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Sample records for recognizing false biochemical

  1. Recognizing False Biochemical Failure Calls After Radiation With or Without Neo-Adjuvant Androgen Deprivation for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, James W.; Kumar, Mahesh; Gleeson, Paul S.; Lamb, David S.; Joseph, David FRANZCR.; Atkinson, Chris FRANZCR.; Matthews, John FRANZCR.; Tai, K.-H.; Spry, Nigel A.; Christie, David; Turner, Sandra FRANZCR.; Greer, Peter B.; D'Este, Catherine; Steigler, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: We studied prostate-specific antigen (PSA) changes after radiation with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation to determine posttreatment PSA scenarios in which false-positive biochemical failures (FPBF) are most likely to occur. Methods and Materials: In the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology 96.01 Group trial, patients with T2b, 2c, 3, 4 N0 prostate cancer were randomized to 3 or 6 months goserelin and flutamide (STAD) before and during 66 Gy to the prostate and seminal vesicles (XRT) or to XRT alone. Piecewise longitudinal changes in PSA before relapse were characterized and quantified to determine which might cause FPBF calls. Results: Between 1996 and 2000, 802 eligible patients were randomized. Of these, 492 met the criteria for American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) failure and 467 for Phoenix failure. Seventy-seven ASTRO fails and 39 Phoenix fails were deemed false positives (FPs). The majority of FPBFs were associated with the 'plateauing' in PSA values that follow posttreatment nadir. FPBFs were particularly common in men treated with STAD, in whom small, consecutive PSA rises before or during this phenomenon triggered 56 FP ASTRO fail calls. In these men, the Phoenix fail criteria triggered only 15 FPBF calls. However, the Phoenix criteria were more vulnerable than ASTRO to short-term isolated PSA rises during plateau, which resulted in 15 Phoenix fail calls but only 3 FP ASTRO fails. Conclusions: The Phoenix definition avoided 50% of FPBF calls that occurred with the ASTRO definition. Failures should be confirmed by further PSA rises before investigation and treatment is considered.

  2. High confidence in falsely recognizing prototypical faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina; Reinke, Victoria; Mathews, Jeffrey; Swart, Alexandra; Wallinger, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    We applied a metacognitive approach to investigate confidence in recognition of prototypical faces. Participants were presented with sets of faces constructed digitally as deviations from prototype/base faces. Participants were then tested with a simple recognition task (Experiment 1) or a multiple-choice task (Experiment 2) for old and new items plus new prototypes, and they showed a high rate of confident false alarms to the prototypes. Confidence and accuracy relationship in this face recognition paradigm was found to be positive for standard items but negative for the prototypes; thus, it was contingent on the nature of the items used. The data have implications for lineups that employ match-to-suspect strategies.

  3. False biochemical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in streptavidin-biotin-based immunoassays: the problem of biotin intake and related interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Polak, Michel; Flechtner, Isabelle; Gonzales-Briceño, Laura; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    Immunoassays are now commonly used for hormone measurement, in high throughput analytical platforms. Immunoassays are generally robust to interference. However, endogenous analytical error may occur in some patients; this may be encountered in biotin supplementation or in the presence of anti-streptavidin antibody, in immunoassays involving streptavidin-biotin interaction. In these cases, the interference may induce both false positive and false negative results, and simulate a seemingly coherent hormonal profile. It is to be feared that this type of errors will be more frequently observed. This review underlines the importance of keeping close interactions between biologists and clinicians to be able to correlate the hormonal assay results with the clinical picture.

  4. False Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Andrew; Wilson, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread evidence that some firms use false advertising to overstate the value of their products. We consider a model in which a policymaker is able to punish such false claims. We characterize an equilibrium where false advertising actively influences rational buyers, and analyze the effects of policy under different welfare objectives. We establish precise conditions where policy optimally permits a positive level of false advertising, and show how these conditions vary intuitive...

  5. False assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  6. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  7. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  8. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  9. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-60 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  11. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-35 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  12. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  13. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [de

  14. Prostate-specific antigen (Pasa) bounce and other fluctuations: Which biochemical relapse definition is least prone to PSA false calls? An analysis of 2030 men treated for prostate cancer with external beam or brachytherapy with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the false call (FC) rate for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse according to nine different PSA relapse definitions after a PSA fluctuation (bounce) has occurred after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy, with or without adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a prospective database of 2030 patients was conducted. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was scored according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), Vancouver, threshold + n, and nadir + n definitions for the complete data set and then compared against a truncated data set, with data subsequent to the height of the bounce deleted. The FC rate was calculated for each definition. Results: The bounce rate, with this very liberal definition of bounce, was 58% with EBRT and 84% with brachytherapy. The FC rate was lowest with nadir + 2 and + 3 definitions (2.2% and 1.6%, respectively) and greatest with low-threshold and ASTRO definitions (32% and 18%, respectively). The ASTRO definition was particularly susceptible to FC when androgen deprivation therapy was used with radiation (24%). Discussion: New definitions of biochemical non-evidence of disease that are more robust than the ASTRO definition have been identified. Those with the least FC rates are the nadir + 2 and nadir + 3 definitions, both of which are being considered to replace the ASTRO definition by the 2005 meeting of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-ASTRO consensus panel

  15. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  16. Systemic True False

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ):. (a). (b). (c). (d). Answer: True systemics are (b & c); False Systemics (a & d). For more examples, see (10 and 11). Na2O2. NaCl. Na. HCl heat /excess. (O). 300°C electrolysis. (molten). NaOH. NaCl. Na. HCl. H2O electrolysis. (solution). NaCl.

  17. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  18. False memories and confabulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

    1998-04-01

    Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories.

  19. False color viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-59 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 188.10-59 Section 188... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-59 Recognized classification society. This term means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society...

  1. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  2. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  3. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  4. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  5. BISEN: Biochemical simulation environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanlier, J.; Wu, F.; Qi, F.; Vinnakota, K.C.; Han, Y.; Dash, R.K.; Yang, F.; Beard, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Biochemical Simulation Environment (BISEN) is a suite of tools for generating equations and associated computer programs for simulating biochemical systems in the MATLAB® computing environment. This is the first package that can generate appropriate systems of differential equations for

  6. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  8. False-positive radioactive iodine uptake mimicking miliary lung metastases in a patient affected by papillary thyroid cancer and IgA deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidowich, Andrew Paul; Reynolds, James C. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (United States); Kundu, Amartya [Dept. of MedicineUniversity of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States); Celi, Francesco S. [Div. of Endocrinology and MetabolismVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmond (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A 42-year-old female with immunoglobulin A deficiency and recurrent sinopulmonary infections underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Follow-up {sup 123}I scintigraphy demonstrated diffuse pulmonary uptake, suggesting metastatic disease. However, subsequent pathologic, biochemical and radiographic testing proved that she was in fact disease free, and the initial {sup 123}I pulmonary uptake was identified as a false positive. Inflammatory conditions may rarely cause iodine uptake in non-thyroidal tissues due to local retention, organification, and/or immunologic utilization. To avoid exposing patients to unnecessary treatments, it is critical for clinicians to recognize that comorbid pulmonary conditions may mimic metastatic PTC on radioiodine scintigraphy.

  9. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  10. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  11. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  12. The false positive exercise test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritani, Kohshiro; Matsuda, Yasuo; Ozaki, Masaharu; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ichiyama, Masaji; Matsuda, Masako; Kusukawa, Reizo

    1986-01-01

    Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed on 7 patients with true positive and 8 patients with false positive exercise test results. Four of 7 patients with true positive changes and 8 patients with false positive changes underwent exercise cardiac scintigraphy. Scintigrams showed perfusion defects in 4 patients with true positive outcomes, and no perfusion defect in 8 patients with false positive outcomes. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin were performed with the same load as that without nitroglycerin. In all 7 patients with true positive exercise test results, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test was not observed in the nitroglycerin exercise test. In the false positive patients, ST segment depression observed in the control exercise test remained unchanged in 7 of 8 patients receiving nitroglycerin. Exercise tests with sublingual nitroglycerin as well as exercise cardiac scintigraphy are valuable tods in differentiating false positive from true positive patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that ST segment depression in the false positive patients may not be related to myocardial ischemia. (author)

  13. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  14. True photographs and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne

    2004-03-01

    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  15. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  16. False Positives in Exoplanet Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuquire, Jacob; Kasper, David; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Kar, Aman; Sorber, Rebecca; Suhaimi, Afiq; KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope)

    2018-06-01

    Our team at the University of Wyoming uses a 0.6 m telescope at RBO (Red Buttes Observatory) to help confirm results on potential exoplanet candidates from low resolution, wide field surveys shared by the KELT (Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope) team. False positives are common in this work. We carry out transit photometry, and this method comes with special types of false positives. The most common false positive seen at the confirmation level is an EB (eclipsing binary). Low resolution images are great in detecting multiple sources for photometric dips in light curves, but they lack the precision to decipher single targets at an accurate level. For example, target star KC18C030621 needed RBO’s photometric precision to determine there was a nearby EB causing exoplanet type light curves. Identifying false positives with our telescope is important work because it helps eliminate the waste of time taken by more expensive telescopes trying to rule out negative candidate stars. It also furthers the identification of other types of photometric events, like eclipsing binaries, so they can be studied on their own.

  17. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  18. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trust, values and false consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Jeffrey V.; Giuliano, Paola; Guiso, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Trust beliefs are heterogeneous across individuals and, at the same time, persistent across generations. We investigate one mechanism yielding these dual patterns: false consensus. In the context of a trust game experiment, we show that individuals extrapolate from their own type when forming trust beliefs about the same pool of potential partners – i.e., more (less) trustworthy individuals form more optimistic (pessimistic) trust beliefs - and that this tendency continues to color trust beli...

  20. Nuclear war as false memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Timberlake

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Timberlake outlines aspects of his creative practice as an artist, explaining his fascination for the ‘fictions of nuclear war’ – a war that never happened and so became the subject of ‘false memory’. Highlighting discontinued historical trajectories, the author shows how the cultural legacy of Britain’s nuclear test programme of the 1950s and ’60s may be explored meaningfully in paintings and photography resulting from his archival research at the Imperial War Museum in London.

  1. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  2. Revisiting the False Confession Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Toro, Viviana; Lopez-Morales, Cesar A

    2018-03-01

    Despite the existence of important safeguards in our criminal legal system, innocent suspects often succumb to forceful and deceptive interrogation techniques. Among those over-represented members of the false confessor population are minors, people with cognitive and intellectual disabilities, and those with psychiatric disorders. Some of the confessions made by these at-risk populations can hardly be considered voluntary or reliable, but they are generally admitted at trial, regardless of their prejudicial effect. Forensic psychiatrists should become more involved in the overall process of evaluating confessions, not only testifying in courts, but also assisting policymakers in reforming the interrogation process and influencing the legal process. Thus, forensic psychiatrists may give their expert opinion by providing proper training to police interrogators and examining videotaped interrogations. In addition, forensic experts can be instrumental in contributing to three legal solutions that we propose to the false confession problem: a constitutional approach, an evidence law approach, and a jury instruction approach. Each of these approaches requires forensic psychiatrists to help judges and jurors understand the coercive nature of the interrogation process and its effect on suspects' behavior. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  3. Introducing False EUR and False EUR exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.; Ivanova, K.

    2000-10-01

    The Euro ( EUR) is a new currency introduced by the European Community. Its exchange rate is very puzzling. We have invented a false Euro ( FEUR) dating back to 1993 and have derived the exchange rates of the FEUR with respect to currencies not belonging to the EUR, i.e., DKK, CHF, JPY and USD. This allows us to search for correlations between the fluctuations preexisting to the introduction of EUR and present ones in such financial data. The detrended fluctuation analysis ( DFA) statistical method is used. This leads to assume a power-law behavior, i.e., a scaling hypothesis, through an exponent α. The latter has demonstrated its usefulness for the investigations of long-range power-law correlations in several types of financial sequences. Our findings show that the α exponent interestingly characterizes fractional Brownian motion of the currency exchange rates between EUR and DKK over a 25 day interval, and usual Brownian motion otherwise and for the three other investigated exchange rates. We can devise an investment strategy based on the localα technique and obtain appreciable gains for the time being.

  4. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  5. Complementarity in false memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

    2018-03-01

    For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old. We removed that limitation by also asking whether test items were new-similar. This more comprehensive methodology revealed that list words and critical distractors are remembered quite differently. Memory for list words is compensatory: They are remembered as old at high rates and remembered as new-similar at very low rates. In contrast, memory for critical distractors is complementary: They are remembered as both old and new-similar at high rates, which means that the DRM procedure induces a complementarity illusion rather than a reality reversal. The conjoint recognition model explains complementarity as a function of three retrieval processes (semantic familiarity, target recollection, and context recollection), and it predicts that complementarity can be driven up or down by varying the mix of those processes. Our experiments generated data on that prediction and introduced a convenient statistic, the complementarity ratio, which measures (a) the level of complementarity in memory performance and (b) whether its direction is reality-consistent or reality-reversed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  7. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before the...

  8. False Memory in Adults With ADHD: A Comparison Between Subtypes and Normal Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Abdrabo Moghazy; Elfar, Rania Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    To examine the performance on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott task of adults divided into ADHD subtypes and compares their performance to that of healthy controls to examine whether adults with ADHD are more susceptible to the production of false memories under experimental conditions. A total of 128 adults with ADHD (50% females), classified into three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV-TR) subtypes, were compared with 48 controls. The results indicated that the ADHD participants recalled and recognized fewer studied words than the controls, the ADHD groups produced more false memories than the control group, no differences in either the false positives or the false negatives. The ADHD-combined (ADHD-CT) group recognized significantly more critical words than the control, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) groups. The ADHD groups recalled and recognized more false positives, were more confident in their false responses, and displayed more knowledge corruption than the controls. The ADHD-CT group recalled and recognized more false positives than the other ADHD groups. The adults with ADHD have more false memories than the controls and that false memory formation varied with the ADHD subtypes.

  9. Biochemical Hypermedia: Galactose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Animations of biochemical processes and virtual laboratory environments lead to true molecular simulations. The use of interactive software’s in education can improve cognitive capacity, better learning and, mainly, it makes information acquisition easier. Material and Methods: This work presents the development of a biochemical hypermedia to understanding of the galactose metabolism. It was developed with the help of concept maps, ISIS Draw, ADOBE Photoshop and FLASH MX Program. Results and Discussion: A step by step animation process shows the enzymatic reactions of galactose conversion to glucose-1-phosphate (to glycogen synthesis, glucose-6-phosphate (glycolysis intermediary, UDP-galactose (substrate to mucopolysaccharides synthesis and collagen’s glycosylation. There are navigation guide that allow scrolling the mouse over the names of the components of enzymatic reactions of via the metabolism of galactose. Thus, explanatory text box, chemical structures and animation of the actions of enzymes appear to navigator. Upon completion of the module, the user’s response to the proposed exercise can be checked immediately through text box with interactive content of the answer. Conclusion: This hypermedia was presented for undergraduate students (UFSC who revealed that it was extremely effective in promoting the understanding of the theme.

  10. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  12. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  13. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  14. Implantable biochemical fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G; Rao, J R

    1978-01-05

    Implantable biochemical fuel cells for the operation of heart pacemakers or artificial hearts convert oxidisable body substances such as glucose on the anode side and reduce the oxygen contained in body fluids at the cathode. The anode and cathode are separated by membranes which are impermeable to albumen and blood corpuscles in body fluids. A chemical shortcircuit cannot occur in practice if, according to the invention, one or more selective oxygen electrodes with carbon as catalyst are arranged so that the mixture which diffuses into the cell from body fluids during operation reaches the fuel cell electrode through the porous oxygen electrode. The membranes used must be permeable to water. Cellulose, polymerised polyvinyl alcohol or an ion exchanger with a buffering capacity between pH5 and 8 act as permeable materials.

  15. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  16. Combined roentgenoultrasonic diagnosis of false pancreatic cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrov, Eh.Ya.; Beresneva, Eh.A.; Chervonenkis, A.V.; Morozova, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    X-ray and ultrasound semiotics of false pancreatic cysts in 21 patients have been described. Such a study proves to be highly informative permitting early detection of false pancreatic cysts and observation of the stages of their formation and development of complications. The ultrasound method has advantages for the investigation of patients in early time of false cyst formation and provides an opportunity to detect formations of minimum sizes

  17. Emotions and false memories: valence or arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Yves; Verrier, Nadège

    2007-03-01

    The effects of mood on false memories have not been studied systematically until recently. Some results seem to indicate that negative mood may reduce false recall and thus suggest an influence of emotional valence on false memory. The present research tested the effects of both valence and arousal on recall and recognition and indicates that the effect is actually due to arousal. In fact, whether participants' mood is positive, negative, or neutral, false memories are significantly more frequent under conditions of high arousal than under conditions of low arousal.

  18. Is it wise to protect false targets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers a system consisting of genuine elements and false targets that cannot be distinguished by the attacker's observation. The false targets can be destroyed with much less effort than the genuine elements. We show that even when an attacker cannot distinguish between the genuine elements and the false targets, in many cases it can enhance the attack efficiency using a double attack strategy in which it tries first to eliminate with minimal effort as many false targets as possible in the first attack and then distributes its entire remaining resource among all surviving targets in the second attack. The model for evaluating the system vulnerability in the double attack is suggested for a single genuine element, and multiple genuine elements configured in parallel or in series. This model assumes that in both attacks the attacking resource is distributed evenly among the attacked targets. The defender can optimize its limited resource distribution between deploying more false targets and protecting them better. The attacker can optimize its limited resource distribution between two attacks. The defense strategy is analyzed based on a two period minmax game. A numerical procedure is suggested that allows the defender to find the optimal resource distribution between deploying and protecting the false targets. The methodology of optimal attack and defense strategies analysis is demonstrated. It is shown that protecting the false targets may reduce the efficiency of the double attack strategy and make this strategy ineffective in situations with low contest intensity and few false targets. - Highlights: ► The efficiency of the double attack tactics against using false targets is analyzed. ► The role of the false target protection in system survivability enhancement is shown. ► The resource distribution between deploying more false targets and protecting them better is optimized. ► Both series and parallel systems are considered.

  19. Proctalgia fugax: would you recognize it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, R R

    1996-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by sudden and sometimes severe rectal pain that occurs by day or night at irregular intervals. The pain results from dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter. Proctalgia fugax has a uniform clinical picture, and it can be easily diagnosed when recognized. The patient can be assured that nothing serious is wrong. Expensive tests, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, are not required. Treatment may be difficult, but if the attacks of pain are numerous and severe,, a calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) should be tried.

  20. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J

    2017-05-01

    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  2. Explaining the Development of False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  3. New false color mapping for image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Walraven, J.

    1996-01-01

    A pixel based colour mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false colour rendering of two gray level images representing different sensor modalities. The result-ing fused false colour images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific

  4. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  5. The probability of the false vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.; Selivanov, K.

    1983-01-01

    The closed expession for the probability of the false vacuum decay in (1+1) dimensions is given. The probability of false vacuum decay is expessed as the product of exponential quasiclassical factor and a functional determinant of the given form. The method for calcutation of this determinant is developed and a complete answer for (1+1) dimensions is given

  6. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  7. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J

    2015-08-01

    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  8. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  9. Ouroboros - Playing A Biochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ouroboros: Playing A Biochemical RODRIGUES,D.T.1,2;GAYER, M.C.1,2; ESCOTO, D.F.1; DENARDIN, E.L.G.2, ROEHRS, R.1,2 1Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil 2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil Introduction: Currently, teachers seek different alternatives to enhance the teaching-learning process. Innovative teaching methodologies are increasingly common tools in educational routine. The use of games, electronic or conventional, is an effective tool to assist in learning and also to raise the social interaction between students. Objective: In this sense our work aims to evaluate the card game and "Ouroboros" board as a teaching and learning tool in biochemistry for a graduating class in Natural Sciences. Materials and methods: The class gathered 22 students of BSc in Natural Sciences. Each letter contained a question across the board that was drawn to a group to answer within the allotted time. The questions related concepts of metabolism, organic and inorganic chemical reactions, bioenergetics, etc.. Before the game application, students underwent a pre-test with four issues involving the content that was being developed. Soon after, the game was applied. Then again questions were asked. Data analysis was performed from the ratio of the number of correct pre-test and post-test answers. Results and discussion: In the pre-test 18.1% of the students knew all issues, 18.1% got 3 correct answers, 40.9% answered only 2 questions correctly and 22.7% did not hit any. In post-test 45.4% answered all the questions right, 31.8% got 3 questions and 22.7% got 2 correct answers. The results show a significant improvement of the students about the field of content taught through the game. Conclusion: Generally, traditional approaches of chemistry and biochemistry are abstract and complex. Thus, through games

  10. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  11. The semantics of emotion in false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Bookbinder, S H

    2018-03-26

    The emotional valence of target information has been a centerpiece of recent false memory research, but in most experiments, it has been confounded with emotional arousal. We sought to clarify the results of such research by identifying a shared mathematical relation between valence and arousal ratings in commonly administered normed materials. That relation was then used to (a) decide whether arousal as well as valence influences false memory when they are confounded and to (b) determine whether semantic properties that are known to affect false memory covary with valence and arousal ratings. In Study 1, we identified a quadratic relation between valence and arousal ratings of words and pictures that has 2 key properties: Arousal increases more rapidly as function of negative valence than positive valence, and hence, a given level of negative valence is more arousing than the same level of positive valence. This quadratic function predicts that if arousal as well as valence affects false memory when they are confounded, false memory data must have certain fine-grained properties. In Study 2, those properties were absent from norming data for the Cornell-Cortland Emotional Word Lists, indicating that valence but not arousal affects false memory in those norms. In Study 3, we tested fuzzy-trace theory's explanation of that pattern: that valence ratings are positively related to semantic properties that are known to increase false memory, but arousal ratings are not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. How does negative emotion cause false memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C J; Stein, L M; Silveira, R A; Rohenkohl, G; Reyna, V F

    2008-09-01

    Remembering negative events can stimulate high levels of false memory, relative to remembering neutral events. In experiments in which the emotional valence of encoded materials was manipulated with their arousal levels controlled, valence produced a continuum of memory falsification. Falsification was highest for negative materials, intermediate for neutral materials, and lowest for positive materials. Conjoint-recognition analysis produced a simple process-level explanation: As one progresses from positive to neutral to negative valence, false memory increases because (a) the perceived meaning resemblance between false and true items increases and (b) subjects are less able to use verbatim memories of true items to suppress errors.

  13. Current management of inguinal false aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlind, Kim; Jepsen, Jørn M; Saicu, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    False aneurysms are formed as a result of bleeding causing a hematoma to compress the surrounding tissue. The majority of false aneurysms presenting to the vascular surgeon are caused by iatrogenic injury to an artery. Although anastomotic failure occurs, a much higher number is caused by bleeding...... vessels. endovascular treatment with coils or covered stent grafts have proven useful in infected ilio-femoral false aneurysms. Open surgical repair may be the best treatment in the setting of imminent rupture, massive haematoma and skin necrosis. We present three patient cases treated with open surgery...

  14. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.

    1981-11-01

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  15. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Primarily United States and Canada. 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. /st> Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features 'systematic data guided activities,' 'designing with local conditions in mind' and 'iterative development and testing' met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as 'CQI.' All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods.

  16. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W

    2011-04-01

    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  17. 21 CFR 570.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), it may be used in food only within such limitation(s) (including the category of food(s), the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 570.30 Section 570.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Mental Rotation in False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiushu; Cheung, Him; Shen, Manqiong; Wang, Ruiming

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the spontaneous use of embodied egocentric transformation (EET) in understanding false beliefs in the minds of others. EET involves the participants mentally transforming or rotating themselves into the orientation of an agent when trying to adopt his or her visuospatial perspective. We argue that psychological perspective taking such as false belief reasoning may also involve EET because of what has been widely reported in the embodied cognition literature, showing that our processing of abstract, propositional information is often grounded in concrete bodily sensations which are not apparently linked to higher cognition. In Experiment 1, an agent placed a ball into one of two boxes and left. The ball then rolled out and moved either into the other box (new box) or back into the original one (old box). The participants were to decide from which box they themselves or the agent would try to recover the ball. Results showed that false belief performance was affected by increased orientation disparity between the participants and the agent, suggesting involvement of embodied transformation. In Experiment 2, false belief was similarly induced and the participants were to decide if the agent would try to recover the ball in one specific box. Orientation disparity was again found to affect false belief performance. The present results extend previous findings on EET in visuospatial perspective taking and suggest that false belief reasoning, which is a kind of psychological perspective taking, can also involve embodied rotation, consistent with the embodied cognition view. Copyright © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Automated Facial Coding Software Outperforms People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral from Standardized Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eLewinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90% was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%. I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e. smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  20. Celiac crisis: a rare or rarely recognized disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, N.; Cheema, H.A.; Suleman, H.; Fayyaz, Z.; Mushtaq, I.

    2017-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a serious life threatening complication of celiac disease characterized by profuse diarrhoea, severe dehydration and metabolic disturbances leading to neuromuscular weakness, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. It has been described as rare condition and not well documented in the literature. To improve awareness and facilitate diagnosis of this condition, we studied risk factors, pattern of presentation and management plans of celiac crisis. Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study. Patients presenting in emergency room(ER) with profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration, neuromuscular weakness, and metabolic acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities enrolled in the studies after positive serology and small bowel biopsy suggestive of celiac disease. Results: Total 126 patients out of 350 fulfilled the criteria including 54 (42.8 percent) male and 71 (56.3 percent) female. The mean age at presentation was 5.25+-1.18 years. Risk factors were poor social status (97.60 percent), consanguinity (96.77 percent), early weaning with gluten contained diet (93.54 percent), and Presenting complaints were loose motion (100 percent), loss of neck holding (96.77 percent), dehydration (96.77 percent), polyuria (95.96 percent), inability to walk (67.74 percent), abdominal distension (85.86 percent). Electrolytes imbalances were hypokalaemia (2.4+-0.55), hypocalcaemia (7.29+-0.66), hypomagnesaemia (1.89+-0.50), hypophosphatemia (2.8+-0.68), hypoalbuminemia (3.05+-0.48) and metabolic acidosis (96 percent). One hundred and twenty patients were stabilized with GFD and correction of dehydration, acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. Six patients needed parenteral steroids ant total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Recovery time from crisis was mean 5.4+-2.73 days (range 3-20 days). Conclusion: Celiac crisis is a common but under recognized problem in developing countries. Commonest presenting feature is neuromuscular paralysis and biochemical abnormality is

  1. Reducing false asystole alarms in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekimpe, Remi; Heldt, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    High rates of false monitoring alarms in intensive care can desensitize staff and therefore pose a significant risk to patient safety. Like other critical arrhythmia alarms, asystole alarms require immediate attention by the care providers as a true asystole event can be acutely life threatening. Here, it is illustrated that most false asystole alarms can be attributed to poor signal quality, and we propose and evaluate an algorithm to identify data windows of poor signal quality and thereby help suppress false asystole alarms. The algorithm combines intuitive signal-quality features (degree of signal saturation and baseline wander) and information from other physiological signals that might be available. Algorithm training and testing was performed on the MIMIC II and 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge databases, respectively. The algorithm achieved an alarm specificity of 81.0% and sensitivity of 95.4%, missing only one out of 22 true asystole alarms. On a separate neonatal data set, the algorithm was able to reject 89.7% (890 out of 992) of false asystole alarms while keeping all 22 true events. The results show that the false asystole alarm rate can be significantly reduced through basic signal quality evaluation.

  2. False memories in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA DE CAMARGO PALMA

    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.

  3. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls ( p  false memories ( p  > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  4. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising.

  5. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A.; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved. PMID:27965600

  6. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  7. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  9. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings

  10. False iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Sønksen, Jens Otto Reimers; Schroeder, T V

    1999-01-01

    We report a very rare case of a false iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation. The patient was a 51-year-old women who presented with a painful 10 x 10 cm pulsating mass in her left iliac fossa. The patient had received a second cadaveric renal transplantation 5 years previously....... The graft never functioned and transplant nephrectomy was performed 2 weeks later. A CT-scanning showed a 10 x 10 cm large aneurysm arising from the left external iliac artery. At operation a large false aneurysm was identified arising from the original transplant anastomotic site. Due to the extent...

  11. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Jian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-12

    Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well as numerous similar background actions such as scratching head, cell phone use, eating, drinking and so on. In this paper, we make a first attempt at the challenging problem of recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos. Since there was no related dataset available, we created a new public health dataset for action recognition that includes two major flu-like symptom related actions (sneeze and cough) and a number of background actions. We also developed a suitable novel algorithm by introducing two types of Action Matching Kernels, where both types aim to integrate two aspects of local features, namely the space-time layout and the Bag-of-Words representations. In particular, we show that the Pyramid Match Kernel and Spatial Pyramid Matching are both special cases of our proposed kernels. Besides experimenting on standard testbed, the proposed algorithm is evaluated also on the new sneeze and cough set. Empirically, we observe that our approach achieves competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-arts, while recognition on the new public health dataset is shown to be a non-trivial task even with simple single person unobstructed view. Our sneeze and cough video dataset and newly developed action recognition algorithm is the first of its kind and aims to kick-start the field of action recognition of flu-like symptoms from videos. It will be challenging but necessary in future developments to consider more complex real-life scenario of detecting these actions simultaneously from

  12. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  13. False memories, but not false beliefs, affect implicit attitudes for food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David; Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical reactions of the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of mercury, strontium chloride, GMDA, trichlorfon as well as some radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 137 Cs, 203 Hg) were studied on rats. Changes in biochemical parameters (histamine content, activity of cholinesterase and histaminase) are noted. Most noticeable changes were observed in enzymatic activity. Distortion of enzymatic systems and accumulation of intermediate exchange and decay products of tissues in excess quantities affecting other systems can be the reason for changes in the organism. The observed changes in biochemical parameters should be necessarily taken into account at hygienic regulations of harmful effects of enviroment

  15. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  16. Acute effects of triazolam on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Griffiths, R R

    2000-12-01

    Neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological techniques have been applied to the study of false recognition; however, psychopharmacological techniques have not been applied. Benzodiazepine sedative/anxiolytic drugs produce memory deficits similar to those observed in organic amnesia and may be useful tools for studying normal and abnormal memory mechanisms. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled repeated measures study examined the acute effects of orally administered triazolam (Halcion; 0.125 and 0.25 mg/70 kg), a benzodiazepine hypnotic, on performance in the Deese (1959)/Roediger-McDermott (1995) false recognition paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. Paralleling previous demonstrations in amnesic patients, triazolam produced significant dose-related reductions in false recognition rates to nonstudied words associatively related to studied words, suggesting that false recognition relies on normal memory mechanisms impaired in benzodiazepine-induced amnesia. The results also suggested that relative to placebo, triazolam reduced participants' reliance on memory for item-specific versus list-common semantic information and reduced participants' use of remember versus know responses.

  17. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition.

  18. Development of the False-Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

    2006-01-01

    The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

  19. False memories for affective information in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Fairfield

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the-to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, twenty-four patients and twenty-four healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p0.05 resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e. neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes. Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  20. No effect of stress on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, María Soledad; Cadavid, Sara; Pulido, Ramón F; Pinho, María Salomé

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the effect of acute stress on false recognition in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure are studied and, in a subsequent memory test, critical lures are often falsely remembered. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either the stress group (Trier Social Stress Test) or the no-stress control group. Because we sought to control the level-of-processing at encoding, in Experiment 1, participants created a visual mental image for each presented word (deep encoding). In Experiment 2, participants performed a shallow encoding (to respond whether each word contained the letter "o"). The results indicated that, in both experiments, as predicted, heart rate and STAI-S scores increased only in the stress group. However, false recognition did not differ across stress and no-stress groups. Results suggest that, although psychosocial stress was successfully induced, it does not enhance the vulnerability of individuals with acute stress to DRM false recognition, regardless of the level of processing.

  1. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica), FALSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica, False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

  2. Production of sensitivity and false alarm rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Zijie; Kang Wu; Chu Chengsheng; Hao Fanhua; Liu Xiaoya; Cao Lin; Hu Yongbo; Gong Jian; Xiang Yongchun; Zhang Jianhua; Yang Xiangdong

    2007-01-01

    The false alarm rate and sensitivity in nuclear material monitoring system are affected by alarm principle. Two different alarm principles are studied with theory and experiment analysis in this paper. Our research shows that theory analysis and experiment result are accordant very much. This study provides technology support for designing better alarm principle in nuclear material monitoring system. (authors)

  3. Breast cancer screening: evidence for false reassurance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); E. As, van (Elisabeth); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); R. Boer (Rob); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTumour stage distribution at repeated mammography screening is, unexpectedly, often not more favourable than stage distribution at first screenings. False reassurance, i.e., delayed symptom presentation due to having participated in earlier screening rounds, might be associated with

  4. Mapping the Real and the False

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuever, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose -- To show that Chinese consumers are constantly redefining and revaluing goods along the axes of the real and the false, with little regard for legal definitions of brand authenticity or “fakeness.” Findings -- In their everyday consumption practices and navigation of a complex and often...

  5. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    A Bloom filter is a widely used data-structure for representing a set S and answering queries of the form “Is x in S?”. By allowing some false positive answers (saying ‘yes’ when the answer is in fact ‘no’) Bloom filters use space significantly below what is required for storing S. In the distanc...

  6. False elevation of carboxyhemoglobin: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shruti; Edmonds, Marcia; Lim, Rodrick K

    2011-02-01

    Carbon monoxide toxicity in infants and children, like adults, produce nonspecific symptoms with normal vital signs necessitating the serum measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). In infants, the COHb may be falsely elevated. Our goal was to report a case of suspected carbon monoxide toxicity in an infant and the likely cause of the falsely elevated serum COHb. A previously healthy 3-month-old girl presented to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with smoke inhalation from a defective furnace. She was asymptomatic. On examination, she was alert, with Glasgow Coma Scale of 15 and normal vital signs. Cardiorespiratory and neurological examinations were completely normal. Because of concern regarding carbon monoxide poisoning, she was treated with normobaric oxygen therapy. Initial and subsequent serum COHb levels were persistently elevated, despite treatment and the infant appearing clinically well. As such, she had a prolonged stay in the ED. Further investigations found that fetal hemoglobin interferes with the spectrophotometric method used to analyze serum COHb levels. Carboxyhemoglobin serum level, in infants, may be falsely elevated due to the fetal hemoglobin interfering with standard methods of analysis. Knowledge of the false elevation using standard spectrophotometric methods of COHb in clinically well-appearing infants can decrease unnecessary oxygen therapy and monitoring time in the ED.

  7. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  8. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-10-05

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ∼ 24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Circadian Clocks: Unexpected Biochemical Cogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Tetsuya; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2015-01-01

    A circadian oscillation can be reconstituted in vitro from three proteins that cycles with a period of ~24 h. Two recent studies provide surprising biochemical answers to why this remarkable oscillator has such a long time constant and how it can switch effortlessly between alternating enzymatic modes.

  10. Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

    2013-07-26

    Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means.

  11. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Underlying processes behind false perspective production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent to which Reality Monitoring (RM content analysis can provide useful information when discriminating between actual versus false statements. Participants were instructed to either describe a traffic accident as eyewitness actual role or to describe the accident as a simulated victim. Data were analysed in terms of accuracy and quality, and were represented using high dimensional visualization (HDV. In Experiment 1 (between-participant design, participants made significantly more references to cognitive operations, more self-references and less changes in order when describing the event as simulated victim. In Experiment 2 (within-participants design participants also made significantly more references to cognitive operations and more self references when describing the event from the simulated victim as well as being less accurate, providing less irrelevant information and more evalúative comments. HDV graphics indicated that false statements differ holistically from actual ones.

  13. The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios

  14. False Context Fear Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  15. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M Marchak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined – across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity – whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a ‘contact’ that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device versus questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the ten second period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

  16. Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-11-01

    A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented. (orig.)

  17. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  18. An investigation on clinical, radiological and biochemical methods for assessing periodontitis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, P.T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to recognize in which stage rapidly progressing destruction of periodontal ligament fibers occurs, a number of diagnostic methods are studied in this thesis. It turns out that the actual much utilized clinical methods can not be improved while radiological and biochemical diagnositic methods are much more promising. 106 refs.; 20 figs.; 36 tabs

  19. Analysis of false positive and false negative cytological diagnosis of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Awtif A.; Mansoor, I.

    2001-01-01

    To study the reasons for interpretive errors in false negative and false positive diagnosis of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology material. We reviewed only those cases in which cytohistological discrepancies were found, where the cytologic material was abnormal and to some extent misinterpreted or both. There was only one false negative case (false negative fraction 0.32%) proved histologically as ductal carcinoma and four false positive cases (false positive fraction 1.2%); 2 fibroadenoma; 1 fibrocystic disease; and 1 stromal fibrosis. Smears of the two false positive fibroadenoma cases showed very high cellularity, overcrowded clusters and frequent stripped nuclei. The fibrocystic case showed tight clusters of apocrine cells and sheets of loosely aggregated macrophages that were over interpreted. Smears of the false negative ductal carcinoma was hypocellular overall, and the cells showed minimal nuclear pleomorphism. Overcrowded clusters and hypercellular smears should be carefully assessed for uniformity of cells and detailed nuclear and cytomorphological features. If the full-blown malignant cytomorphological changes are not visible, a diagnosis of suspicious or inconclusive should be made and frozen section recommended before surgery. Hypocellularity and relatively nuclear monomorphism are the reasons for failure to diagnose malignant breast lesions. Careful attention should be paid to extreme nuclear monomorphism and absence of naked bipolar cells. A cytologically atypical or suspicious diagnosis together with positive radiological and clinical findings should suggest a diagnosis of malignancy. (author)

  20. Filing false vice reports: Distinguishing true from false allegations of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zutter, A.; Horselenberg, R.; van Koppen, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of

  1. Problems with False Vacua in Supersymmetric Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bajc, Borut; Senjanovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that in a consistent theory any Minkowski vacuum must be exactly stable. As a result, a large class of theories that in ordinary treatment would appear sufficiently long-lived, in reality make no sense. In particular, this applies to supersymmetric models in which global supersymmetry is broken in a false vacuum. We show that in any such theory the dynamics of supersymmetry breaking cannot be decoupled from the Planck scale physics. This finding poses an obvious challenge for the idea of low-scale metastable (for example gauge) mediation.

  2. Biochemical Process Development and Integration | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochemical Process Development and Integration Biochemical Process Development and Integration Our conversion and separation processes to pilot-scale integrated process development and scale up. We also Publications Accounting for all sugar produced during integrated production of ethanol from lignocellulosic

  3. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Falsely elevated triiodothyronine values in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsted, L.; Moelholm Hansen, J.E.; Nygaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    Five patients with falsely elevated serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) concentrations (>9 nmol/l) in a radioimmunoassay are reported. The high T 3 -values disagreed with the other thyroid variables investigated as well as with the clinical observations. In sera from all patients a normal non-specific binding of T 3 was found, thus excluding abnormal serum-protein-binding of the hormone. An ethanol extraction of T 3 from serum before RIA reduced the T 3 content in serum from all patients to normal levels (2.0-2.4 nmol/l). These findings indicate the presence in the sera of substances, probably of protein nature, that were interfering with the assay by binding the reagent-antibody and not the antigen. Addition of non-immune rabbit serum prevented this interference and normalized the T 3 -values (1.8-2.4 nmol/l). Thus the interfering substance in T 3 -RIA could be an anti-rabbit antibody, the interaction of which can be eliminated by a minor modification of the assay making it possible to differentiate true from false T 3 -values. (au) 16 refs

  5. Il nuovo reato di false comunicazioni sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maria Corvucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the new offence of false social communication introduced by the Italian law dated 27 may 2015 n.69 in force from 14 June 2015. Considering the modifications added to the new offence of false accounting- basically explained to highlight the novum - the attention is paid on a specific major issue, previously discussed by the fifth section of the Italian Supreme Court competent in this matter after a few months from the moment the new law came in force. The questions applies to the fact whether the fraudulent evidence should remain to be punishable as the new discipline has limited the object of the criminal conduct only to “material relevant facts which are untrue” or to the omission of material relevant facts whose communication is imposed by the law regulating the economic situation, the assets and financial position of the company or of the group to which the company belongs. In this way any reference to the evaluations contained in the text previously in force is eliminated. Omissive conduct is the new definition recalling the two previous rules (art. 2621 and 2622 of the Italian civil code.

  6. The problem of false positives and false negatives in violent video game experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    The problem of false positives and negatives has received considerable attention in behavioral research in recent years. The current paper uses video game violence research as an example of how such issues may develop in a field. Despite decades of research, evidence on whether violent video games (VVGs) contribute to aggression in players has remained mixed. Concerns have been raised in recent years that experiments regarding VVGs may suffer from both "false positives" and "false negatives." The current paper examines this issue in three sets of video game experiments, two sets of video game experiments on aggression and prosocial behaviors identified in meta-analysis, and a third group of recent null studies. Results indicated that studies of VVGs and aggression appear to be particularly prone to false positive results. Studies of VVGs and prosocial behavior, by contrast are heterogeneous and did not demonstrate any indication of false positive results. However, their heterogeneous nature made it difficult to base solid conclusions on them. By contrast, evidence for false negatives in null studies was limited, and little evidence emerged that null studies lacked power in comparison those highlighted in past meta-analyses as evidence for effects. These results are considered in light of issues related to false positives and negatives in behavioral science more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion. Methods Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. Results As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs’ effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Conclusions Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories. PMID:21647577

  8. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs' effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion. Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs' effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories.

  9. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deog Yoon

    1999-01-01

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  10. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  11. When are false-positive and false-negative 18F'FDG PET scans really false?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.S.; Hicks, R.J.; Fawcett, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: A 61-year-old male presented with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue. In the absence of wider metastatic disease on conventional staging, he was enrolled in a phase I, dose escalation chemoradiotherapy trial. In this study, therapeutic response to radiotherapy combined with cisplatin and a chemotherapeutic agent which specifically targets hypoxic cells (tirapazamine) was evaluated with serial 18 F-FDG PET scans. Baseline 18 F-FDG PET confirmed locally advanced disease, although a previously undetected lower cervical lymph node was identified and included in the radiotherapy portal. Whole-body PET revealed a small metabolically active area adjacent to the right hemidiaphragm. Respiratory gated, high-resolution helical CT failed to find structural evidence of disease and, as a result, the patient was enrolled in the 7 week therapy regime on the assumption that the PET finding was a false-positive result. Repeat 18 F-FDG PET scans at the middle, end and 12 weeks post-treatment showed excellent therapeutic response in the head and neck which was discordant with clinical and CT findings, and resolution of the metabolically active chest lesion. Despite the negative PET scan, persistent clinical and CT evidence of a residual tumour mass suggested a false-negative result and resulted in a neck lymph node dissection. This showed no evidence of malignant cells. Five months following treatment, the patient presented with pleural effusion at the base on the right lung. Subsequent CT scanning showed a small pleural lesion at the site of initial 18 F-FDG uptake. Biopsy confirmed metastatic disease. The apparent transient resolution of 18 F-FDG uptake in the pleural lesion with treatment presumably reflected a combination of reduced metabolic activity and size due to the partial, but not complete, cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. In conclusion, this case emphasizes the importance of pathological review and clinical follow-up in reconciling

  12. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  13. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Min Yen

    Full Text Available Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR, an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data.

  14. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  15. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  16. Coincidence of scintigraphic false positive and false negative findings in parathyroid and thyroid adenomas (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mana, O.; Zatta, G.; Boccolari, S.; Barbesti, S.; Tarolo, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    The subtractive double tracer scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl and /sup 99m/Tc is a useful technique in studying parathyroid nodules; nevertheless, this method can give misleading informations especially in presence of thyroid nodules with false positive and false negative findings. In this case report the technique was applied in studying a patient with three nodules (two thyroid adenomas and one parathyroid adenoma), where both scintigraphic and echographic methods provided misleading informations. The selective uptake of /sup 201/Tl in the upper region of the right thyroid lobe gave a false positive finding, while the increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc in a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma of left lobe masked the parathyroid adenoma laying below, giving a false negative finding.

  17. False memory production :effects of self-consistent false information and motivated cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Remembrance of one's personal past and the development of false memories have recently received intense public scrutiny. Based upon self-schema (Markus, 1977) and selfverification (Swann, 1987) theories, two studies were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that a self-schema guides cognitive processing of self-relevant information and thereby influences the construction of a memory that includes false information, particularly more so if this information is self-schema consistent than ...

  18. Adaptive false memory: Imagining future scenarios increases false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J; Grace, Lydia; van Esch, Lotte

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown that rating words for their relevance to a future scenario enhances memory for those words. The current study investigated the effect of future thinking on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. In Experiment 1, participants rated words from 6 DRM lists for relevance to a past or future event (with or without planning) or in terms of pleasantness. In a surprise recall test, levels of correct recall did not vary between the rating tasks, but the future rating conditions led to significantly higher levels of false recall than the past and pleasantness conditions did. Experiment 2 found that future rating led to higher levels of false recognition than did past and pleasantness ratings but did not affect correct recognition. The effect in false recognition was, however, eliminated when DRM items were presented in random order. Participants in Experiment 3 were presented with both DRM lists and lists of unrelated words. Future rating increased levels of false recognition for DRM lures but did not affect correct recognition for DRM or unrelated lists. The findings are discussed in terms of the view that false memories can be associated with adaptive memory functions.

  19. Is the truth in the details? Extended narratives help distinguishing false "memories" from false "reports".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödén, Björn; Granhag, Pär Anders; Ost, James; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma

    2009-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of fantasy proneness on false "reports" and false "memories", of existent and non-existent footage of a public event. We predicted that highly fantasy prone individuals would be more likely to stand by their initial claim of having seen a film of the event than low fantasy prone participants when prompted for more details about their experiences. Eighty creative arts students and 80 other students were asked whether they had seen CCTV footage preceding the attack on Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh up to, and including, non-existent footage of the actual moment of the attack. If affirmative, they were probed for extended narratives of what they claimed to have seen. Overall, 64% of participants provided a false "report" by answering yes to the initial question. Of these, 30% provided no explicit details of the attack, and a further 15% retracted their initial answer in their narratives. This left 19% of the sample who appeared to have false "memories" because they provided explicit details of the actual moment of the attack. Women scored higher than men and art students scored higher than other students on fantasy proneness, but there was no effect on levels of false reporting or false "memory". Memories were rated more vivid and clear for existent compared to non-existent aspects of the event. In sum, these data suggest a more complex relationship between memory distortions and fantasy proneness than previously observed.

  20. Recognizing Bedside Events Using Thermal and Ultrasonic Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsen Asbjørn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Falls in homes of the elderly, in residential care facilities and in hospitals commonly occur in close proximity to the bed. Most approaches for recognizing falls use cameras, which challenge privacy, or sensor devices attached to the bed or the body to recognize bedside events and bedside falls. We use data collected from a ceiling mounted 80 × 60 thermal array combined with an ultrasonic sensor device. This approach makes it possible to monitor activity while preserving privacy in a non-intrusive manner. We evaluate three different approaches towards recognizing location and posture of an individual. Bedside events are recognized using a 10-second floating image rule/filter-based approach, recognizing bedside falls with 98.62% accuracy. Bed-entry and exit events are recognized with 98.66% and 96.73% accuracy, respectively.

  1. High-dose biotin therapy leading to false biochemical endocrine profiles: validation of a simple method to overcome biotin interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Prie, Dominique; Sedel, Frederic; Bernard, Delphine; Hercend, Claude; Chanson, Philippe; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    High-dose biotin therapy is beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and is expected to be adopted by a large number of patients. Biotin therapy leads to analytical interference in many immunoassays that utilize streptavidin-biotin capture techniques, yielding skewed results that can mimic various endocrine disorders. We aimed at exploring this interference, to be able to remove biotin and avoid misleading results. We measured free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), parathyroid homrone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, C-peptide, cortisol (Roche Diagnostics assays), biotin and its main metabolites (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) in 23 plasmas from MS patients and healthy volunteers receiving high-dose biotin, and in 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, before and after a simple procedure (designated N5) designed to remove biotin by means of streptavidin-coated microparticles. We also assayed fT4, TSH and PTH in the 23 high-biotin plasmas using assays not employing streptavidin-biotin binding. The biotin concentration ranged from 31.7 to 1160 µg/L in the 23 high-biotin plasmas samples. After the N5 protocol, the biotin concentration was below the detection limit in all but two samples (8.3 and 27.6 μg/L). Most hormones results were abnormal, but normalized after N5. All results with the alternative methods were normal except two slight PTH elevations. In the 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, the N5 protocol did not affect the results for any of the hormones, apart from an 8.4% decrease in PTH. We confirm that most streptavidin-biotin hormone immunoassays are affected by high biotin concentrations, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis. Our simple neutralization method efficiently suppresses biotin interference.

  2. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awwal, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions

  3. Thrombosed false channel in acute aortic dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alerci, M.; Dore, R.; Kluzer, A.; Digiulio, G.; D'Andrea, F.; De Agostini, A.

    1987-01-01

    Three cases are reported of acute dissection with complete thrombosis of the false channel, which is a very uncommonevent in DeBakey's I and II type aortic dissections. The 3 patients entered hospital because of severe thoracic pain without any ECG sign of myocardial infarction. Emergency CT showed evidence of pericardial effusion suggesting hemopericardium, enlargement of the ascending aorta and a peripheral semilunar filling defect which caused a slight deformation of the true channel. On precontrast scans, only one case showed inward displacement of peripheral calcifications and high-density aortic wall. No tipical signs of aortic dissection were reported, expect in the first patient - where a double contrast filled lumen, separated by an intimal flap was seen. CT findings are individually discussed. It is emphasized that in all patients more than one CT sign was present at a time. The correct evaluation of these signs together with the clinacal data could lead to the right diagnosis of aortic dissection in spite of the lack of a f???

  4. Locality-sensitive Hashing without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new construction of locality-sensitive hash functions for Hamming space that is covering in the sense that is it guaranteed to produce a collision for every pair of vectors within a given radius r. The construction is efficient in the sense that the expected number of hash collisions......(n)/k, where n is the number of points in the data set and k ∊ N, and differs from it by at most a factor ln(4) in the exponent for general values of cr. As a consequence, LSH-based similarity search in Hamming space can avoid the problem of false negatives at little or no cost in efficiency. Read More: http...... between vectors at distance cr, for a given c > 1, comes close to that of the best possible data independent LSH without the covering guarantee, namely, the seminal LSH construction of Indyk and Motwani (FOCS ′98). The efficiency of the new construction essentially matches their bound if cr = log...

  5. Biochemical Abnormalities in Batten's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jytte Lene; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Jensen, Gunde Egeskov

    1978-01-01

    The present data indicate that a group of ten patients with Batten's syndrome showed reduced activity of erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (Px) (glutathione: H2O2 oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.9.) using H2O2 as peroxide donor. Assay of erythrocyte GSHPx using H2O2, cumene hydroperoxide and t......-butyl hydroperoxide as donors also makes it possible biochemically to divide Batten's syndrome into two types: (1) one type with decreased values when H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide are used, and (2) one type with increased values when t-butyl hydroperoxide is used. Furthermore an increased content of palmitic, oleic...

  6. Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos A; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Sánchez, Benito; Griol, Amadeu; Sohlström, H; Holgado, M; Casquel, R

    2007-11-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of an integrated biochemical sensor based on a slot-waveguide microring resonator. The microresonator is fabricated on a Si3N4-SiO2 platform and operates at a wavelength of 1.3 microm. The transmission spectrum of the sensor is measured with different ambient refractive indices ranging from n=1.33 to 1.42. A linear shift of the resonant wavelength with increasing ambient refractive index of 212 nm/refractive index units (RIU) is observed. The sensor detects a minimal refractive index variation of 2x10(-4) RIU.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process

  8. With sadness comes accuracy; with happiness, false memory: mood and the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2005-10-01

    The Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm lures people to produce false memories. Two experiments examined whether induced positive or negative moods would influence this false memory effect. The affect-as-information hypothesis predicts that, on the one hand, positive affective cues experienced as task-relevant feedback encourage relational processing during encoding, which should enhance false memory effects. On the other hand, negative affective cues are hypothesized to encourage item-specific processing at encoding, which should discourage such effects. The results of Experiment 1 are consistent with these predictions: Individuals in negative moods were significantly less likely to show false memory effects than those in positive moods or those whose mood was not manipulated. Experiment 2 introduced inclusion instructions to investigate whether moods had their effects at encoding or retrieval. The results replicated the false memory finding of Experiment 1 and provide evidence that moods influence the accessibility of lures at encoding, rather than influencing monitoring at retrieval of whether lures were actually presented.

  9. Blind sequential lineup administration reduces both false identifications and confidence in those false identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Steve D; Quiroz, Vanessa

    2016-10-01

    One of the most recommended procedures proposed by eyewitness experts is the use of double-blind lineups, in which the administrator does not know the identity of the suspect in the lineup. But despite the near universality of this recommendation, there is surprisingly little empirical research to support the claim that nonblind administration inflates false identifications. What little research has been conducted has shown conflicting findings with regard to the conditions under which nonblind administration affects false identifications, as well as its effects on witness confidence. The current study attempts to elucidate this effect. Student-participants (n = 312) were randomly assigned to play the role of either a lineup administrator (who were either told the identity of the suspect in the lineup or not) or a mock crime witness. Following unbiased instructions, administrators presented either a target-present or target-absent sequential lineup to the witness while being surreptitiously videorecorded. Nonblind administration significantly inflated false, but not correct, identifications, and significantly inflated witness confidence in those false identifications. Video recordings indicated that nonblind administrators were significantly more likely than blind administrators to smile (a) while the witness was viewing a photograph of the suspect, and (b) after a suspect identification. Results provide stronger support for the use of blind lineup administration by broadening the conditions under which nonblind administration is shown to inflate false identifications. Possible reconciliations for conflicting findings in the literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. False positive and false negative FDG-PET scans in various thoracic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Im, Jung Gi

    2006-01-01

    Fluorodeoxygucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign form malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT). However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported. Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan. On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan, Furthermore, in diseases located near the physiologic uptake sites (heart, bladder, kidney, and liver), FDG-PET should be complemented with other imaging modalities to confirm results and to minimize false negative findings. Familiarity with these false positive and negative findings will help radiologists interpret PET scans more accurately and also will help to determine the significance of the findings. In this review, we illustrate false positive and negative findings of PET scan in a variety of diseases

  11. Effects of perceptual similarity but not semantic association on false recognition in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Burnside

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated semantic and perceptual influences on false recognition in older and young adults in a variant on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. In two experiments, participants encoded intermixed sets of semantically associated words, and sets of unrelated words. Each set was presented in a shared distinctive font. Older adults were no more likely to falsely recognize semantically associated lure words compared to unrelated lures also presented in studied fonts. However, they showed an increase in false recognition of lures which were related to studied items only by a shared font. This increased false recognition was associated with recollective experience. The data show that older adults do not always rely more on prior knowledge in episodic memory tasks. They converge with other findings suggesting that older adults may also be more prone to perceptually-driven errors.

  12. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  13. Controlling the Rate of GWAS False Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Damian; Peterson, Christine B; Sobczyk, Piotr; Candès, Emmanuel J; Bogdan, Malgorzata; Sabatti, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of both the number and the complexity of traits of interest, control of the false discovery rate (FDR) in genetic association studies has become an increasingly appealing and accepted target for multiple comparison adjustment. While a number of robust FDR-controlling strategies exist, the nature of this error rate is intimately tied to the precise way in which discoveries are counted, and the performance of FDR-controlling procedures is satisfactory only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between what scientists describe as unique discoveries and the number of rejected hypotheses. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between markers in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often leads researchers to consider the signal associated to multiple neighboring SNPs as indicating the existence of a single genomic locus with possible influence on the phenotype. This a posteriori aggregation of rejected hypotheses results in inflation of the relevant FDR. We propose a novel approach to FDR control that is based on prescreening to identify the level of resolution of distinct hypotheses. We show how FDR-controlling strategies can be adapted to account for this initial selection both with theoretical results and simulations that mimic the dependence structure to be expected in GWAS. We demonstrate that our approach is versatile and useful when the data are analyzed using both tests based on single markers and multiple regression. We provide an R package that allows practitioners to apply our procedure on standard GWAS format data, and illustrate its performance on lipid traits in the North Finland Birth Cohort 66 cohort study. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Spirit View of 'Wishstone' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Scientists working with NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit decided to examine this rock, dubbed 'Wishstone,' based on data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. That instrument's data indicated that the mineralogy of the rocks in this area is different from that of rocks encountered either on the plains of Gusev Crater or in bedrock outcrops examined so far in the 'Columbia Hills' inside the crater. Spirit used its rock abrasion tool first to scour a patch of the rock's surface with a wire brush, then to grind away the surface to reveal interior material. Placement of the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer on the exposed circle of interior material revealed that the rock is rich in phosphorus. Spirit used its panoramic camera during the rover's 342nd martian day, or sol, (Dec. 18, 2004) to take the three individual images that were combined to produce this false-color view emphasizing the freshly ground dust around the hole cut by the rock abrasion tool. Unusually Rich in Phosophorus The graph in figure 1 compares the elemental makeup of a rock dubbed 'Wishstone' with the average composition of rocks that Spirit examined on the western spur of the 'Columbia Hills.' Wishstone lies farther into the hills than that spur. It is richer in phosphorus than any other Mars rock ever examined. Scientists plan to examine other rocks near Wishstone to help explain the significance of the high phosphorus concentration. The vertical scale is the ratio of the concentration of an element in the hills rocks to the concentration of the same element in a typical volcanic rock from the plains that Spirit crossed to reach the hills.

  15. 76 FR 33419 - Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 232, 240, 249, et al. Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-11] RIN 3235-AL15 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations AGENCY: Securities and... rating organizations (``NRSROs''). In addition, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commission is...

  16. False Color Image of Volcano Sapas Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This false-color image shows the volcano Sapas Mons, which is located in the broad equatorial rise called Atla Regio (8 degrees north latitude and 188 degrees east longitude). The area shown is approximately 650 kilometers (404 miles) on a side. Sapas Mons measures about 400 kilometers (248 miles) across and 1.5 kilometers (0.9 mile) high. Its flanks show numerous overlapping lava flows. The dark flows on the lower right are thought to be smoother than the brighter ones near the central part of the volcano. Many of the flows appear to have been erupted along the flanks of the volcano rather than from the summit. This type of flank eruption is common on large volcanoes on Earth, such as the Hawaiian volcanoes. The summit area has two flat-topped mesas, whose smooth tops give a relatively dark appearance in the radar image. Also seen near the summit are groups of pits, some as large as one kilometer (0.6 mile) across. These are thought to have formed when underground chambers of magma were drained through other subsurface tubes and lead to a collapse at the surface. A 20 kilometer-diameter (12-mile diameter) impact crater northeast of the volcano is partially buried by the lava flows. Little was known about Atla Regio prior to Magellan. The new data, acquired in February 1991, show the region to be composed of at least five large volcanoes such as Sapas Mons, which are commonly linked by complex systems of fractures or rift zones. If comparable to similar features on Earth, Atla Regio probably formed when large volumes of molten rock upwelled from areas within the interior of Venus known as'hot spots.' Magellan is a NASA spacecraft mission to map the surface of Venus with imaging radar. The basic scientific instrument is a synthetic aperture radar, or SAR, which can look through the thick clouds perpetually shielding the surface of Venus. Magellan is in orbit around Venus which completes one turn around its axis in 243 Earth days. That period of time, one Venus day

  17. Cross-reactive Carbohydrate Determinant Contributes to the False Positive IgE Antibody to Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: Social education about the features of peanut allergy is needed in Japan. Anti-CCD IgE antibody was suggested to be one of the mechanisms contributing to the false positive detection of peanut IgE. Detection of anti-HRP or anti-bromelain IgE can be a useful tool to recognize the presence of anti-CCD antibodies.

  18. The False Premises and False Promises of the Movement to Privatize Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the movement to provide parents with financial incentives to send students to private schools will increase the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic homogeneity of American schools. Six common assumptions about the positive effects of privatizing education are examined and deemed false. Probable costs of tuition vouchers for private…

  19. Biochemical nature of Russell Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossuto, Maria Francesca; Ami, Diletta; Anelli, Tiziana; Fagioli, Claudio; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Sitia, Roberto

    2015-07-30

    Professional secretory cells produce and release abundant proteins. Particularly in case of mutations and/or insufficient chaperoning, these can aggregate and become toxic within or amongst cells. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are no exception. In the extracellular space, certain Ig-L chains form fibrils causing systemic amyloidosis. On the other hand, Ig variants lacking the first constant domain condense in dilated cisternae of the early secretory compartment, called Russell Bodies (RB), frequently observed in plasma cell dyscrasias, autoimmune diseases and chronic infections. RB biogenesis can be recapitulated in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells by expressing mutant Ig-μ, providing powerful models to investigate the pathophysiology of endoplasmic reticulum storage disorders. Here we analyze the aggregation propensity and the biochemical features of the intra- and extra-cellular Ig deposits in human cells, revealing β-aggregated features for RB.

  20. THE IMPACT OF EGO-INVOLVEMENT IN THE CREATION OF FALSE CHILDHOOD MEMORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Zezelj

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment employed a "familiar-informant false-narrative proce-dure" to examine the effects of ego involvement manipulation on the creation of false memories for suggested events. Our main sample consisted of 54 Serbian adolescent students. During the pre-testing stage, students’ parents (N=54 provided details from their children childhoods, which were used to create stimuli for the subsequent stages. Half of the participants were given an ego-involving suggestion- a short written statement that claimed that people with higher intelligence have a better and more detailed memory of their childhood. We hypothesized that ego-involved group would recollect more childhood events in general, create more false memories and be more confident in its’ authenticity and clarity. Implanted event was recognized as autobiographic by 24% respondents in the testing stage and by 44.4% respondents in the retesting stage. There were significant qualitative differences between authentic and false memories: authentic memories were assessed as more reliable and clearer than the false ones. Ego-involvement manipulation had no impact on the frequency or quality of false memories reported by the participants. Even though the specific ego-involvement manipulation was not successful, our findings suggest that other motivating strategies we employed pushed the respondents into accepting false memory suggestion in the retesting stage. Future research could benefit from testing more elaborate ego-involving procedures.

  1. Biochemical Markers in Neurocritical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvar Rezae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, a variety of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biochemical markers in daily clinical practice have been recommended to diagnose and monitor diverse diseases or pathologic situations. It will be essential to develop a panel of biomarkers, to be suitable for evaluation of treatment efficacy, representing distinct phases of injury and recovery and consider the temporal profile of those. Among the possible and different biochemical markers, S100b appeared to fulfill many of optimized criteria of an ideal marker. S100b, a cytosolic low molecular weight dimeric calciumbinding protein from chromosome 21, synthesized in glial cells throughout the CNS, an homodimeric diffusible, belongs to a family of closely related protein, predominantly expressed by astrocytes and Schwann cells and a classic immunohistochemical marker for these cells, is implicated in brain development and neurophysiology. Of the 3 isoforms of S-100, the BB subunit (S100B is present in high concentrations in central and peripheral glial and Schwann cells, Langerhans and anterior pituitary cells, fat, muscle, and bone marrow tissues. The biomarker has shown to be a sensitive marker of clinical and subclinical cerebral damage, such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Increasing evidence suggests that the biomarker plays a double function as an intracellular regulator and an extracellular signal of the CNS. S100b is found in the cytoplasm in a soluble form and also is associated with intracellular membranes, centrosomes, microtubules, and type III intermediate filaments. Their genomic organization now is known, and many of their target proteins have been identified, although the mechanisms of regulating S100b secretion are not completely understood and appear to be related to many factors, such as the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-1b, and metabolic stress. 

  2. False memory ≠ false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ost

    Full Text Available The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = -.01. This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent.

  3. When representations conflict with reality: the preschooler's problem with false beliefs and "false" photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, D

    1990-04-01

    It has been argued that young preschoolers cannot correctly attribute a false belief to a deceived actor (Wimmer & Perner, 1983). Some researchers claim that the problem lies in the child's inadequate epistemology (Chandler & Boyes, 1982; Wellman, 1988); as such, it is specific to the child's theory of mind and no such problem should appear in reasoning about nonmental representations. This prediction is tested below in the "false photograph" task: here an actor takes a photograph of an object in location X; the object is then moved to location Y. Preschool subjects are asked: "In the picture, where is the object?" Results indicate that photographs are no easier to reason about than are beliefs. Manipulations to boost performance on the photograph task proved ineffective. Further, an explanation of the failure as a processing limitation having nothing to do with the representational nature of beliefs or photographs was ruled out. It is argued that young children's failure on the false belief task is not due to an inadequate epistemology (though they may have one) and is symptomatic of a larger problem with representations.

  4. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  5. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Sultana, Mahbuba Q.; Useinov, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    . This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation

  6. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  7. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-04-01

    In this article a cost-effective and simple system (circuit and algorithm) which allows recognizing different kinds of films by their magneto-field conductive properties is demonstrated. The studied signals are generated by a proposed circuit. This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation and experimental results. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. 158.2070 Section 158.2070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... efficacy data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control public health pests, such as pest...

  9. The Comparison of Biochemical and Sequencing 16S rDNA Gene Methods to Identify Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafipour1, M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of Mycobacteria in the species level has great medical importance. Biochemical tests are laborious and time-consuming, so new techniques could be used to identify the species. This research aimed to the comparison of biochemical and sequencing 16S rDNA gene methods to identify nontuberculous Mycobacteria in patients suspected to tuberculosis in Golestan province which is the most prevalent region of tuberculosis in Iran. Among 3336 patients suspected to tuberculosis referred to hospitals and health care centres in Golestan province during 2010-2011, 319 (9.56% culture positive cases were collected. Identification of species by using biochemical tests was done. On the samples recognized as nontuberculous Mycobacteria, after DNA extraction by boiling, 16S rDNA PCR was done and their sequencing were identified by NCBI BLAST. Of the 319 positive samples in Golestan Province, 300 cases were M.tuberculosis and 19 cases (5.01% were identified as nontuberculous Mycobacteria by biochemical tests. 15 out of 19 nontuberculous Mycobacteria were identified by PCR and sequencing method as similar by biochemical methods (similarity rate: 78.9%. But after PCR, 1 case known as M.simiae by biochemical test was identified as M. lentiflavum and 3 other cases were identified as Nocardia. Biochemical methods corresponded to the 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing in 78.9% of cases. However, in identification of M. lentiflavum and Nocaria sp. the molecular method is better than biochemical methods.

  10. Prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tile prevalence of biochemical and immunological abnormalities was studied in a group of 256 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (104 coloureds, 100 whites and 52 blacks). The most common biochemical abnormalities detected were a reduction in the serum creatinine value (43,4%), raised globulins (39,7%), raised serum ...

  11. Categorizing Mistaken False Positives in Regulation of Human and Environmental Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Krayer von Krauss, Martin Paul; Tickner, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    One of the concerns often voiced by critics of the precautionary principle is that a widespread regulatory application of the principle will lead to a large number of false positives (i.e., over-regulation of minor risks and regulation of nonexisting risks). The present article proposes a general......," including: real risks, "The jury is still out," nonregulated proclaimed risks, "Too narrow a definition of risk," and risk-risk tradeoffs. These categories are defined and examples are presented in order to illustrate their key characteristics. On the basis of our analysis, we were able to identify only...... four cases that could be defined as regulatory false positives in the light of today's knowledge and recognized uncertainty: the Southern Corn Leaf Blight, the Swine Flu, Saccharin, and Food Irradiation in relation to consumer health. We conclude that concerns about false positives do not represent...

  12. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  13. False recognition depends on depth of prior word processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Hufnagl, B; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L; Imhof, H; Lang, W

    2001-04-01

    Brain activity was measured with a whole head magnetoencephalograph (MEG) during the test phases of word recognition experiments. Healthy young subjects had to discriminate between previously presented and new words. During prior study phases two different levels of word processing were provided according to two different kinds of instructions (shallow and deep encoding). Event-related fields (ERFs) associated with falsely recognized words (false alarms) were found to depend on the depth of processing during the prior study phase. False alarms elicited higher brain activity (as reflected by dipole strength) in case of prior deep encoding as compared to shallow encoding between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset at temporal brain areas. Between 500 and 700 ms we found evidence for differences in the involvement of neural structures related to both conditions of false alarms. Furthermore, the number of false alarms was found to depend on depth of processing. Shallow encoding led to a higher number of false alarms than deep encoding. All data are discussed as strong support for the ideas that a certain level of word processing is performed by a distinct set of neural systems and that the same neural systems which encode information are reactivated during the retrieval.

  14. Early false-belief understanding in traditional non-Western societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, H Clark; Broesch, Tanya; Scott, Rose M; He, Zijing; Baillargeon, Renée; Wu, Di; Bolz, Matthias; Henrich, Joseph; Setoh, Peipei; Wang, Jianxin; Laurence, Stephen

    2013-03-22

    The psychological capacity to recognize that others may hold and act on false beliefs has been proposed to reflect an evolved, species-typical adaptation for social reasoning in humans; however, controversy surrounds the developmental timing and universality of this trait. Cross-cultural studies using elicited-response tasks indicate that the age at which children begin to understand false beliefs ranges from 4 to 7 years across societies, whereas studies using spontaneous-response tasks with Western children indicate that false-belief understanding emerges much earlier, consistent with the hypothesis that false-belief understanding is a psychological adaptation that is universally present in early childhood. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used three spontaneous-response tasks that have revealed early false-belief understanding in the West to test young children in three traditional, non-Western societies: Salar (China), Shuar/Colono (Ecuador) and Yasawan (Fiji). Results were comparable with those from the West, supporting the hypothesis that false-belief understanding reflects an adaptation that is universally present early in development.

  15. The role of backward associative strength in false recognition of DRM lists with multiple critical words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, María S; Arndt, Jason

    2017-08-01

    Memory is a reconstruction of the past and is prone to errors. One of the most widely-used paradigms to examine false memory is the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, participants studied words associatively related to a non-presented critical word. In a subsequent memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and/or recognized. In the present study, we examined the influence of backward associative strength (BAS) on false recognition using DRM lists with multiple critical words. In forty-eight English DRM lists, we manipulated BAS while controlling forward associative strength (FAS). Lists included four words (e.g., prison, convict, suspect, fugitive) simultaneously associated with two critical words (e.g., CRIMINAL, JAIL). The results indicated that true recognition was similar in high-BAS and low-BAS lists, while false recognition was greater in high-BAS lists than in low-BAS lists. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between false recognition and the probability of a resonant connection between the studied words and their associates. These findings suggest that BAS and resonant connections influence false recognition, and extend prior research using DRM lists associated with a single critical word to studies of DRM lists associated with multiple critical words.

  16. Organic and biochemical synthesis group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Stable isotopes, because of their unique properties and non-radioactive nature, have great potential for many fields of science and technology. In particular, isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur (the basic building blocks of all biological molecules) would be widely used in biomedical and environmental research if they were economically available in sufficient quantities and in the required chemical forms. The major objective of our program continues to be stimulation of the widespread utilization of stable isotopes and commercial involvement through development and demonstration of applications which have potential requirements for large quantities of isotopes. Thus, demand will be created which is necessary for large-scale production of stable isotopes and labeled compounds and concomitant low unit costs. The program continues to produce a variety of labeled materials needed for clinical, biomedical, chemical, and environmental applications which serve as effective demonstrations of unique and advantageous utilization of stable isotopes. Future commercial involvement should benefit, and is a consideration in our research and development, from the technology transfer that can readily be made as a result of our organic and biochemical syntheses and also of various techniques involved in applications

  17. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  18. Complexity of generic biochemical circuits: topology versus strength of interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail; Bialek, William

    2016-12-01

    The historical focus on network topology as a determinant of biological function is still largely maintained today, illustrated by the rise of structure-only approaches to network analysis. However, biochemical circuits and genetic regulatory networks are defined both by their topology and by a multitude of continuously adjustable parameters, such as the strength of interactions between nodes, also recognized as important. Here we present a class of simple perceptron-based Boolean models within which comparing the relative importance of topology versus interaction strengths becomes a quantitatively well-posed problem. We quantify the intuition that for generic networks, optimization of interaction strengths is a crucial ingredient of achieving high complexity, defined here as the number of fixed points the network can accommodate. We propose a new methodology for characterizing the relative role of parameter optimization for topologies of a given class.

  19. [Cardiorenal syndrome: the role of new biochemical markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernuccio, Federica; Grutta, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Filippo; Novo, Giuseppina; Novo, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Cardiorenal syndrome is a pathophysiological heart and kidney disorder, in which acute or chronic dysfunction of one organ induces a damage in the other. It's a syndrome more and more often encountered in clinical practice and this implies the need to recognize the syndrome through biochemical markers with a good sensitivity and specificity, since its earliest stages in order to optimize therapy. In addition to widely validated biomarkers, such as BNP, pro BNP, creatinine, GFR and cystatin C, other promising molecules are available, like NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic peptide), Netrin-1, interleuchin 18 and NAG (N-acetyl-β-glucosa-minidase). The role of these emerging biomarkers is still not completely clarified: hence the need of new clinical trials.

  20. Clinical and Biochemical Pitfalls in the Diagnosis of Peroxisomal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klouwer, Femke C C; Huffnagel, Irene C; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Waterham, Hans R; Wanders, Ronald J A; Engelen, Marc; Poll-The, Bwee Tien

    2016-08-01

    Peroxisomal disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic metabolic disorders, caused by a defect in peroxisome biogenesis or a deficiency of a single peroxisomal enzyme. The peroxisomal disorders include the Zellweger spectrum disorders, the rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata spectrum disorders, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and multiple single enzyme deficiencies. There are several core phenotypes caused by peroxisomal dysfunction that clinicians can recognize. The diagnosis is suggested by biochemical testing in blood and urine and confirmed by functional assays in cultured skin fibroblasts, followed by mutation analysis. This review describes the phenotype of the main peroxisomal disorders and possible pitfalls in (laboratory) diagnosis to aid clinicians in the recognition of this group of diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  2. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  3. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...... home environment, and conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate our system. Results show that epMAR outperforms existing schemes in terms of accuracy, scalability and robustness....

  4. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  5. A re-assessment of biochemical marker distributions in T21 affected and unaffected twin pregnancies in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helen Nordahl; Ball, Susan; Wright, Dave

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the difference between levels of the two biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and maternal serum free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) in twin pregnancies relative to singleton pregnancies and establish an improved screening procedure...... of the biochemical markers were calculated. Detection rates and false-positive rates were estimated for screening tests incorporating nuchal translucency and maternal age, with and without biochemistry. RESULTS: Medians for the two biochemical markers for monochorionic and dichorionic twins in unaffected pregnancies......-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities in twins to a level comparable with that in singleton pregnancies....

  6. High false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian patients on regular hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Assem; Elbahrawy, Ashraf; Aboelfotoh, Atef; Abdelkarim, Magdy; Saied Mohammad, Abdel-Gawad; Abdallah, Abdallah Mahmoud; Mostafa, Sadek; Elmestikawy, Amr; Elwassief, Ahmed; Salah, Mohamed; Abdelbaseer, Mohamed Ali; Abdelwahab, Kouka Saadeldin

    2012-07-01

    Routine serological testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among hemodialysis (HD) patients is currently recommended. A dilemma existed on the value of serology because some investigators reported a high rate of false-negative serologic testing. In this study, we aimed to detect the false-negative rate of anti-HCV among Egyptian HD patients. Seventy-eight HD patients, negative for anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and hepatitis B surface antigen, were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the next step, the viral load was quantified by real-time PCR in RT-PCR-positive patients. Risk factors for HCV infection, as well as clinical and biochemical indicators of liver disease, were compared between false-negative and true-negative anti-HCV HD patients. The frequency of false-negative anti-HCV was 17.9%. Frequency of blood transfusion, duration of HD, dialysis at multiple centers, and diabetes mellitus were not identified as risk factors for HCV infection. The frequency of false-negative results had a linear relation to the prevalence of HCV infection in the HD units. Timely identification of HCV within dialysis units is needed in order to lower the risk of HCV spread within the HD units. The high false-negative rate of anti-HCV among HD patients in our study justifies testing of a large scale of patients for precious assessment of effectiveness of nucleic acid amplification technology testing in screening HD patient. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. I Imagine, I Experience, I Like: The False Experience Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Priyali Rajagopal; Nicole Votolato Montgomery

    2011-01-01

    False memories refer to the mistaken belief that an event that did not occur did occur. Much of the research on false memories has focused on the antecedents to and the characteristics of such memories, with little focus on the consequences of false memories. In this research, we show that exposure to an imagery-evoking ad can result in an erroneous belief that an individual has experienced the advertised brand. We also demonstrate that such false experiential beliefs function akin to genuine...

  8. Focusing errors in radiography - how they can be recognized and avoided. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, E.A.; Zimmer-Brossy, M.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the problem of recognizing and judging focusing errors for the daily practice has caused the authors to give this systematic and abundantly pictured account of the most frequent focusing errors, for as yet no such book has been published either in Germany or abroad. To keep it as concise and handy as possible the authors have restricted themselves to the most important standard pictures and omitted to list errors such as: blurred pictures owing to breathing or movement as well as under and overexposed pictures, which are easy to recognize and avoid. By contrast, they describe in detail those characteristic points and lines of orientation that must be checked to verify the technical quality of an X-ray picture. Knowledge of the typical aspects in a correctly focused X-ray picture is a precondition for understanding incorrectly focused pictures which have some characteristic properties as well. Proper interpretation of an incorrectly focused picture then permits to detect also the cause of the focusing error, be it false centring or false positioning. Thus quick and aimed correction becomes possible. To avoid unnecessary repeat X-rays, which are self-prohibitive for reasons of radiation protection alone, each chapter contains at the end a remark starting in which cases the medical indication requires the repetition of an unserviceable X-ray. (orig./ORU) [de

  9. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users.…

  10. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  11. What do potential jurors know about police interrogation techniques and false confessions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Richard A; Liu, Brittany

    2009-01-01

    Psychological police interrogation methods in America inevitably involve some level of pressure and persuasion to achieve their goal of eliciting confessions of guilt from custodial suspects. In this article, we surveyed potential jurors about their perceptions of a range of psychological interrogation techniques, the likelihood that such techniques would elicit a true confession from guilty suspects, and the likelihood that such techniques could elicit a false confession from innocent suspects. Participants recognized that these interrogation techniques may be psychologically coercive and may elicit true confessions, but believed that psychologically coercive interrogation techniques are not likely to elicit false confessions. The findings from this survey study indicate that potential jurors believe that false confessions are both counter- intuitive and unlikely, even in response to psychologically coercive interrogation techniques that have been shown to lead to false confessions from the innocent. This study provides empirical support for the idea that expert witnesses may helpfully inform jurors about the social science research on psychologically coercive interrogation methods and how and why such interrogation techniques can lead to false confessions. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberty, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    reactants. Thus loading this package makes available 774 mathematical functions for these properties. These functions can be added and subtracted to obtain changes in these properties in biochemical reactions and apparent equilibrium constants.

  13. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  14. Lessons from Tiananmen Square: Recognizing Bias in News Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends teaching students to recognize bias in news reports and how personal preferences infringe on objective judgment. Provides two class activities designed to help students understand this concept. Uses the Cinderella story from three cultures and group discussion to illustrate this technique. (NL)

  15. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  16. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  17. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.

  18. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  19. Recognizing and managing sapstreak disease of sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; David R. Houston

    1993-01-01

    Sapstreak disease, a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands, occurs when the causal fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, invades the sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds inflicted during logging, saphauling, or other activities. Describes how to recognize the disease, the factors that affect its occurrence and development, and management...

  20. NREL: News - Students Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education Event Golden, Colo., May 13, 2002 Tapping the power of the sun was the theme of the May 11 Solarbrate Education event at the U.S. Department Assistance Foundation, Oakwood Homes, Home Depot, E-Star Colorado, Governor's Office of Energy Management

  1. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships,

  2. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  3. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  4. Professional Development Recognizing Technology Integration Modeled after the TPACK Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Public school teachers within a Pennsylvania intermediate unit are receiving inadequate job-embedded professional development that recognizes knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technology integration, as outlined by Mishra and Koehler's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (2006). A school environment where teachers are…

  5. Structural elements recognized by abacavir-induced T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yerly, Daniel; Pompeu, Yuri Andreiw; Schutte, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context...

  6. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  7. QMODULE: CAMAC modules recognized by the QAL compiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1977-10-01

    The compiler for the Q Analyzer Language, QAL, recognizes a certain set of CAMAC modules as having known characteristics. The conventions and procedures used to describe these modules are discussed as well as the tools available to the user for extending this set as required

  8. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... compounds seem to reflect inherent biochemical and physiological differences among P. grisea isolates .... solutions for imaging and microscopy, soft image system .... characteristics among 12 P. grisea isolates from rice were.

  9. Biochemical changes in blood caused by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The changes were studied occurring in some biochemical indicators in blood at chronic peroral administration of strontium-90, cesium-137 and iodine-131 in amounts resulting in accumulation of commensurable doses in critical organs corresponding to each isotope

  10. Biochemical and kinetic characterization of geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suchart

    2015-07-22

    Jul 22, 2015 ... biochemical characterization of GGOH 18-hydroxylase activity in the microsomal fraction from C. .... method as previously described (Chanama et al., 2009). Briefly, 30 g of frozen ..... Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome.

  11. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  12. A Program on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San, Ka-Yiu; McIntire, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an introduction to the Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering program at Rice University. Describes the development of the academic and enhancement programs, including organizational structure and research project titles. (YP)

  13. Raman spectroscopic biochemical mapping of tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas; Hart Prieto, Maria C.; Kendall, Catherine A.; Shetty, Geeta; Barr, Hugh

    2006-02-01

    Advances in technologies have brought us closer to routine spectroscopic diagnosis of early malignant disease. However, there is still a poor understanding of the carcinogenesis process. For example it is not known whether many cancers follow a logical sequence from dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, to invasion. Biochemical tissue changes, triggered by genetic mutations, precede morphological and structural changes. These can be probed using Raman or FTIR microspectroscopy and the spectra analysed for biochemical constituents. Local microscopic distribution of various constituents can then be visualised. Raman mapping has been performed on a number of tissues including oesophagus, breast, bladder and prostate. The biochemical constituents have been calculated at each point using basis spectra and least squares analysis. The residual of the least squares fit indicates any unfit spectral components. The biochemical distribution will be compared with the defined histopathological boundaries. The distribution of nucleic acids, glycogen, actin, collagen I, III, IV, lipids and others appear to follow expected patterns.

  14. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  15. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  16. Improving Marine Ecosystem Models with Biochemical Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Choy, C. Anela; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Empirical data on food web dynamics and predator-prey interactions underpin ecosystem models, which are increasingly used to support strategic management of marine resources. These data have traditionally derived from stomach content analysis, but new and complementary forms of ecological data are increasingly available from biochemical tracer techniques. Extensive opportunities exist to improve the empirical robustness of ecosystem models through the incorporation of biochemical tracer data and derived indices, an area that is rapidly expanding because of advances in analytical developments and sophisticated statistical techniques. Here, we explore the trophic information required by ecosystem model frameworks (species, individual, and size based) and match them to the most commonly used biochemical tracers (bulk tissue and compound-specific stable isotopes, fatty acids, and trace elements). Key quantitative parameters derived from biochemical tracers include estimates of diet composition, niche width, and trophic position. Biochemical tracers also provide powerful insight into the spatial and temporal variability of food web structure and the characterization of dominant basal and microbial food web groups. A major challenge in incorporating biochemical tracer data into ecosystem models is scale and data type mismatches, which can be overcome with greater knowledge exchange and numerical approaches that transform, integrate, and visualize data.

  17. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.

  18. Working memory affects false memory production for emotional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Ciriello, Alfonso; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Whereas a link between working memory (WM) and memory distortions has been demonstrated, its influence on emotional false memories is unclear. In two experiments, a verbal WM task and a false memory paradigm for negative, positive or neutral events were employed. In Experiment 1, we investigated individual differences in verbal WM and found that the interaction between valence and WM predicted false recognition, with negative and positive material protecting high WM individuals against false remembering; the beneficial effect of negative material disappeared in low WM participants. In Experiment 2, we lowered the WM capacity of half of the participants with a double task request, which led to an overall increase in false memories; furthermore, consistent with Experiment 1, the increase in negative false memories was larger than that of neutral or positive ones. It is concluded that WM plays a critical role in determining false memory production, specifically influencing the processing of negative material.

  19. The False Memory and the Mirror Effects: The Role of Familiarity and Backward Association in Creating False Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaki, D.; Faran, Y.; Ben-Shalom, D.; Henik, A.

    2005-01-01

    The mirror effect refers to a phenomenon where the hit rate is higher for low frequency words while the false alarm rate is higher for high frequency distractors. Using a false memory paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), we examined whether false memory for non-presented lures would be influenced by the lure's familiarity. The results revealed…

  20. Do you remember proposing marriage to the Pepsi machine? False recollections from a campus walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, John G; Philbin, Morgan M; Harrison, Liza G

    2006-10-01

    During a campus walk, participants were given familiar or bizarre action statements (e.g., "Check the Pepsi machine for change" vs. "Propose marriage to the Pepsi machine") with instructions either to perform the actions or imagine performing the actions (Group 1) or to watch the experimenter perform the actions or imagine the experimenter performing the actions (Group 2). One day later, some actions were repeated, along with new actions, on a second walk. Two weeks later, the participants took a recognition test for actions presented during the first walk, and they specified whether a recognized action was imagined or performed. Imagining themselves or the experimenter performing familiar or bizarre actions just once led to false recollections of performance for both types of actions. This study extends previous research on imagination inflation by demonstrating that these false performance recollections can occur in a natural, real-life setting following just one imagining.

  1. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  2. T cells recognizing a peptide contaminant undetectable by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility...... complex (MHC) Class I-restricted ß-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant was so small to be undetectable by direct mass spectrometry. Only after concentration by liquid...... chromatography, we observed a mass peak corresponding to an immunodominant islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)(206-214) epitope described in the literature. Generation of CD8+ T-cell clones recognizing IGRP(206-214) using a novel method confirmed the identity...

  3. Discovering Activities to Recognize and Track in a Smart Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The machine learning and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. Although approaches do exist for recognizing activities, the approaches are applied to activities that have been pre-selected and for which labeled training data is available. In contrast, we introduce an automated approach to activity tracking that identifies frequent activities that naturally occur in an individual's routine. With this capability we can then track the occurrence of regular activities to monitor functional health and to detect changes in an individual's patterns and lifestyle. In this paper we describe our activity mining and tracking approach and validate our algorithms on data collected in physical smart environments.

  4. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  5. Action of the city of Schweinfurt against Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld recognized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In the appeal proceedings, the Bavarian Administrative Court with its interim decision of April 9, 1979 - No. 167 VI 74 - has recognized the action of the city of Schweinfurt against the state of Bavaria to set aside the 1st part license for the construction of Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, although the right for action was limited to the city's legal position concerning planning authority, drinking water supply, and a city-owned lake used for swimming. Appeal was allowed. The city has lodged an appeal. The decision of the Administrative Court of Wuerzburg of March 25, 1977, which was contested by the appeal, had also recognized the city's rights but dismissed the action as being unfounded. Guidelines and reasons for the decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  6. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-08-01

    In all languages studied to date, distinct prosodic contours characterize different intention categories of infant-directed (ID) speech. This vocal behavior likely exists universally as a species-typical trait, but little research has examined whether listeners can accurately recognize intentions in ID speech using only vocal cues, without access to semantic information. We recorded native-English-speaking mothers producing four intention categories of utterances (prohibition, approval, comfort, and attention) as both ID and adult-directed (AD) speech, and we then presented the utterances to Shuar adults (South American hunter-horticulturalists). Shuar subjects were able to reliably distinguish ID from AD speech and were able to reliably recognize the intention categories in both types of speech, although performance was significantly better with ID speech. This is the first demonstration that adult listeners in an indigenous, nonindustrialized, and nonliterate culture can accurately infer intentions from both ID speech and AD speech in a language they do not speak.

  7. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  8. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  9. Craig Reynolds: Recognized for Excellence in Medicine | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distinguished Alumni Award is one of the most prestigious awards at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. This award recognizes influential alumni who have achieved excellence in the art and science of medicine. One of this year’s recipients is Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., associate director, NCI. When asked how he felt about receiving this

  10. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perce...

  11. Affect influences false memories at encoding: evidence from recognition data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L

    2011-08-01

    Memory is susceptible to illusions in the form of false memories. Prior research found, however, that sad moods reduce false memories. The current experiment had two goals: (1) to determine whether affect influences retrieval processes, and (2) to determine whether affect influences the strength and the persistence of false memories. Happy or sad moods were induced either before or after learning word lists designed to produce false memories. Control groups did not experience a mood induction. We found that sad moods reduced false memories only when induced before learning. Signal detection analyses confirmed that sad moods induced prior to learning reduced activation of nonpresented critical lures suggesting that they came to mind less often. Affective states, however, did not influence retrieval effects. We conclude that negative affective states promote item-specific processing, which reduces false memories in a similar way as using an explicitly guided cognitive control strategy. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People’s mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used de-ceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  13. False belief reasoning in the brain: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Understanding others mind and interpersonal interaction are the cognitive basis of successful social interactions. People's mental states and behaviors rely on their holding beliefs for self and others. To investigate the neural substrates of false belief reasoning, the 32 channels event-related potentials (ERP) of 14 normal adults were measured while they understood false-belief and true belief used deceptive appearance task. After onset of the false-belief or true-belief questions, N100, P200 and late negative component (LNC) were elicited at centro-frontal sites. Compared with true belief, false belief reasoning elicited significant declined LNC in the time window from 400 to 800 ms. The source analysis of difference wave (False minus True) showed a dipole located in the middle cingulated cortex. These findings show that false belief reasoning probably included inhibitive process.

  14. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human’s body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  15. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wicks, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    An artificial intelligence system improves radar signal processor performance by increasing target probability of detection and reducing probability of false alarm in a severe radar clutter environment...

  17. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  18. The Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) Task: A Simple Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate False Memories in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Payne, Jessica D

    2017-01-31

    The Deese, Roediger and McDermott (DRM) task is a false memory paradigm in which subjects are presented with lists of semantically related words (e.g., nurse, hospital, etc.) at encoding. After a delay, subjects are asked to recall or recognize these words. In the recognition memory version of the task, subjects are asked whether they remember previously presented words, as well as related (but never presented) critical lure words ('doctor'). Typically, the critical word is recognized with high probability and confidence. This false memory effect has been robustly demonstrated across short (e.g., immediate, 20 min) and long (e.g., 1, 7, 60 d) delays between encoding and memory testing. A strength of using this task to study false memory is its simplicity and short duration. If encoding and retrieval components of the task occur in the same session, the entire task can take as little as 2 - 30 min. However, although the DRM task is widely considered a 'false memory' paradigm, some researchers consider DRM illusions to be based on the activation of semantic memory networks in the brain, and argue that such semantic gist-based false memory errors may actually be useful in some scenarios (e.g., remembering the forest for the trees; remembering that a word list was about "doctors", even though the actual word "doctor" was never presented for study). Remembering the gist of experience (instead of or along with individual details) is arguably an adaptive process and this task has provided a great deal of knowledge about the constructive, adaptive nature of memory. Therefore, researchers should use caution when discussing the overall reach and implications of their experiments when using this task to study 'false memory', as DRM memory errors may not adequately reflect false memories in the real world, such as false memory in eyewitness testimony, or false memories of sexual abuse.

  19. Stereotypes, Warnings, and Identity-Related Variables Influence Older Adults' Susceptibility to Associative False Memory Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amy M; Gallo, David A; Barber, Sarah J; Maddox, Keith B; Thomas, Ayanna K

    2017-08-01

    Activating ageist stereotypes can impair older adults' ability to remember information. This effect has been shown to be strongest for older adults who possess certain characteristics (e.g., young-old, highly educated). The present study extended this line of research to investigate the relationship between stereotyping and false memory susceptibility in older adults. We first presented older adults with lists of associated words in an incidental learning paradigm. Afterward, we manipulated whether participants were presented with stereotypes about aging and whether they were given warnings about the associative nature of the lists. Participants then completed a yes/no recognition test and answered demographic questions. Older adults in the stereotyped group were more likely to falsely recognize non-presented theme words than older adults in the control group. Further, those who were highly educated and/or retired were most likely to experience this false memory susceptibility. Similar to the research on veridical memory, these findings suggest that the effects of ageist stereotyping on older adults' false memory susceptibility may be best understood in terms of the individual differences that older adults possess. Identifying the types of people who are at risk of experiencing stereotype threat is an important step toward helping older adults avoid memory impairment in the presence of common stereotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Arousal—But Not Valence—Reduces False Memories at Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods–similar in arousal levels–correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval. PMID:26938737

  1. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1) whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2) whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently), compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence) predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  2. Arousal-But Not Valence-Reduces False Memories at Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mirandola

    Full Text Available Mood affects both memory accuracy and memory distortions. However, some aspects of this relation are still poorly understood: (1 whether valence and arousal equally affect false memory production, and (2 whether retrieval-related processes matter; the extant literature typically shows that mood influences memory performance when it is induced before encoding, leaving unsolved whether mood induced before retrieval also impacts memory. We examined how negative, positive, and neutral mood induced before retrieval affected inferential false memories and related subjective memory experiences. A recognition-memory paradigm for photographs depicting script-like events was employed. Results showed that individuals in both negative and positive moods-similar in arousal levels-correctly recognized more target events and endorsed fewer false memories (and these errors were linked to remember responses less frequently, compared to individuals in neutral mood. This suggests that arousal (but not valence predicted memory performance; furthermore, we found that arousal ratings provided by participants were more adequate predictors of memory performance than their actual belonging to either positive, negative or neutral mood groups. These findings suggest that arousal has a primary role in affecting memory, and that mood exerts its power on true and false memory even when induced at retrieval.

  3. False memory for face in short-term memory and neural activity in human amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-12-03

    Human memory is often inaccurate. Similar to words and figures, new faces are often recognized as seen or studied items in long- and short-term memory tests; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this false memory remain elusive. In a previous fMRI study using morphed faces and a standard false memory paradigm, we found that there was a U-shaped response curve of the amygdala to old, new, and lure items. This indicates that the amygdala is more active in response to items that are salient (hit and correct rejection) compared to items that are less salient (false alarm), in terms of memory retrieval. In the present fMRI study, we determined whether the false memory for faces occurs within the short-term memory range (a few seconds), and assessed which neural correlates are involved in veridical and illusory memories. Nineteen healthy participants were scanned by 3T MRI during a short-term memory task using morphed faces. The behavioral results indicated that the occurrence of false memories was within the short-term range. We found that the amygdala displayed a U-shaped response curve to memory items, similar to those observed in our previous study. These results suggest that the amygdala plays a common role in both long- and short-term false memory for faces. We made the following conclusions: First, the amygdala is involved in detecting the saliency of items, in addition to fear, and supports goal-oriented behavior by modulating memory. Second, amygdala activity and response time might be related with a subject's response criterion for similar faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochemical transport modeling, estimation, and detection in realistic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Mathias; Nehorai, Arye

    2006-05-01

    Early detection and estimation of the spread of a biochemical contaminant are major issues for homeland security applications. We present an integrated approach combining the measurements given by an array of biochemical sensors with a physical model of the dispersion and statistical analysis to solve these problems and provide system performance measures. We approximate the dispersion model of the contaminant in a realistic environment through numerical simulations of reflected stochastic diffusions describing the microscopic transport phenomena due to wind and chemical diffusion using the Feynman-Kac formula. We consider arbitrary complex geometries and account for wind turbulence. Localizing the dispersive sources is useful for decontamination purposes and estimation of the cloud evolution. To solve the associated inverse problem, we propose a Bayesian framework based on a random field that is particularly powerful for localizing multiple sources with small amounts of measurements. We also develop a sequential detector using the numerical transport model we propose. Sequential detection allows on-line analysis and detecting wether a change has occurred. We first focus on the formulation of a suitable sequential detector that overcomes the presence of unknown parameters (e.g. release time, intensity and location). We compute a bound on the expected delay before false detection in order to decide the threshold of the test. For a fixed false-alarm rate, we obtain the detection probability of a substance release as a function of its location and initial concentration. Numerical examples are presented for two real-world scenarios: an urban area and an indoor ventilation duct.

  5. Illness associated with Campylobacter laridis, a newly recognized Campylobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, R V; Patton, C M; Edmonds, P; Barrett, T J; Brenner, D J; Blake, P A

    1985-02-01

    Campylobacter laridis, a recently described thermophilic Campylobacter species found principally in seagulls, has not previously been linked to illness in humans. Six clinical isolates of this species were referred to the national campylobacter reference laboratory in 1982 and 1983. Each isolate was confirmed by biochemical characterization and by DNA relatedness studies. The six isolates were obtained during an illness: enteritis in four, severe crampy abdominal pain in one, and terminal bacteremia in an immunocompromised host in one. The infections occurred in persons 8 months to 71 years old. Neither the geographic distribution nor the reports of the patients suggest that seagulls played a direct role in the epidemiology of these infections. This potential human enteric pathogen appears to be clinically, epidemiologically, and microbiologically similar to Campylobacter jejuni and may be mistaken for it if nalidixic acid susceptibility screening is not routinely performed.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  7. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE's interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals

  8. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  9. eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.

  10. eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852

  11. Motivated reconstruction: The effect of brand commitment on false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Nicole Votolato; Rajagopal, Priyali

    2018-06-01

    Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews. Further, these differences across brand commitment are attenuated when respondents are primed with an accuracy motivation, suggesting that the biasing effects of commitment are likely because of the motivation to defend the committed brand. Finally, we find that differences in false memories subsequently lead to differences in intentions to spread word-of-mouth (e.g., recommend the product to friends), suggesting that the consequences of false product experience memories can be significant for marketers and consumers. Our findings contribute to the literatures in false memory and marketing by documenting a motivated bias in false memories because of brand commitment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The spread of true and false news online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi, Soroush; Roy, Deb; Aral, Sinan

    2018-03-09

    We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on Twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information. We found that false news was more novel than true news, which suggests that people were more likely to share novel information. Whereas false stories inspired fear, disgust, and surprise in replies, true stories inspired anticipation, sadness, joy, and trust. Contrary to conventional wisdom, robots accelerated the spread of true and false news at the same rate, implying that false news spreads more than the truth because humans, not robots, are more likely to spread it. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Scenario analysis of false indication in computer-control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Wan-Hui; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new failure mode and effect for safety-critical systems is proposed. ► False indication is the most dreadful kind of partial failures. ► A model-based simulation approach to generate failure scenarios is proposed. ► Simulation results showed that multiple errors may cause undesired consequences. ► An assertion-based method to detect false indication problems is provided. -- Abstract: Computer control may cause additional failure modes and effects that are new to analogue systems. False indication is one such failure mode that may bring unknown risks to a system. False indication refers to the problem when part of a system fails while other processes still work, and the failure is not revealed to operators. This paper presents a model-based simulation approach to systematically generate potential false indication and unintended consequences. Experiments showed that once a false indication occurs, it may have drastic effects on system safety. False indication can mislead the operator to perform adverse actions or no action. Therefore, we propose an assertion-based detection method to alleviate such failures. Our assertions contain process/device dependencies, timing relations and physical conservation rules. With these assertions, the operator may be alerted at run time. The proposed technique can reduce false indication problem. Moreover, it can also be used to assist the system design.

  14. Development of False Memories in Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…

  15. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  16. Recollection Rejection: How Children Edit Their False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new measure of children's use of an editing operation that suppresses false memories by accessing verbatim traces of true events. Application of the methodology showed that false-memory editing increased dramatically between early and middle childhood. Measure reacted appropriately to experimental manipulations. Developmental reductions…

  17. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  18. Do Children "DRM" Like Adults? False Memory Production in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Richard L.; Warren, Amye R.; Shelton, Jill T.; Price, Jodi; Reed, Andrea W.; Williams, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to investigate developmental trends in accurate and false memory production. In Experiment 1, DRM lists adjusted to be more consistent with children's vocabulary were used with 2nd graders, 8th graders, and college students. Accurate and false recall and recognition increased with age, but…

  19. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  20. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  1. False Belief and Language Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Him

    2006-01-01

    The current research compared two accounts of the relation between language and false belief in children, namely that (a) language is generally related to false belief because both require secondary representation in a social-interactional context and that (b) specific language structures that explicitly code meta representation contribute…

  2. Making up History: False Memories of Fake News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Polage

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that information that is repeated is more likely to be rated as true than information that has not been heard before. The current experiment examines whether familiarity with false news stories would increase rates of truthfulness and plausibility for these events. Further, the experiment tested whether false stories that were familiar would result in the creation of a false memory of having heard the story outside of the experiment. Participants were exposed to false new stories, each portrayed by the investigator as true news stories. After a five week delay, participants who had read the false experimental stories rated them as more truthful and more plausible than participants who had not been exposed to the stories. In addition, there was evidence of the creation of false memories for the source of the news story. Participants who had previously read about the stories were more likely to believe that they had heard the false stories from a source outside the experiment. These results suggest that repeating false claims will not only increase their believability but may also result in source monitoring errors.

  3. False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

    2004-11-01

    The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding.

  4. Too Good to be False : Nonsignificant Results Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartgerink, Chris H J; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Van Assen, M. A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its probabilistic nature, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) is subject to decision errors. The concern for false positives has overshadowed the concern for false negatives in the recent debates in psychology. This might be unwarranted, since reported statistically nonsignificant

  5. Too Good to be False: Nonsignificant Results Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H. J. Hartgerink

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its probabilistic nature, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST is subject to decision errors. The concern for false positives has overshadowed the concern for false negatives in the recent debates in psychology. This might be unwarranted, since reported statistically nonsignificant findings may just be ‘too good to be false’. We examined evidence for false negatives in nonsignificant results in three different ways. We adapted the Fisher test to detect the presence of at least one false negative in a set of statistically nonsignificant results. Simulations show that the adapted Fisher method generally is a powerful method to detect false negatives. We examined evidence for false negatives in the psychology literature in three applications of the adapted Fisher method. These applications indicate that (i the observed effect size distribution of nonsignificant effects exceeds the expected distribution assuming a null-effect, and approximately two out of three (66.7% psychology articles reporting nonsignificant results contain evidence for at least one false negative, (ii nonsignificant results on gender effects contain evidence of true nonzero effects, and (iii the statistically nonsignificant replications from the Reproducibility Project Psychology (RPP do not warrant strong conclusions about the absence or presence of true zero effects underlying these nonsignificant results. We conclude that false negatives deserve more attention in the current debate on statistical practices in psychology. Potentially neglecting effects due to a lack of statistical power can lead to a waste of research resources and stifle the scientific discovery process.

  6. Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi

    2009-01-01

    The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…

  7. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-01-01

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  8. Epidemiology, public health, and the rhetoric of false positives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, Aaron; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As an observational science, epidemiology is regarded by some researchers as inherently flawed and open to false results. In a recent paper, Boffetta et al. [Boffetta P, McLaughlin JK, LaVecchia C, Tarone RE, Lipworth L, Blot WJ. False-positive results in cancer epidemiology: a plea f...

  9. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm PREZIOSO (FR), the lowest bidder, for the provision of paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 538 419 euros (830 381 Swiss francs), not subject to revision for the first two years. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial threeyear period.

  10. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period...... in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s): Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal......Background: Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake.  Methods: We calculated the ratio...

  11. Biochemical activity of fullerenes and related derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huczko, A.; Lange, H.; Calko, E.

    1999-01-01

    An astonishing scientific interest, embodied in over 15000 research articles so far, has been encountered since 1985 when fullerenes were discovered. From new superconductors to a rich electrochemistry and reaction chemistry, fullerene nanostructures continue to excite the scientific world, and new findings continue at record pace. This review presents many examples of the biochemical activities of fullerenes and derivatives, e. g. cytotoxic activity, selective DNA cleavage and antiviral activity against HIV. We also present some results of our testing which show that, despite its chemical and biochemical activity, fullerene matter does not present any health hazard directly related to skin irritation and allergic risks. (author)

  12. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  13. "Hook-like effect" causes false-negative point-of-care urine pregnancy testing in emergency patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Richard T; Trent, Caleb J; Bavolek, Rebecca A; Keeperman, Jacob B; Sampson, Christopher; Poirier, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    Failure to detect pregnancy in the emergency department (ED) can have important consequences. Urine human chorionic gonadotropin (uhCG) point-of-care (POC) assays are valued for rapidly detecting early pregnancy with high sensitivity. However, under certain conditions, POC uhCG tests can fail to detect pregnancy. In investigating a series of late first-trimester false-negative pregnancy tests in our ED, a novel and distinct causative phenomenon was recently elucidated in our institution. We discuss uhCG POC tests, review our false-negative rate, and describe mechanisms for false negatives and potential remedies. The false-negative POC uhCG rate is very low, but in the setting of a large volume of tests, the numbers are worth consideration. In positive uhCG POC tests, free and fixed antibodies bind hCG to form a "sandwich"; hCG is present in several variant forms that change in their concentrations at different stages of pregnancy. When in excess, intact hCG can saturate the antibodies, preventing sandwich formation (hook effect phenomenon). Some assays may include an antibody that does not recognize certain variants present in later stages of pregnancy. When this variant is in excess, it can bind one antibody avidly and the other not at all, resulting in a false-negative test (hook-like phenomenon). In both situations, dilution is key to an accurate test. Manufacturers should consider that uhCG tests are routinely used at many stages of pregnancy. Characterizing uhCG variants recognized by their tests and eliminating lot-to-lot variability may help improve uhCG test performance. Clinicians need to be aware of and familiarize themselves with the limitations of the specific type of uhCG POC tests used in their practice, recognizing that under certain circumstances, false-negative tests can occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  15. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.  Created: 6/9/2010 by Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/15/2010.

  16. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hansong; Huang, He; Huang, Liusheng; Sun, Yu-E

    2016-08-20

    As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user's daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR) respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR) are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy.

  17. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user’s daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy.

  18. Emotional valence of stimuli modulates false recognition: Using a modified version of the simplified conjoint recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xianmin; Xiao, Hongrui; Wang, Dahua

    2016-11-01

    False recognition results from the interplay of multiple cognitive processes, including verbatim memory, gist memory, phantom recollection, and response bias. In the current study, we modified the simplified Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm to investigate the way in which the valence of emotional stimuli affects the cognitive process and behavioral outcome of false recognition. In Study 1, we examined the applicability of the modification to the simplified CR paradigm and model. Twenty-six undergraduate students (13 females, aged 21.00±2.30years) learned and recognized both the large and small categories of photo objects. The applicability of the paradigm and model was confirmed by a fair goodness-of-fit of the model to the observational data and by their competence in detecting the memory differences between the large- and small-category conditions. In Study 2, we recruited another sample of 29 undergraduate students (14 females, aged 22.60±2.74years) to learn and recognize the categories of photo objects that were emotionally provocative. The results showed that negative valence increased false recognition, particularly the rate of false "remember" responses, by facilitating phantom recollection; positive valence did not influence false recognition significantly though enhanced gist processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing the surveillance algorithm for detection of failure to recognize and treat severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew M; Thongprayoon, Charat; Kashyap, Rahul; Chute, Christopher G; Gajic, Ognjen; Pickering, Brian W; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2015-02-01

    To develop and test an automated surveillance algorithm (sepsis "sniffer") for the detection of severe sepsis and monitoring failure to recognize and treat severe sepsis in a timely manner. We conducted an observational diagnostic performance study using independent derivation and validation cohorts from an electronic medical record database of the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral center. All patients aged 18 years and older who were admitted to the medical ICU from January 1 through March 31, 2013 (N=587), were included. The criterion standard for severe sepsis/septic shock was manual review by 2 trained reviewers with a third superreviewer for cases of interobserver disagreement. Critical appraisal of false-positive and false-negative alerts, along with recursive data partitioning, was performed for algorithm optimization. An algorithm based on criteria for suspicion of infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, organ hypoperfusion and dysfunction, and shock had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96% when applied to the validation cohort. In order, low systolic blood pressure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome positivity, and suspicion of infection were determined through recursive data partitioning to be of greatest predictive value. Lastly, 117 alert-positive patients (68% of the 171 patients with severe sepsis) had a delay in recognition and treatment, defined as no lactate and central venous pressure measurement within 2 hours of the alert. The optimized sniffer accurately identified patients with severe sepsis that bedside clinicians failed to recognize and treat in a timely manner. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Veridical and False Memory for Text: A Multiprocess Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Murray; Remillard, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    People report recognizing discourse inferences at rates that approach target acceptance. Brainerd et al. [Brainerd, C. J., Wright, R., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (2001). "Conjoint recognition and phantom recollection." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27", 307-329] proposed that…

  1. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J.; Anjum, Raeesa S.; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L.; Spiers, Hugo J.; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the “semantic hub” of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories. PMID:27551087

  2. Lexical association and false memory for words in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The average co-occurrence rate of the list word and the critical word was calculated based on two large Chinese corpuses. List-level analyses revealed that the correlation between the American and Taiwanese participants was significant only in false recognition. More importantly, the co-occurrence rate was significantly correlated with false recall and recognition of Taiwanese participants, and not of American participants. In addition, the backward association strength based on Nelson et al. (The University of South Florida word association, rhyme and word fragment norms, 1999) was significantly correlated with false recall of American participants and not of Taiwanese participants. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between language experiences and lexical association in creating false memory for word lists.

  3. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis

    2016-09-06

    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  4. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  5. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-09-29

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  6. Effects of Facial Expressions on Recognizing Emotions in Dance Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Shikanai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of facial expressions on recognizing emotions expressed in dance movements were investigated. Dancers expressed three emotions: joy, sadness, and anger through dance movements. We used digital video cameras and a 3D motion capturing system to record and capture the movements. We then created full-video displays with an expressive face, full-video displays with an unexpressive face, stick figure displays (no face, or point-light displays (no face from these data using 3D animation software. To make point-light displays, 13 markers were attached to the body of each dancer. We examined how accurately observers were able to identify the expression that the dancers intended to create through their dance movements. Dance experienced and inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. They watched the movements and rated the compatibility of each emotion with each movement on a 5-point Likert scale. The results indicated that both experienced and inexperienced observers could identify all the emotions that dancers intended to express. Identification scores for dance movements with an expressive face were higher than for other expressions. This finding indicates that facial expressions affect the identification of emotions in dance movements, whereas only bodily expressions provide sufficient information to recognize emotions.

  7. Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO is developing a system for automated, ontology-based access to online biomedical resources (Shah NH, et al.: Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10(Suppl 2:S1. The system's indexing workflow processes the text metadata of diverse resources such as datasets from GEO and ArrayExpress to annotate and index them with concepts from appropriate ontologies. This indexing requires the use of a concept-recognition tool to identify ontology concepts in the resource's textual metadata. In this paper, we present a comparison of two concept recognizers – NLM's MetaMap and the University of Michigan's Mgrep. We utilize a number of data sources and dictionaries to evaluate the concept recognizers in terms of precision, recall, speed of execution, scalability and customizability. Our evaluations demonstrate that Mgrep has a clear edge over MetaMap for large-scale service oriented applications. Based on our analysis we also suggest areas of potential improvements for Mgrep. We have subsequently used Mgrep to build the Open Biomedical Annotator service. The Annotator service has access to a large dictionary of biomedical terms derived from the United Medical Language System (UMLS and NCBO ontologies. The Annotator also leverages the hierarchical structure of the ontologies and their mappings to expand annotations. The Annotator service is available to the community as a REST Web service for creating ontology-based annotations of their data.

  8. Recognizing Induced Emotions of Happiness and Sadness from Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement. PMID:24587026

  9. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  10. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115

  11. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories.

  12. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors. Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area. They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels. Therefore, a person’s ability to correctly identify a large number of species is not a safeguard against the generation of false-positive errors. There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate. Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey. Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify

  13. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina

    2016-01-01

    it indicate that a more fundamental *conceptual change* has taken place? In this paper we extend Braüner's hybrid-logical analysis of first-order false-belief tasks to the second-order case, and argue that our analysis supports a version of the conceptual change position.......The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does...

  14. Biochemical characterization of Tunisian grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    1998-03-01

    The study of GPI, PGM, AAT and peroxydase isozyme banding patterns in combination with berry colour has led to establish a classification of the 61 autochton varieties into 37 groups including 26 varieties definitely differentiated through the results of this biochemical study.

  15. Survey of Biochemical Education in Japanese Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Yasuo

    1995-01-01

    Reports findings of questionnaires sent to faculty in charge of biochemical education in medical schools and other programs from dentistry to agriculture. Total class hours have declined since 1984. New trends include bioethics and computer-assisted learning. Tables show trends in lecture hours, lecture content, laboratory hours, core subject…

  16. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  17. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xuan; Dempsey, William P; Goutsias, John

    2009-09-07

    Sensitivity analysis is an indispensable tool for studying the robustness and fragility properties of biochemical reaction systems as well as for designing optimal approaches for selective perturbation and intervention. Deterministic sensitivity analysis techniques, using derivatives of the system response, have been extensively used in the literature. However, these techniques suffer from several drawbacks, which must be carefully considered before using them in problems of systems biology. We develop here a probabilistic approach to sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems. The proposed technique employs a biophysically derived model for parameter fluctuations and, by using a recently suggested variance-based approach to sensitivity analysis [Saltelli et al., Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 105, 2811 (2005)], it leads to a powerful sensitivity analysis methodology for biochemical reaction systems. The approach presented in this paper addresses many problems associated with derivative-based sensitivity analysis techniques. Most importantly, it produces thermodynamically consistent sensitivity analysis results, can easily accommodate appreciable parameter variations, and allows for systematic investigation of high-order interaction effects. By employing a computational model of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade, we demonstrate that our approach is well suited for sensitivity analysis of biochemical reaction systems and can produce a wealth of information about the sensitivity properties of such systems. The price to be paid, however, is a substantial increase in computational complexity over derivative-based techniques, which must be effectively addressed in order to make the proposed approach to sensitivity analysis more practical.

  18. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  19. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-04

    Jan 4, 2007 ... The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and.

  20. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  1. Some hematological and biochemical parameters in smokeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Jharda powder (smokeless tobacco) on some hematological and biochemical parameters in consumers was investigated. Hematological parameters including hemoglobin content and white blood cell and leukocyte counts were higher in jharda powder consumers, while monocytes and basophiles counts were ...

  2. Haematological And Biochemical Effects Of Sulphadimidine In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological and biochemical efects of sulphadmidine were studied in Nigerian mongrel dogs. Five Nigerian mongrel dogs of either sex weighing between 7 and 12 kg were used for the study. The pretreatment blood and serum samples were collected and the weight of animals taken before the administraton of 100 ...

  3. Biochemical and secondary metabolites changes under moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed the importance of carbohydrate and nitrogen cycle related metabolites in mediating tolerance in cassava by affecting their phenotypic expression in the plant. Keywords: Hydrothermal stress, bio-chemicals, pigments, secondary metabolites, cassava. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(31) 3173-3186 ...

  4. Biochemical and serological characterization of Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the isolation rate, serotypes and biochemical profiles of E. coli from colibacillosis and dead-in-shell embryos in Zaria, Northern-Nigeria. The isolation rate of E. coli from hatcheries studied were 4.67% and 7.50% from farms of Simtu Agricultural Company and National Animal Production ...

  5. Biochemical and Kinetic Characterization of Geranylgeraniol 18 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This enzyme and its gene are an attractive target for development of plaunotol production and its detailed biochemical properties need to be understood. Recently, even though the gene (CYP97C27) coding for GGOH 18-hydroxylase has been identified, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli system, the enzyme activity ...

  6. Characterizing multistationarity regimes in biochemical reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Otero-Muras

    Full Text Available Switch like responses appear as common strategies in the regulation of cellular systems. Here we present a method to characterize bistable regimes in biochemical reaction networks that can be of use to both direct and reverse engineering of biological switches. In the design of a synthetic biological switch, it is important to study the capability for bistability of the underlying biochemical network structure. Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT may help at this level to decide whether a given network has the capacity for multiple positive equilibria, based on their structural properties. However, in order to build a working switch, we also need to ensure that the bistability property is robust, by studying the conditions leading to the existence of two different steady states. In the reverse engineering of biological switches, knowledge collected about the bistable regimes of the underlying potential model structures can contribute at the model identification stage to a drastic reduction of the feasible region in the parameter space of search. In this work, we make use and extend previous results of the CRNT, aiming not only to discriminate whether a biochemical reaction network can exhibit multiple steady states, but also to determine the regions within the whole space of parameters capable of producing multistationarity. To that purpose we present and justify a condition on the parameters of biochemical networks for the appearance of multistationarity, and propose an efficient and reliable computational method to check its satisfaction through the parameter space.

  7. Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Evaluation of Haematological and Biochemical Parameters of Juvenile Oreochromis niloticus after Exposure to Water Soluble Fractions of ... niloticus were evaluated. After a preliminary determination of the 96 h-LC50 of ... evaporation, dissolution, emulsion, photolysis and biodegradation which generate a water soluble.

  8. Metabonomics and medicine: the Biochemical Oracle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Steve; Holmes, Elaine; Carmichael, Paul

    2002-10-01

    Occasionally, a new idea emerges that has the potential to revolutionize an entire field of scientific endeavour. It is now within our grasp to be able to detect subtle perturbations within the phenomenally complex biochemical matrix of living organisms. The discipline of metabonomics promises an all-encompassing approach to understanding total, yet fundamental, changes occurring in disease processes, drug toxicity and cell function.

  9. Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Discordant results between biochemical and molecular transthyretin assays: lessons learned from a unique testing algorithm at the Mayo Clinic. Honey V. Reddi Brittany C. Thomas Kurt S. Willkomm Matthew J. Ferber Kandelaria M. Rumilla Kimiyo M. Raymond John F. O'Brien W. Edward Highsmith. Research Note Volume ...

  10. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  11. Organic solvent pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Pei, Zhijian; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents the largest potential volume and lowest cost for biofuel and biochemical production. Pretreatment is an essential component of biomass conversion process, affecting a majority of downstream processes, including enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, and final product separation. Organic solvent pretreatment is recognized as an emerging way ahead because of its inherent advantages, such as the ability to fractionate lignocellulosic biomass into cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose components with high purity, as well as easy solvent recovery and solvent reuse. Objectives of this review were to update and extend previous works on pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels and biochemicals using organic solvents, especially on ethanol, methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, acetic acid, and formic acid. Perspectives and recommendations were given to fully describe implementation of proper organic solvent pretreatment for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Classification of radiological errors in chest radiographs, using support vector machine on the spatial frequency features of false- negative and false-positive regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Donovan, Tim; Brennan, Patrick C.; Dix, Alan; Manning, David J.

    2011-03-01

    Aim: To optimize automated classification of radiological errors during lung nodule detection from chest radiographs (CxR) using a support vector machine (SVM) run on the spatial frequency features extracted from the local background of selected regions. Background: The majority of the unreported pulmonary nodules are visually detected but not recognized; shown by the prolonged dwell time values at false-negative regions. Similarly, overestimated nodule locations are capturing substantial amounts of foveal attention. Spatial frequency properties of selected local backgrounds are correlated with human observer responses either in terms of accuracy in indicating abnormality position or in the precision of visual sampling the medical images. Methods: Seven radiologists participated in the eye tracking experiments conducted under conditions of pulmonary nodule detection from a set of 20 postero-anterior CxR. The most dwelled locations have been identified and subjected to spatial frequency (SF) analysis. The image-based features of selected ROI were extracted with un-decimated Wavelet Packet Transform. An analysis of variance was run to select SF features and a SVM schema was implemented to classify False-Negative and False-Positive from all ROI. Results: A relative high overall accuracy was obtained for each individually developed Wavelet-SVM algorithm, with over 90% average correct ratio for errors recognition from all prolonged dwell locations. Conclusion: The preliminary results show that combined eye-tracking and image-based features can be used for automated detection of radiological error with SVM. The work is still in progress and not all analytical procedures have been completed, which might have an effect on the specificity of the algorithm.

  13. Normative study of theme identifiability: Instructions with and without explanation of the false memory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad; Cadavid, Sara

    2016-12-01

    False-memory illusions have been widely studied using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm (DRM). In this paradigm, words semantically related to a single nonpresented critical word are studied. In a later memory test, critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present normative study was conducted to measure the theme identifiability of 60 associative word lists in Spanish that include six words (e.g., stove, coat, blanket, scarf, chill, and bonnet) that are simultaneously associated with three critical words (e.g., HEAT, COLD, and WINTER; Beato & Díez, Psicothema, 26, 457-463, 2011). Different levels of backward associative strength were used in the construction of the DRM lists. In addition, we used two types of instructions to obtain theme identifiability. In the without-explanation condition, traditional instructions were used, requesting participants to write the theme list. In the with-explanation condition, the false-memory effect and how the lists were built were explained, and an example of a DRM list and critical words was shown. Participants then had to discover the critical words. The results showed that all lists produced theme identifiability. Moreover, some lists had a higher theme identifiability rate (e.g., 61 % for the critical words LOVE, BOYFRIEND, COUPLE) than others (e.g., 24 % for CITY, PLACE, VILLAGE). After comparing the theme identifiabilities in the different conditions, the results indicated higher theme identifiability when the false-memory effect was explained than without such an explanation. Overall, these new normative data provide a useful tool for those experiments that, for example, aim to analyze the wide differences observed in false memory with DRM lists and the role of theme identifiability.

  14. A critical reappraisal of false negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, G.; Mazzarri, S.; Boni, G.; Chiacchio, S.; Tredici, M.; Duce, V.; Tardelli, E.; Volterrani, D.; Mariani, G.; Romanini, A.; Rubello, D.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) have completely changed the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma. This procedure has been accepted worldwide as a recognized method for nodal staging. SLNB is able to accurately determine nodal basin status, providing the most useful prognostic information. However, SLNB is not a perfect diagnostic test. Several large-scale studies have reported a relatively high false-negative rate (5.6-21%), correctly defined as the proportion of false-negative results with respect to the total number of “actual” positive lymph nodes. The main purpose of this review is to address the technical issues that nuclear physicians, surgeons, and pathologists should carefully consider to improve the accuracy of SLNB by minimizing its false-negative rate. In particular, SPECT/CT imaging has demonstrated to be able to identify a greater number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) than those found by planar lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, a unique definition in the international guidelines is missing for the operational identification of SLNs, which may be partly responsible for this relatively high false-negative rate of SLNB. Therefore, it is recommended for the scientific community to agree on the radioactive counting rate threshold so that the surgeon can be better radioguided to detect all the lymph nodes which are most likely to harbor metastases. Another possible source of error may be linked to the examination of the harvested SLNs by conventional histopathological methods. A more careful and extensive SLN analysis (e.g. molecular analysis by RT-PCR) is able to find more positive nodes, so that the false-negative rate is reduced. Older age at diagnosis, deeper lesions, histologic ulceration, head-neck anatomical location of primary lesions are the clinical factors associated with false-negative SLNBs in melanoma patients. There is still much controversy about the clinical significance of a false-negative SLNB on the

  15. Disfluent presentations lead to the creation of more false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A; Naylor, Jamie S

    2018-01-01

    The creation of false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm has been shown to be sensitive to many factors such as task instructions, participant mood, or even presentation modality. However, do other simple perceptual differences also impact performance on the DRM and the creation of false memories? This study explores the potential impact of changes in perceptual disfluency on DRM performance. To test for a potential influence of disfluency on false memory creation, participants viewed lists under either perceptually disfluent conditions or not. Results indicated that disfluency did significantly impact performance in the DRM paradigm; more disfluent presentations significantly increased the recall and recognition of unpresented information, although they did not impact recall or recognition of presented information. Thus, although disfluency did impact performance, disfluency did not produce a positive benefit related to overall task performance. This finding instead suggests that more disfluent presentations can increase the likelihood that false memories are created, and provide little positive performance benefit.

  16. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Plomp, Gijs; Raaijmakers, Jeroen G W

    2003-09-01

    Presentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by. Both in a within-subjects design (Experiment 1) and in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2) subjects showed memory for studied words as well as a false memory effect for related critical lures in the 2000-ms condition. However, in the conditions with shorter presentation times (20 ms in Experiment 1; 20 and 40 ms in Experiment 2) no memory for studied words, nor a false memory effect was found. We argue that there is at present no strong evidence supporting the claim for a nonconscious basis of the false memory effect.

  17. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  18. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  19. False memory for context activates the parahippocampal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex during true memory than false memory, which has been interpreted as reflecting greater sensory processing during true memory. However, in these studies, sensory detail and contextual information were confounded. In the present fMRI study, we employed a novel paradigm to dissociate these factors. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented in one of two contexts (i.e., moving or stationary). During retrieval, participants classified shapes as previously "moving" or "stationary." Critically, contextual processing was relatively greater during false memory ("moving" responses to stationary items), while sensory processing was relatively greater during true memory ("moving" responses to moving items). Within the medial temporal lobe, false memory versus true memory produced greater activity in the parahippocampal cortex, whereas true memory versus false memory produced greater activity in the hippocampus. The present results indicate that the parahippocampal cortex mediates contextual processing rather than sensory processing.

  20. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability? (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  1. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  2. A True-False Test on Methods of Typewriting Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Leonard J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a true-false test on typewriting instruction to illustrate the effects of educational lag, publishing practices, and deficiencies in preservice and inservice teacher education upon teaching methods. (SK)

  3. False-positive 111In-pentetreotide Uptake in Gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Sharjeel; Alshammari, Alshaima

    2013-01-01

    111 In-pentetreotide [ 111 In-octreoscan] is the most widely used radiolabeled somatostatin analog for evaluating neuroendocrine tumor overexpression of somatostatin receptors. False-positives studies of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy have been reported and often the cause is unexplained but assumed to be due to high number of somatostatin receptors in other pathologies. Causes of false-positives include visualization of the gallbladder, nasal mucosa and pulmonary hilar areas in respiratory infections, thyroid abnormalities, accessory spleens, recent Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA's) and activity at the site of a recent surgical incision. In infection or inflammation the cause of false-positive uptake is probably the result of tracer binding by somatostatin receptors on the inflammatory leukocytes. In this case report, we report, a 44-year-old male patient with false-positive 111 In-pentetreotide uptake due to gastritis

  4. Effects of intercropping sesame, Sesamum indicum and false ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intercropping sesame, Sesamum indicum and false sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides on infestation by the sesame leafroller, Antigastra catalaunalis, the green semilooper, Chrysodeixis acuta and the parasitiod, Apanteles syleptae.

  5. Biochemical analysis of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material from human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennert Kate

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CTLA-4 was initially described as a membrane-bound molecule that inhibited lymphocyte activation by interacting with B7.1 and B7.2 molecules on antigen presenting cells. Alternative splicing of mRNA encoding the CTLA-4 receptor leads to the production of a molecule (sCTLA-4 that lacks a membrane anchor and is therefore secreted into the extracellular space. Despite studies finding that people with autoimmune disease more frequently express high levels of sCTLA-4 in their blood than apparently healthy people, the significance of these findings is unclear. Methods Molecules isolated from blood using CTLA-4 specific antibodies were analyzed with ligand binding assays, mass spectroscopy, and biochemical fractionation in an effort to increase our understanding of CTLA-4 immunoreactive material. Results Mass spectroscopy analysis of the molecules recognized by multiple CTLA-4-specific antibodies failed to identify any CTLA-4 protein. Even though these molecules bind to the CTLA-4 receptors B7.1 and B7.2, they also exhibit properties common to immunoglobulins. Conclusion We have identified molecules in blood that are recognized by CTLA-4 specific antibodies but also exhibit properties of immunoglobulins. Our data indicates that what has been called sCTLA-4 is not a direct product of the CTLA-4 gene, and that the CTLA-4 protein is not part of this molecule. These results may explain why the relationship of sCTLA-4 to immune system activity has been difficult to elucidate.

  6. The false alarm at Forsmark March 6th 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultaaker, Oe.

    1986-01-01

    118 households were interviewed by telephone. Additional interviews were made with the representatives of the nuclear plant, county alarming center, Radio Uppland and the authorities in question. Six out of ten households heard the false alarm. Less than one out of twenty believed that it was an alarm caused by real danger and seven out of ten think that there will be more false alarms. (G.B.)

  7. The relationship between DRM and misinformation false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, B; Chen, C; Loftus, EF; Lin, C; Dong, Q

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between false memories induced by two different paradigms (misinformation and Deese-Roediger-McDermott [DRM]). The misinformation effect refers to the phenomenon that a person's recollection of a witnessed event can be altered after exposure to misleading information about the event. DRM false memory represents the intrusion of words that are semantically related but not actually presented in the study session. Subjects (N = 432) completed both misi...

  8. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  9. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  10. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, C.; Howe, M. L.; Knott, L.

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that false memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only examined the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current stud...

  11. Voting experiments: Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Bischoff; Henrik Egbert

    2008-01-01

    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval for a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to bandwagon voting or a false consensus effect. The social science literature reports both effects for voting decisions. Replicating Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false consensus effec...

  12. Intellectual factors in false memories of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde; Li, Jun

    2018-07-01

    The current study explored the intellectual factors in false memories of 139 patients with schizophrenia, using a recognition task and an IQ test. The full-scale IQ score of the participants ranged from 57 to 144 (M = 100, SD = 14). The full IQ score had a negative correlation with false recognition in patients with schizophrenia, and positive correlations with high-confidence true recognition and discrimination rates. Further analyses with the subtests' scores revealed that false recognition was negatively correlated with scores of performance IQ (and one of its subtests: picture arrangement), whereas true recognition was positively correlated with scores of verbal IQ (and two of its subtests: information and digit span). High-IQ patients had less false recognition (overall or high-confidence false recognition), more high-confidence true recognition, and higher discrimination abilities than those with low IQ. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive mechanism in false memory of patients with schizophrenia, and are of practical relevance to the evaluation of memory reliability in patients with different intellectual levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-06

    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. False memory in aging resulting from self-referential processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2013-11-01

    Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self.

  15. Effects of depressive disorder on false memory for emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Hua, Mau-Sun

    2009-01-01

    This study explored with a false memory paradigm whether (1) depressed patients revealed more false memories and (2) whether more negative false than positive false recognition existed in subjects with depressive disorders. Thirty-two patients suffering from a major depressive episode (DSM-IV criteria), and 30 age- and education-matched normal control subjects participated in this study. After the presentation of a list of positive, negative, and neutral association items in the learning phase, subjects were asked to give a yes/no response in the recognition phase. They were also asked to rate 81 recognition items with emotional valence scores. The results revealed more negative false memories in the clinical depression group than in the normal control group; however, we did not find more negative false memories than positive ones in patients. When compared with the normal group, a more conservative response criterion for positive items was evident in patient groups. It was also found that when compared with the normal group, the subjects in the depression group perceived the positive items as less positive. On the basis of present results, it is suggested that depressed subjects judged the emotional information with criteria different from normal individuals, and patients' emotional memory intensity is attenuated by their mood.

  16. Is it wise to leave some false targets unprotected?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers a system consisting of genuine elements and false targets that cannot be distinguished by the attacker's observation. The false targets can be destroyed with much less effort than the genuine elements. To enhance the attack efficiency the attacker uses a double attack strategy in which it tries first to eliminate with optimal effort as many false targets as possible in the first attack and then distributes its entire remaining resource among all surviving targets in the second attack. It is assumed that the defender can protect some of the false targets whereas the attacker attacks all targets it can observe. In both attacks the attacking resource is distributed evenly among the attacked targets. The model for evaluating the system vulnerability in the double attack is suggested for parallel and series systems. This model considers the cases of perfect and imperfect detection of the targets destroyed in the first attack. The defense strategy is analyzed based on a two period minmax game. The methodology of optimal attack and defense strategies analysis is demonstrated. In is shown that under certain conditions (high contest intensity, scarce defense resource, low FT cost, high probability of wrong identification of destroyed targets by the attacker) the defender benefits from protecting a subset of the false targets. An algorithm for determining the optimal number of false targets that should be protected is suggested

  17. Semantic similarity between old and new items produces false alarms in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Zannino, Gian Daniele; Ambrosini, Ettore

    2015-09-01

    In everyday life, human beings can report memories of past events that did not occur or that occurred differently from the way they remember them because memory is an imperfect process of reconstruction and is prone to distortion and errors. In this recognition study using word stimuli, we investigated whether a specific operationalization of semantic similarity among concepts can modulate false memories while controlling for the possible effect of associative strength and word co-occurrence in an old-new recognition task. The semantic similarity value of each new concept was calculated as the mean cosine similarity between pairs of vectors representing that new concept and each old concept belonging to the same semantic category. Results showed that, compared with (new) low-similarity concepts, (new) high-similarity concepts had significantly higher probability of being falsely recognized as old, even after partialling out the effect of confounding variables, including associative relatedness and lexical co-occurrence. This finding supports the feature-based view of semantic memory, suggesting that meaning overlap and sharing of semantic features (which are greater when more similar semantic concepts are being processed) have an influence on recognition performance, resulting in more false alarms for new high-similarity concepts. We propose that the associative strength and word co-occurrence among concepts are not sufficient to explain illusory memories but is important to take into account also the effects of feature-based semantic relations, and, in particular, the semantic similarity among concepts.

  18. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guihua; Li, Huihui; Huang, Jubing; Li, Danyang; Xun, Eryang

    2017-01-01

    Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN) can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN) method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  20. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  1. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Meira Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

  2. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. PMab-38 Recognizes Canine Podoplanin of Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Honma, Ryusuke; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Nakamura, Takuro; Saidoh, Noriko; Takagi, Michiaki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-10-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane protein, is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although we previously developed an anticanine podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that it did not react with canine lymphatic endothelial cells. Here, we determined whether PMab-38 recognizes canine podoplanin of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and clarified its epitope. In IHC, PMab-38 reacted with 83% of SCCs (15/18 cases). Flow cytometry showed that the epitope of PMab-38 was different from that of the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of the N-terminus, which was detected by almost all antipodoplanin mAbs such as D2-40 or NZ-1. PMab-38 is expected to be useful for investigating the function of podoplanin in canine tumors.

  4. Perceptron Genetic to Recognize Openning Strategy Ruy Lopez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Zulfian; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    The application of Perceptron method is not effective for coding on hardware based systems because it is not real time learning. With Genetic algorithm approach in calculating and searching the best weight (fitness value) system will do learning only one iteration. And the results of this analysis were tested in the case of the introduction of the opening pattern of chess Ruy Lopez. The Analysis with Perceptron Model with Algorithm Approach Genetics from group Artificial Neural Network for open Ruy Lopez. The data is processed with base open chess, with step eight a position white Pion from end open chess. Using perceptron method have many input and one output process many weight and refraction until output equal goal. Data trained and test with software Matlab and system can recognize the chess opening Ruy Lopez or Not open Ruy Lopez with Real time.

  5. Parvovirus B19 VLP recognizes globoside in supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Nilsson, Jonas; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bally, Marta; Rydell, Gustaf E

    2014-05-01

    Studies have suggested that the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4Cer) is a receptor for human parvovirus B19. Virus-like particles bind to Gb4Cer on thin-layer chromatograms, but a direct interaction between the virus and lipid membrane-associated Gb4Cer has been debated. Here, we characterized the binding of parvovirus B19 VP1/VP2 virus-like particles to glycosphingolipids (i) on thin-layer chromatograms (TLCs) and (ii) incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) acting as cell-membrane mimics. The binding specificities of parvovirus B19 determined in the two systems were in good agreement; the VLP recognized both Gb4Cer and the Forssman glycosphingolipid on TLCs and in SLBs compatible with the role of Gb4Cer as a receptor for this virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer

  7. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  8. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Shanks

    Full Text Available Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals.Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367 in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526 in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively.The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study.

  9. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  10. Female False Positive Exercise Stress ECG Testing - Fact Verses Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Benjamin T; Scalia, William M; Scalia, Gregory M

    2018-03-07

    Exercise stress testing is a well validated cardiovascular investigation. Accuracy for treadmill stress electrocardiograph (ECG) testing has been documented at 60%. False positive stress ECGs (exercise ECG changes with non-obstructive disease on anatomical testing) are common, especially in women, limiting the effectiveness of the test. This study investigates the incidence and predictors of false positive stress ECG findings, referenced against stress echocardiography (SE) as a standard. Stress echocardiography was performed using the Bruce treadmill protocol. False positive stress ECG tests were defined as greater than 1mm of ST depression on ECG during exertion, without pain, with a normal SE. Potential causes for false positive tests were recorded before the test. Three thousand consecutive negative stress echocardiograms (1036 females, 34.5%) were analysed (age 59+/-14 years. False positive (F+) stress ECGs were documented in 565/3000 tests (18.8%). F+ stress ECGs were equally prevalent in females (194/1036, 18.7%) and males (371/1964, 18.9%, p=0.85 for the difference). Potential causes (hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, known coronary disease, arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease) were recorded in 36/194 (18.6%) of the female F+ ECG tests and 249/371 (68.2%) of the male F+ ECG tests (preinforce the value of stress imaging, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2010-04-02

    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  13. Lateralised sleep spindles relate to false memory generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John J; Monaghan, Padraic

    2017-12-01

    Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH. Sleep increased acceptance of unseen-lure words as previously seen compared to the wake group, particularly for RH presentations of word lists. RH lateralised stage 2 sleep spindle density relative to the LH correlated with this increase in false memories, suggesting that RH sleep spindles enhanced false memories in the RH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. False memory and importance: can we prioritize encoding without consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

    2013-10-01

    Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory.

  15. Emotion and false memory: The context-content paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2016-12-01

    False memories are influenced by a variety of factors, but emotion is a variable of special significance, for theoretical and practical reasons. Interestingly, emotion's effects on false memory depend on whether it is embedded in the content of to-be-remembered events or in our moods, where mood is an aspect of the context in which events are encoded. We sketch the theoretical basis for this content-context dissociation and then review accumulated evidence that content and context effects are indeed different. Paradoxically, we find that in experiments on spontaneous and implanted false memories, negatively valenced content foments distortion, but negatively valenced moods protect against it. In addition, correlational data show that enduring negative natural moods (e.g., depression) foment false memory. Current opponent-process models of false memory, such as fuzzy-trace theory, are able to explain the content-context dissociation: Variations in emotional content primarily affect memory for the gist of events, whereas variations in emotional context primarily affect memory for events' exact verbatim form. Important questions remain about how these effects are modulated by variations in memory tests and in arousal. Promising methods of tackling those questions are outlined, especially designs that separate the gist and verbatim influences of emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. False recognition of facial expressions of emotion: causes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Carrera, Pilar; Barchard, Kimberly A; Gacitua, Marta

    2008-08-01

    This article examines the importance of semantic processes in the recognition of emotional expressions, through a series of three studies on false recognition. The first study found a high frequency of false recognition of prototypical expressions of emotion when participants viewed slides and video clips of nonprototypical fearful and happy expressions. The second study tested whether semantic processes caused false recognition. The authors found that participants made significantly higher error rates when asked to detect expressions that corresponded to semantic labels than when asked to detect visual stimuli. Finally, given that previous research reported that false memories are less prevalent in younger children, the third study tested whether false recognition of prototypical expressions increased with age. The authors found that 67% of eight- to nine-year-old children reported nonpresent prototypical expressions of fear in a fearful context, but only 40% of 6- to 7-year-old children did so. Taken together, these three studies demonstrate the importance of semantic processes in the detection and categorization of prototypical emotional expressions.

  17. False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Foster, Katherine T; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controls incorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studied with pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotional compared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in early AD may impair recollection, but AD did not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Cassandra E; Howe, Mark L; Knott, Lauren

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that false-memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only been conducted to examine the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false-memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current study demonstrates that this effect goes beyond general negative or positive moods and acts at a more discrete emotional level. Participants underwent a standard emotion-induction procedure before listening to negative emotional or neutral associative word lists. The emotions induced, negative word lists, and associated nonpresented critical lures, were related to either fear or anger, 2 negative valence emotions that are also both high in arousal. Results showed that when valence and arousal are controlled for, false memories are more likely to be produced for discrete emotionally congruent compared with incongruent materials. These results support spreading activation theories of false remembering and add to our understanding of the adaptive nature of false-memory production. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Confabulation versus experimentally induced false memories in Korsakoff patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Géry

    2010-09-01

    The present study focuses on both the clinical symptom of confabulation and experimentally induced false memories in patients suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome. Despite the vast amount of case studies of confabulating patients and studies investigating false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the nature of Korsakoff patients' confabulatory behaviour and its association with DRM false memories have been rarely examined. Hence, the first aim of the present study was to evaluate confabulatory responses in a large sample of chronic Korsakoff patients and matched controls by means of the Dalla Barba Confabulation Battery. Second, the association between (provoked) confabulation and the patients' DRM false recognition performance was investigated. Korsakoff patients mainly confabulated in response to questions about episodic memory and questions to which the answer was unknown. A positive association was obtained between confabulation and the tendency to accept unstudied distractor words as being old in the DRM paradigm. On the other hand, there was a negative association between confabulation and false recognition of critical lures. The latter could be attributed to the importance of strategic retrieval at delayed memory testing.

  20. Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium ... tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as ... liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes.

  1. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  2. Reconstructing biochemical pathways from time course data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividhya, Jeyaraman; Crampin, Edmund J; McSharry, Patrick E; Schnell, Santiago

    2007-03-01

    Time series data on biochemical reactions reveal transient behavior, away from chemical equilibrium, and contain information on the dynamic interactions among reacting components. However, this information can be difficult to extract using conventional analysis techniques. We present a new method to infer biochemical pathway mechanisms from time course data using a global nonlinear modeling technique to identify the elementary reaction steps which constitute the pathway. The method involves the generation of a complete dictionary of polynomial basis functions based on the law of mass action. Using these basis functions, there are two approaches to model construction, namely the general to specific and the specific to general approach. We demonstrate that our new methodology reconstructs the chemical reaction steps and connectivity of the glycolytic pathway of Lactococcus lactis from time course experimental data.

  3. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  4. Optimal Information Processing in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Chris

    2012-02-01

    A variety of experimental results over the past decades provide examples of near-optimal information processing in biological networks, including in biochemical and transcriptional regulatory networks. Computing information-theoretic quantities requires first choosing or computing the joint probability distribution describing multiple nodes in such a network --- for example, representing the probability distribution of finding an integer copy number of each of two interacting reactants or gene products while respecting the `intrinsic' small copy number noise constraining information transmission at the scale of the cell. I'll given an overview of some recent analytic and numerical work facilitating calculation of such joint distributions and the associated information, which in turn makes possible numerical optimization of information flow in models of noisy regulatory and biochemical networks. Illustrating cases include quantification of form-function relations, ideal design of regulatory cascades, and response to oscillatory driving.

  5. Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: cognitive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Li, He; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi

    2010-07-01

    This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with measures of intelligence (measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), perception (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Change Blindness, and Tone Discrimination), memory (Wechsler Memory Scales and 2-back Working Memory tasks), and face judgement (Face Recognition and Facial Expression Recognition). These findings suggest that people with relatively low intelligence and poor perceptual abilities might be more susceptible to the misinformation effect.

  6. False memories with age: neural and cognitive underpinnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. PMID:27592332

  7. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sample Size Calculation for Controlling False Discovery Proportion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulian Shang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The false discovery proportion (FDP, the proportion of incorrect rejections among all rejections, is a direct measure of abundance of false positive findings in multiple testing. Many methods have been proposed to control FDP, but they are too conservative to be useful for power analysis. Study designs for controlling the mean of FDP, which is false discovery rate, have been commonly used. However, there has been little attempt to design study with direct FDP control to achieve certain level of efficiency. We provide a sample size calculation method using the variance formula of the FDP under weak-dependence assumptions to achieve the desired overall power. The relationship between design parameters and sample size is explored. The adequacy of the procedure is assessed by simulation. We illustrate the method using estimated correlations from a prostate cancer dataset.

  9. Diagnostic Invasiveness and Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, Bruno M.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We undertook a study to assess whether women with false-positivemammography have worse psychosocial consequences if managed with aworkup that involves a biopsy (invasive group) than if managed with only additional imaging (noninvasive group). METHODS: We performed subgroup analysis...... of a cohort study of 454 womenwith abnormal screening mammography and 908 matched control women withnormal results. Using a condition-specific questionnaire (Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer), we assessed 12 psychosocial consequences at 5 time points (0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 months after final diagnosis......) and compared the 2 groups of women with false-positives (invasive and noninvasive management groups). RESULTS: Among the 252 women with false-positive mammography eligible forthis study, psychosocial consequences were similar for those managed invasivelyand those managed noninvasively during the 36 months...

  10. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2008-01-01

    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  11. Some biochemical studies on thyroid immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoush, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced immunological environment on: a - Carbohydrate metabolism as reflected by immunoreactive insulin and blood sugar levels. b - Biochemical parameters, namely total protein, albumin, globulin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, reflecting liver function. c - Radioimmunological tests reflecting thyroid function. The study comprised 36 male rabbits, boscate strain of six months age assigned randomly to : control, albumin immunized and thyroglobulin immunized groups

  12. Biochemical composition and methane production correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Charnier, Cyrille; Latrille, Eric; Moscoviz, Roman; Miroux, Jérémie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Substrates for anaerobic digestion are composed of heterogeneous and complex organic matter. General parameters of the organic matter can be used to describe its composition such as sugar, protein and lipid contents, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and kinetic of methane production. These parameters are required for the monitoring of digesters but their characterization are time consuming and expensive; thus, these parameters are rarely assessed all together....

  13. Biochemical characterization of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, G E; Brinkley, A W; Mersinger, C L

    1980-01-01

    We characterized two isolates of cholesterol-reducing Eubacterium by conducting conventional biochemical tests and by testing various sterols and glycerolipids as potential growth factors. In media containing cholesterol and plasmenylethanolamine, the tests for nitrate reduction, indole production, and gelatin and starch hydrolyses were negative, and no acid was produced from any of 22 carbohydrates. Both isolates hydrolyzed esculin to esculetin, indicating beta-glycosidase activity. In addit...

  14. Biochemical changes in ginger after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, T.; Salahuddin; Pervaiz, K.; Niazi, A.H.K.

    2001-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinate) was irradiated with gamma rays (0.1Kgy, 1.0Kgy). Biochemical changes during storage at room temperature (23-28 degree centigrade), in sand (23-28 degree centigrade) and at cold (8 degree centigrade) temperature were observed. Changes in starch, soluble protein, fixed oil and volatile oil contents showed that treatment of ginger at 0.1Kgy radiation level was most appropriate for storage upto 45 days

  15. Psychosomatic disorders of gravida status: false and denied pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, William D; Nicolson, Stephen E

    2015-01-01

    The authors review the literature on two dramatic psychosomatic disorders of reproduction and offer a potential classification of pregnancy denial. Information on false and denied pregnancies is summarized by comparing the descriptions, differential diagnoses, epidemiology, patient characteristics, psychological factors, abdominal tone, and neuroendocrinology. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide is reviewed. False and denied pregnancies have fooled women, families, and doctors for centuries as the body obscures her true condition. Improvements in pregnancy testing have decreased reports of false pregnancy. However, recent data suggests 1/475 pregnancies are denied to 20 weeks, and 1/2455 may go undiagnosed to delivery. Factors that may contribute to the unconscious deception include abdominal muscle tone, persistent corpus luteum function, and reduced availability of biogenic amines in false pregnancy, and posture, fetal position, and corpus luteum insufficiency in denied pregnancy. For each condition, there are multiple reports in which the body reveals her true pregnancy status as soon as the woman is convinced of her diagnosis. Forensic literature on denied pregnancy focused on the woman's rejection of motherhood, while psychiatric studies have revealed that trauma and dissociation drive her denial. False pregnancy has firm grounding as a classic psychosomatic disorder. Pregnancy denial's association with neonaticide has led to misleading forensic data, which obscures the central role of trauma and dissociation. A reappraisal of pregnancy denial confirms it as the somatic inverse of false pregnancy. With that perspective, clinicians can help women understand their pregnancy status to avoid unexpected deliveries with tragic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    OpenAIRE

    Zeelenberg, René; Plomp, G.; Raaijmakers, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPresentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 ms to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by J.G. Seamon, C.R. Luo and D.A. Gallo (1998). Both in a within-subjects design (Experiment 1) and in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2) subjects showed memory for studied words as well as a false memory effect for related critical lures in the ...

  17. Exposure to suggestion and creation of false auditory memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, B; Nelson, E

    2000-02-01

    The experiment investigated the possibility of creating false auditory memory through exposure to suggestion. Research by Loftus and others has indicated that, through suggestion, false memories can be created. Participants viewed a short film and were given a 9-item questionnaire. Eight questions were used as filler while one question asked respondents to recall a phrase one character had said. Although the character actually said nothing, 23 of 30 respondents recalled having heard him speak and specifically recalled his words. This statistically significant result shows that auditory memories can also be created.

  18. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time

    OpenAIRE

    Knott, L.; Thorley, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and a...

  19. Effect of False Confidence on Asset Allocation Decisions of Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarn Chatterjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether false confidence, as characterized by a high level of personal mastery and a low level of intelligence (IQ, results in frequent investor trading and subsequent investor wealth erosion across time. Using the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY79, change in wealth and asset allocation across time is modeled as a function of various behavioral, socio-economic and demographic variables drawn from prior literature.  Findings of this research reveal that false confidence is indeed a predictor of trading activity in individual investment assets, and it also has a negative impact on individual wealth creation across time.

  20. Late time properties of a decaying false vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanowski, K.

    2014-01-01

    The false vacuum states are unstable and they decay by tunneling. Some of them may survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the instantaneous energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t 2 for t → ∞. (author)

  1. Diagnosis of false proximal anastomosis aneurysms after aortofemoral reconstructive operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovskij, A.V.; Dan, V.N.; Karazeev, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with the diagnostic aspects of false aneurysms of proximal anastomosis of prostheses with the aorta on the basis of examination of 9 patients aged 3-65 years after aortofemoral reconstructive operations. The periods of the occurrence of false aneurysms were 2 weeks to 6 years. The causes of anastomosis aneurysms: infection, endartectomy fro the aorta at the site of applied anastomosis, progressive underlying disease. The authors provide strong evidence for a high informative value of various examinations, including ultrasound echoscanning, computer tomography, radioopaque aortography

  2. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    . A subset of these halo CMEs did not cause a geomagnetic storm the following four days and have therefore been considered as false alarms. The properties of these events are investigated and discussed here. Their statistics are compared to the geo-effective CMEs. The ability to identify potential false......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are known to cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, not all CMEs will trigger geomagnetic storms, even if they are heading towards the Earth. In this study, front side halo CMEs with speed larger than 500 km/s have been identified from the SOHO LASCO catalogue...

  3. Biochemical Factors Modulating Cellular Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvinder Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg, an environmental toxicant primarily found in fish and seafood, poses a dilemma to both consumers and regulatory authorities, given the nutritional benefits of fish consumption versus the possible adverse neurological damage. Several studies have shown that MeHg toxicity is influenced by a number of biochemical factors, such as glutathione (GSH, fatty acids, vitamins, and essential elements, but the cellular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this paper is to outline the cellular response to dietary nutrients, as well as to describe the neurotoxic exposures to MeHg. In order to determine the cellular mechanism(s of toxicity, the effect of pretreatment with biochemical factors (e.g., N-acetyl cysteine, (NAC; diethyl maleate, (DEM; docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA; selenomethionine, SeM; Trolox and MeHg treatment on intercellular antioxidant status, MeHg content, and other endpoints was evaluated. This paper emphasizes that the protection against oxidative stress offered by these biochemical factors is among one of the major mechanisms responsible for conferring neuroprotection. It is therefore critical to ascertain the cellular mechanisms associated with various dietary nutrients as well as to determine the potential effects of neurotoxic exposures for accurately assessing the risks and benefits associated with fish consumption.

  4. Multidimensional biochemical information processing of dynamical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    Cells receive signaling molecules by receptors and relay information via sensory networks so that they can respond properly depending on the type of signal. Recent studies have shown that cells can extract multidimensional information from dynamical concentration patterns of signaling molecules. We herein study how biochemical systems can process multidimensional information embedded in dynamical patterns. We model the decoding networks by linear response functions, and optimize the functions with the calculus of variations to maximize the mutual information between patterns and output. We find that, when the noise intensity is lower, decoders with different linear response functions, i.e., distinct decoders, can extract much information. However, when the noise intensity is higher, distinct decoders do not provide the maximum amount of information. This indicates that, when transmitting information by dynamical patterns, embedding information in multiple patterns is not optimal when the noise intensity is very large. Furthermore, we explore the biochemical implementations of these decoders using control theory and demonstrate that these decoders can be implemented biochemically through the modification of cascade-type networks, which are prevalent in actual signaling pathways.

  5. Explorations into Chemical Reactions and Biochemical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-12-01

    A brief overview of the work in the research group of the present author on extracting knowledge from chemical reaction data is presented. Methods have been developed to calculate physicochemical effects at the reaction site. It is shown that these physicochemical effects can quite favourably be used to derive equations for the calculation of data on gas phase reactions and on reactions in solution such as aqueous acidity of alcohols or carboxylic acids or the hydrolysis of amides. Furthermore, it is shown that these physicochemical effects are quite effective for assigning reactions into reaction classes that correspond to chemical knowledge. Biochemical reactions constitute a particularly interesting and challenging task for increasing our understanding of living species. The BioPath.Database is a rich source of information on biochemical reactions and has been used for a variety of applications of chemical, biological, or medicinal interests. Thus, it was shown that biochemical reactions can be assigned by the physicochemical effects into classes that correspond to the classification of enzymes by the EC numbers. Furthermore, 3D models of reaction intermediates can be used for searching for novel enzyme inhibitors. It was shown in a combined application of chemoinformatics and bioinformatics that essential pathways of diseases can be uncovered. Furthermore, a study showed that bacterial flavor-forming pathways can be discovered. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Pediatric rheumatology: An under-recognized subspecialty in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Kavirayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatrics in India at the levels of both undergraduate and postgraduate training is often viewed upon as an acute disease specialty with little emphasis on chronic medical musculoskeletal diseases. Pediatric rheumatology is an under-recognized subspecialty of pediatrics which deals specifically with childhood arthritis, noninflammatory joint pains, connective tissue diseases, autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, and other rare inflammatory disorders. This article aims to give a bird's eye view of the repertoire of commonly encountered problems seen by a pediatric rheumatologist, via a classical case vignette for each topic followed by discussion. There is also mention of some rare diseases managed within pediatric rheumatology to give a flavor of the spectrum of diseases encountered. This is to raise awareness of the importance of pediatric rheumatology as a subspecialty within India and to prompt readers to seek specialist advice when encountering challenging cases. Pediatric rheumatologists network and work collaboratively with many other specialties such as ophthalmology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, nephrology, infectious diseases, immunology, and gastroenterology for combined care of diverse conditions. There is an unmet need in India to develop a training program for pediatric rheumatology so that shared care pathways with sensitized pediatricians and other specialists can be developed nationwide, to serve these children better to achieve optimal outcomes.

  7. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  8. Recognizing genes and other components of genomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Myers, E. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Stormo, G.D. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (USA). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)

    1991-01-01

    The Aspen Center for Physics (ACP) sponsored a three-week workshop, with 26 scientists participating, from 28 May to 15 June, 1990. The workshop, entitled Recognizing Genes and Other Components of Genomic Structure, focussed on discussion of current needs and future strategies for developing the ability to identify and predict the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. No participant stayed for less than one week, and most attended for two or three weeks. Computers, software, and databases were available for use as electronic blackboards'' and as the basis for collaborative exploration of ideas being discussed and developed at the workshop. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Recognizing emotions from EEG subbands using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, Henry; Yuwono, Mitchell; Handojoseno, Ardi; Chai, Rifai; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-01-01

    Objectively recognizing emotions is a particularly important task to ensure that patients with emotional symptoms are given the appropriate treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an emotion recognition system using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to identify four emotions including happy, sad, angry, and relaxed. We approached this objective by firstly investigating the relevant EEG frequency band followed by deciding the appropriate feature extraction method. Two features were considered namely: 1. Wavelet Energy, and 2. Wavelet Entropy. EEG Channels reduction was then implemented to reduce the complexity of the features. The ground truth emotional states of each subject were inferred using Russel's circumplex model of emotion, that is, by mapping the subjectively reported degrees of valence (pleasure) and arousal to the appropriate emotions - for example, an emotion with high valence and high arousal is equivalent to a `happy' emotional state, while low valence and low arousal is equivalent to a `sad' emotional state. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was then used for mapping each feature vector into corresponding discrete emotions. The results presented in this study indicated thatWavelet features extracted from alpha, beta and gamma bands seem to provide the necessary information for describing the aforementioned emotions. Using the DEAP (Dataset for Emotion Analysis using electroencephalogram, Physiological and Video Signals), our proposed method achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 77.4% ± 14.1% and 69.1% ± 12.8%, respectively.

  10. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  11. A deep convolutional neural network for recognizing foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani Heravi, Elnaz; Habibi Aghdam, Hamed; Puig, Domenec

    2015-12-01

    Controlling the food intake is an efficient way that each person can undertake to tackle the obesity problem in countries worldwide. This is achievable by developing a smartphone application that is able to recognize foods and compute their calories. State-of-art methods are chiefly based on hand-crafted feature extraction methods such as HOG and Gabor. Recent advances in large-scale object recognition datasets such as ImageNet have revealed that deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) possess more representation power than the hand-crafted features. The main challenge with CNNs is to find the appropriate architecture for each problem. In this paper, we propose a deep CNN which consists of 769; 988 parameters. Our experiments show that the proposed CNN outperforms the state-of-art methods and improves the best result of traditional methods 17%. Moreover, using an ensemble of two CNNs that have been trained two different times, we are able to improve the classification performance 21:5%.

  12. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  13. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  14. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn2+ and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn2+. The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  15. Response of False horn plantain to different plant densities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was carried out at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, from April 1992 to March 1995, aimed at determining (i) the optimum plant density of False horn plantain for maximum yield, and (ii) the optimum frequency of handweeding for economic returns. Results indicated that the optimum plant density ...

  16. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  17. False-positive results in pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezin, Julien; Bosco-Levy, Pauline; Pariente, Antoine

    2017-09-01

    False-positive constitute an important issue in scientific research. In the domain of drug evaluation, it affects all phases of drug development and assessment, from the very early preclinical studies to the late post-marketing evaluations. The core concern associated with this false-positive is the lack of replicability of the results. Aside from fraud or misconducts, false-positive is often envisioned from the statistical angle, which considers them as a price to pay for type I error in statistical testing, and its inflation in the context of multiple testing. If envisioning this problematic in the context of pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance however, that both evaluate drugs in an observational settings, information brought by statistical testing and the significance of such should only be considered as additional to the estimates provided and their confidence interval, in a context where differences have to be a clinically meaningful upon everything, and the results appear robust to the biases likely to have affected the studies. In the following article, we consequently illustrate these biases and their consequences in generating false-positive results, through studies and associations between drug use and health outcomes that have been widely disputed. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. APHRODITE: an Anomaly-based Architecture for False Positive Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro

    We present APHRODITE, an architecture designed to reduce false positives in network intrusion detection systems. APHRODITE works by detecting anomalies in the output traffic, and by correlating them with the alerts raised by the NIDS working on the input traffic. Benchmarks show a substantial

  19. A Screening Mechanism Differentiating True from False Pain during Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Lin, Xiao-Xiao; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2017-09-13

    Empathizing with another's suffering is important in social interactions. Empathic behavior is selectively elicited from genuine, meaningful pain but not from fake, meaningless scenarios. However, the brain's screening mechanism of false information from meaningful events and the time course for the screening process remains unclear. Using EEG combined with principle components analysis (PCA) techniques, here we compared temporal neurodynamics between the observation of pain and no-pain pictures as well as between true (painful expressions and needle-penetrated arms) and false (needle-penetrated faces with neutral expressions) pain pictures. The results revealed that pain vs. no-pain information is differentiated in the very early ERP components, i.e., the N1/P1 for the face and arm pictures categories and the VPP/N170 for the facial expression category while the mid-latency ERP components, N2 and P3, played key roles in differentiating true from false situations. The complex of N2 and P3 components may serve as a screening mechanism through which observers allocate their attentions to more important or relevant events and screen out false environmental information. This is the first study to describe and provide a time course of the screening process during pain empathy. These findings shed new light on the understanding of empathic processing.

  20. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Derbish, Mary H

    2010-05-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-related information and processing was examined using word lists containing backward associates of neutral, negative, and survival-related critical lures and type of processing (pleasantness, moving, survival) was varied using an incidental memory paradigm. Across four experiments, results showed that survival-related words were more susceptible than negative and neutral words to the false memory illusion and that processing information in terms of its relevance to survival independently increased this susceptibility to the false memory illusion. Overall, although survival-related processing and survival-related information resulted in poorer, not more accurate, memory, such inaccuracies may have adaptive significance. These findings are discussed in the context of false memory research and recent theories concerning the importance of survival processing and the nature of adaptive memory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  2. False consensus in situational judgment tests : What would others do?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, J.K.; Köbis, N.C.; Ronay, R.; Cremers, M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an alternative response instruction to reduce the fakability of situational judgment tests. This novel instruction is based on the false consensus effect, a robust social psychological bias whereby people infer that the majority of other people’s thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors are

  3. The False Consensus Bias as Applied to Psychologically Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve adolescents who described themselves as depressed or suicidal and 43 nondisturbed adolescents read article about child's suicidal or viral illness death. Both groups viewed suicidal child and family more negatively than family and child with viral illness. Consistent with false consensus hypothesis, psychologically disturbed adolescents…

  4. Attributions, false consensus and valence: two field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.

    1984-01-01

    Two studies, with 1,056 Ss, investigated attitudes, knowledge, and behavior with regard to several environmental issues. Findings demonstrate that observers tend to perceive a false consensus with respect to the relative commonness of their own behavioral choices. This phenomenon was replicated

  5. A Computerized Demonstration of the False Consensus Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Russell W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Replicates a classic psychology laboratory experiment where students either endorsed or refuted personal statements and estimated how other people would respond. Students always overestimated an affirmative response on the statements they endorsed, thus illustrating the false consensus effect. Includes a list of the statements and statistical…

  6. Transient medial prefrontal perturbation reduces false memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkers, R.M.W.J.; Linden, M.H. van der; Almeida, R.F. de; Müller, N.C.J.; Bovy, L.; Dresler, M.; Morris, R.G.M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott

  7. Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

  8. Forward Association, Backward Association, and the False-Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Wright, Ron

    2005-01-01

    In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range…

  9. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring.

  10. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  11. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zeelenberg (René); G. Plomp; J.G.W. Raaijmakers (Jeroen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPresentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 ms to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by J.G. Seamon, C.R. Luo and D.A. Gallo (1998). Both in

  12. False Memories for Shape Activate the Lateral Occipital Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M.; Slotnick, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has shown that false memories arise from higher-level conscious processing regions rather than lower-level sensory processing regions. In the present study, we assessed whether the lateral occipital complex (LOC)--a lower-level conscious shape processing region--was associated with false…

  13. Activation of Imaginal Information on True and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou; Pierce, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the activation of imaginal information on true and false memories. Participants studied a series of concrete objects in pictures or words. The imagery group (n = 96) was instructed to form images and the control group (n = 96) was not instructed to do so. Both groups were then given a standard recognition memory test and…

  14. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Plomp, G.; Zeelenberg, R.

    2003-01-01

    Presentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998). Both in a within-subjects design

  15. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  16. A Demonstration of Regression False Positive Selection in Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Business analytics courses, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, have substantial predictive modeling components. The predictive modeling in these courses requires students to estimate and test many linear regressions. As a result, false positive variable selection ("type I errors") is…

  17. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Magidson, Tali; Gross, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    canonized as fact. Data-dredging, p-hacking, and similar behaviors exacerbate the problem. Should negative results become easier to publish as a claim approaches acceptance as a fact, however, true and false claims would be more readily distinguished. To the degree that the model reflects the real world...

  18. False Advertising and Antitrust Law: Sometimes the Twain Should Meet

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Colbath; Nadezhda Nikonova

    2014-01-01

    Although it is easier to bring a false advertising claim under the Lanham Act than under the Sherman Act, the Lanham Act’s available remedies are not as robust. Bruce Colbath & Nadezhda Nikonova (Sheppard Mullin)

  19. Teacher Education and the Enduring Significance of "False Empathy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.; Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The concept "False Empathy" posited by critical race theory luminary Richard Delgado ("Calif Law Rev" 84(1):61-100, 1996) easily obscures White teacher's good intentions to be effective educators of racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students. It is argued here that critical race theory is useful for isolating and…

  20. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  1. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated...

  2. The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bower, Gordon H

    2004-11-01

    The current research investigated one possible mechanism underlying false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, participants who study lists of related words (e.g., "table, sitting, bench ...") frequently report detailed memories for the centrally related but non-presented critical lure (e.g., "chair"). One possibility is that participants covertly call to mind the critical non-presented lure during the study phase, and later misattribute memory for this internally generated event to its external presentation. To investigate this, the DRM paradigm was modified to allow collection of on-line thoughts during the study phase. False recognition increased following generation during study. False recognition also increased following study of longer lists; this effect was partially explained by the fact that longer lists were more likely to elicit generations of the critical lure during study. Generation of the lure during study contributes to later false recognition, although it does not explain the entire effect.

  3. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  4. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A

    2016-01-01

    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  5. Two-headed butterfly vs. mantis: do false antennae matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania G. López-Palafox

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The colour patterns and morphological peculiarities of the hindwings of several butterfly species result in the appearance of a head at the rear end of the insect’s body. Although some experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the “false head” deflects predator attacks towards the rear end of the butterfly, more research is needed to determine the role of the different components of the “false head”. We explored the role of hindwing tails (presumably mimicking antennae in predator deception in the “false head” butterfly Callophrys xami. We exposed butterflies with intact wings and with hindwing tails experimentally ablated to female mantises (Stagmomantis limbata. We found no differences in the number of butterflies being attacked and the number of butterflies escaping predation between both groups. However, our behavioural observations indicate that other aspects of the “false head” help C. xami survive some mantis attacks, supporting the notion that they are adaptations against predators.

  6. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  7. Older (but Not Younger) Siblings Facilitate False Belief Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Perner, Josef; Naito, Mika; Parkin, Lindsay; Clements, Wendy A.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments and an analysis of pooled data from English and Japanese children show a linear increase in understanding false beliefs with number of older siblings; no such effect for children younger than 38 months; no helpful effect of younger siblings at any age; no effect of siblings' gender; and no helpful effect of siblings on a source…

  8. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to...

  9. Evaluation of false positivity and cross reactivity in the investigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the causes of false positive Human Immunodeficiency Virus test results (F+HIV), cross reactivity of HIV antibodies with other non HIV antibodies, and efficiency of the serial and parallel testing algorithms. 100 blood samples randomly collected from clients attending the Heart to Heart HIV counseling and ...

  10. Problems with a False Recognition Paradigm for Developmental Memory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Barbara K.; Paris, Scott G.

    1976-01-01

    Developmental changes in memory organization based on synonym and antonym relationships were examined in three experiments. Subjects were 64 second graders and 64 sixth graders. Some inadequacies of a false recognition paradigm for developmental research are identified and some alternative analyses are proposed. (Author/JH)

  11. A false case of infection caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rossi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a false case of infection caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a cosmopolite trematode that can infect human bile ducts but tends to live in cattle or other grazing mammals. Our aim is to stress the relevance of adequate diagnostic methods and of exact medical history in order to detect any possible clinical case.

  12. Facebook False Self-Presentation Behaviors and Negative Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; White, Katherine M; Obst, Patricia L

    2018-01-01

    As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e.g., untruthful status updates, profile creation) and liking behaviors (e.g., liking posts dishonestly), each associated with different predictors and outcomes. Results indicated that moral norms significantly predicted lying behaviors; and age, self-esteem, group norms, and moral norms significantly predicted liking behaviors. Unexpectedly, liking behaviors were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas lying behaviors were related to anxiety only. Findings highlight associations between online self-presentation strategies, in particular liking behaviors, on Facebook and possible offline negative mental health.

  13. Educational Needs and Causes of False Diagnosis of Atypical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The entity of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in The Bethesda System 2001 for reporting cervical cytology is characterized by equivocal diagnosis, poor reproducibility and debatable management. This retrospective study was done to analyse the causes of false ASCUS if any and identify the ...

  14. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J

    2018-02-01

    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  15. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  16. Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

    2014-11-01

    Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  18. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  19. On the Adaptive Design Rules of Biochemical Networks in Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical networks are the backbones of physiological systems of organisms. Therefore, a biochemical network should be sufficiently robust (not sensitive to tolerate genetic mutations and environmental changes in the evolutionary process. In this study, based on the robustness and sensitivity criteria of biochemical networks, the adaptive design rules are developed for natural selection in the evolutionary process. This will provide insights into the robust adaptive mechanism of biochemical networks in the evolutionary process. We find that if a mutated biochemical network satisfies the robustness and sensitivity criteria of natural selection, there is a high probability for the biochemical network to prevail during natural selection in the evolutionary process. Since there are various mutated biochemical networks that can satisfy these criteria but have some differences in phenotype, the biochemical networks increase their diversities in the evolutionary process. The robustness of a biochemical network enables co-option so that new phenotypes can be generated in evolution. The proposed robust adaptive design rules of natural selection gain much insight into the evolutionary mechanism and provide a systematic robust biochemical circuit design method of biochemical networks for biotechnological and therapeutic purposes in the future.

  20. Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS: software for stochastic modeling of biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Timothy C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intrinsic fluctuations due to the stochastic nature of biochemical reactions can have large effects on the response of biochemical networks. This is particularly true for pathways that involve transcriptional regulation, where generally there are two copies of each gene and the number of messenger RNA (mRNA molecules can be small. Therefore, there is a need for computational tools for developing and investigating stochastic models of biochemical networks. Results We have developed the software package Biochemical Network Stochastic Simulator (BioNetS for efficientlyand accurately simulating stochastic models of biochemical networks. BioNetS has a graphical user interface that allows models to be entered in a straightforward manner, and allows the user to specify the type of random variable (discrete or continuous for each chemical species in the network. The discrete variables are simulated using an efficient implementation of the Gillespie algorithm. For the continuous random variables, BioNetS constructs and numerically solvesthe appropriate chemical Langevin equations. The software package has been developed to scale efficiently with network size, thereby allowing large systems to be studied. BioNetS runs as a BioSpice agent and can be downloaded from http://www.biospice.org. BioNetS also can be run as a stand alone package. All the required files are accessible from http://x.amath.unc.edu/BioNetS. Conclusions We have developed BioNetS to be a reliable tool for studying the stochastic dynamics of large biochemical networks. Important features of BioNetS are its ability to handle hybrid models that consist of both continuous and discrete random variables and its ability to model cell growth and division. We have verified the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods by considering several test systems.

  1. Anatomy of a wrong diagnosis: false Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montresor Graziano

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In contrast with transthoracic echocardiography, transesophageal echocardiography provides a sure way to make the diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect; on the other hand this abnormality is more complex than that seen with the secundum atrial septal defect, and inexperienced operators may fail to recognize properly the defect. In front of a high reported sensitivity using transesophageal echocardiography, specificity is difficult to assess, due to possible underreporting of diagnostic errors. We describe a false positive diagnosis of sinus venosus atrial septal defect, in the setting of enlarged right chambers of the heart because of pressure overload. Modified anatomy of the heart, together with the presence of a prominent linear structure(probably Eustachian Valve and an incomplete examination in this case made image interpretation very prone to misinterpretation. In this anatomical setting transesophageal longitudinal "bicaval" view may be sub-optimal for examining the atrial septum, potentially showing false images that need to be known for correct image interpretation. Nonetheless, a scan plane taken more accurately at the superior level would have demonstrated/excluded the pathognomonic feature of sinus venosus atrial septal defect in the high atrial septum, between the fatty limbus and the inferior aspect of the right pulmonary artery; moreover TEE allows morphological information about the posterior structures of the heart that need to be investigated in detail for a complete diagnosis.

  2. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  3. Mood-congruent false memories persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Lauren M; Thorley, Craig

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of mood-congruency and retention interval on the false recognition of emotion laden items using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Previous research has shown a mood-congruent false memory enhancement during immediate recognition tasks. The present study examined the persistence of this effect following a one-week delay. Participants were placed in a negative or neutral mood, presented with negative-emotion and neutral-emotion DRM word lists, and administered with both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Results showed that a negative mood state increased remember judgments for negative-emotion critical lures, in comparison to neutral-emotion critical lures, on both immediate and delayed testing. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of spreading activation and emotion-enhanced memory, with consideration of the applied forensic implications of such findings.

  4. Chernobyl, the true, the false and the uncertain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This work makes the part between the true and the false information in France about the Chernobyl accident that have been read in different newspapers during the last years. This document is divide in three parts: what is true, what is false, what is uncertain. In each part are noticed extracts from newspapers face to the synthesis of thoughts about them. It is the fourth edition, the first one was in April 1990, the second one was in 1992 after a report from IAEA on the radiological consequences, the third edition was born in 1994 with the emergence of thyroid cancers especially among children, this fourth edition of 1996 takes into account the sanitary report given by the World Health Organisation experts in 1995. It confirms the progression of thyroid cancers and the absence of any other cancer as well leukemia. (N.C.)

  5. Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.

  6. False memory and the associative network of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Minkyung; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-02-01

    This research examines the relationship between individuals' levels of life satisfaction and their associative networks of happiness. Study 1 measured European Americans' degree of false memory of happiness using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Scores on the Satisfaction With Life Scale predicted the likelihood of false memory of happiness but not of other lure words such as sleep . In Study 2, European American participants completed an association-judgment task in which they judged the extent to which happiness and each of 15 positive emotion terms were associated with each other. Consistent with Study 1's findings, chronically satisfied individuals exhibited stronger associations between happiness and other positive emotion terms than did unsatisfied individuals. However, Koreans and Asian Americans did not exhibit such a pattern regarding their chronic level of life satisfaction (Study 3). In combination, results suggest that there are important individual and cultural differences in the cognitive structure and associative network of happiness.

  7. [False traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, M; Talha, H; El Idrissi, R; Lahraoui, Y; Ouazzani, L; Oubejja, H; Erraji, M; Zerhouni, H; Ettayebi, F

    2014-12-01

    Most aneurysms of hand arteries are traumatic. It is a generally rare unrecognized pathology. Complications are serious (embolism and thromboses of interdigital arteries). Two main causes can be recalled: acute trauma, with development of a false aneurysm; repeated microtrauma (hand hammer syndrome), with occurrence of an arterial dysplasic aneurysm. The diagnosis is based on the presence of a pulsatile mass, with finger dysesthesia, unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. It is confirmed by duplex Doppler. Arteriography is necessary but can be replaced by an angio-MR. We report a case of false traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager. This case illustrates this rare condition and opens discussion on therapeutic options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical Markers for Assessing Aquatic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers, specifically enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotic transformation - cytochrome P450 and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD - were used to determine the quantities of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in fish muscle (PCB, HCB, HCH, OCS, DDT. Eight rivers were monitored (Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina; and the River Blanice was used as a control. The indicator species selected was the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.. There were no significant differences in cytochrome P450 content between the locations monitored. The highest concentration of cytochrome P450 in fish liver was in the Vltava (0.241 nmol mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (0.120 nmol mg-1 protein. Analysis of EROD activity showed a significant difference between the Blanice and the Vltava (P< 0.05, and also between the Orlice and the Vltava (P< 0.01, the Orlice and the Bílina (P< 0.01, and the Orlice and the Ohře (P< 0.05. The highest EROD activity in fish liver was in the Vltava (576.4 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein, and the lowest was in the Orlice (63.05 pmol min-1 mg-1 protein. In individual locations, results of chemical monitoring and values of biochemical markers were compared. A significant correlation (P< 0.05 was found between biochemical markers and OCS, and PCB. Among the tributaries studied those that contaminated the Elbe most were the Vltava and the Bílina. These tributaries should not be considered the main sources of industrial contamination of the River Elbe, because the most important contamination sources were along the river Elbe itself.

  9. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  10. On the susceptibility of adaptive memory to false memory illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Derbish, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that survival-related processing of word lists enhances retention for that material. However, the claim that survival-related memories are more accurate has only been examined when true recall and recognition of neutral material has been measured. In the current experiments, we examined the adaptive memory superiority effect for different types of processing and material, measuring accuracy more directly by comparing true and false recollection rates. Survival-rela...

  11. False Balance in Climate Change Reporting Among TV Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Maibach, E.; Boykoff, M.; Broeckelman-Post, M.; Myers, T.; Perkins, D. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    False balance is the journalistic practice of giving equal weight to both sides of a story, regardless of an established truth and validity on one side. Despite widespread scientific agreement about the anthropogenic causes of climate change, false balance on the subject of climate change remains common in television despite a documented decline in other media. In this exploratory study, 452 American TV meteorologists were surveyed about their climate change beliefs and asked how often and why they present an opposing viewpoint when they present about human contributions to climate change. The results indicate that this practice is fairly common, with nearly 30% of TV meteorologists presenting an opposing viewpoint at least half the time or more frequently when they present about climate change. Weathercasters described including an opposing viewpoint in their stories for many different reasons, including that it is essential to objective and balanced reporting, that it is used to acknowledge different audience viewpoints, and because the science is perceived to be uncertain. The results also suggest that being more certain that climate change is happening, that it is primarily caused by humans, and perceiving the full extent of the scientific consensus about human-caused climate change, are associated with decreased frequency of presenting an opposing viewpoint. This is the first time the issue of false balance has been studied in the context of TV weathercasters, and while more research is needed, these results provide some preliminary evidence to suggest that increasing weathercasters' understanding of the scientific consensus of human caused climate change may help reduce false balance reporting. Furthermore, as meteorologists and weathercasters become more prominent reporters of local climate news, it will be important for them to have techniques to accurately report the science, while maintaining their sense of objectivity.

  12. The False Consensus Effect: Deconstruction and Reconstruction of an Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Engelmann; Martin Strobel

    2004-01-01

    We present a striking example of the deconstruction and reconstruction or an anomaly. In line with previous experiments we show in a one-shot setting that the allegedly robust false consensus effect disappears if representative information is readily available. But the effect reappears if a small cognitive effort is required to retrieve the information. Most subjects apparently ignore valuable information if it is not handed to them on a silver platter. We conclude that the relevance of the f...

  13. Neural Global Pattern Similarity Underlies True and False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhifang; Zhu, Bi; Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-22

    The neural processes giving rise to human memory strength signals remain poorly understood. Inspired by formal computational models that posit a central role of global matching in memory strength, we tested a novel hypothesis that the strengths of both true and false memories arise from the global similarity of an item's neural activation pattern during retrieval to that of all the studied items during encoding (i.e., the encoding-retrieval neural global pattern similarity [ER-nGPS]). We revealed multiple ER-nGPS signals that carried distinct information and contributed differentially to true and false memories: Whereas the ER-nGPS in the parietal regions reflected semantic similarity and was scaled with the recognition strengths of both true and false memories, ER-nGPS in the visual cortex contributed solely to true memory. Moreover, ER-nGPS differences between the parietal and visual cortices were correlated with frontal monitoring processes. By combining computational and neuroimaging approaches, our results advance a mechanistic understanding of memory strength in recognition. What neural processes give rise to memory strength signals, and lead to our conscious feelings of familiarity? Using fMRI, we found that the memory strength of a given item depends not only on how it was encoded during learning, but also on the similarity of its neural representation with other studied items. The global neural matching signal, mainly in the parietal lobule, could account for the memory strengths of both studied and unstudied items. Interestingly, a different global matching signal, originated from the visual cortex, could distinguish true from false memories. The findings reveal multiple neural mechanisms underlying the memory strengths of events registered in the brain. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366792-11$15.00/0.

  14. Patterns of False Memory in Patients with Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Wen; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Wu, Yih-Ru; Hua, Mau-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Increased false memory recognition in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) has been widely reported; however, the underlying memory constructive processes remain unclear. The present study explored gist memory, item-specific memory, and monitoring ability in patients with HD. Twenty-five patients (including 13 patients with mild HD and 12 patients with moderate-to-severe HD) and 30 healthy comparison participants (HC) were recruited. We used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to investigate participants' false recognition patterns, along with neuropsychological tests to assess general cognitive function. Both mild and moderate-to-severe patients with HD showed significant executive functioning and episodic memory impairment. On the DRM tasks, both HD patient groups showed significantly impaired performance in tasks assessing unrelated false recognition and item-specific memory as compared to the HC group; moderate-to-severe patients performed more poorly than mild patients did. Only moderate-severe patients exhibited significantly poorer related false recognition index scores than HCs in the verbal DRM task; performance of HD patient groups was comparable to the HC group on the pictorial DRM task. It appears that diminished verbatim memory and monitoring ability are early signs of cognitive decline during the HD course. Conversely, gist memory is relatively robust, with only partial decline during advanced-stage HD. Our findings suggest that medial temporal lobe function is relatively preserved compared to that of frontal-related structures in early HD. Thus, gist-based memory rehabilitation programs might be beneficial for patients with HD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  16. Age-related changes in False Recognition: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    Episodic memory function is well known to decline with age and there is evidence to suggest seniors prone to forget events compared to younger adults (Aizpurua & Koutstaal, 2010). What’s more, seniors are inclined to falsely ‘remember’ events which did not happen. For example, seniors are more affected by misleading post-event information (e.g. lures), remembering that information as having occurred alongside the original event (Roediger & Geraci, 2007; Chan & McDermott, 2007; Koutstaal, 2006...

  17. False coronary dissection with the new Monorail angioplasty balloon catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugas, E; Cequier, A R; Sabaté, X; Jara, F

    1990-01-01

    During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, the appearance of persistent staining in the vessel by contrast media suggests coronary dissection. We report seven patients in whom a false image of severe coronary dissection was observed during angioplasty performed with the new Monorail balloon catheter. This image emerges at the moment of balloon inflation, is distally located to the balloon, and disappears with balloon catheter deflation. No complications were associated with the appearance of this image.

  18. Detecting false positive sequence homology: a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M Stanley; Suvorov, Anton; Jensen, Nicholas O; Clement, Mark J; Bybee, Seth M

    2016-02-24

    Accurate detection of homologous relationships of biological sequences (DNA or amino acid) amongst organisms is an important and often difficult task that is essential to various evolutionary studies, ranging from building phylogenies to predicting functional gene annotations. There are many existing heuristic tools, most commonly based on bidirectional BLAST searches that are used to identify homologous genes and combine them into two fundamentally distinct classes: orthologs and paralogs. Due to only using heuristic filtering based on significance score cutoffs and having no cluster post-processing tools available, these methods can often produce multiple clusters constituting unrelated (non-homologous) sequences. Therefore sequencing data extracted from incomplete genome/transcriptome assemblies originated from low coverage sequencing or produced by de novo processes without a reference genome are susceptible to high false positive rates of homology detection. In this paper we develop biologically informative features that can be extracted from multiple sequence alignments of putative homologous genes (orthologs and paralogs) and further utilized in context of guided experimentation to verify false positive outcomes. We demonstrate that our machine learning method trained on both known homology clusters obtained from OrthoDB and randomly generated sequence alignments (non-homologs), successfully determines apparent false positives inferred by heuristic algorithms especially among proteomes recovered from low-coverage RNA-seq data. Almost ~42 % and ~25 % of predicted putative homologies by InParanoid and HaMStR respectively were classified as false positives on experimental data set. Our process increases the quality of output from other clustering algorithms by providing a novel post-processing method that is both fast and efficient at removing low quality clusters of putative homologous genes recovered by heuristic-based approaches.

  19. False-vacuum decay in generalized extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Wang Yun; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL; Vadas, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    We study false-vacuum decay in the context of generalized extended inflationary theories, and compute the bubble nucleation rates for these theories in the limit of G N →0. We find that the time dependence of the nucleation rate can be exponentially strong through the time dependence of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field. This can have a pronounced effect on whether extended inflation can be succesfully implemented. (orig.)

  20. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient medial prefrontal perturbation reduces false memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkers, Ruud M W J; van der Linden, Marieke; de Almeida, Rafael F; Müller, Nils C J; Bovy, Leonore; Dresler, Martin; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where the studying of words that fit a common semantic schema are found to induce false memories for words that are congruent with the given schema, but were not studied. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been ascribed the function of leveraging prior knowledge to influence encoding and retrieval, based on imaging and patient studies. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to transiently perturb ongoing mPFC processing immediately before participants performed the DRM-task. We observed the predicted reduction in false recall of critical lures after mPFC perturbation, compared to two control groups, whereas veridical recall and recognition memory performance remained similar across groups. These data provide initial causal evidence for a role of the mPFC in biasing the assimilation of new memories and their consolidation as a function of prior knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  3. The false spring of 2012, earliest in North American record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, T.R.; Henebry, G.M.; de Beurs, K. M.; Schwartz, M.D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Moore, David

    2013-01-01

    Phenology - the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate - is becoming an essential tool for documenting, communicating, and anticipating the consequences of climate variability and change. For example, March 2012 broke numerous records for warm temperatures and early flowering in the United States [Karl et al., 2012; Elwood et al., 2013]. Many regions experienced a “false spring,” a period of weather in late winter or early spring sufficiently mild and long to bring vegetation out of dormancy prematurely, rendering it vulnerable to late frost and drought.As global climate warms, increasingly warmer springs may combine with the random climatological occurrence of advective freezes, which result from cold air moving from one region to another, to dramatically increase the future risk of false springs, with profound ecological and economic consequences [e.g., Gu et al., 2008; Marino et al., 2011; Augspurger, 2013]. For example, in the false spring of 2012, an event embedded in long-term trends toward earlier spring [e.g., Schwartz et al., 2006], the frost damage to fruit trees totaled half a billion dollars in Michigan alone, prompting the federal government to declare the state a disaster area [Knudson, 2012].

  4. Testing a flexible method to reduce false monsoon onsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve

    Full Text Available To generate information about the monsoon onset and withdrawal we have to choose a monsoon definition and apply it to data. One problem that arises is that false monsoon onsets can hamper our analysis, which is often alleviated by smoothing the data in time or space. Another problem is that local communities or stakeholder groups may define the monsoon differently. We therefore aim to develop a technique that reduces false onsets for high-resolution gridded data, while also being flexible for different requirements that can be tailored to particular end-users. In this study, we explain how we developed our technique and demonstrate how it successfully reduces false onsets and withdrawals. The presented results yield improved information about the monsoon length and its interannual variability. Due to this improvement, we are able to extract information from higher resolution data sets. This implies that we can potentially get a more detailed picture of local climate variations that can be used in more local climate application projects such as community-based adaptations.

  5. Veridical and false recall in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-02-01

    This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and phonological associates (i.e., hybrid condition) of a single, unpresented critical "lure" word. Three parameters of recall performance were measured across these 3 conditions: (a) number of accurately recalled words, (b) order of recall (primacy vs. recency effect), and (c) number of critical lures produced (i.e., false memories). Significant group differences were noted in recall accuracy specific to list type and also list position as well as relative to critical lure productions. Results suggest that certain basic memory processes (i.e., recency effect) and the processing of gist semantic information are largely intact in adults who stutter, but recall of verbatim phonological information and subvocal rehearsal may be deficient.

  6. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  7. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  8. The biochemical womb of schizophrenia: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, N; Gautam, S; Gaur, M; Sharma, P; Dadheech, G; Mishra, S

    2008-10-01

    The conclusive identification of specific etiological factors or pathogenic processes in the illness of schizophrenia has remained elusive despite great technological progress. The convergence of state-of-art scientific studies in molecular genetics, molecular neuropathophysiology, in vivo brain imaging and psychopharmacology, however, indicates that we may be coming much closer to understanding the genesis of schizophrenia. In near future, the diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia using biochemical markers may become a "dream come true" for the medical community as well as for the general population. An understanding of the biochemistry/ visa vis pathophysiology of schizophrenia is essential to the discovery of preventive measures and therapeutic intervention.

  9. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  10. Lipoprotein (a) and biochemical parameters in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Yuttana Sudjaroen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein like particle and is an important independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases (CAD). Few studies on Lp(a) level in Thai elderly to screening risk of CAD may concerned. Aims: To study the relation of Lp(a) level and routine biochemical parameters including lipid profiles and fasting blood glucose in elderly and to determine risk of subclinical symptoms by using Lp(a) levels as early risk predictor. Settings and Design: ...

  11. Radiation treatment of drugs, biochemicals and vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordheim, W.; Braeuniger, S.; Kirsch, B.; Kotowski, H.; Teupel, D.

    1984-12-01

    The concise and tabulated review reports experimental results on the effects of radiation treatment on drugs, vaccines, biochemicals and adjuvants including enzymes as well. Irradiation was mostly performed by γ-radiation using 60 Co and to a lesser extent by 137 Cs, 182 Ta, X-rays and accelerators. Ionizing radiation proved to be a useful tool for sterilization and inactivation in producing drugs, vaccines, and bioactive agents and will contribute to realize procedures difficultly solvable as to engineering and economy, respectively. 124 refs

  12. Patient characteristics associated with false arrhythmia alarms in intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris PR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Patricia R Harris,1,2 Jessica K Zègre-Hemsey,3,4 Daniel Schindler,5 Yong Bai,6 Michele M Pelter,2,7 Xiao Hu2,8 1Department of Nursing, School of Health and Natural Sciences, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 3School of Nursing, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, 5Intensive Care Unit, The Neuroscience Center, Sutter Eden Medical Center, Castro Valley, 6Hu Research Laboratory, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, 7ECG Monitoring Research Lab, Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, 8Physiological Nursing and Neurological Surgery, Affiliate Faculty of Institute for Computational Health Sciences Core Faculty UCB/UCSF Joint Bio-Engineering Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: A high rate of false arrhythmia alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU leads to alarm fatigue, the condition of desensitization and potentially inappropriate silencing of alarms due to frequent invalid and nonactionable alarms, often referred to as false alarms. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics, such as gender, age, body mass index, and diagnosis associated with frequent false arrhythmia alarms in the ICU. Methods: This descriptive, observational study prospectively enrolled patients who were consecutively admitted to one of five adult ICUs (77 beds at an urban medical center over a period of 31 days in 2013. All monitor alarms and continuous waveforms were stored on a secure server. Nurse scientists with expertise in cardiac monitoring used a standardized protocol to annotate six clinically important types of arrhythmia alarms (asystole, pause, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, accelerated ventricular rhythm, and

  13. Performance of computer-aided detection in false-negative screening mammograms of breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Boo Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Shin, Jung Hee; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2004-01-01

    To analyze retrospectively the abnormalities visible on the false-negative screening mammograms of patients with breast cancer and to determine the performance of computer-aided detection (CAD) in the detection of cancers. Of 108 consecutive cases of breast cancer diagnosed over a period of 6 years, of which previous screening mammograms were available, 32 retrospectively visible abnormalities (at which locations cancer later developed) were found in the previous mammograms, and which were originally reported as negative. These 32 patients ranged in age from 38 to 72 years (mean 52 years). We analyzed their previous mammographic findings, and assessed the ability of CAD to mark cancers in previous mammograms, according to the clinical presentation, the type of abnormalities and the mammographic parenchymal density. In these 32 previous mammograms of breast cancers (20 asymptomatic, 12 symptomatic), the retrospectively visible abnormalities were identified as densities in 22, calcifications in 8, and densities with calcifications in 2. CAD marked abnormalities in 20 (63%) of the 32 cancers with false-negative screening mammograms; 14 (70%) of the 20 subsequent screening-detected cancers, 5 (50%) of the 10 interval cancers, and 1 (50%) of the 2 cancers palpable after the screening interval. CAD marked 12 (50%) of the 24 densities and 9 (90%) of the 10 calcifications. CAD marked abnormalities in 7 (50%) of the 14 predominantly fatty breasts, and 13 (72%) of the 18 dense breasts. CAD-assisted diagnosis could potentially decrease the number of false-negative mammograms caused by the failure to recognize the cancer in the screening program, although its usefulness in the prevention of interval cancers appears to be limited

  14. 75 FR 9953 - Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...] Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... its Regulation on the Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (29...

  15. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  16. 78 FR 7460 - Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...] Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meeting. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to attend an informal stakeholder meeting concerning Nationally Recognized Testing...

  17. [Biochemical principles of early saturnism recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimakuridze, M P; Mansuradze, E A; Zurashvili, D G; Tsimakuridze, M P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the work is to determine the major sensitive criteria of biochemical indicators that allow timely discovery of negative influence of lead on organism and assist in early diagnosis of primary stages of saturnism. The workers of Georgian typographies, performing technological processes of letterpress printing were observed. Professional groups having contact with lead aerosols (main group of 66 people) and the workers of the same typography not being in touch with the poison (control group of 24 people) were studied. It was distinguished that, protracted professional contact with lead causes moderate increase of lead, coproporphyrin and DALA in daily urine in most cases; it is more clearly evidenced in the professional groups of lead smelters and lino operators and less clearly among typesetter and printers. Upon the checkup of people, having a direct contact with lead, biochemical analysis of urine should be given a preference, especially the determination of quantitative content of lead and coproporphyrin in urine with the aim of revealing the lead carrier, which is one of the first signals for occupational lookout and medical monitoring of the similar contingent.

  18. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Apri

    Full Text Available Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model.

  19. Biochemical Manifestation of HIV Lipodystrophy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihenetu, Kenneth; Mason, Darius

    2012-01-01

    Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), including protease inhibitors (PI) have led to dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity of life in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, a significant number of AIDS patients on HAART develop characteristic changes in body fat redistribution referred to as lipodystrophy syndrome (LDS). Features of LDS include hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump), increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch), gynecomastia and loss of fat in the mid-face and extremities. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge regarding this syndrome. This article reviews the published investigations on biochemical manifestation of HIV lipodystrophy syndrome. It is estimated that approximately 64% of patients treated with PI will experience this syndrome. Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides (Trig), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). It is hoped that awareness of this syndrome would aid in early diagnosis and better patient management, possibly leading to a lower incidence of cardiovascular complications among these patients.

  20. Biochemical research elucidating metabolic pathways in Pneumocystis*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneshiro E.S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in sequencing the Pneumocystis carinii genome have helped identify potential metabolic pathways operative in the organism. Also, data from characterizing the biochemical and physiological nature of these organisms now allow elucidation of metabolic pathways as well as pose new challenges and questions that require additional experiments. These experiments are being performed despite the difficulty in doing experiments directly on this pathogen that has yet to be subcultured indefinitely and produce mass numbers of cells in vitro. This article reviews biochemical approaches that have provided insights into several Pneumocystis metabolic pathways. It focuses on 1 S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet; SAM, which is a ubiquitous participant in numerous cellular reactions; 2 sterols: focusing on oxidosqualene cyclase that forms lanosterol in P. carinii; SAM:sterol C-24 methyltransferase that adds methyl groups at the C-24 position of the sterol side chain; and sterol 14α-demethylase that removes a methyl group at the C-14 position of the sterol nucleus; and 3 synthesis of ubiquinone homologs, which play a pivotal role in mitochondrial inner membrane and other cellular membrane electron transport.

  1. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis; Pneumokoniosen erkennen und klassifizieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K. [Klinikum Westfalen, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2012 waren 6 der 10 am haeufigsten anerkannten Berufskrankheiten Pneumokoniosen. Gesundheitspolitisch und oekonomisch stehen dabei die Silikose und asbestassoziierte Erkrankungen im Vordergrund. Insbesondere Letztere treten ubiquitaer auf und sind nicht an grosse Industriestandorte gebunden

  3. Perceptions of a fluid consensus: uniqueness bias, false consensus, false polarization, and pluralistic ignorance in a water conservation crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monin, Benoît; Norton, Michael I

    2003-05-01

    A 5-day field study (N = 415) during and right after a shower ban demonstrated multifaceted social projection and the tendency to draw personality inferences from simple behavior in a time of drastic consensus change. Bathers thought showering was more prevalent than did non-bathers (false consensus) and respondents consistently underestimated the prevalence of the desirable and common behavior--be it not showering during the shower ban or showering after the ban (uniqueness bias). Participants thought that bathers and non-bathers during the ban differed greatly in their general concern for the community, but self-reports demonstrated that this gap was illusory (false polarization). Finally, bathers thought other bathers cared less than they did, whereas non-bathers thought other non-bathers cared more than they did (pluralistic ignorance). The study captures the many biases at work in social perception in a time of social change.

  4. A scalable machine-learning approach to recognize chemical names within large text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren Jonathan D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation The use or study of chemical compounds permeates almost every scientific field and in each of them, the amount of textual information is growing rapidly. There is a need to accurately identify chemical names within text for a number of informatics efforts such as database curation, report summarization, tagging of named entities and keywords, or the development/curation of reference databases. Results A first-order Markov Model (MM was evaluated for its ability to distinguish chemical names from words, yielding ~93% recall in recognizing chemical terms and ~99% precision in rejecting non-chemical terms on smaller test sets. However, because total false-positive events increase with the number of words analyzed, the scalability of name recognition was measured by processing 13.1 million MEDLINE records. The method yielded precision ranges from 54.7% to 100%, depending upon the cutoff score used, averaging 82.7% for approximately 1.05 million putative chemical terms extracted. Extracted chemical terms were analyzed to estimate the number of spelling variants per term, which correlated with the total number of times the chemical name appeared in MEDLINE. This variability in term construction was found to affect both information retrieval and term mapping when using PubMed and Ovid.

  5. The risk factor of false-negative and false-positive for T-SPOT.TB in active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Li; Li, Yan

    2018-02-01

    T-SPOT.TB is a promising diagnosis tool to identify both pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as latent tuberculosis; however, the factors that affect the results of T-SPOT.TB remains unclear. In this study, we aim to figure out the risk factor of T-SPOT.TB for active TB. A total of 349 patients were recruited between January 1st, 2016 and January 22st, 2017 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 98 subjects with TB and 251 subjects with non-TB disease, and received T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec Ltd). Statistics were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 using logistic regression. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB was 92.83% (233/251; 95%CI 0.8872-0.9557) and 83.67% (82/98; 95%CI 0.7454-0.9010), respectively. Patients with tuberculous meningitis were more likely to have false-negative results (OR 17.4, 95%CI 3.068-98.671; P.05). Tuberculous meningitis was a risk factor of false-negative for T-SPOT.TB, while cured TB was a risk factor of false-positive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Falsely Elevated Plasma Creatinine Due to an Immunoglobulin M Paraprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Mitchell R; Vijayan, Anitha; Trulock, Elbert P; Witt, Chad A; Kohler, Giselle D; Scott, Mitchell G

    2016-11-01

    The most common method for measuring plasma creatinine is based on its reaction with picric acid. However, enzymatic methods are becoming more popular due to improved specificity. We present a case of falsely elevated plasma creatinine values obtained by an enzymatic method that turned out to be due to a monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein. A 63-year-old woman evaluated for lung transplantation had falsely increased plasma creatinine levels (1.54-1.71mg/dL; corresponding to estimated glomerular filtration rates of 32-36 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) as measured by the Roche Creatinine plus enzymatic assay when compared with the picric acid-based procedure and several other enzymatic methods, which gave plasma creatinine values of 0.7 to 0.8mg/dL. Serum protein electrophoresis revealed an IgM κ light chain paraprotein. Removal of high-molecular-weight (>30kDa) proteins by ultrafiltration reduced the patient's plasma creatinine level by the Roche enzymatic method to 0.7mg/dL. Addition of the patient's immunoglobulin fraction to plasma from other patients with normal plasma creatinine levels resulted in values that were increased by 0.58 to 0.62mg/dL. Furthermore, removal of non-IgM immunoglobulins with protein G-coupled beads did not eliminate the interference from the patient's plasma. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that falsely elevated plasma creatinine values by the Roche enzymatic method can be due to an IgM paraprotein. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. False targets vs. redundancy in homogeneous parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    System defense against natural threats and disasters that have a stochastic nature includes providing redundancy and protecting system elements. The defense against strategic intentional attacks can also include deploying false targets aimed at misleading the attacker. Distribution of the available resources among different defensive means is an important problem that arises in organizing the defense of complex civil infrastructures, industrial systems or military objects. The article considers defense resource allocation in a system exposed to external intentional attack. The expected damage caused by the attack is evaluated as system unsupplied demand. The defender distributes its limited resource between deploying redundant genuine elements and false elements, both of which are targets of attack. The attacker attacks a subset of the elements and distributes its limited resource evenly among the attacked elements. Two cases are considered: in the first one the number of attacked elements and the vulnerability of each genuine element are fixed and the defense resource distribution is determined as a solution of an optimization problem; in the second one the number of attacked elements is the attacker's free choice variable and the element's vulnerability depends on a contest determined by the defender's and attacker's resources allocated to each element. The defender's optimal resource distribution strategy is determined as a solution of a two-period minmax game. It is shown that the optimal number of genuine elements decreases monotonically with the growth of the element cost and vulnerability, whereas the optimal number of false elements demonstrates non-monotonic behavior. The contest intensity is an important factor influencing the optimal defense resource distribution. It cannot be ignored when the defense strategy is determined, and it thus also impacts the attack strategy

  8. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, N.; Bennett, E.; Thomas, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. False traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas: retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, Lazar B; Banzić, Igor; Rich, Norman; Dragaš, Marko; Cvetkovic, Slobodan D; Dimic, Andrija

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of false traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas as well as the outcomes of the patients. A retrospective, 16-year survey has been conducted regarding the cases of patients who underwent surgery for false traumatic aneurysms (FTA) of arteries and traumatic arteriovenous fistulas (TAVF). Patients with iatrogenic AV fistulas and iatrogenic false aneurysms were excluded from the study. There were 36 patients with TAVF and 47 with FTA. In all, 73 (87.95%) were male, and 10 (12.05%) were female, with an average age of 36.93 years (13-82 years). In 25 (29.76%) cases TAVF and FTA appeared combat-related, and 59 (70.24%) were in noncombatants. The average of all intervals between the injury and surgery was 919. 8 days (1 day to 41 years) for FTA and 396.6 days (1 day to 9 years) for TAVF. Most of the patients in both groups were surgically treated during the first 30 days after injury. One patient died on the fourth postoperative day. There were two early complications. The early patency rate was 83.34%, and limb salvage was 100%. There were no recurrent AV fistulas that required additional operations. Because of their history of severe complications, FTA and TAV fistulas require prompt treatment. The treatment is simpler if there is only a short interval between the injury and the operation. Surgical endovascular repair is mostly indicated.

  10. Aural, visual, and pictorial stimulus formats in false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Heather M

    2002-12-01

    The present investigation is an initial simultaneous examination of the influence of three stimulus formats on false memories. Several pilot tests were conducted to develop new category associate stimulus lists. 73 women and 26 men (M age=21.1 yr.) were in one of three conditions: they either heard words, were shown words, or were shown pictures highly related to critical nonpresented items. As expected, recall of critical nonpresented stimuli was significantly greater for aural lists than for visually presented words and pictorial images. These findings demonstrate that the accuracy of memory is influenced by the format of the information encoded.

  11. False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-12-01

    We examine the bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology. We compute the leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. We find that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum, at late times the nucleation rate is time independent. 21 refs

  12. E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Manjur

    2017-08-15

    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.

  13. The false gardener in Lope de Vega's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Trambaioli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic mask of the false gardener, one of the many types of noble disguised as a peasant, is specially frequent in Lope de Vega’s urban comedy; if in the main plot the love gardener courts his lover taking profit of the disguise, in the comic plot the dramatic type is parodied thanks to his links with real peasants; about 1615, Lope, already masked as Belardo in the Romancero, makes use of this dramatic type as a spokesman of his personal courtly ambitions.

  14. Assessment method to predict the rate of unresolved false alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, P.T.; Eggers, R.F.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1982-06-01

    A method has been developed to predict the rate of unresolved false alarms of material loss in a nuclear facility. The computer program DETRES-1 was developed. The program first assigns the true values of control unit components receipts, shipments, beginning and ending inventories. A normal random number generator is used to generate measured values of each component. A loss estimator is calculated from the control unit's measured values. If the loss estimator triggers a detection alarm, a response is simulated. The response simulation is divided into two phases. The first phase is to simulate remeasurement of the components of the detection loss estimator using the same or better measurement methods or inferences from surrounding control units. If this phase of response continues to indicate a material loss, phase of response simulating a production shutdown and comprehensive cleanout is initiated. A new loss estimator is found, and tested against the alarm thresholds. If the estimator value is below the threshold, the original detection alarm is considered resolved; if above the threshold, an unresolved alarm has occurred. A tally is kept of valid alarms, unresolved false alarms, and failure to alarm upon a true loss

  15. Reasoning from an incompatibility: False dilemma fallacies and content effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Janie; Markovits, Henry; Robert, Serge; Schaeken, Walter

    2018-03-23

    In the present studies, we investigated inferences from an incompatibility statement. Starting with two propositions that cannot be true at the same time, these inferences consist of deducing the falsity of one from the truth of the other or deducing the truth of one from the falsity of the other. Inferences of this latter form are relevant to human reasoning since they are the formal equivalent of a discourse manipulation called the false dilemma fallacy, often used in politics and advertising in order to force a choice between two selected options. Based on research on content-related variability in conditional reasoning, we predicted that content would have an impact on how reasoners treat incompatibility inferences. Like conditional inferences, they present two invalid forms for which the logical response is one of uncertainty. We predicted that participants would endorse a smaller proportion of the invalid incompatibility inferences when more counterexamples are available. In Study 1, we found the predicted pattern using causal premises translated into incompatibility statements with many and few counterexamples. In Study 2A, we replicated the content effects found in Study 1, but with premises for which the incompatibility statement is a non-causal relation between classes. These results suggest that the tendency to fall into the false dilemma fallacy is modulated by the background knowledge of the reasoner. They also provide additional evidence on the link between semantic information retrieval and deduction.

  16. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: False Positive in an I-123 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Cristina Rodriguez; Candil, Aida Ortega; Galvan, Eliseo Vano; Martin, Maria Nieves Cabrera; Delgado, Jose Luis Carreras [Clinico San Carlos Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    A 55-year-old man with a personal his history of left pheochromocytoma 2 years previously presented with an abdominal ultrasound showed a large left upper quadrant solid mass (calipers), with heterogeneous echogenicity and central cystic degeneration areas or necrosis. F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT was performed as ACC was suspected. ACC is an uncommon malignant neoplasm of unknown cause; however, smoking and oral contraceptives may be risk factors. Patients usually present with advanced-stage disease and have poor prognosis, with a 2-year recurrence rate that ranges form 73 to 86 %. An MIBG scan was performed after injection of 185 MBq of I-123 MIBG intravenously. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/CT scan showed abnormal isotope accumulation in the tumor region. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor. The histology was of ACC, with areas of necrosis and cystic areas, so the result of the MIBG scan was a false positive. Authors divided false-positive MIBG studies into three categories. The first category is neuroendocrine lesions other than pheochromocytomas (tumors of the APUD series). the second category consists in adrenal lesions other than pheochromocytomas (adenomas, ACC) the reasons for this abnormal uptake are unclear. The third category consists of tracer uptake adjacent to the adrenal due to abnormalities in the route of excretion.

  17. The robustness of false memory for emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette-Symons, Brandy A

    2018-02-01

    Emotional material is commonly reported to be more accurately recognised; however, there is substantial evidence of increased false alarm rates (FAR) for emotional material and several reports of stronger influences on response bias than accuracy. This pattern is more frequently reported for words than pictures. Research on the mechanisms underlying bias differences has mostly focused on word lists under short retention intervals. This article presents four series of experiments examining recognition memory for emotional pictures while varying arousal and the control over the content of the pictures at two retention intervals, and one study measuring the relatedness of the series picture sets. Under the shorter retention interval, emotion increased false alarms and reduced accuracy. Under the longer retention interval emotion increased hit rates and FAR, resulting in reduced accuracy and/or bias. At both retention intervals, the pattern of valence effects differed based on the arousal associated with the picture sets. Emotional pictures were found to be more related than neutral pictures in each set; however, the influence of relatedness alone does not provide an adequate explanation for all emotional differences. The results demonstrate substantial emotional differences in picture recognition that vary based on valence, arousal and retention interval.

  18. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso

    KAUST Repository

    Sampson, J. N.

    2013-04-09

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn-δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen.

  19. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Vaccines: building on scientific excellence and dispelling false myths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The EU and Italian institutions have recently reiterated their commitment to harmonize and implement vaccination policies as a fundamental strategy for public health. Nonetheless, vaccines are losing public confidence. False myths related to vaccine adverse reactions and commercial interests, combined with the recent judgements of the Court and the "Fluad® episode", are fuelling vaccine hesitancy. In such a context, a lively debate is ongoing in Italian scientific community. Aim of this contribution is to recall the available solid scientific evidence demonstrating that vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools ever invented and recall the economic data that support the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation. As every other medicine, vaccines are registered after large and solid clinical trials have been conducted. Immunization schedules are proposed by experts in the field of clinical medicine, epidemiology and public health on the basis of the available scientific evidence, and then implemented by policy makers also taking into consideration resources allocation and financial sustainability. The false myth that vaccines are offered because of economic interests is to be dispelled;moreover, researchers, policy makers, scientific societies and the healthcare community at large should renew commitment to invest in health education and communication on vaccines, always disclosing potential conflicts of interests.