WorldWideScience

Sample records for recoil based transmutation

  1. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  2. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  3. Detecting neutrons by forward recoil protons at the Energy & Transmutation facility: Detector development and calibration with 14.1-MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, S.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Rogachev, A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2017-05-01

    As part of the Energy & Transmutation project, we are developing a detector for neutrons with energies in the 10-100 MeV range emitted from the target irradiated by a charged-particle beam. The neutron is detected by measuring the time-of-flight and total kinetic energy of the forward-going recoil proton [1] knocked out at a small angle from a thin layer of plastic scintillator, which has to be selected against an intense background created by γ quanta, scattered neutrons, and charged particles. On the other hand, neutron energy has to be measured over the full range with no extra tuning of the detector operation regime. Initial measurements with a source of 14.1-MeV neutrons are reported.

  4. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.U.

    1992-09-01

    The meeting was organised under the auspices of OECD Nuclear Agency's International Information Exchange Programme on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation. In the original announcement for the meeting the following sessions were proposed: 1) Concepts of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 2) Nuclear design problems of accelerator-based transmutation systems with emphasis on target facilities and their interfaces with accelerators, 3) Data and methods for nuclear design of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 4) Related cross-section measurements and integral experiments, 5) Identification of discrepancies and gaps and discussion of desirable R+D and benchmark activities. Due to the large number of papers submitted it was necessary to split session 2 into two parts and to reassign some papers in order to balance the sessions more evenly. No papers were submitted for session 5 and this was replaced by a summary and general discussion session. These proceedings contain all 30 papers in the order they were presented at the meeting. They are copies of the duplication-ready versions given to us during or shortly after the meeting. In the Table of Contents, the papers are listed together with the name of the presenter. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  5. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1993-01-01

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  6. On the use of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Bakker, K.; Boshoven, J.G.; Hein, H.; Huntelaar, M.E.; Zhang, H.; Meeldijk, J.D.; Woensdregt, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of spinel-based nuclear fuels for the transmutation of actinides are investigated. The results of laboratory experiments, thermodynamic calculations and irradiations in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten are presented, and allow us to evaluate the potential of spinel as an inert matrix for fuels and targets for transmutation. (author)

  7. Specific contributions of the Dutch progamme ''RAS'' towards accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H.; Heil, J.A.; Koning, A.J.

    1994-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management. (orig.)

  8. Requirements for an evaluated nuclear data file for accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The importance of intermediate-energy nuclear data files as part of a global calculation scheme for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste systems (for instance with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor) is discussed. A proposal for three intermediate-energy data libraries for incident neutrons and protons is presented: - a data library from 0 to about 100 MeV (first priority), - a reference data library from 20 to 1500 MeV, - an activation/transmutation library from 0 to about 100 MeV. Furthermore, the proposed ENDF-6 structure of each library is given. The data needs for accelerator-based transmutation are translated in terms of the aforementioned intermediate-energy data libraries. This could be a starting point for an ''International Evaluated Nuclear Data File for Transmutation''. This library could also be of interest for other applications in science and technology. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations concerning future evaluation work are given. (orig.)

  9. Primary retention following nuclear recoil in β-decay: Proposed synthesis of a metastable rare gas oxide ((38)ArO4) from ((38)ClO4(-)) and the evolution of chemical bonding over the nuclear transmutation reaction path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F

    2014-12-01

    Argon tetroxide (ArO4) is the last member of the N=50 e(-) isoelectronic and isosteric series of ions: SiO4(4-), PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and ClO4(-). A high level computational study demonstrated that while ArO4 is kinetically stable it has a considerable positive enthalpy of formation (of ~298kcal/mol) (Lindh et al., 1999. J. Phys. Chem. A 103, pp. 8295-8302) confirming earlier predictions by Pyykkö (1990. Phys. Scr. 33, pp. 52-53). ArO4 can be expected to be difficult to synthesize by traditional chemistry due to its metastability and has not yet been synthesized at the time of writing. A computational investigation of the changes in the chemical bonding of chlorate (ClO4(-)) when the central chlorine atom undergoes a nuclear transmutation from the unstable artificial chlorine isotope (38)Cl to the stable rare argon isotope (38)Ar through β-decay, hence potentially leading to the formation of ArO4, is reported. A mathematical model is presented that allows for the prediction of yields following the recoil of a nucleus upon ejecting a β-electron. It is demonstrated that below a critical angle between the ejected β-electron and that of the accompanying antineutrino their respective linear momentums can cancel to such an extent as imparting a recoil to the daughter atom insufficient for breaking the Ar-O bond. As a result, a primary retention yield of ~1% of ArO4 is predicted following the nuclear disintegration. The study is conducted at the quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations [QCISD/6-311+G(3df)] level of theory followed by an analysis of the electron density by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Crossed potential energy surfaces (PES) were used to construct a PES from the metastable ArO4 ground singlet state to the Ar-O bond dissociation product ArO3+O((3)P) from which the predicted barrier to dissociation is ca. 22kcal/mol and the exothermic reaction energy is ca. 28kcal/mol [(U)MP2/6-311+G(d)]. Copyright © 2014

  10. Specific contributions of the Dutch programme {open_quotes}RAS{close_quotes} towards accelerator-based transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W.M.P.; Bultman, J.H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: (1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, (2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, (3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, (4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, (5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management.

  11. An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yun Gui; Ong, C K; Tyc, Tomás; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Transformation optics is a concept used in some metamaterials to guide light on a predetermined path. In this approach, the materials implement coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves to create the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here, on the basis of transformation optics, we implement a microwave device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. To fabricate such a device, we transmute a dielectric singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and could also be applied to visible light using similar techniques.

  12. JAERI R & D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called {open_quotes}OMEGA,{close_quotes} is presented. Under this national program, major R&D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

  13. Recoil-free Fraction in Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Aluminium Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Jozef

    2008-10-01

    Aluminium based rapidly quenched alloys of nominal composition Al90Fe7Nb3 and Al94Fe2V4 were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy. We have measured the recoil-free fraction and thermal shift at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. The frequency modes of atomic vibrations were determined and consequently the characteristic Debye temperature was derived. Characteristic temperature calculated from f-factor was lower than those fitted from second order Doppler shift. This indicates the presence of different frequency modes for amorphous and nanocrystalline states.

  14. A neutron amplifier: prospects for reactor-based waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanovsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    A design concept and characteristics for an epithermal breeder controlled by variable feedback and external neutron source intensity are presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform radioactive waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors (HFSR) that have primary system size, power density and cost comparable to a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Another approach for actinide transmutation is a molten salt subcritical reactor proposed by Russian scientists. To increase neutron source intensity the HFSR is divided into two zones: a booster and a blanket with solid and liquid fuels. A neutron gate (absorber and moderator) imposed between two zones permits fast neutrons from the booster to flow to the blanket. Neutrons moving in the reverse direction are moderated and absorbed in the absorber zone. In the HFSR, neptunium-plutonium fuel is circulated in the booster and blanket, and americium-curium in the absorber zone and outer reflector. Use of a liquid actinide fuel permits transport of the delayed-neutron emitters from the blanket to the booster, where they can provide additional neutrons (source-dominated mode) or all the necessary excitation without an external neutron source (self-amplifying mode). With a blanket neutron multiplication gain of 20 and a booster gain of 50, an external neutron source rate of at least 10 15 n/s (0.7 MW D-T or 2.5 MW electron beam power) is needed to control the HFSR that produces 300 MWt. Most of the power could be generated in the blanket that burns about 100 kg of actinides a year. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of HFSR design aspects including the wave model of observed relativistic phenomena, plant seismic diagnostics, fission electric cells (FEC) with a multistage collector (anode) and layered cathode. (author)

  15. Hydrogen bond disruption in DNA base pairs from (14)C transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Michel; Carter, Damien J; Uberuaga, Blas P; Stanek, Christopher R; Mancera, Ricardo L; Marks, Nigel A

    2014-09-04

    Recent ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have shown that radioactive carbon does not normally fragment DNA bases when it decays. Motivated by this finding, density functional theory and Bader analysis have been used to quantify the effect of C → N transmutation on hydrogen bonding in DNA base pairs. We find that (14)C decay has the potential to significantly alter hydrogen bonds in a variety of ways including direct proton shuttling (thymine and cytosine), thermally activated proton shuttling (guanine), and hydrogen bond breaking (cytosine). Transmutation substantially modifies both the absolute and relative strengths of the hydrogen bonding pattern, and in two instances (adenine and cytosine), the density at the critical point indicates development of mild covalent character. Since hydrogen bonding is an important component of Watson-Crick pairing, these (14)C-induced modifications, while infrequent, may trigger errors in DNA transcription and replication.

  16. Recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The collision of a fast moving heavy ion with a neutral atomic target can produce very highly charged but slowly moving target ions. This article reviews experimental and theoretical work on the production and use of recoil ions beyond the second ionization state by beams with specific energies above 0.5 MeV/amu. A brief historical survey is followed by a discussion of theoretical approaches to the problem of the removal of many electrons from a neutral target by a rapid, multiply charged projectile. A discussion of experimental techniques and results for total and differential cross sections for multiple ionization of atomic and molecular targets is given. Measurements of recoil energy are discussed. The uses of recoil ions for in situ spectroscopy of multiply charged ions, for external beams of slow, highly charged ions and in ion traps are reviewed. Some possible future opportunities are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Neutronics-processing interface analyses for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) aqueous-based blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Neutronics-processing interface parameters have large impacts on the neutron economy and transmutation performance of an aqueous-based Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system. A detailed assessment of the interdependence of these blanket neutronic and chemical processing parameters has been performed. Neutronic performance analyses require that neutron transport calculations for the ATW blanket systems be fully coupled with the blanket processing and include all neutron absorptions in candidate waste nuclides as well as in fission and transmutation products. The effects of processing rates, flux levels, flux spectra, and external-to-blanket inventories on blanket neutronic performance were determined. In addition, the inventories and isotopics in the various subsystems were also calculated for various actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation strategies

  18. Establishment of bases for joint study and cooperation on long-lived radionuclides transmutation between Korea and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Shim, Joon Bo; Choi, Chang Joo; Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kil, Choong Sup

    2003-02-01

    The most important technical fields related to transmutation are partitioning of long-lived radionuclides and transmutation system to be used for converting them into short-lived or stable radionuclides. Technical cooperation between Korea and Russia is needed because Russia has an unequalled position in the fields of development of the fast reactors and pyrochemical processes around the world. The aim of this project is an establishment of bases for coordination on transmutation technology between Korea and Russia. State of the art of domestic and foreign countries upon partitioning of long-lived radionuclides, transmutation system and Gen IV development was summarized. Also, the 7th Korea-Russia joint coordination committee meeting and the 1st joint workshop were held as a result of this project. Technical fields and scheme on future cooperation between Korea and Russia were discussed and agreed in the course of the meetings

  19. Transmutation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viererbl, L., E-mail: vie@ujv.c [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Lahodova, Z. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Klupak, V. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Sus, F. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic); Kucera, J. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kus, P.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez Ltd. (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic)

    2011-03-11

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  20. Transmutation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Klupak, V.; Sus, F.; Kucera, J.; Kus, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  1. Study of an optimal configuration of a transmutation reactor based on a low-aspect-ratio tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen, E-mail: bghong@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Quantum System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoseok [Department of Applied Plasma Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 54896 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Optimum configuration of a transmutation reactor based on a low aspect ratio tokamak was found. • Inboard and outboard radial build are determined by plasma physics, engineering and neutronics constraints. • Radial build and equilibrium fuel cycle play a major role in determining the transmutation characteristics. - Abstract: We determine the optimal configuration of a transmutation reactor based on a low-aspect-ratio tokamak. For self-consistent determination of the radial build of the reactor components, we couple a tokamak systems analysis with a radiation transport calculation. The inboard radial build of the reactor components is obtained from plasma physics and engineering constraints, while outboard radial builds are mainly determined by constraints on neutron multiplication, the tritium-breeding ratio, and the power density. We show that the breeding blanket model has an effect on the radial build of a transmutation blanket. A burn cycle has to be determined to keep the fast neutron fluence plasma-facing material below its radiation damage limit. We show that the radial build of the transmutation reactor components and the equilibrium fuel cycle play a major role in determining the transmutation characteristics.

  2. Optimisation of the neutron source based on gas dynamic trap for transmutation of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, Andrey V.

    2012-06-01

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in collaboration with the Russian and foreign organizations develop the project of 14 MeV neutron source, which can be used for fusion material studies and for other application. The projected neutron source of plasma type is based on the plasma Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Presented work continues the subject of development the GDT-based neutron source (GDT-NS) for hybrid fusion-fission reactors. The paper presents the results of recent numerical optimization of such neutron source for transmutation of the long-lives radioactive wastes in spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Transmutation doping and recoil effects in semiconductors exposed to thermal neutrons; Transmutations provoquees et effets de recul dans les semi-conducteurs exposes aux neutrons thermiques; Prisadka i sdacha v rezul'tate prevrashcheniya poluprovodnikov pod dejstviem teplovykh nejtronov; Impurificacion por transmutacion y efectos de retroceso en los semiconductores expuestos a neutrones termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Jr, J H; Cleland, J W [Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-01-15

    Extensive studies of thermal neutron exposure of germanium have been made. Of the five isotopes, three transmute to chemical impurity whose yields in atoms per 100 neutron captures and half-lives are: Ga{sup 71} - 30.4, 11.4 d; As{sup 75} - 9.8, 82 min; Se{sup 77} - 1.2 , 39 h. Therefore, {approx} 3 acceptors (Ga{sup 71}) are introduced for each donor (As{sup 75} and Se{sup 77}) and through choice of exposure one may decrease the electron concentration of n-type Ge to very low values or convert n-type Ge to p-type. The half-life leading to Ga{sup 71} is conveniently long so that details of the ''radioactive titration'' may be followed by Hall coefficient and conductivity. Experiments also show that approximately one electron per neutron capture is removed by lattice defects created by the recoil of nuclei from capture {gamma}-ray emission. These displaced atoms may be restored to normal lattice sites by annealing at {approx}450 Degree-Sign C. Recoil effects in silicon have also been observed, approximately two charge carriers being removed per capture. Implications of these results and those on germanium will be discussed in terms of the capture {gamma}-ray spectrum. In indium antimonide the capture {gamma}-rays from In{sup 115} are not sufficient to displace a large number of nuclei and the major effect is production of Sn{sup 116}, a donor when substituted in an indium lattice position. Nuclear doping holds promise for investigating numerous compound semiconductors in which introduction of impurity by chemical means is difficult. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie de maniere approfondie l'exposition du germanium aux neutrons thermiques. Pour trois des cinq isotopes de cette substance, il y a transmutation en impuretes chimiques, dont les rendements (en atomes pour 100 neutrons captures) et les periodes sont: pour le gallium-71, 30,4 et 11,4 jours; pour l'arsenic-75, 9,8 et 82 minutes; pour le selenium-77, 1,2 et 39 heures. En consequence, on introduit trois

  4. Potential of cyclotron based accelerators for energy production and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammbach, T.; Adam, S.; Fitze, H.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    PSI operates a 590 MeV-cyclotron facility for high intensity proton beams for the production of intense beams of pions and muons. The facility, commissioned in 1974, has been partially upgraded and is now operated routinely at a beam current of 1 mA, which corresponds to a beam power of 0.6 MW. At this current, the beam losses in the cyclotron are about 0.02%. By the end of 1995 the authors expect to have 1.5 mA of protons. Extensive theoretical investigations on beam current limitations in isochronous cyclotrons were undertaken. They show that the longitudinal space charge effects dominate. Based on their experience the authors present a preliminary design of a cyclotron scheme that could produce a 10 MW beam as a driver for an {open_quotes}energy amplifier{close_quotes} as proposed by C. Rubbia and his collaborators. The expected efficiency for the conversion of AC into beam power would be about 50% (for the RF-systems only). The beam losses in the cyclotron are expected to be a few {mu}A, leading to a tolerable activation level.

  5. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  6. Review of high energy data and model codes for accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    After reviewing the most important data needs for accelerator-based transmutation, the present status of the collection of experimental data for high energies is investigated by scanning the two databases NSR and EXFOR for measured cross sections. The most important nuclear theories and some of the associated nuclear model codes that are in use are outlined. Experimental data and simple theories have been used to construct empirical fomulae for the prediction of high-energy cross sections and these parametrizations are listed. A survey is given of the evaluation work that has been done so far, and finally some conclusions and recommendations are presented, with respect to the need of compilation of experimental data. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of accelerator based neutron spectra for BNCT using proton recoil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.G.; Lowenstein, D.I.

    1998-01-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a promising binary treatment modality for high-grade primary brain tumors (glioblastoma multiforme, GM) and other cancers. BNCT employs a boron-10 containing compound that preferentially accumulates in the cancer cells in the brain. Upon neutron capture by 10 B energetic alpha particles and triton released at the absorption site kill the cancer cell. In order to gain penetration depth in the brain Fairchild proposed, for this purpose, the use of energetic epithermal neutrons at about 10 keV. Phase I/II clinical trials of BNCT for GM are underway at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR) and at the MIT Reactor, using these nuclear reactors as the source for epithermal neutrons. In light of the limitations of new reactor installations, e.g. cost, safety and licensing, and limited capability for modulating the reactor based neutron beam energy spectra alternative neutron sources are being contemplated for wider implementation of this modality in a hospital environment. For example, accelerator based neutron sources offer the possibility of tailoring the neutron beams, in terms of improved depth-dose distributions, to the individual and offer, with relative ease, the capability of modifying the neutron beam energy and port size. In previous work new concepts for compact accelerator/target configuration were published. In this work, using the Van de Graaff accelerator the authors have explored different materials for filtering and reflecting neutron beams produced by irradiating a thick Li target with 1.8 to 2.5 MeV proton beams. However, since the yield and the maximum neutron energy emerging from the Li-7(p,n)Be-7 reaction increase with increase in the proton beam energy, there is a need for optimization of the proton energy versus filter and shielding requirements to obtain the desired epithermal neutron beam. The MCNP-4A computer code was used for the initial design studies that were verified with benchmark experiments

  8. Cage effect in recoil studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berei, K.

    1983-09-01

    The role of cage effect is one of the most discussed questions of hot atom chemistry in condensed organic systems. So far no direct evidence is available for assessing the exact contribution of thermal recombinations occurring in the liquid cage to the stabilization processes of recoil atoms. However, some conclusions can be drawn from experimental observations concerning the influence on product yield of hot atom recoil spectra, the effects of density, phase and long range order of the medium as well as from comparisons with systems providing cage walls of different chemical reactivities towards the recoil atom. Recent developments in this field are reviewed based primarily on the investigations of recoil halogen reactions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and their haloderivatives. (author)

  9. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  10. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Girard, C.; Delpech, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Waste management strategies foresee the use of a deep geological repository either for final disposal of irradiated fuel or, after reprocessing and reuse of U and Pu for final disposal of long-lived radio-active materials. In the second case, partitioning and transmutation of these materials can be considered to reduce the impact of radiation on man due to the storage. On the basis of the SPIN programme developed by CEA in this field, the main features of transmutation is presented. The goal to achieve and the criteria to use are quite difficult to establish. The rights para-meters to characterize the risk are the potential radiotoxicity in the the repository and the residual radiotoxicity at the outlet. Transmutation studies in CEA used the potential radiotoxicity which is based on well-known parameters and less precise hazardous factors. The second point to appreciate the trans- mutation interest is to dispose of a criteria for the radio-radiotoxicity reduction. As there is no general agreement, we try to have a toxicity as low as possible within reasonable technical limits. To reduce the long term radio- toxicity, Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products have to be transmuted. To assess the feasibility of such trans-mutation in reactors or advanced systems, one has to consider constraints on neutronic balance, safety, fuel cycle, technology , economy. Taking in account the main conclusions of this analysis, parametric studies of homogeneous and heterogenous transmutation permit a choice of promising solutions. Goals are to use every long-lived element with a minimized production of other long- lived elements in order to obtain an appreciable radiotoxicity reduction. It implies multi recycling of Pu which favours fast neutron reactors and different strategies of multi recycling for Np, Am, Cm. Multi recycling makes the results strongly dependant of losses. Researches to obtain the high partitioning efficiency needed are in progress. Calculations

  11. Vortex Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Garcia-March, Miguel-Angel; Zacares, Mario; Monsoriu, Juan A.; Cordoba, Pedro Fernandez de

    2005-01-01

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a 'transmutation pass rule' determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials

  12. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  13. Nuclear transmutation by flux compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    2001-01-01

    A new idea for the transmutation of minor actinides, long (and even short) lived fission products is presented. It is based an the property of neutron flux compression in nuclear (fast and/or thermal) reactors possessing spatially non-stationary critical masses. An advantage factor for the burn-up fluence of the elements to be transmuted in the order of magnitude of 100 and more is obtainable compared with the classical way of transmutation. Three typical examples of such transmuters (a subcritical ringreactor with a rotating reflector, a sub-critical ring reactor with a rotating spallation source, the socalled ''pulsed energy amplifier'', and a fast burn-wave reactor) are presented and analysed with regard to this purpose. (orig.) [de

  14. Preliminary analysis of the induced structural radioactivity inventory of the base-case aqueous accelerator transmutation of waste reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdecny, J.A.; Vance, K.M.; Henderson, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Transmutation of (Nuclear) Waste (ATW) project is the substantial reduction in volume of long-lived high-level radioactive waste of the US in a safe and energy-efficient manner. An evaluation of the ATW concept has four aspects: material balance, energy balance, performance, and cost. An evaluation of the material balance compares the amount of long-lived high-level waste transmuted with the amount and type, of waste created in the process. One component of the material balance is the activation of structural materials over the lifetime of the transmutation reactor. A preliminary radioactivity and radioactive mass balance analysis has been performed on four structure regions of the reaction chamber: the tungsten target, the lead annulus, six tubing materials carrying the actinide slurry, and five reaction vessel structural materials. The amount of radioactive material remaining after a 100-yr cooling period for the base-case ATW was found to be 338 kg of radionuclides. The bulk of this material (313 kg) was generated in the zirconium-niobium (Zr-Nb) actinide tubing material. Replacement of the Zr-Nb tubing material with one of the alternative tubing materials analyzed would significantly reduce the short- and long-term radioactive mass produced. The alternative vessel material Al-6061 alloys, Tenelon, HT-9, and 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo and the alternative actinide tubing materials Al-6061 alloy, carbon-carbon matrix, silicon carbide, and Ti-6 Al-4 V qualify for shallow land burial. Alternative disposal options for the base-case structural material Type 304L stainless steel and the actinide tubing material Zr-Nb will need to be considered as neither qualifies for shallow land burial

  15. Performances of actinide transmutation based accelerator-driven systems (ADS) at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid, M.; Cano, D.; Gonzales, E.; Villamarin, D.

    2000-01-01

    The FACET group at CIEMAT is studying the properties and potentialities of several liquid metal-cooled ADS designs for actinide and fission product. transmutation. The main characteristics of these systems are the use of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic as primary coolant, moderator and fuels made by transuranics. The program has two main research lines. The first one is dedicated to the development of concepts, designs, operation models and computer simulation tools characteristics of this kind of systems. The second line includes tlte participation and tlte data analysis of the most advanced experiments in the field and international benchmarks. (authors)

  16. The sphinx project: experimental verification of design inputs for a transmuter with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Uhlir, J.; Vanicek, J.

    2002-01-01

    The current proposals for high-active long-lived (more then 10 4 years) waste from spent nuclear fuel disposal calls forth an increasing societal mistrust towards nuclear power. These problems are highly topical in the Czech Republic, a country which is operating nuclear power and accumulating spent fuel from PWRs and is further located on an inland and heavily populous Central European region. The proposed project, known under the acronym SPHINX (SPent Hot fuel Incineration by Neutron flux) deals with a solution to some of the principle problems through a very promising means of radioactive waste treatment. In particular, high-level wastes from spent nuclear fuel could be treated using this method, which is based on the transmutation of radionuclides through the use of a nuclear reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides (Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor - MSTR) which might be a subcritical system driven by a suitable neutron source. Its superiority also lies in the fact that it makes possible to utilize actinides contained, by others, in spent nuclear fuel and so to reach a positive energy effect. After the first three-year stage of Research and Development which has been focused mostly on computer analyses of neutronics and corresponding physical characteristics, the next three-year stage of this programme will be devoted to experimental verification of inputs for the design of a demonstration transmuter using molten fluoride fuel. The Research and Development part of the SPHINX project in the area of fuel cycle of the MSTR is focused in the first place on the development of suitable technology for the preparation of an introductory liquid fluoride fuel for MSTR and subsequently on the development of suitable fluoride pyrometallurgical technology for the separation of the transmuted elements from the non-transmuted ones. The idea of the introductory fuel preparation is based on the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel using the Fluoride Volatility Method

  17. Integrated PC-based system for detecting and parameter monitoring at the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.; Polyakov, A.N.; Sukhov, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    New detection system of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS) was put into operation in May 2012. It includes 32-strip position sensitive PIPS detector manufactured by CANBERRA NV, 24-strip back side PIPS detector, 8-strip V ETO P IPS detector, time-of-flight low pressure (∼1.7 Torr) pentane-filled gaseous detector, CAMAC fast ADC's with 5 μs dead time per three signals (energy, top position, bottom position), modified CC012 crate controller and PC-based C ++ Builder code for spectrometry data acquisition. New parameter monitoring system (project) is reported too together with the brief review of the present system. It is planned to put into operation with this system during 2013-2014. Examples of applications in the long-term experiments aimed at the synthesis of superheavy elements in 48 Ca induced complete fusion nuclear reactions are also presented. Namely with the DGFRS facility 45 new isotopes of superheavy nuclei were synthesized since 2001

  18. Effects of an LMR-based partitioning-transmutation system on US nuclear fuel cycle health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.; Reich, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Health risks for the current US nuclear fuel cycle and for an illustrative partitioning and transmutation (P-T) fuel cycle based on Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) technology are calculated and compared. Health risks are calculated for all non-reactor fuel cycle steps, including reprocessing, transportation, and high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Uranium mining and milling health risks have been updated to include recent occupational injury and death statistics, and the radiological health risk to the general public posed by the uranium mining overburden. In addition, the radiological health risks for transportation have been updated to include latent cancer fatalities associated with both normal transport and accidents. Given the assumptions of the study, it is shown that the deployment of an LMR-based P-T system is expected to reduce overall nuclear fuel cycle health risk

  19. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA. It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  20. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Jinsong; Kang, Bonan

    2017-09-01

    We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA). It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  1. The HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airapetian, A.; Belostotski, S.

    2013-02-01

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  2. The HERMES recoil detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

    2013-02-15

    For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

  3. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aa; Landgren, A; Liljenzin, J O; Skaalberg, M; Spjuth, L [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1997-12-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. Refs, figs, tabs.

  4. TRANSMUTED EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    MEROVCI, FATON

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize the exponentiated exponential distribution using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw etal. [6] to develop a transmuted exponentiated exponential distribution. Theproperties of this distribution are derived and the estimation of the model parameters is discussed. An application to real data set are finally presented forillustration

  5. Grouping of HLW in partitioning for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment with neutron reactors based on three criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Mulyanto; Kitamoto, Asashi

    1995-01-01

    A grouping concept of HLW in partitioning for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment by fission reactor was developed in order to improve the disposal in waste management from the safety aspect. The selecting and grouping concept was proposed herein, such as Group MA1 (Np, Am, and unrecovered U and Pu), Group MA2 (Cm, and trace quantity of Cf, etc.), Group A (Tc and I), Group B (Cs and Sr) and Group R (the partitioned remains of HLW), judging from the three criteria for B/T treatment, based on (1) the concept of the potential risk estimated by the hazard index for long-term tendency based on ALI (2) the concept of the relative dose factor related to the adsorbed migration rate transferred through ground water, and (3) the concept of the decay acceleration factor, the burning and/or transmutation characteristics for recycle B/T treatment. (author)

  6. Recoil mixing in high-fluence ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littmark, U.; Hofer, W.O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of recoil mixing on the collection and depth distribution of implanted projectiles during high-fluence irradiation of a random solid is investigated by model calculations based on a previously published transport theoretical approach to the general problem of recoil mixing. The most pronounced effects are observed in the maximum implantable amount of projectiles and in the critical fluence for saturation. Both values are significantly increased by recoil mixing. (Auth.)

  7. Transmutation Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.; Kim, Y. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The spent fuel coming from the PWR is one of the most difficult problems to be solved for the continuous use of nuclear power. It takes a few million years to be safe under the ground. Therefore, it is not easy to take care of the spent fuel for such a long time. Transmutation technology is the key technology which can solve the spent fuel problem basically. Transmutation is to transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides in the spent fuel into short-lived or stable nuclide through nuclear reactions. The long-lived radioactive nuclides can be TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Although the transmutation technology does not make the underground disposal totally unnecessary, the period to take care of the spent fuel can be reduced to the order of a few hundred years. In addition to the environmental benefit, transmutation can be considered to recycle the energy in the spent fuel since the transmutation is performed through nuclear fission reaction of the TRU in the spent fuel. Therefore, transmutation technology is worth being developed in economical aspect. The results of this work can be a basis for the next stage research. The objective of the third stage research was to complete the core conceptual design and verification of the key technologies. The final results will contribute to the establishment of Korean back end fuel cycle policy by providing technical guidelines.

  8. Waste transmutation: perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1997-01-01

    After the introduction on the source and nature of nuclear waste, this lecture analyzes the different methods proposed to transmute long-lived isotopes into stable or short-lived isotopes. It is shown that direct methods (photonuclear reactions, spallation, muon catalyzed fusion) do not lead to a sufficient transmutation rate within a reasonable cost. Only the use of hybrid systems, fusion-fission or spallation-fission, can be foreseen. (author)

  9. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  10. Transmutation potential of reactor WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, P.; Sebian, V.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical evaluation of WWER-440 transmutation potential by HELIOS - code is presented. Transmutation method proposal comprising special transmutation pins, combined FA and simple reprocessing is described. Transmutation efficiency of the method is characterized (Authors)

  11. Development of long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology -Development of nuclear transmutation technology-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Chan; Jung, Woo Tae; Koh, Duk Joon; Kim, Jung Doh; Kil, Choong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Based on the performance assessment of current reactor nuclear design codes, CASMO-3, LEOPARD, CITATION could be used for the simulation of transmutation, but further improvements are required on the reliability of cross sections of MA or FP and the accuracy of burnup model. Our simulation results based on the calculation by using CASMO-3 and NEM-3D (developed at Seoul National University) showed that transmutation efficiency for Am was high but Np and Cm elements were found to be hard to transmute. In our calculation, micro depletion calculations with burnup variation were done separately. Possibility of MA and FP transmutation with hard and fast neutrons was reported to be greater but detail calculation will be done in next year. 44 figs, 31 tabs, 17 refs. (Author).

  12. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  13. Recoiling D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shin

    2005-01-01

    We propose a new method to describe a recoiling D-brane that is elastically scattered by closed strings in the nonrelativistic region. We utilize the low-energy effective field theory on the worldvolume of the D-brane, and the velocity of the D-brane is described by the time derivative of the expectation values of the massless scalar fields on the worldvolume. The effects of the closed strings are represented by a source term for the massless fields in this method. The momentum conservation condition between the closed strings and the D-brane is derived up to the relative sign of the momentum of the D-brane

  14. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu

    1999-01-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  15. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  16. Design and commissioning of a timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.; Fallis, J.; Hutcheon, D.; Olchanski, K.; Ruiz, C.; Akers, C.; Connolly, D.

    2014-01-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product (γ-ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON, which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. Here we report on the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, including the hardware, trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm, and live time considerations. We also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the E c.m. = 1113 keV resonance in the 20 Ne(p, γ) 21 Na radiative proton capture reaction. (orig.)

  17. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. III. Transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, J.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-07-01

    Transmutation of the long-lived nuclides contained in fuel cycle wastes has been suggested as a means of reducing the long-term toxicity of the wastes. A comprehensive program to evaluate the feasibility and incentives for recovering the actinides from wastes (partitioning) and transmuting them to short-lived or stable nuclides has been in progress for 3 years under the direction of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report constitutes the final assessment of transmutation in support of this program. Included are (1) a summary of recent transmutation literature, (2) a generic evaluation of actinide transmutation in thermal, fast, and other transmutation devices, (3) a preliminary evaluation of 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation, and (4) a characterization of a pressurized-water-reactor fuel cycle with and without provisions for actinide recovery and transmutation for use in other parts of the ORNL program. The principal conclusion of the report is that actinide transmutation is feasible in both thermal and fast reactors, subject to demonstrating satisfactory fuel performance, with relatively little impact on the reactor. It would also appear that additional transmutation studies are unwarranted until a firm decision to proceed with actinide transmutation has been made by the responsible authorities

  18. Transmutations for Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Boumenir

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and representation of transmutations, also known as transformation operators, for strings. Using measure theory and functional analytic methods we prove their existence and study their representation. We show that in general they are not close to unity since their representation does not involve a Volterra operator but rather the eigenvalue parameter. We also obtain conditions under which the transmutation is either a bounded or a compact operator. Explicit examples show that they cannot be reduced to Volterra type operators.  

  19. Accelerator-based systems for plutonium destruction and nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Accelerator-base systems are described that can eliminate long-lived nuclear materials. The impact of these systems on global issues relating to plutonium minimization and nuclear waste disposal can be significant. An overview of the components that comprise these systems is given, along with discussion of technology development status and needs. A technology development plan is presented with emphasis on first steps that would demonstrate technical performance

  20. Transmutation blanket design for a Tokamak system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Barros, Graiciany de P.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A. Fortini; Costa, Antonella L.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-critical advanced reactor with a D-T fusion neutron source based on Tokamak technology is an innovative type of nuclear system. Due to the high quantity of neutrons produced by fusion reactions, it could be well spent in the transmutation process of the transuranic elements. Nevertheless, to achieve a successful transmutation, it is necessary to know the neutron fluence along the radial axis and its characteristics. In this work, it evaluated the neutron flux and interaction frequency along the radial axis changing the material of the first wall. W-alloy, beryllium and the combination of both were studied and regions more suitable to transmutation were determined. The results demonstrated that the better zone to place a transmutation blanket is limited by the heat sink and the shield block. Material arrangements W-alloy/W-alloy and W-alloy/Beryllium would be able to hold the requirements of high fluence and hardening spectrum needed to transuranic transmutation. The system was simulated using the MCNP5 code, the ITER Final Design Report, 2001, and the FENDL/MC-2.1 nuclear data library. (author)

  1. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, C.; Rosales, J.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Perez-Navarro, A.; Escriva, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Ingenieria Energetica; Abanades, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  2. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.; Rosales, J.; Garcia, L.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Escriva, A.; Abanades, A.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  3. A Study on the Kinetic Characteristics of Transmutation Process Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Doh Hyung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the transient heat transfer characteristics of liquid mental as the coolant used in accelerator-driven transmutation process reactor which is related the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclide. At current stage, the accelerator-driven transmutation process is investigated as the most appropriate method among many transmutation process methods. In this study, previous research works are investigated especially about the thermal hydraulics and kinetic behavior of coolant material including heat transfer of coolant in transmutation process reactor. A study on the heat transfer characteristics of liquid metal is performed based on the thermal hydraulic kinetic characteristics of liquid metal reactor which uses liquid metal coolant. Based on this study, the most appropriate material for the coolant of transmutation reactor will be recommended. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  4. Status of CINDER and ENDF/B-V based libraries for transmutation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; LaBauve, R.J.; Battat, M.E.; Wessol, D.E.; Perry, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The CINDER codes and their data libraries are described, and their range of calculational capabilities are described using documented applications. The importance of ENDF/B data and the features of the ENDF/B-IV and ENDF/B-V fission-product and actinide data files are emphasized. The actinide decay data of ENDF/B-V, augmented by additional data from available sources, are used to produce average decay energy values and neutron source values from sponteneous fission, (α,n) and delayed neutron emission for 144 actinide nuclides that are formed in reactor fuel. The status and characteristics of the CINDER-2 code is described, along with a brief description of more well known code versions; a review of the status of new ENDF/B-V based libraries for all versions is presented

  5. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO 2 -ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 . It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO 2 content. The Cm 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO 1.5 , the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 ±0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO 1.5 , a pyrochlore oxide - Cm 2 Zr 2 O 7 - is formed (a = 10.63 ±0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  6. Scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in the framework of the French Act on Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Meyer, M.; Tiphine, M.; Girieud, R.; Eschbach, R.; Chabert, C.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Favet, D.; Arslan, M.; Caron-Charles, M.; Carlier, B.; Lefevre, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French Act on Waste Management, options of minor actinides (MA) transmutation are studied, based on several scenarios of sodium fast reactor deployment. Basically, one of these scenarios considers the deployment of a 60 GWe SFR fleet in two steps (20 GWe from 2040 to 2050 and 40 GWe, as well as, from 2080 to 2100). For this scenario, the advantages and drawbacks of different transmutation options are evaluated: - transmutation of all minor actinides or only of americium; - transmutation in homogeneous mode (MA bearing fuel in all the core or just in the outer core) or in heterogeneous mode (MA bearing radial blankets). Scenarios have been optimised to limit the impacts of MA transmutation on the cycle: - reduction of the initial MA content in the core in the case of transmutation in homogeneous mode to reduce the impact on reactivity coefficients; - reduction of the number of rows of blankets and fuel decay heat in the case of transmutation in heterogeneous mode. The sensitivity of transmutation options to cycle parameters such as the fuel cooling time before transportation is also assessed. Thus, the transmutation of only americium in one row of radial blankets containing initially 10 pc % Am and irradiated during the same duration as the standard fuel assemblies appears to be a suitable solution to limit the transmutation impacts on fuel cycle and facilities. A comparison of results obtained with MA transmutation in dedicated systems is also presented with a symbiotic scenario considering ADS (accelerator-driven system) deployment to transmute MA together with a SFR fleet to produce energy. The MA inventory within the cycle is higher in the case of transmutation in ADS than in the case of transmutation in SFR. Considering the industrial feasibility of MA transmutation, it appears important to study 'independently' SFR deployment and MA transmutation. Consequently, scenarios of progressive introduction of MA options are assessed

  7. Transmutation of americium and curium incorporated in zirconia-based host materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raison, P.E. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles; Haire, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Presented are studies involving the incorporation of americium and curium in zirconia-based materials. First explored was the pseudo ternary system AmO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was determined that selected Y-CSZ materials can incorporate significant quantities of americium oxide and remain cubic single-phase. The cell parameters of these fluorite-type products were established to be linear with the AmO{sub 2} content. The Cm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} system was also investigated. It was found that at 25 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, the Cm(III) stabilized zirconia in its cubic form (a = 5.21 {+-}0.01 Angstrom). At higher and lower concentrations, diphasic materials were encountered. At 50 mol% of CmO{sub 1.5}, a pyrochlore oxide - Cm{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} - is formed (a = 10.63 {+-}0.02 Angstrom). (author)

  8. High flux transmutation of fission products and actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Kiselev, G.; Myrtsymova, L.

    2001-01-01

    Long-lived fission products and minor actinides accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of power reactors comprise the major part of high level radwaste. Their incineration is important from the point of view of radwaste management. Transmutation of these nuclides by means of neutron irradiation can be performed either in conventional nuclear reactors, or in specialized transmutation reactors, or in ADS facilities with subcritical reactor and neutron source with application of proton accelerator. Different types of transmutation nuclear facilities can be used in order to insure optimal incineration conditions for radwaste. The choice of facility type for optimal transmutation should be based on the fundamental data in the physics of nuclide transformations. Transmutation of minor actinides leads to the increase of radiotoxicity during irradiation. It takes significant time compared to the lifetime of reactor facility to achieve equilibrium without effective transmutation. High flux nuclear facilities allow to minimize these draw-backs of conventional facilities with both thermal and fast neutron spectrum. They provide fast approach to equilibrium and low level of equilibrium mass and radiotoxicity of transmuted actinides. High flux facilities are advantageous also for transmutation of long-lived fission products as they provide short incineration time

  9. The Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faton Merovci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution the so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull distribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking the generalized inverseWeibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, and moment generating function of the new distribution are derived. We propose the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the flexibility of the transmuted version versus the generalized inverse Weibull distribution.

  10. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed.

  11. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L.

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed

  12. Neutron transmutation doping of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mireshghi, A.

    1989-01-01

    After a brief review of the theoretical bases for Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) process, the equations necessary for calculation of doped crystal resistivity (p) in terms of parameters of irradiation, such as time and neutron flux, are derived. The procedure for production of NTD-Si is described, important considerations are outlined and the advantages and applications are introduced. Also, an assessment is made of the practicality of using AEOI Research Reactor thermal neutron irradiation facilities for production of NTD-Si, which is concluded to be possible at reactor nominal operation conditions

  13. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schapira, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program [fr

  14. Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)

  15. D0-brane recoil revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [California Institute of Technology 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakamura, Shin [Physics Department, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    One-loop string scattering amplitudes computed using the standard D0-brane conformal field theory (CFT) suffer from infrared divergences associated with recoil. A systematic framework to take recoil into account is the worldline formalism, where fixed boundary conditions are replaced by dynamical D0-brane worldlines. We show that, in the worldline formalism, the divergences that plague the CFT are automatically cancelled in a non-trivial way. The amplitudes derived in the worldline formalism can be reproduced by deforming the CFT with a specific 'recoil operator', which is bilocal and different from the ones previously suggested in the literature.

  16. A gun recoil system employing a magnetorheological fluid damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z C; Wang, J

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to design and control a full scale gun recoil buffering system which works under real firing impact loading conditions. A conventional gun recoil absorber is replaced with a controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper. Through dynamic analysis of the gun recoil system, a theoretical model for optimal design and control of the MR fluid damper for impact loadings is derived. The optimal displacement, velocity and optimal design rules are obtained. By applying the optimal design theory to protect against impact loadings, an MR fluid damper for a full scale gun recoil system is designed and manufactured. An experimental study is carried out on a firing test rig which consists of a 30 mm caliber, multi-action automatic gun with an MR damper mounted to the fixed base through a sliding guide. Experimental buffering results under passive control and optimal control are obtained. By comparison, optimal control is better than passive control, because it produces smaller variation in the recoil force while achieving less displacement of the recoil body. The optimal control strategy presented in this paper is open-loop with no feedback system needed. This means that the control process is sensor-free. This is a great benefit for a buffering system under impact loading, especially for a gun recoil system which usually works in a harsh environment. (paper)

  17. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  18. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  19. Transmutations across hierarchical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    The development of large-scale ecological models depends implicitly on a concept known as hierarchy theory which views biological systems in a series of hierarchical levels (i.e., organism, population, trophic level, ecosystem). The theory states that an explanation of a biological phenomenon is provided when it is shown to be the consequence of the activities of the system's components, which are themselves systems in the next lower level of the hierarchy. Thus, the behavior of a population is explained by the behavior of the organisms in the population. The initial step in any modeling project is, therefore, to identify the system components and the interactions between them. A series of examples of transmutations in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are presented to show how and why changes occur. The types of changes are summarized and possible implications of transmutation for hierarchy theory, for the modeler, and for the ecological theoretician are discussed

  20. Transmutation in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Buiron, Laurent; Mignot, Gérard; Palhier, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future prospects for incorporating Am in ASTRID: → Potential to demonstrate the minor actinide transmutation on an industrial scale in the CFV V1 core of ASTRID: • Homogeneous concept: 2% of Am in a standard fuel; • Heterogeneous concept: 10% on UO 2 in the radial blanket. • The objective of ensuring a balance in the Am (and total minor actinides) flow in the ASTRID fuel cycle may be obtained without any impact on the design of the core and handling systems for the management of the new and spent fuel subassemblies. • Several experimental phases in ASTRID to implement different transmutation scenarios using homogeneous and heterogeneous concepts. ⇒ the availability of facilities involved in the ASTRID material cycles

  1. Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, E.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses

  2. ZZ RECOIL/B, Heavy Charged Particle Recoil Spectra Library for Radiation Damage Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Amburgey, J.D.; Greene, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Format: GAM-II group structure; Number of groups: 104 neutron and Recoil-energy groups; Nuclides: Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, B-10, Cu, B-11, Zr, N, Nb, Li-6, Mo, Li-7, Ta (Data for Ta-181,Ta-182), O, Origin: ENDF/B-IV cross-section data. A heavy charged-particle recoil data base (primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra) and an analysis program have been created to assist experimentalists in studying, evaluating, and correlating radiation-damage effects in different neutron environments. Since experimentally obtained controlled thermo-nuclear-reactor-type neutron spectra are not presently available, the data base can be extremely useful in relating currently obtainable radiation damage to that which is anticipated in future fusion devices. However, the usefulness of the data base is not restricted to just CTR needs. Most of the elements of interest to the radiation-damage community and all neutron reactions of any significance for these elements have been processed, using available ENDF/B-IV cross-section data, and are included in the data base. Calculated data such as primary recoil spectra, displacement rates, and gas-production rates, obtained with the data base, for different radiation environments are presented and compared with previous calculations. Primary neutrons with energies up to 20 MeV have been considered. The elements included in the data base are listed in Table I. All neutron reactions of significance for these elements (i.e., elastic, inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,sigma), (n,gamma), etc.,) which have cross sections available from ENDF/B-IV have been processed and placed in the data base. Table I - Elements Included in Charged-Particle Recoil Data Base: Al, W, Ti, Pb, V, Mg, Cr, Be, Mn, C, Fe, Au, Co, Si, Ni, 10 B, Cu, 11 B, Zr, N, Nb, 6 Li, Mo, 7 Li, Ta (Data for Ta 181 ,Ta 182 ), O. 2 - Method of solution: The neutron

  3. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E., E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.h [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  4. Energy and depth resolution in elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic recoil coincidence spectrometry was implemented into the analytical ion beam simulation program DEPTH. In the calculations, effective detector geometry and multiple scattering effects are considered. Mott's cross section for the identical, spin zero particles is included. Spectra based on the individual detector signal and summing the energy of the recoiled and scattered particles originating from the same scattering events can also be calculated. To calculate this latter case, the dependency of the energy spread contributions had to be reconsidered.

  5. Enhancing TRU burning and Am transmutation in Advanced Recycling Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kochendarfer, Richard A.; Moriwaki, Hiroyuki; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → This ARR is an oxide fueled sodium cooled reactor based on innovative technologies to destruct TRU. → TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11). → Am transmutation core can transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, adding uranium free AmN blanket to TRU burning core. → The TRU burning core improves TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core. → The Am transmutation core can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable. - Abstract: This paper presents about conceptual designs of Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) focusing on enhancement in transuranics (TRU) burning and americium (Am) transmutation. The design has been conducted in the context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) seeking to close nuclear fuel cycle in ways that reduce proliferation risks, reduce the nuclear waste in the US and further improve global energy security. This study strives to enhance the TRU burning and the Am transmutation, assuming the development of related technologies in this study, while the ARR based on mature technologies was designed in the previous study. It has followed that the provided TRU burning core is designed to burn TRU at 28 kg/TW th h, by adding moderator pins of B 4 C (Enriched B-11) and the Am transmutation core will be able to transmute Am at 34 kg/TW th h, by locating Am blanket of AmN around the TRU burning core. It indicates that these concepts improve TRU burning by 40-50% than the previous core and can transmute Am effectively, keeping the void reactivity acceptable.

  6. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, A; Buck, R

    2000-01-01

    radioactive elements into other radioactive isotopes with much shorter half-lives. Transmutation of both RNW components using neutrons has been discussed and studied over the past four decades. Most transmutation studies have examined the feasibility of using neutron-induced reactions where the neutrons would be provided by accelerator-based spallation neutron sources, tokamak fusion reactors, sub-critical fission reactors and other novel concepts. Studies have shown that all proposed transmutation processes to treat RNW using neutron reactions are deficient or marginal at best from the point of view of energy consumption and/or cost. We suggest an alternative approach that has not been considered to date: the transmutation of RNW elements using high-energy photons or gamma rays. The photo-disintegration of RNW may provide an effective way to treat reprocessed waste; waste that has been chemically separated or the residual waste left over after neutron processing. Photo-disintegration is attractive in that any isotope can be transmuted. This approach is now potentially practical because of the development of micropole undulators (MPUs) that allow us to use small storage rings to economically generate photons with gamma-ray energies and to tune these ''gamma rays'' to the peak of the cross-section resonance for various RNW elements. Because the cross sections for all RNW nuclei have a broad peak with the maximum in the 12-18 MeV range, a single MPU could be used to treat both actinide and fission fragment components of RNW. The goal of this study is to make estimates of the reaction rates and energy efficiency of the transmutation of typical RNW elements using gamma rays to establish whether or not gamma-ray transmutation should be examined as a viable alternative solution to RNW warranting further study

  7. Fast reactor core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Koji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Itooka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fast Reactor (FR) core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency were conducted. A heterogeneous MA loaded core was designed based on the 1000MWe-ABR breakeven core. The heterogeneous MA loaded core with Zr-H loaded moderated targets had a better transmutation performance than the MA homogeneous loaded core. The annular pellet rod design was proposed as one of the possible design options for the MA target. It was shown that using annular pellet MA rods mitigates the self-shielding effect in the moderated target so as to enhance the transmutation rate

  8. Partitioning and Transmutation: IAEA Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, U.; Monti, S.; )

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The importance of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) processes for sustaining nuclear energy growth in the world has been realised in several countries across the world. P and T processes aim at separation and recycling of actinides including minor actinides (MAs) from the spent fuel or high-level liquid waste. The objective of these processes include reuse of separated fissile materials from spent nuclear fuels to obtain energy, enhance resource utilisation, reduce the disposal of toxic radio-nuclides and improve long-term performance of geological repositories. R and D programmes have been launched in many of the Member States to develop advanced partitioning process based on either aqueous or pyro to recover MAs along with other actinides as well as automated and remote techniques for manufacturing fuels containing MAs for the purpose of transmuting them either in fast reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. A number of Member States have been also developing such transmutation systems with the aim to construct and operate demo plants and prototypes in the next decade. The International Atomic Energy Agency has a high priority for the activities on partitioning and transmutation and regularly organises conferences, workshops, seminars and technical meetings in the areas of P and T as a part of information exchange and knowledge sharing at the international level. In the recent past, the Agency organised two technical meetings on advanced partitioning processes and actinide recycle technologies with the objective of providing a common platform for the scientists and engineers working in the areas of separation of actinides along with MAs from spent nuclear fuels and manufacturing of advanced fuels containing MAs in order to bridge the technological gap between them. In 2010, the Agency concluded a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) related to Assessment of Partitioning Processes. The Agency also conducted a first CRP on

  9. Chemical effects of fission recoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisels, G.G.; Freeman, J.P.; Gregory, J.P.; Richardson, W.C.; Sroka, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The production of nitrogen from nitrous oxide at high density was employed to investigate the energy deposition efficiency of fission recoils produced from fission of U 235 in uranium-palladium foils clad with platinum. Nitrogen production varied linearly with fission recoil dose from 1.1 x 10 20 to 9.0 x 10 20 eV, and was independent of density between 12.5 and 127.5 g l -1 N 2 O. 16.2 +- 0.8% of the fission recoil energy was deposited external to the foil. Electron microprobe analysis showed some unevenness of new foil and polymer buildup on the surface after irradiation of ethylene-oxygen mixtures. Subsequent irradiation in the presence of nitrous oxide restored some of the original efficiency. This is ascribed to chemical oxidation of the polymer induced by reactive intermediates produced from nitrous oxide. (author)

  10. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1995-01-01

    Accelerators can play a role in the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste: an alternative to the storage in deep underground repositories might transmuting long-lived elements into stable or short-lived ones in subcritical systems driven by spallation neutrons. These neutrons would be produced by a high intensity, intermediate energy proton accelerator irradiating a heavy target. Similar systems have also been proposed to produce energy with a minimized waste inventory. Since a good knowledge of the spallation process is essential for designing and optimizing the target-blanket assembly, new programmes aimed at studying spallation reactions are in progress. (author). 6 figs

  11. Transmuted Lindley-Geometric Distribution and its applications

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A functional composition of the cumulative distribution function of one probability distribution with the inverse cumulative distribution function of another is called the transmutation map. In this article, we will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking Lindley geometric distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. It will be show...

  12. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  13. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  14. A study on transmutation of LLFPs using various types of HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kora, Kazuki, E-mail: kora_k@nucl.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken (Japan); Nakaya, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hideaki [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken (Japan); Goto, Minoru; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Shimakawa, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashiibaraki-gun, Ibaraki, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We propose utilization of a variety of HTGRs for LLFP transmutation and storage. • The transmutation performance of four types of HTGRs was examined and compared. • Some types of HTGRs show preferable characteristics for LLFP transmutation. - Abstract: In order to investigate the potential of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) for transmutation of long-lived fission products (LLFPs), numerical simulation of four types of HTGRs were carried out. In addition to the gas-turbine high temperature reactor system “GTHTR300”, which is the subject of our previous research, a small modular HTGR plant “HTR50S” and two types of plutonium burner HTGRs “Clean Burn with MA” and “Clean Burn without MA” were considered. The simulation results show that an early realization of LLFP transmutation using a compact HTGR may be possible since the HTR50S can transmute fair amount of LLFPs for its thermal output. The Clean Burn with MA can transmute a limited amount of LLFPs. However, an efficient LLFP transmutation using the Clean Burn without MA seems to be convincing as it is able to achieve very high burn-ups and produce LLFP transmutation more than GTHTR300. Based on these results, we propose utilization of variety of HTGRs for LLFP transmutation and storage.

  15. Waste transmutation and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of transmuting radioactive wastes with reactors or accelerators is appealing. It has the potential of simplifying or eliminating problems of disposing of nuclear waste. The transmutation concept has been renewed vigorously at a time when national projects to dispose of high-level and transuranic waste are seriously delayed. In this period of tightening federal funds and program curtailments, skilled technical staffs are available at US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and contractors to work on waste transmutation. If the claims of transmutation can be shown to be realistic, economically feasible, and capable of being implemented within the US institutional infrastructure, public acceptance of nuclear waste disposal may be enhanced. If the claims for transmutation are not substantiated, however, there will result a serious loss of credibility and an unjust exacerbation of public concerns about nuclear waste. The paper discusses the following topics: how public acceptance is achieved; the technical community and waste disposal; transmutation and technical communication; transmutation issues; technical fixes and public perception

  16. Transmutation of radioactive wastes: how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarin, L.

    2004-01-01

    After having evoked the natural or spontaneous transmutation of natural or artificial radioactive atoms, the author describes how this transmutation is technically obtained, indicates the two main families of atoms present in a used nuclear fuel and for which transmutation is to be investigated (long-lived fission residues or products, and transuranium elements) and of which the behaviour in neutron fluxes must be explored. He discusses the industrial means required for artificial transmutation. He discusses the interest of performing such a transmutation

  17. A study for optimal transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.S.; Song, T.Y.; Shin, H.S.; Park, C.K.

    1996-01-01

    Couple of transmutation systems are being under investigation to design the optimal transmutation device. Several basic studies were performed for that objectives: (1) select the radioactive nuclides to be transmuted: (2) investigate the physical characteristics of each nuclide; (3) study the most favorable neutron energy environment for the transmutation. The existing LWR and LMFBR cores were found to be not a satisfiable ones in terms of transmutation rate itself. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Transmutation of minor actinides in a spherical torus tokamak fusion reactor, FDTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Zhang, G.S.; Deng, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a concept for the transmutation of minor actinide (MA) nuclear wastes based on a spherical torus (ST) tokamak reactor, FDTR, is put forward. A set of plasma parameters suitable for the transmutation blanket was chosen. The 2-D neutron transport code TWODANT, the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP/4B, the 1-D neutron transport and burn-up calculation code BISON3.0 and their associated data libraries were used to calculate the transmutation rate, the energy multiplication factor and the tritium breeding ratio of the transmutation blanket. The calculation results for the system parameters and the actinide series isotopes for different operation times are presented. The engineering feasibility of the center-post (CP) of FDTR has been investigated and the results are also given. A preliminary neutronics calculation based on an ST transmutation blanket shows that the proposed system has a high transmutation capability for MA wastes. (author)

  19. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  20. Transmutations of nuclear waste. Progress report RAS programme 1995: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruppelaar, H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Konings, R.J.M.; Bultman, J.H.; Dodd, D.H.; Franken, W.M.P.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Koning, A.J.; Wichers, V.A.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1995, which is the second year of the 4-year programme 1994-1997. An extensive listing of reports and publications from 1991 to 1995 is given. Highlights in 1995 were: -The completion of the European Strategy Study on Nuclear Waste Transmutation as a result of which the understanding of transmutation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products in thermal and fast reactors has been increased significantly. Important ECN contributions were given on Am, 99 Tc and 129 I transmutation options. Follow-up contracts have been obtained for the study of 100% MOX cores and accelerator-based transmutation. - Important progress in the evaluation of CANDU reactors for burning very large amounts of transuranium mixtures in inert matrices. - The first RAS irradiation experiment in the HFR, in which the transmutation of technetium and iodine was examined, has been completed and post-irradiation examination has been started. - A joint proposal of the EFTTRA cooperation for the 4 th Framework Programme of the EU, to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of americium in an inert matrix by an irradiation in the HFR, has been granted. - A bilateral contract with CEA has been signed to participate in the CAPRA programme, and the work in this field has been started. - The thesis work on Actinide Transmutation in Nuclear Reactor Systems was succesfully defended. New PhD studies on Pu burning in HTGR, on nuclear data for accelerator-based systems, and on the SLM-technique for separation of actinides were started. - A review study of the use of the thorium cycle as a means for nuclear waste reduction, has been completed. A follow-up of this work is embedded in an international project for the 4th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig./DG)

  1. The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's ((1) generic results; (2) multirecycle of plutonium; (3) an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems ((1) generic results; (2) homogeneous recycle of transuranics; (3) practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies

  2. Development of a fast reactor for minor actinides transmutation - (1) Overview and method development - 5092

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Usami, S.; Fujimura, K.; Takakuwa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan has launched a national project entitled 'technology development for the environmental burden reduction' in 2013. The present study is one of the studies adopted as the national project. The objective of the study is the efficient and safe transmutation and volume reduction of minor actinides (MA) with long-lived radioactivity and high decay heat contained in high level radioactive wastes by using sodium cooled fast reactors. We are developing MA transmutation core concepts which harmonize efficient MA transmutation with core safety. To accurately design the core concepts we have improved calculation methods for estimating the transmutation rate of individual MA nuclides, and estimating and reducing uncertainty of MA transmutation. The overview of the present project is first described. Then the method improvement is presented with numerical results for a minor-actinide transmutation fast reactor. The analysis is based on Monju reactor data. (authors)

  3. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. g-Factor measurements of first 2+ states of heavy Te isotopes based on nuclear spin de orientation for nuclei recoiling in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, M.; Pavan, J.; Stone, N.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Baktash, C.; Beene, J.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Bingham, C.R.; Dupak, J.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gross, C.J.; Kumbartzki, G.; Radford, D.C.; Stone, J.R.; Timlin, C.L.; Yu, C.-H.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that the recoil-in-vacuum (RIV) method can be used to determine the g-factor of the Coulumb excited first 2 + state of 132 Te. This was possible owing to advantages provided by CLARION (ORNL clover multi-detector array) and the segmented charged particle detector HyBall. Calibratory experiments were performed with 122,126,13 Te and a g-factor of 132 Te was deduced g = (+)0.35(5)

  5. U.S. advanced accelerator applications program: plans to develop and test waste transmutation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.; Bennett, D.; Arthur, E.; Cappiello, M.; Finck, P.; Hill, D.; Herczeg, J.; Goldner, F.

    2001-01-01

    The primary mission of the U.S. Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program is to establish a national nuclear technology research capability that can demonstrate accelerator-based transmutation of waste and conduct transmutation research while at the same time providing a capability for the production of tritium if required. The AAA Program was created during fiscal year 2001 from the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program and the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project. This paper describes the new AAA Program, as well as its two major components: development and testing of waste transmutation technologies and construction of an integrated accelerator-driven test facility (ADTF). (author)

  6. Nuclear Waste Separation and Transmutation Research with Special Focus on Russian Transmutation Projects Sponsored by ISTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Henri; Blomgren, Jan; Olsson, Nils

    2003-03-01

    for transmutation of long lived nuclear waste should be carried through on about the same level as present (5 MSEK/year). Support is also given for participation in international projects, primarily EU projects. The aim of the research is to provide knowledgeable experts in the field to assess the international research and development on transmutation. Swedish transmutation research, in general fundamental research, are performed at three universities CTH, KTH and Uppsala University with the essential support from SKB, SKI and Swedish Nuclear Technology Centre. The same university groups are also participating in a number of international transmutation related research projects, in particular, the projects under the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission. One of the main issues of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) in Moscow, which is financially supported by USA, EU, Russia, Japan, South Korea and Norway, is to reduce the proliferation risk by engaging experts at the former Soviet Union nuclear weapon laboratories in civilian research. This issue has been more pronounced since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the following threats from the same group of terrorists. At a workshop in Saltsjoebaden in 1991 on Accelerator Based Radioactive Waste Transmutation it was concluded that research on incineration and transmutation of reactor- and weapons grade plutonium was a civilian research area well suited to occupy the former USSR weapon experts with support from ISTC. The Expert Group on Transmutation/SKI Reference Group has chosen to initiate ISTC projects, which are dealing with fundamental technical issues for the accelerator driven transmutation concepts. The possibility of finding a Swedish research group as a counterpart to the Russian group has also played a role in the reference group's selection of projects. The Swedish research groups from CTH, KTH and UU are at present collaborating in 9 transmutation projects

  7. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  8. Submillisecond elastic recoil reveals molecular origins of fibrin fiber mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O'Brien, E Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Falvo, Michael R

    2013-06-18

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin's elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin's mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Submillisecond Elastic Recoil Reveals Molecular Origins of Fibrin Fiber Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E.; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin’s elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin’s mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375

  10. Neutron transmutation doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Jin

    2001-09-01

    HE OVERALL STATE OF THE ART RELATED WITH NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING(NCT) IS SURVEYED. ITEMS RELATED FOR THE REALIZATION OF NTD IN HANARO IS FOCUSED. IN ADDITION TO THE UNIFORM IRRADIATION AND ACHIEVING THE TARGET RESISTIVITY WHICH ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NTD, OTHER ITEMS SUCH AS THE FUNCTION AND ROLE OF NTD, MARKET TREND, QUALITY CONTROL ARE INCLUDED. MEANWHILE THE ONLY ADVANTAGE OF NTD IS ACHIEVING VERY HIGH UNIFORMITY OF DOPING, IT HAS SEVERAL DISADVANTAGES DUE TO THE USE OF NUCLEAR REACTOR. THEREFORE THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY HAS CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY TO REPLACE NTD, AND THE DEMAND OF NTD HAD BEEN DECREASED A LOT DURING 1990S. AS THE DEMAND FOR LARGE CRYSTAL INCREASES, HOWEVER, THE NTD DEMAND BEGAN TO INCREASE AGAIN FROM 2000. SINCE THE DEMAND FOR THE LARGER CRYSTAL WILL BE CONTINUED IN THE FUTURE, THE ROLE OF NTD WOULD BE NEEDED FOR THE LONGER TIME. IN ORDER TO MITIGATE THIS TREND OF DEMAND, THE REACTOR SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF ACCEPTING LARGE CRYSTAL AND THE EFFORT TO IMPROVE DOPING UNIFORMITY AND TO REDUCE THE COST SHOULD CONTINUED.

  11. Recoil 18F-chemistry in fluoroalkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, K.D. van der.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis describes the study of the chemical reactions of recoil 18 F-atoms in gaseous fluoromethanes and fluoroethanes. A brief survey of the organic hot atom chemistry is given in Chapter I. Chapter II deals with the experimental procedures used in this investigation. The irradiation facilities, the vapour phase radio-chromatography and the identification, including the synthesis of some fluorocarbons, are described in detail. Chapter III consists of a study on the applicability of perfluoropropene, C 3 F 6 , as scavenger for thermal 18 F-atoms and radicals. Chapters IV, V, VI and VII deal with 18 F-recoil chemistry in gaseous fluoroethanes, using H 2 S as scavenger. Chapter VIII is a short discussion on the hot 18 F-atom based production of 18 F-labeled organic compounds via decay of the intermediate 18 Ne. A target system is proposed for production of this isotope in high energy and ultra high flux particle beams, which possibly would become available in fast breeders and fusion reactors. (Auth.)

  12. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  13. Subcritical molten salt reactor with fast/intermediate spectrum for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyarev, Alexey M.; Feinberg, Olga S.; Kolyaskin, Oleg E.; Myasnikov, Andrey A.; Karmanov, Fedor I.; Kuznetsov, Andrey Yu.; Ponomarev, Leonid I.; Seregin, Mikhail B.; Sidorkin, Stanislav F.

    2011-01-01

    The subcritical molten-salt reactor for transmutation of Am and Cm with the fast-intermediate neutron spectrum is suggested. It is shown that ∼10 such reactor-burners is enough to support the future nuclear power based on the fast reactors as well as for the transmutation of Am and Cm accumulated in the spent fuel storages. (author)

  14. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP)

  15. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J H

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  16. Transmutation and accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Today, countries who are presently involved in nuclear energy are facing many challenges to maintain this option open for the next few decades. Among them, management of nuclear wastes produced in nuclear reactors and in fuel cycle operations has become a very strong environmental issue among the public. In most countries with sizeable commercial nuclear programs, deep geological disposal of ultimate highly active and long-lived nuclear wastes is considered as the reference long-term management scheme. But, many questions arise on the possibility to demonstrate that such wastes can be dealt in such a way as to protect the future generations and the environment. The characteristics of nuclear wastes, the various back end policies concerning spent fuels and the nuclear wastes long-term management options will be first described. Then recent proposals, based on transmutation, especially those using accelerator driven systems (ADS) and/or thorium will be presented. Finally, the possibility for the nuclear physics community to play a part in alleviating the nuclear wastes burden will be pointed out. (author)

  17. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  18. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  19. Transmutation Capability of a Once-Through Molten-Salt and Other Transmuting Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Lowenthal, M.; Barnes, D.; Kawasaki, D.; Kimball, D.; Matsumoto, H.; Sagara, H.; Vietez, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    A preliminary assessment is done of the transmutation characteristics of three reactor technologies: a multi-batch liquid metal (LM) cooled transmuter, a once-through molten-salt (MS) transmuter and a pebble bed (PB) transmuter. It was found that for the same fractional transmutation and same k eff drop with burnup (Δk effBU ), lead-bismuth offers smaller peak-to-average core power density, and it requires a smaller pumping power but a larger and heavier core than a sodium cooled transmuter. 99 Tc cannot effectively serve as a burnable absorber to reduce Δk effBU of LM transmuters. However, addition of thorium can greatly flatten k eff and almost double the fractional transmutation of the LWR spent fuel from ∼20% to ∼40%. If the 'once-through' MS transmuter is operated with continuous complete removal of fission products, it can achieve ∼85% fractional transmutation provided that the equilibrium concentration of actinides in the MS can reach 4 mole %. If the fission products are not actively removed, the fractional transmutation is reduced to ∼75%. The fractional transmutation of a PB transmuter can exceed 40%. More thorough analysis is required to better quantify the transmutation capability of the different transmuter technologies. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of transmutation performance of long-lived fission products with a super fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Haoliang; Han, Chiyoung; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ikejiri, Satoshi; Ishiwatari, Yuki

    2009-01-01

    The performance of the Super Fast Reactor for transmutation treatment of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) was evaluated. Two regions with soft neutron spectrum, which is of great benefit to the LLFPs transmutation, can be utilized in the Super Fast Reactor. First is in the blanket assembly due to the ZrH 1.7 layer which can slow down the fast neutrons. Second is in the reflector region of core like other metal-cooled fast reactors. The LLFPs selected of transmutation analysis include 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs discharged from LWR. Their isotopes, such as 127 I, 133 Cs, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were also considered. By loading the isotopes ( 99 Tc or 127 I and 129 I) in the blanket assembly and the reflector region simultaneously, the transmutation rates of 5.36%/GWe·y and 2.79%/GWe.y can be obtained for 99 Tc and 129 I, respectively. The transmuted amounts of 99 Tc and 129 I are equal to the outputs from 11.8 and 6.2 1000MWe-class PWRs. Because of the very low capture cross section of 135 Cs and the effect of other cesium isotopes, 135 Cs was loaded with three rings of assemblies in the reflector region to make the transmuted amount be larger than the yields of two 1000MWe-class PWRs. Based on these results, 99 Tc and 129 I can be transmuted conveniently and higher transmutation performance can be obtained by the Super Fast Reactor. However, the transmutation of 135 Cs is very difficult and the transmuted amount is less than that produced by the Super Fast Reactor. It turns out that the 135 Cs transmutation is a challenge not only for the Super Fast Reactor but also for other commercial fast reactors. (author)

  1. The Beta Transmuted Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Pal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a beta transmuted Weibull distribution, which contains a number ofdistributions as special cases. The properties of the distribution are discussed and explicit expressions are derived for the mean deviations, Bonferroni and Lorenz curves, and reliability. The distribution and moments of order statistics are also studied. Estimation of the model parameters by the method of maximum likelihood is discussed. The log beta transmuted Weibull model is introduced to analyze censored data. Finally, the usefulness of the new distribution in analyzing positive data is illustrated.

  2. Role of accelerators in the Czech national transmuter project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bem, P.; Kugler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of spent nuclear fuel from the so far operated PWRs has become a crucial issue in the Czech Republic. The first attempts to solve this problem by a final deposit of spent fuel into a suitable geological formation have been shown not to be fully acceptable. Therefore, the revival of nuclear transmutation technology application for nuclear incineration of nuclear waste and spent fuel in particular was welcomed. A realistic national project started to be developed in 1996. The four major nuclear research institutions of the country formed a consortium focused on an adoption of the world-wide experience and a development of a national project of a transmutation technology (experimental transmuter LA-0) or an efficient participation in the international effort in that field. Because the LA-0 transmuter concept of subcritical reactor with liquid fuel based on molten fluorides driven by an external neutron source has been adopted, the R and D effort has been focused on three regions. The first is devoted to the problem of a suitable neutron source, the second to a pre-conceptual design of a blanket for burning of actinides contained in spent fuel from PWRs. The third region is devoted to the utilisation of the experience from a specific field of dry (fluorine) reprocessing of spent fuel and a preparation of liquid fuel in the form of molten fluorides for the transmuter LA-0. (R.P.)

  3. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the US spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is an advanced waste management concept by which certain undesirable nuclides in spent fuel are first isolated (partitioned) and later destroyed (transmuted) in a nuclear reactor or other transmutation device. There are wide variabilities in the nuclide composition of spent fuel. This implies that there will also be wide variabilities in the transmutation device feed. As a waste management system, P-T must be able to accept (all) spent fuel. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e., the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure transuranic (TRU) nuclides recovered from discharged lightwater reactor (LWR) spent fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume invariant nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Characteristics Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactors). The variability of the infinite multiplication factor (k ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems

  4. The French partitioning-transmutation programme, assets and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.

    1997-01-01

    Partitioning-transmutation studies are covered by the 1991 French law concerning radioactive waste management. The programme is progressing with a dual approach: - What can be done in partitioning-transmutation? At what cost? In what timescale? - How can long-term gains and short-term disadvantages be qualified and quantified? The first approach concerns technical know-how. The studies based on today's technologies are continuing (reactors, fuels and targets, separation of radionuclides by solvents). The second approach involves an assessment activity, based firstly on studies of scenarios. Pertinent assessment criteria must be brought out. (authors)

  5. Nuclear waste transmutation and related innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main topics of the summer school meeting were 1. Motivation and programs for waste transmutation: The scientific perspective roadmaps; 2. The physics and scenarios of transmutation: The physics of transmutation and adapted reactor types. Impact on the fuel cycle and possible scenarios; 3. Accelerator driven systems and components: High intensity accelerators. Spallation targets and experiments. The sub critical core safety and simulation physics experiments; 4. Technologies and materials: Specific issues related to transmutation: Dedicated fuels for transmutation. Fuel processing - the role of pyrochemistry. Materials of irradiation. Lead/lead alloys. 5. Nuclear data: The N-TOF facility. Intermediate energy data and experiments. (orig./GL)

  6. Recoil momenta distributions in the double photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Liverts, E Z; Drukarev, E G; Mikhai, A I

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the distributions in recoil momenta for the high energy double photoionization of helium caused by quasifree mechanism. The distributions obtain local maxima at small values of the recoil momenta. This agrees with earlier predictions and recent experimental data. Angular correlations which reach the largest value for 'back-to-back' configuration of photoelectrons are also obtained.

  7. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1994: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Franken, W.M.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the status and progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1994, which is the first year of the second 4-year programme. This programme is outlined and a short progress report is given over 1994, including a listing of 23 reports and publications over the year 1994. Highlights of 1994 were: The completion of long-lived fission-product transmutation studies, the initiation of small-scale demonstration experiments in the HFR on Tc and I, the issue of reports on the potential of the ALMR (Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) for transmutation adn the participation and international cooperation on irradiation experiments with actinides in inert matrices. The remaining chapters contain more extended contributions on recent developments and selected topics, under the headings: Benefits and risks of partitioning and transmutation, Perspective of chemical partitioning, Inert matrices, Evolutionary options (MOX), Perspective of heavy water reactors, Perspective of fast burners, Perspective of accelerator-based systems, Thorium cycle, Fission-product transmutation, End scenarios, and Executive summary and recommendations. (orig.)

  8. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1994: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Franken, W M.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the status and progress of the Dutch RAS programme on `Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products` over the year 1994, which is the first year of the second 4-year programme. This programme is outlined and a short progress report is given over 1994, including a listing of 23 reports and publications over the year 1994. Highlights of 1994 were: The completion of long-lived fission-product transmutation studies, the initiation of small-scale demonstration experiments in the HFR on Tc and I, the issue of reports on the potential of the ALMR (Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor) for transmutation adn the participation and international cooperation on irradiation experiments with actinides in inert matrices. The remaining chapters contain more extended contributions on recent developments and selected topics, under the headings: Benefits and risks of partitioning and transmutation, Perspective of chemical partitioning, Inert matrices, Evolutionary options (MOX), Perspective of heavy water reactors, Perspective of fast burners, Perspective of accelerator-based systems, Thorium cycle, Fission-product transmutation, End scenarios, and Executive summary and recommendations. (orig.).

  9. Electronic Transmutation (ET): Chemically Turning One Element into Another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Lundell, Katie A; Olson, Jared K; Bowen, Kit H; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2018-03-08

    The concept of electronic transmutation (ET) depicts the processes that by acquiring an extra electron, an element with the atomic number Z begins to have properties that were known to only belong to its neighboring element with the atomic number Z+1. Based on ET, signature compounds and chemical bonds that are composed of certain elements can now be designed and formed by other electronically transmutated elements. This Minireview summarizes the recent developments and applications of ET on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. Examples on the ET of Group 13 elements into Group 14 elements, Group 14 elements into Group 15 elements, and Group 15 elements into Group 16 elements are discussed. Compounds and chemical bonding composed of carbon, silicon, germanium, phosphorous, oxygen and sulfur now have analogues using transmutated boron, aluminum, gallium, silicon, nitrogen, and phosphorous. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Calculations of different transmutation concepts. An international benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In April 1996, the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Expert Group on Physics Aspects of Different Transmutation Concepts launched a benchmark exercise to compare different transmutation concepts based on pressurised water reactors (PWRs), fast reactors, and an accelerator-driven system. The aim was to investigate the physics of complex fuel cycles involving reprocessing of spent PWR reactor fuel and its subsequent reuse in different reactor types. The objective was also to compare the calculated activities for individual isotopes as a function of time for different plutonium and minor actinide transmutation scenarios in different reactor systems. This report gives the analysis of results of the 15 solutions provided by the participants: six for the PWRs, six for the fast reactor and three for the accelerator case. Various computer codes and nuclear data libraries were applied. (author)

  11. New data libraries for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-06-01

    The fuel depletion code ORIGEN-S is often used for transmutation studies. It uses three different working libraries for actinides, fission products, and light elements, which contain decay data, cross-section data and fission product yields. These data have been renewed with data based on the JEF2.2 and the EAF3 evaluated files. Furthermore, data for 201 fission products have been added to the libraries. The new data libraries are particular suitable for parameter studies and other introductory calculations. For more accurate calculations, it is advised to regularly update the cross sections of the most important actinides and fission products during the burnup sequence. (orig.).

  12. New data libraries for transmutation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Hoogenboom, J.E. [Interfaculty Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The fuel depletion code ORIGEN-S is often used for transmutations studies. It uses three different working libraries for actinides, fission products, and light elements, which contain decay data, cross-section data and fission product yields. These data have renewed with data based on the JEF2.2 and the EAF3 evaluated files. Furthermore, data for 201 fission products have been added to the libraries. The new data libraries are particular suitable for parameter studies and other introductory calculations. For more accurate calculations, it is advised to regularly update the cross sections of the most important actinides and fission products during the burnup sequence. (author) 9 refs.

  13. Transmutation Studies of Radioactive Nuclides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adam, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2007), s. 125-150 ISSN 1310-0157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : transmutation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  14. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  15. Implantation, recoil implantation, and sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.

    1984-01-01

    Underlying ion-beam modification of surfaces is the more basic subject of particle-surface interaction. The ideas can be grouped into forward and backward features, i.e. those affecting the interior of the target and those leading to particle expulsion. Forward effects include the stopping of the incident particles and the deposition of energy, both governed by integral equations which are easily set up but difficult to solve. Closely related is recoil implantation where emphasis is placed not on the stopping of the incident particles but on their interaction with target atoms with resulting implantation of these atoms. Backward effects, all of which are denoted as sputtering, are in general either of collisional, thermal, electronic, or exfoliational origin. (Auth.)

  16. Nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons on a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Khaydarov, A.; Barsukova, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear reactions excited by recoil protons and of the detection possibility of the various chemical elements with the use of these secondary nucleus reactions were investigated. The recoil protons are produced on a nuclear reactor in the result of (n, p) inelastic and elastic scattering interaction of fast neutrons with nuclei of hydrogen. It is well known that the share of fast neutrons in energetic spectrum of reactor's neutrons in comparison with the share of thermal neutrons is small. . Consequently, the share of recoil protons produced in the result of fast neutron interaction with nuclei of light elements, capable to cause the nuclear reactions, is also small, des, due to Coulomb barrier of nuclei the recoil protons can cause the nuclear reactions only on nuclei of light and some middle elements. Our studies show that observable yields have radio nuclides excited in the result of nuclear reactions on Li, B, O, V and Cu. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proton activation analysis based on the application of secondary nuclear reactions is useful technique to determine large contents of various light and medium chemical elements. Detection limits for studied chemical elements are estimated better than 10 ppm

  17. Study on the LLFPs transmutation in a super-critical water-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haoliang; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Transmutation of LLFPs with a super-criticial water cooled fast reactor. → Transmutation of iodine and cesium without the isotopic separation. → The transmuted isotope was mixed with UO 2 to reduce the effect of self-shielding. → A weak neutron moderator Al 2 O 3 was used to suppress the creation of 135 Cs from 133 Cs. - Abstract: The performance of the super-critical water-cooled fast reactor (Super FR) for the transmutation treatment of long-lived fission products (LLFPs) was evaluated. Two regions with the soft neutron spectrum, which is of great benefit to the LLFPs transmutation, can be utilized in the Super FR. First region is in the blanket assembly due to the ZrH 1.7 layer which was utilized to slow down the fast neutrons to achieve a negative void reactivity. Second region is in the reflector region of core like other metal-cooled fast reactors. The LLFPs selected in the transmutation analysis include 99 Tc, 129 I and 135 Cs discharged from LWR or fast reactor. Their isotopes, such as 127 I, 133 Cs, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were also considered to avoid the separation. By loading the isotopes ( 99 Tc or 127 I and 129 I) in the blanket assembly and the reflector region simultaneously, the transmutation rates of 5.36%/GWe year and 2.79%/GWe year can be obtained for 99 Tc and 129 I, respectively. The transmuted amounts of 99 Tc and 129 I are equal to the yields from 11.8 and 6.2 1000 MWe-class PWRs. Because of the very low capture cross section of 135 Cs and the effect of other cesium isotopes, 135 Cs was loaded with three rings of assemblies in the reflector region to make the transmuted amount be larger than the yields of two 1000 MWe-class PWRs. Based on these results, 99 Tc and 129 I can be transmuted conveniently and higher transmutation performance can be obtained in the Super FR. However, the transmutation of 135 Cs is very difficult and the transmuted amount is less than that produced by the Super FR. It turns out that the

  18. Accelerator transmutation of waste economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric systems model of the accelerator transmutation of (nuclear) waste (ATW) is used to examine key system trade-offs and design drivers on the basis of unit costs. This model is applied primarily to a fluid-fuel blanket concept for an ATW that generates net electric power from the fissioning of spent commercial reactor fuel. An important goal of this study is the development of essential parametric trade-offs to aid in any future conceptual engineering design of an ATW that would burn spent commercial fuel and generate net electric power. As such, costing procedures and methodologies used to estimate and compare advanced nuclear power generation systems are applied. The cost of electricity required by an electrical power-generating ATW fueled with spent commercial fuels is generally found to be above that projected for other advanced fission power plants. The accelerator and the chemical plant equipment cost accounts are quantitatively identified as main cost drivers, with the capital cost of radio-frequency power dominating the former. Significant reductions of this cost differential are possible by increased blanket neutron multiplication, increased plant capacity, or increased thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. The benefits of reduced long-lived fission products and spent commercial fuel actinides provided by the ATW approach translate into a less tangible source of revenue to be provided by a charge that must be levied on the client fission power plants being serviced. The main goal of this study, however, is not a direct cost comparison but is instead a quantitative determination of cost-based sensitivity of key cost drivers and operational modes for an ATW concept that would address the growing spent commercial fuel problem; parametric results presented focus on this goal, and a specific ATW ''straw man'' is given to achieve this main objective

  19. Basic plan of partitioning and transmutation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo; Ozawa, Masaki

    2003-04-01

    Basic plan of partitioning and transmutation technology development has been made in more detail and concrete manner in terms of development goal, nuclides to be portioned and to be transmuted, and development schedule, based on the pre-evaluation results of the Research Evaluation Committee on Research and development of partitioning and transmutation technology for long life nuclides' held in August 2000. A step by step approach, consists of three steps, to reach the goal of partitioning and transmutation technology has been adopted under the recognition that the partitioning and transmutation technology development should be progressed steadily as a long term them. The first step is supposed to be able to attain within about 5 years by the present technology and on the extension of it. Such researches as collective separation of TRU, MA/Ln effective separation, and irradiation experiment of iodine and technetium. The second step is such a goal that is expected to be able to realize the engineering feasibility, within about 15 years, through the progress of science technology in future, although the engineering feasibility is not sufficiently foreseen at present. It will need revolutionary technology or breakthrough. Nuclides to be partitioned and to be transmuted have been selected in view points of 'radioactivity and radio-toxicity', 'geological repository', and 'effective utilization', corresponding to the each step of the development goal. Collaboration with other research organizations and with universities in the world should be pursued. Especially, such collaborations with France, with which information exchange on JOYO/PHENIX irradiation experiments is progressing, and with USA, which has recently developed positive activities in this field, are strongly expected. (author)

  20. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden; Separation och transmutation. Belysning av tillaempning i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundfelt, Bertil; Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    utilised by the Swedish market. According to the IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management it is required that the waste management should be performed such that undue burdens are not laid on future generations. The long time periods for implementing and performing transmutation imply a transfer of responsibility to future generations. Therefore, it can be questioned if transmutation as a strategy for the final management of the radioactive waste in a 'phase-out' scenario fulfills the requirements of the convention. Even if the separation and transmutation could be performed efficiently, waste that needs handling and final disposal will remain. Thus, transmutation is not an alternative to final disposal. Transmutation will require a continued production of nuclear power for in the order of 100 years or more. It could be a realistic alternative in a long-term perspective in which a significant fraction of the energy supply is based on new types of reactors replacing the current generation. Hence, long-term commitments to nuclear power requiring long-term political decisions are required.

  1. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  2. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  3. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kathe, E

    2002-01-01

    A principal challenge faced by the U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC Benet Laboratories in the design of armaments for lightweight future fighting vehicles with lethality overmatch is mitigating the deleterious effects of large caliber cannon recoil...

  4. Transmutation of fission products through accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Tani, S.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamura, O.

    1995-01-01

    The transmutation of fission products through particle accelerators has been studied under the OMEGA program. The photonuclear reaction has also been investigated to be applied to transmuting long-lived fission products, such as Cesium and Strontium, which have difficulties on reaction with neutrons due to its so small cross section. It is applicable for the transmutation if the energy balance can be improved with a monochromatic gamma rays in the range of the Giant Dipole Resonance generated through an excellent high current electron linear accelerator. The feasibility studies are being conducted on the transmutation system using it through an electron accelerator. (authors)

  5. Nuclear Wastes: Technologies for Separations and Transmutation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    .... The committee examines the currently used "once-through" fuel cycle versus different alternatives of separations and transmutation technology systems, by which hazardous radionuclides are converted...

  6. Spallation neutron source target design for radioactive waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The disposal of high-level radioactive waste has long been one of the most serious problems facing the nuclear industry. Transmutation of this waste through particle bombardment has been suggested numerous times as a possible method of enhancing the waste management process. Due to advances in accelerator technology, the feasibility of an accelerator based transmutation system has increased enough to allow serious investigation of this process. Therefore, in pursuit of this goal, an accelerator target was designed for use in an accelerator based transmutation system. The target design consists of an array of tantalum rods, cooled by liquid sodium, which are arranged in a cylindrical configuration 40 cm in diameter and 125 cm in height. Tantalum was chosen as the target material over tungsten, lead, bismuth, and a lead-bismuth alloy (55 w/o bismuth) due to a large neutron yield, low activation, low chemical toxicity, and the fact that it does not produce significant amounts of long-lived isotopes through spallation or activation. The target yields a neutron source of 29.7 neutrons/proton when exposed to a 1600 MeV proton beam, and is suitable for use with both thermal or fast spectrum transmutation systems

  7. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  8. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Landgren, A.; Spjuth, L.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Gudowski, W.

    1995-12-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  9. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 129 I, 99 Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,α), (n,γ), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm 3 are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system

  10. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management: supporting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Crookshanks, C.E.; McAdams, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Sims, H.E.; Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A study of partition and transmutation (P and T) has recently been reported: An Assessment of Partition and Transmutation Against UK Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/RAS/96.007). The prospects were assessed for real safety or financial gains being made through the future use of partition and transmutation within the United Kingdom in radioactive waste management. The assessment was made by AEA Technology, on behalf of the Department of the Environment. The assessment was partly based on the results of a number of studies described here. (Author)

  11. An improved transmutation method for quantitative determination of the components in multicomponent overlapping chromatograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xueguang; Yu, Zhengliang; Ma, Chaoxiong

    2004-06-01

    An improved method is proposed for the quantitative determination of multicomponent overlapping chromatograms based on a known transmutation method. To overcome the main limitation of the transmutation method caused by the oscillation generated in the transmutation process, two techniques--wavelet transform smoothing and the cubic spline interpolation for reducing data points--were adopted, and a new criterion was also developed. By using the proposed algorithm, the oscillation can be suppressed effectively, and quantitative determination of the components in both the simulated and experimental overlapping chromatograms is successfully obtained.

  12. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yixue; Wu Yican

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  13. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  14. Signal yields of keV electronic recoils and their discrimination from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cervantes, M.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Mahlstedt, J.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Ramírez García, D.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Saldanha, R.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Shockley, E.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    We report on the response of liquid xenon to low energy electronic recoils below 15 keV from beta decays of tritium at drift fields of 92 V /cm , 154 V /cm and 366 V /cm using the XENON100 detector. A data-to-simulation fitting method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo is used to extract the photon yields and recombination fluctuations from the experimental data. The photon yields measured at the two lower fields are in agreement with those from literature; additional measurements at a higher field of 366 V /cm are presented. The electronic and nuclear recoil discrimination as well as its dependence on the drift field and photon detection efficiency are investigated at these low energies. The results provide new measurements in the energy region of interest for dark matter searches using liquid xenon.

  15. D-particle Recoil Space Times and "Glueball" Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the properties of matter in a D-dimensional anti-de-Sitter-type space time induced dynamically by the recoil of a very heavy D(irichlet)-particle defect embedded in it. The particular form of the recoil geometry, which from a world-sheet view point follows from logarithmic conformal field theory deformations of the pertinent sigma-models, results in the presence of both infrared and ultraviolet (spatial) cut-offs. These are crucial in ensuring the presence of mass gaps in scalar matter propagating in the D-particle recoil space time. The analogy of this problem with the Liouville-string approach to QCD, suggested earlier by John Ellis and one of the present authors, prompts us to identify the resulting scalar masses with those obtained in the supergravity approach based on the Maldacena's conjecture, but without the imposition of any supersymmetry in our case. Within reasonable numerical uncertainties, we observe that agreement is obtained between the two approaches for a particular value of the ra...

  16. A recoil detector of Koala experiment at HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Huagen [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The concept of the luminosity detector for the PANDA experiment is based on measuring antiproton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region by 4 planes of HV-MAPS tracking detectors. The absolute precision is limited by the lack of existing data of the physics quantities σ{sub tot}, ρ and b describing the differential cross section as a function of squared 4-momentum transfer t in the relevant beam momentum region. Therefore, the so-called Koala experiment has been proposed to measure antiproton-proton elastic scattering. The goal of Koala experiment is to measure a wide range of t-distribution to determine the parameters σ{sub tot}, ρ and b. The idea is to measure the scattered beam antiprotons at forward angles by tracking detectors and the recoil target protons near 90 {sup circle} by energy detectors. In order to validate this method a recoil detector has been designed and built. Commissioning of the recoil detector by measuring proton-proton elastic scattering has been performed at COSY. Preliminary results of the commissioning are presented.

  17. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides in the fuel cycle of Brest-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatkin, A.V.; Orlov, V.V.; Filin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Transmutation of long-lived nuclides produced as a result of nuclear generation, should be set up proceeding from the principle of reasonable sufficiency, expressed as radiation equivalence between the radwaste sent to disposal and source natural uranium. In this case, introduction of fast reactors of new generation (such as BREST or other reactors based on similar philosophy) will resolve transmutation problems even with the thermal-to-fast reactor capacity ratio of 2:1. The authors of the 'Strategy of nuclear power development in Russia' foresee, and substantiate their prediction, that fast reactors of the new generation will account for no less than 2/3 of nuclear capacity in future large-scale nuclear power sector. Fast reactors will be the basis of a transmutation fuel cycle, which will remove the need of creating additional transmutation facilities. (author)

  18. Technical meeting on 'Review of solid and mobile fuels for partitioning and transmutation systems'. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The topics covered during the Meeting were divided into two Sessions. Session 1 - Qualification of Solid and Mobile Fuels delt with: Neutronic, fuel and material properties of a molten salt transmuter; and Preliminary analysis of transmutation fuels for KALIMER. Session 2 - Reactor Physics and Safety Characteristics of Transmutation Systems based on Solid and Mobile Fuel Types included the following: Activity in NEA for P and T area; IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation; The R and D activity in Brazil: A conceptual fast energy amplifier ADS cooled by helium double stata Th/U fuel cycle; Closed fuel cycle and contemporary tendencies of the nuclear facilities development; Current Russian activities in P and T area; Pyrochemical reprocessing and nuclear spent fuel disposal project; Fuel selection criteria specific for double stratum minor actinide burners.

  19. Evaluation of nuclides with closely spaced values of depletion constants in transmutation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.S.

    1977-01-01

    New method of calculating nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is developed in this thesis. Method is based on originally derived recurrence formulas for expansion series of depletion functions and on originally obtained, nonsingular, Bateman coefficients. Explicit expression for the nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is obtained. This expression can be used as it stands for arbitrary values of nuclides depletion constants. By computing hypothetical transmutation chains and neptunium series, method is compared with the Bateman analytical solution, with the approximate solutions and with the matrix exponential method. It comes out that the method presented in this thesis is suitable for calculating very long depletion chains even in the case of some closely spaced and/or equal values of nuclide depletion constants. Though, presented method is of great practical applicability in a number of nuclear physics problems that are dealing with the nuclide transmutations: starting from the studies of the stellar evolution up to the design of nuclear reactors (author) [sr

  20. Hydrogen analysis by elastic recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirira, J.; Trocellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    An absolute, quantitative procedure was developed to determine the hydrogen content and to describe its concentration profile in the near-surface region of solids. The experimental technique used was the elastic recoil detection analysis of protons induced by 4 He beam bombardment in the energy range <=1.8 MeV. The hydrogen content was calculated using a new recoil cross section expression. The analyses were performed in silicon crystals implanted with hydrogen at 10 keV. The implantation dose was evaluated with an accuracy of 10% and the hydrogen depth profile with that of +-10 nm around 200 nm. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Partitioning and Transmutation - Physics, Technology and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reactions can be effectively used to destroy radio toxic isotopes through transmutation processes transforming those isotopes into less radio toxic or stable ones Spent nuclear fuel, a mixture of many isotopes with some of them being highly radio toxic for many hundred thousands of years, may be effectively transmuted through nuclear reactions with neutrons. In a dedicated, well designed transmutation system one can, in principle, reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel to a level, which will require isolation from the biosphere for the period of time for which engineered barriers can be constructed and licensed (not more than 1-2 thousands of years). En effective transmutation process can not be achieved without a suitable partitioning. Only partitioning of the spent nuclear fuel into predetermined groups of elements makes possible an effective use of neutrons to transmute long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable one. However, most of the chemical separation/partitioning processes are element- not isotope-specific, therefore the transmutation of the elements with an existing isotope composition is a typical alternative for transmutation processes. Isotope-specific separation is possible but still very expensive and technologically not matured

  2. Impact of Transmutation Scenarios on Fuel Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturnin, A.; Duret, B.; Allou, A.; Jasserand, F.; Fillastre, E.; Giffard, F.X.; Chabert, C.; Caron-Charles, M.; Garzenne, C.; Laugier, F.

    2015-01-01

    Minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied in the frame of the French Sustainable Radioactive Waste Management Act of 28 June 2006. Transmutation scenarios supposed the introduction of a sodium-cooled fast reactor fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes for the minor actinides. Americium, neptunium and curium (MA) or americium alone (Am) can be transmuted together in a homogeneous way embedded in FR-MOX fuel or incorporated in MA or Am-Bearing radial Blankets (MABB or AmBB). MA transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while plutonium is being recycled in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed considering technical and economic criteria. Transportation needs for fresh and used transmutation fuels is one of these criteria. Transmutation fuels have specific characteristics in terms of thermal load and neutron emissions. Thermal, radiation and criticality constraints have been taken into account in this study to suggest cask concepts for routine conditions of transport, to estimate the number of assemblies to be transported in a cask and the number of annual transports. Comparison with the no transmutation option, i.e. management of uranium and plutonium in SFRs, is also presented. Regarding these matters, no high difficulties appear for assemblies with limited content of Am (homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes). When fuels contain curium, technical transport uncertainties increase because of the important heat release requiring dividing fresh fuels and technological innovations development (MABB and ADS). (authors)

  3. ZZ REAC-2, Nuclide Activation and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Flux library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group fluxes, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Cross Section library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group cross section, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Decay Data library: Format: special format, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). REAC2 calculates the change in composition of materials in a radiation field and related activation quantities. It is best suited to problems where many variables (e.g. materials, facilities or locations within facilities, power histories) are to be investigated. Where very accurate results are needed, the user must access the accuracy of the cross section base (e.g. source, flux weighting) as in the use of any neutronics code. REAC2 consists of three programs - SREAC, SLSTCOM, and SLIB. SREAC calculates the transmutation of nuclides in a radiation field. SLSTCOM reads the output file produced by SREAC and produces listings of

  4. Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

  5. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  6. Transmutation of long-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1994-01-01

    The time-accumulated dose related to technetium dominates the leakage doses in most scenarios for imperturbed geological disposal. If human intrusion into geologically stable repositories or other disturbances is taken into account, the actinides determine the maximum value of the expected individual dose rates of shorter storage times. Therefore actinides dominate the discussion on transmutation of nuclear waste. In principle current LWRs could be used for a massive transmutation of Tc and perhaps I. Fast reactors and HWRs have attractive potential with respect to transmutation in moderated assemblies. HWRs like CANDU have easy refuelling possibilities. (orig.)

  7. Neutronics design for a spherical tokamak fusion-transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Meigen; Feng Kaiming; Yang Bangchao

    2002-01-01

    Based on studies of the spherical tokamak fusion reactors, a concept of fusion-transmutation reactor is put forward. By using the one-dimension transport and burn-up code BISON3.0 to process optimized design, a set of plasma parameters and blanket configuration suitable for the transmutation of MA (Minor Actinides) nuclear waste is selected. Based on the one-dimension calculation, two-dimension calculation has been carried out by using two-dimension neutronics code TWODANT. Combined with the neutron flux given by TWODANT calculation, burn-up calculation has been processed by using the one-dimension radioactivity calculation code FDKR and some useful and reasonable results are obtained

  8. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  9. A study of nuclear recoil backgrounds in dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdale, Shawn S.

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the 1-1000 GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering off of nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating (alpha, n) yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and development

  10. Transmutation of transuranium elements in a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biss, Klaus Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The peaceful usage of nuclear energy by light and boiling water reactors is connected with a buildup of long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Compared to the direct disposal, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered as an effective way to reduce this waste in its quantity by converting it into short-lived radio nuclides. By that the long term radiotoxicity is reduced compared to direct disposal. Subcritical systems, which are powered by spallation processes for free neutron production to maintain the nuclear chain reaction, allow a target-oriented transmutation. As a subcritical system a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) for transmutation of transuranic elements has been modeled in this thesis to evaluate the reduction of the radio toxicity by P and T. The simulation of neutron-physical processes is based on the Monte Carlo computer program MCNPX. The development of an equilibrium core made it possible to study the transmutation and operating behavior for several fuel variations in a magnesium oxide matrix and develop a simplified burnup method. Americium as part of the fuel has a stabilizing effect on the neutron multiplication due to its conversion into plutonium during the operation. Thorium was investigated as an alternative matrix for the fuel in order to replicate the stabilizing effect of americium by the conversion of thorium in 233 U. By that a consistent operating cycle in the later P and T-process is ensured. Calculation of the nuclide composition at the end of a P and T-process leads to an expansion of the mathematical description of the mass reduction (transmutation efficiency) by the material located in the reactor. The achieved transmutation efficiency with the investigated ADS is 98.8 %. The transmutation time was examined with different operating strategies regarding the number, size and thermal power of use of transmutation facilities to determine the effort for the P and T-process depending on efficiency. It turns out

  11. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  12. INS gas-filled recoil isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, M.; Nomura, T.; Kawakami, H.

    1986-09-01

    The characteristics and performance of a small sized gas-filled recoil isotope separator recently made at INS are described. The total efficiency and the ΔBρ/Bρ values have been measured using low velocity 16 O, 40 Ar and 68 As ions and found to be 10 and 5 %, respectively. The Z-dependence of the mean charge is discussed. (author)

  13. Diffusion of transmutation isotope in YBaCuO ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkovich, R.Sh.

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion of a transmutation isotope generated in YBaCuO ceramics irradiated by high-energy charged particles is mathematically analyzed. The model is based on the assumption that copper isotope atoms created in subsurface layers of ceramic grains segregate at the grain boundaries in the course of subsequent annealing and then rapidly diffuse via intergranular regions in depth of the material and penetrate into the bulk of grains [ru

  14. Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

  15. Evaluation on transmutation performance of minor actinides with high-flux BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, M.B.; Kitamoto, A.; Taniguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of high-flux BWR (HFBWR) for burning and/or transmutation (B/T) treatment of minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP) was discussed herein for estimating an advanced waste disposal with partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The concept of high-flux B/T reactor was based on a current 33 GWt-BWR, to transmute the mass of long-lived transuranium (TRU) to short-lived fission products (SLFP). The nuclide selected for B/T treatment was MA (Np-237, Am-241, and Am-243) included in the discharged fuel of LWR. The performance of B/T treatment of MA was evaluated by a new function, i.e. [F/T ratio], defined by the ratio of the fission rate to the transmutation rate in the core, at an arbitrary burn-up, due to all MA nuclides. According to the results, HFBWR could burn and/or transmute MA nuclides with higher fission rate than BWR, but the fission rate did not increase proportionally to the flux increment, due to the higher rate of neutron adsorption. The higher B/T fraction of MA would result in the higher B/T capacity, and will reduce the units of HFBWR needed for the treatment of a constant mass of MA. In addition, HFBWR had a merit of higher mass transmutation compared to the reference BWR, under the same mass loading of MA

  16. Transmutation of 126Sn in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young; Saito, Masaki; Sagara, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The practical feasibility of 126 Sn transmutation in spallation targets of accelerator-driven systems was evaluated from the viewpoints of accumulation of radioactive spallation products and neutron production as well as transmutation amount of 126 Sn. A cylindrical liquid 126 Sn target whose length depends on proton beam energy was described, based on a Pb-Bi target design of accelerator-driven system being developed in JAEA. A proton beam of 1.5 GeV-20 mA was estimated to give the transmutation rate of 126 Sn 6.4 kg/yr, which corresponds to the amount of 126 Sn annually discharged in 27 LWRs of 1 GWt and 33 GWd/THM. The equilibrium radioactivity of spallation products would reach 9% of that of 126 Sn transmuted in the spallation target, and the equilibrium toxicity would be just 3%. Some parametric analyses showed that the effective half-life of 126 Sn could be reduced through a proper reduction of the target size. The 126 Sn target was calculated to produce 40 neutrons per proton of 1.5 GeV and give a neutron spectrum very similar to that of the reference Pb-Bi target. As a result, the transmutation of 126 Sn in the spallation target has a high feasibility in terms of better transmutation performance and comparable target performance. (author)

  17. FCRD Transmutation Fuels Handbook 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. It is, therefore, important to understand the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys, both with and without minor actinide additions. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U and Pu are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phase-transformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, and that general acceptance of results sometimes indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, and alloys of two or three of these elements. It contains information about phase diagrams and related information (including phases and phase transformations); heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy; thermal expansion; and thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In addition to presenting information about materials properties, it attempts to provide information about how well the property is known and how much variation exists between measurements. Although the handbook includes some references to publications about modeling

  18. Transmutation: The Roots of the Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Vladimir

    1995-01-01

    Examines the history of alchemical attempts at transmutation and classifies them by differing approaches and techniques. Traces the development of alchemy in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and compares alchemy with craftsmanship. (18 references) (DDR)

  19. Transmutation of Tc-99 in fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Li, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Transmutation of Tc-99 in three different types of fission reactors is considered: A heavy water reactor, a fast reactor and a light water reactor. For the first type a CANDU reactor was chosen, for the second one the Superphenix reactor, and for the third one a PWR. The three most promising Tc-99 transmuters are the fast reactor with a moderated subassembly in the inner core, a fast reactor with a non-moderated subassembly in the inner core, and a heavy water reactor with Tc-99 target pins in the moderator between the fuel bundles. Transmutation half lives of 15 to 25 years can be achieved, with yearly transmuted Tc-99 masses of about 100 kg at a thermal reactor power of about 3000 MW. (orig.)

  20. Separation of actinides and their transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, M.; Bathelier, M.; Cousin, M.

    1978-08-01

    Neutron irradiation of long-half-life actinides for transmutation into elements with shorter half-life is investigated as a means to reduce the long-term hazards of these actinides. The effectiveness of the method is analysed by applying it to fission product solutions from the first extraction cycle of fuel reprocessing plants. Basic principles, separation techniques and transmutation efficiencies are studied and discussed in detail

  1. Generation and validation of ORIGEN-S libraries for depletion and transmutation calculations based on JEF2.2 and EAF3 basic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogenboom, J.E. [Delft Univ. of Technol. (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.; Kloosterman, J.L. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The data libraries for light elements, actinides and fission products of the ORIGEN-S code for depletion and transmutation calculations in the SCALE4.1 computer code system have been updated with respect to cross-section data, radioactive-decay data and fission-product yield data using JEF2.2 as the basic data source and EAF3 as an additional source. This required the fission-product library to be extended with 201 new fission-product nuclides or isomeric states. The effect of the update of different quantities involved is evaluated with a burn-up benchmark. When ORIGEN-S is used as a stand-alone code, i.e. without regular update of cross-sections of the major nuclides due to changes in the neutron spectrum during burn-up, the results show appreciable differences in actinide and fission-product densities due to the cross-section update. The effects of updates of decay data and fission-product yields are generally small, but with noticeable exceptions. The update of fission and capture reaction energies gives a small but systematic change in actinide and fission-product concentration. The new ORIGEN-S libraries have also been converted for use with the SCALE4.2 package. (orig.)

  2. Generation and validation of ORIGEN-S libraries for depletion and transmutation calculations based on JEF2.2 and EAF3 basic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The data libraries for light elements, actinides and fission products of the ORIGEN-S code for depletion and transmutation calculations in the SCALE4.1 computer code system have been updated with respect to cross-section data, radioactive-decay data and fission-product yield data using JEF2.2 as the basic data source and EAF3 as an additional source. This required the fission-product library to be extended with 201 new fission-product nuclides or isomeric states. The effect of the update of different quantities involved is evaluated with a burn-up benchmark. When ORIGEN-S is used as a stand-alone code, i.e. without regular update of cross-sections of the major nuclides due to changes in the neutron spectrum during burn-up, the results show appreciable differences in actinide and fission-product densities due to the cross-section update. The effects of updates of decay data and fission-product yields are generally small, but with noticeable exceptions. The update of fission and capture reaction energies gives a small but systematic change in actinide and fission-product concentration. The new ORIGEN-S libraries have also been converted for use with the SCALE4.2 package. (orig.)

  3. Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET Using Recoil Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sahu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET, power conservation and utilization is an acute problem and has received significant attention from academics and industry in recent years. Nodes in MANET function on battery power, which is a rare and limited energy resource. Hence, its conservation and utilization should be done judiciously for the effective functioning of the network. In this paper, a novel protocol namely Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET using Recoil Technique (AOMDV-ER is proposed, which conserves the energy along with optimal network lifetime, routing overhead, packet delivery ratio and throughput. It performs better than any other AODV based algorithms, as in AOMDV-ER the nodes transmit packets to their destination smartly by using a varying recoil off time technique based on their geographical location. This concept reduces the number of transmissions, which results in the improvement of network lifetime. In addition, the local level route maintenance reduces the additional routing overhead. Lastly, the prediction based link lifetime of each node is estimated which helps in reducing the packet loss in the network. This protocol has three subparts: an optimal route discovery algorithm amalgamation with the residual energy and distance mechanism; a coordinated recoiled nodes algorithm which eliminates the number of transmissions in order to reduces the data redundancy, traffic redundant, routing overhead, end to end delay and enhance the network lifetime; and a last link reckoning and route maintenance algorithm to improve the packet delivery ratio and link stability in the network. The experimental results show that the AOMDV-ER protocol save at least 16% energy consumption, 12% reduction in routing overhead, significant achievement in network lifetime and packet delivery ratio than Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV, Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol life

  4. Ionization and scintillation of nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, J., E-mail: jrenner@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gehman, V.M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, T.; Nakajima, Y.; Nygren, D.; Oliveira, C.A.B.; Shuman, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Álvarez, V. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Borges, F.I.G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Cárcel, S. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Castel, J.; Cebrián, S. [Laboratorio de Física Nuclear y Astropartículas, Universidad de Zaragoza, Calle Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cervera, A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC & Universitat de València, Calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Conde, C.A.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); and others

    2015-09-01

    Ionization and scintillation produced by nuclear recoils in gaseous xenon at approximately 14 bar have been simultaneously observed in an electroluminescent time projection chamber. Neutrons from radioisotope α-Be neutron sources were used to induce xenon nuclear recoils, and the observed recoil spectra were compared to a detailed Monte Carlo employing estimated ionization and scintillation yields for nuclear recoils. The ability to discriminate between electronic and nuclear recoils using the ratio of ionization to primary scintillation is demonstrated. These results encourage further investigation on the use of xenon in the gas phase as a detector medium in dark matter direct detection experiments.

  5. Nudatra: nuclear data for transmutation in IP-Eurotrans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.M.; Koning, A.; Leray, S.; Plompen, A.; Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of NUDATRA, Domain 5 of the EU Integrated Project EUROTRANS (FI6W-CT-2004- 516520), is to improve and validate the nuclear data and simulation tools required for the development and optimisation of nuclear waste transmutation, ADS dedicated transmutation systems and the associated fuel cycle. Activities are essentially aimed at supplementing the evaluated nuclear data libraries and improving the reaction models for materials in transmutation fuels, coolants, spallation targets, internal structures, and reactor and accelerator shielding, relevant for the design and optimisation of the ETD and XT-ADS. These activities are distributed over four Work Packages: Sensitivity Analysis and Validation of Nuclear Data and Simulation Tools; Low- and Intermediate-energy Nuclear Data Measurements; Nuclear Data Libraries Evaluation and Low-intermediate Energy Models; and High-energy Experiments and Modelling.The main accomplishments expected from NUDATRA are: 1) new measurements and evaluations of Pb-Bi cross-sections, i.e. inelastic, (n,xn) and isomer branching ratios (Po production); 2) new measurements and evaluations for minor actinides particularly the capture in 243 Am and fission on 244 Cm; 3) improvement of TALYS as an evaluation tool and as an a priori model for the estimation of low- and intermediate-energy reaction cross-section; 4) high-energy model improvement based on measurements, particularly for the prediction of the spallation products, and gas (H, He) production cross-sections; 5) sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of ETD fuel cycle and related covariance issues. (authors)

  6. Multiple Tier Fuel Cycle Studies for Waste Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing (∼0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system. (authors)

  7. Multiple tier fuel cycle studies for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing (∼0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system

  8. The status of nuclear data for transmutation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Muir, D.W.; Young, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this point, the accurate description of transmutation products in a radiation environment is more a nuclear data problem than a code development effort. We have used versions of the CINDER code for over three decades to describe the transmutation of nuclear reactor fuels in radiation environments. The need for the accurate description of reactor neutron-absorption, decay-power, and decay-spectra properties have driven many AEC, ERDA, and DOE supported nuclear data development efforts in this period. The level of cross-section, decay, and fission-yield data has evolved from rudimentary to a comprehensive ENDF/B-VI library permitting great precision in reactor calculations. The precision of the data supporting reactor simulations provides a sturdy foundation for the data base required for the wide range of transmutation problems currently studied. However, such reactor problems are typically limited to neutron energies below 10 MeV or so; reaction and decay data are required for actinides of, say, 90 ≤ Z ≤ 96 neutron-rich fission products of 22 ≤ Z ≤ 72. The expansion into reactor structural materials and fusion systems extends these ranges in energy and Z somewhat. The library of nuclear data, constantly growing in breadth and quality with international cooperation, is now described in the following table

  9. Actinides transmutation - a comparison of results for PWR benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, Luiz H.

    2009-01-01

    The physical aspects involved in the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of minor actinides (MA) and fission products (FP) generated by reactors PWR are of great interest in the nuclear industry. Besides these the reduction in the storage of radioactive wastes are related with the acceptability of the nuclear electric power. From the several concepts for partitioning and transmutation suggested in literature, one of them involves PWR reactors to burn the fuel containing plutonium and minor actinides reprocessed of UO 2 used in previous stages. In this work are presented the results of the calculations of a benchmark in P and T carried with WIMSD5B program using its new cross sections library generated from the ENDF-B-VII and the comparison with the results published in literature by other calculations. For comparison, was used the benchmark transmutation concept based in a typical PWR cell and the analyzed results were the k∞ and the atomic density of the isotopes Np-239, Pu-241, Pu-242 and Am-242m, as function of burnup considering discharge of 50 GWd/tHM. (author)

  10. Self-triggering detectors for recoil nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.I.; Gasparyan, A.O.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid α-detectors consisting of wide gap spark chambers and signal α detectors are described. The investigations have been carried out with γ-beams of Yerevan Electron Synchrotron. The possibility of using such detectors in the experiments on particle photoproduction on gas helium with the determination of the interaction point, emission angle of the recoil nucleus and its energy by means of range measurement has been shown. It has been shown that self - triggering wide gap spark chamber allows to detect and measure the range of the recoil nuclei α-particles with energies Esub(α) > or approximately (1 - 2) Mev which correspond to momentum transfers apprxomation (10 -2 - 10 -3 ) (GeV/c) 2

  11. Commissioning of a proton-recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J.C.; Faught, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of neutron fluence spectra in fields from bare and heavy-water-moderated 252 Cf were made with a commercially available proton-recoil spectrometer (PRS) that covers 50 keV to 4.5 MeV. Data obtained from these measurements were compared with data from Bonner sphere spectrometry, Monte Carlo simulation and the open literature. Alterations to the input data file used in unfolding recoil-proton pulse-height distributions were made. Understanding the reasons for these changes and considering the effects of some of the results in an appreciation of the significance of parameters used in the unfolding. An uncertainty of 10% is estimated for values of fluence and ambient dose equivalent for the energy region covered by this PRS. (author)

  12. Sensitivity analysis of minor actinides transmutation to physical and technological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooyman, T.; Buiron, L.

    2015-01-01

    derived from this approach include the maximum neutron source and decay heat load acceptable at reprocessing and fabrication steps, which influence among other things the total minor actinides inventory, the overall complexity of the cycle and the size of the geological repository. Based on this analysis, a new methodology to assess transmutation strategies is proposed. (authors)

  13. Dama annual modulation from electron recoils

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma dark matter, which arises in dissipative dark matter models, can give rise to large annual modulation signals from keV electron recoils. Previous work has argued that the DAMA annual modulation signal might be explained in such a scenario. Detailed predictions are difficult due to the inherent complexities involved in modelling the halo plasma interactions with Earth bound dark matter. Here, we consider a simplified phenomenological model for the dark matter density and temperature nea...

  14. Experiments with recoil ions and other considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocke, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some opportunities in collisions physics with slow, multiply charged ions are addressed. A distinction between inner and outer shell collisions is drawn. The applicability of recoil ion sources to outer shell collision systems is discussed, with emphasis on the quality of the beam desired. An example of an inner shell collision is discussed, and the usefulness of not pushing the collision energy too low is pointed out. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Hydrogen depth profiling using elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Peercy, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique for H profiling in the near surface regions of solids is described. ERD is shown to have the capability of detecting H and its isotopes down to concentrations of approx. 0.01 at. % with a depth resolution of a few hundred angstroms. Is is demonstrated that 2.4-MeV He ions can be used successfully to profile 1 H and 2 D using this technique. 12 figures

  16. Recoil Considerations for Shoulder-Fired Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    than would be deduced from the force levels defined by the pressure-time curve of the cartridge. Further and just like a large-caliber weapon mounted...force. If each of the force curves over the time interval were integrated, the result should be the same as that derived from a ballistic pendulum...Kathe, E.; Dillon, R. Sonic Rarefaction Wave Low Recoil Gun; Report ARCCB-TR-2001; U.S. Army Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center

  17. Atom location using recoil ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) using inert gas and alkali ions is widely used in studies of the surface atomic layer. The extreme surface sensitivity of this technique ensures that it yields both compositional and structural information on clean and adsorbate covered surfaces. Low Energy Negative recoil Spectroscopy (LENRS) has been applied to a study of oxygen on Ni(110) to gauge the sensitivity to coverage and site location

  18. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W.B.; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J.F. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Elastic recoil detection analysis of ferroelectric films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannard, W B; Johnston, P N; Walker, S R; Bubb, I F [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Scott, J F [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia); Cohen, D D; Dytlewski, N [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    There has been considerable progress in developing SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (SBT) and Ba{sub O.7}Sr{sub O.3}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric films for use as nonvolatile memory chips and for capacitors in dynamic random access memories (DRAMs). Ferroelectric materials have a very large dielectric constant ( {approx} 1000), approximately one hundred times greater than that of silicon dioxide. Devices made from these materials have been known to experience breakdown after a repeated voltage pulsing. It has been suggested that this is related to stoichiometric changes within the material. To accurately characterise these materials Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) is being developed. This technique employs a high energy heavy ion beam to eject nuclei from the target and uses a time of flight and energy dispersive (ToF-E) detector telescope to detect these nuclei. The recoil nuclei carry both energy and mass information which enables the determination of separate energy spectra for individual elements or for small groups of elements In this work ERDA employing 77 MeV {sup 127}I ions has been used to analyse Strontium Bismuth Tantalate thin films at the heavy ion recoil facility at ANSTO, Lucas Heights. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Transmutation of nuclear waste in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pilate, S.; Wehmann, U.K.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this joint study of ECN, Belgonucleaire, and Siemens is to investigate possibilities for transmutation of nuclear waste in regular nuclear reactors or in special transmutation devices. Studies of possibilities included the limits and technological development steps which would be needed. Burning plutonium in fast reactors, gas-cooled high-temperature reactors and light water reactors (LWR) have been considered. For minor actinides the transmutation rate mainly depends on the content of the minor actinides in the reactor and to a much less degree on the fact whether one uses a homogeneous system (with the actinides mixed into the fuel) or a heterogeneous system. If one wishes to stabilise the amount of actinides from the present LWRs, about 20% of all nuclear power would have to be generated in special burner reactors. It turned out that reactor transmutation of fission products would require considerable recycling efforts and that the time needed for a substantial transmutation would be rather long for the presently available levels of the neutron flux. If one would like to design burner systems which can serve more light water reactors, a large effort would be needed and other burners (possibly driven by accelerators) should be considered. (orig.)

  1. Transmutation Theory in the Greek Alchemical Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufault, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies transmutation theory as found in the texts attributed to Zosimus of Panopolis, "the philosopher Synesius," and "the philosopher Olympiodorus of Alexandria." It shows that transmutation theory (i.e. a theory explaining the complete transformation of substances) is mostly absent from the work attributed to these three authors. The text attributed to Synesius describes a gilding process, which is similar to those described by Pliny and Vitruvius. The commentary attributed to Olympiodorus is the only text studied here that describes something similar to a transmutation theory. It is unclear, however, if this was a theory of transmutation or if the writer meant something more like the literal meaning of the word "ekstrophē," a term used to describe the transformation of metals, as the "turning inside-out" of what is hidden in a substance. A similar conception of ekstrophē can be found in the works of Zosimus, who discussed transmutation to make an analogy with self-purification processes, which, from the perspective of his own anthropogony, consisted in the "turning inside-out" of the "inner human" (esō anthrōpos).

  2. J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, T.; Takei, H.; Saito, S.; Obayashi, H.; Nishihara, K.; Sugawara, T.; Iwamoto, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Tsujimoto, K.; Oigawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Fukushima accident, nuclear transmutation is considered as an option for waste management. Japan Atomic Energy Agency proposes the transmutation of minor actinides (MA) in accelerator-driven system (ADS) using lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (LBE) as a spallation target and a coolant of subcritical core. To obtain the data required for ADS design, we plan the building of a transmutation experimental facility (TEF) is planned within the J-PARC project. TEF consists of an ADS target test facility (TEF-T), which will be installed 400 MeV-250 kW LBE spallation target for material irradiations, and a transmutation physics experimental facility (TEF-P), which set up a fast critical/subcritical assembly driven by low power proton beam with MA fuel to study ADS neutronics. At TEF-T, various research plans to use emitted neutrons from LBE target are discussed. The paper summarises a road-map to establish the ADS transmuter and latest design activities for TEF construction. (authors)

  3. Transmutation studies in France, R and D programme on fuels and targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boidron, M.; Chauvin, N.; Garnier, J.C.; PIllon, S.; Vambenepe, G.

    2001-01-01

    For the management of high level and long-lived radioactive waste, a large and continuous research and development effort is carried out in France, to provide a wide range of scientific and technical alternatives along three lines, partitioning and transmutation, disposal in deep geological formations and long term interim surface or subsurface storage. For the line one, and in close link with the partitioning studies, research is carried out to evaluate the transmutation potential of long-lived waste in appropriate reactors configurations (scenarios) relying on current technologies as well as innovative reactors. Performed to evaluate the theoretical feasibility of the Pu consumption and waste transmutation from the point of view of the reactor cores physics to reach the equilibrium of the material fluxes (i.e. consumption = production) and of the isotopic compositions of the fuels, these studies insure the 'scientific' part of the transmutation feasibility. For the technological part of the feasibility of waste transmutation in reactors, a large programme on fuel development is underway. This includes solutions based on the advanced concepts for plutonium fuels in PWR and the development of specific fuels and targets for transmutation in fast reactors in the critical or sub-critical state. For the waste transmutation in fast reactors, an important programme has been launched to develop specific fuels and targets with experiments at various stages of preparation in different experimental reactors including Phenix. Composite fuels as well as particle fuels are considered. This programme is presented and recent results concerning the preparation of the experiments, the characterisation of the compounds properties, the thermal and mechanical modelling and the behaviour of U free fuels are given. (author)

  4. Complementary scattered and recoiled ion data from TOF-E heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of Time of Flight and Energy (ToF-E) Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) over Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis is its mass and energy dispersive capabilities. The mass resolution of ToF-E HIERDA deteriorates for very heavy elements. The limitation is related to the poor energy resolution of Si detectors for heavy ions. While the energy spectra from ToF-E HIERDA data are normally used to extract depth profiles, this work discusses the benefits of using the time spectra of both the recoiled and the scattered ions for depth profiling. The simulation of the complementary scattered and recoiled ion time spectra improves depth profiling and reduced current limitations when dealing with very heavy ions, such as Pt, Bi, Ta. (authors)

  5. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Mesmin, C.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.

    2002-01-01

    The project Partition and Transmutation (PandT) at the department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, is aimed at investigating new solvent extraction reagents and new processes for the separation of different chemical elements needed in a possible future PandT process. During the year 2001, the work has mainly been in five areas: 1) method development and testing of means to determine protonation constants of two model reagents (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), 2) modelling the influence of organic phase composition on the extraction of trivalent metals (Pm, Am, Cm), 3) determination of the density and refractive index of 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 4) the extraction behaviour of four new nitrogen based reagents (2,6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4- dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-( benzimidazolyl)-pyridine, 2,4-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine), and 5) a study of the effect of temperature on the synergistic extraction of Eu and Am with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine or 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of 2 -bromodecanoic acid dissolved in a series of organic diluents

  6. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Mesmin, C.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The project Partition and Transmutation (PandT) at the department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, is aimed at investigating new solvent extraction reagents and new processes for the separation of different chemical elements needed in a possible future PandT process. During the year 2001, the work has mainly been in five areas: 1) method development and testing of means to determine protonation constants of two model reagents (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), 2) modelling the influence of organic phase composition on the extraction of trivalent metals (Pm, Am, Cm), 3) determination of the density and refractive index of 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 4) the extraction behaviour of four new nitrogen based reagents (2,6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4- dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-( benzimidazolyl)-pyridine, 2,4-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine), and 5) a study of the effect of temperature on the synergistic extraction of Eu and Am with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine or 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of 2 -bromodecanoic acid dissolved in a series of organic diluents.

  7. First results and future trends for the transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Salvatores, M.; Guerin, Y.; Zaetta, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the frame of the CEA SPIN program, a project has been set-up at the Direction of Nuclear Reactors of CEA, to study the transmutation of long-lived radioactive products (both minor actinides and fission products) resulting from the operation of current nuclear power plants. The program is focused on: transmutation in minor actinides (Np, Am) in fission reactors of known technology (both of the PWR or the fast reactor type), using the so-called ''homogeneous'' (mixed with Uranium or Uranium-Plutonium), and ''heterogeneous'' (mixed with inert matrices) recycling modes for both type of reactors. Transmutation studies in dedicated devices (both fission reactors with actinide/plutonium fuel or with high thermal flux, and particle accelerator-based systems). Fuel studies related to both homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling modes in fission reactors. For the homogeneous recycling mode, some experimental irradiations results are available from past PHENIX programs. For the heterogeneous mode, very limited experimental results are available, and new theoretical and experimental work is underway on the use of appropriate inert matrices. Basic data studies to assess the quality of existing nuclear data for fission reactor transmutation studies, future data needs of relevance, and model/data developments needed for accelerator-based systems. Strategy studies, to evaluate the consequences of the different transmutation options on the fuel cycle, according to different scenarios of nuclear power development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  9. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  10. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  11. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aagren, O; Moiseenko, V.E.; Noack, K.

    2008-10-01

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  12. Transmuted New Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shuaib Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the transmuted new generalized inverse Weibull distribution by using the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM scheme studied by Shaw et al. (2007. The proposed model contains the twenty three lifetime distributions as special sub-models. Some mathematical properties of the new distribution are formulated, such as quantile function, Rényi entropy, mean deviations, moments, moment generating function and order statistics. The method of maximum likelihood is used for estimating the model parameters. We illustrate the flexibility and potential usefulness of the new distribution by using reliability data.

  13. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have now been established worldwide and, as a result, many countries are pursuing R and D programmes to advance the technologies associated with P and T. In this context, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has organised a series of biennial information exchange meetings to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinides and Fission Products Partitioning and Transmutation is a forum for experts to present and discuss the state-of-the-art development in the field of P and T. Thirteen meetings have been organised so far and held in Japan, the United States, France, Belgium, Spain, the Republic of Korea and the Czech Republic. This 13. meeting was hosted by Seoul National University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) and was organised in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Community (EC). The meeting covered strategic and scientific developments in the field of P and T such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios, the role of P and T in the potential evolution of nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix; radioactive waste management strategies; transmutation fuels and targets; advances in pyro and aqueous separation processes; P and T specific technology requirements (materials, spallation targets, coolants, etc.); transmutation systems: design, performance and safety; impact of P and T on the fuel cycle; fabrication, handling and transportation of transmutation fuels. A total of 103 presentations (39 oral and 64 posters) were discussed among the 110 participants from 19 countries and 2 international organisations. The meeting consisted of one plenary session where national and international programmes were presented followed by 5 technical sessions: - Fuel Cycle Strategies and Transition

  14. Heavy quark symmetry at large recoil: The case of baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, J.G.; Kroll, P.

    1992-02-01

    We analyze the large recoil behaviour of heavy baryon transition form factors in semi-leptonic decays. We use a generalized Brodsky-Lepage hard scattering formalism where diquarks are considered as quasi-elementary constituents of baryons. In the limit of infinitely heavy quark masses the large recoil form factors exhibit a new model-independent heavy quark symmetry which is reminiscent but not identical to the Isgur-Wise symmetry at low recoil. (orig.)

  15. Conceptual design study of Hyb-WT as fusion–fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Tariq; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design study of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for waste transmutation. • MCNPX and MONTEBURNS are compared for transmutation performance of WT-Hyb. • Detailed neutronic performance of final optimized Hyb-WT design is analyzed. • A new tube-in-duct core design is implemented and compared with pin type design. • Study shows many aspects of hybrid reactor even though scope was limited to neutronic analysis. - Abstract: This study proposes a conceptual design of a hybrid reactor for waste transmutation (Hyb-WT). The design of Hyb-WT is based on a low-power tokamak (less than 150 MWt) and an annular ring-shaped reactor core with metal fuel (TRU 60 w/o, Zr 40 w/o) and a fission product (FP) zone. The computational code systems MONTEBURNS and MCNPX2.6 are investigated for their suitability in evaluating the performance of Hyb-WT. The overall design performance of the proposed reactor is determined by considering pin-type and tube-in-duct core designs. The objective of such consideration is to explore the possibilities for enhanced transmutation with reduced wall loading from fusion neutrons and reduced transuranic (TRU) inventory. TRU and FP depletion is analyzed by calculating waste transmutation ratio, mass burned per full power year (in units of kg/fpy), and support ratio. The radio toxicity analysis of TRUs and FPs is performed by calculating the percentage of toxicity reduction in TRU and FP over a burn cycle

  16. Scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil in liquid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Arneodo, F; Badertscher, A; Benetti, P; Bernardini, E; Bettini, A; Borio di Tigliole, A A; Brunetti, R; Bueno, A G; Calligarich, E; Campanelli, M; Carpanese, C; Cavalli, D; Cavanna, F; Cennini, P; Centro, Sandro; Cesana, A; Cline, D; De Mitri, I; Dolfini, R; Ferrari, A; Gigli-Berzolari, A; Matthey, C; Mauri, F; Mazza, D; Mazzone, L; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Nurzia, G; Otwinowski, S; Palamara, O; Pascoli, D; Pepato, Adriano; Petrera, S; Periale, L; Piano Mortari, G; Piazzoli, A; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Rancati, T; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rebuzzi, D; Revol, Jean Pierre Charles; Rico, J; Rossella, M; Rossi, C; Rubbia, André; Rubbia, Carlo; Sala, P; Scannicchio, D A; Sergiampietri, F; Suzuki, S; Terrani, M; Tian, W; Ventura, Sandro; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Woo, J; Xu, Z

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a test done with a Liquid Xenon (LXe) detector for 'Dark Matter' search, exposed to a neutron beam to produce nuclear recoil events simulating those which would be generated by WIMP's elastic scattering. The aim of the experiment was to measure directly the scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoil. The nuclear recoil considered in the test was in the tens of keV range. The ratio of measured visible energy over the true recoil energy was evaluated to be about 20%, in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  17. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  18. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  19. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G En /G Mn , was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d((pol-e),e(prime)(pol-n)p) reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q 2 = 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2

  20. Transmutation of 129I Using an Accelerator-Driven System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Takano, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual blanket design for 129 I transmutation is proposed for an accelerator-driven system (ADS) that is designed to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In this ADS, 250 kg/yr of MA and 56 kg/yr of iodine are simultaneously transmuted, and they correspond to the quantities generated from ∼10 units of existing light water reactors. Furthermore, an introduction scenario and the benefit of iodine transmutation are studied for future introduction of fast breeder reactors. It is shown that the transmutation of iodine benefits the concept of underground disposal

  1. Transmutation of Thermocouples in Thermal and Fast Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scervini, M.; Rae, C.; Lindley, B.

    2013-06-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. Their role is fundamental for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of the nuclear technology needed for the implementation of GEN IV nuclear reactors. When used for in-core measurements thermocouples are strongly affected not only by high temperatures, but also by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition in the thermoelements and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift in the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. In this work, undertaken as part of the European project METROFISSION, the change in composition occurring in irradiated thermocouples has been calculated using the software ORIGEN 2.2. Several thermocouples have been considered, including Nickel based thermocouples (type K and type N), Tungsten based thermocouples (W-5%Re vs W-26%Re and W- 3%Re vs W-25%Re), Platinum based thermocouples (type S and Platinum vs Palladium) and Molybdenum vs Niobium thermocouples. The transmutation induced by both thermal flux and fast flux has been calculated. Thermocouples undergo more pronounced transmutation in thermal fluxes rather than in fast fluxes, as the neutron cross section of an element is higher for thermal energies. Nickel based thermocouples have a minimal change in composition, while Platinum based and Tungsten based thermocouples experience a very significant transmutation. The use of coatings deposited on the sheath of a thermocouple has been considered as a mean to reduce the neutron flux the thermoelements inside the thermocouple sheath

  2. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Takahashi, H.; Geiger, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 19 refs., 20 figs

  3. Conceptual design of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor for transmutation of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Yang, Y.W.; Wu, Y.; Luan, G.S.; Xu, Q.; Guo, Z.J.; Xiao, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste using fusion-fission hybrid reactors, we are studying all the possible types of blanket, including a comparison of the thermal and fast neutron spectrum blankets. Conceptual designs of a small tokamak hybrid blanket with small inventory of actinides and fission products are presented. The small inventory of wastes makes the system safer. The small hybrid reactor system based on a fusion core with experimental parameters to be realized in the near future can effectively transmute actinides and fission products at a neutron wall loading of 1MWm -2 . An innovative energy system is also presented, including a fusion driver, fuel breeder, high level waste transmuter, fission reactor and so on. An optimal combination of all types of reactor is proposed in the system. ((orig.))

  4. Synchrotron-radiation experiments with recoil ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of atoms, ions and molecules with synchrotron radiation have generally focused on measurements of properties of the electrons ejected during, or after, the photoionization process. Much can also be learned, however, about the atomic or molecular relaxation process by studies of the residual ions or molecular fragments following inner-shell photoionization. Measurements are reported of mean kinetic energies of highly charged argon, krypton, and xenon recoil ions produced by vacancy cascades following inner-shell photoionization using white and monochromatic synchrotron x radiation. Energies are much lower than for the same charge-state ions produced by charged-particle impact. The results may be applicable to design of future angle-resolved ion-atom collision experiments. Photoion charge distributions are presented and compared with other measurements and calculations. Related experiments with synchrotron-radiation produced recoil ion, including photoionization of stored ions and measurement of shakeoff in near-threshold excitation, are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  6. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  7. Composite gauge bosons of transmuted gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1987-10-01

    It is shown that effective gauge theories of composite gauge bosons describing the dynamics of composite quarks and leptons can be transmuted from the subcolor gauge theory describing that of subquarks due to the condensation of subquarks and that the equality of effective gauge coupling constants can result as in a grand unified gauge theory. (author)

  8. Safety characteristics of potential waste transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    For nuclear waste transmutation to alter significantly the need for geologic disposal of spent fuel from US Light-water reactors (LWRs), about 1.4% of the spent fuel (by mass) must be separated and transmuted. This includes the plutonium, the minor actinides, and four fission products: iodine. technetium, cesium and strontium. Regarding the actinides, fissioning of the plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium generates a great deal of heat, so much so that most of the plutonium should be used to produce power. However, these actinides have some undesirable neutronic characteristics, and their utilization in reactors or subcritical (proton-accelerator) targets requires either a fast neutronic spectrum or a very high thermal-neutron flux. Transmutation of the fission products is generally by neutron capture, although this is difficult in the case of cesium and strontium. In this paper, various proposed means of transmuting the actinides and fission products are discussed, with the main focus being on the safety characteristics of each approach

  9. Neutronic evaluation of insertion of a transmutation layer in a Tokamak system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Carlos Eduardo Velasquez

    2013-01-01

    Using MCNP5 code were simulated different models representing the ITER system. It was evaluated the two alloys used by the first wall under high neutron flux. The neutron flux and the reaction rate along the different walls were obtained and evaluated. Based on the results, it was possible to conclude the best way to represent the fusion device evaluating; the different geometrical models, the best material to be used in the first wall taking into consideration the objective of transmutation and placed the transmutation layer. (author)

  10. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringer, O.; Al Mahamid, I.; Blandin, C.; Chabod, S.; Chartier, F.; Dupont, E.; Fioni, G.; Isnard, H.; Letourneau, A.; Marie, F.; Mutti, P.; Oriol, L.; Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C.

    2006-01-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The 241 Am and 232 Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  11. Detector for recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanyan, A.S.; Asatiani, T.L.; Ivanov, V.I.; Mkrtchyan, G.G.; Pikhtelev, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    A detector consisting of the combination of a drift and a wide gap spark chambers and designed to detect recoil nuclei stopping in the spark chamber gas is described. It is shown, that by using an appropriate discrimination the detector allows to detect reliably the recoil nuclei in the presence of intensive electron and γ-quanta beams

  12. Nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Collatz, R; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Folger, H; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Blunt, D; Durell, JL; Varley, BJ; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; JONES, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Amzal, N; Meliani, Z; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Passoja, A; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    The main features of nuclear targets, recoil ion catchers and reaction chambers used in nuclear spectroscopic investigations involving in-beam multi-e-gamma spectrometers are discussed. The relative importance of the F-ray background due to the accelerated ion-target and the recoil-ion-target

  13. Comparison of the Recoil of Conventional and Electromagnetic Cannon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The recoil from an electromagnetic (EM railgun is discussed and compared with that from conventional, propellant gas driven cannon. It is shown that, under similar launch conditions, the recoil of the EM gun is less than that of the powder gun; however, use of a muzzle brake on a powder gun can alter this relative behavior.

  14. Transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, S.C.; Borges, A.M.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The transportation system of recoil nucleus by helium jet, is studied. It is used a technique aiming to put in the detection area (region of low background) the recoils, produced by nuclear reactions between target and particle beams, those produced with the help of cyclotron CV-28. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Nuclear transmutation. The reality of cold fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Tadahiko

    1997-01-01

    The book is introducing the quest on the way to reality of cold fusion. Another point of author is interaction between the quest and social impacts. After the first report on cold fusion by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons on March 1989, the inspired author started a series of following experiments based on his own characteristic background of electrochemistry. The first experiment from March 25 to April 7, 1989 did not show any indications on neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, and heat. The second experiment was initiated at the underground experimental hall of the linear accelerator facilities. This means the shielding of noises coming from outsides. The neutron of about 2.45 MeV was observed after the 1-month continuation of the experiment. The intensity of neutron was nearly 10 to 20 times of the background noise. Furthermore, there were no changes of signals on heat and tritium before and after the experiments. The closed cell experiment was conducted to keep reliability of the experiment. The experiment started on June 1990. In this case, Tritium signals of 100 times of background noise were observed, however, no meaningful signal on neutrons. Anomalous heat was observed after March 24, 1991, where the electric current was increased up to 6 A. On the other hand, there were no appreciable change in neutron and tritium signals. The solid electrolysis was used in the experiment after May 1992, for its high temperature characteristics, where anomalous heat was observed with a certain probability. The experimental system was upgraded in diagnostic methods after 1994. As a result, particular isotopes related to fission reaction were detected. This fact indicates some kinds of transmutations at very local area of the solid surfaces. The author has also pointed out many reactions for a series of this scientific results responded by, for example, well known professors, scientific societies, mass media, and international conferences. Consequently the reactions had almost smeared

  16. Design of magnetic analysis system for magnetic proton recoil spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Jianmin; Jiang Shilun; Zhou Lin; Peng Taiping

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel diagnostic instrument with high performance for measurements of the neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power fusion devices. The design of the magnetic analysis system, which is a key part of the compact MPR-type spectrometer, has been completed through two-dimensional beam transport simulations and three-dimensional particle transport simulation. The analysis of the system's parameters and performances was performed, as well as system designs based on preferential principles of energy resolution, detection efficiency, and count rate, respectively. The results indicate that the magnetic analysis system can achieve a detection efficiency of 10 -5 ∼ 10 -4 level at the resolution range of 1.5% to 3.0% and fulfill the design goals of the compact MPR spectrometer. (authors)

  17. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Bultman, J.H.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Gruppelaar, H.; Janssen, A.J.; Franken, W.M.P.; Klippel, K.T.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Konings, R.J.M.; Smit, J.

    1994-11-01

    The term ''nuclear transmutation'' means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ''recycling'' means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. The possibilities offered by the HFR are particularly of great value. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application

  18. Transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report RAS programme 1993: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K; Bultman, J H; Cordfunke, E H.P.; Gruppelaar, H; Janssen, A J; Franken, W M.P.; Klippel, K T; Kloosterman, J L; Konings, R J.M.; Smit, J

    1994-11-01

    The term ``nuclear transmutation`` means a conversion of long-lived radioactive nuclides into short-lived or stable nuclides and ``recycling`` means re-use of fissile material to generate energy in power reactors. With these two processes a reduction of the radiotoxicity and of its duration may be achieved, thus reducing the potential hazard to future generations. Firstly, the report gives a survey of the present situation regarding nuclear waste: its components, how the waste is produced in current LWR and possible options for interim and final storage. Then the objective of the RAS programme, the working methods and the state of the art of the research are considered. Two chapters deal with preliminary results of national and international research. A rather tentative prediction for the future is formulated. Some conclusions are drawn: It seems to be in the best interests of the Netherlands to continue the established line of reprocessing nuclear waste, should new reactors be introduced. It may be advisable to make international agreements so that in the future fission products will contain as few traces of transuranic actinides and long-lived components as possible. Consequently, nuclear waste would become cleaner in terms of long-lived components. For the transmutation of products separated in foreign countries, the Netherlands could pursue an active policy, perform research and also consider the use of MOX fuel in future Dutch reactors. Further contributions towards the solution of these problems can only be made by the Netherlands on an international level. As such, the research and study performed within the framework of the RAS-programme represents a useful international contribution. Finally, the choice of a new generation of nuclear reactors should be made not based only on the safety aspects, but also on the extent of waste production and on the transmutation possibilities (application of MOX, etc.). (orig./HP).

  19. D-Brane Recoil Mislays Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the scattering of a light closed-string state off a $D$ brane, taking into account quantum recoil effects on the latter, which are described by a pair of logarithmic operators. The light-particle and $D$-brane subsystems may each be described by a world-sheet with an external source due to the interaction between them. This perturbs each subsystem away from criticality, which is compensated by dressing with a Liouville field whose zero mode we interpret as time. The resulting evolution equations for the $D$ brane and the closed string are of Fokker-Planck and modified quantum Liouville type, respectively. The apparent entropy of each subsystem increases as a result of the interaction between them, which we interpret as the loss of information resulting from non-observation of the other entangled subsystem. We speculate on the possible implications of these results for the propagation of closed strings through a dilute gas of virtual $D$ branes.

  20. Oxide fuels and targets for transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudreau, F.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Warin, D.; Gaillard-Groleas, G.; Ferroud-Plattet, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Direction 1 of the French Act dated 30 December 1991 on the management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste involves exploring solutions designed to separate long-lived radionuclides from the spent fuel and to transmute them under neutron flux into shorter half-lives or stable elements. In the French research programme conducted by CEA, these radionuclides are mainly minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium) and fission products (particularly caesium, iodine and technetium). Within this context, this paper aims at illustrating the vast programme that CEA has performed in order to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of minor actinide transmutation. An important part of the research was carried out in collaboration with French research (CNRS) and industrial (EDF, AREVA) organisations, and also in the framework of international co-operation programmes with the European Institute for Transuranium Elements in Karlsruhe (ITU), the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (now JAEA) and Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and the Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy (ROSATOM). Such research made it possible to evaluate the capacity of MOX fuels to be used as a support for minor actinide transmutation (homogeneous method). Simulations of pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuels have revealed the limits of this transmutation method, which are mainly related to the pressurization of the fuel rods and the formation of high active californium. On the contrary, for sodium-cooled fast reactor fuels possibly designed with large expansion plenums a first experimental demonstration of the transmutation of americium and neptunium has been successful in the Phenix reactor. Various studies designed to demonstrate the theoretical and experimental feasibility of transmutation using an inert support (heterogeneous method) have been carried out in HFR (EFTTRA

  1. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  2. Controllability analysis and testing of a novel magnetorheological absorber for field gun recoil mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Qing; Zheng, Jiajia; Li, Zhaochun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the effects of combined working coils of magnetorheological (MR) absorber on the shock mitigation performance and verify the controllability of MR absorber as applied in the recoil system of a field gun. A physical scale model of the field gun is established and a long-stroke MR recoil absorber with four-stage parallel electromagnetic coils is designed to apply separate current to each stage and generate variable magnetic field distribution in the annular flow channel. Based on dynamic analysis and firing stability conditions of the field gun, ideal recoil force-stroke profiles of MR absorber at different limiting firing angles are obtained. The experimental studies are carried out on an impact test rig under different combinations of current loading: conventional unified control mode, separate control mode and timing control mode. The fullness degree index (FDI) is defined as the quantitative evaluation criterion of the controllability of MR absorber during the whole recoil motion. The results show that the force-stroke profile of the novel MR absorber can approach the ideal curve within 25 degrees of the limiting firing angle through judicious exploitation of the adjustable rheological properties of MR fluid.

  3. Evaluation of alternative partitioning/transmutation scenarios using transmutation in light-water reactors (LWRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Renier, J.P.; Del Cul, B.; Spencer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) studies were made to assess the effects of the existing accumulation of LWR spent fuel in the United States on the capability to partition/transmute actinides using existing and advanced LWR. The concept of treating the oldest fuel first indicated that significant advantages could be gained in both partitioning, transmutation, and in overall cost reduction. The processing scenarios previously evaluated assumed that (1) 2000 MT/year of spent fuel, irradiated to 45 GWd/MT and decayed for 30 years is processed; (2) recovered plutonium and 90% of the neptunium are transmuted in LWR MOX fuel; and (3) minor actinides, consisting of americium, curium, and 10% of the neptunium are transmuted in burnable poison type targets. Results of the previous study showed that significant benefits could be obtained, including (1) lower costs for partitioning and transmutation and for storage of spent fuel, (2) maintenance of proliferation resistance for the fissile plutonium in spent fuels, and (3) extended lifetime for the repository. The lower costs would be achieved primarily because no capital investment for a special transmuter reactor (fast reactor, accelerator-driven system, etc.) would be required. Instead, only existing and new LWRs would be utilized. Moreover, no new storage capacity could be needed for spent fuels and irradiated targets because the number of spent fuel assemblies would remain the same after the scenario is begun. Even though the total inventory of plutonium would rise during the early cycles, ∼98% of the plutonium would be contained in stored spent fuel and would be protected by high radiation (the Spent Fuel Standard). This is because the spent fuel would be reprocessed and re-irradiated at intervals within which the fission products, 137 Cs and 90 Sr, both with half-lives of ∼ 30 years, exist in significantly high concentrations.The lifetime of the repository would be extended significantly because all of

  4. Neutron transmutation doping of polycrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, J.W.; Westbrook, R.D.; Wood, R.F.; Young, R.T.

    1976-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of doped silane has been used by others to deposit a polycrytalline silicon film (polysil) on metal or graphite substrates, but dopant migration to grain boundaries during deposition apparently prohibits attaining a uniform or desired dopant concentration. In contrast, we have used neutron transmutation doping to introduce a uniform phosphorus dopant concentration in commercially available undoped CVD polysil at doping concentrations greater than or equal to 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . Radiation damage annealing to 800 0 C did not indicate dopant migration. Carrier mobility increased with doping concentration and the minority carrier lifetime (MCL) appears to be comparable to that of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) single crystal Si. Application of this technique to photovoltaic solar cell fabrication is discussed

  5. Statistical transmutation in doped quantum dimer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, C A; Ralko, A; Cabra, D C; Poilblanc, D; Pujol, P

    2012-07-06

    We prove a "statistical transmutation" symmetry of doped quantum dimer models on the square, triangular, and kagome lattices: the energy spectrum is invariant under a simultaneous change of statistics (i.e., bosonic into fermionic or vice versa) of the holes and of the signs of all the dimer resonance loops. This exact transformation enables us to define the duality equivalence between doped quantum dimer Hamiltonians and provides the analytic framework to analyze dynamical statistical transmutations. We investigate numerically the doping of the triangular quantum dimer model with special focus on the topological Z(2) dimer liquid. Doping leads to four (instead of two for the square lattice) inequivalent families of Hamiltonians. Competition between phase separation, superfluidity, supersolidity, and fermionic phases is investigated in the four families.

  6. Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Copper Doping of Zinc Oxide by Nuclear Transmutation THESIS Matthew C. Recker, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENP-14-M-30 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering Physics Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...COPPER DOPING OF ZINC OXIDE BY NUCLEAR TRANSMUTATION Matthew C. Recker, BS Captain, USAF Approved: //signed// 27 February 2014 John W. McClory, PhD

  7. Development of nuclear transmutation technology for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1996-01-01

    Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive nuclides is conceived as the technology to improve the high-level radioactive waste management. This report discusses the incentives of P-T, generation of long-lived nuclides in fission reactors, nuclear transmutation technologies, R and D activities of the partitioning and transmutation technology development programs at JAERI and in the world. (author)

  8. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on core's safety parameters. Applying the SAS4A/SASSYS transient analysis code, it is demonstrated that the power rating needs to be reduced by 6% for each percent additional americium introduction into the reference MOX fuel, maintaining 100 K margin to fuel melting, which is the most limiting failure mechanism. Safety analysis of a new Accelerator Driven System design with a smaller pin pitch-to-diameter ratio comparing to the reference EFIT-400 design, aiming at improving neutron source efficiency, was also performed by simulating performance for unprotected loss of flow, unprotected transient overpower, and protected loss-of-heat-sink transients, using neutronic parameters obtained from MCNP calculations. Thanks to the introduction of the austenitic 15/15Ti stainless steel with enhanced creep rupture resistance and acceptable irradiation swelling rate, the suggested ADS design loaded with nitride fuel and cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic could survive the full set of transients, preserving a margin of 130 K to cladding rupture during the most limiting transient. The thesis concludes that efficient transmutation of americium in a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX fuel is possible but leads to a severe power penalty. Instead, preserving transmutation rates of minor actinides up to 42 kg/TWh th , the suggested ADS design with enhanced proton source efficiency appears like a better option for americium transmutation

  9. Transmutation of Americium in Fast Neutron Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Youpeng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the feasibility to use a medium sized sodium cooled fast reactor fully loaded with MOX fuel for efficient transmutation of americium is investigated by simulating the safety performance of a BN600-type fast reactor loaded with different fractions of americium in the fuel, using the safety parameters obtained with the SERPENT Monte Carlo code. The focus is on americium mainly due to its long-term contribution to the radiotoxicity of spent nuclear fuel and its deterioration on c...

  10. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  11. Neutron transmutation doping of gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.

    1987-12-01

    Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) was studied as a means of compensating p-type Cd-doped GaAs. By introducing specific donor concentrations, the net acceptor level was measured and showed a progressive reduction. The NTD constant K = 0.32 donor atoms.cm 3 per cm 2 was also measured. Radiation damage caused by neutron bombardment was annealed and no additional traps were generated

  12. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  13. Development of long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology - Development of a code system for core analysis of the transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam Zin; Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Tae Hyung; Jo, Chang Keun; Park, Chang Je [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a code system for core analysis= of the critical transmutation reactors utilizing fast neutrons. Core characteristics of the transmutation reactors were identified and four codes, HANCELL for pincell calculation, PRISM and AFEN-H3D for core calculation, and MA{sub B}URN for depletion calculation, were developed. The pincell calculation code is based on one-dimensional collision probability method and may provide homogenized/condensed parameters of a pincell and also can homogenize the control assembly via a nonlinear iterative method. The core calculation codes, PRISM and AFEN-H3D, solve the multi-group, multi-dimensional neutron diffusion equations for a hexagonal geometry and they are based on the finite difference method and analytic function expansion nodal (AFEN) method, respectively. The MA{sub B}URN code san analyze the behavior of actinides and fission products in a reactor core. Through benchmarking, we confirmed that the newly developed codes provide accurate solutions. 30 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs. (author)

  14. Gravitational recoil from binary black hole mergers: The close-limit approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Yunes, Nicolas; Laguna, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The coalescence of a binary black hole system is one of the main sources of gravitational waves that present and future detectors will study. Apart from the energy and angular momentum that these waves carry, for unequal-mass binaries there is also a net flux of linear momentum that implies a recoil velocity of the resulting final black hole in the opposite direction. Due to the relevance of this phenomenon in astrophysics, in particular, for galaxy merger scenarios, there have been several attempts to estimate the magnitude of this velocity. Since the main contribution to the recoil comes from the last orbit and plunge, an approximation valid at the last stage of coalescence is well motivated for this type of calculation. In this paper, we present a computation of the recoil velocity based on the close-limit approximation scheme, which gives excellent results for head-on and grazing collisions of black holes when compared to full numerical relativistic calculations. We obtain a maximum recoil velocity of ∼57 km/s for a symmetric mass ratio η=M 1 M 2 /(M 1 +M 2 ) 2 ∼0.19 and an initial proper separation of 4M, where M is the total Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass of the system. This separation is the maximum at which the close-limit approximation is expected to provide accurate results. Therefore, it cannot account for the contributions due to inspiral and initial merger. If we supplement this estimate with post-Newtonian (PN) calculations up to the innermost stable circular orbit, we obtain a lower bound for the recoil velocity, with a maximum around 80 km/s. This is a lower bound because it neglects the initial merger phase. We can however obtain a rough estimate by using PN methods or the close-limit approximation. Since both methods are known to overestimate the amount of radiation, we obtain in this way an upper bound for the recoil with maxima in the range of 214-240 km/s. We also provide nonlinear fits to these estimated upper and lower bounds. These

  15. Overview of the French program in chemical separations and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1993-01-01

    A long-range effort has begun in France that is aimed at the reduction of the volume and activity level of wastes containing long half-life radionuclides. This effort constitutes the SPIN (SeParations-INcineration) Program which investigates separations techniques that can improve current reprocessing technologies coupled with destruction of long-lived species through transmutation. Removal and destruction of specific radionuclides (e.g., neptunium, americium, technetium, iodine, cesium, and strontium) will be emphasized. Advanced solvent extraction chemistry focusing, for example, on development and implementation of diamides for actinide-lanthanide separations constitutes an important component of the SPIN program. The second component of the program focuses on inventory reductions through transmutation of such long-lived nuclides in fast reactor systems (Super Phenix). Accelerator-based systems are also being evaluated as a possible long-term option. Both of these components of the SPIN program are aimed at further reduction of the potential radiotoxicity and radiological impact of high-level wastes destined for geological storage. In this presentation, major activities of the SPIN Program will be described with emphasis on activities related to advanced chemical separations

  16. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series of technical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, high level schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: (1) An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. (2) A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities

  17. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  18. Use of fast reactors for actinide transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's discussions on nuclear energy, especially the long term disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The recycling of plutonium in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) would allow 'burning' of the associated extremely long life transuranic waste, particularly actinides, thus reducing the required isolation time for high level waste from tens of thousands of years to hundreds of years for fission products only. The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) decided to include the topic of actinide transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors in its programme. The IAEA organized the Specialists Meeting on Use of Fast Breeder Reactors for Actinide Transmutation in Obninsk, Russian Federation, from 22 to 24 September 1992. The specialists agree that future progress in solving transmutation problems could be achieved by improvements in: Radiochemical partitioning and extraction of the actinides from the spent fuel (at least 98% for Np and Cm and 99.9% for Pu and Am isotopes); technological research and development on the design, fabrication and irradiation of the minor actinides (MAs) containing fuels; nuclear constants measurement and evaluation (selective cross-sections, fission fragments yields, delayed neutron parameters) especially for MA burners; demonstration of the feasibility of the safe and economic MA burner cores; knowledge of the impact of maximum tolerable amount of rare earths in americium containing fuels. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K.

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project 'Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety' - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project `Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety` - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups 31 refs, 23 figs

  1. Accelerator driven nuclear energy and transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has been a mature industry for many years. However, despite the overall safety record and the great attractions of nuclear power, especially in times of concern about green house gases emissions, there continues to be some lack of public acceptance of this technology. This sensitivity to nuclear power has several elements in addition to the concern of a potential nuclear accident. These include the possible diversion of plutonium into nuclear weapon production and the concern about the long term storage of plutonium and other transuranic elements. A concept which seeks to allay these fears but still takes advantage of the nuclear fuel cycle and utilises decades of research and development in this technology, is the idea of using modern accelerators to transmute the long lived radio nuclides and simultaneously generate power. A review of the novel concepts for energy production and transmutation of isotopes will be presented. Of the various proposals, the most developed is the Energy Amplifier Concept promoted by Rubbia. The possibility of using high-energy, high-current accelerators to produce large fluxes of neutrons has been known since the earliest days of accelerator technology. E.O. Lawrence, for example, promoted the concept of producing nuclear material with such an accelerator. The Canadians in the early 50s considered using accelerators to produce fuel for their heavy water reactors and there were well advanced designs for a device called the Intense Neutron Generator. The speculative idea of using accelerator produced neutrons for the transmutation of transuranic elements (i.e. elements such as neptunium plutonium and other elements with higher Z atomic number) has also been studied extensively, notably at a number of laboratories in the US, Europe and Japan. However at this time, all facilities that have actually been constructed have been designed primarily for condensed matter studies i.e. studies of the structural properties

  2. Importance of All-in-one (MCNPX2.7.0+CINDER2008) Code for Rigorous Transmutation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Oyeon [Institute for Modeling and Simulation Convergence, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghyun [RadTek Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    It can be utilized as a possible mechanism for reducing the volume and hazard of radioactive waste by transforming hazardous radioactive elements with long half-life into less hazardous elements with short halflife. Thus, the understanding of the transmutation mechanism and beneficial machinery design technologies are important and useful. Although the terminology transmutation was rooted back to alchemy which transforms the base metals into gold in the middle ages, Rutherford and Soddy were the first observers by discovering the natural transmutation as a part of radioactive decay of the alpha decay type in early 20th century. Along with the development of computing technology, analysis software, for example, CINDER was developed for rigorous atomic transmutation study. The code has a long history of development from the original work of T. England at Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (BAPL) in the early 1960s. It has been used to calculate the inventory of nuclides in an irradiated material. CINDER'90 which is recently released involved an upgrade of the code to allow the spontaneous tracking of chains based upon the significant density or pass-by of a nuclide, where pass-by represents the density of a nuclide transforming to other nuclides. Nuclear transmutation process is governed by highly non-linear differential equation. Chaotic nature of the non-linear equation bespeaks the importance of the accurate input data (i.e. number of significant digits). Thus, reducing the human interrogation is very important for the rigorous transmutation study and 'allin- one' code structure is desired. Note that non-linear characteristic of the transmutation equation caused by the flux changes due to the number density change during a given time interval (intrinsic physical phenomena) is not considered in this study. In this study, we only emphasized the effects of human interrogation in the computing process solving nonlinear differential equations, as shown in

  3. The Impact of Partitioning and Transmutation on the Risk Assesment of a Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrani, Naima

    2006-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of radioactive and long lived component from the highly radioactive waste stream in order to reduce or probably eliminate their radiotoxic inventory was the important option for the nuclear waste management. The principal radionuclides contribution to the long term radiotoxic inventory is mostly due to Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products. The conditioning operation can present artificial barriers which are potentially capable of confining the radionuclides within their package for thousands of years. After this time nothing can be predicted. The solubility of the actinides (except Np) is generally low whereas the long lived fission product. particularly 137 Cs, 129 I and in some case 99 Tc, display high mobility In the geosphere. Conditioning of separated long-lived nuclides in appropriate matrices which could serve as irradiation matrix in a delayed transmutation option is a possible outcome for the next decades. The general strategy of introducing Partitioning and Transmutation as an additional waste management option is based on the radiological benefit which is expected from such an option. The short term impact of partitioning would be to reduce long-term radiotoxic inventory of the resulting HLW at the expense of an increase of the operational requirements for the nuclear facilities concerned. Fast neutron spectrum devices (FR or ADS facilities) are more efficient than current LWRs for recycling and transmuting long-lived radionuclides

  4. Transmutation technologies to solve the problem of long-term spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosnedl, P.; Valenta, V.; Blahut, O.

    2000-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description of the transmutation process for actinides and long-lived fission products which are present in spent nuclear fuel. Transmutation technologies can solve the problem of long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reduce the requirements for storage time and conditions. The basic data and requirements for the detailed design of the transmutor are summarized, and the views upon how to address the fuel purification and dry reprocessing issues are discussed. The results of activities of SKODA JS are highlighted; these include, for instance, the fluoride salt-resistant material MONICR, test loops, and electrowinners. The preliminary design of the transmutor is also outlined. Brief information regarding activities in the field of transmutation technologies in the Czech Republic and worldwide is also presented. The research and design activities to be developed for the whole design of the demonstration and basic units are summarized. It is emphasized that SKODA JS can join in international cooperation without constraints. The Attachment presents a simple assessment of how the radioactivity balance can be reduced, based on the actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation half-lives, is presented in the Attachment. (author)

  5. Status of the French research programme for actinides and fission products partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focus on separation and transmutation research and development programme and main results over these ten last years. The massive research programme on enhanced separation, conducted by CEA and supported by broad international cooperation, has recently achieved some vital progress. Based on real solutions derived from the La Hague process, the CEA demonstrated the lab-scale feasibility of extracting minor actinides and some fission products (I, Cs and Tc) using an hydrometallurgical process that can be extrapolated on the industrial scale. The CEA also conducted programmes proving the technical feasibility of the elimination of minor actinides and fission products by transmutation: fabrication of specific targets and fuels for transmutation tests in the HFR and Phenix reactors, neutronics and technology studies for ADS developments in order to support the MEGAPIE, TRADE and MYRRHA experiments and the future 100 MW international ADS demonstrator. Scenarios studies aimed at stabilizing the inventory with long-lived radionuclides, plutonium, minor actinides and certain long-lived fission products in different nuclear power plant parks and to verify the feasibility at the level of the cycle facilities and fuels involved in those scenarios. Three French Research Groups CEA-CNRS carry out partitioning (PRACTIS) and transmutation (NOMADE and GEDEON) more basic studies. (author)

  6. Transmutation Strategy Using Thorium-Reprocessed Fuel ADS for Future Reactors in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Mai Vu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power is believed to be a key to the energy security for a developing country like Vietnam where the power demanding increases rapidly every year. Nevertheless, spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants is the source of radiotoxic and proliferation risk. A conceptual design of ADS utilizing thorium fuel as a based fuel and reprocessed fuel as a seed for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production is proposed as one of the clean, safe, and economical solutions for the problem. In the design, 96 seed assemblies and 84 blanket assemblies were inserted into the core to make a heterogeneous subcritical core configuration. Introducing thorium fuel into the core offers an effective way to transmute plutonium and minor actinide (MA and gain energy from this process. Transmutation rate as a function of burnup is estimated using MCNPX 2.7.0 code. Results show that by using the seed-blanket designed ADS, at 40 GWd/t burnup, 192 kg of plutonium and 156 kg of MA can be eliminated. Equivalently, 1  ADS can be able to transmute the transuranic (TRU waste from 2  LWRs. 14 units of ADS would be required to eliminate TRUs from the future reactors to be constructed in Vietnam.

  7. Development and application of new parameters for TRU transmutation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chi Young

    2005-02-01

    Four new parameters (incineration branching ratio, incineration rate, incineration time, and incineration buckling) have been developed to evaluate quantitatively the TRU transmutation effectiveness and applied to transmutation of uranium and TRU. From the incineration branching ratio, it is possible to analyze the main contributors to fission reaction for transmutation of a target nuclide. From the incineration rate, it is available to evaluate the transmutation effectiveness in the viewpoint of a relative incineration rate to incineration potential of a target nuclide and its family. This parameter is also used to calculate the incineration time and incineration buckling together with the incineration branching ratio. The incineration time makes it possible to discuss more practically the transmutation speed instead of the existing other parameters. The incineration buckling can be used to evaluate the time behavior of the incineration rate and also employed to support the results from the incineration time. Taking into account the transmutation effectiveness and potential of uranium and TRU derived by using the parameters and an existing neutron economy parameter, it was noted that the thermal neutron energy is very preferable from the transmutation effectiveness point of view, on the other hand the fast neutron energy is effective from the transmutation potential. Applying them to the typical critical and subcritical TRU burners, it is indicated that the critical reactor containing fertile uranium undergoes effectively the selective TRU transmutation on the present fast spectrum. It was also noted that the uranium-free subcritical reactor could be operated effectively on a little softer spectrum due to the larger neutron excess in the present spectrum. It is expected that the new parameters developed in this study and the results are directly applicable to practical transmutation reactor design, in particular accelerator-driven transmutation reactor

  8. Compton recoil electron tracking with silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, T.J.; Ait-Ouamer, F.; Schwartz, I.; Tumer, O.T.; White, R.S.; Zych, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The application of silicon strip detectors to Compton gamma ray astronomy telescopes is described in this paper. The Silicon Compton Recoil Telescope (SCRT) tracks Compton recoil electrons in silicon strip converters to provide a unique direction for Compton scattered gamma rays above 1 MeV. With strip detectors of modest positional and energy resolutions of 1 mm FWHM and 3% at 662 keV, respectively, 'true imaging' can be achieved to provide an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity to 1.6 x 10 - 6 γ/cm 2 -s at 2 MeV. The results of extensive Monte Carlo calculations of recoil electrons traversing multiple layers of 200 micron silicon wafers are presented. Multiple Coulomb scattering of the recoil electron in the silicon wafer of the Compton interaction and the next adjacent wafer is the basic limitation to determining the electron's initial direction

  9. RITA, a promising Monte Carlo code for recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desalvo, A.; Rosa, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code previously set up to simulate ion penetration in amorphous solids has been extended to handle with recoil phenomena. Preliminary results are compared with existing experimental data. (author)

  10. RECOILING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN SPIN-FLIP RADIO GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, F. K.; Wang Dong; Chen Xian

    2012-01-01

    Numerical relativity simulations predict that coalescence of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries leads not only to a spin flip but also to a recoiling of the merger remnant SMBHs. In the literature, X-shaped radio sources are popularly suggested to be candidates for SMBH mergers with spin flip of jet-ejecting SMBHs. Here we investigate the spectral and spatial observational signatures of the recoiling SMBHs in radio sources undergoing black hole spin flip. Our results show that SMBHs in most spin-flip radio sources have mass ratio q ∼> 0.3 with a minimum possible value q min ≅ 0.05. For major mergers, the remnant SMBHs can get a kick velocity as high as 2100 km s –1 in the direction within an angle ∼< 40° relative to the spin axes of remnant SMBHs, implying that recoiling quasars are biased to be with high Doppler-shifted broad emission lines while recoiling radio galaxies are biased to large apparent spatial off-center displacements. We also calculate the distribution functions of line-of-sight velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacements for spin-flip radio sources with different apparent jet reorientation angles. Our results show that the larger the apparent jet reorientation angle is, the larger the Doppler-shifting recoiling velocity and apparent spatial off-center displacement will be. We investigate the effects of recoiling velocity on the dust torus in spin-flip radio sources and suggest that recoiling of SMBHs would lead to 'dust-poor' active galactic nuclei. Finally, we collect a sample of 19 X-shaped radio objects and for each object give the probability of detecting the predicted signatures of recoiling SMBH.

  11. Recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R. (Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica); Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-12-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  12. Recoil-proton fast-neutron-counter telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A proton-recoil neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time-of-flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV, presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV.

  13. A recoil-proton fast-neutron counter telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.; Galeazzi, G.; Bressanini, G.

    1981-01-01

    A recoil-proton neutron counter telescope is described composed of a solid-state silicon transmission detector and a NE 102 A plastic scintillator, measuring the energy loss, the energy of the recoil protons and the time of flight between the two detectors. The counter exposed to monoenergetic neutron beams of energy from 6 to 20 MeV presents a low background and a moderate energy resolution. Its absolute efficiency is calculated up to 50 MeV. (author)

  14. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jiayin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Center for Future High Energy Physics; Li, Ying-Ying [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Kowloon (China). Dept. of Physics

    2017-10-15

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process (e{sup +}e{sup -}→ν anti νh) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z (e{sup +}e{sup -}→hZ, Z→ν anti ν). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, m{sup p}{sub recoil}, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can better separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events than the original recoil mass variable m{sub recoil}. Consequently, the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the m{sup p}{sub recoil} variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies.

  15. Optimizing Higgs factories by modifying the recoil mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayin; Li, Ying-Ying

    2018-02-01

    It is difficult to measure the WW-fusion Higgs production process ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}{{h}}) at a lepton collider with a center of mass energy of 240-250 GeV due to its small rate and the large background from the Higgsstrahlung process with an invisible Z ({{{e}}}+{{{e}}}-\\to {{hZ}},{{Z}}\\to {{ν }}\\bar{{{ν }}}). We construct a modified recoil mass variable, {m}{{recoil}}p, defined using only the 3-momentum of the reconstructed Higgs particle, and show that it can separate the WW-fusion and Higgsstrahlung events better than the original recoil mass variable m recoil. Consequently, the {m}{{recoil}}p variable can be used to improve the overall precisions of the extracted Higgs couplings, in both the conventional framework and the effective-field-theory framework. We also explore the application of the {m}{{recoil}}p variable in the inclusive cross section measurements of the Higgsstrahlung process, while a quantitive analysis is left for future studies. JG is Supported by an International Postdoctoral Exchange Fellowship Program between the Office of the National Administrative Committee of Postdoctoral Researchers of China (ONACPR) and DESY. YYL is Supported by Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (HKPFS) and the Collaborative Research Fund (CRF) (HUKST4/CRF/13G)

  16. Multi-faceted evaluation for nuclear fuel cycles with transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Environment impact, economy and proliferation resistance were estimated for nuclear fuel cycles involving transmutation by fast reactor and accelerator-driven system in equilibrium state. As a result, the transmutation scenario using only fast reactor was superior to the scenarios combined with accelerator-driven system in all estimation, but the differences were insignificant. (author)

  17. General solution of Bateman equations for nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetnar, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns the linear chain method of solving Bateman equations for nuclear transmutation in derivation of the general solution for linear chain with repeated transitions and thus elimination of existing numerical problems. In addition, applications of derived equations for transmutation trajectory analysis method is presented

  18. Effects of actinide compositional variability in the U.S. spent fuel inventory on partitioning-transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Michaels, G.E.; Hanson, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    The partitioning and transmutation concept (P-T) has as a mission the reduction by many orders of magnitude of certain undesirable nuclides in the waste streams. Given that only a very small fiction of spent fuel can be rejected by a P-T enterprise, a P-T system must therefore be capable of accommodating a wide range of spent fuel characteristics. Variability of nuclide composition (i.e. the feed material for transmutation devices) may be important because virtually all transmutation systems propose to configure TRU nuclides recovered from discharged LWR fuel in critical or near-critical cores. To date, all transmutation system core analyses assume nonvariable nuclide concentrations for startup and recycle cores. Using the Department of Energy (DOES) Characteristic Data Base (CDB) and the ORIGEN2 computer code, the current and projected spent fuel discharges until the year 2016 have been categorized according to combinations of fuel burnup, initial enrichment, fuel age (cooling time) and reactor type (boiling-water or pressurized-water reactor). In addition to quantifying the variability of nuclide composition in current and projected LWR fuel discharge, the variability of the infinite multiplication factor (K ∞ ) is calculated for both fast (ALMR) and thermal (accelerator-based) transmuter systems. It is shown that actinide compositional variations are potentially significant and warrant further investigation. (authors)

  19. Transmutation of fission products with the use of an accelarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, T.; Harada, H.; Takahashi, T.

    1995-01-01

    The three transmutation methods with the use of an accelerator, the proton method, the spallation neutron method and the μCF method, are employed for the transmutation of long-lived nuclides in high level radioactive wastes. The transmutation energies and the effective half-lives of 99 Tc and 137 Cs for these transmutation methods are calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation codes for particle transport. The transmutation energies of the proton method are larger than those of the spallation neutron method and the μCF method under the condition of the same effective half life. The proton method is difficult to meet energy balance criterion. On the other hand, the spallation neutron method and the μCF method have possibility to meet the energy balance criterion. (author)

  20. Progress in transmutation targets from Efttra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Warin, D.; Bonnerot, J.M.; Garzenne, C.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Maschek, W.; Schram, R.; Klaassen, F.

    2007-01-01

    Since 15 years, the EFTTRA partners have organised programmes to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of americium in uranium-free targets. In the related transmutation scenario, the targets are introduced in a thermal neutron zone of a fast reactor, to maximize the efficiency of transmutation. Amongst these programmes, those carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten have led to important conclusions and are still at the core of the research in that field. The analysis of the EFTTRA T4 and T4bis irradiation experiments, carried out with targets of MgAl 2 O 4 +11 wt% 241 Am, showed that the release/trapping of helium is the key issue for target design, and also demonstrated a lack of technical benefits of this material, due to a unsatisfactory in-pile behaviour in terms of irradiation damage and chemical stability. A new irradiation experiment called HELIOS is currently under fabrication and will be carried out in HFR. The in-pile behaviour of U-free fuels and targets such as (Am,Zr)O 2 , (Pu,Am,Zr)O 2 , CERCER (MgO) or CERMET (Mo) will be examined. The irradiation temperature will be high enough in some of the pins to be able to tune the release of a significant fraction of helium produced so that the material swelling can be minimized as much as reasonably possible. The HELIOS irradiation experiment is planned to be carried out in the HFR core and shall last 300 full power days starting in 2007. (authors)

  1. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, Isabelle; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Neumayer, Denis; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93} Zr, {sup 94} To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW, respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Work is progressing in relation to a proposal for the 7th framework programme. This proposal will be aiming at a pilot plant for separation for transmutation purposes.

  2. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E.E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-02-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 16 and 1.88 x 10 18 cm - 2 . After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures ( 0 exp(δ/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

  3. Statistical Transmutation in Floquet Driven Optical Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrakyan, Tigran A; Galitski, Victor M; Kamenev, Alex

    2015-11-06

    We show that interacting bosons in a periodically driven two dimensional (2D) optical lattice may effectively exhibit fermionic statistics. The phenomenon is similar to the celebrated Tonks-Girardeau regime in 1D. The Floquet band of a driven lattice develops the moat shape, i.e., a minimum along a closed contour in the Brillouin zone. Such degeneracy of the kinetic energy favors fermionic quasiparticles. The statistical transmutation is achieved by the Chern-Simons flux attachment similar to the fractional quantum Hall case. We show that the velocity distribution of the released bosons is a sensitive probe of the fermionic nature of their stationary Floquet state.

  4. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

  5. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz

    2008-11-15

    We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another, weaker type of singularity where the permittivity and permeability tensors are discontinuous at one point. The method is likely to find applications in designing and improving optical devices by making them easier to implement or to operate in a broad band of the spectrum.

  6. Strong coupling transmutation of Yukawa theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, C.C.; Chiu, C.B.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1981-01-01

    In the strong coupling limit, it is shown that the Yukawa-type theory can be made to undergo a transmutation into an attractive separable potential theory, provided a single state is removed from the spectrum in the lowest nontrivial sector and the states at infinity which include a continuum in the next sector. If these states are not removed, the two theories are distinct. It is suggested that the full equivalence and the renormalization of four-fermion theories need further examination. (orig.)

  7. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2006-02-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-α-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

  8. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

  9. II. Inhibited diffusion driven surface transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubb, Talbot A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain lwamura 2-α-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D + ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks. (author)

  10. II. Inhibited diffusion driven surface transmutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubb, Talbot A. [Greenwich Corp., 5023 N. 38th St., Arlington, VA 22207 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain lwamura 2-{alpha}-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D{sup +} ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks. (author)

  11. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid; Caron-Carles, Marylise

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  12. Development of CERMET fuels for minor actinides transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Naestren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Maschek, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01

    The sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is now being considered as a potential means to burn long-lived transuranium nuclides. The preferred fuel for such a fast neutron reactor is uranium-free, highly enriched with plutonium and minor actinides. Requirements for ADS transmutation fuels are linked with the core design and safety parameters, the fuel properties and the ease of reprocessing. This study concerns the properties of metals as matrices, with the particular case of Mo. To improve the neutronic characteristics, enriched molybdenum (Mo-92) is required. To overcome the high enrichment cost, it is proposed to recover the matrix by pellet dissolution, and to recycle it for further use. Irradiation programmes are also planned to examine the in-reactor properties of the material. Based on the current status of the research, the results are promising, but irradiation results are still missing. (authors)

  13. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venneri, F.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power

  14. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venneri, F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safe, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

  15. Evidence for the occurrence of LENR-type processes in alchemic transmutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Pariente, Joaquin [Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Marie Curie 2, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The relevance of experimental aspects of alchemy have been neglected for too long in the academic milieu, but in recent years more thoughtful studies of texts from the middle ages and early modern European alchemy evidence the presence of coherent and relevant laboratory practices. However, the central core of western alchemy, the quest for the Philosophers' Stone, the substance claimed to transmute base metals into gold, remains, needless to say, elusive. While no book will ever tell us how to prepare such substance, it is nevertheless also true that detailed reports on alchemic transmutations, often authored by witnesses of such events, can be found profusely in alchemic literature. These reports usually contain valuable information regarding quantitative aspects of the transmutation processes. Taking into account numerical parameters of alchemic transmutations such as the weights of starting base metal, gold and Philosophers' Stone, and the duration of the transmutation experiences, it has been found that the transmutation processes follow a specific pattern similar to that generally observed in conventional catalytic reactions. In the present work, several examples of alchemic practices and objects are reported that, taken as a whole, challenge our actual view on the constitution of matter. First, new data are presented which support the catalytic-like performance of the Philosophers' Stone. Indeed, such behaviour is consistent with the alchemic view on the evolution of metals, which conceives the transmutation as an acceleration of the ripening of base metals towards the more perfect gold which takes place in Nature by means of a slow maturation process inside the Earth's womb. Second, differences between the weight of the starting base metal and the weight of the gold (or silver) obtained at the end of the transmutation process are often noticed in the texts, but no satisfactory explanation for such observation has been given so far

  16. Evidence for the occurrence of LENR-type processes in alchemic transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Pariente, Joaquin

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of experimental aspects of alchemy have been neglected for too long in the academic milieu, but in recent years more thoughtful studies of texts from the middle ages and early modern European alchemy evidence the presence of coherent and relevant laboratory practices. However, the central core of western alchemy, the quest for the Philosophers' Stone, the substance claimed to transmute base metals into gold, remains, needless to say, elusive. While no book will ever tell us how to prepare such substance, it is nevertheless also true that detailed reports on alchemic transmutations, often authored by witnesses of such events, can be found profusely in alchemic literature. These reports usually contain valuable information regarding quantitative aspects of the transmutation processes. Taking into account numerical parameters of alchemic transmutations such as the weights of starting base metal, gold and Philosophers' Stone, and the duration of the transmutation experiences, it has been found that the transmutation processes follow a specific pattern similar to that generally observed in conventional catalytic reactions. In the present work, several examples of alchemic practices and objects are reported that, taken as a whole, challenge our actual view on the constitution of matter. First, new data are presented which support the catalytic-like performance of the Philosophers' Stone. Indeed, such behaviour is consistent with the alchemic view on the evolution of metals, which conceives the transmutation as an acceleration of the ripening of base metals towards the more perfect gold which takes place in Nature by means of a slow maturation process inside the Earth's womb. Second, differences between the weight of the starting base metal and the weight of the gold (or silver) obtained at the end of the transmutation process are often noticed in the texts, but no satisfactory explanation for such observation has been given so far. Weight decreases are

  17. Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program. Progress report, April 1--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedder, D. W.; Blomeke, J. O. [comps.

    1977-10-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was continued. Summaries of work are given on Purex Process modifications, actinide recovery, Am-Cm recovery, radiation effects on ion exchangers, LMFBR transmutation studies, thermal reactor transmutation studies, fuel cycle studies, and partitioning-transmutation evaluation. (JRD)

  18. ;Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe; Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu; Vandenberghe, Valérie; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane; Béchade, Jean-Luc; Raepsaet, Caroline; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Bayon, Guy; Ott, Frédéric

    2017-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000-4000 wt ppm and 1.0-1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant.

  19. Boiling crisis as inhibition of bubble detachment by the vapor recoil force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, V.S.; Beysens, D.; Garrabos, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. In this communication we present a physical model of the boiling crisis based on the vapor recoil effect. Our numerical simulations of the thermally controlled bubble growth at high heat fluxes show how the bubble begins to spread over the heater thus forming a germ for the vapor film. The vapor recoil force not only causes the vapor spreading, it also creates a strong adhesion to the heater that prevents the bubble departure, thus favoring the further bubble spreading. Near the liquid-gas critical point, the bubble growth is very slow and allows the kinetics of the bubble spreading to be observed. Since the surface tension is very small in this regime, only microgravity conditions can preserve a convex bubble shape. Under such conditions, we observed an increase of the apparent contact angle and spreading of the dry spot under the bubble, thus confirming our model of the boiling crisis. (authors)

  20. The morphology of collision cascades as a function of recoil energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.

    1989-09-01

    An analytical method based on defect densities has been devised to determine the threshold energies for subcascade formation in computer simulated collision cascades. Cascades generated with the binary collision code MARLOWE in Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Fe, Mo and W were analyzed to determine the threshold energy for subcascade formation, the number of subcascades per recoil per unit energy and the average spacing of subcascades. Compared on the basis of reduced damage energy, metals of the same crystal structure have subcascade thresholds at the same reduced energy. The number of subcascades per unit reduced damage energy is about the same for metals of the same crystal structure, and the average spacing of subcascades is about the same in units of lattice parameters. Comparisons between subcascade threshold energies and average recoil energies in fission and fusion neutron environments show the spectral sensitivity of the formation of subcascades

  1. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then undergone radioactive decay to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal radionuclides remaining. It was therefore at first sight an attractive concept to recycle the actinides to nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. Thus, investigations of the feasibility and potential benefits and hazards of the concept of 'actinide partitioning and transmutation' were started in numerous countries in the mid-1970s. This final report summarizes the results and conclusions of technical studies performed in connection with a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, started in 1976, on the ''Environmental Evaluation and Hazard Assessment of the Separation of Actinides from Nuclear Wastes followed by either Transmutation or Separate Disposal''. Although many related studies are still continuing, e.g. on waste disposal, long-term safety assessments, and waste actinide management (particularly for low and intermediate-level wastes), some firm conclusions on the overall concept were drawn by the programme participants, which are reflected in this report

  2. Deep burn transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Baxter, A.; McEachern, D.; Venneri, F.; Williams, D.

    2002-01-01

    Helium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors with ceramic-coated fuel particles offer unique advantages for the destruction of transuranic materials discharged in Light Water Reactor spent fuel. This is accomplished by fission, and capture-followed-by-fission processes. Three major features make it practical: (1) ceramic-coated particles accommodate high levels of burnup in one pass, thus reducing the need for repeated reprocessing; (2) graphite moderation produces valuable opportunities for thermal and epithermal neutrons to interact with fissionable and non-fissionable materials respectively; and (3) ceramic-coated particle kernel sizes can be adjusted to control the rate of such interactions. In the transmutation scheme proposed here, virtually complete destruction of weapons-usable materials, and 95% destruction of all transuranic waste is achieved. Higher levels of destruction are possible by repeated reprocessing and recycling, but there is little incentive to do so since each reprocessing step generates new secondary waste. After transmutation, the impervious ceramic-coated fuel particles provide an ideal residual waste form. (author)

  3. 4th Neutron Transmutation Doping Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    viii The growing use of NTD silicon outside the U. S. A. motivated an interest in having the next NTD conference in Europe. Therefore, the Third International Conference on Neutron Transmutation-Doped Silicon was organized by Jens Guldberg and held in Copenhagen, Denmark on August 27-29, 1980. The papers presented at this conference reviewed the developments which occurred during the t'A'O years since the previous conference and included papers on irradiation technology, radiation-induced defects, characteriza­ tion of NTD silicon, and the use of NTD silicon for device appli­ cations. The proceedings of this conference were edited by Jens Guldberg and published by Plenum Press in 1981. Interest in, and commercial use of, NTD silicon continued to grow after the Third NTD Conference, and research into neutron trans­ mutation doping of nonsilicon semiconductors had begun to accel­ erate. The Fourth International Transmutation Doping Conference reported in this volume includes invited papers summarizing the p...

  4. A code system for ADS transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolly, A.; Vertes, P.

    2001-01-01

    An accelerator driven reactor physical system can be divided into two different subsystems. One is the neutron source the other is the subcritical reactor. Similarly, the modelling of such system is also split into two parts. The first step is the determination of the spatial distribution and angle-energy spectrum of neutron source in the target region; the second one is the calculation of neutron flux which is responsible for the transmutation process in the subcritical system. Accelerators can make neutrons from high energy protons by spallation or photoneutrons from accelerated electrons by Bremsstrahlung (e-n converter). The Monte Carlo approach is the only way of modelling such processes and it might be extended to the whole subcritical system as well. However, a subcritical reactor may be large, it may contain thermal regions and the lifetime of neutrons may be long. Therefore a comprehensive Monte Carlo modelling of such system is a very time consuming computational process. It is unprofitable as well when applied to system optimization that requires a comparative study of large number of system variants. An appropriate method of deterministic transport calculation may adequately satisfy these requirements. Thus, we have built up a coupled calculational model for ADS to be used for transmutation of nuclear waste which we refer further as M-c-T system. Flow chart is shown in Figure. (author)

  5. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Drouet, Francois; Ekberg, Christian; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2005-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 93}Zr and {sup 126}Sn and activation products ({sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. This separation is necessary to obtain the desired efficiency in the transmutation process in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union sixth framework program project EUROPART. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development.

  6. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I, 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work

  7. Transmutation of minor actinide using thorium fueled BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilo, Jati

    2002-01-01

    One of the methods to conduct transmutation of minor actinide is the use of BWR with thorium fuel. Thorium fuel has a specific behaviour of producing a little secondary minor actinides. Transmutation of minor actinide is done by loading it in the BWR with thorium fuel through two methods, namely close recycle and accumulation recycle. The calculation of minor actinide composition produced, weigh of minor actinide transmuted, and percentage of reminder transmutation was carried SRAC. The calculations were done to equivalent cell modeling from one fuel rod of BWR. The results show that minor actinide transmutation is more effective using thorium fuel than uranium fuel, through both close recycle and accumulation recycle. Minor actinide transmutation weight show that the same value for those recycle for 5th recycle. And most of all minor actinide produced from 5 unit BWR uranium fuel can transmuted in the 6 t h of close recycle. And, the minimal value of excess reactivity of the core is 12,15 % Δk/k, that is possible value for core operation

  8. Progress on the Application of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J. Rory; Fielding, Randall; Janney, Dawn; Mariani, Robert; Teague, Melissa; Egeland, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is developing actinide bearing alloy metallic fuels intended for effecting the transmutation of long-lived isotopes in fast reactor application as part of a partitioning and transmutation strategy. This presentation will report on progress in three areas of this effort: demonstration of the fabrication of fuels under remote (hot cell) conditions directly coupled to the product from the Pyro-processing of spent fuel as part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Studies (JFCS) collaboration with the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI); the chemical sequestration of lanthanide fission products to mitigate fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction (FCCI); and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) studies on the as-cast microstructure of the metallic fuel alloy. For the JFCS efforts, we report on the implementation of the Glove-box Advanced Casting System (GACS) as a prototype casting furnace for eventual installation into the INL Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) where the recycled fuel will be cast. Results from optimising process parameters with respect to fuel characteristics, americium volatility, materials interaction, and lanthanide fission product carry over distribution will be discussed. With respect to the lanthanide carry over from the Pyro-processing product, encouraging studies on concepts to chemically sequester the FCCI promoting lanthanides within the fuel matrix thus inhibiting migration and interaction with the cladding will be presented. Finally, in relation to advanced modelling and simulation efforts, detailed investigations and interpretation on the nano-scale as cast microstructure of possible recycle fuel composition containing U, Pu, Am, Np as well as carry-over lanthanide species will be discussed. These studies are important for establishing the initial conditions from which advanced physics based fuel performance codes will run. (authors)

  9. Minor actinides transmutation performance in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for calculating MA transmutation for individual nuclides has been proposed by introducing two formulas of the MA transmutation. One corresponds to the difference of MA amounts, and the other corresponds to the sum of the fission amounts and the plutonium production amounts. • Using the method the MA transmutation was calculated for Np-237 and Am-241 in a fast reactor. The burnup period was changed from 1 year to 12 year. • For the 1 year burnup a large amount of Am-242m, Cm-242 are produced from Am-241. The total MA transmutation amount increases with burnup time, but its gradient with respect to burnup time decreases after 9 years, and the transmutation amount by overall fission increases almost linearly with burnup time. • However, after the 6 year burnup the fission contribution became large because of the large production of Pu isotopes from the original Am-241. • In addition to the homogeneous loading of the MA nuclides into the cores, a heterogeneous loading of Am-241 to the blanket region was considered. - Abstract: Results obtained in the project named “Study on Minor Actinides Transmutation using Monju Data”, which has been sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan (MEXT) are described. In order to physically understand transmutation of individual MA nuclides in fast reactors, a new method was developed in which the MAs transmutation is interpreted by two formulas. One corresponds to the difference of individual MA nuclides amounts before and after a burnup period, and the other is the sum of amount of fission of a relevant MA nuclide and the net plutonium production from the MA nuclide during a burnup period. The method has been applied to two fast reactors with MA fuels loaded in cores homogeneously and in a blanket region heterogeneously. Numerical results of MA transmutation for the two reactors are shown.

  10. Photofragment angular momentum distribution beyond the axial recoil approximation: Predissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladislav V.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2007-01-01

    We present the quantum mechanical expressions for the angular momentum distribution of the photofragments produced in slow predissociation. The paper is based on our recent theoretical treatment [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 034307 (2005)] of the recoil angle dependence of the photofragment multipole moments which explicitly treat the role of molecular axis rotation on the electronic angular momentum polarization of the fragments. The electronic wave function of the molecule was used in the adiabatic body frame representation. The rigorous expressions for the fragment state multipoles which have been explicitly derived from the scattering wave function formalism have been used for the case of slow predissociation where a molecule lives in the excited quasibound state much longer than a rotation period. Possible radial nonadiabatic interactions were taken into consideration. The optical excitation of a single rotational branch and the broadband incoherent excitation of all possible rotational branches have been analyzed in detail. The angular momentum polarization of the photofragments has been treated in the high-J limit. The polarization of the photofragment angular momenta predicted by the theory depends on photodissociation mechanism and can in many cases be significant

  11. Neutronic design and analysis on dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the fusion driven sub-critical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shanliang; Wu Yican; Gao Chunjing; Xu Dezheng; Li Jingjing; Zhu Xiaoxiang

    2004-01-01

    Neutronics design and analysis of dual-cooled multi-functional waste transmutation blanket (DWTB) for the fusion driven sub-critical system (FDS) are performed to ensure the system be able to meet the requirements of fuel-sufficiency and more waste transmutation ratio with low initial loading fuel inventory, which is based on 1-D burn-up calculations with home-developed code Visual BUS and the multi-group (175 neutron groups-42 Gamma groups coupled) data library HENDL1.0/MG (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). (authors)

  12. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N.; Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P.; Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de

    1999-01-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be 11 B 4 C and CaH 2 for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO X pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  13. The Molten Salt Fast Reactor as Highly Efficient Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merk, B.; Rohde, U.; Scholl, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion and future steps: • MSFR offers very attractive features for efficient transmutation; • significant advantages due to liquid fuel and online refuelling and reprocessing; • significant developments are required on the way to application; • system is very promising for transmutation; • development of a safety approach for liquid fuel reactors (RSWG); • investigation of possibilities to solve the “last transmuter” problem (ICAPP2013) – as future for countries envisaging nuclear phase out or no transition to fast reactor fleet for energy production; • establishing of a strong group “MSFR for transmutation”; • development of a transmutation optimized design

  14. Proposed partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Rawlins, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW e . 14 refs., 10 figs

  15. Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the key issues in today's political and public discussions on nuclear energy. One of the fields that looks into the future possibilities of nuclear technology is the neutronic transmutation of actinides and of some most important fission products. Studies on transmutation of actinides are carried out in various countries and at an international level. This status report which gives an up-to-date general overview of current and planned research on transmutation of actinides and fission products in non-OECD countries, has been prepared by a Technical Committee meeting organized by the IAEA in September 1995. 168 refs, 16 figs, 34 tabs

  16. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear transmutation could be used in the elimination or reduction of hazards from radioactive wastes. The rationale for this suggestion is the subject of this paper. The objectives of partitioning-transmutation are described. The benefits are evaluated. The author concludes that transmutation would appear at best to offer the opportunity of reducing an already low risk. This would not seem to be justifiable considering the cost. If non-radiological risks are considered, there is a negative total benefit

  17. Shallow doping of gallium arsenide by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.; Souza, J.P. de; Rutz, R.F.; Cardone, F.; Norcott, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Si atoms were recoil-implanted into GaAs by bombarding neutral (As + ) or dopant (Si + ) ions through a thin Si cap. The bombarded samples were subsequently rapid thermally or furnace annealed at 815-1000 degree C in Ar or arsine ambient. The presence of the recoiled Si in GaAs and resulting n + -doping was confirmed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and Hall measurements. It was found that sheet resistance of 19 cm 3 and the annealing temperature was > 850 degree C. The present electrical data show that the recoil implant method is a viable alternative to direct shallow implant for n + doping of GaAs. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Recoil effects of neutron-irradiated metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of sup(56)Mn and sup(38)Cl recoil species following radiative neutron capture permanganates, chlorates and perchlorates has been investigated by using ion-exchange chromatography method. The whole of the sup(56)Mn radioactivity in permanganates appeared in two valence states, the sup(38)Cl radioactivity in chlorates in two valence states and also the sup(38)Cl radioactivity in perchlorates in three valence states. Recoil energy was calculated. The internal conversion of sup(38m)Cl isomer transition affects the retention value. The greater the radii of the cation, the higher is the probability of the recoil atom breaking through the secondary cage. In ammonium salt, the ammonium ion behaves as a reducing agent. Crystal structures with their greater free space have shown by retention. (Author)

  19. Recoil release of fission products from nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical approximation is developed for calculating recoil release from nuclear fuel into gas filled interspaces. This expression is evaluated for a number of interspace geometries and shown to be generally accurate to within about 10% by comparison with numerical calculations. The results are applied to situations of physical interest and it is demonstrated that recoil can be important when modelling fission product release from low temperature CAGR pin failures. Furthermore, recoil can contribute significantly in experiments on low temperature fission product release, particularly where oxidation enhancement of this release is measured by exposing the fuel to CO 2 . The calculations presented here are one way of allowing for this, other methods are suggested. (orig.)

  20. Time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabalais, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Ion scattering and recoiling spectrometry consists of directing a collimated beam of monoenergetic ions towards a surface and measuring the flux of scattered and recoiled particles from this surface. When the neutral plus ion flux is velocity selected by measuring the flight times from the sample to the detector, the technique is called time-of-flight scattering and recoiling spectrometry (TOF-SARS). TOF-SARS is capable of (1) surface elemental analysis by applying classical mechanics to the velocities of the particles, (2) surface structural analysis by monitoring the angular anisotropies in the particle flux, and (3) ion-surface electron exchange probabilities by analysis of the ion/neutral fractions in the particle flux. Examples of these three areas are presented herein

  1. Recycling and transmutation of spent fuel as a sustainable option for the nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the option of recycling and transmutation of radioactive waste against Once-through Fuel Cycle (OTC) based on uranium feed under the perspective of sustainability. We use a qualitative analysis to compare OTC with closed fuel cycles based on studies already performed such as the Red Impact Project and the comparative study on accelerator driven systems and fast reactors for advanced fuel cycles performed by the Nuclear Energy Agency. The results show that recycling and transmutation fuel cycles are more attractive than the OTC from the point of view of sustainability. The main conclusion is that the decision about the construction of a deep geological repository for spent fuel disposal must be reevaluated. (author)

  2. RECOILING MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN GAS-RICH GALAXY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, Javiera; Madau, Piero; Mayer, Lucio; Callegari, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric emission of gravitational waves produced during the coalescence of a massive black hole (MBH) binary imparts a velocity 'kick' to the system that can displace the hole from the center of its host. Here, we study the trajectories and observability of MBHs recoiling in three (one major, two minor) gas-rich galaxy merger remnants that were previously simulated at high resolution, and in which the pairing of the MBHs had been shown to be successful. We run new simulations of MBHs recoiling in the major merger remnant with Mach numbers in the range 1≤M≤6 and use simulation data to construct a semi-analytical model for the orbital evolution of MBHs in gas-rich systems. We show the following. (1) In major merger remnants the energy deposited by the moving hole into the rotationally supported, turbulent medium makes a negligible contribution to the thermodynamics of the gas. This contribution becomes significant in minor merger remnants, potentially allowing for an electromagnetic signature of MBH recoil. (2) In major merger remnants, the combination of both deeper central potential well and drag from high-density gas confines even MBHs with kick velocities as high as 1200 km s -1 within 1 kpc from the host's center. (3) Kinematically offset nuclei may be observable for timescales of a few Myr in major merger remnants in the case of recoil velocities in the range 700-1000 km s -1 . (4) In minor merger remnants the effect of gas drag is weaker, and MBHs with recoil speeds in the range 300-600 km s -1 will wander through the host halo for longer timescales. When accounting for the probability distribution of kick velocities, however, we find that the likelihood of observing recoiling MBHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers is very low even in the best-case scenario.

  3. Enhancing the sensitivity of recoil-beta tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J; Jenkins, D G; Davies, P J; Henry, T W; Joshi, P; Nichols, A J; Ruotsalainen, P; Scholey, C; Auranen, K; Grahn, T; Greenlees, P T; Herzáň, A; Jakobsson, U; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Konki, J; Leino, M; Pakarinen, J; Lotay, G; Obertelli, A

    2013-01-01

    Tagging with β-particles at the focal plane of a recoil separator has been shown to be an effective technique for the study of exotic proton-rich nuclei. This article describes three new pieces of apparatus used to greatly improve the sensitivity of the recoil-beta tagging technique. These include a highly-pixelated double-sided silicon strip detector, a plastic phoswich detector for discriminating high-energy β-particles, and a charged-particle veto box. The performance of these new detectors is described and characterised, and the resulting improvements are discussed.

  4. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  5. Minor actinide transmutation in a board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meiyin; Tian, Wenxi; Zhang, Dalin; Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1250 MWt board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is further designed. • MCNP–ORIGEN coupled code MCORE is applied to perform neutronics and depletion calculation. • Transmutation efficiency and neutronic safety parameters are compared under different MA weight fraction. - Abstract: In this paper, a board type sodium cooled breed and burn reactor core is further designed and applied to perform minor actinide (MA) transmutation. MA is homogeneously loaded in all the fuel sub-assemblies with a weight fraction of 2.0 wt.%, 4.0 wt.%, 6.0 wt.%, 8.0 wt.%, 10.0 wt.% and 12.0 wt.%, respectively. The transmutation efficiency, transmutation amount, power density distribution, neutron fluence distribution and neutronic safety parameters, such as reactivity, Doppler feedback, void worth and delayed neutron fraction, are compared under different MA weight fraction. Neutronics and depletion calculations are performed based on the self-developed MCNP–ORIGEN coupled code with the ENDF/B-VII data library. In the breed and burn reactor core, a number of breeding sub-assemblies are arranged in the inner core in a board type way (scatter load) to breed, and a number of absorbing sub-assemblies are arranged in the inner side of the outer core to absorb neutrons and reduce power density in this area. All the fuel sub-assemblies (ignition and breeding sub-assemblies) are shuffled from outside in. The core reached asymptotically steady state after about 22 years, and the average and maximum discharged burn-up were about 17.0% and 35.3%, respectively. The transmutation amount increased linearly with the MA weight fraction, while the transmutation rate parabolically varied with the MA weight fraction. Power density in ignition sub-assembly positions increased with the MA weight fraction, while decreased in breeding sub-assembly positions. Neutron fluence decreased with the increase of MA weight fraction. Generally speaking, the core reactivity and void

  6. Some Aspects of Transmutation Studies in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oftedal, P.; Kaplan, W. D. [Norsk Hydro Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); City of Hope Medical Research Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1968-06-15

    The experimental data pertaining to the mutagenic efficiency of {sup 32}P in Drosophila are discussed. It is estimated that the efficiency of the transmutation phenomena is of the order of 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -3} for the induction of recessive lethals. It is thus orders of magnitude lower than that found in bacteria and fungi. The efficiency would be lower - in comparison with the radiation effects - in organisms of greater dimensions than Drosophila, where a smaller fraction of dose is lost through the escape from the organism of high-energy {beta}-particles. Data are also reported on the genetic effects of {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 3}H-lysine and {sup 3}H-arginine. It appears that in all probability the effects may be interpreted as caused by radiation alone, if due regard is given to variations in radiation sensitivity and cellular dimensions during spermiogenesis. (author)

  7. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Englund, Sofie; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark St. J.; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Wald, Karin (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT now in the 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since a further investigation on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour is required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Due to new recruitments we will now also work on ligand design and development. This will decrease the response time between new ligands and their evaluation.

  8. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sofie; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Hervieux, Nadege; Liljenzin, Jan-Olov; Magnusson, Daniel; Nilsson, Mikael; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2006-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ({sup 79}Se, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs) and activation products ({sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}N To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. These separations are necessary to obtain the desired efficiency of the transmutation process and in order not to create any unnecessary waste thus rendering the process useless. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the EUROPART project within the European Union sixth framework program. This is a continuation of the projects we participated in within the fourth and fifth framework programmes, NEWPART and PARTNEW respectively. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. However, since the basic understanding is still needed we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work.

  9. Keynote address at the international conference on nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.

    1980-07-01

    Most of the US research effort on radioactive waste management is concentrated on its solidification and storage in geologic formations. Transmutation is an alternative. It can be applied to weapons plutonium as well to spent fuel

  10. A new concept for accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    A new concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system is described. The central feature of the concept is generation of intense fluxes of thermal neutrons. In the system all long-lived radionuclides comprising high-level nuclear waste can be transmuted efficiently. Transmutation takes place in a unique, low material inventory environment. Presently two principal areas are being investigated for application of the concept. The first is associated with cleanup of defense high-level waste at DOE sites such as Hanford. The second, longer term area involves production of electric power using a coupled accelerator-multiplying blanket system. This system would utilize natural thorium or uranium and would transmute long-lived components of high-level waste concurrently during operation. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. R and D activities for partitioning and transmutation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae-Hyung, Yoo; Won-Seok, Park

    2003-01-01

    According to the long-term plan of nuclear technology development, KAERI is conducting a research and development project of transmutation with the objective of key technology development in the areas of partitioning and transmutation system. The research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides are introduced in this work. The studies of partitioning are focused on the electrorefining and electrowinning, which are aimed at investigating the thermodynamic properties of electrodeposition behaviours as well as the separation efficiency. As for the transmutation system, the HYPER (HYbrid Power Extraction Reactor) combined by a proton accelerator and a sub-critical reactor is being studied in KAERI as a prominent candidate facility in the future. Some conceptual studies are being conducted to develop key elemental systems of the sub-critical reactor such as the core, TRU fuel, proton target, and the cooling system. The conceptual design of the HYPER system will be completed by 2006. (author)

  12. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an im- ... Similar approach was performed for sub critical fast reactor core with Pu/MA .... The same might be addressed to masses of nuclei (the use of experimental values.

  13. Measurements of neutron yields and radioactive isotope transmutation in collisions of relativistic ions with heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is based on the report presented at the 85th Session of the JINR Scientific Council. Some aspects of experimental studies of the problem of reprocessing radioactive wastes by means of transmutation in the fields of neutrons generated by relativistic particle beams are discussed. Research results on measurement of neutron yields in heavy targets irradiated with protons at energies up to 3.7 GeV as well as transmutation cross sections of some fission products (I-129) and actinides (Np-237) using radiochemical methods, activation detectors, solid state nuclear track detectors and other methods are presented. Experiments have been performed at the accelerator complex of the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR. Analogous results obtained by other research groups are also discussed

  14. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  15. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Botts, T.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  16. Accelerator technology for Los Alamos nuclear-waste-transmutation and energy-production concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, G.P.; Jameson, R.A.; Schriber, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    Powerful proton linacs are being studied at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux neutron sources that can transmute long-lived fission products and actinides in defense nuclear waste, and also as drivers of advanced fission-energy systems that could generate electric power with no long-term waste legacy. A transmuter fed by an 800-MeV, 140-mA cw conventional copper linac could destroy the accumulated 99 Tc and 129 I at the DOE's Hanford site within 30 years. A high-efficiency 1200-MeV, 140-mA niobium superconducting linac could drive an energy-producing system generating 1-GWe electric power. Preliminary design concepts for these different high-power linacs are discussed, along with the principal technical issues and the status of the technology base. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Minor actinide transmutation on PWR burnable poison rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Liu, Fang; Huang, Liming; Fu, Juan; Meng, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Key issues associated with MA transmutation are the appropriate loading pattern. • Commercial PWRs are the only choice to transmute MAs in large scale currently. • Considerable amount of MA can be loaded to PWR without disturbing k eff markedly. • Loading MA to PWR burnable poison rods for transmutation is an optimal loading pattern. - Abstract: Minor actinides are the primary contributors to long term radiotoxicity in spent fuel. The majority of commercial reactors in operation in the world are PWRs, so to study the minor actinide transmutation characteristics in the PWRs and ultimately realize the successful minor actinide transmutation in PWRs are crucial problem in the area of the nuclear waste disposal. The key issues associated with the minor actinide transmutation are the appropriate loading patterns when introducing minor actinides to the PWR core. We study two different minor actinide transmutation materials loading patterns on the PWR burnable poison rods, one is to coat a thin layer of minor actinide in the water gap between the zircaloy cladding and the stainless steel which is filled with water, another one is that minor actinides substitute for burnable poison directly within burnable poison rods. Simulation calculation indicates that the two loading patterns can load approximately equivalent to 5–6 PWR annual minor actinide yields without disturbing the PWR k eff markedly. The PWR k eff can return criticality again by slightly reducing the boric acid concentration in the coolant of PWR or removing some burnable poison rods without coating the minor actinide transmutation materials from PWR core. In other words, loading minor actinide transmutation material to PWR does not consume extra neutron, minor actinide just consumes the neutrons which absorbed by the removed control poisons. Both minor actinide loading patterns are technically feasible; most importantly do not need to modify the configuration of the PWR core and

  18. “Study of secondary hydriding at high temperature in zirconium based nuclear fuel cladding tubes by coupling information from neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brachet, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: jean-christophe.brachet@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hamon, Didier; Le Saux, Matthieu [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vandenberghe, Valérie [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service d’Etudes Mécaniques et Thermiques (SEMT), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Rouesne, Elodie; Urvoy, Stéphane [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Béchade, Jean-Luc [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées (SRMA), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique (SRMP), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Raepsaet, Caroline [LEEL, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); and others

    2017-05-15

    This paper gives an overview of a multi-scale experimental study of the secondary hydriding phenomena that can occur in nuclear fuel cladding materials exposed to steam at high temperature (HT) after having burst (loss-of-coolant accident conditions). By coupling information from several facilities, including neutron radiography/tomography, electron probe micro analysis, micro elastic recoil detection analysis and micro laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, it was possible to map quantitatively, at different scales, the distribution of oxygen and hydrogen within M5™ clad segments having experienced ballooning and burst at HT followed by steam oxidation at 1100 and 1200 °C and final direct water quenching down to room temperature. The results were very reproducible and it was confirmed that internal oxidation and secondary hydriding at HT of a cladding after burst can lead to strong axial and azimuthal gradients of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations, reaching 3000–4000 wt ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt% respectively within the β phase layer for the investigated conditions. Consistent with thermodynamic and kinetics considerations, oxygen diffusion into the prior-β layer was enhanced in the regions highly enriched in hydrogen, where the α(O) phase layer is thinner and the prior-β layer thicker. Finally the induced post-quenching hardening of the prior-β layer was mainly related to the local oxygen enrichment. Hardening directly induced by hydrogen was much less significant. - Highlights: •More than 50% of the gaseous hydrogen produced by the inner clad oxidation absorbed and trapped into prior-β layer. •High hydrogen and oxygen local concentrations, up to 3000–4000 wt. ppm and 1.0–1.2 wt.% respectively, within the β phase. •Enhanced oxygen diffusion into hydrogen enriched prior-β layer, with locally thinner α(O) and thicker prior-β layers. •Post-quenching hardening of the prior-β structure mainly related to the (local) oxygen concentration.

  19. Nuclei transmutation by collisions with fast hadrons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Drzymala, A.

    1998-01-01

    Atomic nuclei change their mass- and charge-numbers if bombarded by fast hadrons and nuclei; the transmutation appears as a complicated process. It proceeds in a definite way - through a few stages or phases. Adequate identification of the nucleons and light nuclear fragments emitted and evaporated in a hadron-nucleus or nucleus-nucleus collisions and in the collision-induced intranuclear reactions allows one to estimate quantitatively the nuclei transmutations in the various stages (phases) of the process

  20. Study on neutron spectrum for effective transmutation of minor actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toshikazu; Yokoyama, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    The transmutation of minor actinides (MAs) has been investigated in thermal reactor cells using mixed oxide fuel with MAs. The effect of neutron spectra on transmutation is studied by changing the neutron spectra. Five transmutation rates are compared: direct fission incineration rate, capture transmutation rate, consumption rate, overall fission incineration rate and inventory difference transmutation rate. The relations between these transmutation rates and their dependence on the neutron spectrum were investigated. To effectively incinerate MAs it is necessary to maximize the overall fission incineration rate and the inventory difference transmutation rate. These transmutation rates become maximum when the fraction of neutrons below 1 eV is about 8% for the case where the MA addition is 1-3%. When the MA addition is over 5%, the transmutation rates become maximum for very hard neutron spectrum. (Author)

  1. Grouping in partitioning of HLW for burning and/or transmutation with nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, Asashi; Mulyanto.

    1995-01-01

    A basic concept on partitioning and transmutation treatment by neutron reaction was developed in order to improve the waste management and the disposal scenario of high level waste (HLW). The grouping in partitioning was important factor and closely linked with the characteristics of B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment. The selecting and grouping concept in partitioning of HLW was proposed herein, such as Group MA1 (Np, Am, and unrecovered U and Pu), Group MA2 (Cm, Cf etc.), Group A (Tc and I), Group B (Cs and Sr) and Group R (the partitioned remain of HLW), judging from the three criteria for B/T treatment proposed in this study, which is related to (1) the value of hazard index for long-term tendency based on ALI, (2) the relative dose factor related to the mobility or retardation in ground water penetrated through geologic layer, and (3) burning and/or transmutation characteristics for recycle B/T treatment and the decay acceleration ratio by neutron reaction. Group MA1 and Group A could be burned effectively by thermal B/T reactor. Group MA2 could be burned effectively by fast B/T reactor. Transmutation of Group B by neutron reaction is difficult, therefore the development of radiation application of Group B (Cs and Sr) in industrial scale may be an interesting option in the future. Group R, i.e. the partitioned remains of HLW, and also a part of Group B should be immobilized and solidified by the glass matrix. HI ALI , the hazard index based on ALI, due to radiotoxicity of Group R can be lower than HI ALI due to standard mill tailing (smt) or uranium ore after about 300 years. (author)

  2. Development of transmutation technologies of radioactive waste by actinoid hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konashi, Kenji; Matsui, Hideki; Yamawaki, Michio

    2001-01-01

    Two waste treatment methods, geological disposal and transmutation, have been studied. The transmutation method changes long-lived radioactive nuclides to short-lived one or stabilizes them by nuclear transformation. The transmutation by actinoid hydride is exactly alike that transformation method from actinoid disposal waste to Pu fuel. For this object, OMEGA project is processing now. The transmutation is difficult by two causes such as large amount of long-lived radioactive nuclides and not enough development of control technologies of nuclear reaction except atomic reactor. The transmutation using actinoid hydride has merits that the amount of actinoid charged in the target increases and the effect of thermal neutrons on fuel decreases depending on homogeneous transmutation velocity in the target. Development of stable actinoid hydride under the conditions of reactor temperature and irradiation environment is important. The experimental results of U-ZrH 1.6 are shown in this paper. The irradiation experiment using Th hydride has been proceeding. (S.Y.)

  3. Neutronic assessment of strontium-90 transmutation in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Transmutation of 90 Sr using fusion neutrons has been suggested as a possible technique for disposing of this waste nuclide. For transmutation to be attractive, high transmutation rates relative to natural decay are required. Effective half-lives for 90 Sr were computed for fusion reactor blankets constructed of various materials. To obtain satisfactory transmutation rates, fusion reactors with high first wall neutron currents and with highly moderating blankets were found to be necessary. An effective half-life for 90 Sr of 90 Sr inventory and the number of burners required for various fission usage scenarios. Efficient and fast chemical separations were needed to reap the benefits of a short effective half-life. For the fusion burners considered, it was found that the 90 Sr inventory could not be reduced to less than one-fourth of the inventory without transmutation if fission usage continued at a constant rate. Such a reduction is not sufficient to justify the transmutation disposal of 90 Sr

  4. Overall assessment of actinide partitioning and transmutation for waste management purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Croff, A.G.; Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A program to establish the technical feasibility and incentives for partitioning (i.e., recovering) actinides from fuel cycle wastes and then transmuting them in power reactors to shorter-lived or stable nuclides has recently been concluded at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The feasibility was established by experimentally investigating the reduction that can be practicably achieved in the actinide content of the wastes sent to a geologic repository, and the incentives for implementing this concept were defined by determining the incremental costs, risks, and benefits. Eight US Department of Energy laboratories and three private companies participated in the program over its 3-year duration. A reference fuel cycle was chosen based on a self-generated plutonium recycle PWR, and chemical flowsheets based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange techniques were generated that have the potential to reduce actinides in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plant wastes to less than 0.25% of those in the spent fuel. Waste treatment facilities utilizing these flowsheets were designed conceptually, and their costs were estimated. Finally, the short-term (contemporary) risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term (future) risks from deep geologic disposal of the wastes were estimated for cases with and without partitioning and transmutation. It was concluded that, while both actinide partitioning from wastes and transmutation in power reactors appear to be feasible using currently identified and studied technology, implementation of this concept cannot be justified because of the small long-term benefits and substantially increased costs of the concept

  5. Fluoride partitioning R and D programme for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Priman, V.; Vanicek, J.

    2001-01-01

    The transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into underground repository. The Czech research and development programme in the field of partitioning and transmutation is founded on the Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor system concept with fluoride salts based liquid fuel, the fuel cycle of which is grounded on pyrochemical / pyrometallurgical fluoride partitioning of spent fuel. The main research activities in the field of fluoride partitioning are oriented mainly towards technological research of Fluoride Volatility Method and laboratory research on electro-separation methods from fluoride melts media. The Czech national conception in the area of P and T research issues from the national power industry programme and from the Czech Power Company intentions of the extensive utilization of nuclear power in our country. The experimental R and D work is concentrated mainly in the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc that plays a role of main nuclear research workplace for the Czech Power Company. (author)

  6. Direct Measurement of Photon Recoil from a Levitated Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay; Gieseler, Jan; Moritz, Clemens; Dellago, Christoph; Quidant, Romain; Novotny, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    The momentum transfer between a photon and an object defines a fundamental limit for the precision with which the object can be measured. If the object oscillates at a frequency Ω0 , this measurement backaction adds quanta ℏΩ0 to the oscillator's energy at a rate Γrecoil, a process called photon recoil heating, and sets bounds to coherence times in cavity optomechanical systems. Here, we use an optically levitated nanoparticle in ultrahigh vacuum to directly measure Γrecoil. By means of a phase-sensitive feedback scheme, we cool the harmonic motion of the nanoparticle from ambient to microkelvin temperatures and measure its reheating rate under the influence of the radiation field. The recoil heating rate is measured for different particle sizes and for different excitation powers, without the need for cavity optics or cryogenic environments. The measurements are in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions and provide valuable guidance for the realization of quantum ground-state cooling protocols and the measurement of ultrasmall forces.

  7. Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed ... first order and only mass dispersion is obtained at the focal plane of the ... more details, like, the specifications and a typical beam profile through the ... Further experiments are now in progress to characterize the spectrometer, i.e., to measure.

  8. The Performance of the HRIBF Recoil Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginter, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    The Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) is a mass separator located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper describes the RMS, its performance, its detector systems, and discusses some experiments to illustrate its capabilities

  9. Recoil range distribution measurement in 20Ne + 181Ta reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Guin, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate linear momentum transfer in various transfer channels in 20 Ne + 181 Ta, recoil range distribution measurements have been carried out at E lab = 180 MeV, populating significant number of l-waves above l crit

  10. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) with extremely heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, J.S.; Davies, J.A.; Siegele, R.; Wallace, S.G.; Zelenitsky, D.

    1996-01-01

    Extremely heavy-ion beams such as 209 Bi in elastic recoil detection (ERD) make ERD a uniquely valuable technique for thin-film analysis of elements with mass ≤100. We report ERD measurements of compositional analysis of dinosaur eggshells and bones. We also show the capability of the ERD technique on studies of thin-film, high-temperature superconductors. (orig.)

  11. Assessment of the transmutation capability an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, F.; Peluso, V.; Calabrese; Chen, X.; Maschek, W.

    2007-01-01

    1. PURPOSE The reduction of long-lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) is a key point for the public acceptability and economy of nuclear energy. In principle, any nuclear fast reactor is able to burn and transmute MA, but the amount of MA content has to be limited a few percent, having unfavourable consequences on the coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and delayed neutron fraction, and therefore on the dynamic behaviour and control. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are instead able to safely burn and/or transmute a large quantity of actinides and LLFP, as they do not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have very little importance during accidents. Such systems are very innovative being based on the coupling of an accelerator with a subcritical system by means of a target system, where the neutronic source needed to maintain the neutron reaction chain is produced by spallation reactions. To this end the PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an experimental Accelerator Driven System) project was funded by the European Community in the 5th Framework Program in order both to demonstrate the feasibility of the coupling between an accelerator and a sub-critical core loaded with standard MOX fuel and to investigate the transmutation capability in order to achieve values suitable for an Industrial Scale Transmuter. This paper summarizes and compares the results of neutronic calculations aimed at evaluating the transmutation capability of cores cooled by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic alloy and loaded with assemblies based on (Pu, Am, Cm) oxide dispersed in a molybdenum metal (CERMET) or magnesia (CERCER) matrices. It also describes the constraints considered in the design of such cores and describes the thermo-mechanical behaviour of these innovative fuels along the cycle. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK: The U-free composite fuels (CERMET and CERCER) were selected for this study, being considered at European level

  12. Exclusive ρ0 production measured with the HERMES recoil detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Benito, Roberto Francisco

    2010-12-01

    The Hermes experiment (HERa MEasurement of Spin) at Desy was designed to study the spin structure of the nucleon in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The internal structure of the nucleon has been investigated in detail and it has been measured that the intrinsic quark spin contribution is only about 30% of the total spin of the nucleon. A formalism to describe the internal structure of the nucleon called Generalised Patron Distributions (GPDs) was developed recently to understand the fundamental structure of the nucleon. These GPDs can be accessed by the measurement of hard exclusive reactions and hard exclusive processes that can be understood in terms of GPDs. The accumulated Hermes data offer access to GPDs in different combinations of beam charge and beam and target helicity asymmetries. To improve exclusivity and to enhance the resolution of kinematic variables to study hard exclusive processes which provide access to the GPDs and hence to the orbital angular momentum of the quarks, in January 2006 a Recoil Detector was installed that surrounded the internal gas target of the Hermes experiment. The Hermes Recoil Detector consisted of three components: a silicon strip detector inside the vacuum, a scintillating fiber tracker and the photon detector. All three detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnet which provided a 1T longitudinal magnetic field. The Recoil Detector improves the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the momentum and track position of the recoiling particle as well as by rejecting non-exclusive background. This detector was an ideal novel tool to combine energy and position measurements for charged particles in a momentum range of 0.1 to 1.4 GeV/c. The Recoil Detector was fully commissioned and operating. Data was taken continuously until the final Hera shutdown in July of 2007. In this thesis we report on the performance of the Recoil Detector and more specifically about the scintillating fiber tracker

  13. Simulating irradiation hardening in tungsten under fast neutron irradiation including Re production by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Hsi; Gilbert, Mark R.; Marian, Jaime

    2018-02-01

    Simulations of neutron damage under fusion energy conditions must capture the effects of transmutation, both in terms of accurate chemical inventory buildup as well as the physics of the interactions between transmutation elements and irradiation defect clusters. In this work, we integrate neutronics, primary damage calculations, molecular dynamics results, Re transmutation calculations, and stochastic cluster dynamics simulations to study neutron damage in single-crystal tungsten to mimic divertor materials. To gauge the accuracy and validity of the simulations, we first study the material response under experimental conditions at the JOYO fast reactor in Japan and the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for which measurements of cluster densities and hardening levels up to 2 dpa exist. We then provide calculations under expected DEMO fusion conditions. Several key mechanisms involving Re atoms and defect clusters are found to govern the accumulation of irradiation damage in each case. We use established correlations to translate damage accumulation into hardening increases and compare our results to the experimental measurements. We find hardening increases in excess of 5000 MPa in all cases, which casts doubts about the integrity of W-based materials under long-term fusion exposure.

  14. FCRD Advanced Reactor (Transmutation) Fuels Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. U-Pu-Zr alloys are well suited for electrolytic refining, which leads to incorporation rare-earth fission products such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd. It is, therefore, important to understand not only the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys but also those of U-Pu-Zr alloys with concentrations of minor actinides (Np, Am) and rare-earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) similar to those in reprocessed fuel. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U, Pu, and minor actinides (Np and Am) are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phasetransformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, rapid oxidation, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Although less toxic, rare-earth elements such as La, Ce, Pr, and Nd are also difficult to study for similar reasons. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, particularly those that also contain minor actinides and rare-earth elements. General acceptance of results commonly indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, Np, Am, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd and

  15. Transmutation and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresee, James

    2007-01-01

    In the January 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush announced a new Advanced Energy Initiative, a significant part of which is the Global Nuclear Energy Initiative. Its details were described on February 6, 2006 by the U.S. Secretary of Energy. In summary, it has three parts: (1) a program to expand nuclear energy use domestically and in foreign countries to support economic growth while reducing the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (2) an expansion of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure that will lead to the recycling of spent fuel and a closed fuel cycle and, through transmutation, a reduction in the quantity and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and its proliferation concerns, and (3) a partnership with other fuel cycle nations to support nuclear power in additional nations by providing small nuclear power plants and leased fuel with the provision that the resulting spent fuel would be returned by the lessee to the lessor. The final part would have the effect of stabilizing the number of fuel cycle countries with attendant non-proliferation value. Details will be given later in the paper. Commercial spent fuel recycling, pioneered in the U.S., has not been carried out since the nineteen seventies following a decision by President Carter to forego fuel reprocessing and to recommend similar practices by other countries. However, many nations have continued spent fuel reprocessing, generally using the U.S.-developed PUREX process. The latest to do so are Japan, which began operations of an 800 metric tons (tonnes) per year PUREX reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-mura in northern Honshu in 2006 and China, which recently began operations of a separations pilot plant, also using PUREX. Countries using the PUREX process, recycle the separated plutonium to light water reactors (LWRs) in a mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel called MOX. Plutonium recycling in LWRs, which are used for electricity production in all nuclear power nations, reduces

  16. Current Status of the Transmutation Reactor Technology and Preliminary Evaluation of Transmutation Performance of the KALIMER Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ser Gi; Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Kim, Young Gyum; Lee, Byung Woon; Song, Hoon; Lee, Ki Bog; Jang, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Uk

    2005-08-15

    Recently the most countries using the nuclear power plants for electricity generation have been faced with the problem of the preparation of the repository for the disposition of the nuclear waste generated from LWR. It was well-known that the issues related with long term risk of the radioactive wastes for the future generations are due only to 1% of the total waste. This small fraction of 1% consists of transuranic (TRU) nuclides such as Pu, Np, Am, Cm and the long lived fission products such as Tc and I. For the transuranic (TRU) nuclides, their half lives range from several years to several hundred thousands years and hence their radioactive toxicity can be lasted over very long time period. This has made the change of the rule of the fast spectrum reactor from the economical use of uranium resource through breeding to the reduction of the nuclear waste through the transmutation. The purpose of this study is to obtain the basic knowledge on the nuclear transmutation technology and to suggest the technical solution ways for the future technology development and enhancement through a survey of the state-of-art of the international research on the nuclear transmutation. The increase of the transmutation rate requires the reduction of the breeding ratio. In fact, the transmutation rate is determined by the breeding ratio. The reduction of the breeding ratio can be achieved by reducing the U-238 content in fuel or increasing the neutron leakage through core boundary or absorbing the neutrons by using some absorbers. However, the reduction of the U-238 content results in the degradation of the fuel Doppler coefficient that is one of the most important safety-related parameters and the reduction of the effective delayed neutron fraction that is related with the controllability of the reactor core. Also, the increase of the transmutation rate can lead to the increase of the coolant void reactivity worth unless some ways to reduce the coolant void reactivity are not

  17. Dual neutral particle induced transmutation in CINDER2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.J., E-mail: wjmarti@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Hecht, A.A. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-12-11

    Although nuclear transmutation methods for fission have existed for decades, the focus has been on neutron-induced reactions. Recent novel concepts have sought to use both neutrons and photons for purposes such as active interrogation of cargo to detect the smuggling of highly enriched uranium, a concept that would require modeling the transmutation caused by both incident particles. As photonuclear transmutation has yet to be modeled alongside neutron-induced transmutation in a production code, new methods need to be developed. The CINDER2008 nuclear transmutation code from Los Alamos National Laboratory is extended from neutron applications to dual neutral particle applications, allowing both neutron- and photon-induced reactions for this modeling with a focus on fission. Following standard reaction modeling, the induced fission reaction is understood as a two-part reaction, with an entrance channel to the excited compound nucleus, and an exit channel from the excited compound nucleus to the fission fragmentation. Because photofission yield data—the exit channel from the compound nucleus—are sparse, neutron fission yield data are used in this work. With a different compound nucleus and excitation, the translation to the excited compound state is modified, as appropriate. A verification and validation of these methods and data has been performed. This has shown that the translation of neutron-induced fission product yield sets, and their use in photonuclear applications, is appropriate, and that the code has been extended correctly. - Highlights: • The CINDER2008 transmutation code was modified to include photon-induced transmutation tracking. • A photonuclear interaction library was created to allow CINDER2008 to track photonuclear interactions. • Photofission product yield data sets were created using fission physics similarities with neutron-induced fission.

  18. Transmutation of radioactive waste: Effect on the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, N.C.; Pigford, T.H.

    1997-01-01

    A committee of the National Research Council reviewed three concepts for transmuting radionuclides recovered from the chemical reprocessing of commercial light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel: LWR transmutation reactors fueled with recycled actinides, advanced liquid-metal reactors (ALMRs), and accelerator-driven subcritical reactors for transmutation of waste (ATW). The concepts were evaluated in terms of: (1) the extent to which waste disposal would benefit from transmutation, (2) time required to reduce the total inventory of radionuclides in the waste and fuel cycle, (3) the complexity of the overall transmutation system, (4) the extent of new development required, and (5) institutional and economic problems of operating such systems. Transmutation could affect geologic disposal of waste by reducing the inventory of transuranics (TRUs), fission products, and other radionuclides in the waste. Reducing the inventory of transuranics does not necessarily affect radiation doses to people who use contaminated ground water if the dissolution rate of transuranics in waste is controlled by elemental solubilities. However, reducing inventories of Am and Pu would decrease potential hazards from human intrusion. The likelihood for underground nuclear criticality would also be reduced. The long-lived fission products Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and others typically contribute most to the long-term radiation doses to future populations who use contaminated water from the repository. Their transmutation requires thermal or epithermal neutrons, readily available in LWR and ATW transmutors. ALMR and LWR transmutors would require several hundred years to reduce the total transuranic inventory by even a factor of 10 at constant electric power, and thousands of years for a hundred-fold reduction. For the same electrical power, the ATW could reduce total transuranic inventory about tenfold more rapidly, because of its very high thermal-neutron flux. However, extremely low process losses would be

  19. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek

    2013-06-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5-7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5-11

  20. A recoil resilient lumen support, design, fabrication and mechanical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Arash; Al-Sarawi, Said; Abbott, Derek; Ali, Mohamed Sultan Mohamed; Takahata, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    Stents are artificial implants that provide scaffolding to a cavity inside the body. This paper presents a new luminal device for reducing the mechanical failure of stents due to recoil, which is one of the most important issues in stenting. This device, which we call a recoil-resilient ring (RRR), is utilized standalone or potentially integrated with existing stents to address the problem of recoil. The proposed structure aims to minimize the need for high-pressure overexpansion that can induce intra-luminal trauma and excess growth of vascular tissue causing later restenosis. The RRR is an overlapped open ring with asymmetrical sawtooth structures that are intermeshed. These teeth can slide on top of each other, while the ring is radially expanded, but interlock step-by-step so as to keep the final expanded state against compressional forces that normally cause recoil. The RRRs thus deliver balloon expandability and, when integrated with a stent, bring both radial rigidity and longitudinal flexibility to the stent. The design of the RRR is investigated through finite element analysis (FEA), and then the devices are fabricated using micro-electro-discharge machining of 200-µm-thick Nitinol sheet. The standalone RRR is balloon expandable in vitro by 5–7 Atm in pressure, which is well within the recommended in vivo pressure ranges for stenting procedures. FEA compression tests indicate 13× less reduction of the cross-sectional area of the RRR compared with a typical stainless steel stent. These results also show perfect elastic recovery of the RRR after removal of the pressure compared to the remaining plastic deformations of the stainless steel stent. On the other hand, experimental loading tests show that the fabricated RRRs have 2.8× radial stiffness compared to a two-column section of a commercial stent while exhibiting comparable elastic recovery. Furthermore, testing of in vitro expansion in a mock artery tube shows around 2.9% recoil, approximately 5

  1. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Materials and Surface Chemistry

    2004-02-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products and activation products. To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to obtain are the one between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and the one between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to obtain separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union project PARTNEW. This project was a part of the fifth framework programme and was concluded in September 2003, but the work is continued in the sixth framework programme under the acronym EUROPART (start January 2004). We mainly cooperate with the Univ. of Reading, which send us new nitrogen containing ligands for evaluation of their extraction properties. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry of these systems but also to study some process behaviour for future full-scale plants.

  2. Dynamic criteria for partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses dynamic criteria intended to optimize partitioning and transmutation (P-T) concept development supporting improved nuclear waste management. Six criteria are proposed initially and the rationale for each is briefly explained. Each criterion is used as a measure (or dimension) on which the developed concepts can be evaluated. The criteria allow the P-T concepts to be evaluated in an integral system including long-term energy needs, fuel cycle, and waste management. New criteria will be identified along with the P-T concept development, and each criterion will be realistically weighted so that it is comparable in an overall criteria evaluation. The weights are subject to change as a result of technical advancements and public perception on various issues. Incomplete criteria will result in a poor choice because important factors may not be considered when the decision is made. A successful decision on the optimal P-T system depends on the completeness of criteria (dimensions) as well as realistic weights assigned to each criterion

  3. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.

    2004-02-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products and activation products. To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel. The most difficult separations to obtain are the one between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and the one between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to obtain separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. Chalmers Univ. of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in the European Union project PARTNEW. This project was a part of the fifth framework programme and was concluded in September 2003, but the work is continued in the sixth framework programme under the acronym EUROPART (start January 2004). We mainly cooperate with the Univ. of Reading, which send us new nitrogen containing ligands for evaluation of their extraction properties. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry of these systems but also to study some process behaviour for future full-scale plants

  4. Partitioning and Transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Rogues, N.; Skarnemark, G.; Oestberg, J.

    2003-01-01

    How to deal with the spent fuel from nuclear power plants is an issue that much research is attracted to in many countries around the world. Several different strategies exist for treating the waste ranging from direct disposal to reprocessing and recycling of plutonium and other long-lived nuclides. In either case the remains have to be stored for a long time to render it radio-toxically safe. One method to deal with this long-lived waste is to separate (separation) out the most long lived components and then transform them into shorter-lived ones (transmutation). Several methods exist for performing the separation for example via molten salts and through solvent extraction. The work presented here has been focused on solvent extraction. This technique is well known since many years and process scale plants have been operating for decades. The new demand is to separate chemically very similar elements from each other. Within this project this is done by new extracting agents developed for this purpose alone within the EU fifth framework programme, the PARTNEW project, particularly from the University of Reading. In this work we investigate different extraction systems for the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides using extraction agents following the so-called CHON (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen) principle. The main focus is to understand the basic chemistry involved but also some processing behaviour for use in future full scale plants

  5. Aspects of severe accidents in transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wider, H.U.; Karlson, J.; Jones, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The different types of transmutation systems under investigation include accelerator driven (ADS) and critical systems. To switch off an accelerator in case of an accident initiation is quite important for all accidents. For a fast ADS the grace times available for doing so depend strongly on the total heat capacity and the natural circulation capability of the primary coolant. Cooling with heavy metal Pb-Bi has considerable advantages in this regard compared to gas cooling. Moreover it allows passive ex-vessel cooling with natural air or water circulation. In the remote likelihood of fuel melting, oxide fuel appears to mix with the Pb-Bi coolant. Fast critical systems that are cooled by Pb-Bi will automatically shut off if the flow or heat sink is lost. Reactivity accidents can be limited by a low total control rod worth. High temperature reactors can achieve only incomplete burning of actinides. If an accelerator is added to increase burn-up, a fast spectrum region is needed, which has a low heat capacity. (author)

  6. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  7. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions – Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions. PMID:26717509

  8. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Merk

    Full Text Available The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  9. Detailed study of transmutation scenarios involving present day reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document makes a detailed technical evaluation of three families of separation-transmutation scenarios for the management of radioactive wastes. These scenarios are based on 2 parks of reactors which recycle plutonium and minor actinides in an homogeneous way. A first scenario considers the multi-recycling of Pu and Np and the mono-recycling of Am and Cm using both PWRs and FBRs. A second scenario is based on PWRs only, while a third one considers FBRs only. The mixed PWR+FBR scenario requires innovative options and gathers more technical difficulties due to the americium and curium management in a minimum flux of materials. A particular attention has been given to the different steps of the fuel cycle (fuels and targets fabrication, burnup, spent fuel processing, targets management). The feasibility of scenarios of homogeneous actinides recycling in PWRs-only and in FBRs-only has been evaluated according to the results of the first scenario: fluxes of materials, spent fuel reprocessing by advanced separation, impact of the presence of actinides on PWRs and FBRs operation. The efficiency of the different scenarios on the abatement of wastes radio-toxicity is presented in conclusion. (J.S.)

  10. Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  11. Preliminary analyses of neutronics schemes for three kinds waste transmutation blankets of fusion-fission hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchun; Feng Kaiming; Li Zaixin; Zhao Fengchao

    2012-01-01

    The neutronics schemes of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket, sodium-cooled waste transmutation blanket and FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket were preliminarily calculated and analysed by using the spheroidal tokamak (ST) plasma configuration. The neutronics properties of these blankets' were compared and analyzed. The results show that for the transmutation of "2"3"7Np, FLiBe-cooled waste transmutation blanket has the most superior transmutation performance. The calculation results of the helium-cooled waste transmutation blanket show that this transmutation blanket can run on a steady effective multiplication factor (k_e_f_f), steady power (P), and steady tritium production rate (TBR) state for a long operating time (9.62 years) by change "2"3"7Np's initial loading rate of the minor actinides (MA). (authors)

  12. Transmutation of sup 2 sup 0 sup 4 Pb in an intensive gamma-ray flux

    CERN Document Server

    Ishkhanov, B S

    2001-01-01

    Transmutation chain formation during irradiation with various intensities of bremsstrahlung photon beam is analysed. The main features of transmutation chain formation by photons with energies corresponding to the giant dipole resonance are discussed.

  13. HLW disposal by fission reactors; calculation of trans-mutation rate and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation of MA (Minor actinide) and LLFPS (long-lived fission products) into stable nuclide or short-lived isotopes by fission reactors seem to become an alternative technology for HLW disposal. in this study, transmutation rate and recycle calculation were developed in order to evaluate transmutation characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the fission reactors. inventory of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors were determined by solving of criticality equation with 1-D cylindrical geometry of multigroup diffusion equations at the beginning of cycle (BOC). transmutation rate and burn-up was determined by solving of depletion equation. inventory of MA and LLFPs was calculated for 40 years recycle. From this study, it was concluded that characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors can be evaluated by recycle calculation. by calculation of transmutation rate, performance of fission reactor for transmutation of MA or LLFPs can be discussed

  14. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T R.H.; Whitlow, H J [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I F; Short, R; Johnston, P N [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen in polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzell, T.R.H.; Whitlow, H.J. [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Bubb, I.F.; Short, R.; Johnston, P.N. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of hydrogen in thick polymeric films has been performed using 2.5 MeV He{sup 2+} ions from the tandem accelerator at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. The technique enables the use of the same equipment as in Rutherford backscattering analysis, but instead of detecting the incident backscattered ion, the lighter recoiled ion is detected at a small forward angle. The purpose of this work is to investigate how selected polymers react when irradiated by helium ions. The polymers are to be evaluated for their suitability as reference standards for hydrogen depth profiling. Films investigated were Du Pont`s Kapton and Mylar, and polystyrene. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Recoil distance lifetime measurements in 122,124Xe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, I. M.; Kumar, A.; Iyer, H.; Li, H.; Garg, U.; Ghugre, S. S.; Johnson, T.; Kaczarowski, R.; Kharraja, B.; Naguleswaran, S.; Walpe, J. C.

    1998-02-01

    Lifetimes of the lower-excited states in 122,124Xe are measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift technique. The reactions 110Pd(16O,4n)122Xe and 110Pd(18O,4n)124Xe at a beam energy of 66 MeV were used for this experiment. The lifetimes of the 2+, 4+, 6+, and 8+ states of the ground state band were extracted using the computer code LIFETIME including the corrections due to the side feeding and the nuclear deorientation effects. The lifetime of the 2+ state in 122Xe agrees with the recoil distance method (RDM) measurements but for the 124Xe it does not agree with the RDM measurements but agrees with the Coulomb-excitation experiment. The measured B(E2) values for both the nuclei are compared with the standard algebraic and the multishell models.

  17. Lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method - achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2001-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for measuring pico-second nuclear level lifetimes and its use in nuclear structure studies is reviewed and perspectives for the future are presented. High precision measurements in the mass-130 region, studies of multi-phonon states in rare earth nuclei, the investigation of shape coexistence and the recently discovered phenomenon of 'magnetic rotation' are reviewed. Prospects for lifetime measurements in exotic regions of nuclei such as the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei populated via spontaneous and heavy-ion induced fission are discussed. Other prospects include the use of the RDM technique in conjunction with recoil separators. The relevance of these techniques for experiments with radioactive ion beams will be discussed

  18. Superheated superconducting granule detector tested with nuclear recoil measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Czapek, G.; Diggelmann, U.; Flammer, I.; Frei, D.; Furlan, M.; Gabutti, A.; Janos, S.; Moser, U.; Pretzl, K.; Schmiemann, K.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Brandt, B. van den; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.

    1993-01-01

    The presented results are part of a superheated superconducting granule (SSG) detector development for neutrino and dark matter. The aim of the experiment was to measure the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoil energies when exposed to a 70 MeV neutron beam. The detector consists of a small readout coil (diameter 5 mm, length 10 mm) filled with aluminum granules of average diameter 23 μm embedded in an Al 2 O 3 granulate with a 6% volume filling factor. The neutron scattering angles were determined using a scintillator hodoscope. Coincidences between the SSG and the hodoscope signals have been clearly established. Data were taken at an operating temperature of 120 mK for different SSG intrinsic thresholds. The results prove the sensitivity of the detector to nuclear recoils around 10 keV. (orig.)

  19. Dynamical Formation of Horizons in Recoiling D Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Ellis, John

    2000-01-01

    A toy calculation of string/D-particle interactions within a world-sheet approach indicates that quantum recoil effects - reflecting the gravitational back-reaction on space-time foam due to the propagation of energetic particles - induces the appearance of a microscopic event horizon, or `bubble', inside which stable matter can exist. The scattering event causes this horizon to expand, but we expect quantum effects to cause it to contract again, in a `bounce' solution. Within such `bubbles', massless matter propagates with an effective velocity that is less than the velocity of light in vacuo, which may lead to observable violations of Lorentz symmetry that may be tested experimentally. The conformal invariance conditions in the interior geometry of the bubbles select preferentially three for the number of the spatial dimensions, corresponding to a consistent formulation of the interaction of D3 branes with recoiling D particles, which are allowed to fluctuate independently only on the D3-brane hypersurface.

  20. Study of a neutronic potential of a modular fast spectrum ADS for radiotoxic waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Arkhipov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA has maintained an active interest in advanced nuclear technology related to Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The activities carried out by the IAEA within its Programme on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems for Energy Generation and Transmutation include preparation of status reports on advanced technologies development, conduct of technical information exchange meetings and co-operative Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRPs). Consultancy on Accelerator Driven Systems and Related Fuel Cycles held from 1-2 February 1996 in Cadarache, France reviewed the recent progress in studies on feasibility of Accelerator Driven Systems and participants recommended the IAEA to organize a CRP to investigate the accelerator driven systems potential. In 1996 the CRP: 'Use of Th-based Fuel Cycle in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) to Incinerate Pu and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicities' was established and the first Research Coordination Meeting was convened in March 1997 at the ENEA Research Center in Bologna, Italy. Results of the first stage 'Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)-Neutronic Benchmark' were reported to the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation in Madrid, Spain, in September 1997. Results obtained during the second stage of the CRP were presented and analysed at the RCM in December 1998 in Petten, Netherlands. The meeting was attended by 21 representatives and observers from IAEA, Belarus, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, the Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden and USA. This paper was prepared on recommendation of the participants of the meeting in Petten, Netherlands. Accelerator Driven System (ADS) neutronic potential, i.e. capability to burnout transuranic elements (TRU) or minor actinides (MA) and Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFP) with minimum ADS park as well as the rate of LLFP transmutation (mass/energy production) for nuclear waste

  1. High flux Particle Bed Reactor systems for rapid transmutation of actinides and long lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Maise, G.; Steinberg, M.; Todosow, M.

    1993-01-01

    An initial assessment of several actinide/LLFP burner concepts based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. The high power density/flux level achievable with the PBR make it an attractive candidate for this application. The PBR based actinide burner concept also possesses a number of safety and economic benefits relative to other reactor based transmutation approaches including a low inventory of radionuclides, and high integrity, coated fuel particles which can withstand extremely high in temperatures while retaining virtually all fission products. In addition the reactor also posesses a number of ''engineered safety features,'' which, along with the use of high temperature capable materials further enhance its safety characteristics

  2. High energy neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.S.; Needham, L.M.; Paoli, M.P.

    1987-10-01

    The neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4 He at 4.2 K and 1.6 K has been observed for a momentum transfer of 150 A -1 using the Electron Volt Spectrometer on the pulsed neutron source, ISIS. The experiment yielded mean atomic kinetic energy values = 14.8 +- 3 K at 4.2 K and = 14.6 +- 3.2 K at 1.6 K in good agreement with values obtained at lower momentum transfers. (author)

  3. Recoil corrected bag model calculations for semileptonic weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie-Svendsen, Oe.; Hoegaasen, H.

    1987-02-01

    Recoil corrections to various model results for strangeness changing weak decay amplitudes have been developed. It is shown that the spurious reference frame dependence of earlier calculations is reduced. The second class currents are generally less important than obtained by calculations in the static approximation. Theoretical results are compared to observations. The agreement is quite good, although the values for the Cabibbo angle obtained by fits to the decay rates are somewhat to large

  4. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    The self-scattering of alpha-active substances has long been recognized and is attributed to expulsion of aggregates of atoms from the surface of alpha-active materials by alpha emission recoil energy, and perhaps to further propulsion of these aggregates by subsequent alpha recoils. Workers at the University of Lowell recently predicted that this phenomenon might affect the retention of alpha-active particulate matter by HEPA filters, and found support in experiments with 212 Pb. Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter media, such as that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.9 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter were observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers by subsequent alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow

  5. Design and safety studies on the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with CERMET fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.N.; Rineiski, A.; Liu, P.; Matzerath Boccaccini, C.; Flad, M.; Gabrielli, F.; Maschek, W.; Morita, K.

    2008-01-01

    European R and D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6 th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme [1]. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System. The EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. A key issue of the R and D work is the choice of an adequate fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven Transmuter (ADT) like EFIT. Various fuel forms have been assessed. CERCER and CERMET fuels, specifically with the matrices MgO and Mo, have finally been selected and are now under closer investigation. Within EUROTRANS, a special domain named 'AFTRA', is responsible to more deeply assess the behavior of these dedicated fuels and to provide the fuel data base for the core design of the EFIT. The EFIT concept has to be optimized towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burnup, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high safety level. The final recommendation on fuels by AFTRA gave a ranking of these fuels based on the mentioned criteria. The composite CERMET fuel (Pu 0.5 ,Am 0.5 )O 2-x - Mo (with the isotope 92 Mo comprising 93% of the molybdenum) has been recommended as the primary candidate for the EFIT. This CERMET fuel fulfils adopted criteria for fabrication and reprocessing, and provides excellent safety margins. Disadvantages include the cost for enrichment of 92 Mo and a lower specific transmutation rate of minor actinides, because of the higher neutron absorption cross-section of the matrix. The composite CERCER fuel (Pu 0.4 ,Am 0.6 )O 2-x - MgO has therefore been recommended as a backup solution as it might offer a higher consumption rate of minor actinides, and can be manufactured for a lower unit cost. This paper is in fact a sequel to our last paper [2

  6. New developments of the recoil distance doppler-shift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, Christoph; Blazhev, Andrey; Braunroth, Thomas; Dewald, Alfred; Goldkuhle, Alina; Jolie, Jan; Litzinger, Julia; Mueller-Gatermann, Claus; Woelk, Dorothea; Zell, Karl-Oskar [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The recoil distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) method is a very valuable technique for measuring lifetimes of excited nuclear states in the picosecond range to deduce absolute transition strengths between nuclear excitations independent on the reaction mechanism. Dedicated plunger devices were built by our group for measurements with this method for a broad range of beam energies ranging from few MeV/u up to relativistic energies of the order of 100 MeV/u. Those were designed to match the constraints defined by state-of-the art γ-ray spectrometers like AGATA, Galileo, Gammasphere. Here we give an overview about recent experiments of our group to determine transition strengths from level lifetimes in exotic nuclei where also recoil separators or mass spectrographs were used for an identification of the recoiling reaction products. The aim is to learn about phenomena like shape phase coexistence in exotic regions and the evolution of the shell structure far from the valley of stability. We also review new plunger devices that are developed by our group for future experimental campaigns with stable and radioactive beams in different energy regimes, e.g., a plunger for HIE-ISOLDE.

  7. Recoiling Black Holes: Electromagnetic Signatures, Candidates, and Astrophysical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komossa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supermassive black holes (SMBHs may not always reside right at the centers of their host galaxies. This is a prediction of numerical relativity simulations, which imply that the newly formed single SMBH, after binary coalescence in a galaxy merger, can receive kick velocities up to several 1000 km/s due to anisotropic emission of gravitational waves. Long-lived oscillations of the SMBHs in galaxy cores, and in rare cases even SMBH ejections from their host galaxies, are the consequence. Observationally, accreting recoiling SMBHs would appear as quasars spatially and/or kinematically offset from their host galaxies. The presence of the “kicks” has a wide range of astrophysical implications which only now are beginning to be explored, including consequences for black hole and galaxy assembly at the epoch of structure formation, black hole feeding, and unified models of active galactic nuclei (AGN. Here, we review the observational signatures of recoiling SMBHs and the properties of the first candidates which have emerged, including follow-up studies of the candidate recoiling SMBH of SDSSJ092712.65+294344.0.

  8. A new recoil filter for {gamma}-detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, J; Lahmer, W; Maier, K H [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Janicki, M; Meczynski, W; Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    A considerable improvement of gamma spectra recorded in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation residues can be achieved when gamma rays are detected in coincidence with the recoiling evaporations residues. This coincidence suppresses gamma rays from fission processes, Coulombic excitation, and reactions with target contaminations, and therefore cleans gamma spectra and improves the peak to background ratio. A sturdy detector for evaporation residues has been designed as an additional detector for the OSIRIS spectrometer. The recoil filter consists of two rings of six and twelve detector elements. In each detector element, nuclei hitting a thin Mylar foil produce secondary electrons, which are electrostatically accelerated and focussed onto a thin plastic scintillator. Recoiling evaporation residues are discriminated from other reaction products and scattered beam by the pulse height of the scintillation signal and time of flight. The detector signal is fast enough to allow the detection of an evaporation residue even if the scattered beam hits the detector first. In-beam experiment were performed with the reactions {sup 40}Ar+{sup 124}Sn, {sup 40}Ar+{sup 152}Sm at 185 MeV beam energy, and {sup 36}Ar+{sup 154,156}Gd at 175 MeV. In the latter two cases, fission amount to 50-75% of the total fusion cross section. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The recoil proton polarization in πp elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for π + p and π - p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P 3 East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10 7 π - 's/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10 7 π + 's/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs

  10. Transmutation of Minor Actinide in well thermalized neutron field and application of advanced neutron source (ANS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Hirakawa, Naohiro

    1995-01-01

    Transmutation of Minor Actinide (MA) in a well thermalized neutron field was studied. Since MA nuclides have large effective cross sections in the well thermalized neutron field, the transmutation in the well thermalized neutron field has an advantage of high transmutation rate. However, the transmutation rate largely decreases by accumulation of 246 Cm when MA is transmuted only in the well thermalized neutron field for a long period. An acceleration method of burn-up of 246 Cm was studied. High transmutation rate can be obtained by providing a neutron field with high flux in the energy region between 1 and 100 eV. Two stage transmutation using the well thermalized neutron field and this field can transmute MA rapidly. The applicability of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) to the transmutation of MA was examined for a typical MA with the composition in the high-level waste generated in the conventional PWR. If the ANS is applied without changing the fuel inventory, the amount of MA which corresponds to that produced by a conventional 1,175 MWe PWR in one year can be transmuted by the ANS in one year. Furthermore, the amount of the residual can be reduced to about 1g (10 -5 of the initial MA weight) by continuing the transmutation for 5 years owing to the two stage transmutation. (author)

  11. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles. Fabrication, Reprocessing and Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saturnin, A.; Sarrat, P.; Hancok, H.; Milot, J.-F.; Duret, B.; Jasserand, F.; Fillastre, E.; Giffard, F.-X.; Chabert, C.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Lefevre, J.C.; Carlier, B.; Arslan, M.; Favet, D.; Garzenne, C.; Barbrault, P.

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: First detailed assessment of plants and transportation in various transmutation scenarios. In case of curium transmutation: large difficulties and uncertainties requiring whole new technology development (more pronounced for ADS option). For Am transmutation: more feasible, still to be demonstrated on specific points for industrial extrapolation

  12. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  13. Resolving and quantifying overlapped chromatographic bands by transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski

    2000-09-15

    A new chemometric technique called "transmutation" is developed for the purpose of sharpening overlapped chromatographic bands in order to quantify the components. The "transmutation function" is created from the chromatogram of the pure component of interest, obtained from the same instrument, operating under the same experimental conditions used to record the unresolved chromatogram of the sample mixture. The method is used to quantify mixtures containing toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, naphthalene, and biphenyl from unresolved chromatograms previously reported. The results are compared to those obtained using window factor analysis, rank annihilation factor analysis, and matrix regression analysis. Unlike the latter methods, the transmutation method is not restricted to two-dimensional arrays of data, such as those obtained from HPLC/DAD, but is also applicable to chromatograms obtained from single detector experiments. Limitations of the method are discussed.

  14. PKA distributions: Contributions from transmutation products and from radioactive decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The neutrons generated in fusion plasmas interact with materials via nuclear reactions. The resulting transmutations and atomic displacements have life-limiting consequences for fusion reactor components. A detailed understanding of the production, evolution and material consequences of the damage created by cascades of atomic displacements requires, as a vital primary input, a complete description of the energy-spectrum of initial (prompt atomic displacement events (the primary knock on atoms or PKAs produced by direct neutron nuclear interactions. There is also the possibility that the radionuclides produced under transmutation will create further PKAs as they decay, and so the rate of these must also be quantified. This paper presents the latest results from the analysis of PKA spectra under neutron irradiation, focussing particularly on the variation in PKA distributions due to changes in composition under transmutation, but also on the PKA contributions from radioactive decay of materials that become activated under irradiation.

  15. Experience gained during 10 years transmutation experiments in Dubna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, M.; Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Brandt, R.; Westmeier, W.; Krivopustov, M.; Sosnin, A.; Golovatyuk, S.

    2006-05-01

    Transmutation, the procedure of transforming long-lived radioactive isotopes into stable or short-lived, was proposed for reducing the amount of radioactive waste resulting from technological applications of nuclear fission. The Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) provide the possibility to generate intense neutron spectrum yielding in an effective transmutation of unwanted isotopes. Such experiments are being carried out for the last 10 years in Synchrophasotron / Nuclotron accelerators at the Veksler-Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Thick Pb and Pb-U targets, surrounded by moderators, have been irradiated by protons in the energy range of 0.5-7.4 GeV. Neutron fluence measurements have been performed by different techniques of passive detectors (neutron activation detectors, solid state nuclear track detectors). Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 239Pu was studied. The results of these experiments are presented and discussed.

  16. Transmutation of fission products and actinide waste at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, L.L.; Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The authors studied the neutronics of an ATW system for the transmutation of the fission products ({sup 99}Tc in particular) and the type of actinide waste stored in several tanks at Hanford. The heart of the system is a highly-efficient neutron production target. It is surrounded by a blanket containing a moderator/reflector material, as well as the products to be transmuted. The fission products are injected into the blanket in the form of an aqueous solution in heavy water, whereas an aqueous actinides slurry is circulated in the outer part of the blanket. For the sake of definiteness, the authors focussed on {sup 99}Tc (the most difficult fission product to transmute), and {sup 239}Pu, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. Because of the low thermal neutron absorption cross-section of {sup 99}Tc, considerable care and effort must be devoted to the design of a very efficient neutron source.

  17. Transmutation studies of minor actinides in high intensity neutron fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Marie, F.; Roettger, S.; Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Integral measurements of nuclear data and of the transmutation potential in specific neutron fluxes, constitute the fastest and essential way to overcome to the large uncertainties present in the nuclear data libraries. In the frame of the activities of the Directorate for Science of Matter (DSM) of the French Atomic Energy Authority (CEA), a new project is proposed so as to carry out integral measurements relevant for nuclear waste transmutation systems. A new beam tube will be installed to irradiate actinides and fission fragment samples at different distances from the fuel element of the ILL reactor. Variable neutron energy spectra could then be obtained by choosing the distance between the sample and the fuel element, opening the way to the determination of the ideal physical conditions to incinerate nuclear waste in hybrid transmutation systems. (author)

  18. Development of Metallic Fuels for Actinide Transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Steven Lowe [Idaho National Laboratory; Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Laboratory; Benson, Michael Timothy [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean [Idaho National Laboratory; Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Research and development activities on metallic fuels are focused on their potential use for actinide transmutation in future sodium fast reactors. As part of this application, there is also a need for a near zero-loss fabrication process and a desire to demonstrate a multifold increase in burnup potential. The incorporation of Am and Np into the traditional U-20Pu-10Zr metallic fuel alloy was demonstrated in the US during the Integral Fast Reactor Program of the 1980’s and early 1990’s. However, the conventional counter gravity injection casting method performed under vacuum, previously used to fabricate these metallic fuel alloys, was not optimized for mitigating loss of the volatile Am constituent in the casting charge; as a result, approximately 40% of the Am casting charge failed to be incorporated into the as-cast fuel alloys. Fabrication development efforts of the past few years have pursued an optimized bottom-pour casting method to increase utilization of the melted charge to near 100%, and a differential pressure casting approach, performed under an argon overpressure, has been demonstrated to result in essentially no loss of Am due to volatilization during fabrication. In short, a path toward zero-loss fabrication of metallic fuels including minor actinides has been shown to be feasible. Irradiation testing of advanced metallic fuel alloys in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been underway since 2003. Testing in the ATR is performed inside of cadmium-shrouded positions to remove >99% of the thermal flux incident on the test fuels, resulting in an epi-thermal driven fuel test that is free from gross flux depression and producing an essentially prototypic radial temperature profile inside the fuel rodlets. To date, three irradiation test series (AFC-1,2,3) have been completed. Over 20 different metallic fuel alloys have been tested to burnups as high as 30% with constituent compositions of Pu up to 30%, Am up to 12%, Np up to 10%, and Zr between 10

  19. A study of γ-ray source for the transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1996-07-01

    PNC is developing high power CW electron linac for various applications, those are the transmutation of the fission products, Free Electron Laser (FEL), the positron source and so on. Especially, the transmutation by the electron linac has been studied for several years. As the results, high flux and high energy γ-ray (∼15 MeV) is required, one of the big problems is that plenty of transmutation energy is needed and the narrow γ-ray energy spectrum can reduce the transmutation energy. The γ-rays can be produced by synchrotron radiation, FEL and laser compton scattering. Those methods were described briefly and compared. As a result, the laser compton scattering is one of the good methods to produce high energy γ-ray. However the cross section between electron and photon is small and the scattered photon energy spectrum is not so narrow that the transmutation energy is reduced drastically. To enhance the interaction between electron and photon, the super cavity is proposed. And some experiments are in progress. To reduce the transmutation energy, scattered electron must be reused by the storage ring. If the scattered electrons are not used for producing γ-ray, the efficiency is less than 1%. In our system, the efficiency can be increased to 20% by reusing scattered electrons. But this efficiency is still low. To increase the efficiency, the RF bucket must be enlarged. If the momentans compaction factor α can be reduced, the RF bucket can be enlarged. And the storage ring must be designed to have small value of the α. The electron energy dependency of efficiency is investigated, too. In short word, it is difficult to increase the efficiency drastically by changing electron energy. This work was conducted as a part of the collaboration work between PNC and BNL. (author)

  20. Remote recoil: a new wave mean interaction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Oliver; McIntyre, Michael E.

    2003-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of a fundamentally new wave mean or wave vortex interaction effect able to force persistent, cumulative change in mean flows in the absence of wave breaking or other kinds of wave dissipation. It is associated with the refraction of non-dissipating waves by inhomogeneous mean (vortical) flows. The effect is studied in detail in the simplest relevant model, the two-dimensional compressible flow equations with a generic polytropic equation of state. This includes the usual shallow-water equations as a special case. The refraction of a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude gravity or sound waves obliquely incident on a single weak (low Froude or Mach number) vortex is studied in detail. It is shown that, concomitant with the changes in the waves' pseudomomentum due to the refraction, there is an equal and opposite recoil force that is felt, in effect, by the vortex core. This effective force is called a ‘remote recoil’ to stress that there is no need for the vortex core and wavetrain to overlap in physical space. There is an accompanying ‘far-field recoil’ that is still more remote, as in classical vortex-impulse problems. The remote-recoil effects are studied perturbatively using the wave amplitude and vortex weakness as small parameters. The nature of the remote recoil is demonstrated in various set-ups with wavetrains of finite or infinite length. The effective recoil force {bm R}_V on the vortex core is given by an expression resembling the classical Magnus force felt by moving cylinders with circulation. In the case of wavetrains of infinite length, an explicit formula for the scattering angle theta_* of waves passing a vortex at a distance is derived correct to second order in Froude or Mach number. To this order {bm R}_V {~} theta_*. The formula is cross-checked against numerical integrations of the ray-tracing equations. This work is part of an ongoing study of internal-gravity-wave dynamics in the

  1. Transmutation and activation of fusion reactor wall and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.

    1979-01-01

    This report details the extent of the nuclear data needed for inclusion in a data library to be used for general assessments of fusion reactor structure activation and transmutation, describes the sources of data available, reviews the literature and explores the reliability of current calculations by providing an independent assessment of the activity inventory to be expected from five structural materials in a simple blanket design for comparison with the results of other workers. An indication of the nuclear reactions which make important contributions to the activity, transmutation and gas production rates for these structural materials is also presented. (author)

  2. Electron trap annealing in neutron transmutation doped silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Silicon doped by neutron transmutation to 1.2×1014 phosphorus atoms/cm3 was investigated with deep level transient spectroscopy using evaporated Au/n-Si diodes. Seven bulk electron traps were identified which appear after 30 min N2 anneal at temperatures between 425 and 725 °C. Five of these anne......Silicon doped by neutron transmutation to 1.2×1014 phosphorus atoms/cm3 was investigated with deep level transient spectroscopy using evaporated Au/n-Si diodes. Seven bulk electron traps were identified which appear after 30 min N2 anneal at temperatures between 425 and 725 °C. Five...

  3. Nickel Foil as Transmutation Detector for Neutron Fluence Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klupák Vít

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation detectors are very often used for determination of the neutron fluence in reactor dosimetry. However, there are few disadvantages concerning these detectors; it is the demand of the knowledge of the irradiation history and a loss of information due to a radioactive decay in time. Transmutation detectors TMD could be a solution in this case. The transmutation detectors are materials in which stable or long-lived nuclides are produced by nuclear reactions with neutrons. From a measurement of concentration of these nuclides, neutron fluence can be evaluated regardless of the cooling time.

  4. Comparative analysis of sub-critical transmutation reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The long-lived nuclear wastes have been substantially generated from the light water reactor for a few decades. The toxicity of these spent fuels will be higher than that of the uranium ore, even if those will be stored in the repository more than ten thousands. Hence the means of transmuting the key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides, using a hybrid proton accelerator and subcritical transmutation reactor, are proposed. Until now, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor are the Energy Amplifier, the OMEGA project, the ATW and the MSBR. The detailed concepts and the specifications are illustrated in Table 1. The design requirements for the subcritical transmutation reactor are the high transmutation rate of long-lived nuclear wastes, safety and economics. And to propose the subcritical transmutation reactor concepts, the coolant, the target material and fuel type are carefully considered. In these aspects, the representative concepts for a subcritical transmutation reactor in Table 1 have been surveyed. The requirements for a target and a coolant are the reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable, low maintenance operation and safe operation to minimize the wastes. The reliable coolant must have the low melting point, high heat capacity and excellent physical properties. And the target material must have high neutron yield for a given proton condition and easy heat removal capability. Therefore in respect with the above requirements, Pb-Bi is proposed as the coolant and the target material for the subcritical reactor. Because the neutron yield for a given proton energy increases linearly with mass number up to bismuth but in heavier elements spallation events sharply increase both the neutron and heat outputs, Pb-Bi meets not only such the requirements as the above for the coolant but also those for the coolant and target, the simplification of system can be achieved

  5. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  6. Present status and issues for accelerator driven transmutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    2003-01-01

    Proper treatment of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) that are produced in operation of nuclear power plants is one of the most important problems for further utilization of nuclear energy. The purpose of the accelerator driven nuclear waste transmutation system (ADS) is to transmute these nuclei to stable or short-lived nuclei by various radiation-induced nuclear reactions. When ADS for HLW can be realized, burden to deep geological disposal can be considerably reduced. In the paper, present status and issues for ADS will be discussed. (author)

  7. Transmutation of LWR waste actinides in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrell, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Recycle of actinides to a reactor for transmutation to fission products is being considered as a possible means of waste disposal. Actinide transmutation calculations were made for two irradiation options in a thermal (LWR) reactor. The cases considered were: all actinides recycled in regular uranium fuel assemblies, and transuranic actinides recycled in separate mixed oxide (MOX) assemblies. When all actinides were recycled in a uranium lattice, a reduction of 62% in the transuranic inventory was achieved after 10 recycles, compared to the inventory accumulated without recycle. When the transuranics from 2 regular uranium assemblies were combined with those recycled from a MOX assembly, the transuranic inventory was reduced 50% after 5 recycles

  8. Transmutation potential of current and innovative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M.; Uematsu, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the transmutation potential of different nuclear systems from a physical point of view. Transuranium (TRU) elements have been considered, but also long lived fission products (LLFP). The potential for transmutation has to take into account not only the consumption of a specific nucleus (or of a specific 'family' of nuclei), but also the reproduction of other nuclei of higher masses. The present study allows an intercomparison taking into account both aspects. Technological, safety and design constraints were not considered at this stage. However strategic indications for future studies have been obtained. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  9. An Evaluation of Magneto Rheological Dampers for Controlling Gun Recoil Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of magneto rheological dampers for controlling recoil dynamics is examined, using a recoil demonstrator that includes a single-shot 50 caliber BMG rifle action and a MR damper. The demonstrator is selected such that it can adequately represent the velocities that commonly occur in weapons with a recoil system, and can be used for collecting data for analyzing the effects of MR dampers on recoil dynamics. The MR damper is designed so that it can work effectively at the large velocities commonly occurring in gun recoil, and also be easily adjusted to reasonably optimize the damper performance for the recoil demonstrator. The test results show that it is indeed possible to design and use MR dampers for recoil applications, which subject the damper to relative velocities far larger than the applications that such dampers have commonly been used for (i.e., vehicle applications. Further, the results indicate that the recoil force increases and the recoil stroke decreases nonlinearly with an increase in the damping force. Also of significance is the fact that the adjustability of MR dampers can be used in a closed-loop system such that the large recoil forces that commonly occur upon firing the gun are avoided and, simultaneously, the recoil stroke is reduced. This study points to the need for several areas of research including establishing the performance capabilities for MR dampers for gun recoil applications in an exact manner, and the potential use of such dampers for a fire out of battery recoil system.

  10. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J.C.; Schmidt, N. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y.; Ottaviani, J.P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F.; Saint Jean, C. de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  11. The transmutation of americium: the Ecrix experiments in Phenix; Transmutation de l'americium: les experiences ecrix dans Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, J C; Schmidt, N [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SESC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Croixmarie, Y; Ottaviani, J P [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles (DEC/SPUA), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Varaine, F; Saint Jean, C de [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs (DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1999-07-01

    The first americium transmutation experiment in a specific target in PHENIX will occur with the ECRIX-B and ECRIX-H experiments. Beside material testing, the objective is also to represent a concept of transmutation whose specificity is to enhance the kinetics of transmutation by using a moderated spectrum. The moderator materials will be {sup 11}B{sub 4}C and CaH{sub 2} for ECRIX-B and ECRIXH respectively, the irradiation conditions have been predicted for both the neutronics and thermal. The targets (MgO-AmO{sub X} pellets) are manufactured in the ATALANTE laboratory and the design is performed according to the PHENIX operating conditions. (authors)

  12. Comparative study for minor actinide transmutation in various fast reactor core concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, S.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of minor actinide (MA) transmutation property was performed for various fast reactor core concepts. The differences of MA transmutation property were classified by the variations of fuel type (oxide, nitride, metal), coolant type (sodium, lead, carbon dioxide) and design philosophy. Both nitride and metal fuels bring about 10% larger MA transmutation amount compared with oxide fuel. The MA transmutation amount is almost unchanged by the difference between sodium and lead coolants, while carbon dioxide causes a reduction by about 10% compared with those. The changes of MA transmutation property by fuel and coolant types are comparatively small. The effects caused by the difference of core design are rather significant. (author)

  13. Determination of the extraction efficiency for {sup 233}U source α-recoil ions from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wense, Lars v.d.; Seiferle, Benedict; Thirolf, Peter G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    Following the α decay of {sup 233}U, {sup 229}Th recoil ions are shown to be extracted in a significant amount from the MLL buffer-gas stopping cell. The produced recoil ions and subsequent daughter nuclei are mass purified with the help of a customized quadrupole mass spectrometer. The combined extraction and mass purification efficiency for {sup 229}Th{sup 3+} is determined via MCP-based measurements and via the direct detection of the {sup 229}Th α decay. A large value of (10±2)% for the combined extraction and mass purification efficiency of {sup 229}Th{sup 3+} is obtained at a mass resolution of about 1u/e. In addition to {sup 229}Th, also other α-recoil ions of the {sup 233,} {sup 232}U decay chains are addressed. (orig.)

  14. Transmutation of long-lived fission product (137Cs, 90Sr) by a reactor-accelerator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shin-ichi; Takashita, Hirofumi; Konashi, Kenji; Sasao, Nobuyuki; Sato, Isamu.

    1990-01-01

    The report discusses the transmutation of long-lived fission products by a reactor and accelerator. It is important to take some criteria into consideration in transmutation disposal. To satisfy the criteria, a combined system of a reactor and an accelerator is proposed for the transmutation. An outline of the transmutation reactor and the accelerator is presented. The transmutation reactor has the ability to transmute a large quantity of fission products. However, it is desirable to have a high transmutation rate as well as a large disposal ability. Besides the transmutation property, it is necessary to investigate the physics of the transmutation reactor such as nuclear characteristics and burnup properties in order to obtain the most suitable, high performance core concept. A study on those properties is also presented. A high power accelerator is required for the transmutation. So a test linac is developed to accelerate high intensity beams. (N.K.)

  15. Measurements of recoil and projectile momentum distributions for 19-MeV F9+ + Ne collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohne, V.; Cheng, S.; Ali, R.M.; Raphaelian, M.L.; Cocke, C.L.; Olson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The collision system of 19-MeV F 9+ on Ne has been studied using recoil and projectile momentum spectroscopy. For each event, identified by final recoil and projectile charge state, the three-dimensional momentum vector of the recoil ion and the transverse momentum vector of the projectile ion were measured. The transverse momenta of the recoil and projectile ions were found to be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction, indicating that the transverse momentum exchange is dominated by interactions between the two ion cores. The transverse momentum distributions are well described by nCTMC calculations. The longitudinal momentum distributions of the recoil ions show that a large fraction of the momentum transferred to the projectile is carried off by continuum electrons. The recoil ions are scattered slightly backward, in partial agreement with predictions of nCTMC calculations. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Spendlikova, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products ( 79 Se, 87 Rb, 99 Tc, 107 Pd, 126 Sn, 129 I and 135 Cs) and activation products ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 59 Ni, 93 Zr, 94 Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects range from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. We have proposed a

  17. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Loefstroem-Engdahl, Elin; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Spendlikova, Irena (Nuclear Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I and 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high neutron capture cross sections for some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional production of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between different actinides but also between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes. These projects range from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. We have proposed a novel process

  18. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, Emma; Ekberg, Christian; Fermvik, Anna; Foreman, Mark; Naestren, Catharina; Retegan, Teodora; Skarnemark, Gunnar (Nuclear Chemistry, Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-01-15

    The long-lived elements in the spent nuclear fuels are mostly actinides, some fission products (79Se, 87Rb, 99Tc, 107Pd, 126Sn, 129I, 135Cs) and activation products (14C, 36Cl, 59Ni, 93Zr, 94Nb). To be able to destroy the long-lived elements in a transmutation process they must be separated from the rest of the spent nuclear fuel for different reasons. One being high cross sections for neutron capture of some elements, like the lanthanides. Other reasons may be the unintentional making of other long lived isotopes. The most difficult separations to make are those between trivalent actinides and lanthanides, due to their relatively similar chemical properties, and those between different actinides themselves. Solvent extraction is an efficient and well-known method that makes it possible to have separation factors that fulfil the highly set demands on purity of the separated phases and on small losses. In the case of a fuel with a higher burnup or possible future fuels, pyro processing may be of higher advantage due to the limited risk of criticality during the process. Chalmers University of Technology is involved in research regarding the separation of actinides and lanthanides and between the actinides themselves as a partner in several European frame work programmes from NEWPART in the 4th framework via PARTNEW and EUROPART to ACSEPT in the present 7th programme. The aims of the projects have now shifted from basic understanding to more applied research with focus on process development. One process, the SANEX (Selective ActiNide EXtraction) is now considered to be working on a basic scale and focus has moved on to more process oriented areas. However, since further investigations on basic understanding of the chemical behaviour are required, we have our main focus on the chemical processes and understanding of how they work. Our work is now manly focussed on the so called GANEX (Group ActiNide EXtraction) process. Due to new recruitments we will now also work

  19. Study on multi-recycle transmutation of LLFP in light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, M.B.; Kitamoto, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of transmutation for long-lived fission products (LLFP) in light water reactors (LWR), i.e. both BWR and PWR, considering the large capture cross-section of FPs in thermal region was evaluated. Calculation results of iodine and technetium transmutation in BWR and PWR suggested an effective use of BWR as compared to PWR. To obtain transmutation fraction [TF] of 30 to 40%, the irradiation period needed for 99 Tc transmutation was estimated as 10 to 15 years, and the period for 129 I transmutation was estimated as 30 to 40 years, respectively. The evaluations bring a new concept of multi-recycle LLFP transmutation using LWR TR (LWR for transmutation)

  20. Study of deep subcritical electronuclear systems and feasibility of their application for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Vladimirova, N.

    2010-01-01

    Physical substantiation for investigation of new schemes of electronuclear power production and transmutation of long-lived radioactive wastes based on nuclear relativistic technologies is presented. 'E and T RAW' ('Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Wastes') is aimed at complex study of interaction of relativistic beams of the Nuclotron-M with energies up to 10 GeV in quasi-infinite targets. Feasibility of application of natural/depleted uranium or thorium without the use of uranium-235, as well as utilization of spent fuel elements of atomic power plants is demonstrated based on analysis of results of known experiments, numerical, and theoretical works. The 'E and T RAW' project will provide fundamentally new data and numerical methods necessary for design of demonstration experimental-industrial setups based on the proposed scheme

  1. Natural alpha recoil particle radiation and ionizing radiation sensitivities in quartz detected with EPR: implications for geochronometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, W.J.; Odom, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance EPR signals in granitic quartz samples of known age are studied. Time-integrated alpha recoil activity and EPR signal intensity are more significantly correlated than sample age and EPR signal intensity. Neutron activation analysis for internal uranium and thorium in quartz are reported. Natural germanium EPR signals are observed in pegmatitic quartz samples and one granitic quartz. Pegmatitic quartz exhibits germanium EPR center growth competing strongly with E' center growth, apparently leading to depleted natural concentrations of E' centers. Calculations of lattice vacancy accumulation associated with alpha recoil damage are presented and compared with concentrations of paramagnetic oxygen vacancies in the quartz. Based on the results reported, the potential and problems associated with dating quartz are discussed, relating both to accumulated lattice damage and the additive dose methods. (author)

  2. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S. [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University,Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P. [Department of Physics, Sejong University,Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, I.S. [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University,Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-18

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton-scattered 662 keV γ-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg⋅year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  3. Oxygen recoil implant from SiO2 layers into single-crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Chen, Y.; Li, D.; Oak, S.; Srivastav, G.; Banerjee, S.; Tasch, A.; Merrill, P.; Bleiler, R.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to understand the distribution of recoil-implanted atoms and the impact on device performance when ion implantation is performed at a high dose through surface materials into single crystalline silicon. For example, in ultralarge scale integration impurity ions are often implanted through a thin layer of screen oxide and some of the oxygen atoms are inevitably recoil implanted into single-crystalline silicon. Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed to investigate this phenomenon. We have modified the Monte Carlo ion implant simulator, UT-Marlowe (B. Obradovic, G. Wang, Y. Chen, D. Li, C. Snell, and A. F. Tasch, UT-MARLOWE Manual, 1999), which is based on the binary collision approximation, to follow the full cascade and to dynamically modify the stoichiometry of the Si layer as oxygen atoms are knocked into it. CPU reduction techniques are used to relieve the demand on computational power when such a full cascade simulation is involved. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) profiles of oxygen have been carefully obtained for high dose As and BF 2 implants at different energies through oxide layers of various thicknesses, and the simulated oxygen profiles are found to agree very well with the SIMS data. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Choi, S.; Hahn, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton-scattered 662 keV γ-rays from a 137 Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg⋅year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  5. The Final Merger of Massive Black Holes: Recoils, Gravitational Waves, and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.

  6. A study of etching model of alpha-recoil tracks in biotite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Jinquan; Yuan Wanming; Wang Shicheng; Fan Qicheng

    2005-01-01

    Like fission-track dating, alpha-recoil track (ART) dating is based on the accumulation of nuclear particles that the released from natural radioactivity and produce etchable tracks in solids. ARTs are formed during the alpha-decay of uranium and thorium as well as of their daughter nuclei. When emitting an alpha-particle, the heavy remaining nucleus recoils 30-40 nm, leaving behind a trail of radiation damage. Through etching the ART tracks become visible with the aid of an interference phase-contrast microscope. Under the presupposition that all tracks are preserved since the formation of a sample their total number is a measure of the sample's age. The research for etching model is to accurately determine ART volume density, i.e., the number of ARTs per unit volume. The volume density of many dots in many layers may be determined on a sample using this etching model, and as decreasing the error and increasing the accuracy. (authors)

  7. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoggett-Jones, C.; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S.

    2002-01-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented

  8. Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggett-Jones, C. E-mail: craig@stams.strath.ac.uk; Robbins, C.; Gettinby, G.; Blythe, S

    2002-03-01

    An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative spent fuel management strategies. The system accounts for the dynamic nature of post-irradiation scenarios and is being used to develop software for use within the nuclear power industry. Four example waste-disposal options are considered using the method. Impact assessments and parameter sensitivity analyses are presented.

  9. Exhibit of ADS transmutation system to-Handle MA contained in Highly Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Lasman, A.N.; Nishihara, K.; Marsongkohadi; Su'ud, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This ADS transmutation system consists of a high intensity proton beam accelerator, spallation target, and sub-critical reactor core. The general approach was conducted using N-15 fuel to choose a strategy for destroying or minimizing the dangerously radioactive waste using a fast neutron spectrum. The fuel of this system was put surrounding the target with the some composition, i.e. the composition of MOX from PWR reactor spent-fuel with 5 year cooling time. Basic characteristics of this system have been conducted based on analysis of neutronics calculation results using ATRAS codes system

  10. Proton-beam window design for a transmutation facility operating with a liquid lead target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, C.; Lypsch, F.; Lizana, P. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The proton beam target of an accelerator-driven transmutation facility can be designed as a vertical liquid lead column. To prevent lead vapor from entering the accelerator vacuum, a proton-beam window has to separate the area above the lead surface from the accelerator tube. Two radiation-cooled design alternatives have been investigated which should withstand a proton beam of 1.6 GeV and 25 mA. Temperature calculations based on energy deposition calculations with the Monte Carlo code HETC, stability analysis and spallation-induced damage calculations have been performed showing the applicability of both designs.

  11. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Lindley, B. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Phillips, C. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  12. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  13. Transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste – present status and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products becomes an important issue of the overall nuclear fuel cycle assessment, both for existing and future reactor systems. Reliable nuclear data are required for analysis of associated neutronics. The present paper gives a review of the status of nuclear data analysis ...

  14. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  15. Introduction to isotopic shifts and transmutations observed in LENR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Mahadeva

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the topic of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the 'host metal' nuclei (Pd, Ni, Ti, etc.) interact with the loaded deuterium or hydrogen nuclei, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present in the system prior to the experimental run. (author)

  16. Transmutation: a decade of revival issues, relevant experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade, transmutation studies have been again a topic of wide interest and have triggered numerous international activities, like bilateral/multilateral collaborations, information exchanges, state-of-the-art reports, conferences, but also some co-ordinated programmes and experiments. It is legitimate to ask at this point, whether transmutation studies are still 'fashionable' and why; what is known, what has been done and what should be done. Since the motivations of national programmes are often different, due to a different context, we will take for granted that transmutation is generally seen as an option for the back-end of the fuel cycle in order to reduce the burden of potential geological storages of radioactive wastes (whatever their nature). Finally, we also acknowledge the fact that some highly respected scientists have at several occasions during this decade expressed their doubts about the value of the transmutation option. A typical example is the position expressed by Pigford and Rasmussen, reporting the results of a study for the US National Research Council. (author)

  17. The possible transmutation of radioactive waste from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear reactor power program produces high level and long lived radioactive wastes. The high level activity is associated with fission products, but beyond 400 years the principal waste hazard is from transuranic elements produced in the reactor. Several schemes have been proposed for the transmutation of the problem isotopes into more easily handled isotopes. The neutron flux in a thermal reactor is not high enough to significantly reduce the longer lived fission product isotopes 90 Sr and 132 Gs, but the transuranic elements can be reduced by recycling through power reactors. The limitation on recycling of the transuranic elements is the separation process to remove trace quantities from the waste stream. In fast reactors the transuranic elements are the principal fuel and fast reactor waste contains only half as much 90 Sr as thermal reactors. However, the overall waste hazard is similar to thermal reactors. A sufficiently intense neutron flux for fission product transmutation could perhaps be produced by a spallation reactor driven by a proton linear accelerator or a controlled thermonuclear reactor. However, both concepts are still some years in the future. Transmutation by accelerator sources of protons, electrons of gammas tend to require more energy than neutron transmutation. (author)

  18. Recoil effects in multiphoton electron-positron pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewska, K.; Kaminski, J. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Triply differential probability rates for electron-positron pair creation in laser-nucleus collisions, calculated within the S-matrix approach, are investigated as functions of the nuclear recoil. Pronounced enhancements of differential probability rates of multiphoton pair production are found for a nonzero momentum transfer from the colliding nucleus. The corresponding rates show a very dramatic dependence on the polarization of the laser field impinging on the nucleus; only for a linearly polarized light are the multiphoton rates for electron-positron pair production considerably large. We focus therefore on this case. Our numerical results for different geometries of the reaction particles demonstrate that, for the linearly polarized laser field of an infinite extent (which is a good approximation for femtosecond laser pulses), the pair creation is far more efficient if the nucleus is detected in the direction of the laser-field propagation. The corresponding angular distributions of the created particles show that the high-energy pairs are predominantly produced in the plane spanned by the polarization vector and the laser-field propagation direction, while the low-energy pairs are rather spread around the latter of the two directions. The enhancement of differential probability rates at each energy sector, defined by the four-momentum conservation relation, is observed with varying the energy of the produced particles. The total probability rates of pair production are also evaluated and compared with the corresponding results for the case when one disregards the recoil effect. A tremendous enhancement of the total probability rates of the electron-positron pair creation is observed if one takes into account the nuclear recoil.

  19. Nuclear-Recoil Energy Scale in CDMS II Silicon Dark-Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; et al.

    2018-03-07

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment aims to detect dark matter particles that elastically scatter from nuclei in semiconductor detectors. The resulting nuclear-recoil energy depositions are detected by ionization and phonon sensors. Neutrons produce a similar spectrum of low-energy nuclear recoils in such detectors, while most other backgrounds produce electron recoils. The absolute energy scale for nuclear recoils is necessary to interpret results correctly. The energy scale can be determined in CDMS II silicon detectors using neutrons incident from a broad-spectrum $^{252}$Cf source, taking advantage of a prominent resonance in the neutron elastic scattering cross section of silicon at a recoil (neutron) energy near 20 (182) keV. Results indicate that the phonon collection efficiency for nuclear recoils is $4.8^{+0.7}_{-0.9}$% lower than for electron recoils of the same energy. Comparisons of the ionization signals for nuclear recoils to those measured previously by other groups at higher electric fields indicate that the ionization collection efficiency for CDMS II silicon detectors operated at $\\sim$4 V/cm is consistent with 100% for nuclear recoils below 20 keV and gradually decreases for larger energies to $\\sim$75% at 100 keV. The impact of these measurements on previously published CDMS II silicon results is small.

  20. Precision lifetime measurements using the recoil distance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2000-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for the measurements of lifetimes of excited nuclear levels in the range from about 1 ps to 1,000 ps is reviewed. The New Yale Plunger Device for RDM experiments is introduced and the Differential Decay Curve Method for their analysis is reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on SD bands in the mass-190 region, shears bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. Perspectives for the use of RDM measurements in the study of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed

  1. Precision Lifetime Measurements Using the Recoil Distance Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krücken, R.

    2000-01-01

    The recoil distance method (RDM) for the measurements of lifetimes of excited nuclear levels in the range from about 1 ps to 1000 ps is reviewed. The New Yale Plunger Device for RDM experiments is introduced and the Differential Decay Curve Method for their analysis is reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on SD bands in the mass-190 region, shears bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. Perspectives for the use of RDM measurements in the study of neutron-rich nuclei are discussed. PMID:27551587

  2. Recoil generated radiotracers in studies of molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter summarizes many of the contributions that the recoil technique of generating excited radiotracer atoms in the presence of a thermal environment is making to the field of chemical dynamics. Specific topics discussed critically include characterization of the generation and behavior of excited molecules including fragmentation kinetics and energy transfer, measurement of thermal and hot kinetic parameters, and studies of reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry as a function of reaction energy. Distinctive features that provide unique approaches to dynamical problems are evaluated in detail and the complementarity with more conventional techniques is addressed. Prospects for future applications are also presented

  3. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S H; Suter, G F [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A; Green, T H [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Microbeam recoil detection for hydration of minerals studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Exploration and Mining Div.; Chekhmir, A.; Green, T.H. [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    The glancing angle geometry is chosen to enable application of the elastic recoil detection microanalysis on thick geological samples, for hydrogen content determination. Simultaneous PIXE measurements can be used to eliminate the problem of uncertainties in beam charge collection. The method is applied to determine the hydration characteristics of silicates, produced experimentally at high pressure and temperature simulating the lower crust and upper mantle conditions. Preliminary results show that the technique can be applied readily on a microscopic (<100 {mu}m) scale for determination of H at fraction of atomic percent level. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Multiple scattering problems in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    A number of groups use Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) to study materials science problems. Nevertheless, there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. To overcome this deficiency we have been establishing codes for 2-dimensional data analysis. A major problem involves the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100 nm) layers of the very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering we have made comparisons between the small-angle model of Sigmund et al. and TRIM calculations. (authors)

  6. Two-step B/T (burning and/or transmutation) method for self-completed nuclear fuel cycle with thermal and fast B/T reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamoto, A.; Mulyanto, M.R.; Marsodi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The total cost minimization for P and T (partitioning and transmutation) treatment with appropriate recycle period through out-core optimization was examined in order to find the possibility of P and T treatment of minor actinides (MA) and/or long lived fission products (LLFP) and the technology to be improved and/or developed in self-completed nuclear fuel cycle. The P and T should be done for B/T (burning and/or transmutation) treatment based on three criteria, and the grouping was closely related to the effectiveness of Two-Step B/T Method in B/T treatment. (authors)

  7. Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan

  8. [Lethal effect after transmutation of 33P incorporated into bacteriophage S 13 and mechanisms of DNA double helix rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelgot, S

    1980-04-01

    The experiments show the lethal effect of the beta decay of 33P incorporated in DNA of bacteriophage S 13. The lethal efficiency is high, 0.72 at 0 degrees C and 0.55 at--197 degrees C. The presence of a radical scavenger like AET has no influence. It was found previously that for such phages with single-stranded DNA, the lethal efficiency of 32P decay is unity, and that the lethal event is a DNA single-strand break, owing to the high energy of the nucleogenic 32S atom. As the recoil energy of the 33S atom is too low to account for such a break, it is suggested that the reorganization of the phosphate molecule into sulphate is able to bring about a DNA single-strand break with an efficiency as high as 0.7, at 0 degrees C. A model for the DNA double-strand-break produced by a transmutation processes is suggested.

  9. Pu Denaturing by Transmutation of MA in FBR Multi-cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiliza, Yoshitalia; Saito, Masaki; Sagara, Hiroshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 1528550 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Pu accumulation and its recycling is important in the term of energy resources, however one of the most sensitive issues is non-proliferation in the future fuel cycle based on fast breeder reactor (FBR). The present paper utilizes Protected Pu Production (P{sup 3}) concept for the production of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 242}Pu by Minor Actinides (MA) transmutation to enhance the proliferation resistance of Pu in the fuel. Increase in the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 242}Pu isotopic fraction creates a high rate of internal heat generation by alpha decay (DH) and/or a high neutron source of spontaneous fission (SFN) in Pu that would be encountered during manufacturing and maintaining of nuclear explosive device. The feasibility of denaturing of Pu by MA transmutation in medium size FBR has been studied from the viewpoint of even-mass number Pu accumulation during multi-cycle of Pu and MA. The proliferation resistance property of Pu is also evaluated based on the specific decay heat and spontaneous fission neutron, compared with the reference criteria. In present paper, the P{sup 3} technology based on multi-recycled Pu and MA is compared with the conventional technology based on multi-recycled Pu only. The detail of mass balance behavior is, however, beyond the scope of the present paper. (authors)

  10. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Tedder, D.W.; Drago, J.P.; Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures

  11. ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE TECHNOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, D.; Tuyle, G. van

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy, in conjunction with its nuclear laboratories, a national steering committee, and a panel of world experts, developed a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The ATW concept that was examined in this roadmap study was based on that developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the 1990s. The reference deployment scenario in the Roadmap was developed to treat 86,300 tn (metric tonnes initial heavy metal) of spent nuclear fuel that will accumulate through 2035 from existing U.S. nuclear power plants (without license extensions). The disposition of this spent nuclear reactor fuel is an issue of national importance, as is disposition of spent fuel in other nations. The U.S. program for the disposition of this once-through fuel is focused to characterize a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a geological repository for spent fuel and high-level waste. The ATW concept is being examined in the U.S. because removal of plutonium minor actinides, and two very long-lived isotopes from the spent fuel can achieve some important objectives. These objectives include near-elimination of plutonium, reduction of the inventory and mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the repository, and use of the remaining energy content of the spent fuel to produce power. The long-lived radionuclides iodine and technetium have roughly one million year half-lives, and they are candidates for transport into the environment via movement of ground water. The scientists and engineers who contributed to the Roadmap Study determined that the ATW is affordable, doable, and its deployment would support all the objectives. We report the status of the U.S. ATW program describe baseline and alternate technologies, and discuss deployment scenarios to support the existing U.S. nuclear capability and/or future growth with a variety of new fuel cycles

  12. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saubamea, B.

    1998-12-01

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  13. Use of the on-line Moessbauer effect as a contribution to the study of recoil defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeandey, Christian

    1974-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of effects of nuclear reactions, also known as 'after-effects' such as atomic disorders resulted from atom recoil, but also possible chemical modifications. The author more particularly focuses of recoil defects. He reports a critical review of studies of structure defects (in pure metals, ordered alloys, ionic crystals) performed by using conventional resonance absorption, and then presents an analysis of results of the defect creation dynamics as it had been proposed by other authors. He also proposes an overview of the evolution and disappearance of defects during thermal treatments. After a review of experiments based on the on-line Moessbauer effect, the author reports the study of recoil effects in pure metals (iron, hafnium), in alloys (Fe 1-x Al x , FeGe 2 , cubic, monoclinic and hexagonal FeGe), and in organic complexes (ferrous oxalate, different types of hafnium chelate, hafnium oxide). He finally discusses the electronic properties of different types of iron and hafnium chelate in solid phase [fr

  14. First high-statistics and high-resolution recoil-ion data from the WITCH retardation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, P.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Porobić, T.; Wursten, E.; Ban, G.; Beck, M.; Couratin, C.; Fabian, X.; Fléchard, X.; Friedag, P.; Glück, F.; Herlert, A.; Knecht, A.; Kozlov, V. Y.; Liénard, E.; Soti, G.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Van Gorp, S.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2016-07-01

    The first high-statistics and high-resolution data set for the integrated recoil-ion energy spectrum following the β^+ decay of 35Ar has been collected with the WITCH retardation spectrometer located at CERN-ISOLDE. Over 25 million recoil-ion events were recorded on a large-area multichannel plate (MCP) detector with a time-stamp precision of 2ns and position resolution of 0.1mm due to the newly upgraded data acquisition based on the LPC Caen FASTER protocol. The number of recoil ions was measured for more than 15 different settings of the retardation potential, complemented by dedicated background and half-life measurements. Previously unidentified systematic effects, including an energy-dependent efficiency of the main MCP and a radiation-induced time-dependent background, have been identified and incorporated into the analysis. However, further understanding and treatment of the radiation-induced background requires additional dedicated measurements and remains the current limiting factor in extracting a beta-neutrino angular correlation coefficient for 35Ar decay using the WITCH spectrometer.

  15. Three-dimensional recoil-ion momentum analyses in 8.7 MeV O7+-He collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambara, T.; Tang, J.Z.; Awaya, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Using high-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy we have measured the differential cross sections of single-electron capture and target single-ionization processes for 8.7 MeV O 7+ -He collisions as functions of scattering angle. A transverse momentum resolution of ±0.2 au, which corresponds to an angular resolution of about ±1.5x10 -6 rad for the projectile scattering angle, was obtained by intersecting a well collimated O 7+ beam with a target of a supersonic He jet from a pre-cooled gas and by measuring the recoil-ion transverse momentum. For the single capture reaction, information on the n-value of the electron final state in O 6+ (1snl) is obtained from the longitudinal momentum of the recoil ions. In pure single-electron capture, the dominant contributions to capture were found to be those from the n=4 and higher states, whereas single capture accompanied by the ionization of the second target electron mainly populates n=2 to n=4 states. Furthermore, the measured transverse momentum distribution differs significantly between pure single capture and capture with simultaneous ionization. The measured data for the pure capture process compare favourably with theoretical results based on a molecular-state expansion method. Other experimental data are discussed in terms of the classical overbarrier model. (author)

  16. Impact of partitioning and transmutation on high-level waste disposal for the fast breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Kenji; Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Ono, Kiyoshi; Shiotani, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    The impact of partitioning and/or transmutation (PT) technology on high-level waste management was investigated for the equilibrium state of several potential fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel cycles. Three different fuel cycle scenarios involving PT technology were analyzed: 1) partitioning process only (separation of some fission products), 2) transmutation process only (separation and transmutation of minor actinides), and 3) both partitioning and transmutation processes. The conventional light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle without PT technology, on which the current repository design is based, was also included for comparison. We focused on the thermal constraints in a geological repository and determined the necessary predisposal storage quantities and time periods (by defining a storage capacity index) for several predefined emplacement configurations through transient thermal analysis. The relation between this storage capacity index and the required repository emplacement area was obtained. We found that the introduction of the FBR fuel cycle without PT can yield a 35% smaller repository per unit electricity generation than the LWR fuel cycle, although the predisposal storage period is prolonged from 50 years for the LWR fuel cycle to 65 years for the FBR fuel cycle without PT. The introduction of the partitioning-only process does not result in a significant reduction of the repository emplacement area from that for the FBR fuel cycle without PT, but the introduction of the transmutation-only process can reduce the emplacement area by a factor of 5 when the storage period is extended from 65 to 95 years. When a coupled partitioning and transmutation system is introduced, the repository emplacement area can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude by assuming a predisposal storage of 60 years for glass waste and 295 years for calcined waste containing the Sr and Cs fraction. The storage period of 295 years for the calcined waste does not require a large

  17. Optimization of plutonium and minor actinide transmutation in an AP1000 fuel assembly via a genetic search algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, J., E-mail: jwashing@gmail.com; King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • We model a modified AP1000 fuel assembly in SCALE6.1. • We couple the NEWT module of SCALE to the MOGA module of DAKOTA. • Transmutation is optimized based on choice of coating and fuel. • Greatest transmutation achieved with PuZrO{sub 2}MgO fuel pins coated with Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, which contains approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are the preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a near-term solution. Previous simulation work demonstrated the potential to transmute transuranic elements in a modified light water reactor fuel pin. This study optimizes a quarter-assembly containing target fuels coated with spectral shift absorbers for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides in light water reactors. The spectral shift absorber coating on the target fuel pin tunes the neutron energy spectrum experienced by the target fuel. A coupled model developed using the NEWT module from SCALE 6.1 and a genetic algorithm module from the DAKOTA optimization toolbox provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel pins in the present study. The optimization with the coupled NEWT/DAKOTA model proceeded in three stages. The first stage optimized a single-target fuel pin per quarter-assembly adjacent to the central instrumentation channel. The second stage evaluated a variety of quarter-assemblies with multiple target fuel pins from the first stage and the third stage re-optimized the pins in the optimal second stage quarter-assembly. An 8 wt% PuZrO{sub 2}MgO inert matrix fuel pin with a 1.44 mm radius and a 0.06 mm Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating in a five target fuel pin per quarter-assembly configuration represents the optimal combination for the

  18. A Measurement of the Recoil Polarization of Electroproduced Λ(1116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAleer, Simeon B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory was used to study the reaction e + p → e' + K+ + Λ(1116) for events where Λ(1116) subsequently decayed via the channel Λ(1116) → p + π-. Data were taken at incident electron beam energies of 2.5, 4.0, and 4.2 GeV during the 1999 E1C run period. They hyperon production spectra span the Q2 range from 0.5 to 2.8 GeV2 and nearly the entire range in the center of mass angles. The proton angular distribution in the Λ(1116) rest frame is used to deduce the recoil polarization of the hyperon, and the W and cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ dependence of the recoil polarization will be presented. The data show sizeable negative polarizations for the Λ(1116) as a function of both cos θ$K+\\atop{cm}$ and W.

  19. Low energy recoil detection with a spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Katsioulas, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Giomataris, I.; Papaevangellou, T.

    2018-01-01

    We present results for the detection of low energy nuclear recoils in the keV energy region, from measurements performed with the Spherical Proportional Counter (SPC). An 241Am-9Be fast neutron source is used in order to obtain neutron-nucleus elastic scattering events inside the gaseous volume of the detector. The detector performance in the keV energy region was measured by observing the 5.9 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source, with energy resolution of 10% (σ). The toolkit GEANT4 was used to simulate the irradiation of the detector by an 241Am-9Be source, while SRIM was used to calculate the Ionization Quenching Factor (IQF), the simulation results are compared with the measurements. The potential of the SPC in low energy recoil detection makes the detector a good candidate for a wide range of applications, including Supernova or reactor neutrino detection and Dark Matter (WIMP) searches (via coherent elastic scattering).

  20. Kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Eremin, A.V.; Belozerov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Within the past twelve years, the recoil separator VASSILISSA has been used for investigation of evaporation residues produced in heavy-ion induced complete-fusion reactions. In the course of the experimental work in the region of the elements with 92 ≤ Z ≤ 94, fourteen new isotopes have been identified by the parent-daughter correlations. The study of the decay properties and formation cross sections of the isotopes of elements 110, 112, and 114 was performed with the use of the high intensity 48 Ca beams; 232 Th, 238 U and 242 Pu targets were used in the experiments. At the beam energies corresponding to the calculated cross-section maxima of the 3n evaporation channels, the isotopes 277 110, 283 112, and 287 114 were produced and identified. For further experiments aimed at the synthesis of the superheavy element isotopes (Z ≥ 110) with the intensive 48 Ca extracted beams, the improvements in the ion optical system of the separator and of the focal plane detector system have been made. As a result, for heavy recoiling nuclei with masses A ∼ 250, the mass resolution of about 2.5 % was achieved with a good energy and position resolutions of the focal plane detectors

  1. Binary black holes: Spin dynamics and gravitational recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M.; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of spinning black hole binaries focusing on the spin dynamics of the individual black holes as well as on the gravitational recoil acquired by the black hole produced by the merger. We consider two series of initial spin orientations away from the binary orbital plane. In one of the series, the spins are antialigned; for the second series, one of the spins points away from the binary along the line separating the black holes. We find a remarkable agreement between the spin dynamics predicted at 2nd post-Newtonian order and those from numerical relativity. For each configuration, we compute the kick of the final black hole. We use the kick estimates from the series with antialigned spins to fit the parameters in the Kidder kick formula, and verify that the recoil in the direction of the orbital angular momentum is ∝sinθ and on the orbital plane ∝cosθ, with θ the angle between the spin directions and the orbital angular momentum. We also find that the black hole spins can be well estimated by evaluating the isolated horizon spin on spheres of constant coordinate radius

  2. Neutronics analysis of minor actinides transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi; Zu, Tiejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A fusion fission hybrid system for MA transmutation is proposed. • The analysis of neutronics effects on the transmutation is performed. • The transmutation rate of MA reaches 86.5% by 25 times of recycling. -- Abstract: The minor actinides (MAs) transmutation in a fusion-driven subcritical system is analyzed in this paper. The subcritical reactor is driven by a tokamak D-T fusion device with relatively easily achieved plasma parameters and tokamak technologies. The MAs discharged from the light water reactor (LWR) are loaded in transmutation zone. Sodium is used as the coolant. The mass percentage of the reprocessed plutonium (Pu) in the fuel is raised from 0 to 48% and stepped by 12% to determine its effect on the MAs transmutation. The lesser the Pu is loaded, the larger the MAs transmutation rate is, but the smaller the energy multiplication factor is. The neutronics analysis of two loading patterns is performed and compared. The loading pattern where the mass percentage of Pu in two regions is 15% and 32.9% respectively is conducive to the improvement of the transmutation fraction within the limits of burn-up. The final transmutation fraction of MAs can reach 17.8% after five years of irradiation. The multiple recycling is investigated. The transmutation fraction of MAs can reach about 61.8% after six times of recycling, and goes up to about 86.5% after 25

  3. Potential benefits of waste transmutation to the U.S. high-level waste respository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, G.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This paper reexamines the potential benefits of waste transmutation to the proposed U.S. geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site based on recent progress in the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain base case of spent fuel emplacement. It is observed that actinides are assumed to have higher solubility than in previous studies and that Np and other actinides now dominate the projected aqueous releases from a Yucca Mountain repository. Actinides are also indentified as the dominant source of decay heat in the repository, and the effect of decay heat in perturbing the hydrology, geochemistry, and thermal characteristics of Yucca Mountain are reviewed. It is concluded that the potential for thermally-driven, buoyant, gas-phase flow at Yucca Mountain introduces data and modeling requirements that will increase the costs of licensing the site and may cause the site to be unattractive for geologic disposal of wastes. A transmutation-enabled cold repository is proposed that might allow licensing of a repository to be based upon currently observable characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  4. Technology readiness of partitioning and transmutation toward closed fuel cycle in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Kurata, Masaki; Morita, Yasuji; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Minato, Kazuo; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2011-01-01

    This paper treats technology readiness level (TRL) assessment of Partitioning and Transmutation (P-T) toward closed fuel cycle in JAPAN. The purpose is providing clarified information related to the current maturity of the partitioning and transmutation technologies by applying the methodology of TRL, parallel to attempting to establish common indications among relating technology area. The methodology should be one of useful communication tools between specialists and management level, and also among countries interested in the P-T technologies. The generic TRL in this study is based on the GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership)'s definition: TRL 3 shows the status that critical function is proved and elemental technologies are identified, TRL 4 represents that relating technologies are validated at bench scale in laboratory environment, and TRL 5 achieves the completion of development related to the subsystem and elemental technologies. Detailed indications are established through discussion of the relating specialists. Reviewed technological area includes P-T and minor actinide (MA) cycle: Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) and Accelerator driven system (ADS) for MA transmutation, partitioning processes, and MA-bearing fuels. The assessments reveal that TRL spreads around TRL 3 to TRL 4 because each system requires more the development of elemental technologies. Transmutation core of FBR is assessed to be TRL 4 in that MA bearing integral test is required additionally, and ADS becomes TRL 3 because the elemental technologies were identified and the requirements were specified. Consequently, the common key issue is how the nuclear calculation methodology will be validated for MA-bearing-fuelled core, since several percentages of MA changes the void reactivity and the Doppler Effect significantly, which are inherently important in reactor safety. It should be that critical experiments with several kg of americium or more are difficult in the existing experimental

  5. Radiation Recoil Effects on the Dynamical Evolution of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desiree

    The Yarkovsky effect is a radiation recoil force that results in a semimajor axis drift in the orbit that can cause Main Belt asteroids to be delivered to powerful resonances from which they could be transported to Earth-crossing orbits. This force depends on the spin state of the object, which is modified by the YORP effect, a variation of the Yarkovsky effect that results in a torque that changes the spin rate and the obliquity. Extensive analyses of the basic behavior of the YORP effect have been previously conducted in the context of the classical spin state evolution of rigid bodies (YORP cycle). However, the YORP effect has an extreme sensitivity to the topography of the asteroids and a minor change in the shape of an aggregate asteroid can stochastically change the YORP torques. Here we present the results of the first simulations that self-consistently model the YORP effect on the spin states of dynamically evolving aggregates. For these simulations we have developed several algorithms and combined them with two codes, TACO and pkdgrav. TACO is a thermophysical asteroid code that models the surface of an asteroid using a triangular facet representation and which can compute the YORP torques. The code pkdgrav is a cosmological N-body tree code modified to simulate the dynamical evolution of asteroids represented as aggregates of spheres using gravity and collisions. The continuous changes in the shape of an aggregate result in a different evolution of the YORP torques and therefore aggregates do not evolve through the YORP cycle as a rigid body would. Instead of having a spin evolution ruled by long periods of rotational acceleration and deceleration as predicted by the classical YORP cycle, the YORP effect is self-limiting and stochastic on aggregate asteroids. We provide a statistical description of the spin state evolution which lays out the foundation for new simulations of a coupled Yarkovsky/YORP evolution. Both self-limiting YORP and to a lesser

  6. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented

  7. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlfors, Marcus

    2003-05-01

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented.

  8. Recoil chemistry and solid state exchange in cobalt complexes : a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshesh, V.

    1981-01-01

    During the last thirty years considerable work has been done on various aspects of recoil chemistry and solid state exchange in cobalt complexes. Several interesting features such as 'oxygen effect', 'water of hydration effect', 'dilution with isomorphous materials', etc., have been observed. These data led workers to reject the older hypothesis based on 'fragmentation' and 'recombination' and suggest models based on exciton or electron induced exchange. However some recent data show that perhaps both the processes viz., thermal annealing in n-irradiated systems and solid state exchange are not bulk processes. This has led the author to propose a new model. In this model greater emphasis is placed on dissociation reactions followed by recombination and/or exchange reactions. (author)

  9. In-beam electron spectrometer used in conjunction with a gas-filled recoil separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Butler, P.A.; Greenlees, P.T.; Bastin, J.E.; Herzberg, R.D.; Humphreys, R.D.; Jones, G.D.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Miettinen, L.; Page, T.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.

    2004-01-01

    The conversion-electron spectrometer SACRED has been redesigned for use in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator. The system allows in-beam recoil-decay-tagging (RDT) measurements of internal conversion electrons. The performance of the system using standard sources and in-beam is described

  10. Use of nuclear recoil for separating 228Ra, 224Ra, and 233Pa from colloidal thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beydon, J.; Gratot, I.

    1968-01-01

    By using α-recoil it is possible to separate by dialysis the α disintegration products (224 Ra; 228 Ra) of thorium from colloidal thorium hydroxide.The use of n, γ recoil allows the separation of 233 Pa produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium, on condition that the colloidal thorium hydroxide is irradiated in the presence of a dispersing. (author) [fr

  11. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harinder J; Wereley, Norman M

    2014-01-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events. (paper)

  12. Optimal control of gun recoil in direct fire using magnetorheological absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder J.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-05-01

    Optimal control of a gun recoil absorber is investigated for minimizing recoil loads and maximizing rate of fire. A multi-objective optimization problem was formulated by considering the mechanical model of the recoil absorber employing a spring and a magnetorheological (MR) damper. The damper forces are predicted by evaluating pressure drops using a nonlinear Bingham-plastic model. The optimization methodology provides multiple optimal design configurations with a trade-off between recoil load minimization and increased rate of fire. The configurations with low or high recoil loads imply low or high rate of fire, respectively. The gun recoil absorber performance is also analyzed for perturbations in the firing forces. The adaptive control of the MR damper for varying gun firing forces provides a smooth operation by returning the recoil mass to its battery position (ready to reload and fire) without incurring an end-stop impact. Furthermore, constant load transmissions are observed with respect to the recoil stroke by implementing optimal control during the simulated firing events.

  13. Calculations of Total and Differential Solid Angles for a Proton Recoil Solid State Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konijn, J; Lauber, A; Tollander, B

    1963-08-15

    The solid angles have been computed for a proton recoil counter consisting of a circular hydrogenous foil viewed by an isotropic neutron point source at different distances from the target foil. Tables are given for the total subtended solid angle as well as the differential energy distribution function of the proton recoil spectrum. The influence of finite foil thickness has also been studied.

  14. Development of fluoride reprocessing technology for molten salt transmutation reactor systems in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, J.; Hosnedl, P.; Matal, O.

    2000-01-01

    At present, the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is considered a prospective alternative conception with respect to the current conception based on the non-reprocessed spent fuel disposal into a deep geological repository. The Czech research and development programme in the area of partitioning is directed primarily on the development of the fuel cycle technology for the accelerator - driven subcritical reactor with a liquid fuel based on fluoride melts. The final objective of the research programme is the development of pyrochemical technologies suitable for a continuous or semi-continuous separation process which would allow practically perfect utilization of the transmutation potentialities of the reactor system. The present research is directed particularly on the development of suitable fluoride separation methods the target of which is the removal of the uranium component from spent nuclear fuel and on the research of the electro-separation procedures and further on the development of appropriate construction materials and equipment for the technology of fluoride salt melts. (authors)

  15. Use of a multi-attribute utility theory for evaluating the best coolant material in transmutation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong Han; Han, Suk Joong; Kim, Do Hyung; Park, Won Suk

    1998-12-01

    In order to develop and design a good transmutation system, it is necessary first to select the best available coolant material for a reactor coolant system. Choosing the best coolant material may not be easy since there are several criteria associated with thermal performance, safety problem, cost problem, neutronic aspects. etc. The best option should be chosen based on the maximization of our needs in this situation. It is a challenging task. Decision theory can be employed to solve this type of problem. This report presents the feasibility study for evaluating the best coolant material in transmutation reactors based on the multi=attribute utility theory. The main problem presented here is how to logically evaluate candidate coolant materials under multiple criteria such as thermal performance, safety problem, cost problem, cost problem, neutronic aspects, etc. Since the current problem involves multiple criteria or attributes, first of all, the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) such as SMART and AHP has been extensively reviewed. Then, many candidate coolant material for transmutation reactors have been identified. The next step is to construct a value tree that express to reflect the relative importance of the attributes for overall evaluation. Finally, given these assignments, the final goal were obtained by manipulating these ranks through the value tree. The proposed approach is intended to help people be rational and logical in making decisions such complex tasks. (author). 8 refs., 7 tabs., 22 figs

  16. Measurement of Nuclear Recoils in the CDMS II Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallows, Scott M.

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to directly detect elastic scatters of weakly-interacting massive dark matter particles (WIMPs), on target nuclei in semiconductor crystals composed of Si and Ge. These scatters would occur very rarely, in an overwhelming background composed primarily of electron recoils from photons and electrons, as well as a smaller but non-negligible background of WIMP-like nuclear recoils from neutrons. The CDMS~II generation of detectors simultaneously measure ionization and athermal phonon signals from each scatter, allowing discrimination against virtually all electron recoils in the detector bulk. Pulse-shape timing analysis allows discrimination against nearly all remaining electron recoils taking place near detector surfaces. Along with carefully limited neutron backgrounds, this experimental program allowed for "background-free'' operation of CDMS~II at Soudan, with less than one background event expected in each WIMP-search analysis. As a result, exclusionary upper-limits on WIMP-nucleon interaction cross section were placed over a wide range of candidate WIMP masses, ruling out large new regions of parameter space. These results, like any others, are subject to a variety of systematic effects that may alter their final interpretations. A primary focus of this dissertation will be difficulties in precisely calibrating the energy scale for nuclear recoil events like those from WIMPs. Nuclear recoils have suppressed ionization signals relative to electron recoils of the same recoil energy, so the response of the detectors is calibrated differently for each recoil type. The overall normalization and linearity of the energy scale for electron recoils in CDMS~II detectors is clearly established by peaks of known gamma energy in the ionization spectrum of calibration data from a 133Ba source. This electron-equivalent keVee) energy scale enables calibration of the total phonon signal (keVt) by enforcing unity

  17. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (P fus ∼ 10-100 MW, β N ∼ 2-3, Q p ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  18. A Study on thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the coolant materials for the transmutation reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang [Seoul National University, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide the direction of transmutation reactor design in terms of thermal hydraulics especially through the analysis of thermal hydraulic characteristics of various candidate materials for the transmutation reactor coolant. In this study, the characteristics of coolant materials used in current nuclear power plants and candidate materials for transmutation reactor are analyzed and compared. To evaluate the thermal hydraulic characteristics, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic calculation is performed for the candidate coolant materials of transmutation reactor. An analysis of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of transmutation reactor. An analysis of thermal-hydraulic characteristics of Sodium, Lead, Lead-Bismuth, and Lead-Lithium among the liquid metals considered as the coolant of transmutation reactor is performed by using computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT, and SIMPLER algorithm. (author). 50 refs., 40 figs., 30 tabs.

  19. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickert, N.C.

    2008-02-01

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  20. Commissioning of the recoil silicon detector for the HERMES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickert, N C

    2008-02-15

    The reconstruction of the missing mass is limited by the position and momentum resolution of the HERMES spectrometer. In order to reach a higher accuracy in the measurements the backscattered nucleon must also be detected. A detector suited for this must give the possibility, to determine the momentum of the particles over a very large range: from minimally ionizing particles up to protons, which are stopped in the detector. The detector must also be able to discriminate hadrons and mesons as well as cover the complete spatial region around the target. In the winter 2005-2006 such a recoil detector was installed in the HERMES experiment. The detector sonsists of three partial detectors, a silicon counter within the scattering chamber, a sintillating-fiber detector and a photon detector. Before the installation of the detector the silicon modules were tested in a bench test and checked together with the other particle detectors in a test experiment. A large part of this dissertation is dedicated to the planning and performance of these tests as well to the evaluation of them. It could be show, that the modules worked accordly to their specifications, however because of unexpectedly high noise a signal correction became necessary. Different models for the correction were developed and tested in the framework of these thesis. In spite of the high noise cosmic muons could be detected and their energy deposition measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1. In the winter break 2005-2006 the recoil detector was installed into the HERMES experiment. First diagnosis and analysis software was developed. The silicon detector measured successfully energy depositions of minimally ionizing particles up to protons stopped in the sensor. Minimally ionizing particles could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 5:1. By means of track information of the scintillating-fiber detector protons could be discriminated from pions and other mesons by the silicon detector. The HERMES

  1. Fractional momentum transfer in incomplete fusion reaction: measurement of recoil range distributions in 20Ne + 159Tb system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Singh, D.; Pachouri, Dipti; Afzal Ansari, M.; Rashid, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The recoil range distribution (RRD) of several residues have been measured for the system 20 Ne + 159 Tb at 165 MeV beam energy by collecting the recoiling residues in the Al-catcher foils of varying thickness

  2. Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaio, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium ( 3 ) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit

  3. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  4. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  5. The development of the market for neutron transmutation doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzer, H.; Vieweg-Gutberlet, G.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron transmutation doped silicon was introduced to the electronic device market in the 1975-1976 time period. Today, neutron transmutation doping is definitely a mature technology applied mainly to semiconductor power devices. There is no doubt that the power device sector will remain the major consumer of NTD silicon in the near future. This paper examines the possible application of NTD silicon to other areas of the semiconductor market, and concludes that the need for NTD silicon will continue to grow and will expand into other applications. Consequently, unless new reactor capacities become available by the end of the decade, NTD silicon applications will probably be limited mainly to power and sensor devices

  6. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Accelerator Driven Transmutation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westlen, D.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper estimates the economical costs and benefits associated with a nuclear waste transmutation strategy. An 800 MWth, fast neutron spectrum, subcritical core design has been used in the study (the so called Sing-Sing Core). Three different fuel cycle scenarios have been compared. The main purpose of the paper has been to identify the cost drivers of a partitioning and transmutation strategy, and to estimate the cost of electricity generated in a nuclear park with operating accelerator driven systems. It has been found that directing all transuranic discharges from spent light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide (UOX) fuel to accelerator driven systems leads to a cost increase for nuclear power of 50±15%, while introduction of a mixed oxide (MOX) burning step in the LWRs diminishes the cost penalty to 35±10%. (authors)

  7. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign

  8. Code development and analyses within the area of transmutation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    A strong code development is going on to meet various demands resulting from the development of dedicated reactors for transmutation and incineration. Code development is concerned with safety codes and general codes needed for assessing scenarios and transmutation strategies. Analyses concentrate on various ADS systems with solid and liquid molten salt fuels. Analyses deal with ADS Demo Plant (5th FP EU) and transmuters with advanced fuels

  9. Some basic advantages of accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and iodine-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-10-01

    The blanket of accelerator-driven facility designed for I-129 transmutation doesn`t contain fissile and fertile materials. So the overheating of iodine compounds transmuted is practically excluded. The efficacy of I-129 transmutation is estimated. Curium being accumulated in nuclear reactors can be incinerated in blanket of accelerator-driven facility. The deep depletion of curium diluted with inert material can be achieved.

  10. Actinide partitioning and transmutation program progress report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Tedder, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental work on the 16 tasks comprising the Actinide Partitioning and Transmutation Program was initiated at the various sites. This work included the development of conceptual material balance flowsheets which define integrated waste systems supporting an LWR fuel reprocessing plant and a mixed (U-Pu) oxide fuel refabrication plant. In addition, waste subsystems were defined for experimental evaluation. Computer analysis of partitioning-transmutation, utilizing an LMFBR for transmutation, was completed for both constant and variable waste actinide generation rates

  11. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  12. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of 99 Tc and 129 I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted

  13. Physics and safety of transmutation systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The safe and efficient management of spent fuel from the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is an important issue. Worldwide, more than 250 000 tons of spent fuel from currently operating reactors will require disposal. These numbers account for only high-level radioactive waste generated by present-day power reactors. Nearly all issues related to risks to future generations arising from the long-term disposal of such spent nuclear fuel is attributable to only about 1% of its content. This 1% is made up primarily of plutonium, neptunium, americium and curium (called transuranic elements) and the long-lived isotopes of iodine and technetium.When transuranics are removed from discharged fuel destined for disposal, the toxic nature of the spent fuel drops below that of natural uranium ore (that which was originally mined for the nuclear fuel) within a period of several hundred to a thousand years. This significantly reduces the burden on geological repositories and the problem of addressing the remaining long-term residues can thus de done in controlled environments having timescales of centuries rather than millennia stretching beyond 10 000 years. Transmutation is one of the means being explored to address the disposal of transuranic elements. To achieve this, advanced reactors systems, appropriate fuels, separation techniques and associated fuel cycle strategies are required. This status report begins by providing a clear definition of partitioning and transmutation (P and T), and then describes the state of the art concerning the challenges facing the implementation of P and T, scenario studies and specific issues related to accelerator-driven systems (ADS) dynamics and safety, long-lived fission product transmutation and the impact of nuclear data uncertainty on transmutation system design. The report will be of particular interest to nuclear scientists working on P and T issues as well as advanced fuel cycles in general. (author)

  14. Transmutation of Americium in Light and Heavy Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Chalk River Laboratories, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (Canada); Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Maldonado, G.I. [University of Tennessee (Knoxville)/ORNL, Tennessee (United States)

    2009-06-15

    There is interest worldwide in reducing the burden on geological nuclear fuel disposal sites. In most disposal scenarios the decay heat loading of the surrounding rock limits the capacity of these sites. On the long term, this decay heat is generated primarily by actinides, and a major contributor 100 to 1000 years after discharge from the reactor is {sup 241}Am. One possible approach to reducing the decay-heat burden is to reprocess spent reactor fuel and use thermal spectrum reactors to 'burn' the Am nuclides. The viability of this approach is dependent upon the detailed changes in chemical and isotopic composition of actinide-bearing fuels after irradiation in thermal reactor spectra. The currently available thermal spectrum reactor options include light water-reactors (LWRs) and heavy-water reactors (HWRs) such as the CANDU{sup R} designs. In addition, as a result of the recycle of spent LWR fuel, there would be a considerable amount of potential recycled uranium (RU). One proposed solution for the recycled uranium is to use it as fuel in Candu reactors. This paper investigates the possibilities of transmuting americium in 'spiked' bundles in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and in boiling water reactors (BWRs). Transmutation of Am in Candu reactors is also examined. One scenario studies a full core fuelled with homogeneous bundles of Am mixed with recycled uranium, while a second scenario places Am in an inert matrix in target channels in a Candu reactor, with the rest of the reactor fuelled with RU. A comparison of the transmutation in LWRs and HWRs is made, in terms of the fraction of Am that is transmuted and the impact on the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel. CANDU{sup R} is a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). (authors)

  15. High intensity proton linear accelerator development for nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Oguri, H.; Ito, N.; Kusano, J.; Okumura, Y.; Murata, H.; Sakogawa, K.

    1997-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average current of 10 mA has been proposed for various engineering tests for the transmutation system of nuclear waste by JAERI. The conceptual and optimization studies for this accelerator performed for a proper choice of operating frequency, high b structure, mechanical engineering considerations and RF source aspects are briefly described

  16. An optimization methodology for heterogeneous minor actinides transmutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, Timothée; Buiron, Laurent; Rimpault, Gérald

    2018-04-01

    In the case of a closed fuel cycle, minor actinides transmutation can lead to a strong reduction in spent fuel radiotoxicity and decay heat. In the heterogeneous approach, minor actinides are loaded in dedicated targets located at the core periphery so that long-lived minor actinides undergo fission and are turned in shorter-lived fission products. However, such targets require a specific design process due to high helium production in the fuel, high flux gradient at the core periphery and low power production. Additionally, the targets are generally manufactured with a high content in minor actinides in order to compensate for the low flux level at the core periphery. This leads to negative impacts on the fuel cycle in terms of neutron source and decay heat of the irradiated targets, which penalize their handling and reprocessing. In this paper, a simplified methodology for the design of targets is coupled with a method for the optimization of transmutation which takes into account both transmutation performances and fuel cycle impacts. The uncertainties and performances of this methodology are evaluated and shown to be sufficient to carry out scoping studies. An illustration is then made by considering the use of moderating material in the targets, which has a positive impact on the minor actinides consumption but a negative impact both on fuel cycle constraints (higher decay heat and neutron) and on assembly design (higher helium production and lower fuel volume fraction). It is shown that the use of moderating material is an optimal solution of the transmutation problem with regards to consumption and fuel cycle impacts, even when taking geometrical design considerations into account.

  17. A Study of Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber for the Direct Detection of WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huajie [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Robust results of WIMP direct detection experiments depend on rm understandings of nuclear recoils in the detector media. This thesis documents the most comprehensive study to date on nuclear recoils in liquid argon - a strong candidate for the next generation multi-ton scale WIMP detectors. This study investigates both the energy partition from nuclear recoil energy to secondary modes (scintillation and ionization) and the pulse shape characteristics of scintillation from nuclear recoils.

  18. Investigation of fractional momentum transfer: measurement of forward recoil ranges in 16O + natTm collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Rakesh Kumar; Golda, K.S.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    For better understanding of complete fusion and incomplete fusion in heavy ion reactions a programme of precise measurements of excitation functions, recoil range distribution and angular distributions of recoils has been undertaken. In the present contribution the recoil range distribution for the residues have been measured at ≅ 6 MeV/nucleon, using recoil-catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-spectroscopy

  19. The gravitational-wave recoil from the ringdown phase of coalescing black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre; Blanchet, Luc; Will, Clifford M

    2010-01-01

    The gravitational recoil or 'kick' of a black hole formed from the merger of two orbiting black holes, and caused by the anisotropic emission of gravitational radiation, is an astrophysically important phenomenon. We combine (i) an earlier calculation, using post-Newtonian theory, of the kick velocity accumulated up to the merger of two non-spinning black holes, (ii) a 'close-limit approximation' calculation of the radiation emitted during the ringdown phase, and based on a solution of the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations using initial data accurate to second post-Newtonian order. We prove that ringdown radiation produces a significant 'anti-kick'. Adding the contributions due to inspiral, merger and ringdown phases, our results for the net kick velocity agree with those from numerical relativity to 10-15% over a wide range of mass ratios, with a maximum velocity of 180 km s -1 at a mass ratio of 0.38. (fast track communication)

  20. Systematic investigation of background sources in neutron flux measurements with a proton-recoil silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, P., E-mail: marini@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Mathieu, L. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France); Acosta, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, México D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Aïche, M.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Tsekhanovich, I. [CENBG, CNRS/IN2P3-Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium B.P. 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    2017-01-01

    Proton-recoil detectors (PRDs), based on the well known standard H(n,p) elastic scattering cross section, are the preferred instruments to perform precise quasi-absolute neutron flux measurements above 1 MeV. The limitations of using a single silicon detector as PRD at a continuous neutron beam facility are investigated, with the aim of extending such measurements to neutron energies below 1 MeV. This requires a systematic investigation of the background sources affecting the neutron flux measurement. Experiments have been carried out at the AIFIRA facility to identify these sources. A study on the role of the silicon detector thickness on the background is presented and an energy limit on the use of a single silicon detector to achieve a neutron flux precision better than 1% is given.