaud, F; Laville, J L; Leduc, C; Lefèvre, A; Legrain, R; López, O; Lynen, U; Nalpas, L; Orth, H; Plagnol, E; Rosato, E; Saija, A; Schwarz, C; Sfienti, C; Steckmeyer, J C; Tabacaru, G; Tamain, B; Turzó, K; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C

    2003-01-01

    An efficient method of energy scale calibration for the CsI(Tl) modules of the INDRA multidetector (rings 6-12) using elastic and inelastic sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 1 H scattering at E( sup 1 sup 2 C)=30 MeV per nucleon is presented. Background-free spectra for the binary channels are generated by requiring the coincident detection of the light and heavy ejectiles. The gain parameter of the calibration curve is obtained by fitting the proton total charge spectra to the spectra predicted with Monte-Carlo simulations using tabulated cross section data. The method has been applied in multifragmentation experiments with INDRA at GSI.

  6. Molecular frame and recoil frame angular distributions in dissociative photoionization of small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchese, R R; Carey, R; Elkharrat, C; Houver, J C; Dowek, D

    2008-01-01

    Photoelectron angular distributions in the dipole approximation can be written with respect to several different reference frames. A brief review of the molecular frame and recoil frame are given. Experimentally, one approach for obtaining such angular distributions is through angle-resolved coincidence measurements of dissociative ionization. If the system dissociates into two heavy fragments, then the recoil frame angular distribution can be measured. Computed molecular frame and recoil frame photoelectron angular distributions are compared to experimental data for the Cl 2p ionization of CH 3 Cl.

  7. Determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method in combination with magnetic spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doncel, M. [Universidad de Salamanca, Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Salamanca (Spain); Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Gadea, A. [CSIC-University of Valencia, Istituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Valiente-Dobon, J.J. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Quintana, B. [Universidad de Salamanca, Laboratorio de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Salamanca (Spain); Modamio, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Mengoni, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Moeller, O.; Pietralla, N. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Dewald, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    The current work presents the determination of lifetimes of nuclear excited states using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method, in combination with spectrometers for ion identification, normalizing the intensity of the peaks by the ions detected in the spectrometer as a valid technique that produces results comparable to the ones obtained by the conventional shifted-to-unshifted peak ratio method. The technique has been validated using data measured with the γ-ray array AGATA, the PRISMA spectrometer and the Cologne plunger setup. In this paper a test performed with the AGATA-PRISMA setup at LNL and the advantages of this new approach with respect to the conventional Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Method are discussed. (orig.)

  8. A coincidence-type ion-electron converter detector for low-energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka, O.; Weinzierl, P.; Dobrozemsky, R.; Stratowa, C.

    1981-04-01

    A coincidence type ion-electron converter detector has been developed and used - together with an electrostatic energy-analyser - for precision measurements of the energy distribution of recoil protons from free-neutron decay. The most important aspect of the development was, besides keeping the background below 0,2 counts/sec in the presence of a certain radiation background, to achieve a high and energy-independent counting probability for protons with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. With an acceleration voltage of about 25 kV and Al-foils (20 to 35 ug/cmsup2) as converter, we obtained counting efficiences of 70 to 85 percent. The design and performance of the detector system, employing six foils with different sensitive areas, are described and discussed in detail. (author)

  9. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  10. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5–7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5

  11. The XMM-Newton spectrum of a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole: An elusive inverted P-Cygni profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03855 (United States); Comastri, A.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Costantini, E. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan, 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Elvis, M.; Fruscione, A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mainieri, V. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Jahnke, K. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Vignali, C.; Brusa, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-20

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of new XMM-Newton data of the source CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, detected in the COSMOS survey at z = 0.359. Previous works suggested that CID-42 is a candidate recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) showing also an inverted P-Cygni profile in the X-ray spectra at ∼6 keV (rest) with an iron emission line plus a redshifted absorption line (detected at 3σ in previous XMM-Newton and Chandra observations). Detailed analysis of the absorption line suggested the presence of ionized material flowing into the black hole at high velocity. In the new long XMM-Newton observation, while the overall spectral shape remains constant, the continuum 2-10 keV flux decrease of ∼20% with respect to previous observation and the absorption line is undetected. The upper limit on the intensity of the absorption line is EW < 162 eV. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations show that the nondetection of the line is solely due to variation in the properties of the inflowing material, in agreement with the transient nature of these features, and that the intensity of the line is lower than the previously measured with a probability of 98.8%. In the scenario of CID-42 as a recoiling SMBH, the absorption line can be interpreted as being due to an inflow of gas with variable density that is located in the proximity of the SMBH and recoiling with it. New monitoring observations will be requested to further characterize this line.

  12. Recoiling Black Holes: Electromagnetic Signatures, Candidates, and Astrophysical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komossa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supermassive black holes (SMBHs may not always reside right at the centers of their host galaxies. This is a prediction of numerical relativity simulations, which imply that the newly formed single SMBH, after binary coalescence in a galaxy merger, can receive kick velocities up to several 1000 km/s due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. Long-lived oscillations of the SMBHs in galaxy cores, and in rare cases even SMBH ejections from their host galaxies, are the consequence. Observationally, accreting recoiling SMBHs would appear as quasars spatially and/or kinematically offset from their host galaxies. The presence of the “kicks” has a wide range of astrophysical implications which only now are beginning to be explored, including consequences for black hole and galaxy assembly at the epoch of structure formation, black hole feeding, and unified models of active galactic nuclei (AGN. Here, we review the observational signatures of recoiling SMBHs and the properties of the first candidates which have emerged, including follow-up studies of the candidate recoiling SMBH of SDSSJ092712.65+294344.0.

  13. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.D.; Foot, R., E-mail: j.clarke5@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia)

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless 'dark photon' (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  14. Recoil polarization measurements in $\\pi^{0}$ electroproduction at the peak of the Delta (1232)

    CERN Document Server

    Sarty, A J

    2001-01-01

    This talk presents a status report, along with some preliminary/on line results, from the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) experiment E91011 which was performed in Hall A at JLab during the summer of 2000. The experiment measured angular distributions for the differential cross section and recoil proton polarizations in the reaction p(e, e'p) pi /sup 0/. Kinematics were chosen to be centered at a CMS energy of W=1232 MeV, and a squared four momentum transfer of Q/sup 2/=1.0 (GeV/c)/sup 2/. The primary objectives of the experiment are to isolate contributions from the resonant quadrupole N to Delta , multipole S/sub 1+/, and to clarify the role of other, small nonresonant multipole contributions to the reaction. Details of the experiment itself will be given, along with sample spectra illustrating the quality and coverage of the data obtained. (10 refs) .

  15. Multivariate techniques of analysis for ToF-E recoil spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H.J.; Bouanani, M.E.; Persson, L.; Hult, M.; Jonsson, P.; Johnston, P.N. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan, (Sweden), Department of Nuclear Physics; Andersson, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Ostling, M.; Zaring, C. [Royal institute of Technology, Electrum, Kista, (Sweden), Department of Electronics; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.; Walker, B.R.; Stannard, W.B. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Multivariate statistical methods are being developed by the Australian -Swedish Recoil Spectrometry Collaboration for quantitative analysis of the wealth of information in Time of Flight (ToF) and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry. An overview is presented of progress made in the use of multivariate techniques for energy calibration, separation of mass-overlapped signals and simulation of ToF-E data. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Multivariate techniques of analysis for ToF-E recoil spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, H J; Bouanani, M E; Persson, L; Hult, M; Jonsson, P; Johnston, P N [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan, (Sweden), Department of Nuclear Physics; Andersson, M [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Organic Chemistry; Ostling, M; Zaring, C [Royal institute of Technology, Electrum, Kista, (Sweden), Department of Electronics; Johnston, P N; Bubb, I F; Walker, B R; Stannard, W B [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Multivariate statistical methods are being developed by the Australian -Swedish Recoil Spectrometry Collaboration for quantitative analysis of the wealth of information in Time of Flight (ToF) and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry. An overview is presented of progress made in the use of multivariate techniques for energy calibration, separation of mass-overlapped signals and simulation of ToF-E data. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Reaction Mechanism and Structure Interplay for Proton Elastic Scattering from Halo Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering cross sections can not, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  18. Reaction mechanism and structure interplay for proton elastic scattering from halo nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, R.; Johnson, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to clarify what properties of the projectile w.f. are relevant to describe elastic scattering of halo nuclei from stable nuclei. In particular, we examine how far elastic scattering observables probe correlation effects among projectile nucleons. Our treatment is based on a multiple scattering expansion of the proton-projectile transition amplitude in a form which is well adapted to the weakly bound cluster picture of halo nuclei. In the specific case of 11 Li scattering from protons at 800 MeV/u we show that because core recoil effects are significant, scattering crosssections cannot, in general, be deduced from knowledge of the total matter density alone. We advocate that the optical potential concept for the scattering of halo nuclei on protons should be avoided and that the multiple scattering series for the full transition amplitude should be used instead

  19. Spectroscopy of odd Z trans-fermium nuclei: the nuclear structure of Md{sup 251}; Spectroscopie des transfermiums impairs en proton: la structure du noyau de {sup 251}Md

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatillon, A

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the structure of trans-fermium nuclei (Z 100) with odd proton number, which remained largely unexplored. These nuclei were produced in fusion-evaporation reactions with small cross sections below 1 {mu}b. The experimental methods of Recoil-Tagging and Recoil-Decay-Tagging were used for their identification. In order to identify the active orbitals in this mass region, {sup 255}Lr, {sup 251}M1d and {sup 247}Es nuclei have been studied by decay spectroscopy at the University of Jyvaskyla and at GANIL with the LISE spectrometer and the {alpha}-electron detector BEST coupled to four CLover detectors from the EXOGAM array. New states have been observed in each of the isotopes, and their configuration has been proposed. The collective properties were also studied in two experiments using prompt {gamma} and electron spectroscopy, combining the JUROGAM and SACRED arrays, respectively, with the recoil separator RITU and the GREAT spectrometer at its focal plane. A rotational band has been observed for the first time in a proton-odd trans-fermium nucleus. The interpretation of this collective structure is based on the theoretical HFB calculations. (author)

  20. Gravitational recoil from binary black hole mergers: The close-limit approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas; Laguna, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary black hole system is one of the main sources of gravitational waves that present and future detectors will study. Apart from the energy and angular momentum that these waves carry, for unequal-mass binaries there is also a net flux of linear momentum that implies a recoil velocity of the resulting final black hole in the opposite direction. Due to the relevance of this phenomenon in astrophysics, in particular, for galaxy merger scenarios, there have been several attempts to estimate the magnitude of this velocity. Since the main contribution to the recoil comes from the last orbit and plunge, an approximation valid at the last stage of coalescence is well motivated for this type of calculation. In this paper, we present a computation of the recoil velocity based on the close-limit approximation scheme, which gives excellent results for head-on and grazing collisions of black holes when compared to full numerical relativistic calculations. We obtain a maximum recoil velocity of ∼57 km/s for a symmetric mass ratio η=M 1 M 2 /(M 1 +M 2 ) 2 ∼0.19 and an initial proper separation of 4M, where M is the total Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass of the system. This separation is the maximum at which the close-limit approximation is expected to provide accurate results. Therefore, it cannot account for the contributions due to inspiral and initial merger. If we supplement this estimate with post-Newtonian (PN) calculations up to the innermost stable circular orbit, we obtain a lower bound for the recoil velocity, with a maximum around 80 km/s. This is a lower bound because it neglects the initial merger phase. We can however obtain a rough estimate by using PN methods or the close-limit approximation. Since both methods are known to overestimate the amount of radiation, we obtain in this way an upper bound for the recoil with maxima in the range of 214-240 km/s. We also provide nonlinear fits to these estimated upper and lower bounds. These

  1. Exclusive {rho}{sup 0} production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-15

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  2. Recoiling D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to describe a recoiling D-brane that is elastically scattered by closed strings in the nonrelativistic region. We utilize the low-energy effective field theory on the worldvolume of the D-brane, and the velocity of the D-brane is described by the time derivative of the expectation values of the massless scalar fields on the worldvolume. The effects of the closed strings are represented by a source term for the massless fields in this method. The momentum conservation condition between the closed strings and the D-brane is derived up to the relative sign of the momentum of the D-brane

  3. Remote recoil: a new wave mean interaction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Oliver; McIntyre, Michael E.

    2003-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of a fundamentally new wave mean or wave vortex interaction effect able to force persistent, cumulative change in mean flows in the absence of wave breaking or other kinds of wave dissipation. It is associated with the refraction of non-dissipating waves by inhomogeneous mean (vortical) flows. The effect is studied in detail in the simplest relevant model, the two-dimensional compressible flow equations with a generic polytropic equation of state. This includes the usual shallow-water equations as a special case. The refraction of a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude gravity or sound waves obliquely incident on a single weak (low Froude or Mach number) vortex is studied in detail. It is shown that, concomitant with the changes in the waves' pseudomomentum due to the refraction, there is an equal and opposite recoil force that is felt, in effect, by the vortex core. This effective force is called a ‘remote recoil’ to stress that there is no need for the vortex core and wavetrain to overlap in physical space. There is an accompanying ‘far-field recoil’ that is still more remote, as in classical vortex-impulse problems. The remote-recoil effects are studied perturbatively using the wave amplitude and vortex weakness as small parameters. The nature of the remote recoil is demonstrated in various set-ups with wavetrains of finite or infinite length. The effective recoil force {bm R}_V on the vortex core is given by an expression resembling the classical Magnus force felt by moving cylinders with circulation. In the case of wavetrains of infinite length, an explicit formula for the scattering angle theta_* of waves passing a vortex at a distance is derived correct to second order in Froude or Mach number. To this order {bm R}_V {~} theta_*. The formula is cross-checked against numerical integrations of the ray-tracing equations. This work is part of an ongoing study of internal-gravity-wave dynamics in the

  4. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of SixGe1-x thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Hult, M.; Whitlow, H.J.; Zaring, C.; Oestling, M.

    1993-01-01

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV 127 I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si x Ge 1-x grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si x Ge 1-x layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs

  5. High Accuracy, High Energy He-Erd Analysis of H,C, and T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, James F.; Langley, Robert A.; Doyle, Barney L.; Banks, James C.; Wampler, William R.

    1999-01-01

    A new analysis technique using high-energy helium ions for the simultaneous elastic recoil detection of all three hydrogen isotopes in metal hydride systems extending to depths of several microm's is presented. Analysis shows that it is possible to separate each hydrogen isotope in a heavy matrix such as erbium to depths of 5 microm using incident 11.48MeV 4 He 2 ions with a detection system composed of a range foil and ΔE-E telescope detector. Newly measured cross sections for the elastic recoil scattering of 4 He 2 ions from protons and deuterons are presented in the energy range 10 to 11.75 MeV for the laboratory recoil angle of 30degree

  6. The ration/gsub(A)/gsub(V) derived from the proton spectrum in free-neutron decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratowa, Ch.; Dobrozemsky, R.; Weinzierl, P.

    1978-08-01

    The electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient was determined by measuring the shape of the proton recoil spectrum from free-neutron decay. The protons leaving a highly evacuated tangential reactor beam tube were analysed by a spherical condenser spectrometer and counted in an ion-electron converter detector. The design of the apparatus, the possible disturbing influences and the measures to reduce their effects are discussed. The remaining corrections were either calculated or determined by auxiliary measurements and applied to the spectral shape. The sources of systematic errors are considered and included in the final results. We obtained a- is equal to -0.1017+-0.0051 giving

  7. Measurement of the free neutron-proton analyzing power and spin transfer parameters in the charge exchange region at 790 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransome, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The free neutron-proton analyzing power and the spin transfer parameters (K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/) were measured at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility at 790 MeV between 165 0 and 180 0 center of mass. A 40% polarized neutron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target was used. The recoil protons were momentum analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer to isolate elastic scatters. A large solid angle carbon polarimeter was used to measure the proton polarization. The measurements are the first at this energy and are in basic agreement with pre-existing phase shift solutions. The proton-carbon analyzing power was measured between 500 and 750 MeV. An empirical fit to the proton-carbon analyzing power between 100 and 750 MeV was done

  8. Measurements of the deuteron and proton magnetic form factors at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosted, P.E.; Katramatou, A.T.; Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; Rock, S.E.; Szalata, Z.M.; Debebe, B.; Frodyma, M.; Hicks, R.S.; Hotta, A.; Peterson, G.A.; Gearhart, R.A.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Dietrich, F.; van Bibber, K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of the deuteron elastic magnetic structure function B(Q 2 ) are reported at squared four-momentum transfer values 1.20≤Q 2 ≤2.77 (GeV/c) 2 . Also reported are values for the proton magnetic form factor G Mp (Q 2 ) at 11 Q 2 values between 0.49 and 1.75 (GeV/c) 2 . The data were obtained using an electron beam of 0.5 to 1.3 GeV. Electrons backscattered near 180 degree were detected in coincidence with deuterons or protons recoiling near 0 degree in a large solid-angle double-arm spectrometer system. The data for B(Q 2 ) are found to decrease rapidly from Q 2 =1.2 to 2 (GeV/c) 2 , and then rise to a secondary maximum around Q 2 =2.5 (GeV/c) 2 . Reasonable agreement is found with several different models, including those in the relativistic impulse approximation, nonrelativistic calculations that include meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and six-quark configurations, and one calculation based on the Skyrme model. All calculations are very sensitive to the choice of deuteron wave function and nucleon form factor parametrization. The data for G Mp (Q 2 ) are in good agreement with the empirical dipole fit

  9. Recoil 18F-chemistry in fluoroalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, K.D. van der.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the study of the chemical reactions of recoil 18 F-atoms in gaseous fluoromethanes and fluoroethanes. A brief survey of the organic hot atom chemistry is given in Chapter I. Chapter II deals with the experimental procedures used in this investigation. The irradiation facilities, the vapour phase radio-chromatography and the identification, including the synthesis of some fluorocarbons, are described in detail. Chapter III consists of a study on the applicability of perfluoropropene, C 3 F 6 , as scavenger for thermal 18 F-atoms and radicals. Chapters IV, V, VI and VII deal with 18 F-recoil chemistry in gaseous fluoroethanes, using H 2 S as scavenger. Chapter VIII is a short discussion on the hot 18 F-atom based production of 18 F-labeled organic compounds via decay of the intermediate 18 Ne. A target system is proposed for production of this isotope in high energy and ultra high flux particle beams, which possibly would become available in fast breeders and fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  10. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  11. LHC Optics Measurement with Proton Tracks Detected by the Roman Pots of the TOTEM Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00062364; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgö, T; Deile, M; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Georgiev, V; Giani, S; Grzanka, L; Hammerbauer, J; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Karev, A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Lokajíček, M V; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Peroutka, Z; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P; Zielinski, K

    2014-10-28

    Precise knowledge of the beam optics at the LHC is crucial to fulfil the physics goals of the TOTEM experiment, where the kinematics of the scattered protons is reconstructed with the near-beam telescopes -- so-called Roman Pots (RP). Before being detected, the protons' trajectories are influenced by the magnetic fields of the accelerator lattice. Thus precise understanding of the proton transport is of key importance for the experiment. A novel method of optics evaluation is proposed which exploits kinematical distributions of elastically scattered protons observed in the RPs. Theoretical predictions, as well as Monte Carlo studies, show that the residual uncertainty of this optics estimation method is smaller than 0.25 percent.

  12. New developments of the recoil distance doppler-shift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, Christoph; Blazhev, Andrey; Braunroth, Thomas; Dewald, Alfred; Goldkuhle, Alina; Jolie, Jan; Litzinger, Julia; Mueller-Gatermann, Claus; Woelk, Dorothea; Zell, Karl-Oskar [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The recoil distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) method is a very valuable technique for measuring lifetimes of excited nuclear states in the picosecond range to deduce absolute transition strengths between nuclear excitations independent on the reaction mechanism. Dedicated plunger devices were built by our group for measurements with this method for a broad range of beam energies ranging from few MeV/u up to relativistic energies of the order of 100 MeV/u. Those were designed to match the constraints defined by state-of-the art γ-ray spectrometers like AGATA, Galileo, Gammasphere. Here we give an overview about recent experiments of our group to determine transition strengths from level lifetimes in exotic nuclei where also recoil separators or mass spectrographs were used for an identification of the recoiling reaction products. The aim is to learn about phenomena like shape phase coexistence in exotic regions and the evolution of the shell structure far from the valley of stability. We also review new plunger devices that are developed by our group for future experimental campaigns with stable and radioactive beams in different energy regimes, e.g., a plunger for HIE-ISOLDE.

  13. Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. S.; Ice, L. D.; Khaneft, D.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R.; Schmidt, A.; Bernauer, J. C.; Kohl, M.; Akopov, N.; Alarcon, R.; Ates, O.; Avetisyan, A.; Beck, R.; Belostotski, S.; Bessuille, J.; Brinker, F.; Calarco, J. R.; Carassiti, V.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; de Leo, R.; Diefenbach, J.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dow, K.; Elbakian, G.; Eversheim, P. D.; Frullani, S.; Funke, Ch.; Gavrilov, G.; Gläser, B.; Görrissen, N.; Hasell, D. K.; Hauschildt, J.; Hoffmeister, Ph.; Holler, Y.; Ihloff, E.; Izotov, A.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Kelsey, J.; Kiselev, A.; Klassen, P.; Krivshich, A.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lenz, D.; Lumsden, S.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Marukyan, H.; Miklukho, O.; Milner, R. G.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Naryshkin, Y.; Perez Benito, R.; Perrino, R.; Redwine, R. P.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Rosner, G.; Schneekloth, U.; Seitz, B.; Statera, M.; Thiel, A.; Vardanyan, H.; Veretennikov, D.; Vidal, C.; Winnebeck, A.; Yeganov, V.; Olympus Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    The OLYMPUS Collaboration reports on a precision measurement of the positron-proton to electron-proton elastic cross section ratio, R2 γ , a direct measure of the contribution of hard two-photon exchange to the elastic cross section. In the OLYMPUS measurement, 2.01 GeV electron and positron beams were directed through a hydrogen gas target internal to the DORIS storage ring at DESY. A toroidal magnetic spectrometer instrumented with drift chambers and time-of-flight scintillators detected elastically scattered leptons in coincidence with recoiling protons over a scattering angle range of ≈20 ° to 80°. The relative luminosity between the two beam species was monitored using tracking telescopes of interleaved gas electron multiplier and multiwire proportional chamber detectors at 12°, as well as symmetric Møller or Bhabha calorimeters at 1.29°. A total integrated luminosity of 4.5 fb-1 was collected. In the extraction of R2 γ, radiative effects were taken into account using a Monte Carlo generator to simulate the convolutions of internal bremsstrahlung with experiment-specific conditions such as detector acceptance and reconstruction efficiency. The resulting values of R2 γ, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456 <ɛ <0.978 , are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

  14. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Back, H. O.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y. K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-08-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of $^{10}$B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on $^{10}$B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57--467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in $dE/dx$ best describes the measurements, with $\\chi^2$/NDF$=1.6$. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  15. Quenching measurements and modeling of a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerdale, S.; Xu, J.; Shields, E.; Froborg, F.; Calaprice, F.; Alexander, T.; Back, H.O.; Aprahamian, A.; Casarella, C.; Fang, X.; Gupta, Y.K.; Lamere, E.; Liu, Q.; Lyons, S.; Smith, M.; Tan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in a wide variety of applications in experimental nuclear and particle physics. Boron-loaded scintillators are particularly useful for detecting neutron captures, due to the high thermal neutron capture cross section of 10 B. These scintillators are commonly used in neutron detectors, including the DarkSide-50 neutron veto, where the neutron may produce a signal when it scatters off protons in the scintillator or when it captures on 10 B. Reconstructing the energy of these recoils is complicated by scintillation quenching. Understanding how nuclear recoils are quenched in these scintillators is an important and difficult problem. In this article, we present a set of measurements of neutron-induced proton recoils in a boron-loaded organic liquid scintillator at recoil energies ranging from 57–467 keV, and we compare these measurements to predictions from different quenching models. We find that a modified Birks' model whose denominator is quadratic in dE / dx best describes the measurements, with χ 2 /NDF=1.6. This result will help model nuclear recoil scintillation in similar detectors and can be used to improve their neutron tagging efficiency.

  16. Thermal annealing of recoil 56Mn in strontium permanganate under (n,γ) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Vijaya

    2002-01-01

    Chemical stabilization of recoil 56 Mn in strontium permanganate (hydrous and anhydrous) has been investigated with a special reference to pre-and post-activation thermal annealing treatments. The retention of 56 Mn in neutron irradiated strontium permanganate showed significant variation on thermal annealing in both pre-and post-activation heated target. The recoil re-entry process obeys simple first order kinetics and the activation energy deduced for thermal annealing process is very low as computed by classical Arrhenius plots. The results observed are discussed in the light of existing ideas for understanding the recoil stabilization mechanism of parent reformation and the nature of precursors in permanganates. (author)

  17. The Final Merger of Massive Black Holes: Recoils, Gravitational Waves, and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.

  18. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  19. Preliminary test of the MONDO project secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons tracker response using protons and MIP particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, G.; Battistoni, G.; Giacometti, V.; Gioscio, E.; Marafini, M.; Mirabelli, R.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Patera, V.

    2018-04-01

    The risk of developing a second malignant cancer as a late time consequence of undergoing a treatment, is one of the main concerns in particle therapy (PT). Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, a precise characterisation of their production point, kinetic energy and abundance is eagerly needed. The treatment planning system (TPS) software that predicts the normal tissue toxicity in the target region and the risk of late complications in the whole body is currently based on the poorly known production cross-sections and will greatly benefit from improved precision double differential measurements. The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims to build an ultrafast neutron tracker that could be used to characterise the production of secondary neutrons with energies in the 20–400 MeV range. The neutron tracking will proceed via the detection of recoil protons produced in two consecutive (n, p) elastic scattering interactions. The MONDO detector consists of a 10 × 10 × 20 cm3 matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in orthogonally oriented layers. A compact read-out sensor with single photon detection capabilities employing the CMOS SPAD technology has been developed in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK). The detector will be completed by the end of 2018. A 4 × 4 × 4.8 cm3 prototype has been built using 250 μ m thick scintillating fibres of squared section and was tested using a proton beam and minimum ionising particles. In this contribution we present the experimental results related to the prototype test performed with a proton beam at the Proton Therapy Centre of the Trento Hospital (PTC) in May 2017. The results are compared with the results of a Monte Carlo simulation performed with the FLUKA software.

  20. Additional results from the β-delayed proton decays of 27P and 31Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ognibene, T.J.; Powell, J.; Moltz, D.M.; Rowe, M.W.; Cerny, J.

    1996-01-01

    β-delayed proton decays of the nuclides 27 P and 31 Cl were measured using the helium-jet recoil collection technique and low-energy particle identification detector telescopes. In 27 P, two new proton groups at 466±3 keV and 612±2 keV, with intensities of 9±2% and 97±3% relative to the main (100%) group at 731±2 keV, were discovered. Additionally, during the 27 P experiments, a new proton transition was identified following the β decay of 28 P. This group, at a proton energy of 1452±4 keV, had a 2±1% intensity relative to the 100% group at 679±1 keV. A total 27 P β-delayed proton branch of 0.07% was estimated. The experimental Gamow-Teller β-decay strengths of the observed transitions from 27 P were compared to results from shell model calculations. A search for new proton transitions in 31 Cl, the next member of this A=4n+3, T z =-3/2 series, was unsuccessful. However, several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to 31 Cl decay were shown to be from the decay of 25 Si. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the 13 N content in the containment atmosphere. 13 N is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/ 13 N+ 4 He. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium 13 N concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  2. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1980-01-01

    This study deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process Hl+016/yields/Nl3+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m/sup -3/ and 7 kBq m/sup -3/ for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge(Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. 8 refs

  3. Reactor coolant pressure boundary leakage detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.; Svansson, L.

    1979-08-01

    The present paper deals with a system for monitoring the leakage of reactor coolant. This system is based primarily on the detection of the N13 content in the containment atmosphere. N13 is produced from the oxygen of the reactor water via the recoil proton nuclear process H1+016 → N13+He4. The generation is therefore independent of fuel element leakage and of the corrosion product content in the water. It is solely related to the neutron flux level in the reactor core. Typical figures for the equilibrium N13 concentration in the containment atmosphere following a 4 kg/minute coolant leakage are 5 kBq m -3 and 7 kBq m -3 for BWR and PWR respectively. These levels are readily measured with a 10 liter Ge (Li) flow detector assembly operated at elevated pressure. (Auth.)

  4. Nuclear recoil scintillation and ionisation yields in liquid xenon from ZEPLIN-III data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M., E-mail: m.horn@imperial.ac.uk [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Belov, V.A.; Akimov, D.Yu. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Araujo, H.M. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Barnes, E.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Burenkov, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Chepel, V. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Currie, A. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Edwards, B. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kalmus, G.E. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Kobyakin, A.S.; Kovalenko, A.G. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedenko, V.N. [High Energy Physics group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Lindote, A. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Lopes, M.I. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Luescher, R.; Majewski, P. [Particle Physics Department, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (United Kingdom); Murphy, A.StJ. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-24

    Scintillation and ionisation yields for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon above 10 keV{sub nr} (nuclear recoil energy) are deduced from data acquired using broadband Am-Be neutron sources. The nuclear recoil data from several exposures to two sources were compared to detailed simulations. Energy-dependent scintillation and ionisation yields giving acceptable fits to the data were derived. Efficiency and resolution effects are treated using a light collection Monte Carlo, measured photomultiplier response profiles and hardware trigger studies. A gradual fall in scintillation yield below {approx}40 keV{sub nr} is found, together with a rising ionisation yield; both are in agreement with the latest independent measurements. The analysis method is applied to the most recent ZEPLIN-III data, acquired with a significantly upgraded detector and a precision-calibrated Am-Be source, as well as to the earlier data from the first run in 2008. A new method for deriving the recoil scintillation yield, which includes sub-threshold S1 events, is also presented which confirms the main analysis.

  5. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  6. Development of bubble chambers with enhanced stability and sensitivity to low-energy nuclear recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolte, W.J.; Collar, J.I.; Crisler, M.; Hall, J.; Holmgren, D.; Nakazawa, D.; Odom, B.; O'Sullivan, K.; Plunkett, R.; Ramberg, E.; Raskin, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Vieira, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The viability of using Bubble Chambers as dark matter particle detectors is considered. Techniques leading to the enhanced chamber stability needed for this new application are described in detail. Prototype trials show that sensitivity to the low-energy nuclear recoils induced by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMP) is possible in conditions of extreme insensitivity to minimum ionizing backgrounds. An understanding of detector response is demonstrated using existing theoretical models. We briefly comment on the prospects for detection of supersymmetric dark matter with large CF 3 I chambers

  7. Studies on neutron production in the interaction of 7.4 GeV protons with extended lead target

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Ochs, M; Wan, J S; Schmidt, T; Langrock, E J; Vater, P; Adam, J; Bamblevskij, V P; Bradnova, V; Gelovani, L K; Kalinnikov, V K; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Sosnin, A N; Perelygin, V P; Pronskikh, V S; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M; Modolo, G; Odoj, R; Phlippen, P W; Adloff, J C; Debeauvais, M; Zamani-Valassiadou, M; Dwivedi, K K; Wilson, B

    1999-01-01

    A cylindrical lead target of diameter 8 cm and length 20 cm was irradiated with 7.4 GeV protons along the axis of the cylinder. The lead target was surrounded with a paraffin layer of thickness 6 cm to moderate the neutrons produced in p + Pb reactions. The spatial distribution of the slow and fast neutrons on different surfaces of the moderator were determined using LR 115 2B detectors (through sup 1 sup 0 B(n,alpha) sup 7 Li reactions) and CR39 detectors (through proton recoils) respectively. Such results can be valuable in the studies and design of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Nuclear Reactors and Nuclear Waste Incinerators.

  8. Recoil distance lifetime measurements in 122,124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.; Kumar, A.; Iyer, H.; Li, H.; Garg, U.; Ghugre, S. S.; Johnson, T.; Kaczarowski, R.; Kharraja, B.; Naguleswaran, S.; Walpe, J. C.

    1998-02-01

    Lifetimes of the lower-excited states in 122,124Xe are measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift technique. The reactions 110Pd(16O,4n)122Xe and 110Pd(18O,4n)124Xe at a beam energy of 66 MeV were used for this experiment. The lifetimes of the 2+, 4+, 6+, and 8+ states of the ground state band were extracted using the computer code LIFETIME including the corrections due to the side feeding and the nuclear deorientation effects. The lifetime of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the recoil distance method (RDM) measurements but for the 124Xe it does not agree with the RDM measurements but agrees with the Coulomb-excitation experiment. The measured B(E2) values for both the nuclei are compared with the standard algebraic and the multishell models.

  9. Water droplet spreading and recoiling upon contact with thick-compact maltodextrin agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraz-Torres, Lesvia Sofía; Quintanilla-Carvajal, María Ximena; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Alamilla-Beltrán, Liliana; Gutiérrez-López, Gustavo F

    2011-11-01

    The food and pharmaceutical industries handle a number of compounds in the form of agglomerates which must be put into contact with water for rehydration purposes. In this work, liquid-solid interaction between water and maltodextrin thick-compact agglomerates was studied at different constituent particle sizes for two compression forces (75 and 225 MPa). Rapid droplet spreading was observed which was similar in radius to the expected one for ideal, flat surfaces. Contact angle determinations reported oscillations of this parameter throughout the experiments, being indicative of droplet recoiling on top of the agglomerate. Recoiling was more frequent in samples obtained at 225 MPa for agglomerate formation. Agglomerates obtained at 75 MPa exhibited more penetration of the water. Competition between dissolution of maltodextrin and penetration of the water was, probably, the main mechanism involved in droplet recoiling. Micrographs of the wetting marks were characterized by means of image analysis and the measurements suggested more symmetry of the wetting mark at higher compression force. Differences found in the evaluated parameters for agglomerates were mainly due to compaction force used. No significant effect of particle size in recoiling, penetration of water into the agglomerate, surface texture and symmetry was observed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. The Performance of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginter, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is a mass separator located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes the RMS, its performance, its detector systems, and discusses some experiments to illustrate its capabilities

  11. RITA, a promising Monte Carlo code for recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desalvo, A.; Rosa, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code previously set up to simulate ion penetration in amorphous solids has been extended to handle with recoil phenomena. Preliminary results are compared with existing experimental data. (author)

  12. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  13. A combined segmented anode gas ionization chamber and time-of-flight detector for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Petter; Petersson, Per; Rubel, Marek; Possnert, Göran

    2016-10-01

    A dedicated detector system for heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis at the Tandem Laboratory of Uppsala University is presented. Benefits of combining a time-of-flight measurement with a segmented anode gas ionization chamber are demonstrated. The capability of ion species identification is improved with the present system, compared to that obtained when using a single solid state silicon detector for the full ion energy signal. The system enables separation of light elements, up to Neon, based on atomic number while signals from heavy elements such as molybdenum and tungsten are separated based on mass, to a sample depth on the order of 1 μm. The performance of the system is discussed and a selection of material analysis applications is given. Plasma-facing materials from fusion experiments, in particular metal mirrors, are used as a main example for the discussion. Marker experiments using nitrogen-15 or oxygen-18 are specific cases for which the described improved species separation and sensitivity are required. Resilience to radiation damage and significantly improved energy resolution for heavy elements at low energies are additional benefits of the gas ionization chamber over a solid state detector based system.

  14. Proton detected 13C imaging. Implementation and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, A.M.J.

    1999-08-01

    The work described in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated by reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1996 to March 1999. This thesis documents the implementation and development of an imaging technique used to generate proton detected nuclear magnetic resonance images, representing the density of carbon-13 nuclear spins. The technique uses rotating frame, liquid state coherent polarisation transfer to generate carbon-13 edited proton signal. The dual resonant radio frequency (RF) coils used to create the homogeneous RF fields, intrinsic to the polarisation transfer are described, along with a consideration of their properties. Single resonant structures are also investigated, and a microscopy coil suitable for side access imaging studies is presented. By the use of field plotting methods, the main magnet field homogeneity was optimised, and the resonator RF fields were characterised. This provided the information for a theoretical evaluation of the efficacy of this implementation of the cyclic cross polarisation sequence, which was confirmed experimentally. Applications of the cyclic cross polarisation imaging scheme are presented, along with a novel variant of the sequence, used for mapping the RF field within samples with a low magnetogyric ratio. (author)

  15. Coincidence measurements of slow recoil ions with projectile ions in 42-MeV Arq+-Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Matsuo, T.; Tawara, H.

    1989-01-01

    Slow Ar recoil-ion production cross sections by projectiles of 1.05-MeV/amu Ar q+ (q=4,6,8,10,12,14) were measured using a projectile-ion--recoil-ion coincidence technique. The present results indicate that the average recoil ion charges left-angle i right-angle increase with increasing the incident projectile charge q and the number of the lost and captured electrons from and/or into projectiles, whereas the projectile charge-changing cross sections for loss ionization decrease steeply with increasing q for low-charge-state projectiles, and those for transfer ionization increase rapidly with increasing q for high-charge-state projectiles. For Ar projectiles with q=10, which corresponds to the equilibrium charge state of Ar projectiles at the present collision energy, the average recoil-ion charges are nearly the same in both loss and transfer ionization, and a pure ionization process plays a much more important role in producing highly charged recoil ions, in contrast to projectile electron loss or transfer processes, which play a role in other projectile charge states

  16. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a 4 He 2+ ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 μm 2 . The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH x (0< x<3) samples with a qualitatively known hydrogen concentration profile are presented and discussed. The calibration of the microbeam set-up and possible improvement of the measurement technique are described

  17. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    1999-09-02

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 {mu}m{sup 2}. The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH{sub x} (0

  18. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung towards the elastic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; van Garderen, E.; Gašparić, I.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kiš, M.; Löhner, H.

    2005-05-01

    In oder to study proton-proton bremsstrahlung moving towards the elastic limit, a detection system, consisting of Plastic-ball and SALAD, was set up and an experiment at 190 MeV incident beam energy was performed. Here, the experimental setup and the data analysis procedure along with some results obtained in the measurement are discussed.

  19. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung towards the elastic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; Garderen, E. van; Harakeh, M.N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Loehner, H.; Gasparic, I.

    2005-01-01

    In oder to study proton-proton bremsstrahlung moving towards the elastic limit, a detection system, consisting of Plastic-ball and SALAD, was set up and an experiment at 190 MeV incident beam energy was performed. Here, the experimental setup and the data analysis procedure along with some results obtained in the measurement are discussed

  20. Atom location using recoil ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) using inert gas and alkali ions is widely used in studies of the surface atomic layer. The extreme surface sensitivity of this technique ensures that it yields both compositional and structural information on clean and adsorbate covered surfaces. Low Energy Negative recoil Spectroscopy (LENRS) has been applied to a study of oxygen on Ni(110) to gauge the sensitivity to coverage and site location

  1. WE-EF-303-09: Proton-Acoustic Range Verification in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Xiang, L [University of Oklahoma (OK), Norman, OK (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We investigated proton-acoustic signals detection for range verification with current ultrasound instruments in typical clinical scenarios. Using simulations that included a realistic noise model, we determined the theoretical minimum dose required to generate detectable proton-acoustic signals. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distributions and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. The acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were modeled by the general 3D pressure wave equation and convolved with Gaussian kernels to simulate various proton pulse widths (0.1 – 10 ms). A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth band-pass filter, and ii) randomly generated noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons and dose required per pulse. The maximum spatial resolution was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer center frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons were on the order of 0.6–6 million per pulse, leading to 3–110 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak, depending on the spot size. The acoustic signal consisted of lower frequencies for wider pulses, leading to lower noise levels, but also worse spatial resolution. The resolution was 1-mm for a 0.1-µs pulse width, but increased to 5-mm for a 10-µs pulse width. Conclusion: We have established minimum dose detection limits for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a large detector with no losses and only detector thermal noise. Feasible proton-acoustic range detection will require at least 10{sup 7} protons per pulse and pulse widths ≤ 1-µs.

  2. Decay spectroscopy for nuclear astrophysics: β- and β-delayed proton decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trache, L.; Banu, A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; McCleskey, M.; Roeder, B. T.; Simmons, E.; Spiridon, A.; Tribble, R. E.; Saastamoinen, A.; Jokinen, A.; Äysto, J.; Davinson, T.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Pollacco, E.

    2012-02-01

    In several radiative proton capture reactions important in novae and XRBs, the resonant parts play the capital role. We use decay spectroscopy techniques to find these resonances and study their properties. We have developed techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer of Texas A&M University. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. This allows us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of 23Al, 27P, 31Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions 22Na(p,γ)23Mg (crucial for the depletion of 22Na in novae), 26mAl(p,γ)27Si and 30P(p,γ)31S (bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. Lastly, results with a new detector that allowed us to measure down to about 80 keV proton energy are announced.

  3. Decay spectroscopy for nuclear astrophysics: β- and β-delayed proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trache, L; Banu, A; Hardy, J C; Iacob, V E; McCleskey, M; Roeder, B T; Simmons, E; Spiridon, A; Tribble, R E; Saastamoinen, A; Jokinen, A; Äysto, J; Davinson, T; Lotay, G; Woods, P J; Pollacco, E

    2012-01-01

    In several radiative proton capture reactions important in novae and XRBs, the resonant parts play the capital role. We use decay spectroscopy techniques to find these resonances and study their properties. We have developed techniques to measure beta- and beta-delayed proton decay of sd-shell, proton-rich nuclei produced and separated with the MARS recoil spectrometer of Texas A and M University. The short-lived radioactive species are produced in-flight, separated, then slowed down (from about 40 MeV/u) and implanted in the middle of very thin Si detectors. This allows us to measure protons with energies as low as 200 keV from nuclei with lifetimes of 100 ms or less. At the same time we measure gamma-rays up to 8 MeV with high resolution HPGe detectors. We have studied the decay of 23 Al, 27 P, 31 Cl, all important for understanding explosive H-burning in novae. The technique has shown a remarkable selectivity to beta-delayed charged-particle emission and works even at radioactive beam rates of a few pps. The states populated are resonances for the radiative proton capture reactions 22 Na(p,γ) 23 Mg (crucial for the depletion of 22 Na in novae), 26m Al(p,γ) 27 Si and 30 P(p,γ) 31 S (bottleneck in novae and XRB burning), respectively. Lastly, results with a new detector that allowed us to measure down to about 80 keV proton energy are announced.

  4. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy-ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q = 15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q = 4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q = 6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix

  5. Production, transport and charge capture measurements of highly charged recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebus, U.E.

    1989-05-01

    An experiment is described to study highly charged recoil ions on-line to the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI. The highly charged recoil ions are produced by heavy ion bombardment of a gas target. Subsequently the slow highly charged recoil ions are extracted from the ionization volume, and guided through a beam transport line to a Wien filter for charge state selection and to a collision region to study charge transfer processes. Several experiments were carried out to show the efficient charge state separation. Charge states up to q=15 were observed. When using a retarding field analyzer cross sections for single electron capture were determined for different charge states of Xe q+ for q=4 to 11 and He gas. The experiments demonstrated increasing charge transfer cross sections with increasing charge state q and indicated the effect of near resonant charge capture for q=6. The flexible data acquisition system used, is described and other future experiments, such as for instance in flight ion-trapping are indicated in the appendix. (orig.)

  6. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    than would be deduced from the force levels defined by the pressure-time curve of the cartridge. Further and just like a large-caliber weapon mounted...force. If each of the force curves over the time interval were integrated, the result should be the same as that derived from a ballistic pendulum...Kathe, E.; Dillon, R. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun; Report ARCCB-TR-2001; U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center

  7. Correlations associated with particles produced at small angles in pp collisions at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Benz, P; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Chang, C Y; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Kooijman, P; Loebinger, F K; McCubbin, N A; Murphy, P G; Radiojicic, D; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Sessoms, A L; Singh, J; Strolin, P; Timmer, J

    1976-01-01

    Data on correlations between momentum analysed protons, pions or K mesons, and charged particles produced in pp collisions at the CERN ISR are presented. The charged particles were detected in a approximately 4 pi scintillation counter hodoscope. The pseudo- rapidity distributions are well described by production within the limits of cylindrical phase space, with negative kaons and antiprotons yielding narrower distributions than protons, pions and positive kaons. The azimuthal distributions show symmetry around the t-channel axis in the rest frame of the recoiling mass M/sub X/ in pp to aX(a =detected proton, pion, positive kaon). (14 refs).

  8. Slowing down and straggling of protons and heavy ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aernsbergen, L.M. van.

    1986-01-01

    The Doppler Shift Attenuation (DSA) method is widely used to measure lifetimes of nuclear states. However, many of the lifetimes resulting from DSA measurements display large variations which are caused by an insufficient knowledge of slowing down processes of nucleus recoils. The measurement of 'ranges' is an often used method to study these slowing down processes. In this kind of measurement the distributions of implanted ions are determined for example by the method of Rutherford backscattering or from the yield curve of a resonant nuclear reaction. In this thesis, research on energy-loss processes of protons and Si ions in aluminium is presented. The so-called Resonance Shift method has been improved for the measurements on the protons themselves. This method has only been used occasionally before. A new method has been developed, which is called the Transmission Doppler Shift Attenuation (TDSA) method, for the measurement on Si ions. (Auth.)

  9. Lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method—achievements and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.

    2001-07-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for measuring pico-second nuclear level lifetimes and its use in nuclear structure studies is reviewed and perspectives for the future are presented. High precision measurements in the mass-130 region, studies of multi-phonon states in rare earth nuclei, the investigation of shape coexistence and the recently discovered phenomenon of "magnetic rotation" are reviewed. Prospects for lifetime measurements in exotic regions of nuclei such as the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei populated via spontaneous and heavy-ion induced fission are discussed. Other prospects include the use of the RDM technique in conjunction with recoil separators. The relevance of these techniques for experiments with radioactive ion beams will be discussed.

  10. Lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method - achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2001-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for measuring pico-second nuclear level lifetimes and its use in nuclear structure studies is reviewed and perspectives for the future are presented. High precision measurements in the mass-130 region, studies of multi-phonon states in rare earth nuclei, the investigation of shape coexistence and the recently discovered phenomenon of 'magnetic rotation' are reviewed. Prospects for lifetime measurements in exotic regions of nuclei such as the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei populated via spontaneous and heavy-ion induced fission are discussed. Other prospects include the use of the RDM technique in conjunction with recoil separators. The relevance of these techniques for experiments with radioactive ion beams will be discussed

  11. Primary processes and ionic reactions in the chemistry of recoiling silicon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, P.P.; Garmestani, K.; Boo, B.H.; Stewart, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry has permitted the elucidation of the chemistry of free atoms, and these include the polyvalent atoms of refractory group 14 elements, that is, carbon, silicon and germanium. Since no more than two bonds are formed normally in a single reactive collision of free atoms, the study on the chemistry of atoms like C, Si and Ge that require the formation of more than two bonds to saturate their chemical valence necessarily involves the study of reactive intermediates. By the studies on the chemistry of recoiling 31 Si atoms, the mechanistic conclusions reached are reported. The most important unanswered questions concerning the reaction of recoiling 31 Si atoms in the systems are shown, and progress has been made toward the answering. By using tetramethyl silane as a trapping agent for silicon ions, it has been established that the reaction of 31 Si ions contributes significantly to the formation of products in recoil systems. The studies by various researchers on this theme are reported. (K.I.)

  12. Test of a superheated superconducting granule detector with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a Superheated Superconducting Granule (SSG) detector development for neutrinos and dark matter. An aluminum SSG detector was exposed to a 70MeV neutron beam to test the detector sensitivity to nuclear recoils. The neutron scattering angels were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The proved sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils above 10keV is encouraging for possible applications of SSG as a dark matter detector. (orig.)

  13. Dynamical Formation of Horizons in Recoiling D Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    2000-01-01

    A toy calculation of string/D-particle interactions within a world-sheet approach indicates that quantum recoil effects - reflecting the gravitational back-reaction on space-time foam due to the propagation of energetic particles - induces the appearance of a microscopic event horizon, or `bubble', inside which stable matter can exist. The scattering event causes this horizon to expand, but we expect quantum effects to cause it to contract again, in a `bounce' solution. Within such `bubbles', massless matter propagates with an effective velocity that is less than the velocity of light in vacuo, which may lead to observable violations of Lorentz symmetry that may be tested experimentally. The conformal invariance conditions in the interior geometry of the bubbles select preferentially three for the number of the spatial dimensions, corresponding to a consistent formulation of the interaction of D3 branes with recoiling D particles, which are allowed to fluctuate independently only on the D3-brane hypersurface.

  14. Recoil properties of radionuclides formed in photospallation reactions on complex nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haba, Hiromitsu; Oura, Yasuji; Shibata, Seiichi; Furukawa, Michiaki; Fujiwara, Ichiro

    2001-01-01

    A short review is given on our studies of recoil properties of radionuclides formed in photospallation reactions induced by bremsstrahlung of end-point energies (E 0 ) from 600 to 1100 MeV, in which the thick-target thick-catcher method was employed. The measurements have been successful on 14, 24, 26, 31, 21 and 20 nuclides from nat V, nat Cu, 93 Nb, nat Ag, nat Ta, and 197 Au, respectively. Reflecting the resonance character in a photonuclear reaction, the mean ranges FW and BW in the forward and backward directions, respectively, are E 0 -independent at the studied energies and classified into two groups accounting for the (γ, xn) (x ≥ 1) and (γ, xnyp) (x, y ≥ 1) processes. The forward-to-backward ratios (F/B) are independent of the mass difference (ΔA) between a product (A p ) and a target (A t ) and also of A t . The kinematic properties of the product nuclei were analyzed by the two-step vector velocity model. The forward velocity ν after the first step of photon-reaction is quite different from that of proton-reaction at proton energies of E p ≤ 3 GeV, though the difference disappears at higher energies. On the other hand, the mean kinetic energy T of the residual nucleus in the second step is almost equal to that of proton-reaction irrespective of E p . A comparison with T values calculated by the PICA (Photon-Induced Intranuclear Cascade Analysis) code at E 0 =400 MeV was also performed. It was found that although the code well reproduces the experimental results of nat V and nat Cu, the same calculation for heavier targets gives T values lower than the experimental results, indicating some nuclear-structure effect, such as a medium effect notably at A t ≥ 100. An average kinetic energy carried off by the emitted particles ε s =T/(ΔA/A t ) of both photon- and proton-reactions seem to increase with an increase of A t up to around A t =100, and become almost constant at larger A t , implying some change in the nuclear structure effect in this

  15. Experimental determination of relative light conversion factors of TLD-100 for protons with energies from 2.0 to 9.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.; Fellinger, J.; Henniger, J.; Huebner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of thermoluminescent (TL) detectors to heavy charged particles is described by the so-called light conversion factor η. Relative light conversion factors for protons, alphas and heavier recoils are needed for the calculation of the neutron sensitivity of TL detectors. Such light conversion factors can be determined experimentally. In this paper a method is presented for the experimental determination of relative light conversion factors. Using the experimental arrangement described, relative light conversion factors for LiF material (TLD-100) for protons were determined. In LiF the relative main peak (peak V) efficiency is always lower than 1. It increases with increasing proton energy whereas the relative efficiency of the high temperature peak (peak VI) shows an opposite dependence on the proton energy. Relative light conversion factors for peak VI clearly exceed 1. (orig.)

  16. Fast neutron dosimetry for radioprotection near large accelerators. Application to the proton synchrotron Saturne; Dosimetrie des neutrons rapides en vue de la radioprotection aupres des grands accelerateurs. Application au synchrotron a protons Saturne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardy-Joubert, P

    1963-07-01

    Methods are described that are used for the measurement of a neutron flux, and of the corresponding energy flux and dose absorbed. The methods are checked experimentally by the use of neutron sources of known energy distribution. The conditions of use of a proportional counter for recoil protons are described. The experimental results obtained with the synchrotron SATURNE at Saclay are described. (author) [French] L'auteur presente les methodes utilisables pour la mesure d'un flux de neutrons, du flux d'energie et de la dose absorbee correspondants. Les methodes sont verifiees experimentalement au moyen de sources de neutrons de spectre connu. Les conditions d'emploi d'un compteur proportionnel a protons de recul sont definies. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus aupres du synchrotron Saturne de Saclay sont presentes. (auteur)

  17. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  18. Dama annual modulation from electron recoils

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma dark matter, which arises in dissipative dark matter models, can give rise to large annual modulation signals from keV electron recoils. Previous work has argued that the DAMA annual modulation signal might be explained in such a scenario. Detailed predictions are difficult due to the inherent complexities involved in modelling the halo plasma interactions with Earth bound dark matter. Here, we consider a simplified phenomenological model for the dark matter density and temperature nea...

  19. Controllability analysis and testing of a novel magnetorheological absorber for field gun recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qing; Zheng, Jiajia; Li, Zhaochun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of combined working coils of magnetorheological (MR) absorber on the shock mitigation performance and verify the controllability of MR absorber as applied in the recoil system of a field gun. A physical scale model of the field gun is established and a long-stroke MR recoil absorber with four-stage parallel electromagnetic coils is designed to apply separate current to each stage and generate variable magnetic field distribution in the annular flow channel. Based on dynamic analysis and firing stability conditions of the field gun, ideal recoil force-stroke profiles of MR absorber at different limiting firing angles are obtained. The experimental studies are carried out on an impact test rig under different combinations of current loading: conventional unified control mode, separate control mode and timing control mode. The fullness degree index (FDI) is defined as the quantitative evaluation criterion of the controllability of MR absorber during the whole recoil motion. The results show that the force-stroke profile of the novel MR absorber can approach the ideal curve within 25 degrees of the limiting firing angle through judicious exploitation of the adjustable rheological properties of MR fluid.

  20. Dynamics of the single and double ionization of helium in fast proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.

    1991-08-01

    A new experimental approach, designed to measure differential ionisation and electron capture cross sections for relativistic heavy ion beams, has been developed and was used to investigate dynamic mechanisms of Helium single and double ionisation in collisions with fast protons. Detailed insight into the dynamics of the ionisation process has been obtained. The experimental results prove, that the many-body momentum exchange between all particles involved, the projectile and target nucleus as well as the emitted electrons, has to be incorporated in order to correctly describe the ionisation collision dynamics. For the proton on Helium collision system the transverse momenta of projectile and recoil-ion were found to be of comparable magnitude only for very close collisions and large scattering angles above 1 mrad, which contribute less than 3% to the total ionisation cross section. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  2. The HERMES recoil photon-detector and nuclear p{sub t}-Broadening at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlem, Y. van

    2007-09-15

    The first part of this work consists of hardware research and development done in order to construct and test a photon-detector as one of the three detectors of the HERMES recoil detector. The HERMES recoil detector consists of a target cell, a silicon-detector, a scintillating fiber tracker, and a photon-detector. All are inside a super-conducting magnet. The silicon detector uses energy deposition to determine the momentum of the particle because in its energy range the energy deposition is an unambiguous function of the momentum of the particle. The scintillating fiber tracker is located outside the beam-vacuum and is surrounded by the photon-detector. It consists of two barrels with layers of scintillating fibers. It detects particles by converting their energy deposition into light. It measures two space points of a charged particle and from the bending of the assigned track (in the magnetic field provided by the super-conducting magnet) a momentum measurement can be derived. The photon-detector is located between the scintillating fiber tracker and the magnet. It consists (from the inside out) of three layers of tungsten showering material followed by scintillating strips. The second part of this work is an analysis performed concerning the transverse momentum broadening of hadrons produced in deep-inelastic scattering on a nuclear target compared to a D target. (orig.)

  3. Development of phonon-mediated cryogenic particle detectors with electron and nuclear recoil discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sae Woo

    1999-10-01

    Observations have shown that galaxies, including our own, are surrounded by halos of ``dark matter''. One possibility is that this may be an undiscovered form of matter, weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). This thesis describes the development of silicon based cryogenic particle detectors designed to directly detect interactions with these WIMPs. These detectors are part of a new class of detectors which are able to reject background events by simultaneously measuring energy deposited into phonons versus electron hole pairs. By using the phonon sensors with the ionization sensors to compare the partitioning of energy between phonons and ionizations we can discriminate between electron recoil events (background radiation) and nuclear recoil events (dark matter events). These detectors with built-in background rejection are a major advance in background rejection over previous searches. Much of this thesis will describe work in scaling the detectors from / g prototype devices to a fully functional prototype 100g dark matter detector. In particular, many sensors were fabricated and tested to understand the behavior of our phonon sensors, Quasipartice trapping assisted Electrothermal feedback Transition edge sensors (QETs). The QET sensors utilize aluminum quasiparticle traps attached to tungsten superconducting transition edge sensors patterned on a silicon substrate. The tungsten lines are voltage biased and self-regulate in the transition region. Phonons from particle interactions within the silicon propogate to the surface where they are absorbed by the aluminum generating quasiparticles in the aluminum. The quasiparticles diffuse into the tungsten and couple energy into the tungsten electron system. Consequently, the tungsten increases in resistance and causes a current pulse which is measured with a high bandwidth SQUID system. With this advanced sensor technology, we were able to demonstrate detectors with xy position sensitivity with electron and

  4. The DarkSide-50 Experiment: Electron Recoil Calibrations and A Global Energy Variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, Brianne Rae [Hawaii U.

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of decades, there has been mounting astronomical evidence for non-baryonic dark matter, yet its precise nature remains elusive. A favored candidate for dark matter is the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which arises naturally out of extensions to the Standard Model. WIMPs are expected to occasionally interact with particles of normal matter through nuclear recoils. DarkSide-50 aims to detect this type of particle through the use of a two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber. To make a claim of discovery, an accurate understanding of the background and WIMP search region is imperative. Knowledge of the backgrounds is done through extensive studies of DarkSide-50's response to electron and nuclear recoils. The CALibration Insertion System (CALIS) was designed and built for the purpose of introduc- ing radioactive sources into or near the detector in a joint eort between Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) and the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. This work describes the testing, installation, and commissioning of CALIS at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. CALIS has been used in mul- tiple calibration campaigns with both neutron and sources. In this work, DarkSide-50's response to electron recoils, which are important for background estimations, was studied through the use of calibration sources by constructing a global energy variable which takes into account the anti- correlation between scintillation and ionization signals produced by interactions in the liquid argon. Accurately reconstructing the event energy correlates directly with quantitatively understanding the WIMP sensitivity in DarkSide-50. This work also validates the theoretically predicted decay spectrum of 39Ar against 39Ar decay data collected in the early days of DarkSide-50 while it was lled with atmospheric argon; a validation of this type is not readily found in the literature. Finally, we show how well the constructed energy variable can predict

  5. The n,{gamma} discrimination in recoil-proton proportional counters. Application to the measurement of fast neutron spectra; Discrimination n,{gamma} dans les compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul. Application a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandidier, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of a spectrometry chain working in the energy range of a few keV to 1 MeV, and designed for measurement of fast neutron spectra. It consists of detectors, recoil proton proportional counters built especially for this work by R. COMTE (DEG/SER) and which make it possible to cover the energy range and also associated electronic equipment. A brief description is first given of the physical processes involved: (n,p) collisions in the gas, influence of {gamma} radiation; the method of discrimination is then presented. It is based on the difference in the rise-times of the pulses. In the experiments described here the use of a bi-parametric system made it possible to employ the most simple discrimination device, based on the fact that the high frequency gamma pulse components are, at a given energy, weaker than those of the neutron pulses. Results are given of measurements carried out on the Van der Graaff (mono-energetic neutrons for testing the linearity of the chain and the resolving power of the counters), and of those made in a sub-critical system Hug at Cadarache. (author) [French] On decrit une chaine de spectrometrie travaillant dans le domaine d'energie de quelques keV a 1 MeV destinee a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides. Elle comprend les detecteurs, compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul, realises specialement pour cette etude par M. R. COMTE (DEG/SER), permettant de couvrir la gamme d'energie et l'electronique associee. Apres un rappel des processus physiques mis en jeu: chocs (n,p) dans les gaz, influence des rayonnements {gamma}, on expose la methode de discrimination utilisee. Celle-ci est basee sur la difference des temps de montee des impulsions. Au cours des experiences rapportees ici, la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble bi-parametrique a permis d'utiliser le dispositif de discrimination le plus simple, base sur la remarque que les composantes a haute frequence des impulsions {gamma} sont, a energie egale, plus faibles

  6. The n,{gamma} discrimination in recoil-proton proportional counters. Application to the measurement of fast neutron spectra; Discrimination n,{gamma} dans les compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul. Application a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeandidier, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of a spectrometry chain working in the energy range of a few keV to 1 MeV, and designed for measurement of fast neutron spectra. It consists of detectors, recoil proton proportional counters built especially for this work by R. COMTE (DEG/SER) and which make it possible to cover the energy range and also associated electronic equipment. A brief description is first given of the physical processes involved: (n,p) collisions in the gas, influence of {gamma} radiation; the method of discrimination is then presented. It is based on the difference in the rise-times of the pulses. In the experiments described here the use of a bi-parametric system made it possible to employ the most simple discrimination device, based on the fact that the high frequency gamma pulse components are, at a given energy, weaker than those of the neutron pulses. Results are given of measurements carried out on the Van der Graaff (mono-energetic neutrons for testing the linearity of the chain and the resolving power of the counters), and of those made in a sub-critical system Hug at Cadarache. (author) [French] On decrit une chaine de spectrometrie travaillant dans le domaine d'energie de quelques keV a 1 MeV destinee a la mesure des spectres de neutrons rapides. Elle comprend les detecteurs, compteurs proportionnels a protons de recul, realises specialement pour cette etude par M. R. COMTE (DEG/SER), permettant de couvrir la gamme d'energie et l'electronique associee. Apres un rappel des processus physiques mis en jeu: chocs (n,p) dans les gaz, influence des rayonnements {gamma}, on expose la methode de discrimination utilisee. Celle-ci est basee sur la difference des temps de montee des impulsions. Au cours des experiences rapportees ici, la mise en oeuvre d'un ensemble bi-parametrique a permis d'utiliser le dispositif de discrimination le plus simple, base sur la remarque que les composantes a haute frequence des impulsions {gamma} sont, a

  7. Measurement of differential cross sections for Z boson production in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Medina Jaime, Miguel; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Mohamed, Amr; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Kucher, Inna; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Tholen, Heiner; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavine, Vladimir; Kashunin, Ivan; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Smirnov, Vitaly; Trofimov, Vladimir; Yuldashev, Bekhzod S; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zhiltsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; García Alonso, Andrea; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Casal, Bruno; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Mills, Corrinne; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benitez, Jose F; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Rekovic, Vladimir; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    The production of a Z boson, decaying to two charged leptons, in association with jets in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV is measured. Data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC are used that correspond to an integrated luminosity of 2.19 fb$^{-1}$. The cross section is measured as a function of the jet multiplicity and its dependence on the transverse momentum of the Z boson, the jet kinematic variables (transverse momentum and rapidity), the scalar sum of the jet momenta, which quantifies the hadronic activity, and the balance in transverse momentum between the reconstructed jet recoil and the Z boson. The measurements are compared with predictions from four different calculations. The first two merge matrix elements with different parton multiplicities in the final state and parton showering, one of which includes one-loop corrections. The third is a fixed-order calculation with next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy for the process with a Z boson and one parton in the fin...

  8. Role of the recoil effect in two-center interference in X-ray photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Liu, X.-J.; Pruemper, G.; Lischke, T.; Tanaka, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Minkov, I.; Kimberg, V.; Gel'mukhanov, F.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectra of the N 2 molecule are studied both experimentally and theoretically in the extended energy region up to 1 keV. The ratio of the photoionization cross sections for the gerade and ungerade core levels displays a modulation in the high energy region caused by the two-center interference, as predicted by Cohen and Fano (CF) in 1966. The physical background of this CF effect is the same as in Young's double-slit experiment. We have found that the interference pattern deviates significantly from the CF prediction. The origin of such a breakdown of the CF formula is the scattering of the photoelectron inside the molecule and the momentum transfer from the emitted fast photoelectron to the nuclei. Usually the recoil effect is small. We show that the electron recoil strongly affects the two-center interference pattern. Both stationary and dynamical aspects of the recoil effect shed light on the role of the momentum exchange in the two-center interference

  9. Experiments with recoil ions and other considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocke, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some opportunities in collisions physics with slow, multiply charged ions are addressed. A distinction between inner and outer shell collisions is drawn. The applicability of recoil ion sources to outer shell collision systems is discussed, with emphasis on the quality of the beam desired. An example of an inner shell collision is discussed, and the usefulness of not pushing the collision energy too low is pointed out. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  10. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2009-12-01

    A high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio µpGEp/GMp in the range Q2 = 0.3–0.7 GeV2/c2 was performed using recoil polarimetry in Jefferson Lab Hall A. In this low Q2 range, previous data from LEDEX [5] along with many fits and calculations [2, 3, 4] indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. In this new measurement, with 80% polarized electron beam for 24 days, we are able to achieve <1% statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, indicating a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the improved form factor measurements also have implications for DVCS, determinations of the proton Zemach radius and strangeness form factors through parity violation experiments.

  11. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.R.; Johnston, P.N.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hult, M.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Zaring, C.; Oestling, M. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1993-12-31

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Heavy ion recoil spectrometry of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S R; Johnston, P N; Bubb, I F [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Hult, M; Whitlow, H J [Lund Institute of Technology, Solvegatan (Sweden). Department of Nuclear Physics; Zaring, C; Oestling, M [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Solid State Electronics

    1994-12-31

    Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions from ANTARES (FN Tandem) facility at Lucas Heights has been used to examine the isotopic composition of samples of Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} grown at the Australian National University by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE). The recoiling target nuclei were analysed by a Time Of Flight and Energy (TOF-E) detector telescope composed of two timing pickoff detectors and a surface barrier (energy) detector. From the time of flight and energy, the ion mass can be determined and individual depth distributions for each element can be obtained. Recoil spectrometry has shown the presence of oxygen in the Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} layer and has enabled the separate determination of energy spectra for individual elements. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  14. Proton form factor ratio, μpGEP/GMP from double spin asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha Pushpakumari [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The form factors are fundamental properties of the nucleon representing the effect of its structure on its response to electromagnetic probes such as electrons. They are functions of the four-momentum transfer squared Q2 between the electron and the proton. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton up to Q2 = 5.66 (GeV/c)2 using the double spin asymmetry with a polarized beam and target. Experiment E07-003 (SANE, Spin Asymmetries of the Nucleon Experiment) was carried out in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in 2009 to study the proton spin structure functions with a dynamically polarized ammonia target and longitudinally polarized electron beam. By detecting elastically scattered protons in the High-Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) in coincidence with the electrons in the Big Electron Telescope Array (BETA), elastic measurements were carried out in parallel. The elastic double spin asymmetry allows one to extract the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio GpE/GpM at high-momentum transfer, Q2= 5.66 (GeV/c)2. In addition to the coincidence data, inclusively scattered electrons from the polarized ammonia target were detected by HMS, which allows to measure the beam-target asymmetry in the elastic region with the target spin nearly perpendicular to the momentum transfer, and to extract GpE/GpM at low Q2= 2.06 (GeV/c)2. This alternative measurement of GpE/GpM has verified and confirmed the dramatic discrepancy at high Q2 between the Rosenbluth and the recoil-polarization-transfer iv method with a different measurement technique and systematic uncertainties uncorrelated to those of the recoil-polarization measurements. The measurement of the form factor ratio at Q2 = 2

  15. SU-E-J-149: Secondary Emission Detection for Improved Proton Relative Stopping Power Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, J; Musall, B; Erickson, A [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This research investigates application of secondary prompt gamma (PG) emission spectra, resulting from nuclear reactions induced by protons, to characterize tissue composition along the particle path. The objective of utilizing the intensity of discrete high-energy peaks of PG is to improve the accuracy of relative stopping power (RSP) values available for proton therapy treatment planning on a patient specific basis and to reduce uncertainty in dose depth calculations. Methods: In this research, MCNP6 was used to simulate PG emission spectra generated from proton induced nuclear reactions in medium of varying composition of carbon, oxygen, calcium and nitrogen, the predominant elements found in human tissue. The relative peak intensities at discrete energies predicted by MCNP6 were compared to the corresponding atomic composition of the medium. Results: The results have shown a good general agreement with experimentally measured values reported by other investigators. Unexpected divergence from experimental spectra was noted in the peak intensities for some cases depending on the source of the cross-section data when using compiled proton table libraries vs. physics models built into MCNP6. While the use of proton cross-section libraries is generally recommended when available, these libraries lack data for several less abundant isotopes. This limits the range of their applicability and forces the simulations to rely on physics models for reactions with natural atomic compositions. Conclusion: Current end-of-range proton imaging provides an average RSP for the total estimated track length. The accurate identification of tissue composition along the incident particle path using PG detection and characterization allows for improved determination of the tissue RSP on the local level. While this would allow for more accurate depth calculations resulting in tighter treatment margins, precise understanding of proton beam behavior in tissue of various

  16. Neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering on proton with four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2}. Measurement of cross-sections and of generalized polarizabilities; Electroproduction de photons et de pions sur le proton au quadrimoment de transfert Q{sup 2} = 1.0 GeV{sup 2}. Mesure des sections efficaces et extraction des polarisabilites generalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laveissiere, G

    2001-11-01

    In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focussed on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998. The 4 GeV electron beam is scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target, and the scattered electron and recoiled proton are detected in coincidence in the twin hall A spectrometers. The photon (pion) is reconstructed using a missing particle technique. The data analysis allowed to extract the cross sections relative to both process at four-momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} = 1 GeV{sup 2}. The VCS cross section has been extracted for the first time in the proton resonance region (W between 1.O and 2.0 GeV) through the photon electroproduction reaction. Around the pion-production threshold up to the Delta(1232) resonance region, these results lead to the measurement of the generalized polarizabilities, that describe the proton structure in the same way as the elastic form factors. Moreover, the neutral pion electroproduction cross section measurement in the resonance region has brought new constraints on the existing phenomenological models. (author)

  17. Neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering on proton with four-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 1 GeV2. Measurement of cross-sections and of generalized polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laveissiere, G.

    2001-11-01

    In hadronic physics, the nucleon structure and the quarks confinement are still topical issues. The neutral pion electroproduction and virtual Compton scattering (VCS) reactions allow us to access new observables that describe this structure. This work is focussed on the VCS experiment performed at Jefferson Lab in 1998. The 4 GeV electron beam is scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target, and the scattered electron and recoiled proton are detected in coincidence in the twin hall A spectrometers. The photon (pion) is reconstructed using a missing particle technique. The data analysis allowed to extract the cross sections relative to both process at four-momentum transfer squared Q 2 = 1 GeV 2 . The VCS cross section has been extracted for the first time in the proton resonance region (W between 1.O and 2.0 GeV) through the photon electroproduction reaction. Around the pion-production threshold up to the Delta(1232) resonance region, these results lead to the measurement of the generalized polarizabilities, that describe the proton structure in the same way as the elastic form factors. Moreover, the neutral pion electroproduction cross section measurement in the resonance region has brought new constraints on the existing phenomenological models. (author)

  18. Characterization of TiAlN thin film annealed under O2 by in situ time of flight direct recoil spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions and ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempez, A.; Bensaoula, A.; Schultz, A.

    2002-01-01

    The oxidation of an amorphous TiAlN coating has been studied by in situ direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS) and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI) and ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DRS and MSRI monitored the changes in surface composition as the sample was heated to 460 deg. C under an 18 O 2 pressure of 10 -6 Torr. Angular resolved XPS data were acquired for thickness-dependence information. The initial surface was partially oxidized from air exposure. Both DRS and XPS showed the Al-rich near surface and the presence of N in the subsurface. As shown by DRS and MSRI, oxidation at elevated temperatures yielded surface nitrogen loss and Ti enrichment. XPS confirmed the preferential formation of TiO 2 on the surface. This study also provides a comparison between the direct recoil (neutrals and ions) and the ionic recoil signals. In our conditions, the negative ionic fraction of all elements except H tracks their true surface content variations given by DRS. The results were compared with early work performed on identical samples. In this case the TiAlN film was oxidized with an O 2 pressure in the mTorr range and the surface changes are followed in situ by positive MSRI and XPS. This experiment also indicates that Al and N are buried under TiO 2 but from 600 deg. C

  19. Photoproduction of pions on nuclear in chiral bag model with account of motion effects of recoil nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kanokov, Z.; Musakhanov, M.M.; Rakhimov, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Pion production on a nucleon is studied in the chiral bag model (CBM). A CBM version is investigated in which the pions get into the bag and interact with quarks in a pseudovector way in the entire volume. Charged pion photoproduction amplitudes are found taking into account the recoil nucleon motion effects. Angular and energy distributions of charged pions, polarization of the recoil nucleon, multipoles are calculated. The recoil effects are shon to give an additional contribution to the static approximation of order of 10-20%. At bag radius value R=1 in the calculations are consistent with the experimental data

  20. Detection of mixed-range proton pencil beams with a prompt gamma slit camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priegnitz, M; Helmbrecht, S; Fiedler, F; Janssens, G; Smeets, J; Vander Stappen, F; Perali, I; Sterpin, E

    2016-01-01

    With increasing availability of proton and particle therapy centers for tumor treatment, the need for in vivo range verification methods comes more into the focus. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during the treatment is one of the possibilities currently under investigation. A knife-edge shaped slit camera was recently proposed for this task and measurements proved the feasibility of range deviation detection in homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets. In the present paper, we concentrate on laterally inhomogeneous materials, which lead to range mixing situations when crossed by one pencil beam: different sections of the beam have different ranges. We chose exemplative cases from clinical irradiation and assembled idealized tissue equivalent targets. One-dimensional emission profiles were obtained by measuring the prompt gamma emission with the slit camera. It could be shown that the resulting range deviations can be detected by evaluation of the measured data with a previously developed range deviation detection algorithm. The retrieved value, however, strongly depends on the target composition, and is not necessarily in direct relation to the ranges of both parts of the beam. By combining the range deviation detection with an analysis of the slope of the distal edge of the measured prompt gamma profile, the origin of the detected range deviation, i.e. the mixed range of the beam, is also identified. It could be demonstrated that range mixed prompt gamma profiles exhibit less steep distal slopes than profiles from beams traversing laterally homogeneous material. For future application of the slit camera to patient irradiation with double scattered proton beams, situations similar to the range mixing cases are present and results could possibly apply. (paper)

  1. Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) in hydrogenated samples for TNSA laser irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2016), s. 10-16 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ERDA * RBS * TNSA * hydrogen and deuterium * proton acceleration Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2016

  2. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  3. Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blieck, J.

    2008-10-01

    87 Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na + projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)

  4. Fractional momentum transfer in incomplete fusion reaction: measurement of recoil range distributions in 20Ne + 159Tb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Singh, D.; Pachouri, Dipti; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The recoil range distribution (RRD) of several residues have been measured for the system 20 Ne + 159 Tb at 165 MeV beam energy by collecting the recoiling residues in the Al-catcher foils of varying thickness

  5. Constraints on the Nature of CID-42: Recoil Kick or Supermassive Black Hole Pair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecha, Laura; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The galaxy CXOC J100043.1+020637, also known as CID-42, is a highly unusual object. An apparent galaxy merger remnant, it displays signatures of both an inspiraling, kiloparsecscale active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair and of a recoiling AGN with a kick velocity approximately greater than 1300 km s(exp -1). Among recoiling AGN candidates, CID-42 alone has both spatial offsets (in optical and X-ray bands) and spectroscopic offsets. In order to constrain the relative likelihood of both scenarios, we develop models using hydrodynamic galaxy merger simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations. Our gas-rich, major merger models are generally well matched to the galactic morphology and to the inferred stellar mass and star formation rate. We show that a recoiling supermassive black hole (SMBH) in CID-42 should be observable as an AGN at the time of observation. However, in order for the recoiling AGN to produce narrow-line emission, it must be observed shortly after the kick while it still inhabits a dense gaseous region, implying a large total kick velocity (vk approximately greater than 2000 km s(exp -1)). For the dual AGN scenario, an unusually large broad-line offset is required, and the best match to the observed morphology requires a galaxy that is less luminous than CID-42. Further, the lack of X-ray emission from one of the two optical nuclei is not easily attributed to an intrinsically quiescent SMBH or to a Compton-thick galactic environment. While the current data do not allow either the recoiling or the dual AGN scenario for CID-42 to be excluded, our models highlight the most relevant parameters for distinguishing these possibilities with future observations. In particular, high-quality, spatially-resolved spectra that can pinpoint the origin of the broad and narrow line features will be critical for determining the nature of this unique source.

  6. Wide-range scintillation spectrometer of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, M.V.; Gavrilov, B.P.; Ivannikova, L.L.; Kozulin, Eh.M.; Mozhaev, A.N.; Saidgareev, V.M.; Tyurin, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer of fast neutrons developed on the base of stilbene crystas and permitting to detect neutrons simultaneously by time-of-flight and recoil protons with analysis of pulse shape in the 0.5-50 MeV energy range is described. The detecting part is performed in the CAMAC standard. The ''Minsk-32'' computer was used for data storage and preliminary processing

  7. Optimizing recoil-isomer tagging with the Argonne fragment mass analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnsworthy, A.B.; Lister, C.J.; Regan, P.H.; Blank, B.B.; Cullen, I.J.; Gros, S.; Henderson, D.J.; Jones, G.A.; Liu, Z.; Seweryniak, D.; Shumard, B.R.; Thompson, N.J.; Williams, S.J.; Zhu, S.

    2008-01-01

    A new focal plane detector arrangement for the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) has been built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. This set-up is particularly sensitive for performing Recoil-Isomer Tagging on nuclei with isomeric states with lifetimes in the microsecond range. Recoiling nuclei from fusion-evaporation reactions at the target position are dispersed by their ratio of mass to charge (A/q) by the FMA and stopped in low pressure gas (air) at the focal plane. Subsequent gamma decays from isomeric states in the reaction products are observed using Ge detectors. A constant gas flow through the focal plane chamber efficiently removes longer-lived beta-decaying species from sight of the detectors. This set-up has been commissioned successfully with the microsecond isomer in 80 Rb, populated via the 52 Cr( 32 S, 3pn) reaction at 135 MeV

  8. A portable neutron spectroscope (NSPECT) for detection, imaging and identification of nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James M.; Bancroft, Christopher; Bloser, Peter; Bravar, Ulisse; Fourguette, Dominique; Frost, Colin; Larocque, Liane; McConnell, Mark L.; Legere, Jason; Pavlich, Jane; Ritter, Greg; Wassick, Greg; Wood, Joshua; Woolf, Richard

    2010-08-01

    We have developed, fabricated and tested a prototype imaging neutron spectrometer designed for real-time neutron source location and identification. Real-time detection and identification is important for locating materials. These materials, specifically uranium and transuranics, emit neutrons via spontaneous or induced fission. Unlike other forms of radiation (e.g. gamma rays), penetrating neutron emission is very uncommon. The instrument detects these neutrons, constructs images of the emission pattern, and reports the neutron spectrum. The device will be useful for security and proliferation deterrence, as well as for nuclear waste characterization and monitoring. The instrument is optimized for imaging and spectroscopy in the 1-20 MeV range. The detection principle is based upon multiple elastic neutron-proton scatters in organic scintillator. Two detector panel layers are utilized. By measuring the recoil proton and scattered neutron locations and energies, the direction and energy spectrum of the incident neutrons can be determined and discrete and extended sources identified. Event reconstruction yields an image of the source and its location. The hardware is low power, low mass, and rugged. Its modular design allows the user to combine multiple units for increased sensitivity. We will report the results of laboratory testing of the instrument, including exposure to a calibrated Cf-252 source. Instrument parameters include energy and angular resolution, gamma rejection, minimum source identification distances and times, and projected effective area for a fully populated instrument.

  9. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  10. Study of the proton-proton interaction involving a πO production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reposeur, T.

    1989-01-01

    The proton-proton inelastic interaction, giving a neutral single pion, is studied. The reaction with two protons and one pi-zero in the final state for incident kinetic energies ranging from 480-560 MeV in 20 MeV steps is studied. It is necessary to develop a neutral pion spectrometer to detect in coincidence the two gammas of the decaying pi-zero. The detector has a good selectivity for neutral pion detection, and quantitative measurements require an accurate simulation of its response. The experiment shows that it is possible to measure the non resonant partial cross section. The relative accuracy on the total cross sections allows to search for a few percent effect. An isovector narrow dibaryonic resonance in that energy range, is suggested [fr

  11. Implantation of 111In in NTDSi by heavy ion recoil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakare, S.V.; Tomar, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil implantation technique has been used to implant 111 In in n-type silicon using medium energy heavy ion accelerator Pelletron, at TIFR, Colaba, Mumbai. The nuclear reaction used for this purpose was 109 Ag( 7 Li,p4n) 111 In. The beam energy was optimised to be 50 MeV for maximum concentration of the implanted probe atoms. The gamma-ray spectrum of the implanted sample after 24 hours was found to contain only 171 and 245 keV gamma rays of 111 In. The penetration depth of ion is increased to 1.6 μm by heavy ion recoil implantation technique as compared to 0.16 μm with the conventional ion implantation technique. (author)

  12. Isotopic production cross sections of fission residues in 197Au-on-proton collisions at 800 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.

    2000-02-01

    Interactions of 197 Au projectiles at 800 A MeV with protons leading to fission are investigated. We measured the production cross sections and velocities of all fission residues which are fully identified in atomic and mass number by using the in-flight separator FRS at GSI. The new data are compared with partial measurements of the characteristics of fission in similar reactions. Both the production cross sections and the recoil energies are relevant for a better understanding of spallation reactions. (orig.)

  13. Neutron spectrometry with a monolithic silicon telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Fazzi, A; Para, A Foglio; Pola, A; Zotto, P

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was set-up by coupling a polyethylene converter with a monolithic silicon telescope, consisting of a DeltaE and an E stage-detector (about 2 and 500 microm thick, respectively). The detection system was irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro, Italy). The maximum detectable energy, imposed by the thickness of the E stage, is about 8 MeV for the present detector. The scatter plots of the energy deposited in the two stages were acquired using two independent electronic chains. The distributions of the recoil-protons are well-discriminated from those due to secondary electrons for energies above 0.350 MeV. The experimental spectra of the recoil-protons were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. An analytical model that takes into account the geometrical structure of the silicon telescope was developed, validated and implemented in an unfolding code. The capability of reproducing continuous neutron spectra was investigated by irradiating the detector with neutrons from a thick beryllium target bombarded with protons. The measured spectra were compared with data taken from the literature. Satisfactory agreement was found.

  14. Binary black holes: Spin dynamics and gravitational recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M.; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of spinning black hole binaries focusing on the spin dynamics of the individual black holes as well as on the gravitational recoil acquired by the black hole produced by the merger. We consider two series of initial spin orientations away from the binary orbital plane. In one of the series, the spins are antialigned; for the second series, one of the spins points away from the binary along the line separating the black holes. We find a remarkable agreement between the spin dynamics predicted at 2nd post-Newtonian order and those from numerical relativity. For each configuration, we compute the kick of the final black hole. We use the kick estimates from the series with antialigned spins to fit the parameters in the Kidder kick formula, and verify that the recoil in the direction of the orbital angular momentum is ∝sinθ and on the orbital plane ∝cosθ, with θ the angle between the spin directions and the orbital angular momentum. We also find that the black hole spins can be well estimated by evaluating the isolated horizon spin on spheres of constant coordinate radius

  15. Halo structure of 8B determined from intermediate energy proton elastic scattering in inverse kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, G. A.; Dobrovolsky, A. V.; Inglessi, A. G.; Alkhazov, G. D.; Egelhof, P.; Estradé, A.; Dillmann, I.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Ilieva, S.; Ke, Y.; Khanzadeev, A. V.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kurcewicz, J.; Le, X. C.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Petrov, G. E.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sergeev, L. O.; Simon, H.; Takechi, M.; Tang, S.; Volkov, V.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Weick, H.; Yatsoura, V. I.

    2018-05-01

    The absolute differential cross section for small-angle proton elastic scattering on the proton-rich 8B nucleus has been measured in inverse kinematics for the first time. The experiment was performed using a secondary radioactive beam with an energy of 0.7 GeV/u at GSI, Darmstadt. The active target, namely hydrogen-filled time projection ionization chamber IKAR, was used to measure the energy, angle and vertex point of the recoil protons. The scattering angle of the projectiles was simultaneously determined by the tracking detectors. The measured differential cross section is analyzed on the basis of the Glauber multiple scattering theory using phenomenological nuclear-density distributions with two free parameters. The radial density distribution deduced for 8B exhibits a halo structure with the root-mean-square (rms) matter radius Rm = 2.58 (6) fm and the rms halo radius Rh = 4.24 (25) fm. The results on 8B are compared to those on the mirror nucleus 8Li investigated earlier by the same method. A comparison is also made with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions for both nuclei.

  16. Consistent empirical physical formula construction for recoil energy distribution in HPGe detectors by using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkoyun, Serkan; Yildiz, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray tracking technique is a highly efficient detection method in experimental nuclear structure physics. On the basis of this method, two gamma-ray tracking arrays, AGATA in Europe and GRETA in the USA, are currently being tested. The interactions of neutrons in these detectors lead to an unwanted background in the gamma-ray spectra. Thus, the interaction points of neutrons in these detectors have to be determined in the gamma-ray tracking process in order to improve photo-peak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios of the gamma-ray peaks. In this paper, the recoil energy distributions of germanium nuclei due to inelastic scatterings of 1–5 MeV neutrons were first obtained by simulation experiments. Secondly, as a novel approach, for these highly nonlinear detector responses of recoiling germanium nuclei, consistent empirical physical formulas (EPFs) were constructed by appropriate feedforward neural networks (LFNNs). The LFNN-EPFs are of explicit mathematical functional form. Therefore, the LFNN-EPFs can be used to derive further physical functions which could be potentially relevant for the determination of neutron interactions in gamma-ray tracking process.

  17. Performance of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer and its detector systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C.J.; Ginter, T.N.; Shapira, D.; Milner, W.T.; McConnell, J.W.; James, A.N.; Johnson, J.W.; Mas, J.; Mantica, P.F.; Auble, R.L.; Das, J.J.; Blankenship, J.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, R.L.; Akovali, Y.A.; Baktash, C.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Brinkman, M.J.; Carter, H.K.; Cunningham, R.A.; Davinson, T.; Fox, J.D.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Grzywacz, R.; Liang, J.F.; MacDonald, B.D.; MacKenzie, J.; Paul, S.D.; Piechaczek, A.; Radford, D.C.; Ramayya, A.V.; Reviol, W.; Rudolph, D.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K.S.; Weintraub, W.; Williams, C.; Woods, P.J.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E.F.

    2000-01-01

    The recently commissioned Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is described. Consisting of a momentum separator followed by an E-D-E Rochester-type mass spectrometer, the RMS is the centerpiece of the nuclear structure endstation at the HRIBF. Designed to transport ions with rigidities near K=100, the RMS has acceptances of ±10% in energy and ±4.9% in mass-to-charge ratio. Recent experimental results are used to illustrate the detection capabilities of the RMS, which is compatible with many detectors and devices

  18. DVCS at HERMES. The recoil detector and transverse target spin asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.J.

    2008-02-15

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. One of the most exciting topics studied at HERMES is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) which is the simplest interaction that provides a gateway for access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). GPDs are a theoretical framework which can be used to calculate the total angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon. As such, they provide one piece of the puzzle of nucleonic spin structure. In 2005, HERMES was upgraded in the target region with a Recoil Detector that allows it to make truly exclusive measurements of the DVCS interaction for the first time. The design and construction of the Recoil Detector is discussed herein, in addition to a complete analysis of the Transverse Target Spin Asymmetry (TTSA) in DVCS. Experimental facilities that enable measurement of this asymmetry are rare. The importance of the information on the TTSA from HERMES is made yet greater as the transversely polarised target that allows the asymmetry to be measured has been replaced by an unpolarised target. This was to allow the Recoil Detector to be installed. The final stage of this thesis shows a model-dependent method for constraining the angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and speculates as to the other pieces of the spin puzzle. (orig.)

  19. DVCS at HERMES. The recoil detector and transverse target spin asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, M.J.

    2008-02-01

    The HERMES experiment is a large forward angle spectrometer located at the HERA accelerator ring at DESY, Hamburg. One of the most exciting topics studied at HERMES is Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) which is the simplest interaction that provides a gateway for access to Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). GPDs are a theoretical framework which can be used to calculate the total angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon. As such, they provide one piece of the puzzle of nucleonic spin structure. In 2005, HERMES was upgraded in the target region with a Recoil Detector that allows it to make truly exclusive measurements of the DVCS interaction for the first time. The design and construction of the Recoil Detector is discussed herein, in addition to a complete analysis of the Transverse Target Spin Asymmetry (TTSA) in DVCS. Experimental facilities that enable measurement of this asymmetry are rare. The importance of the information on the TTSA from HERMES is made yet greater as the transversely polarised target that allows the asymmetry to be measured has been replaced by an unpolarised target. This was to allow the Recoil Detector to be installed. The final stage of this thesis shows a model-dependent method for constraining the angular momentum of the quarks in the nucleon and speculates as to the other pieces of the spin puzzle. (orig.)

  20. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  1. Use of nuclear recoil for separating 228Ra, 224Ra, and 233Pa from colloidal thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beydon, J.; Gratot, I.

    1968-01-01

    By using α-recoil it is possible to separate by dialysis the α disintegration products (224 Ra; 228 Ra) of thorium from colloidal thorium hydroxide.The use of n, γ recoil allows the separation of 233 Pa produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium, on condition that the colloidal thorium hydroxide is irradiated in the presence of a dispersing. (author) [fr

  2. Determination of Proton dose distal fall-off location by detecting right-angled prompt gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyu Seok

    2006-02-01

    The proton beam has a unique advantage over the electron and photon beams in that it can give very high radiation dose to the tumor volume while effectively sparing the neighboring healthy tissue and organs. The number of proton therapy facility is very rapidly increasing in the world. And now the 230 MeV cyclotron facility for proton therapy is constructing at National Cancer Center, this facility until 2006. The distal fall-off location of proton beam is simply calculated by analytical method, but this method has many uncertain when anatomical structure is very complicated. It is very important to know the exact position of the proton beam distal fall-off, or beam range, in the patient's body for both the safety of the patient and the effectiveness of the treatment itself. In 2003, Stichelbaut and Jongen reported the possibility of using the right-angled prompt gamma rays, which are emitted at 90 .deg. from the incident proton beam direction, to determine the position of the proton beam distal fall-off. They studied the interactions of the protons and other secondary particles in a water phantom and concluded that there is a correlation between the position of the distal fall-off and the distribution of the right-angled prompt gamma rays. We have recently designed a prompt gamma scanning system to measure the proton range in situ by using Monte Carlo technique employing MCNPX, FLUKA, and Sabrina TM . The prompt gamma scanning system was designed to measure only the right-angled prompt gamma rays passing through a narrow collimation hole in order to correlate the position with the dose distribution. The collimation part of the scanning system, which has been constructed to measure the gamma rays at 70 MeV of proton energy, is made of a set of paraffin, boron carbide, and lead layers to shield the high-energy neutrons and secondary photons. After the different proton energies and SOBP beam widths are irradiated at the water phantom. we detected prompt gamma at 5 cm

  3. Direct Fast-Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC Stromswold; AJ Peurrung; RR Hansen; PL Reeder

    2000-01-01

    Direct fast-neutron detection is the detection of fast neutrons before they are moderated to thermal energy. We have investigated two approaches for using proton-recoil in plastic scintillators to detect fast neutrons and distinguish them from gamma-ray interactions. Both approaches use the difference in travel speed between neutrons and gamma rays as the basis for separating the types of events. In the first method, we examined the pulses generated during scattering in a plastic scintillator to see if they provide a means for distinguishing fast-neutron events from gamma-ray events. The slower speed of neutrons compared to gamma rays results in the production of broader pulses when neutrons scatter several times within a plastic scintillator. In contrast, gamma-ray interactions should produce narrow pulses, even if multiple scattering takes place, because the time between successive scattering is small. Experiments using a fast scintillator confirmed the presence of broader pulses from neutrons than from gamma rays. However, the difference in pulse widths between neutrons and gamma rays using the best commercially available scintillators was not sufficiently large to provide a practical means for distinguishing fast neutrons and gamma rays on a pulse-by-pulse basis. A faster scintillator is needed, and that scintillator might become available in the literature. Results of the pulse-width studies were presented in a previous report (peurrung et al. 1998), and they are only summarized here

  4. Selection and acquisition of data for the measurement of the spin rotation parameters in pion-proton scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoul, Jean-Claude

    1971-01-01

    The experiment consists in measuring the polarisation of the recoil protons from elastic scattering of positive or negative pions on a polarised proton target (L. M. N.). The polarimeter consists in carbon plates alternated with wire spark chambers, The associated electronics has the following main functions: selective triggering of the spark chambers, acquisition and transcription on magnetic tape of all relevant information, continuous check of the various parts of the equipment. About one hundred scintillation counters provide information on the geometry of the pion-proton scattering. A fast logic treats these information. This logic, made of integrated circuits MECL, generates the selective trigger with a transit time of less than 150 ns, it reduces the triggering rate on background events by almost one order of magnitude. A small computer is used for acquisition and transcription of the data, and for the control of the experiment. (author) [fr

  5. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Beacom

    2003-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  6. Recoil velocity at second post-Newtonian order for spinning black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Etienne; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kidder, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We compute the flux of linear momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes at second post-Newtonian (2PN) order for generic orbits. In particular we provide explicit expressions of three new types of terms, namely, next-to-leading order spin-orbit terms at 1.5 post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order, spin-orbit tail terms at 2PN order, and spin-spin terms at 2PN order. Restricting ourselves to quasicircular orbits, we integrate the linear-momentum flux over time to obtain the recoil velocity as function of orbital frequency. We find that in the so-called superkick configuration the higher-order spin corrections can increase the recoil velocity up to a factor ∼3 with respect to the leading-order PN prediction. Whereas the recoil velocity computed in PN theory within the adiabatic approximation can accurately describe the early inspiral phase, we find that its fast increase during the late inspiral and plunge, and the arbitrariness in determining until when it should be trusted, makes the PN predictions for the total recoil not very accurate and robust. Nevertheless, the linear-momentum flux at higher PN orders can be employed to build more reliable resummed expressions aimed at capturing the nonperturbative effects until merger. Furthermore, we provide expressions valid for generic orbits, and accurate at 2PN order, for the energy and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves emitted from spinning binary black holes. Specializing to quasicircular orbits we compute the spin-spin terms at 2PN order in the expression for the evolution of the orbital frequency and found agreement with Mikoczi, Vasuth, and Gergely. We also verified that in the limit of extreme mass ratio our expressions for the energy and angular momentum fluxes match the ones of Tagoshi, Shibata, Tanaka, and Sasaki obtained in the context of black hole perturbation theory.

  7. First Extraction of Transversity from a Global Analysis of Electron-Proton and Proton-Proton Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    We present the first extraction of the transversity distribution in the framework of collinear factorization based on the global analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering and in proton-proton collisions with a transversely polarized proton. The extraction relies on the knowledge of dihadron fragmentation functions, which are taken from the analysis of electron-positron annihilation data. For the first time, the transversity is extracted from a global analysis similar to what is usually done for the spin-averaged and helicity distributions. The knowledge of transversity is important for, among other things, detecting possible signals of new physics in high-precision low-energy experiments.

  8. Treatment for the recoil effects of the multi-step heavy-ion nucleon transfers with the orthogonalized coupled-reaction-channel theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misono, S.; Imanishi, B.

    1997-02-01

    We have investigated recoil effects in heavy-ion reactions for the nucleon transfers, and the validity of the spatially local approximation for the non-local transfer interaction defined by the orthogonalized coupled-reaction-channel (OCRC) theory. This approximation makes it easier to treat multi-step transfer processes with the coupled channel method and makes it possible to define the nucleon molecular orbitals with the inclusion of the recoil effects. The transfer interaction is expanded in a power series of the momentum operator, and is approximated by the first order term, i.e., the spatially local term. The numerical calculation for the core-symmetric systems 12 C+ 13 C and 16 O+ 17 O with this approximation shows that the recoil effects are well included in the results at energies lower than a few MeV/nucleon. Furthermore, the OCRC formalism allows us even to employ the complete no-recoil approximation for the calculation of cross sections, even though it is not adequate to use this approximation in the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method. As to polarization, however, the no-recoil approximation is not good even in the OCRC formalism. We discuss the recoil effects on nucleon molecular-orbital states. It is shown that states of the covalent molecular orbitals of the valence (transferred) nucleon are little affected by the recoil effects, as already suggested by Korotky et al. in the full finite-range DWBA analysis of the transfer reaction, 13 C( 13 C, 12 C) 14 C. (author). 59 refs

  9. Search for Sphalerons in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-04-14

    In a recent paper, Tye and Wong (TW) have argued that sphaleron-induced transitions in high-energy proton-proton collisions should be enhanced compared to previous calculations, based on a construction of a Bloch wave function in the periodic sphaleron potential and the corresponding pass band structure. Here we convolute the calculations of TW with parton distribution functions and simulations of final states to explore the signatures of sphaleron transitions at the LHC and possible future colliders. We calculate the increase of sphaleron transition rates in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 13/14/33/100 TeV for different sphaleron barrier heights, while recognising that the rates have large overall uncertainties. We use a simulation to show that LHC searches for microscopic black holes should have good efficiency for detecting sphaleron-induced final states, and discuss their experimental signatures and observability in Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. We recast the early ATLAS Run-2 search...

  10. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, J.B.R.; Irastorza, I.G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  11. Development of the unfolding procedures in fast neutron scintillation spectrometry; Razvoj unfolding procedura u scintilacionoj spektrometriji brzih neutrona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinkovic, P [Elektrotehnicki fakultet, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    Two unfolding procedures have been developed for obtaining fast neutron spectrum from proton-recoil spectrum assigned for spectrometry with organic scintillators. First is the method of differentiation of proton-recoil spectrum, and the second is the method based on solution of integral equation of Fredholm of first kind. (author)

  12. No-recoil approximation to the knock-on exchange potential in the double folding model for heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagino, K.; Takehi, T.; Takigawa, N.

    2006-01-01

    We propose the no-recoil approximation, which is valid for heavy systems, for a double folding nucleus-nucleus potential. With this approximation, the nonlocal knock-on exchange contribution becomes a local form. We discuss the applicability of this approximation for elastic scattering of the 6 Li + 40 Ca system. We find that, for this and heavier systems , the no-recoil approximation works as good as another widely used local approximation that employs a local plane wave for the relative motion between the colliding nuclei. We also compare the results of the no-recoil calculations with those of the zero-range approximation often used to handle the knock-on exchange effect

  13. Techniques for measuring the atomic recoil frequency using a grating-echo atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Brynle

    I have developed three types of time-domain echo atom interferometer (AIs) that use either two or three standing-wave pulses in different configurations. Experiments approaching the transit time limit are achieved using samples of laser-cooled rubidium atoms with temperatures AI. This interferometer uses two standing-wave pulses applied at times t = 0 and t = T 21 to create a superposition of atomic momentum states differing by multiples of the two-photon momentum, ħq = 2 ħk where k is the optical wave number, that interfere in the vicinity of t = 2T 21. This interference or "echo" manifests itself as a density grating in the atomic sample, and is probed by applying a near-resonant traveling-wave "read-out" pulse and measuring the intensity of the coherent light Bragg-scattered in the backward direction. The scattered light from the grating is associated with a λ/2-periodic modulation produced by the interference of momentum states differing by ħq. Interfering states that differ by more than ħq—which produce higher-frequency spatial modulation within the sample—cannot be detected due to the nature of the Bragg scattering detection technique employed in the experiment. The intensity of the scattered light varies in a periodic manner as a function of the standing-wave pulse separation, T21. The fundamental frequency of this modulation is the two-photon atomic recoil frequency, ω q = ħq2/2M, where q = 2k and M is the mass of the atom (a rubidium isotope in this case). The recoil frequency, ω q, is related to the recoil energy, Eq = ħωq, which is the kinetic energy associated with the recoil of the atom after a coherent two-photon scattering process. By performing the experiment on a suitably long time scale ( T21 >> τq = π/ω q ˜32 μs), ωq can be measured precisely. Since ωq contains the ratio of Planck's constant to the mass of the atom, h/M, a precise measurement of ωq can be used as a strict test of quantum theories of the electromagnetic force

  14. Calculations of charged-particle recoils, slowing-down spectra, LET and event-size distributions for fast neutrons and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Stinchcomb, T.G.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid system has been developed for computing charged-particle distributions generated in tissue by any neutron spectra less than 4 MeV. Oxygen and carbon recoils were derived from R-matrix theory, and hydrogen recoils were obtained from cross-section evaluation. Application to two quite different fission-neutron spectra demonstrates the flexibility of this method for providing spectral details of the different types of charged-particle recoils. Comparisons have been made between calculations and measurements of event-size distributions for a sphere of tissue 1 μm in diameter irradiated by these two neutron spectra. LET distributions have been calculated from computed charged-particle recoils and also derived from measurements using the conventional approximation that all charged particles traverse the chamber. The limitations of the approximation for these neutron spectra are discussed. (author)

  15. Correlations between high momentum particles in proton-proton collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbink, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes an experiment performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The experiment studies the reaction p+p→h 1 +h 2 +X at two centre-of-mass energies, √s=44.7 GeV and √s=62.3 GeV. Two of the outgoing particles (h 1 and h 2 ) are detected in opposite c.m.s. hemispheres at small polar angles with respect to the direction of two incident protons. The remaining particles produced (X) are not detected. The hadrons hsub(i) are identified mesons (π + , π - , K + , K - ) or baryons (p, Λ) with relatively large longitudinal psub(L) and small transverse momentum psub(T). The aim of the experiment is twofold. The first aim is to study whether the momentum distributions of the fast particles hsub(i) are correlated and thereby to constrain the possible interaction mechanisms responsible for the production of high psub(L), low psub(T) particles. The second aim is to establish to what extent the production of pions and kaons in inclusive proton-proton collisions (e.g. p+p→π+X, X=all other particles) resembles the production of pions and kaons in diffractive proton-proton collisions (e.g. p+p→p+π+X, in which the final-state proton has a momentum close to its maximum possible value). (Auth.)

  16. High-spin states beyond the proton drip-line: Quasiparticle alignments in {sup 113}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wady, P.T. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (United Kingdom); Smith, J.F., E-mail: John.F.Smith@uws.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (United Kingdom); Hadinia, B. [School of Engineering, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (United Kingdom); Cullen, D.M.; Freeman, S.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Darby, I.G. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Leppänen, A.-P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); McGuirk, B.M. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nieminen, P.; Nyman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); Page, R.D. [Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Pakarinen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, FIN-40014, Jyväskylä (Finland); and others

    2015-01-05

    Excited states have been studied in the deformed proton emitter {sup 113}Cs. Gamma-ray transitions have been unambiguously assigned to {sup 113}Cs by correlation with its characteristic proton decay, using the method of recoil-decay tagging. Two previously identified rotational bands have been observed and extended to tentative spins of 45/2 and 51/2ħ, with excitation energies over 8 MeV above the lowest state. These are the highest angular momenta and excitation energies observed to date in any nucleus beyond the proton drip-line. Transitions in the bands have been rearranged compared to previous work. A study of aligned angular momenta, in comparison to the predictions of Woods–Saxon cranking calculations, is consistent with the most intense band being based on the πg{sub 7/2}[422]3/2{sup +} configuration, which would contradict the earlier πh{sub 11/2} assignment, and with the second band being based on the πd{sub 5/2}[420]1/2{sup +} configuration. The data suggest that the band based upon the πh{sub 11/2} configuration is not observed.

  17. Neutron scattering facility for the calibration of the response to nuclear recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Huber, M.; Jagemann, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Potzel, W.; Ruedig, A.; Schnagl, J.; Stark, M.; Wulandari, H.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Gascon, J.; Jesus, M. de; Martineau, O.; Simon, E.; Stern, M.

    2002-01-01

    A possibility to search for elementary particles as dark matter candidates is to detect elastic scattering with cryogenic detectors. For the interpretation of the data one has to determine the detector response to nuclear recoils, the so-called quenching factors. They can differ for the heat-, for the scintillation- and for the ionization-signal and can be measured by scattering of neutrons. The CRESST- and the EDELWEISS-collaborations have set up a neutron scattering facility for cryogenic detectors at the tandem-accelerator of the Munich 'Maier-Leibniz-Labor.' The scattering angle and the time-of-flight of the neutrons are measured by an array of liquid scintillator cells. The pulsed high energy (11 MeV) neutron beam is created by nuclear reaction of a 11 B on a H 2 -gas target. The set-up and the results of first tests are presented

  18. First high-statistics and high-resolution recoil-ion data from the WITCH retardation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, P.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Porobić, T.; Wursten, E.; Ban, G.; Beck, M.; Couratin, C.; Fabian, X.; Fléchard, X.; Friedag, P.; Glück, F.; Herlert, A.; Knecht, A.; Kozlov, V. Y.; Liénard, E.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2016-07-01

    The first high-statistics and high-resolution data set for the integrated recoil-ion energy spectrum following the β^+ decay of 35Ar has been collected with the WITCH retardation spectrometer located at CERN-ISOLDE. Over 25 million recoil-ion events were recorded on a large-area multichannel plate (MCP) detector with a time-stamp precision of 2ns and position resolution of 0.1mm due to the newly upgraded data acquisition based on the LPC Caen FASTER protocol. The number of recoil ions was measured for more than 15 different settings of the retardation potential, complemented by dedicated background and half-life measurements. Previously unidentified systematic effects, including an energy-dependent efficiency of the main MCP and a radiation-induced time-dependent background, have been identified and incorporated into the analysis. However, further understanding and treatment of the radiation-induced background requires additional dedicated measurements and remains the current limiting factor in extracting a beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient for 35Ar decay using the WITCH spectrometer.

  19. Velocity dependence of transient hyperfine field at Pt ions rapidly recoiling through magnetized Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchbery, A.E.; Ryan, C.G.; Bolotin, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The velocity-dependence of the transient hyperfine magnetic field acting at nuclei of 196 Pt ions rapidly recoiling through thin magnetized Fe was investigated at a number of recoil velocities. The state of interest (2 1 + ) was populated by Coulomb excitation using beams of 80- and 120-MeV 32 S and 150- and 220-MeV 58 Ni ions. The 2 1 + →0 1 + γ-ray angular distribution precession measurements were carried out in coincidence with backscattered projectiles. From these results, the strength of the transient field acting on Pt ions recoiling through magnetized Fe with average velocities in the extended range 2.14<=v/vsub(o)<=4.82 (vsub(o) = c/137) was found to be consistent with a linear velocity dependence and to be incompatible with the specific vsup(0.45+-0.18) dependence which has been previously reported to account well for all ions in the mass range from oxygen through samarium. This seemingly singular behaviour for Pt and other ions in the Pt mass vicinity is discussed

  20. Search for Sphalerons in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Satco, Daria

    2017-01-01

    In view of new possibilities becoming more realistic with FCC design and of recent promising results regarding $(B+L)$-violating processes detection we concentrated our research on generation and analysis of sphaleron transitions. The existence of instanton and sphaleron solutions which are associated with transitions between different vacuum states is well known since 1980s. However first calculations of instanton rate killed any hope to detect them even at very high energies while the calculation of sphaleron transitions rate is a tricky problem which continue being widely discussed. In our research we used HERBVI package to generate baryon- and lepton-number violating processes in proton-proton collisions at typical energies 14, 33, 40 and 100 TeV in order to estimate the upper limit on the sphaleron cross-section. We considered the background processes and determined the zero background regions.

  1. Inclusive production of lambda in the proton fragmentation region from K-p→ ΛX at 4.2 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguli, S.N.; Hemingway, R.J.; Holmgreen, S.O.; Losty, M.J.; Muirhead, H.; Kittel, W.; Pols, C.L.A.; Shephard, W.D.; Vergeest, J.S.; Lamb, P.R.; Wells, J.

    1978-01-01

    A study of Λ production has been made for the process p→ Λ from K - p interactions at 4.2 GeV/c. The total Λ production cross-section is (4.5+-0.2)mb and the cross-section in which Λ is associated with KantiK in the final state is found to be (0.44+-0.03)mb. A study of the polarization is made for the off-mass-shell strangeness annihilations ''KantiK''→pions and strangeness nonannihilations ''KantiK''→KantiK+pions; the polarization, when plotted as a function of x, psub(T) and (recoiling mass) 2 , exhibits differences between the two processes. The polarization observed in the strangeness nonannihilation process shows identical behaviour to that in proton antiproton reactions. An attempt has been made to understand the behaviour of the polarized and the unpolarized cross-sections as a function of recoiling mass) 2 in the triple-Regge framework

  2. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  3. A double sided silicon strip detector as a DRAGON end detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wrede, C; Rogers, J G; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility (detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions), located at the TRlUMF-ISAC Radioactive Beams facility in Vancouver, Canada is now operational. This facility is used to study radiative proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics (heavy ion beam onto a light gaseous target) with both stable beams and radioactive beams of mass A=13-26 in the energy range 0.15-1.5 MeV/u. A double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) has been used to detect recoil ions. Tests have been performed to determine the performance of this DSSSD.

  4. Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed ... first order and only mass dispersion is obtained at the focal plane of the ... more details, like, the specifications and a typical beam profile through the ... Further experiments are now in progress to characterize the spectrometer, i.e., to measure.

  5. Cross-sections of spallation residues produced in 1A GeV 208Pb on proton reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlazlo, W.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow; Enqvist, T.; Armbruster, P.

    2000-02-01

    Spallation residues produced in 1 GeV per nucleon 208 Pb on proton reactions have been studied using the fragment separator facility at GSI. Isotopic production cross-sections of elements from 61 Pm to 82 Pb have been measured down to 0.1 mb with a high accuracy. The recoil kinetic energies of the produced fragments were also determined. The obtained cross-sections agree with most of the few existing gamma-spectroscopy data. Data are compared with different intranuclear-cascade and evaporation-fission models. Drastic deviations were found for a standard code used in technical applications. (orig.)

  6. Coincident detection of electrons ejected at large angles and target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u Oq++Ar collision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaither III, C.C.; Breinig, M.; Berryman, J.W.; Hasson, B.F.; Richards, J.D.; Price, K.

    1993-01-01

    The angular distributions of energetic electrons ejected at angles between 45 degree and 135 degree with respect to the incident-beam direction have been measured in coincidence with the charge states of the target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u O q+ (q=4,7)+Ar collision systems. These measurements have been made for ∼179-, ∼345-, and ∼505-eV electrons. Additionally, the energy distributions of electrons ejected into specific angular regions have been measured. Ar LMM satellite Auger electrons appear as a peak in the energy spectrum of electrons ejected at all large angles. The center of this peak is found at an electron energy of ∼179 eV. Electrons with ∼179 eV energy, ejected at large angles, are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 4+. Electrons with ∼345 eV energy and ∼505 eV energy ejected at large angles are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 3+. The angular distributions for these electrons are strongly peaked in the forward direction; essentially no electrons are observed at angles larger than 90 degree. These results are consistent with the dominant production mechanism for energetic electrons ejected at large angles being a binary-encounter process. Differential cross sections have been calculated from these angular distributions. They are on the order of 10 -21 cm 2 /(eV sr)

  7. The G0 Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Kazutaka

    2007-01-01

    The G0 experiment measures the parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton and quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering over the momentum transfers 0.12 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.0 GeV2. These asymmetries are sensitive to the strange-quark contribution to the charge and magnetization distributions of the proton. The experiment is conducted at Jefferson Laboratory using a toroidal spectrometer designed to detect forward scattered recoil protons and backward scattered elastic and quasi-elastic electrons. The forward angle experiment was completed in 2004, and the backward angle phase of the experiment is currently taking place

  8. Modeling and Measurement of 39Ar Recoil Loss From Biotite as a Function of Grain Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, J. H.; Nomade, S.; Renne, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    The call for age measurements with less than 1 per mil error puts a demand upon geochronologists to be aware of and quantify a number of problems which were previously negligible. One such factor is 39Ar recoil loss during sample irradiation, a phenomenon which is widely assumed to affect only unusually small crystals having exceptionally high surface/volume ratios. This phenomenon has important implications for thermochronologic studies seeking to exploit a range of closure temperatures arising from variable diffusion radii. Our study focuses on biotite, in which spatial isotope distributions cannot be reliably recovered by stepwise heating and which therefore lack recoil-diagnostic age spectrum behavior. Previous work by Renne et al. [Application of a deuteron-deuteron (D-D) neutron generator to 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, Applied Radiation and Isotopes, in press] used the SRIM code to calculate a ˜20% 39Ar recoil loss from the outermost 0.25 μ m of an infinite slab of phyllosillicate. This result is applied to measured grains of the biotite standard GA1550, a hypabyssal granite from the Mount Dromedary Complex, Australia. We measure the thickness and surface area of 166 grains and approximate the shape of each grain as a cylinder. Grain thickness ranges from 3 to 210 μ m, with an average grain radius of 350 μ m. We predict the amount of 39Ar recoil loss from each grain, finding an expected age error >0.1 % for grains thinner than 150 μ m, a >1% error for grain less than 10 μ m thick, and up to a 3% error for grains less than 3 μ m thick. These modeling results will be tested by analysis of the measured grains after irradiation in the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor. It is important to either account for 39Ar loss in thin biotite grains, or use sufficiently thick ones so that recoil loss is negligible. Our results indicate that only biotite grains thicker than 150 μ m should be used for neutron fluence monitoring in order to avoid bias greater than the

  9. The morphology of collision cascades as a function of recoil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.

    1989-09-01

    An analytical method based on defect densities has been devised to determine the threshold energies for subcascade formation in computer simulated collision cascades. Cascades generated with the binary collision code MARLOWE in Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Fe, Mo and W were analyzed to determine the threshold energy for subcascade formation, the number of subcascades per recoil per unit energy and the average spacing of subcascades. Compared on the basis of reduced damage energy, metals of the same crystal structure have subcascade thresholds at the same reduced energy. The number of subcascades per unit reduced damage energy is about the same for metals of the same crystal structure, and the average spacing of subcascades is about the same in units of lattice parameters. Comparisons between subcascade threshold energies and average recoil energies in fission and fusion neutron environments show the spectral sensitivity of the formation of subcascades

  10. Possibilities for a neutron-proton bremsstrahlung experiment at WNR/LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.; Nelson, R.O.; Laymon, C.M.; Schillaci, M.; Gibson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The high energy and high intensity of the continuous energy (white) neutron source at the WNR target area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) may make possible a direct measurement of the neutron-proton bremsstrahlung (NPB) cross section. Several recent papers have discussed the operation of the WNR white neutron source in detail so we will just include a short description of the relevant properties of the source in this article. Next the authors will describe one possible method of measuring the NPB cross section which is based on two calorimetric detectors that measure the energies of the scattered neutrons and the recoil protons. Although there are many other possible experimental approaches and geometries, such as measuring the bremsstrahlung gamma ray directly with a multi-element possibilities in this paper. There are several advantages in using a white neutron source for this type of measurement. First, a wide range of incident neutron energies may be covered. In the case of the WNR, the energy range is from below 50 MeV to over 400 MeV which is above the pion production threshold. Second, all incident neutron energies are measure simultaneously. 6 refs., 5 figs

  11. First β-ν correlation measurement from the recoil-energy spectrum of Penning trapped Ar35 ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gorp, S.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Tandecki, M.; Beck, M.; Finlay, P.; Friedag, P.; Glück, F.; Herlert, A.; Kozlov, V.; Porobic, T.; Soti, G.; Traykov, E.; Wauters, F.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate a novel method to search for physics beyond the standard model by determining the β-ν angular correlation from the recoil-ion energy distribution after β decay of ions stored in a Penning trap. This recoil-ion energy distribution is measured with a retardation spectrometer. The unique combination of the spectrometer with a Penning trap provides a number of advantages, e.g., a high recoil-ion count rate and low sensitivity to the initial position and velocity distribution of the ions and completely different sources of systematic errors compared to other state-of-the-art experiments. Results of a first measurement with the isotope Ar35 are presented. Although currently at limited precision, we show that a statistical precision of about 0.5% is achievable with this unique method, thereby opening up the possibility of contributing to state-of-the-art searches for exotic currents in weak interactions.

  12. Origin of open recoil curves in L1_0-A1 FePt exchange coupled nanocomposite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Rajan; Kapoor, Akanksha; Lamba, S.; Annapoorni, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed phase FePt systems with intergranular coupling may be looked upon as natural exchange spring systems. The coupling strength between the soft and hard phase in these systems can be analyzed using recoil curves. However, the origin of open recoil curves depicting the breakdown of exchange coupling or anisotropy variation in hard phase is still an ambiguity and requires an in-depth analysis. In order to investigate this, an analysis of the recoil curves for L1_0–A1 FePt nanocomposite thin films of varying thickness have been performed. The switching field distribution reveals that the maximum of openness of recoil curve is directly proportional to the amount of uncoupled soft phase present in the system. The coupling between the hard and soft phase is also found to increase with the thickness of the film. Monte Carlo simulations on a model three dimensional array of interacting nanomagnetic grains provide further insight into the effect of inter granular exchange interactions between the soft and hard phases. - Highlights: • L1_0-A1 FePt nanocomposites thin films of different thickness have been fabricated by DC sputtering. • Hysteresis curve measurements exhibit perfect single phase (L1_0) like behavior for thicker films. • SFD reveals that the openness of recoil curves is directly linked with the amount of uncoupled soft (A1) phase. • Monte Carlo simulation predicts that the extent of exchange interaction increases with thickness of the film.

  13. Solar proton fluxes since 1956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    The fluxes of protons emitted during solar flares since 1956 were evaluated. The depth-versus-activity profiles of 56 Co in several lunar rocks are consistent with the solar-proton fluxes detected by experiments on several satellites. Only about 20% of the solar-proton-induced activities of 22 Na and 55 Fe in lunar rocks from early Apollo missions were produced by protons emitted from the sun during solar cycle 20 (1965--1975). The depth-versus-activity data for these radionuclides in several lunar rocks were used to determine the fluxes of protons during solar cycle 19 (1954--1964). The average proton fluxes for cycle 19 are about five times those for both the last million years and for cycle 20. These solar-proton flux variations correlate with changes in sunspot activity

  14. Expected proton signal sizes in the PRaVDA Range Telescope for proton Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.; Parker, D.J.; Green, S.; Esposito, M.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N.M.; Poludniowski, G.; Evans, P.; Taylor, J.; Manolopoulos, S.; Anaxagoras, T.; Nieto-Camero, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has demonstrated benefits in the treatment of certain cancers. Accurate measurements of the proton stopping powers in body tissues are required in order to fully optimise the delivery of such treaments. The PRaVDA Consortium is developing a novel, fully solid state device to measure these stopping powers. The PRaVDA Range Telescope (RT), uses a stack of 24 CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APS) to measure the residual proton energy after the patient. We present here the ability of the CMOS sensors to detect changes in the signal sizes as the proton traverses the RT, compare the results with theory, and discuss the implications of these results on the reconstruction of proton tracks

  15. Adsorption of Hydrogen and Potassium on GaAs(110) Studied by Time-of-Flight Scattering and Recoiling Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayone, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    We study the adsorption of H and K on a GaAs(ll0) surface by Time-of-Flight Ion-Scattering (ISS) and Direct Recoiling (DRS) Spectrometry. The method for cleaning and preparation of the surface consists on cycles of grazing bombardment with 20 keV Ar+ combined with annealing. Since this is the first time that this method is applied to a semiconductor surface, the crystallographic structure of the grazing ion bombarded surface is first characterized by ISS and DRS. The variations of the projectile scattered intensity as a function of the incident and azimuthal angles are interpreted in terms of calculated shadowing and focusing effects. The crystallographic structure of the GaAs(ll0) surface prepared by this method presents the surface relaxation observed for cleaved surfaces. The adsorption of H on GaAs(ll0) is studied as a function of the H 2 exposure and the surface temperature.The behavior of the intensity of projectiles scattered from the first two As and Ga layers is consistent with a process of unrelaxation towards the ideal surface termination upon H adsorption. We have determined that for exposures of 1000 L and 2000 L the AsI-GaI splitting corresponding to the unrelaxed surface is reduced to ΔZ = (0.0 n 0.08) A, as it should be expected for the bulk terminated surface. In addition, the fraction of the surface remaining relaxed as in the clean surface decreases strongly with the H 2 exposure. The H atoms adsorbed on the surface can be detected as recoils produced in quasi-single collisions allowing the study of the adsorption kinetics. The variations of the H recoil intensity with the exposure show that the sticking coefficient changes strongly with the H coverage since the beginning the adsorption. Above ∼ 500 L, the adsorption kinetics deviates from the initial behavior and the sticking coefficient becomes almost constant and small. The simultaneous measurements of the H coverage (with DRS) and the changes in the atomic structure (with ISS) as a

  16. Timing Comparisons for GLEs and High-energy Proton Events using GPS Proton Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, V.; Winter, L. M.; Carver, M.; Morley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The newly released LANL GPS particle sensor data offers a unique snapshot of access of relativistic particles into the geomagnetic field. Currently, 23 of the 31 operational GPS satellites host energetic particle detectors which can detect the arrival of high-energy solar protons associated with Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). We compare the timing profiles of solar energetic proton detections from GPS satellites as well as from ground-based Neutron Monitors and GOES spacecraft at geostationary orbit in order to understand how high-energy protons from the Sun enter the geomagnetic field and investigate potential differences in arrival time of energetic protons at GPS satellites as a function of location. Previous studies could only use one or two spacecraft at a similar altitude to track the arrival of energetic particles. With GPS data, we can now test whether the particles arrive isotropically, as assumed, or whether there exist differences in the timing and energetics viewed by each of the individual satellites. Extensions of this work could lead to improvements in space weather forecasting that predict more localized risk estimates for space-based technology.

  17. Recoil halogen reactions in liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, L.J.; Blotcky, A.J.; Firouzbakht, M.L.; Rack, E.P.; Nebraska Univ., Omaha

    1982-01-01

    Reactions of recoil 38 Cl, 80 Br and 128 I have been studied in crystalline systems of 5-halouracil, 5-halo-2'-deoxyuridine and 5-halouridine as well as liquid and frozen aqueous solutions of these halogenated biomolecules. In all systems expect crystalline 5-iuodouracil the major product was the radio-labelled halide ion. There was no evidence for other halogen inorganic species. The major labelled organic product was the parent molecule. A recoil atom tracer technique was developed to acquire site information of the biomolecule solutes in the liquid and frozen aqueous systems. For all liquid and frozen aqueous systems, the halogenated biomolecules tended to aggregate. For liquid systems, the tendency for aggregation diminished as the solute concentration approached zero, where the probable state of the solute approached a monomolecular dispersion. Unlike the liquid state, the frozen ice lattice demonstated a ''caging effect'' for the solute aggregates which resulted in constant product yields over the whole concentration range. (orig.)

  18. A study of etching model of alpha-recoil tracks in biotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jinquan; Yuan Wanming; Wang Shicheng; Fan Qicheng

    2005-01-01

    Like fission-track dating, alpha-recoil track (ART) dating is based on the accumulation of nuclear particles that the released from natural radioactivity and produce etchable tracks in solids. ARTs are formed during the alpha-decay of uranium and thorium as well as of their daughter nuclei. When emitting an alpha-particle, the heavy remaining nucleus recoils 30-40 nm, leaving behind a trail of radiation damage. Through etching the ART tracks become visible with the aid of an interference phase-contrast microscope. Under the presupposition that all tracks are preserved since the formation of a sample their total number is a measure of the sample's age. The research for etching model is to accurately determine ART volume density, i.e., the number of ARTs per unit volume. The volume density of many dots in many layers may be determined on a sample using this etching model, and as decreasing the error and increasing the accuracy. (authors)

  19. Proton-90Zr interaction at sub-coulomb proton energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.E.; Flynn, D.; Hershberger, R.L.; Gabbard, F.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements have been made of proton elastic scattering differential cross sections for proton scattering at 135 0 and 165 0 from 2 to 7 MeV, of inelastic scattering cross sections for proton scattering from 3.9 to 5.7 MeV, and of the radiative capture cross sections from 1.9 to 5.7 MeV detecting primary and cascade gamma rays. Optical potentials with Hauser-Feshbach and coupled-channel models have been used to analyze the data. This analysis yields an energy dependent absorptive potential of W = 2.63+.73 whose mean value of 5 MeV at E/sub p/ = 4 MeV is consistent with previously reported, but anomalously small values. The diffuseness of the real potential is .54 fm, which is consistent with values found for 92 Zr and 94 Zr. The adopted model values are used to deduce a total proton strength function which displays the features of both the 3s and the 3p single particle resonances

  20. Experimental determination of relative light conversion factors of TLD-100 for protons with energies from 2.0 to 9.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.; Fellinger, J.; Huebner, K.; Henniger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Relative light conversion factors (RLCF) for heavy charged particles (protons, deuterons, recoils) are needed for the calculation of the neutron sensitivity of thermoluminescent (TL) detectors. Such light conversion factors can be determined experimentally. A method is represented for the experimental determination of RLCF. The described experimental facility gives the possibility of irradiation of different luminophor samples with heavy charged particles and flux determination and particle spectrometry at the same time. For the determination of RLCF the doses are needed which are applicated at the irradiation with heavy charged particles and gamma radiation, respectively, and the according detector readings at the TL evaluation. The problems arising at the dose determination are discussed. With this experimental facility the RLCF for TLD-100 for protons were determined. The relative light conversion factors determined according to the light sum method as well as the peak height method are summarizinhly represented and discussed. Furthermore a comparison of the glow curves is made after gamma and proton irradiation

  1. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G En /G Mn , was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d((pol-e),e(prime)(pol-n)p) reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q 2 = 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2

  2. Multivariate analysis method for energy calibration and improved mass assignment in recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bouanani, Mohamed; Hult, Mikael; Persson, Leif; Swietlicki, Erik; Andersson, Margaretha; Oestling, Mikael; Lundberg, Nils; Zaring, Carina; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, Nick; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F.; Whitlow, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil spectrometry is rapidly becoming a well established analysis method, but the associated data analysis processing is still not well developed. The pronounced nonlinear response of silicon detectors for heavy ions leads to serious limitation and complication in mass gating, which is the principal factor in obtaining energy spectra with minimal cross talk between elements. To overcome the above limitation, a simple empirical formula with an associated multiple regression method is proposed for the absolute energy calibration of the time of flight-energy dispersive detector telescope used in recoil spectrometry. A radical improvement in mass assignment was realized, which allows a more accurate and improved depth profiling with the important feature of making the data processing much easier. ((orig.))

  3. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  4. Diagnosis by proton bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, V.W.; Koehler, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Beams of monoenergetic protons or other charged ions are passed through the living human body to detect abnormalities and obstructions in body tissue, which abnormalities and obstructions are visualized as density variations in the particle image emerging from the body part under investigation. The particles used are preferably protons having an energy of 100 to 300 MeV, more especially 200 to 300 MeV. The method is of use in detecting inter alia tumors, blood clots, infarcts, soft tissue lesions and multiple sclerosis in patients without exposure to high radiation dosages. 6 claims, 2 drawing figures

  5. Kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Eremin, A.V.; Belozerov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Within the past twelve years, the recoil separator VASSILISSA has been used for investigation of evaporation residues produced in heavy-ion induced complete-fusion reactions. In the course of the experimental work in the region of the elements with 92 ≤ Z ≤ 94, fourteen new isotopes have been identified by the parent-daughter correlations. The study of the decay properties and formation cross sections of the isotopes of elements 110, 112, and 114 was performed with the use of the high intensity 48 Ca beams; 232 Th, 238 U and 242 Pu targets were used in the experiments. At the beam energies corresponding to the calculated cross-section maxima of the 3n evaporation channels, the isotopes 277 110, 283 112, and 287 114 were produced and identified. For further experiments aimed at the synthesis of the superheavy element isotopes (Z ≥ 110) with the intensive 48 Ca extracted beams, the improvements in the ion optical system of the separator and of the focal plane detector system have been made. As a result, for heavy recoiling nuclei with masses A ∼ 250, the mass resolution of about 2.5 % was achieved with a good energy and position resolutions of the focal plane detectors

  6. Origin of open recoil curves in L1{sub 0}-A1 FePt exchange coupled nanocomposite thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Rajan [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kapoor, Akanksha [M. Tech Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Lamba, S. [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi 110068 (India); Annapoorni, S., E-mail: annapoornis@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-15

    Mixed phase FePt systems with intergranular coupling may be looked upon as natural exchange spring systems. The coupling strength between the soft and hard phase in these systems can be analyzed using recoil curves. However, the origin of open recoil curves depicting the breakdown of exchange coupling or anisotropy variation in hard phase is still an ambiguity and requires an in-depth analysis. In order to investigate this, an analysis of the recoil curves for L1{sub 0}–A1 FePt nanocomposite thin films of varying thickness have been performed. The switching field distribution reveals that the maximum of openness of recoil curve is directly proportional to the amount of uncoupled soft phase present in the system. The coupling between the hard and soft phase is also found to increase with the thickness of the film. Monte Carlo simulations on a model three dimensional array of interacting nanomagnetic grains provide further insight into the effect of inter granular exchange interactions between the soft and hard phases. - Highlights: • L1{sub 0}-A1 FePt nanocomposites thin films of different thickness have been fabricated by DC sputtering. • Hysteresis curve measurements exhibit perfect single phase (L1{sub 0}) like behavior for thicker films. • SFD reveals that the openness of recoil curves is directly linked with the amount of uncoupled soft (A1) phase. • Monte Carlo simulation predicts that the extent of exchange interaction increases with thickness of the film.

  7. Proton scattering on unstable nuclei: study of 40S(p,p') and 43Ar(p,p') reactions, development of detection system MUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, F.

    1998-01-01

    We measured for the first time the elastic and inelastic proton scattering on the 40 S unstable nucleus. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics at the NSCL AT Michigan State University with a 40 S secondary beam bombarding a CH 2 target at 30 MeV/A. We obtained the elastic scattering angular distribution and two points of the inelastic distribution to the first 2 + excited state found to be located at 860±90 KeV. With a coupled channel analysis, the β 2 quadrupolar deformation parameter is found to be equal to 0.35±0.05. This value can be compared to 0.28±0.02 obtained by coulomb excitation. A macroscopic analysis allowed us to extract the neutron and proton transition matrix element ratio M n /M p which is equal to 1.88±0.38. This value, greater than N/Z, could indicate an isovector effect in the first 2 + state excitation which could be due to a difference between the neutron and proton vibrations. The microscopic analysis gives the possibility to test the densities and the transition densities to the first 2 + state. The calculated densities for the 40 S nucleus show a neutron skin. However the microscopic analysis yields a M n /M p ratio of 1.40±0.20. A similar elastic and inelastic proton scattering experiment allowed us to get a deformation parameter of 0.25±0.03 for the 43 Ar nucleus. To develop the study of direct reactions induced by radioactive beams at GANIL, we have developed and built, in collaboration with the CEA-Saclay and the CEA-Bruyeres, the new detector MUST.It is based on the silicon strip technology, and is dedicated to the measurement of recoiling light particles emitted in these reactions. The results obtained with a 40 Ar beam at 77 Me V/A, have shown the good performances of the detector for the particle identification as well as for the resolutions, and allow us to consider now a large experimental programme concerning these direct reactions induced by radioactive beams. These tests allowed us to establish a reference

  8. Recoil corrected bag model calculations for semileptonic weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oe.; Hoegaasen, H.

    1987-02-01

    Recoil corrections to various model results for strangeness changing weak decay amplitudes have been developed. It is shown that the spurious reference frame dependence of earlier calculations is reduced. The second class currents are generally less important than obtained by calculations in the static approximation. Theoretical results are compared to observations. The agreement is quite good, although the values for the Cabibbo angle obtained by fits to the decay rates are somewhat to large

  9. High energy neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.S.; Needham, L.M.; Paoli, M.P.

    1987-10-01

    The neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4 He at 4.2 K and 1.6 K has been observed for a momentum transfer of 150 A -1 using the Electron Volt Spectrometer on the pulsed neutron source, ISIS. The experiment yielded mean atomic kinetic energy values = 14.8 +- 3 K at 4.2 K and = 14.6 +- 3.2 K at 1.6 K in good agreement with values obtained at lower momentum transfers. (author)

  10. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  11. Beyond the CMSSM without an accelerator: proton decay and direct dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A.; Luo, Feng; Nagata, Natsumi; Sandick, Pearl

    2016-01-01

    We consider two potential non-accelerator signatures of generalizations of the well-studied constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model (CMSSM). In one generalization, the universality constraints on soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters are applied at some input scale M in below the grand unification (GUT) scale M GUT , a scenario referred to as 'sub-GUT'. The other generalization we consider is to retain GUT-scale universality for the squark and slepton masses, but to relax universality for the soft supersymmetry-breaking contributions to the masses of the Higgs doublets. As with other CMSSM-like models, the measured Higgs mass requires supersymmetric particle masses near or beyond the TeV scale. Because of these rather heavy sparticle masses, the embedding of these CMSSM-like models in a minimal SU(5) model of grand unification can yield a proton lifetime consistent with current experimental limits, and may be accessible in existing and future proton decay experiments. Another possible signature of these CMSSM-like models is direct detection of supersymmetric dark matter. The direct dark matter scattering rate is typically below the reach of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment if M in is close to M GUT , but it may lie within its reach if M in proton lifetimes. (orig.)

  12. Nitrogen-detected TROSY yields comparable sensitivity to proton-detected TROSY for non-deuterated, large proteins under physiological salt conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Koh [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan); Arthanari, Haribabu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Imai, Misaki [Japan Biological Informatics Consortium, Research and Development Department (Japan); Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Shimada, Ichio, E-mail: shimada@iw-nmr.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Molecular Profiling Research Center for Drug Discovery (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Direct detection of the TROSY component of proton-attached {sup 15}N nuclei ({sup 15}N-detected TROSY) yields high quality spectra with high field magnets, by taking advantage of the slow {sup 15}N transverse relaxation. The slow transverse relaxation and narrow line width of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY resonances are expected to compensate for the inherently low {sup 15}N sensitivity. However, the sensitivity of {sup 15}N-detected TROSY in a previous report was one-order of magnitude lower than in the conventional {sup 1}H-detected version. This could be due to the fact that the previous experiments were performed at low salt (0–50 mM), which is advantageous for {sup 1}H-detected experiments. Here, we show that the sensitivity gap between {sup 15}N and {sup 1}H becomes marginal for a non-deuterated, large protein (τ{sub c} = 35 ns) at a physiological salt concentration (200 mM). This effect is due to the high salt tolerance of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY. Together with the previously reported benefits of the {sup 15}N-detected TROSY, our results provide further support for the significance of this experiment for structural studies of macromolecules when using high field magnets near and above 1 GHz.

  13. Chemical reactions of recoil atoms and thermal atoms of tritium with haloid benzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simirskij, Yu.N.; Firsova, L.P.

    1978-01-01

    Radiochemical yields have been determined for the products of substitution of hydrogen atoms and halides in Cl-, Br-, and I-benzenes with tritium atoms obtained during thermal dissociation of T 2 and with recoil atoms T arising in nuclear reaction 6 Li(n, P)T. It is shown that in the series of Cl-, Br-, and I-benzenes yields of the products of substitution of halides atoms with tritium grow, whereas those of hydrogen atom substitution change only little. The correlation nature of the yields of substitution products of halide atoms with tritium remains constant in a wide range of the initial kinetic energies of T atoms for the recoil atoms with E 0 =2.7 MeV and for the completely thermolized atoms during thermal dissociation of T 2

  14. Recoil and conversion electron considerations of the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho in vivo generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaart, J.R. [North-West Univ., Mmabatho (South Africa). CARST; Szuecs, Z. [Nesca (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd.), Pretoria (South Africa). Radiochemistry; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Takacs, S.; Jarvis, N. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Jansen, D. [Nesca (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd.), Pretoria (South Africa). Radiochemistry

    2012-07-01

    The use of radionuclides as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals is increasingly investigated. An important aspect is the delivery of the radionuclide to the target, i.e. the radionuclide is not lost from the chelating agent. For in vivo generators, it is not only the log K of complexation between the metal ion and the chelator that is important, but also whether the daughter radionuclide stays inside the chelator after decay of the parent radionuclide. In our previous work, we showed that the classical recoil effect is only applicable for decays with a Q value higher than 0.6 MeV (in the atomic mass range around 100). However, Zhernosekov et al. published a result for {sup 140}Nd/{sup 140}Pr (Q = 0.222 MeV) which indicated that > 95% of the daughter ({sup 140}Pr) was lost by a DOTA chelator upon decay of {sup 140}Nd. The authors ascribed this to the ''post-effect''. Their experiment was repeated with the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho generator to ascertain whether our calculations were correct. It was found that 72% of the daughter ({sup 166}Ho) was liberated from the DOTA chelator, indicating that the 'post effect' does exist in contrast to our recoil calculations. Upon further investigation, we determined that one should not only consider recoil energy levels but also the mode of decay which was able to explain the partial recoil found for {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho. It is concluded for the {sup 166}Dy/{sup 166}Ho system that the low recoil energy of the daughter nucleus {sup 166}Ho is not a sufficient reason to rule out release of the nuclide from chelators. On the other hand, we found that the ratio of the {sup 166}Ho that gets released corresponds to the ratio of relaxation of Ho atoms via the Auger process. (orig.)

  15. Direct mass measurements of light neutron-rich nuclei using fast recoil spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive new mass measurement capabilities have evolved with the development of recoil spectrometers. In the Z = 3 to 9 neutron-rich region alone, 12 neutron-rich nuclei have been determined for the first time by the fast-recoil direct mass measurement method. A recent experiment using the TOFI spectrometer illustrates this technique. A systematic investigation of nuclei that lie along or near the neutron-drip line has provided a valuable first glimpse into the nuclear structure of such nuclei. No evidence for a large single-particle energy gap at N = 14 is observed; however, a change in the two-neutron separation model calculations, and is interpreted in terms of the smaller 1s/sub 1/2/ - 1s/sub 1/2/ interaction compared to that of the 0d/sub 5/2/ - 0d/sub 5/2/ neutron-neutron interaction. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  16. A Potential Recoiling Supermassive Black Hole, CXO J101527.2+625911

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Yoon, Ilsang; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Privon, G. C. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago, Codigo Postal: 8970117 (Chile); Harvey, D. [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, EPFL, Observatoire de Sauverny, Chemin des Mai