WorldWideScience

Sample records for recognition time suggests

  1. Gender differences in recognition of toy faces suggest a contribution of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Kaitlin F.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning t...

  2. Gender differences in recognition of toy faces suggest a contribution of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    When there is a gender effect, women perform better then men in face recognition tasks. Prior work has not documented a male advantage on a face recognition task, suggesting that women may outperform men at face recognition generally either due to evolutionary reasons or the influence of social roles. Here, we question the idea that women excel at all face recognition and provide a proof of concept based on a face category for which men outperform women. We developed a test of face learning to measures individual differences with face categories for which men and women may differ in experience, using the faces of Barbie dolls and of Transformers. The results show a crossover interaction between subject gender and category, where men outperform women with Transformers' faces. We demonstrate that men can outperform women with some categories of faces, suggesting that explanations for a general face recognition advantage for women are in fact not needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity Recognition for Personal Time Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prekopcsák, Zoltán; Soha, Sugárka; Henk, Tamás; Gáspár-Papanek, Csaba

    We describe an accelerometer based activity recognition system for mobile phones with a special focus on personal time management. We compare several data mining algorithms for the automatic recognition task in the case of single user and multiuser scenario, and improve accuracy with heuristics and advanced data mining methods. The results show that daily activities can be recognized with high accuracy and the integration with the RescueTime software can give good insights for personal time management.

  4. Real time biometric surveillance with gait recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Subasish; Swain, Anisha; Das, Manaswini; Mohanty, Subhadarshini

    2018-04-01

    Bio metric surveillance has become indispensable for every system in the recent years. The contribution of bio metric authentication, identification, and screening purposes are widely used in various domains for preventing unauthorized access. A large amount of data needs to be updated, segregated and safeguarded from malicious software and misuse. Bio metrics is the intrinsic characteristics of each individual. Recently fingerprints, iris, passwords, unique keys, and cards are commonly used for authentication purposes. These methods have various issues related to security and confidentiality. These systems are not yet automated to provide the safety and security. The gait recognition system is the alternative for overcoming the drawbacks of the recent bio metric based authentication systems. Gait recognition is newer as it hasn't been implemented in the real-world scenario so far. This is an un-intrusive system that requires no knowledge or co-operation of the subject. Gait is a unique behavioral characteristic of every human being which is hard to imitate. The walking style of an individual teamed with the orientation of joints in the skeletal structure and inclinations between them imparts the unique characteristic. A person can alter one's own external appearance but not skeletal structure. These are real-time, automatic systems that can even process low-resolution images and video frames. In this paper, we have proposed a gait recognition system and compared the performance with conventional bio metric identification systems.

  5. An Investigation of a New Social Networks Contact Suggestion Based on Face Recognition Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Zelinka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated comparison of faces in the photographs is a well established discipline. The main aim of this paper is to describe an approach whereby face recognition can be used in suggestion of a new contacts. The new contact suggestion is a common technique used across all main social networks. Our approach uses a freely available face comparison called "Betaface" together with our automated processig of the user´s Facebook profile. The research´s main point of interest is the comparison of friend´s facial images in a social network itself, how to process such a great amount of photos and what additional sources of data should be used. In this approach we used our automated processing algorithm Betaface in the social network Facebook and for the additional data, the Flickr social network was used. The results and their quality are discussed at the end.

  6. Timely loss recognition and termination of unprofitable projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Srivastava

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, firms should discontinue projects that become unprofitable. Managers, however, continue to operate such projects because of their limited employment horizons and empire-building motivations (Jensen, 1986; Ball, 2001. Prior studies suggest that timely loss recognition in accounting earnings enables lenders, shareholders, and boards of directors to identify unprofitable projects; thereby, enabling them to force managers to discontinue such projects before large value erosion occurs. However, this conjecture has not been tested empirically. Consistent with this notion, we find that timely loss recognition increases the likelihood of timely closures of unprofitable projects. Moreover, managers, by announcing late discontinuations of such projects, reveal their inability to select good projects and/or to contain losses, when projects turn unprofitable. Accordingly, thereafter, the fund providers and board of directors are likely to demand improved timeliness of loss recognition and stringent scrutiny of firms’ capital expenditure plans. Consistently, we find that firms that announce large discontinuation losses reduce capital expenditures and improve timeliness of loss recognition in subsequent years. Our study provides evidence that timely loss reporting affects “real” economic decisions and creates economic benefits.

  7. An individual differences approach to the suggestibility of memory over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Peter; Nussbaum, Gregory; Loconto, Taylor; Syke, Richard; Warren, Casey; Muise, Christina

    2013-04-01

    We examined how certain personality traits might relate to the formation of suggestive memory over time. We hypothesised that compliance and trust relate to initial acceptance of misinformation as memory, whereas fantasy proneness might relate to integration of misinformation into memory after later intervals (relative to the time of exposure to misinformation). Participants watched an excerpt from a movie--the simulated eyewitness event. They next answered a recall test that included embedded misinformation about the movie. Participants then answered a yes/no recognition test. A week later, participants answered a second yes/no recognition test about the movie (each yes/no recognition test included different questions). Before both recognition tests, participants were warned about the misinformation shown during recall and were asked to base their answer on the movie excerpt only. After completing the second recognition test, participants answered questions from the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) and Creative Experiences Questionnaire (Merckelbach, Horselenberg, & Muris, 2001). While compliance correlated with misinformation effects immediately after exposure to misinformation, fantasy-prone personality accounted for more of the variability in false recognition rates than compliance after a 1-week interval.

  8. Experience moderates overlap between object and face recognition, suggesting a common ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Isabel; McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Van Gulick, Ana E

    2014-07-03

    Some research finds that face recognition is largely independent from the recognition of other objects; a specialized and innate ability to recognize faces could therefore have little or nothing to do with our ability to recognize objects. We propose a new framework in which recognition performance for any category is the product of domain-general ability and category-specific experience. In Experiment 1, we show that the overlap between face and object recognition depends on experience with objects. In 256 subjects we measured face recognition, object recognition for eight categories, and self-reported experience with these categories. Experience predicted neither face recognition nor object recognition but moderated their relationship: Face recognition performance is increasingly similar to object recognition performance with increasing object experience. If a subject has a lot of experience with objects and is found to perform poorly, they also prove to have a low ability with faces. In a follow-up survey, we explored the dimensions of experience with objects that may have contributed to self-reported experience in Experiment 1. Different dimensions of experience appear to be more salient for different categories, with general self-reports of expertise reflecting judgments of verbal knowledge about a category more than judgments of visual performance. The complexity of experience and current limitations in its measurement support the importance of aggregating across multiple categories. Our findings imply that both face and object recognition are supported by a common, domain-general ability expressed through experience with a category and best measured when accounting for experience. © 2014 ARVO.

  9. Recognition Errors Suggest Fast Familiarity and Slow Recollection in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    One influential model of recognition posits two underlying memory processes: recollection, which is detailed but relatively slow, and familiarity, which is quick but lacks detail. Most of the evidence for this dual-process model in nonhumans has come from analyses of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in rats, but whether ROC analyses…

  10. Real-time embedded face recognition for smart home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, F.; With, de P.H.N.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a near real-time face recognition system for embedding in consumer applications. The system is embedded in a networked home environment and enables personalized services by automatic identification of users. The aim of our research is to design and build a face recognition system that is

  11. Autolysis: a plausible finding suggestive of long ESD procedure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2012-04-01

    Autolysis is the enzymatic digestion of cells by the action of its own enzymes, and it mostly occurs in dying or dead cells. It has previously been suggested that prolonged procedure time could lead to autolytic changes from the periphery of the endoscopic submucosal dissection specimens. Recently, the authors have experienced a case of autolysis; due to the presence of ulcer, fibrosis, and frequent bleeding from the cut surface, it took 6 hours to complete the resection. More than halfway through the resection; bluish purple discoloration of the part of the dissected flap where the dissection was initiated was noticed. Histologic examination of this site showed diffuse distortion of epithelial lining and cellular architectures along with loss of cell components, compatible with autolysis. Because autolysis could theoretically pose a potential problem regarding the evaluation of resection margin, endoscopists and pathologists should communicate with each other for a reliable pathologic decision.

  12. Novel methods for real-time 3D facial recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we discuss our approach to real-time 3D face recognition. We argue the need for real time operation in a realistic scenario and highlight the required pre- and post-processing operations for effective 3D facial recognition. We focus attention to some operations including face and eye detection, and fast post-processing operations such as hole filling, mesh smoothing and noise removal. We consider strategies for hole filling such as bilinear and polynomial interpolation and Lapla...

  13. Gliding and Saccadic Gaze Gesture Recognition in Real Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozado, David; San Agustin, Javier; Rodriguez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    , and their corresponding real-time recognition algorithms, Hierarchical Temporal Memory networks and the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm for sequence alignment. Our results show how a specific combination of gaze gesture modality, namely saccadic gaze gestures, and recognition algorithm, Needleman-Wunsch, allows for reliable...... usage of intentional gaze gestures to interact with a computer with accuracy rates of up to 98% and acceptable completion speed. Furthermore, the gesture recognition engine does not interfere with otherwise standard human-machine gaze interaction generating therefore, very low false positive rates...

  14. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  15. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  16. Real-time Human Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albukhary, N.; Mustafah, Y. M.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) system requires human to monitor the CCTV for 24/7 which is inefficient and costly. Therefore, there’s a need for a system which can recognize human activity effectively in real-time. This paper concentrates on recognizing simple activity such as walking, running, sitting, standing and landing by using image processing techniques. Firstly, object detection is done by using background subtraction to detect moving object. Then, object tracking and object classification are constructed so that different person can be differentiated by using feature detection. Geometrical attributes of tracked object, which are centroid and aspect ratio of identified tracked are manipulated so that simple activity can be detected.

  17. Oxytocin Reduces Face Processing Time but Leaves Recognition Accuracy and Eye-Gaze Unaffected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Kelly; Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that oxytocin (OXT) can improve the recognition of emotional facial expressions; it has been proposed that this effect is mediated by an increase in attention to the eye-region of faces. Nevertheless, evidence in support of this claim is inconsistent, and few studies have directly tested the effect of oxytocin on emotion recognition via altered eye-gaze Methods: In a double-blind, within-subjects, randomized control experiment, 40 healthy male participants received 24 IU intranasal OXT and placebo in two identical experimental sessions separated by a 2-week interval. Visual attention to the eye-region was assessed on both occasions while participants completed a static facial emotion recognition task using medium intensity facial expressions. Although OXT had no effect on emotion recognition accuracy, recognition performance was improved because face processing was faster across emotions under the influence of OXT. This effect was marginally significant (pfaces and this was not related to recognition accuracy or face processing time. These findings suggest that OXT-induced enhanced facial emotion recognition is not necessarily mediated by an increase in attention to the eye-region of faces, as previously assumed. We discuss several methodological issues which may explain discrepant findings and suggest the effect of OXT on visual attention may differ depending on task requirements. (JINS, 2017, 23, 23-33).

  18. Obstetric vesico-vaginal fistula is preventable by timely recognition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevention of obstetric fistula should include universal access to maternity care, recognition and timely correction of abnormal progress of labour and punctilious attention to bladder care to avoid post-partum urinary retention. Key words: Obstetric fistula, Risk factors, Pathophysiology, Post-partum urinary retention ...

  19. Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.; Anderson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the time course of associative recognition using the response signal procedure, whereby a stimulus is presented and followed after a variable lag by a signal indicating that an immediate response is required. More specifically, we examined the effects of associative fan (the number of associations that an item has with other items…

  20. Environmental Sound Recognition Using Time-Frequency Intersection Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sound recognition is an important function of robots and intelligent computer systems. In this research, we use a multistage perceptron neural network system for environmental sound recognition. The input data is a combination of time-variance pattern of instantaneous powers and frequency-variance pattern with instantaneous spectrum at the power peak, referred to as a time-frequency intersection pattern. Spectra of many environmental sounds change more slowly than those of speech or voice, so the intersectional time-frequency pattern will preserve the major features of environmental sounds but with drastically reduced data requirements. Two experiments were conducted using an original database and an open database created by the RWCP project. The recognition rate for 20 kinds of environmental sounds was 92%. The recognition rate of the new method was about 12% higher than methods using only an instantaneous spectrum. The results are also comparable with HMM-based methods, although those methods need to treat the time variance of an input vector series with more complicated computations.

  1. The Slow Developmental Time Course of Real-Time Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, Hannah; Farris-Trimble, Ashley; Greiner, Lea; Walker, Jessica; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McMurray, Bob

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the developmental time course of spoken word recognition in older children using eye tracking to assess how the real-time processing dynamics of word recognition change over development. We found that 9-year-olds were slower to activate the target words and showed more early competition from competitor words than…

  2. Changes in recognition memory over time: an ERP investigation into vocabulary learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekeila D Palmer

    Full Text Available Although it seems intuitive to assume that recognition memory fades over time when information is not reinforced, some aspects of word learning may benefit from a period of consolidation. In the present study, event-related potentials (ERP were used to examine changes in recognition memory responses to familiar and newly learned (novel words over time. Native English speakers were taught novel words associated with English translations, and subsequently performed a Recognition Memory task in which they made old/new decisions in response to both words (trained word vs. untrained word, and novel words (trained novel word vs. untrained novel word. The Recognition task was performed 45 minutes after training (Day 1 and then repeated the following day (Day 2 with no additional training session in between. For familiar words, the late parietal old/new effect distinguished old from new items on both Day 1 and Day 2, although response to trained items was significantly weaker on Day 2. For novel words, the LPC again distinguished old from new items on both days, but the effect became significantly larger on Day 2. These data suggest that while recognition memory for familiar items may fade over time, recognition of novel items, conscious recollection in particular may benefit from a period of consolidation.

  3. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  4. Real Time Recognition Of Speakers From Internet Audio Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weychan Radoslaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an automatic speaker recognition technique with the use of the Internet radio lossy (encoded speech signal streams. We show an influence of the audio encoder (e.g., bitrate on the speaker model quality. The model of each speaker was calculated with the use of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM approach. Both the speaker recognition and the further analysis were realized with the use of short utterances to facilitate real time processing. The neighborhoods of the speaker models were analyzed with the use of the ISOMAP algorithm. The experiments were based on four 1-hour public debates with 7–8 speakers (including the moderator, acquired from the Polish radio Internet services. The presented software was developed with the MATLAB environment.

  5. On the Time Course of Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Marc D.; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2011-01-01

    How quickly do listeners recognize emotions from a speaker's voice, and does the time course for recognition vary by emotion type? To address these questions, we adapted the auditory gating paradigm to estimate how much vocal information is needed for listeners to categorize five basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness) and neutral utterances produced by male and female speakers of English. Semantically-anomalous pseudo-utterances (e.g., The rivix jolled the silling) conveying each emotion were divided into seven gate intervals according to the number of syllables that listeners heard from sentence onset. Participants (n = 48) judged the emotional meaning of stimuli presented at each gate duration interval, in a successive, blocked presentation format. Analyses looked at how recognition of each emotion evolves as an utterance unfolds and estimated the “identification point” for each emotion. Results showed that anger, sadness, fear, and neutral expressions are recognized more accurately at short gate intervals than happiness, and particularly disgust; however, as speech unfolds, recognition of happiness improves significantly towards the end of the utterance (and fear is recognized more accurately than other emotions). When the gate associated with the emotion identification point of each stimulus was calculated, data indicated that fear (M = 517 ms), sadness (M = 576 ms), and neutral (M = 510 ms) expressions were identified from shorter acoustic events than the other emotions. These data reveal differences in the underlying time course for conscious recognition of basic emotions from vocal expressions, which should be accounted for in studies of emotional speech processing. PMID:22087275

  6. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  7. Association with the origin recognition complex suggests a novel role for histone acetyltransferase Hat1p/Hat2p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenblatt Jack F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modifications have been implicated in the regulation of transcription and, more recently, in DNA replication and repair. In yeast, a major conserved histone acetyltransferase, Hat1p, preferentially acetylates lysine residues 5 and 12 on histone H4. Results Here, we report that a nuclear sub-complex consisting of Hat1p and its partner Hat2p interacts physically and functionally with the origin recognition complex (ORC. While mutational inactivation of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT gene HAT1 alone does not compromise origin firing or initiation of DNA replication, a deletion in HAT1 (or HAT2 exacerbates the growth defects of conditional orc-ts mutants. Thus, the ORC-associated Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase activity suggests a novel linkage between histone modification and DNA replication. Additional genetic and biochemical evidence points to the existence of partly overlapping histone H3 acetyltransferase activities in addition to Hat1p/Hat2p for proper DNA replication efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrated a dynamic association of Hat1p with chromatin during S-phase that suggests a role of this enzyme at the replication fork. Conclusion We have found an intriguing new association of the Hat1p-dependent histone acetyltransferase in addition to its previously known role in nuclear chromatin assembly (Hat1p/Hat2p-Hif1p. The participation of a distinct Hat1p/Hat2p sub-complex suggests a linkage of histone H4 modification with ORC-dependent DNA replication.

  8. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  9. Real Time Facial Expression Recognition Using Webcam and SDK Affectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Magdin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression is an essential part of communication. For this reason, the issue of human emotions evaluation using a computer is a very interesting topic, which has gained more and more attention in recent years. It is mainly related to the possibility of applying facial expression recognition in many fields such as HCI, video games, virtual reality, and analysing customer satisfaction etc. Emotions determination (recognition process is often performed in 3 basic phases: face detection, facial features extraction, and last stage - expression classification. Most often you can meet the so-called Ekman’s classification of 6 emotional expressions (or 7 - neutral expression as well as other types of classification - the Russell circular model, which contains up to 24 or the Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions. The methods used in the three phases of the recognition process have not only improved over the last 60 years, but new methods and algorithms have also emerged that can determine the ViolaJones detector with greater accuracy and lower computational demands. Therefore, there are currently various solutions in the form of the Software Development Kit (SDK. In this publication, we point to the proposition and creation of our system for real-time emotion classification. Our intention was to create a system that would use all three phases of the recognition process, work fast and stable in real time. That’s why we’ve decided to take advantage of existing Affectiva SDKs. By using the classic webcamera we can detect facial landmarks on the image automatically using the Software Development Kit (SDK from Affectiva. Geometric feature based approach is used for feature extraction. The distance between landmarks is used as a feature, and for selecting an optimal set of features, the brute force method is used. The proposed system uses neural network algorithm for classification. The proposed system recognizes 6 (respectively 7 facial expressions

  10. Effect of voice recognition on radiologist reporting time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.N.; Coblentz, C.L.; Norman, G.R.; Ali, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect that voice recognition (VR) has on radiologist reporting efficiency in a clinical setting and to identify variables associated with faster reporting time. Five radiologists were observed during the routine reporting of 402 plain radiograph studies using either VR (n 217) or conventional dictation (CD) (n = 185). Two radiologists were observed reporting 66 computed tomography (CT) studies using either VR (n - 39) or CD (n - 27). The time spent per reporting cycle, defined as the radiologist's time spent on a study from report finalization to the subsequent report finalization, was compared. As well, characteristics about the radiologist and their reporting style were collected and correlated against reporting time. For plain radiographs, radiologists took 134% (P = 0.048) more time to produce reports using VR, but there was significant variability between radiologists. Significant association with faster reporting times using VR included: English as a first language (r-0.24), use of a template (r -0.34), use of a headset microphone (r -0.46), and increased experience with VR (r -0.43). Experience as a staff radiologist and having previous study for comparison did not correlate with reporting time. For CT, there was no significant difference in reporting time identified between VR and CD (P 0.61). Overall, VR slightly decreases the reporting efficiency of radiologists. However, efficiency may be improved if English is a first language, a headset microphone, and macros and templates are use. (author)

  11. Cough Recognition Based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Dynamic Time Warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping

    Cough recognition provides important clinical information for the treatment of many respiratory diseases, but the assessment of cough frequency over a long period of time remains unsatisfied for either clinical or research purpose. In this paper, according to the advantage of dynamic time warping (DTW) and the characteristic of cough recognition, an attempt is made to adapt DTW as the recognition algorithm for cough recognition. The process of cough recognition based on mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and DTW is introduced. Experiment results of testing samples from 3 subjects show that acceptable performances of cough recognition are obtained by DTW with a small training set.

  12. Impact of a voice recognition system on report cycle time and radiologist reading time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melson, David L.; Brophy, Robert; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Brink, Gary S.

    1998-07-01

    Because of its exciting potential to improve clinical service, as well as reduce costs, a voice recognition system for radiological dictation was recently installed at our institution. This system will be clinically successful if it dramatically reduces radiology report turnaround time without substantially affecting radiologist dictation and editing time. This report summarizes an observer study currently under way in which radiologist reporting times using the traditional transcription system and the voice recognition system are compared. Four radiologists are observed interpreting portable intensive care unit (ICU) chest examinations at a workstation in the chest reading area. Data are recorded with the radiologists using the transcription system and using the voice recognition system. The measurements distinguish between time spent performing clerical tasks and time spent actually dictating the report. Editing time and the number of corrections made are recorded. Additionally, statistics are gathered to assess the voice recognition system's impact on the report cycle time -- the time from report dictation to availability of an edited and finalized report -- and the length of reports.

  13. Time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition: evidence from ERP analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Fengying; Shu, Hua

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from event-related potential (ERP) analyses of English spoken words suggests that the time course of English word recognition in monosyllables is cumulative. Different types of phonological competitors (i.e., rhymes and cohorts) modulate the temporal grain of ERP components differentially (Desroches, Newman, & Joanisse, 2009). The time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition could be different from that of English due to the differences in syllable structure between the two languages (e.g., lexical tones). The present study investigated the time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition using ERPs to record brain responses online while subjects listened to spoken words. During the experiment, participants were asked to compare a target picture with a subsequent picture by judging whether or not these two pictures belonged to the same semantic category. The spoken word was presented between the two pictures, and participants were not required to respond during its presentation. We manipulated phonological competition by presenting spoken words that either matched or mismatched the target picture in one of the following four ways: onset mismatch, rime mismatch, tone mismatch, or syllable mismatch. In contrast to the English findings, our findings showed that the three partial mismatches (onset, rime, and tone mismatches) equally modulated the amplitudes and time courses of the N400 (a negative component that peaks about 400ms after the spoken word), whereas, the syllable mismatched words elicited an earlier and stronger N400 than the three partial mismatched words. The results shed light on the important role of syllable-level awareness in Chinese spoken word recognition and also imply that the recognition of Chinese monosyllabic words might rely more on global similarity of the whole syllable structure or syllable-based holistic processing rather than phonemic segment-based processing. We interpret the differences in spoken word

  14. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ALBEDO PATTERN RECOGNITION AND TIME-SERIES ANALYSES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Salleh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition and time-series analyses will enable one to evaluate and generate predictions of specific phenomena. The albedo pattern and time-series analyses are very much useful especially in relation to climate condition monitoring. This study is conducted to seek for Malaysia albedo pattern changes. The pattern recognition and changes will be useful for variety of environmental and climate monitoring researches such as carbon budgeting and aerosol mapping. The 10 years (2000–2009 MODIS satellite images were used for the analyses and interpretation. These images were being processed using ERDAS Imagine remote sensing software, ArcGIS 9.3, the 6S code for atmospherical calibration and several MODIS tools (MRT, HDF2GIS, Albedo tools. There are several methods for time-series analyses were explored, this paper demonstrates trends and seasonal time-series analyses using converted HDF format MODIS MCD43A3 albedo land product. The results revealed significance changes of albedo percentages over the past 10 years and the pattern with regards to Malaysia's nebulosity index (NI and aerosol optical depth (AOD. There is noticeable trend can be identified with regards to its maximum and minimum value of the albedo. The rise and fall of the line graph show a similar trend with regards to its daily observation. The different can be identified in term of the value or percentage of rises and falls of albedo. Thus, it can be concludes that the temporal behavior of land surface albedo in Malaysia have a uniform behaviours and effects with regards to the local monsoons. However, although the average albedo shows linear trend with nebulosity index, the pattern changes of albedo with respects to the nebulosity index indicates that there are external factors that implicates the albedo values, as the sky conditions and its diffusion plotted does not have uniform trend over the years, especially when the trend of 5 years interval is examined, 2000 shows high

  16. Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory mus...

  17. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research.

  18. Indian Issues: More Consistent and Timely Tribal Recognition Process Needed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2002-01-01

    ...) regulatory process for federally recognizing Indian tribes. Federal recognition of an Indian tribe can have a tremendous effect on the tribe, surrounding communities, and the nation as a whole...

  19. Greater epitope recognition of shrimp allergens by children than by adults suggests that shrimp sensitization decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Rosalía; Sánchez-Garcia, Silvia; Lin, Jing; Fu, Zhiyan; Ibáñez, María Dolores; Carrillo, Teresa; Blanco, Carlos; Goldis, Marina; Bardina, Ludmila; Sastre, Joaquín; Sampson, Hugh A

    2010-06-01

    Shellfish allergy is a long-lasting disorder typically affecting adults. Despite its high prevalence, there is limited information about allergenic shrimp proteins and the epitopes implicated in such allergic reactions. We sought to identify the IgE-binding epitopes of the 4 shrimp allergens and to characterize epitope recognition profiles of children and adults with shrimp allergy. Fifty-three subjects, 34 children and 19 adults, were selected with immediate allergic reactions to shrimp, increased shrimp-specific serum IgE levels, and positive immunoblot binding to shrimp. Study subjects and 7 nonatopic control subjects were tested by means of peptide microarray for IgE binding with synthetic overlapping peptides spanning the sequences of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp tropomyosin, arginine kinase (AK), myosin light chain (MLC), and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SCP). The Wilcoxon test was used to determine significant differences in z scores between patients and control subjects. The median shrimp IgE level was 4-fold higher in children than in adults (47 vs 12.5 kU(A)/L). The frequency of allergen recognition was higher in children (tropomyosin, 81% [94% for children and 61% for adults]; MLC, 57% [70% for children and 31% for adults]; AK, 51% [67% for children and 21% for adults]; and SCP, 45% [59% for children and 21% for adults]), whereas control subjects showed negligible binding. Seven IgE-binding regions were identified in tropomyosin by means of peptide microarray, confirming previously identified shrimp epitopes. In addition, 3 new epitopes were identified in tropomyosin (epitopes 1, 3, and 5b-c), 5 epitopes were identified in MLC, 3 epitopes were identified in SCP, and 7 epitopes were identified in AK. Interestingly, frequency of individual epitope recognition, as well as intensity of IgE binding, was significantly greater in children than in adults for all 4 proteins. Children with shrimp allergy have greater shrimp-specific IgE antibody levels and

  20. A Dynamic Time Warping Approach to Real-Time Activity Recognition for Food Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Plötz, Thomas; Olivier, Patrick

    We present a dynamic time warping based activity recognition system for the analysis of low-level food preparation activities. Accelerometers embedded into kitchen utensils provide continuous sensor data streams while people are using them for cooking. The recognition framework analyzes frames of contiguous sensor readings in real-time with low latency. It thereby adapts to the idiosyncrasies of utensil use by automatically maintaining a template database. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the classification approach by a number of real-world practical experiments on a publically available dataset. The adaptive system shows superior performance compared to a static recognizer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the generalization capabilities of the system by gradually reducing the amount of training samples. The system achieves excellent classification results even if only a small number of training samples is available, which is especially relevant for real-world scenarios.

  1. Towards Real-Time Speech Emotion Recognition for Affective E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the voice emotion recognition part of the FILTWAM framework for real-time emotion recognition in affective e-learning settings. FILTWAM (Framework for Improving Learning Through Webcams And Microphones) intends to offer timely and appropriate online feedback based upon learner's vocal intonations and facial expressions in order…

  2. Modeling Confidence and Response Time in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    A new model for confidence judgments in recognition memory is presented. In the model, the match between a single test item and memory produces a distribution of evidence, with better matches corresponding to distributions with higher means. On this match dimension, confidence criteria are placed, and the areas between the criteria under the…

  3. The time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chunyan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, two experiments were carried out to investigate the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures. To address the hypothesis that there is an early phonological processing stage independent of semantics during spoken word recognition, a unimodal word-matching paradigm was employed, in which both prime and target words were presented auditorily. Experiment 1 manipulated the phonological relations between disyllabic primes and targets, and found an enhanced P2 (200-270 ms post-target onset) as well as a smaller early N400 to word-initial phonological mismatches over fronto-central scalp sites. Experiment 2 manipulated both phonological and semantic relations between monosyllabic primes and targets, and replicated the phonological mismatch-associated P2, which was not modulated by semantic relations. Overall, these results suggest that P2 is a sensitive electrophysiological index of early phonological processing independent of semantics in Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 4D Unconstrained Real-time Face Recognition Using a Commodity Depthh Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimbinschi, Florin; Wiering, Marco; Mohan, R.E.; Sheba, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Robust unconstrained real-time face recognition still remains a challenge today. The recent addition to the market of lightweight commodity depth sensors brings new possibilities for human-machine interaction and therefore face recognition. This article accompanies the reader through a succinct

  5. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

    2014-10-01

    In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase.

  6. Time-Elastic Generative Model for Acceleration Time Series in Human Activity Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Organero, Mario; Ruiz-Blazquez, Ramona

    2017-02-08

    Body-worn sensors in general and accelerometers in particular have been widely used in order to detect human movements and activities. The execution of each type of movement by each particular individual generates sequences of time series of sensed data from which specific movement related patterns can be assessed. Several machine learning algorithms have been used over windowed segments of sensed data in order to detect such patterns in activity recognition based on intermediate features (either hand-crafted or automatically learned from data). The underlying assumption is that the computed features will capture statistical differences that can properly classify different movements and activities after a training phase based on sensed data. In order to achieve high accuracy and recall rates (and guarantee the generalization of the system to new users), the training data have to contain enough information to characterize all possible ways of executing the activity or movement to be detected. This could imply large amounts of data and a complex and time-consuming training phase, which has been shown to be even more relevant when automatically learning the optimal features to be used. In this paper, we present a novel generative model that is able to generate sequences of time series for characterizing a particular movement based on the time elasticity properties of the sensed data. The model is used to train a stack of auto-encoders in order to learn the particular features able to detect human movements. The results of movement detection using a newly generated database with information on five users performing six different movements are presented. The generalization of results using an existing database is also presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed mechanism is able to obtain acceptable recognition rates ( F = 0.77) even in the case of using different people executing a different sequence of movements and using different hardware.

  7. Time-Elastic Generative Model for Acceleration Time Series in Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Munoz-Organero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Body-worn sensors in general and accelerometers in particular have been widely used in order to detect human movements and activities. The execution of each type of movement by each particular individual generates sequences of time series of sensed data from which specific movement related patterns can be assessed. Several machine learning algorithms have been used over windowed segments of sensed data in order to detect such patterns in activity recognition based on intermediate features (either hand-crafted or automatically learned from data. The underlying assumption is that the computed features will capture statistical differences that can properly classify different movements and activities after a training phase based on sensed data. In order to achieve high accuracy and recall rates (and guarantee the generalization of the system to new users, the training data have to contain enough information to characterize all possible ways of executing the activity or movement to be detected. This could imply large amounts of data and a complex and time-consuming training phase, which has been shown to be even more relevant when automatically learning the optimal features to be used. In this paper, we present a novel generative model that is able to generate sequences of time series for characterizing a particular movement based on the time elasticity properties of the sensed data. The model is used to train a stack of auto-encoders in order to learn the particular features able to detect human movements. The results of movement detection using a newly generated database with information on five users performing six different movements are presented. The generalization of results using an existing database is also presented in the paper. The results show that the proposed mechanism is able to obtain acceptable recognition rates (F = 0.77 even in the case of using different people executing a different sequence of movements and using different

  8. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  9. New technique for real-time distortion-invariant multiobject recognition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rutong; Li, Xiaoshun; Hong, En; Wang, Zuyi; Wei, Hongan

    2001-04-01

    A real-time hybrid distortion-invariant OPR system was established to make 3D multiobject distortion-invariant automatic pattern recognition. Wavelet transform technique was used to make digital preprocessing of the input scene, to depress the noisy background and enhance the recognized object. A three-layer backpropagation artificial neural network was used in correlation signal post-processing to perform multiobject distortion-invariant recognition and classification. The C-80 and NOA real-time processing ability and the multithread programming technology were used to perform high speed parallel multitask processing and speed up the post processing rate to ROIs. The reference filter library was constructed for the distortion version of 3D object model images based on the distortion parameter tolerance measuring as rotation, azimuth and scale. The real-time optical correlation recognition testing of this OPR system demonstrates that using the preprocessing, post- processing, the nonlinear algorithm os optimum filtering, RFL construction technique and the multithread programming technology, a high possibility of recognition and recognition rate ere obtained for the real-time multiobject distortion-invariant OPR system. The recognition reliability and rate was improved greatly. These techniques are very useful to automatic target recognition.

  10. Timing of presentation and nature of stimuli determine retroactive interference with social recognition memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Judith Camats; Wotjak, Carsten T; Stork, Oliver; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-05-01

    The present study was designed to further investigate the nature of stimuli and the timing of their presentation, which can induce retroactive interference with social recognition memory in mice. In accordance with our previous observations, confrontation with an unfamiliar conspecific juvenile 3h and 6h, but not 22 h, after the initial learning session resulted in retroactive interference. The same effect was observed with the exposure to both enantiomers of the monomolecular odour carvone, and with a novel object. Exposure to a loud tone (12 KHz, 90 dB) caused retroactive interference at 6h, but not 3h and 22 h, after sampling. Our data show that retroactive interference of social recognition memory can be induced by exposing the experimental subjects to the defined stimuli presented <22 h after learning in their home cage. The distinct interference triggered by the tone presentation at 6h after sampling may be linked to the intrinsic aversiveness of the loud tone and suggests that at this time point memory consolidation is particularly sensitive to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study on Efficient Robust Speech Recognition with Stochastic Dynamic Time Warping

    OpenAIRE

    孫, 喜浩

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, great progress has been made in automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The hidden Markov model (HMM) and dynamic time warping (DTW) are the two main algorithms which have been widely applied to ASR system. Although, HMM technique achieves higher recognition accuracy in clear speech environment and noisy environment. It needs large-set of words and realizes the algorithm more complexly.Thus, more and more researchers have focused on DTW-based ASR system.Dynamic time warpin...

  12. An HMM-Like Dynamic Time Warping Scheme for Automatic Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Jr Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the kernel of automatic speech recognition (ASR is dynamic time warping (DTW, which is feature-based template matching and belongs to the category technique of dynamic programming (DP. Although DTW is an early developed ASR technique, DTW has been popular in lots of applications. DTW is playing an important role for the known Kinect-based gesture recognition application now. This paper proposed an intelligent speech recognition system using an improved DTW approach for multimedia and home automation services. The improved DTW presented in this work, called HMM-like DTW, is essentially a hidden Markov model- (HMM- like method where the concept of the typical HMM statistical model is brought into the design of DTW. The developed HMM-like DTW method, transforming feature-based DTW recognition into model-based DTW recognition, will be able to behave as the HMM recognition technique and therefore proposed HMM-like DTW with the HMM-like recognition model will have the capability to further perform model adaptation (also known as speaker adaptation. A series of experimental results in home automation-based multimedia access service environments demonstrated the superiority and effectiveness of the developed smart speech recognition system by HMM-like DTW.

  13. Real-time traffic sign recognition based on a general purpose GPU and deep-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kwangyong; Hong, Yongwon; Choi, Yeongwoo; Byun, Hyeran

    2017-01-01

    We present a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) based real-time traffic sign detection and recognition method that is robust against illumination changes. There have been many approaches to traffic sign recognition in various research fields; however, previous approaches faced several limitations when under low illumination or wide variance of light conditions. To overcome these drawbacks and improve processing speeds, we propose a method that 1) is robust against illumination changes, 2) uses GPGPU-based real-time traffic sign detection, and 3) performs region detecting and recognition using a hierarchical model. This method produces stable results in low illumination environments. Both detection and hierarchical recognition are performed in real-time, and the proposed method achieves 0.97 F1-score on our collective dataset, which uses the Vienna convention traffic rules (Germany and South Korea).

  14. Implementing a Real-Time Suggestion Service in a Library Discovery Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pennell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of an effort to improve user interactions with authority data in its online catalog, the UNC Chapel Hill Libraries have developed and implemented a system for providing real-time query suggestions from records found within its catalog. The system takes user input as it is typed to predict likely title, author, or subject matches in a manner functionally similar to the systems found on commercial websites such as google.com or amazon.com. This paper discusses the technologies, decisions and methodologies that went into the implementation of this feature, as well as analysis of its impact on user search behaviors.

  15. Assessment of Time-Lapse in Visible and Thermal Face Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farokhi, Sajad; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, Usman Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 181-186 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : face recognition * moment invariants * Zernike moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/flusser-assessment of time-lapse in visible and thermal face recognition -j.pdf

  16. Memristive Computational Architecture of an Echo State Network for Real-Time Speech Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    recognition is simpler and requires less computational resources compared to other inputs such as facial expressions . The Berlin database of Emotional ...Processing Magazine, IEEE, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 32– 80, 2001. [15] K. R. Scherer, T. Johnstone, and G. Klasmeyer, “Vocal expression of emotion ...Network for Real-Time Speech- Emotion Recognition 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6. AUTHOR(S) Q

  17. Keynes' early recognition and use of the concept of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mogens Ove

    2011-01-01

    Time is of the essence of Keynes work. Of particular interest is that Keynes wrote this paper before he had completed his participation in the lectures of two philosophers, who were both intrigued by notions of time – G. E. Moore and J.M.E. McTaggart – two outstanding representatives of the “Disc...

  18. Enrollment Time as a Requirement for Biometric Hand Recognition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, João; Sá, Vítor; Tenreiro de Magalhães, Sérgio; Santos, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Biometric systems are increasingly being used as a means for authentication to provide system security in modern technologies. The performance of a biometric system depends on the accuracy, the processing speed, the template size, and the time necessary for enrollment. While much research has focused on the first three factors, enrollment time has not received as much attention. In this work, we present the findings of our research focused upon studying user’s behavior when enrolling in...

  19. Haar-like Features for Robust Real-Time Face Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is still a very challenging task when the input face image is noisy, occluded by some obstacles, of very low-resolution, not facing the camera, and not properly illuminated. These problems make the feature extraction and consequently the face recognition system unstable....... The proposed system in this paper introduces the novel idea of using Haar-like features, which have commonly been used for object detection, along with a probabilistic classifier for face recognition. The proposed system is simple, real-time, effective and robust against most of the mentioned problems....... Experimental results on public databases show that the proposed system indeed outperforms the state-of-the-art face recognition systems....

  20. Real-Time (Vision-Based) Road Sign Recognition Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kh Tohidul; Raj, Ram Gopal

    2017-01-01

    Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are ‘traffic light ahead’ or ‘pedestrian crossing’ indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications. PMID:28406471

  1. Real-Time (Vision-Based) Road Sign Recognition Using an Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kh Tohidul; Raj, Ram Gopal

    2017-04-13

    Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are 'traffic light ahead' or 'pedestrian crossing' indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications.

  2. The peak of oil production-Timings and market recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Pedro de; Silva, Pedro D.

    2009-01-01

    Energy is essential for present societies. In particular, transportation systems depend on petroleum-based fuels. That world oil production is set to pass a peak is now a reasonably accepted concept, although its date is far from consensual. In this work, we analyze the true expectations of the oil market participants about the future availability of this fundamental energy source. We study the evolution through time of the curves of crude oil futures prices, and we conclude that the market participants, among them the crude oil producers, already expect a near-term peak of oil production. This agrees with many technical predictions for the date of peak production, including our own, that point to peak dates around the end of the present decade. If this scenario is confirmed, it can cause serious social and economical problems because societies will have little time to perform the necessary adjustments

  3. Unsupervised Learning of Digit Recognition Using Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U. Diehl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how the mammalian neocortex is performing computations, two things are necessary; we need to have a good understanding of the available neuronal processing units and mechanisms, and we need to gain a better understanding of how those mechanisms are combined to build functioning systems. Therefore, in recent years there is an increasing interest in how spiking neural networks (SNN can be used to perform complex computations or solve pattern recognition tasks. However, it remains a challenging task to design SNNs which use biologically plausible mechanisms (especially for learning new patterns, since most of such SNN architectures rely on training in a rate-based network and subsequent conversion to a SNN. We present a SNN for digit recognition which is based on mechanisms with increased biological plausibility, i.e. conductance-based instead of current-based synapses, spike-timing-dependent plasticity with time-dependent weight change, lateral inhibition, and an adaptive spiking threshold. Unlike most other systems, we do not use a teaching signal and do not present any class labels to the network. Using this unsupervised learning scheme, our architecture achieves 95% accuracy on the MNIST benchmark, which is better than previous SNN implementations without supervision. The fact that we used no domain-specific knowledge points toward the general applicability of our network design. Also, the performance of our network scales well with the number of neurons used and shows similar performance for four different learning rules, indicating robustness of the full combination of mechanisms, which suggests applicability in heterogeneous biological neural networks.

  4. The strength and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck in salmon suggests a conserved mechanism in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonci N Wolff

    Full Text Available In most species mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is inherited maternally in an apparently clonal fashion, although how this is achieved remains uncertain. Population genetic studies show not only that individuals can harbor more than one type of mtDNA (heteroplasmy but that heteroplasmy is common and widespread across a diversity of taxa. Females harboring a mixture of mtDNAs may transmit varying proportions of each mtDNA type (haplotype to their offspring. However, mtDNA variants are also observed to segregate rapidly between generations despite the high mtDNA copy number in the oocyte, which suggests a genetic bottleneck acts during mtDNA transmission. Understanding the size and timing of this bottleneck is important for interpreting population genetic relationships and for predicting the inheritance of mtDNA based disease, but despite its importance the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Empirical studies, restricted to mice, have shown that the mtDNA bottleneck could act either at embryogenesis, oogenesis or both. To investigate whether the size and timing of the mitochondrial bottleneck is conserved between distant vertebrates, we measured the genetic variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy at three developmental stages (female, ova and fry in chinook salmon and applied a new mathematical model to estimate the number of segregating units (N(e of the mitochondrial bottleneck between each stage. Using these data we estimate values for mtDNA Ne of 88.3 for oogenesis, and 80.3 for embryogenesis. Our results confirm the presence of a mitochondrial bottleneck in fish, and show that segregation of mtDNA variation is effectively complete by the end of oogenesis. Considering the extensive differences in reproductive physiology between fish and mammals, our results suggest the mechanism underlying the mtDNA bottleneck is conserved in these distant vertebrates both in terms of it magnitude and timing. This finding may lead to improvements in our understanding of

  5. A Hierarchical Approach to Real-time Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2012-01-01

    Real-time activity recognition in body sensor networks is an important and challenging task. In this paper, we propose a real-time, hierarchical model to recognize both simple gestures and complex activities using a wireless body sensor network. In this model, we rst use a fast and lightweight al...

  6. Recognition of Action as a Bayesian Parameter Estimation Problem over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss two problems related to action recognition: The first problem is the one of identifying in a surveillance scenario whether a person is walking or running and in what rough direction. The second problem is concerned with the recovery of action primitives from observed...... complex actions. Both problems will be discussed within a statistical framework. Bayesian propagation over time offers a framework to treat likelihood observations at each time step and the dynamics between the time steps in a unified manner. The first problem will be approached as a patter recognition...... of the Bayesian framework for action recognition and round up our discussion....

  7. Marginalised Stacked Denoising Autoencoders for Robust Representation of Real-Time Multi-View Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-view action recognition has gained a great interest in video surveillance, human computer interaction, and multimedia retrieval, where multiple cameras of different types are deployed to provide a complementary field of views. Fusion of multiple camera views evidently leads to more robust decisions on both tracking multiple targets and analysing complex human activities, especially where there are occlusions. In this paper, we incorporate the marginalised stacked denoising autoencoders (mSDA algorithm to further improve the bag of words (BoWs representation in terms of robustness and usefulness for multi-view action recognition. The resulting representations are fed into three simple fusion strategies as well as a multiple kernel learning algorithm at the classification stage. Based on the internal evaluation, the codebook size of BoWs and the number of layers of mSDA may not significantly affect recognition performance. According to results on three multi-view benchmark datasets, the proposed framework improves recognition performance across all three datasets and outputs record recognition performance, beating the state-of-art algorithms in the literature. It is also capable of performing real-time action recognition at a frame rate ranging from 33 to 45, which could be further improved by using more powerful machines in future applications.

  8. Sistem Kontrol Akses Berbasis Real Time Face Recognition dan Gender Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Nurmala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition and gender information is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person's face from a camera to capture a person's face. It is usually used in access control systemsand it can be compared to other biometrics such as finger print identification system or iris. Many of face recognition algorithms have been developed in recent years. Face recognition system and gender information inthis system based on the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA. Computational method has a simple and fast compared with the use of the method requires a lot of learning, such as artificial neural network. In thisaccess control system, relay used and Arduino controller. In this essay focuses on face recognition and gender - based information in real time using the method of Principal Component Analysis ( PCA . The result achievedfrom the application design is the identification of a person’s face with gender using PCA. The results achieved by the application is face recognition system using PCA can obtain good results the 85 % success rate in face recognition with face images that have been tested by a few people and a fairly high degree of accuracy.

  9. Investigation of Time Series Representations and Similarity Measures for Structural Damage Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate.

  10. Investigation of Time Series Representations and Similarity Measures for Structural Damage Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, R. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the time series representation methods and similarity measures for sensor data feature extraction and structural damage pattern recognition. Both model-based time series representation and dimensionality reduction methods are studied to compare the effectiveness of feature extraction for damage pattern recognition. The evaluation of feature extraction methods is performed by examining the separation of feature vectors among different damage patterns and the pattern recognition success rate. In addition, the impact of similarity measures on the pattern recognition success rate and the metrics for damage localization are also investigated. The test data used in this study are from the System Identification to Monitor Civil Engineering Structures (SIMCES) Z24 Bridge damage detection tests, a rigorous instrumentation campaign that recorded the dynamic performance of a concrete box-girder bridge under progressively increasing damage scenarios. A number of progressive damage test case datasets and damage test data with different damage modalities are used. The simulation results show that both time series representation methods and similarity measures have significant impact on the pattern recognition success rate. PMID:24191136

  11. [Intermodal timing cues for audio-visual speech recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of lip-reading advantages for Japanese young adults by desynchronizing visual and auditory information in speech. In the experiment, audio-visual speech stimuli were presented under the six test conditions: audio-alone, and audio-visually with either 0, 60, 120, 240 or 480 ms of audio delay. The stimuli were the video recordings of a face of a female Japanese speaking long and short Japanese sentences. The intelligibility of the audio-visual stimuli was measured as a function of audio delays in sixteen untrained young subjects. Speech intelligibility under the audio-delay condition of less than 120 ms was significantly better than that under the audio-alone condition. On the other hand, the delay of 120 ms corresponded to the mean mora duration measured for the audio stimuli. The results implied that audio delays of up to 120 ms would not disrupt lip-reading advantage, because visual and auditory information in speech seemed to be integrated on a syllabic time scale. Potential applications of this research include noisy workplace in which a worker must extract relevant speech from all the other competing noises.

  12. Real-time Pedestrian Crossing Recognition for Assistive Outdoor Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Simone; Frigerio, Alessandro; Fanucci, Luca; Li, William

    2015-01-01

    Navigation in urban environments can be difficult for people who are blind or visually impaired. In this project, we present a system and algorithms for recognizing pedestrian crossings in outdoor environments. Our goal is to provide navigation cues for crossing the street and reaching an island or sidewalk safely. Using a state-of-the-art Multisense S7S sensor, we collected 3D pointcloud data for real-time detection of pedestrian crossing and generation of directional guidance. We demonstrate improvements to a baseline, monocular-camera-based system by integrating 3D spatial prior information extracted from the pointcloud. Our system's parameters can be set to the actual dimensions of real-world settings, which enables robustness of occlusion and perspective transformation. The system works especially well in non-occlusion situations, and is reasonably accurate under different kind of conditions. As well, our large dataset of pedestrian crossings, organized by different types and situations of pedestrian crossings in order to reflect real-word environments, is publicly available in a commonly used format (ROS bagfiles) for further research.

  13. Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

  14. The Onset and Time Course of Semantic Priming during Rapid Recognition of Visual Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedemaker, Renske S.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we assessed the effects of response latency and task-induced goals on the onset and time course of semantic priming during rapid processing of visual words as revealed by ocular response tasks. In Experiment 1 (Ocular Lexical Decision Task), participants performed a lexical decision task using eye-movement responses on a sequence of four words. In Experiment 2, the same words were encoded for an episodic recognition memory task that did not require a meta-linguistic judgment. For both tasks, survival analyses showed that the earliest-observable effect (Divergence Point or DP) of semantic priming on target-word reading times occurred at approximately 260 ms, and ex-Gaussian distribution fits revealed that the magnitude of the priming effect increased as a function of response time. Together, these distributional effects of semantic priming suggest that the influence of the prime increases when target processing is more effortful. This effect does not require that the task include a metalinguistic judgment; manipulation of the task goals across experiments affected the overall response speed but not the location of the DP or the overall distributional pattern of the priming effect. These results are more readily explained as the result of a retrospective rather than a prospective priming mechanism and are consistent with compound-cue models of semantic priming. PMID:28230394

  15. The crystal structure of the Sox4 HMG domain-DNA complex suggests a mechanism for positional interdependence in DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Ng, Calista K L; Narasimhan, Kamesh; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2012-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that the sequence preferences of DNA-binding TFs (transcription factors) can be well described by models that include the positional interdependence of the nucleotides of the target sites. Such binding models allow for multiple motifs to be invoked, such as principal and secondary motifs differing at two or more nucleotide positions. However, the structural mechanisms underlying the accommodation of such variant motifs by TFs remain elusive. In the present study we examine the crystal structure of the HMG (high-mobility group) domain of Sox4 [Sry (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome)-related HMG box 4] bound to DNA. By comparing this structure with previously solved structures of Sox17 and Sox2, we observed subtle conformational differences at the DNA-binding interface. Furthermore, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility-shift assays we validated the positional interdependence of two nucleotides and the presence of a secondary Sox motif in the affinity landscape of Sox4. These results suggest that a concerted rearrangement of two interface amino acids enables Sox4 to accommodate primary and secondary motifs. The structural adaptations lead to altered dinucleotide preferences that mutually reinforce each other. These analyses underline the complexity of the DNA recognition by TFs and provide an experimental validation for the conceptual framework of positional interdependence and secondary binding motifs.

  16. A SIMD-VLIW Smart Camera Architecture for Real-Time Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleihorst, R.P.; Broers, H.A.T.; Abbo, A.A.; Ebrahimmalek, H.; Fatemi, H.; Corporaal, H.; Jonker, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for using smart cameras for various applications in surveillance and identification. Although having a small form-factor, most of these applications demand huge processing performance for real-time processing. Face recognition is one of those applications. In this

  17. Real-time Human Activity Recognition using a Body Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Real-time activity recognition using body sensor networks is an important and challenging task and it has many potential applications. In this paper, we propose a realtime, hierarchical model to recognize both simple gestures and complex activities using a wireless body sensor network. In this mo...

  18. Additive and Interactive Effects on Response Time Distributions in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Across 3 different word recognition tasks, distributional analyses were used to examine the joint effects of stimulus quality and word frequency on underlying response time distributions. Consistent with the extant literature, stimulus quality and word frequency produced additive effects in lexical decision, not only in the means but also in the…

  19. NUI framework based on real-time head pose estimation and hand gesture recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunduk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural user interface (NUI is used for the natural motion interface without using device or tool such as mice, keyboards, pens and markers. In this paper, we develop natural user interface framework based on two recognition module. First module is real-time head pose estimation module using random forests and second module is hand gesture recognition module, named Hand gesture Key Emulation Toolkit (HandGKET. Using the head pose estimation module, we can know where the user is looking and what the user’s focus of attention is. Moreover, using the hand gesture recognition module, we can also control the computer using the user’s hand gesture without mouse and keyboard. In proposed framework, the user’s head direction and hand gesture are mapped into mouse and keyboard event, respectively.

  20. Adaptive pattern recognition in real-time video-based soccer analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlipsing, Marc; Salmen, Jan; Tschentscher, Marc

    2017-01-01

    are taken into account. Our contribution is twofold: (1) the deliberate use of machine learning and pattern recognition techniques allows us to achieve high classification accuracy in varying environments. We systematically evaluate combinations of image features and learning machines in the given online......Computer-aided sports analysis is demanded by coaches and the media. Image processing and machine learning techniques that allow for "live" recognition and tracking of players exist. But these methods are far from collecting and analyzing event data fully autonomously. To generate accurate results......, human interaction is required at different stages including system setup, calibration, supervision of classifier training, and resolution of tracking conflicts. Furthermore, the real-time constraints are challenging: in contrast to other object recognition and tracking applications, we cannot treat data...

  1. Speech Silicon: An FPGA Architecture for Real-Time Hidden Markov-Model-Based Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design of an FPGA-based system-on-a-chip capable of performing continuous speech recognition on medium sized vocabularies in real time. Through the creation of three dedicated pipelines, one for each of the major operations in the system, we were able to maximize the throughput of the system while simultaneously minimizing the number of pipeline stalls in the system. Further, by implementing a token-passing scheme between the later stages of the system, the complexity of the control was greatly reduced and the amount of active data present in the system at any time was minimized. Additionally, through in-depth analysis of the SPHINX 3 large vocabulary continuous speech recognition engine, we were able to design models that could be efficiently benchmarked against a known software platform. These results, combined with the ability to reprogram the system for different recognition tasks, serve to create a system capable of performing real-time speech recognition in a vast array of environments.

  2. Speech Silicon: An FPGA Architecture for Real-Time Hidden Markov-Model-Based Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K. Jones

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design of an FPGA-based system-on-a-chip capable of performing continuous speech recognition on medium sized vocabularies in real time. Through the creation of three dedicated pipelines, one for each of the major operations in the system, we were able to maximize the throughput of the system while simultaneously minimizing the number of pipeline stalls in the system. Further, by implementing a token-passing scheme between the later stages of the system, the complexity of the control was greatly reduced and the amount of active data present in the system at any time was minimized. Additionally, through in-depth analysis of the SPHINX 3 large vocabulary continuous speech recognition engine, we were able to design models that could be efficiently benchmarked against a known software platform. These results, combined with the ability to reprogram the system for different recognition tasks, serve to create a system capable of performing real-time speech recognition in a vast array of environments.

  3. Real-time Multiresolution Crosswalk Detection with Walk Light Recognition for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMIC, K.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Real-time image processing and object detection techniques have a great potential to be applied in digital assistive tools for the blind and visually impaired persons. In this paper, algorithm for crosswalk detection and walk light recognition is proposed with the main aim to help blind person when crossing the road. The proposed algorithm is optimized to work in real-time on portable devices using standard cameras. Images captured by camera are processed while person is moving and decision about detected crosswalk is provided as an output along with the information about walk light if one is present. Crosswalk detection method is based on multiresolution morphological image processing, while the walk light recognition is performed by proposed 6-stage algorithm. The main contributions of this paper are accurate crosswalk detection with small processing time due to multiresolution processing and the recognition of the walk lights covering only small amount of pixels in image. The experiment is conducted using images from video sequences captured in realistic situations on crossings. The results show 98.3% correct crosswalk detections and 89.5% correct walk lights recognition with average processing speed of about 16 frames per second.

  4. The time course of individual face recognition: A pattern analysis of ERP signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemrodov, Dan; Niemeier, Matthias; Mok, Jenkin Ngo Yin; Nestor, Adrian

    2016-05-15

    An extensive body of work documents the time course of neural face processing in the human visual cortex. However, the majority of this work has focused on specific temporal landmarks, such as N170 and N250 components, derived through univariate analyses of EEG data. Here, we take on a broader evaluation of ERP signals related to individual face recognition as we attempt to move beyond the leading theoretical and methodological framework through the application of pattern analysis to ERP data. Specifically, we investigate the spatiotemporal profile of identity recognition across variation in emotional expression. To this end, we apply pattern classification to ERP signals both in time, for any single electrode, and in space, across multiple electrodes. Our results confirm the significance of traditional ERP components in face processing. At the same time though, they support the idea that the temporal profile of face recognition is incompletely described by such components. First, we show that signals associated with different facial identities can be discriminated from each other outside the scope of these components, as early as 70ms following stimulus presentation. Next, electrodes associated with traditional ERP components as well as, critically, those not associated with such components are shown to contribute information to stimulus discriminability. And last, the levels of ERP-based pattern discrimination are found to correlate with recognition accuracy across subjects confirming the relevance of these methods for bridging brain and behavior data. Altogether, the current results shed new light on the fine-grained time course of neural face processing and showcase the value of novel methods for pattern analysis to investigating fundamental aspects of visual recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Qu, Qingqing; Ni, Aiping; Zhou, Junyi; Li, Xingshan

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the time course of morphological processing during spoken word recognition using the printed-word paradigm. Chinese participants were asked to listen to a spoken disyllabic compound word while simultaneously viewing a printed-word display. Each visual display consisted of three printed words: a semantic associate of the first constituent of the compound word (morphemic competitor), a semantic associate of the whole compound word (whole-word competitor), and an unrelated word (distractor). Participants were directed to detect whether the spoken target word was on the visual display. Results indicated that both the morphemic and whole-word competitors attracted more fixations than the distractor. More importantly, the morphemic competitor began to diverge from the distractor immediately at the acoustic offset of the first constituent, which was earlier than the whole-word competitor. These results suggest that lexical access to the auditory word is incremental and morphological processing (i.e., semantic access to the first constituent) that occurs at an early processing stage before access to the representation of the whole word in Chinese.

  6. Effects of study time and meaningfulness on environmental context-dependent recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarida, Takeo; Isarida, Toshiko K; Sakai, Tetsuya

    2012-11-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether the size of place-context-dependent recognition decreased with study time and with the meaningfulness of the to-be-remembered materials. A group of 80 undergraduates intentionally studied a list of words in a short (1.5 s per item) or a long (4.0 s per item) study-time condition (Exp. 1). Another 40 undergraduates studied lists consisting of words and nonwords in the long-study-time condition (Exp. 2). After a short retention interval, recognition for the targets was tested in the same or in a different context. Context was manipulated by means of the combination of place, subsidiary task, and experimenter. Significant context-dependent recognition discrimination was found for words in the short-study-time condition (Exp. 1), but not in the long-study-time condition (Exps. 1 and 2). Significant effects were found as well for nonwords, even in the long-study-time condition (Exp. 2). These results are explained well by an outshining account: that is, by principles of outshining and encoding specificity.

  7. A Latent Growth Model Suggests that Empathy of Medical Students Does Not Decline over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Patrício; Magalhães, Eunice; Costa, Manuel João

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is a relevant attribute in the context of patient care. However, a decline in empathy throughout medical education has been reported in North-American medical schools, particularly, in the transition to clinical training. The present study aims to longitudinally model empathy during medical school at three time points: at the entrance,…

  8. Matters of Suggestibility, Memory and Time: Child Witnesses in Court and What Really Happened

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna F. Motzkau

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of an increasing awareness of child abuse over the last few decades, children have been admitted as court witnesses more frequently, yet there has been persistent wariness about the reliability of their testimony. Examining the interaction of legal rationales and paradigms of developmental psychology, it would appear that children are still frequently positioned as deficient and passive witnesses. Three tropes can be distinguished: 1. Children are positioned as unreliable containers of facts. 2. Children have proved to be irritable dispensers of information. 3. Children are volatile interactants. In this paper I will examine how the English legal system employs special measures that are designed to manage children's apparent deficiencies while guaranteeing the accuracy and admissibility of their evidence. My analysis unfolds around the specific case of video recorded evidence. Using courtroom observations and data from interviews with legal professionals, I will follow the trajectory of the video from its planning and recording by the police to its presentation in court. Inspired by the work of Isabelle STENGERS and Bruno LATOUR, and drawing on discourse analytical tools, I will show that the collision of the different time zones of veridicality creates circumstances under which the video itself can become an ambiguous agent and ultimately a fanciful witness. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701145

  9. An analog VLSI real time optical character recognition system based on a neural architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo, G.; Caviglia, D.; Valle, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a real time Optical Character Recognition system is presented: it is based on a feature extraction module and a neural network classifier which have been designed and fabricated in analog VLSI technology. Experimental results validate the circuit functionality. The results obtained from a validation based on a mixed approach (i.e., an approach based on both experimental and simulation results) confirm the soundness and reliability of the system

  10. An analog VLSI real time optical character recognition system based on a neural architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, G.; Caviglia, D.; Valle, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dip. of Biophysical and Electronic Engineering

    1999-03-01

    In this paper a real time Optical Character Recognition system is presented: it is based on a feature extraction module and a neural network classifier which have been designed and fabricated in analog VLSI technology. Experimental results validate the circuit functionality. The results obtained from a validation based on a mixed approach (i.e., an approach based on both experimental and simulation results) confirm the soundness and reliability of the system.

  11. A Real-time Face/Hand Tracking Method for Chinese Sign Language Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new Chinese Sign Language recognition (CSLR) system and a method of real-time tracking face and hand applied in the system. In the method, an improved agent algorithm is used to extract the region of face and hand and track them. Kalman filter is introduced to forecast the position and rectangle of search, and self-adapting of target color is designed to counteract the effect of illumination.

  12. Anisomycin administered in the olfactory bulb and dorsal hippocampus impaired social recognition memory consolidation in different time-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, R R; Pereira-Caixeta, A R; Moraes, M F D; Pereira, G S

    2014-10-01

    To identify an individual as familiar, rodents form a specific type of memory named social recognition memory. The olfactory bulb (OB) is an important structure for social recognition memory, while the hippocampus recruitment is still controversial. The present study was designed to elucidate the OB and the dorsal hippocampus contribution to the consolidation of social memory. For that purpose, we tested the effect of anisomycin (ANI), which one of the effects is the inhibition of protein synthesis, on the consolidation of social recognition memory. Swiss adult mice with cannulae implanted into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or into the OB were exposed to a juvenile during 5 min (training session; TR), and once again 1.5 h or 24 h later to test social short-term memory (S-STM) or social long-term memory (S-LTM), respectively. To study S-LTM consolidation, mice received intra-OB or intra-CA1 infusion of saline or ANI immediately, 3, 6 or 18 h after TR. ANI impaired S-LTM consolidation in the OB, when administered immediately or 6h after TR. In the dorsal hippocampus, ANI was amnesic only if administered 3 h after TR. Furthermore, the infusion of ANI in either OB or CA1, immediately after training, did not affect S-STM. Moreover, ANI administered into the OB did not alter the animal's performance in the buried food-finding task. Altogether, our results suggest the consolidation of S-LTM requires both OB and hippocampus participation, although in different time points. This study may help shedding light on the specific roles of the OB and dorsal hippocampus in social recognition memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Brief report: accuracy and response time for the recognition of facial emotions in a large sample of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Wierda, Marlies; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander

    2014-09-01

    The empirical literature has presented inconsistent evidence for deficits in the recognition of basic emotion expressions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which may be due to the focus on research with relatively small sample sizes. Additionally, it is proposed that although children with ASD may correctly identify emotion expression they rely on more deliberate, more time-consuming strategies in order to accurately recognize emotion expressions when compared to typically developing children. In the current study, we examine both emotion recognition accuracy and response time in a large sample of children, and explore the moderating influence of verbal ability on these findings. The sample consisted of 86 children with ASD (M age = 10.65) and 114 typically developing children (M age = 10.32) between 7 and 13 years of age. All children completed a pre-test (emotion word-word matching), and test phase consisting of basic emotion recognition, whereby they were required to match a target emotion expression to the correct emotion word; accuracy and response time were recorded. Verbal IQ was controlled for in the analyses. We found no evidence of a systematic deficit in emotion recognition accuracy or response time for children with ASD, controlling for verbal ability. However, when controlling for children's accuracy in word-word matching, children with ASD had significantly lower emotion recognition accuracy when compared to typically developing children. The findings suggest that the social impairments observed in children with ASD are not the result of marked deficits in basic emotion recognition accuracy or longer response times. However, children with ASD may be relying on other perceptual skills (such as advanced word-word matching) to complete emotion recognition tasks at a similar level as typically developing children.

  14. Knowledge fusion: An approach to time series model selection followed by pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleasdale, S.A.; Burr, T.L.; Scovel, J.C.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes work done during FY 95 that was sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Nonproliferation and National Security, Knowledge Fusion Project. The project team selected satellite sensor data to use as the one main example for the application of its analysis algorithms. The specific sensor-fusion problem has many generic features, which make it a worthwhile problem to attempt to solve in a general way. The generic problem is to recognize events of interest from multiple time series that define a possibly noisy background. By implementing a suite of time series modeling and forecasting methods and using well-chosen alarm criteria, we reduce the number of false alarms. We then further reduce the number of false alarms by analyzing all suspicious sections of data, as judged by the alarm criteria, with pattern recognition methods. An accompanying report (Ref 1) describes the implementation and application of this 2-step process for separating events from unusual background and applies a suite of forecasting methods followed by a suite of pattern recognition methods. This report goes into more detail about one of the forecasting methods and one of the pattern recognition methods and is applied to the same kind of satellite-sensor data that is described in Ref. 1

  15. Energy-Efficient Real-Time Human Activity Recognition on Smart Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, human activity recognition (HAR plays an important role in wellness-care and context-aware systems. Human activities can be recognized in real-time by using sensory data collected from various sensors built in smart mobile devices. Recent studies have focused on HAR that is solely based on triaxial accelerometers, which is the most energy-efficient approach. However, such HAR approaches are still energy-inefficient because the accelerometer is required to run without stopping so that the physical activity of a user can be recognized in real-time. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for HAR process that controls the activity recognition duration for energy-efficient HAR. We investigated the impact of varying the acceleration-sampling frequency and window size for HAR by using the variable activity recognition duration (VARD strategy. We implemented our approach by using an Android platform and evaluated its performance in terms of energy efficiency and accuracy. The experimental results showed that our approach reduced energy consumption by a minimum of about 44.23% and maximum of about 78.85% compared to conventional HAR without sacrificing accuracy.

  16. Ignorance- versus evidence-based decision making: a decision time analysis of the recognition heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Pohl, Rüdiger F

    2009-09-01

    According to part of the adaptive toolbox notion of decision making known as the recognition heuristic (RH), the decision process in comparative judgments-and its duration-is determined by whether recognition discriminates between objects. By contrast, some recently proposed alternative models predict that choices largely depend on the amount of evidence speaking for each of the objects and that decision times thus depend on the evidential difference between objects, or the degree of conflict between options. This article presents 3 experiments that tested predictions derived from the RH against those from alternative models. All experiments used naturally recognized objects without teaching participants any information and thus provided optimal conditions for application of the RH. However, results supported the alternative, evidence-based models and often conflicted with the RH. Recognition was not the key determinant of decision times, whereas differences between objects with respect to (both positive and negative) evidence predicted effects well. In sum, alternative models that allow for the integration of different pieces of information may well provide a better account of comparative judgments. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Independent Component Analysis and Time-Frequency Masking for Speech Recognition in Multitalker Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhold Orglmeister

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When a number of speakers are simultaneously active, for example in meetings or noisy public places, the sources of interest need to be separated from interfering speakers and from each other in order to be robustly recognized. Independent component analysis (ICA has proven a valuable tool for this purpose. However, ICA outputs can still contain strong residual components of the interfering speakers whenever noise or reverberation is high. In such cases, nonlinear postprocessing can be applied to the ICA outputs, for the purpose of reducing remaining interferences. In order to improve robustness to the artefacts and loss of information caused by this process, recognition can be greatly enhanced by considering the processed speech feature vector as a random variable with time-varying uncertainty, rather than as deterministic. The aim of this paper is to show the potential to improve recognition of multiple overlapping speech signals through nonlinear postprocessing together with uncertainty-based decoding techniques.

  18. Role of short-time acoustic temporal fine structure cues in sentence recognition for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Limin; Xu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Short-time processing was employed to manipulate the amplitude, bandwidth, and temporal fine structure (TFS) in sentences. Fifty-two native-English-speaking, normal-hearing listeners participated in four sentence-recognition experiments. Results showed that recovered envelope (E) played an important role in speech recognition when the bandwidth was > 1 equivalent rectangular bandwidth. Removing TFS drastically reduced sentence recognition. Preserving TFS greatly improved sentence recognition when amplitude information was available at a rate ≥ 10 Hz (i.e., time segment ≤ 100 ms). Therefore, the short-time TFS facilitates speech perception together with the recovered E and works with the coarse amplitude cues to provide useful information for speech recognition.

  19. Examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet. Suggestions for leisure time activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.; Kuruc, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter some examples of verification knowledge and testing of the secondary students through the worksheet as well as suggestions for leisure time activities are presented. Used and recommended literature is included.

  20. Two-dimensional statistical linear discriminant analysis for real-time robust vehicle-type recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, I.; Edirisinghe, E. A.; Acar, S.; Bez, H. E.

    2007-02-01

    Automatic vehicle Make and Model Recognition (MMR) systems provide useful performance enhancements to vehicle recognitions systems that are solely based on Automatic License Plate Recognition (ALPR) systems. Several car MMR systems have been proposed in literature. However these approaches are based on feature detection algorithms that can perform sub-optimally under adverse lighting and/or occlusion conditions. In this paper we propose a real time, appearance based, car MMR approach using Two Dimensional Linear Discriminant Analysis that is capable of addressing this limitation. We provide experimental results to analyse the proposed algorithm's robustness under varying illumination and occlusions conditions. We have shown that the best performance with the proposed 2D-LDA based car MMR approach is obtained when the eigenvectors of lower significance are ignored. For the given database of 200 car images of 25 different make-model classifications, a best accuracy of 91% was obtained with the 2D-LDA approach. We use a direct Principle Component Analysis (PCA) based approach as a benchmark to compare and contrast the performance of the proposed 2D-LDA approach to car MMR. We conclude that in general the 2D-LDA based algorithm supersedes the performance of the PCA based approach.

  1. Applications of PCA and SVM-PSO Based Real-Time Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper incorporates principal component analysis (PCA with support vector machine-particle swarm optimization (SVM-PSO for developing real-time face recognition systems. The integrated scheme aims to adopt the SVM-PSO method to improve the validity of PCA based image recognition systems on dynamically visual perception. The face recognition for most human-robot interaction applications is accomplished by PCA based method because of its dimensionality reduction. However, PCA based systems are only suitable for processing the faces with the same face expressions and/or under the same view directions. Since the facial feature selection process can be considered as a problem of global combinatorial optimization in machine learning, the SVM-PSO is usually used as an optimal classifier of the system. In this paper, the PSO is used to implement a feature selection, and the SVMs serve as fitness functions of the PSO for classification problems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method simplifies features effectively and obtains higher classification accuracy.

  2. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  3. Recognition of Time Stamps on Full-Disk Hα Images Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Huang, N.; Jing, J.; Liu, C.; Wang, H.; Fu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Observation and understanding of the physics of the 11-year solar activity cycle and 22-year magnetic cycle are among the most important research topics in solar physics. The solar cycle is responsible for magnetic field and particle fluctuation in the near-earth environment that have been found increasingly important in affecting the living of human beings in the modern era. A systematic study of large-scale solar activities, as made possible by our rich data archive, will further help us to understand the global-scale magnetic fields that are closely related to solar cycles. The long-time-span data archive includes both full-disk and high-resolution Hα images. Prior to the widely use of CCD cameras in 1990s, 35-mm films were the major media to store images. The research group at NJIT recently finished the digitization of film data obtained by the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) covering the period of 1953 to 2000. The total volume of data exceeds 60 TB. To make this huge database scientific valuable, some processing and calibration are required. One of the most important steps is to read the time stamps on all of the 14 million images, which is almost impossible to be done manually. We implemented three different methods to recognize the time stamps automatically, including Optical Character Recognition (OCR), Classification Tree and TensorFlow. The latter two are known as machine learning algorithms which are very popular now a day in pattern recognition area. We will present some sample images and the results of clock recognition from all three methods.

  4. Human Activity Recognition in Real-Times Environments using Skeleton Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, we proposed a most effective noble approach for Human activity recognition in real-time environments. We recognize several distinct dynamic human activity actions using kinect. A 3D skeleton data is processed from real-time video gesture to sequence of frames and getter skeleton joints (Energy Joints, orientation, rotations of joint angles from selected setof frames. We are using joint angle and orientations, rotations information from Kinect therefore less computation required. However, after extracting the set of frames we implemented several classification techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA with several distance based classifiers and Artificial Neural Network (ANN respectively with some variants for classify our all different gesture models. However, we conclude that use very less number of frame (10-15% for train our system efficiently from the entire set of gesture frames. Moreover, after successfully completion of our classification methods we clinch an excellent overall accuracy 94%, 96% and 98% respectively. We finally observe that our proposed system is more useful than comparing to other existing system, therefore our model is best suitable for real-time application such as in video games for player action/gesture recognition.

  5. Real-time billboard trademark detection and recognition in sports video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiang; Lao, Song-Yan; Bai, Liang

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, different applications like automatic video indexing, keyword based video search and TV commercials can be developed by detecting and recognizing the billboard trademark. We propose a hierarchical solution for real-time billboard trademark recognition in various sports video, billboard frames are detected in the first level, fuzzy decision tree with easily-computing features are employed to accelerate the process, while in the second level, color and regional SIFT features are combined for the first time to describe the appearance of trademarks, and the shared nearest neighbor (SNN) clustering with x2 distance is utilized instead of traditional K-means clustering to construct the SIFT vocabulary, at last, Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based SIFT vocabulary matching is performed on the template trademark and the candidate regions in billboard frame. The preliminary experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the hierarchical solution, and real time constraints are also met by our solution.

  6. Iris unwrapping using the Bresenham circle algorithm for real-time iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Matthew T.; Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.

    2015-02-01

    An efficient parallel architecture design for the iris unwrapping process in a real-time iris recognition system using the Bresenham Circle Algorithm is presented in this paper. Based on the characteristics of the model parameters this algorithm was chosen over the widely used polar conversion technique as the iris unwrapping model. The architecture design is parallelized to increase the throughput of the system and is suitable for processing an inputted image size of 320 × 240 pixels in real-time using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Quartus software is used to implement, verify, and analyze the design's performance using the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The system's predicted processing time is faster than the modern iris unwrapping technique used today∗.

  7. Robust parameterization of time-frequency characteristics for recognition of musical genres of Mexican culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rosas, Osvaldo G.; Rivera Martínez, José L.; Maldonado Cano, Luis A.; López Rodríguez, Mario; Amaya Reyes, Laura M.; Cano Martínez, Elizabeth; García Vázquez, Mireya S.; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro A.

    2017-09-01

    The automatic identification and classification of musical genres based on the sound similarities to form musical textures, it is a very active investigation area. In this context it has been created recognition systems of musical genres, formed by time-frequency characteristics extraction methods and by classification methods. The selection of this methods are important for a good development in the recognition systems. In this article they are proposed the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) methods as a characteristic extractor and Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a classifier for our system. The stablished parameters of the MFCC method in the system by our time-frequency analysis, represents the gamma of Mexican culture musical genres in this article. For the precision of a classification system of musical genres it is necessary that the descriptors represent the correct spectrum of each gender; to achieve this we must realize a correct parametrization of the MFCC like the one we present in this article. With the system developed we get satisfactory detection results, where the least identification percentage of musical genres was 66.67% and the one with the most precision was 100%.

  8. Automatic data-driven real-time segmentation and recognition of surgical workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergachyova, Olga; Bouget, David; Huaulmé, Arnaud; Morandi, Xavier; Jannin, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    With the intention of extending the perception and action of surgical staff inside the operating room, the medical community has expressed a growing interest towards context-aware systems. Requiring an accurate identification of the surgical workflow, such systems make use of data from a diverse set of available sensors. In this paper, we propose a fully data-driven and real-time method for segmentation and recognition of surgical phases using a combination of video data and instrument usage signals, exploiting no prior knowledge. We also introduce new validation metrics for assessment of workflow detection. The segmentation and recognition are based on a four-stage process. Firstly, during the learning time, a Surgical Process Model is automatically constructed from data annotations to guide the following process. Secondly, data samples are described using a combination of low-level visual cues and instrument information. Then, in the third stage, these descriptions are employed to train a set of AdaBoost classifiers capable of distinguishing one surgical phase from others. Finally, AdaBoost responses are used as input to a Hidden semi-Markov Model in order to obtain a final decision. On the MICCAI EndoVis challenge laparoscopic dataset we achieved a precision and a recall of 91 % in classification of 7 phases. Compared to the analysis based on one data type only, a combination of visual features and instrument signals allows better segmentation, reduction of the detection delay and discovery of the correct phase order.

  9. Time-frequency feature analysis and recognition of fission neutrons signal based on support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jing; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Tang Yuelin; Zhou Mi

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interdependent relationship between fission neutrons ( 252 Cf) and fission chain ( 235 U system), the paper presents the time-frequency feature analysis and recognition in fission neutron signal based on support vector machine (SVM) through the analysis on signal characteristics and the measuring principle of the 252 Cf fission neutron signal. The time-frequency characteristics and energy features of the fission neutron signal are extracted by using wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and then applied to training and classification by means of support vector machine based on statistical learning theory. The results show that, it is effective to obtain features of nuclear signal via wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and the latter can reflect the internal characteristics of the fission neutron system better. With the training accomplished, the SVM classifier achieves an accuracy rate above 70%, overcoming the lack of training samples, and verifying the effectiveness of the algorithm. (authors)

  10. Recognition of disturbances with specified morphology in time series. Part 1: Spikes on magnetograms of the worldwide INTERMAGNET network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoutdinov, Sh. R.; Gvishiani, A. D.; Agayan, S. M.; Solovyev, A. A.; Kin, E.

    2010-11-01

    The International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET) is the world's biggest international network of ground-based observatories, providing geomagnetic data almost in real time (within 72 hours of collection) [Kerridge, 2001]. The observation data are rapidly transferred by the observatories participating in the program to regional Geomagnetic Information Nodes (GINs), which carry out a global exchange of data and process the results. The observations of the main (core) magnetic field of the Earth and its study are one of the key problems of geophysics. The INTERMAGNET system is the basis of monitoring the state of the Earth's magnetic field; therefore, the information provided by the system is required to be very reliable. Despite the rigid high-quality standard of the recording devices, they are subject to external effects that affect the quality of the records. Therefore, an objective and formalized recognition with the subsequent remedy of the anomalies (artifacts) that occur on the records is an important task. Expanding on the ideas of Agayan [Agayan et al., 2005] and Gvishiani [Gvishiani et al., 2008a; 2008b], this paper suggests a new algorithm of automatic recognition of anomalies with specified morphology, capable of identifying both physically- and anthropogenically-derived spikes on the magnetograms. The algorithm is constructed using fuzzy logic and, as such, is highly adaptive and universal. The developed algorithmic system formalizes the work of the expert-interpreter in terms of artificial intelligence. This ensures identical processing of large data arrays, almost unattainable manually. Besides the algorithm, the paper also reports on the application of the developed algorithmic system for identifying spikes at the INTERMAGNET observatories. The main achievement of the work is the creation of an algorithm permitting the almost unmanned extraction of spike-free (definitive) magnetograms from preliminary records. This automated

  11. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E.; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M.

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., “point at the candle”). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  12. Real-Time Control of an Exoskeleton Hand Robot with Myoelectric Pattern Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Xu; Tong, Kay-Yu; Zhou, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Robot-assisted training provides an effective approach to neurological injury rehabilitation. To meet the challenge of hand rehabilitation after neurological injuries, this study presents an advanced myoelectric pattern recognition scheme for real-time intention-driven control of a hand exoskeleton. The developed scheme detects and recognizes user's intention of six different hand motions using four channels of surface electromyography (EMG) signals acquired from the forearm and hand muscles, and then drives the exoskeleton to assist the user accomplish the intended motion. The system was tested with eight neurologically intact subjects and two individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The overall control accuracy was [Formula: see text] for the neurologically intact subjects and [Formula: see text] for the SCI subjects. The total lag of the system was approximately 250[Formula: see text]ms including data acquisition, transmission and processing. One SCI subject also participated in training sessions in his second and third visits. Both the control accuracy and efficiency tended to improve. These results show great potential for applying the advanced myoelectric pattern recognition control of the wearable robotic hand system toward improving hand function after neurological injuries.

  13. Repetition priming of face recognition in a serial choice reaction-time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T; Bruce, V

    1989-05-01

    Marshall & Walker (1987) found that pictorial stimuli yield visual priming that is disrupted by an unpredictable visual event in the response-stimulus interval. They argue that visual stimuli are represented in memory in the form of distinct visual and object codes. Bruce & Young (1986) propose similar pictorial, structural and semantic codes which mediate the recognition of faces, yet repetition priming results obtained with faces as stimuli (Bruce & Valentine, 1985), and with objects (Warren & Morton, 1982) are quite different from those of Marshall & Walker (1987), in the sense that recognition is facilitated by pictures presented 20 minutes earlier. The experiment reported here used different views of familiar and unfamiliar faces as stimuli in a serial choice reaction-time task and found that, with identical pictures, repetition priming survives and intervening item requiring a response, with both familiar and unfamiliar faces. Furthermore, with familiar faces such priming was present even when the view of the prime was different from the target. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  14. Shortening the length of stay and mechanical ventilation time by using positive suggestions via MP3 players for ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Szilágyi, Adrienn; Diószeghy, Csaba; Fritúz, Gábor; Gál, János; Varga, Katalin

    2014-03-01

    Long stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and prolonged ventilation are deleterious for subsequent quality of life and surcharge financial capacity. We have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of using suggestive communication on recovery time during intensive care. The aim of our present study was to prove the same effects with standardized positive suggestive message delivered by an MP3 player. Patients ventilated in ICU were randomized into a control group receiving standard ICU treatment and two groups with a standardized pre-recorded material delivered via headphones: a suggestive message about safety, self-control, and recovery for the study group and a relaxing music for the music group. Groups were similar in terms of age, gender, and mortality, but the SAPS II scores were higher in the study group than that in the controls (57.8 ± 23.6 vs. 30.1 ± 15.5 and 33.7 ± 17.4). Our post-hoc analysis results showed that the length of ICU stay (134.2 ± 73.3 vs. 314.2 ± 178.4 h) and the time spent on ventilator (85.2 ± 34.9 vs. 232.0 ± 165.6 h) were significantly shorter in the study group compared to the unified control. The advantage of the structured positive suggestive message was proven against both music and control groups.

  15. Generalized Hough transform based time invariant action recognition with 3D pose information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, David; Huebner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Human action recognition has emerged as an important field in the computer vision community due to its large number of applications such as automatic video surveillance, content based video-search and human robot interaction. In order to cope with the challenges that this large variety of applications present, recent research has focused more on developing classifiers able to detect several actions in more natural and unconstrained video sequences. The invariance discrimination tradeoff in action recognition has been addressed by utilizing a Generalized Hough Transform. As a basis for action representation we transform 3D poses into a robust feature space, referred to as pose descriptors. For each action class a one-dimensional temporal voting space is constructed. Votes are generated from associating pose descriptors with their position in time relative to the end of an action sequence. Training data consists of manually segmented action sequences. In the detection phase valid human 3D poses are assumed as input, e.g. originating from 3D sensors or monocular pose reconstruction methods. The human 3D poses are normalized to gain view-independence and transformed into (i) relative limb-angle space to ensure independence of non-adjacent joints or (ii) geometric features. In (i) an action descriptor consists of the relative angles between limbs and their temporal derivatives. In (ii) the action descriptor consists of different geometric features. In order to circumvent the problem of time-warping we propose to use a codebook of prototypical 3D poses which is generated from sample sequences of 3D motion capture data. This idea is in accordance with the concept of equivalence classes in action space. Results of the codebook method are presented using the Kinect sensor and the CMU Motion Capture Database.

  16. Real-Time Gait Cycle Parameter Recognition Using a Wearable Accelerometry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ming Lu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a wearable accelerometry system for real-time gait cycle parameter recognition. Using a tri-axial accelerometer, the wearable motion detector is a single waist-mounted device to measure trunk accelerations during walking. Several gait cycle parameters, including cadence, step regularity, stride regularity and step symmetry can be estimated in real-time by using autocorrelation procedure. For validation purposes, five Parkinson’s disease (PD patients and five young healthy adults were recruited in an experiment. The gait cycle parameters among the two subject groups of different mobility can be quantified and distinguished by the system. Practical considerations and limitations for implementing the autocorrelation procedure in such a real-time system are also discussed. This study can be extended to the future attempts in real-time detection of disabling gaits, such as festinating or freezing of gait in PD patients. Ambulatory rehabilitation, gait assessment and personal telecare for people with gait disorders are also possible applications.

  17. The role of emotions in time to presentation for symptoms suggestive of cancer: a systematic literature review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Walter, Fiona M; Scott, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Emotions may be important in patients' decisions to seek medical help for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The aim of this systematic literature review was to examine quantitative literature on the influence of emotion on patients' help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. The objectives were to identify the following: (a) which types of emotions influence help-seeking behaviour, (b) whether these form a barrier or trigger for seeking medical help and (c) how the role of emotions varies between different cancers and populations. We searched four electronic databases and conducted a narrative synthesis. Inclusion criteria were studies that reported primary, quantitative research that examined any emotion specific to symptom appraisal or help-seeking for symptoms suggestive of cancer. Thirty-three papers were included. The studies were heterogeneous in their methods and quality, and very few had emotion as the main focus of the research. Studies reported a limited range of emotions, mainly related to fear and worry. The impact of emotions appears mixed, sometimes acting as a barrier to consultation whilst at other times being a trigger or being unrelated to time to presentation. It is plausible that different emotions play different roles at different times prior to presentation. This systematic review provides some quantitative evidence for the role of emotions in help-seeking behaviour. However, it also highlighted widespread methodological, definition and design issues among the existing literature. The conflicting results around the role of emotions on time to presentation may be due to the lack of definition of each specific emotion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Endometriosis education in schools: A New Zealand model examining the impact of an education program in schools on early recognition of symptoms suggesting endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Deborah; Brick, Emily; East, Michael C; Johnson, Neil

    2017-08-01

    Menstrual morbidity plays a significant role in adolescent females' lives. There are no studies to date reporting such data from menstrual health education programs in schools. The aim of our study was to report results from an audit of a menstrual health and endometriosis education program in secondary schools and observe age patterns of young women presenting for menstrual morbidity care. Audit data from education in secondary schools and audit data of patients from an Endometriosis and Pelvic Pain Coaching clinic operating in a private endometriosis specialised centre are reported. In a region of consistent delivery of the education program, student awareness of endometriosis was 32% in 2015. Overall in 2015, 13% of students experienced distressing menstrual symptoms and 27% of students sometimes or always missed school due to menstrual symptoms. Further, in one region of consistent delivery of the menstrual health education program, data show an increase in younger patients attending for specialised endometriosis care. There is strong suggestive evidence that consistent delivery of a menstrual health education program in schools increases adolescent student awareness of endometriosis. In addition, there is suggestive evidence that in a geographical area of consistent delivery of the program, a shift in earlier presentation of young women to a specialised health service is observed. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Surviving Blind Decomposition: A Distributional Analysis of the Time-Course of Complex Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Matsuki, Kazunaga; Kuperman, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The current study addresses a discrepancy in the psycholinguistic literature about the chronology of information processing during the visual recognition of morphologically complex words. "Form-then-meaning" accounts of complex word recognition claim that morphemes are processed as units of form prior to any influence of their meanings,…

  20. Real-Time Multiview Recognition of Human Gestures by Distributed Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Kosuke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since a gesture involves a dynamic and complex motion, multiview observation and recognition are desirable. For the better representation of gestures, one needs to know, in the first place, from which views a gesture should be observed. Furthermore, it becomes increasingly important how the recognition results are integrated when larger numbers of camera views are considered. To investigate these problems, we propose a framework under which multiview recognition is carried out, and an integration scheme by which the recognition results are integrated online and in realtime. For performance evaluation, we use the ViHASi (Virtual Human Action Silhouette public image database as a benchmark and our Japanese sign language (JSL image database that contains 18 kinds of hand signs. By examining the recognition rates of each gesture for each view, we found gestures that exhibit view dependency and the gestures that do not. Also, we found that the view dependency itself could vary depending on the target gesture sets. By integrating the recognition results of different views, our swarm-based integration provides more robust and better recognition performance than individual fixed-view recognition agents.

  1. Toward fast feature adaptation and localization for real-time face recognition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, F.; With, de P.H.N.; Ebrahimi, T.; Sikora, T.

    2003-01-01

    In a home environment, video surveillance employing face detection and recognition is attractive for new applications. Facial feature (e.g. eyes and mouth) localization in the face is an essential task for face recognition because it constitutes an indispensable step for face geometry normalization.

  2. Knowledge fusion: Time series modeling followed by pattern recognition applied to unusual sections of background data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.; Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.; Martinez, D.; Strittmatter, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes work performed during FY 95 for the Knowledge Fusion Project, which by the Department of Energy, Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The project team selected satellite sensor data as the one main example to which its analysis algorithms would be applied. The specific sensor-fusion problem has many generic features that make it a worthwhile problem to attempt to solve in a general way. The generic problem is to recognize events of interest from multiple time series in a possibly noisy background. By implementing a suite of time series modeling and forecasting methods and using well-chosen alarm criteria, we reduce the number of false alarms. We then further reduce the number of false alarms by analyzing all suspicious sections of data, as judged by the alarm criteria, with pattern recognition methods. This report describes the implementation and application of this two-step process for separating events from unusual background. As a fortunate by-product of this activity, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the natural background

  3. Knowledge fusion: Time series modeling followed by pattern recognition applied to unusual sections of background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T.; Doak, J.; Howell, J.A.; Martinez, D.; Strittmatter, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes work performed during FY 95 for the Knowledge Fusion Project, which by the Department of Energy, Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. The project team selected satellite sensor data as the one main example to which its analysis algorithms would be applied. The specific sensor-fusion problem has many generic features that make it a worthwhile problem to attempt to solve in a general way. The generic problem is to recognize events of interest from multiple time series in a possibly noisy background. By implementing a suite of time series modeling and forecasting methods and using well-chosen alarm criteria, we reduce the number of false alarms. We then further reduce the number of false alarms by analyzing all suspicious sections of data, as judged by the alarm criteria, with pattern recognition methods. This report describes the implementation and application of this two-step process for separating events from unusual background. As a fortunate by-product of this activity, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the natural background.

  4. Study of the vocal signal in the amplitude-time representation. Speech segmentation and recognition algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Marc

    1978-01-01

    This dissertation exposes an acoustical and phonetical study of vocal signal. The complex pattern of the signal is segmented into simple sub-patterns and each one of these sub-patterns may be segmented again into another more simplest patterns with lower level. Application of pattern recognition techniques facilitates on one hand this segmentation and on the other hand the definition of the structural relations between the sub-patterns. Particularly, we have developed syntactic techniques in which the rewriting rules, context-sensitive, are controlled by predicates using parameters evaluated on the sub-patterns themselves. This allow to generalize a pure syntactic analysis by adding a semantic information. The system we expose, realizes pre-classification and a partial identification of the phonemes as also the accurate detection of each pitch period. The voice signal is analysed directly using the amplitude-time representation. This system has been implemented on a mini-computer and it works in the real time. (author) [fr

  5. Matching times of leading and following suggest cooperation through direct reciprocity during V-formation flight in ibis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, Bernhard; Portugal, Steven J; Unsöld, Markus; Usherwood, James R; Wilson, Alan M; Fritz, Johannes

    2015-02-17

    One conspicuous feature of several larger bird species is their annual migration in V-shaped or echelon formation. When birds are flying in these formations, energy savings can be achieved by using the aerodynamic up-wash produced by the preceding bird. As the leading bird in a formation cannot profit from this up-wash, a social dilemma arises around the question of who is going to fly in front? To investigate how this dilemma is solved, we studied the flight behavior of a flock of juvenile Northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita) during a human-guided autumn migration. We could show that the amount of time a bird is leading a formation is strongly correlated with the time it can itself profit from flying in the wake of another bird. On the dyadic level, birds match the time they spend in the wake of each other by frequent pairwise switches of the leading position. Taken together, these results suggest that bald ibis cooperate by directly taking turns in leading a formation. On the proximate level, we propose that it is mainly the high number of iterations and the immediacy of reciprocation opportunities that favor direct reciprocation. Finally, we found evidence that the animals' propensity to reciprocate in leading has a substantial influence on the size and cohesion of the flight formations.

  6. Left is where the L is right. Significantly delayed reaction time in limb laterality recognition in both CRPS and phantom limb pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Haarmeyer, Golo Sung; Blankenburg, Markus; Frettlöh, Jule; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Maier, Christoph

    2010-12-17

    The body schema is based on an intact cortical body representation. Its disruption is indicated by delayed reaction times (RT) and high error rates when deciding on the laterality of a pictured hand in a limb laterality recognition task. Similarities in both cortical reorganisation and disrupted body schema have been found in two different unilateral pain syndromes, one with deafferentation (phantom limb pain, PLP) and one with pain-induced dysfunction (complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS). This study aims to compare the extent of impaired laterality recognition in these two groups. Performance on a test battery for attentional performance (TAP 2.0) and on a limb laterality recognition task was evaluated in CRPS (n=12), PLP (n=12) and healthy subjects (n=38). Differences between recognising affected and unaffected hands were analysed. CRPS patients and healthy subjects additionally completed a four-day training of limb laterality recognition. Reaction time was significantly delayed in both CRPS (2278±735.7ms) and PLP (2301.3±809.3ms) compared to healthy subjects (1826.5±517.0ms), despite normal TAP values in all groups. There were no differences between recognition of affected and unaffected hands in both patient groups. Both healthy subjects and CRPS patients improved during training, but RTs of CRPS patients (1874.5±613.3ms) remain slower (pCRPS patients, uninfluenced by attention and pain and cannot be fully reversed by training alone. This suggests the involvement of complex central nervous system mechanisms in the disruption of the body schema. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW AND HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sathish Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the intensive areas of research in computer vision and pattern recognition but many of which are focused on recognition of faces under varying facial expressions and pose variation. A constrained optical flow algorithm discussed in this paper, recognizes facial images involving various expressions based on motion vector computation. In this paper, an optical flow computation algorithm which computes the frames of varying facial gestures, and integrating with synthesized image in a probabilistic environment has been proposed. Also Histogram Equalization technique has been used to overcome the effect of illuminations while capturing the input data using camera devices. It also enhances the contrast of the image for better processing. The experimental results confirm that the proposed face recognition system is more robust and recognizes the facial images under varying expressions and pose variations more accurately.

  8. The recognition of first time international entrepreneurial opportunities: Evidence from firms in knowledge-based industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Styles, C.; Wilkinson, I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to complement existing theories of internationalization by studying an important aspect which has been neglected in previous studies: the process of international entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. International market entry is conceptualized as an entrepreneurial,

  9. Reaction Time of Facial Affect Recognition in Asperger's Disorder for Cartoon and Real, Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Motohide; Bray, Anne; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Fujita, Chikako; Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    This study used a choice reaction-time paradigm to test the perceived impairment of facial affect recognition in Asperger's disorder. Twenty teenagers with Asperger's disorder and 20 controls were compared with respect to the latency and accuracy of response to happy or disgusted facial expressions, presented in cartoon or real images and in…

  10. Semantic Segmentation of Real-time Sensor Data Stream for Complex Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Triboan, Darpan; Chen, Liming; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zumin

    2016-01-01

    Department of Information Engineering, Dalian University, China The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Data segmentation plays a critical role in performing human activity recognition (HAR) in the ambient assistant living (AAL) systems. It is particularly important for complex activity recognition when the events occur in short bursts with attributes of multiple sub-tasks. Althou...

  11. The active blind spot camera: hard real-time recognition of moving objects from a moving camera

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beeck, Kristof; Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    This PhD research focuses on visual object recognition under specific demanding conditions. The object to be recognized as well as the camera move, and the time available for the recognition task is extremely short. This generic problem is applied here on a specific problem: the active blind spot camera. Statistics show a large number of accidents with trucks are related to the so-called blind spot, the area around the vehicle in which vulnerable road users are hard to perceive by the truck d...

  12. A real time mobile-based face recognition with fisherface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisandi, D.; Syahputra, M. F.; Putri, I. L.; Purnamawati, S.; Rahmat, R. F.; Sari, P. P.

    2018-03-01

    Face Recognition is a field research in Computer Vision that study about learning face and determine the identity of the face from a picture sent to the system. By utilizing this face recognition technology, learning process about people’s identity between students in a university will become simpler. With this technology, student won’t need to browse student directory in university’s server site and look for the person with certain face trait. To obtain this goal, face recognition application use image processing methods consist of two phase, pre-processing phase and recognition phase. In pre-processing phase, system will process input image into the best image for recognition phase. Purpose of this pre-processing phase is to reduce noise and increase signal in image. Next, to recognize face phase, we use Fisherface Methods. This methods is chosen because of its advantage that would help system of its limited data. Therefore from experiment the accuracy of face recognition using fisherface is 90%.

  13. The time course of lexical competition during spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen

    2016-01-20

    The present study investigated the effect of lexical competition on the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using a unimodal auditory priming paradigm. Two kinds of competitive environments were designed. In one session (session 1), only the unrelated and the identical primes were presented before the target words. In the other session (session 2), besides the two conditions in session 1, the target words were also preceded by the cohort primes that have the same initial syllables as the targets. Behavioral results showed an inhibitory effect of the cohort competitors (primes) on target word recognition. The event-related potential results showed that the spoken word recognition processing in the middle and late latency windows is modulated by whether the phonologically related competitors are presented or not. Specifically, preceding activation of the competitors can induce direct competitions between multiple candidate words and lead to increased processing difficulties, primarily at the word disambiguation and selection stage during Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. The current study provided both behavioral and electrophysiological evidences for the lexical competition effect among the candidate words during spoken word recognition.

  14. Nitrogen isotopes suggest a change in nitrogen dynamics between the Late Pleistocene and modern time in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Fred J.; Zazula, Grant

    2018-01-01

    A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and structural carbonate of some modern, Yukon, arctic ground squirrels with vegetation and bones from Late Pleistocene fossil arctic ground squirrel nests preserved in Yukon loess deposits. The isotopic discrimination between arctic ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet was measured using modern samples, as were isotopic changes during plant decomposition; Over-wintering decomposition of typical vegetation following senescence resulted in a minor change (~0–1 ‰) in δ13C of modern Yukon grasses. A major change (~2–10 ‰) in δ15N was measured for decomposing Yukon grasses thinly covered by loess. As expected, the collagen-diet C-isotope discrimination measured for modern samples confirms that modern vegetation δ13C is a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene vegetation in Yukon Territory, after correction for the Suess effect. The N-isotope composition of vegetation from the fossil arctic ground squirrel nests, however, is determined to be ~2.8 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in the region, after correction for decomposition effects. This result suggests a change in N dynamics in this region between the Late Pleistocene and modern time. PMID:29447202

  15. Lexical Leverage: Category Knowledge Boosts Real-Time Novel Word Recognition in 2-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M.; Evans, Julia L.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that infants tend to add words to their vocabulary that are semantically related to other known words, though it is not clear why this pattern emerges. In this paper, we explore whether infants leverage their existing vocabulary and semantic knowledge when interpreting novel label-object mappings in real time. We initially…

  16. USE OF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION EFFICIENCY ON WEARABLE GADGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD EHSAN RANA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the effects of image enhancement techniques on face recognition performance of wearable gadgets with an emphasis on recognition rate.In this research, a number of image enhancement techniques are selected that include brightness normalization, contrast normalization, sharpening, smoothing, and various combinations of these. Subsequently test images are obtained from AT&T database and Yale Face Database B to investigate the effect of these image enhancement techniques under various conditions such as change of illumination and face orientation and expression.The evaluation of data, collected during this research, revealed that the effect of image pre-processing techniques on face recognition highly depends on the illumination condition under which these images are taken. It is revealed that the benefit of applying image enhancement techniques on face images is best seen when there is high variation of illumination among images. Results also indicate that highest recognition rate is achieved when images are taken under low light condition and image contrast is enhanced using histogram equalization technique and then image noise is reduced using median smoothing filter. Additionally combination of contrast normalization and mean smoothing filter shows good result in all scenarios. Results obtained from test cases illustrate up to 75% improvement in face recognition rate when image enhancement is applied to images in given scenarios.

  17. Tracking the time course of word-frequency effects in auditory word recognition with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sophie; Brunellière, Angèle; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2013-04-01

    Although the word-frequency effect is one of the most established findings in spoken-word recognition, the precise processing locus of this effect is still a topic of debate. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to track the time course of the word-frequency effect. In addition, the neighborhood density effect, which is known to reflect mechanisms involved in word identification, was also examined. The ERP data showed a clear frequency effect as early as 350 ms from word onset on the P350, followed by a later effect at word offset on the late N400. A neighborhood density effect was also found at an early stage of spoken-word processing on the PMN, and at word offset on the late N400. Overall, our ERP differences for word frequency suggest that frequency affects the core processes of word identification starting from the initial phase of lexical activation and including target word selection. They thus rule out any interpretation of the word frequency effect that is limited to a purely decisional locus after word identification has been completed. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Stimulus Similarity and Encoding Time Influence Incidental Recognition Memory in Adult Monkeys with Selective Hippocampal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeamer, Alyson; Meunier, Martine; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Recognition memory impairment after selective hippocampal lesions in monkeys is more profound when measured with visual paired-comparison (VPC) than with delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). To clarify this issue, we assessed the impact of stimuli similarity and encoding duration on the VPC performance in monkeys with hippocampal lesions and…

  19. Time and nature of the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.

    1989-01-01

    A vital link in a complex of physiological processes occurring during early pregnancy is the so-called maternal recognition of pregnancy: the prolongation of ovarian luteal function for continuation of progesterone secretion by an anti-luteolytic action of the developing embryos.

  20. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Asyraf Zulkifley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1 the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2 frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3 the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4 various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition.

  1. Pattern recognition in probability spaces for visualization and identification of plasma confinement regimes and confinement time scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdoolaege, G; Karagounis, G; Oost, G Van; Tendler, M

    2012-01-01

    Pattern recognition is becoming an increasingly important tool for making inferences from the massive amounts of data produced in fusion experiments. The purpose is to contribute to physics studies and plasma control. In this work, we address the visualization of plasma confinement data, the (real-time) identification of confinement regimes and the establishment of a scaling law for the energy confinement time. We take an intrinsically probabilistic approach, modeling data from the International Global H-mode Confinement Database with Gaussian distributions. We show that pattern recognition operations working in the associated probability space are considerably more powerful than their counterparts in a Euclidean data space. This opens up new possibilities for analyzing confinement data and for fusion data processing in general. We hence advocate the essential role played by measurement uncertainty for data interpretation in fusion experiments. (paper)

  2. Impact of a PACS/RIS-integrated speech recognition system on radiology reporting time and report availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumm, C.G.; Glaser, C.; Paasche, V.; Kuettner, B.; Francke, M.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Reiser, M.; Crispin, A.; Popp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of the impact of a PACS/RIS-integrated speech recognition system (SRS) on the time expenditure for radiology reporting and on hospital-wide report availability (RA) in a university institution. Material and Methods: In a prospective pilot study, the following parameters were assessed for 669 radiographic examinations (CR): 1. time requirement per report dictation (TED: dictation time (s)/number of images [examination] x number of words [report]) with either a combination of PACS/tape-based dictation (TD: analog dictation device/minicassette/transcription) or PACS/RIS/speech recognition system (RR: remote recognition/transcription and OR: online recognition/self-correction by radiologist), respectively, and 2. the Report Turnaround Time (RTT) as the time interval from the entry of the first image into the PACS to the available RIS/HIS report. Two equal time periods were chosen retrospectively from the RIS database: 11/2002-2/2003 (only TD) and 11/2003-2/2004 (only RR or OR with speech recognition system [SRS]). The midterm (≥24 h, 24 h intervals) and short-term (< 24 h, 1 h intervals), RA after examination completion were calculated for all modalities and for Cr, CT, MR and XA/DS separately. The relative increase in the mid-term RA (RIMRA: related to total number of examinations in each time period) and increase in the short-term RA (ISRA: ratio of available reports during the 1st to 24th hour) were calculated. Results: Prospectively, there was a significant difference between TD/RR/OR (n=151/257/261) regarding mean TED (0.44/0.54/0.62 s [per word and image]) and mean RTT (10.47/6.65/1.27 h), respectively. Retrospectively, 37 898/39 680 reports were computed from the RIS database for the time periods of 11/2002-2/2003 and 11/2003-2/2004. For CR/CT there was a shift of the short-term RA to the first 6 hours after examination completion (mean cumulative RA 20% higher) with a more than three-fold increase in the total number of available

  3. Compact holographic optical neural network system for real-time pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Taiwei; Mintzer, David T.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Lin, Freddie S.

    1996-08-01

    One of the important characteristics of artificial neural networks is their capability for massive interconnection and parallel processing. Recently, specialized electronic neural network processors and VLSI neural chips have been introduced in the commercial market. The number of parallel channels they can handle is limited because of the limited parallel interconnections that can be implemented with 1D electronic wires. High-resolution pattern recognition problems can require a large number of neurons for parallel processing of an image. This paper describes a holographic optical neural network (HONN) that is based on high- resolution volume holographic materials and is capable of performing massive 3D parallel interconnection of tens of thousands of neurons. A HONN with more than 16,000 neurons packaged in an attache case has been developed. Rotation- shift-scale-invariant pattern recognition operations have been demonstrated with this system. System parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, and processing speed are discussed.

  4. Population genomic scans suggest novel genes underlie convergent flowering time evolution in the introduced range of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie A; Stinchcombe, John R

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing question in evolutionary biology is whether the evolution of convergent phenotypes results from selection on the same heritable genetic components. Using whole-genome sequencing and genome scans, we tested whether the evolution of parallel longitudinal flowering time clines in the native and introduced ranges of Arabidopsis thaliana has a similar genetic basis. We found that common variants of large effect on flowering time in the native range do not appear to have been under recent strong selection in the introduced range. We identified a set of 38 new candidate genes that are putatively linked to the evolution of flowering time. A high degree of conditional neutrality of flowering time variants between the native and introduced range may preclude parallel evolution at the level of genes. Overall, neither gene pleiotropy nor available standing genetic variation appears to have restricted the evolution of flowering time to high-frequency variants from the native range or to known flowering time pathway genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Get rich quick: the signal to respond procedure reveals the time course of semantic richness effects during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Ian S; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-05-01

    According to several current frameworks, semantic processing involves an early influence of language-based information followed by later influences of object-based information (e.g., situated simulations; Santos, Chaigneau, Simmons, & Barsalou, 2011). In the present study we examined whether these predictions extend to the influence of semantic variables in visual word recognition. We investigated the time course of semantic richness effects in visual word recognition using a signal-to-respond (STR) paradigm fitted to a lexical decision (LDT) and a semantic categorization (SCT) task. We used linear mixed effects to examine the relative contributions of language-based (number of senses, ARC) and object-based (imageability, number of features, body-object interaction ratings) descriptions of semantic richness at four STR durations (75, 100, 200, and 400ms). Results showed an early influence of number of senses and ARC in the SCT. In both LDT and SCT, object-based effects were the last to influence participants' decision latencies. We interpret our results within a framework in which semantic processes are available to influence word recognition as a function of their availability over time, and of their relevance to task-specific demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Analysis and Artificial Bee Colony-Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutao Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system for identifying eight kinds of radar waveforms is explored. The waveforms are the binary phase shift keying (BPSK, Costas codes, linear frequency modulation (LFM and polyphase codes (including P1, P2, P3, P4 and Frank codes. The features of power spectral density (PSD, moments and cumulants, instantaneous properties and time-frequency analysis are extracted from the waveforms and three new features are proposed. The classifier is support vector machine (SVM, which is optimized by artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm. The system shows well robustness, excellent computational complexity and high recognition rate under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR situation. The simulation results indicate that the overall recognition rate is 92% when SNR is −4 dB.

  7. A real-time comparison between direct control, sequential pattern recognition control and simultaneous pattern recognition control using a Fitts' law style assessment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Sophie M; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-05-30

    Pattern recognition (PR) based strategies for the control of myoelectric upper limb prostheses are generally evaluated through offline classification accuracy, which is an admittedly useful metric, but insufficient to discuss functional performance in real time. Existing functional tests are extensive to set up and most fail to provide a challenging, objective framework to assess the strategy performance in real time. Nine able-bodied and two amputee subjects gave informed consent and participated in the local Institutional Review Board approved study. We designed a two-dimensional target acquisition task, based on the principles of Fitts' law for human motor control. Subjects were prompted to steer a cursor from the screen center of into a series of subsequently appearing targets of different difficulties. Three cursor control systems were tested, corresponding to three electromyography-based prosthetic control strategies: 1) amplitude-based direct control (the clinical standard of care), 2) sequential PR control, and 3) simultaneous PR control, allowing for a concurrent activation of two degrees of freedom (DOF). We computed throughput (bits/second), path efficiency (%), reaction time (second), and overshoot (%)) and used general linear models to assess significant differences between the strategies for each metric. We validated the proposed methodology by achieving very high coefficients of determination for Fitts' law. Both PR strategies significantly outperformed direct control in two-DOF targets and were more intuitive to operate. In one-DOF targets, the simultaneous approach was the least precise. The direct control was efficient in one-DOF targets but cumbersome to operate in two-DOF targets through a switch-depended sequential cursor control. We designed a test, capable of comprehensively describing prosthetic control strategies in real time. When implemented on control subjects, the test was able to capture statistically significant differences (p

  8. Is Time a creation of Life in response to Gravity? : This hypothesis suggests new ways for looking at extraterrestrial life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockels, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    From his personal experience during a space flight (Challenger 1985) onward, the author has been struck repeatedly by the remarkable influence of Earth's environment on life, in particular by its most inevitable elements: time and gravity. Our life might be peculiar to the local Earth conditions,

  9. Effects of the Maximum Luminance in a Medical-grade Liquid-crystal Display on the Recognition Time of a Test Pattern: Observer Performance Using Landolt Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yasuhiro; Matsuyama, Michinobu; Ikeda, Ryuji; Hashida, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to measure the recognition time of the test pattern and to investigate the effects of the maximum luminance in a medical-grade liquid-crystal display (LCD) on the recognition time. Landolt rings as signals of the test pattern were used with four random orientations, one on each of the eight gray-scale steps. Ten observers input the orientation of the gap on the Landolt rings using cursor keys on the keyboard. The recognition times were automatically measured from the display of the test pattern on the medical-grade LCD to the input of the orientation of the gap in the Landolt rings. The maximum luminance in this study was set to one of four values (100, 170, 250, and 400 cd/m(2)), for which the corresponding recognition times were measured. As a result, the average recognition times for each observer with maximum luminances of 100, 170, 250, and 400 cd/m(2) were found to be 3.96 to 7.12 s, 3.72 to 6.35 s, 3.53 to 5.97 s, and 3.37 to 5.98 s, respectively. The results indicate that the observer's recognition time is directly proportional to the luminance of the medical-grade LCD. Therefore, it is evident that the maximum luminance of the medical-grade LCD affects the test pattern recognition time.

  10. Processing of recognition information and additional cues: A model-based analysis of choice, confidence, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glockner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of recognition information has focused on testing the recognition heuristic (RH. On the aggregate, the noncompensatory use of recognition information postulated by the RH was rejected in several studies, while RH could still account for a considerable proportion of choices. These results can be explained if either a a part of the subjects used RH or b nobody used it but its choice predictions were accidentally in line with predictions of the strategy used. In the current study, which exemplifies a new approach to model testing, we determined individuals' decision strategies based on a maximum-likelihood classification method, taking into account choices, response times and confidence ratings simultaneously. Unlike most previous studies of the RH, our study tested the RH under conditions in which we provided information about cue values of unrecognized objects (which we argue is fairly common and thus of some interest. For 77.5% of the subjects, overall behavior was best explained by a compensatory parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS strategy. The proportion of subjects using an enhanced RH heuristic (RHe was negligible (up to 7.5%; 15% of the subjects seemed to use a take the best strategy (TTB. A more-fine grained analysis of the supplemental behavioral parameters conditional on strategy use supports PCS but calls into question process assumptions for apparent users of RH, RHe, and TTB within our experimental context. Our results are consistent with previous literature highlighting the importance of individual strategy classification as compared to aggregated analyses.

  11. Improving the Robustness of Real-Time Myoelectric Pattern Recognition against Arm Position Changes in Transradial Amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have showed that arm position variations would significantly degrade the classification performance of myoelectric pattern-recognition-based prosthetic control, and the cascade classifier (CC and multiposition classifier (MPC have been proposed to minimize such degradation in offline scenarios. However, it remains unknown whether these proposed approaches could also perform well in the clinical use of a multifunctional prosthesis control. In this study, the online effect of arm position variation on motion identification was evaluated by using a motion-test environment (MTE developed to mimic the real-time control of myoelectric prostheses. The performance of different classifier configurations in reducing the impact of arm position variation was investigated using four real-time metrics based on dataset obtained from transradial amputees. The results of this study showed that, compared to the commonly used motion classification method, the CC and MPC configurations improved the real-time performance across seven classes of movements in five different arm positions (8.7% and 12.7% increments of motion completion rate, resp.. The results also indicated that high offline classification accuracy might not ensure good real-time performance under variable arm positions, which necessitated the investigation of the real-time control performance to gain proper insight on the clinical implementation of EMG-pattern-recognition-based controllers for limb amputees.

  12. Growing slower and less accurate: adult age differences in time-accuracy functions for recall and recognition from episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaeghen, P; Vandenbroucke, A; Dierckx, V

    1998-01-01

    In 2 experiments, time-accuracy curves were derived for recall and recognition from episodic memory for both young and older adults. In Experiment 1, time-accuracy functions were estimated for free list recall and list recall cued by rhyme words or semantic associations for 13 young and 13 older participants. In Experiment 2, time-accuracy functions were estimated for recognition of word lists with or without distractor items and with or without articulatory suppression for 29 young and 30 older participants. In both studies, age differences were found in the asymptote (i.e., the maximum level of performance attainable) and in the rate of approach toward the asymptote (i.e., the steepness of the curve). These two parameters were only modestly correlated. In Experiment 2, it was found that 89% of the age-related variance in the rate of approach and 62% of the age-related variance in the asymptote was explained by perceptual speed. The data point at the existence of 2 distinct effects of aging on episodic memory, namely a dynamic effect (growing slower) and an asymptotic effect (growing less accurate). The absence of Age x Condition interactions in the age-related parameters in either experiment points at the rather general nature of both aging effects.

  13. [Clinical analysis of real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for myopic astigmatism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Li-ming; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lin

    2013-08-01

    To assess the safety, efficacy, stability and changes in cylindrical degree and axis after real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation for the correction of myopic astigmatism. Retrospective case series. This observational case study comprised 136 patients (249 eyes) with myopic astigmatism in a 6-month trial. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the pre-operative cylindrical degree: Group 1, -0.75 to -1.25 D, 106 eyes;Group 2, -1.50 to -2.25 D, 89 eyes and Group 3, -2.50 to -5.00 D, 54 eyes. They were also grouped by pre-operative astigmatism axis:Group A, with the rule astigmatism (WTRA), 156 eyes; Group B, against the rule astigmatism (ATRA), 64 eyes;Group C, oblique axis astigmatism, 29 eyes. After femtosecond laser flap created, real-time iris recognized excimer ablation was performed. The naked visual acuity, the best-corrected visual acuity, the degree and axis of astigmatism were analyzed and compared at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Static iris recognition detected that eye cyclotorsional misalignment was 2.37° ± 2.16°, dynamic iris recognition detected that the intraoperative cyclotorsional misalignment range was 0-4.3°. Six months after operation, the naked visual acuity was 0.5 or better in 100% cases. No eye lost ≥ 1 line of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA). Six months after operation, the naked vision of 227 eyes surpassed the BSCVA, and 87 eyes gained 1 line of BSCVA. The degree of astigmatism decreased from (-1.72 ± 0.77) D (pre-operation) to (-0.29 ± 0.25) D (post-operation). Six months after operation, WTRA from 157 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 43 eyes (post-operation), ATRA from 63 eyes (pre-operation) decreased to 28 eyes (post-operation), oblique astigmatism increased from 29 eyes to 34 eyes and 144 eyes became non-astigmatism. The real-time iris recognition guided LASIK with femtosecond laser flap creation can compensate deviation from eye cyclotorsion, decrease

  14. A New Profile Shape Matching Stereovision Algorithm for Real-time Human Pose and Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new profile shape matching stereovision algorithm that is designed to extract 3D information in real time. This algorithm obtains 3D information by matching profile intensity shapes of each corresponding row of the stereo image pair. It detects the corresponding matching patterns of the intensity profile rather than the intensity values of individual pixels or pixels in a small neighbourhood. This approach reduces the effect of the intensity and colour variations caused by lighting differences. As with all real-time vision algorithms, there is always a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed. This algorithm achieves a balance between the two to produce accurate results for real-time applications. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed algorithm is tested for human pose and hand gesture recognition to control a smart phone and an entertainment system.

  15. Pattern recognition techniques and neo-deterministic seismic hazard: Time dependent scenarios for North-Eastern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peresan, A.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.; Zuccolo, E.; Gorshkov, A.

    2009-05-01

    An integrated neo-deterministic approach to seismic hazard assessment has been developed that combines different pattern recognition techniques, designed for the space-time identification of strong earthquakes, with algorithms for the realistic modeling of seismic ground motion. The integrated approach allows for a time dependent definition of the seismic input, through the routine updating of earthquake predictions. The scenarios of expected ground motion, associated with the alarmed areas, are defined by means of full waveform modeling. A set of neo-deterministic scenarios of ground motion is defined at regional and local scale, thus providing a prioritization tool for timely prevention and mitigation actions. Constraints about the space and time of occurrence of the impending strong earthquakes are provided by three formally defined and globally tested algorithms, which have been developed according to a pattern recognition scheme. Two algorithms, namely CN and M8, are routinely used for intermediate-term middle-range earthquake predictions, while a third algorithm allows for the identification of the areas prone to large events. These independent procedures have been combined to better constrain the alarmed area. The pattern recognition of earthquake-prone areas does not belong to the family of earthquake prediction algorithms since it does not provide any information about the time of occurrence of the expected earthquakes. Nevertheless, it can be considered as the term-less zero-approximation, which restrains the alerted areas (e.g. defined by CN or M8) to the more precise location of large events. Italy is the only region of moderate seismic activity where the two different prediction algorithms CN and M8S (i.e. a spatially stabilized variant of M8) are applied simultaneously and a real-time test of predictions, for earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.4, is ongoing since 2003. The application of the CN to the Adriatic region (s.l.), which is relevant

  16. Effects of varying presentation time on long-term recognition memory for scenes: Verbatim and gist representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Moscovitch, Morris; Hockley, William E

    2017-04-01

    Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e.g., an "old" beach scene and a similar "new" beach scene; exemplar condition) or vice versa (e.g., a beach scene and a new scene from a novel category; novel condition). In Experiment 1, half of the list of scenes was presented for 1 s, whereas the other half was presented for 4 s. We found lower performance for shorter study presentation time in the exemplar test condition and similar performance for both study presentation times in the novel test condition. In Experiment 2, participants showed similar performance in an exemplar test for which the lure was of a different category but a category that was used at study. In Experiment 3, when presentation time was lowered to 500 ms, recognition accuracy was reduced in both novel and exemplar test conditions. A less detailed memorial representation of the studied scene containing more gist (i.e., meaning) than verbatim (i.e., surface or perceptual details) information is retrieved from LTM after a short compared to a long study presentation time. We conclude that our findings support fuzzy-trace theory.

  17. Concreteness norms for 1,659 French words: Relationships with other psycholinguistic variables and word recognition times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Bugaiska, Aurélia

    2018-02-12

    Words that correspond to a potential sensory experience-concrete words-have long been found to possess a processing advantage over abstract words in various lexical tasks. We collected norms of concreteness for a set of 1,659 French words, together with other psycholinguistic norms that were not available for these words-context availability, emotional valence, and arousal-but which are important if we are to achieve a better understanding of the meaning of concreteness effects. We then investigated the relationships of concreteness with these newly collected variables, together with other psycholinguistic variables that were already available for this set of words (e.g., imageability, age of acquisition, and sensory experience ratings). Finally, thanks to the variety of psychological norms available for this set of words, we decided to test further the embodied account of concreteness effects in visual-word recognition, championed by Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, and Del Campo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 140, 14-34, 2011). Similarly, we investigated the influences of concreteness in three word recognition tasks-lexical decision, progressive demasking, and word naming-using a multiple regression approach, based on the reaction times available in Chronolex (Ferrand, Brysbaert, Keuleers, New, Bonin, Méot, Pallier, Frontiers in Psychology, 2; 306, 2011). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary material provided with this article.

  18. From brain synapses to systems for learning and memory: Object recognition, spatial navigation, timed conditioning, and movement control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2015-09-24

    This article provides an overview of neural models of synaptic learning and memory whose expression in adaptive behavior depends critically on the circuits and systems in which the synapses are embedded. It reviews Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, models that use excitatory matching and match-based learning to achieve fast category learning and whose learned memories are dynamically stabilized by top-down expectations, attentional focusing, and memory search. ART clarifies mechanistic relationships between consciousness, learning, expectation, attention, resonance, and synchrony. ART models are embedded in ARTSCAN architectures that unify processes of invariant object category learning, recognition, spatial and object attention, predictive remapping, and eye movement search, and that clarify how conscious object vision and recognition may fail during perceptual crowding and parietal neglect. The generality of learned categories depends upon a vigilance process that is regulated by acetylcholine via the nucleus basalis. Vigilance can get stuck at too high or too low values, thereby causing learning problems in autism and medial temporal amnesia. Similar synaptic learning laws support qualitatively different behaviors: Invariant object category learning in the inferotemporal cortex; learning of grid cells and place cells in the entorhinal and hippocampal cortices during spatial navigation; and learning of time cells in the entorhinal-hippocampal system during adaptively timed conditioning, including trace conditioning. Spatial and temporal processes through the medial and lateral entorhinal-hippocampal system seem to be carried out with homologous circuit designs. Variations of a shared laminar neocortical circuit design have modeled 3D vision, speech perception, and cognitive working memory and learning. A complementary kind of inhibitory matching and mismatch learning controls movement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory

  19. Design of real-time communication system for image recognition based colony picking instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Zhang, Rongfu; Yan, Hua; Wu, Huamin

    2017-11-01

    In order to aachieve autommated observatiion and pickinng of monocloonal colonies, an overall dessign and realizzation of real-time commmunication system based on High-throoughput monooclonal auto-piicking instrumment is propossed. The real-time commmunication system is commposed of PCC-PLC commuunication systtem and Centrral Control CComputer (CCC)-PLC communicatioon system. Bassed on RS232 synchronous serial communnication methood to develop a set of dedicated shoort-range commmunication prootocol betweenn the PC and PPLC. Furthermmore, the systemm uses SQL SSERVER database to rrealize the dataa interaction between PC andd CCC. Moreoover, the commmunication of CCC and PC, adopted Socket Ethernnet communicaation based on TCP/IP protoccol. TCP full-dduplex data cannnel to ensure real-time data eexchange as well as immprove system reliability andd security. We tested the commmunication syystem using sppecially develooped test software, thee test results show that the sysstem can realizze the communnication in an eefficient, safe aand stable way between PLC, PC andd CCC, keep thhe real-time conntrol to PLC annd colony inforrmation collecttion.

  20. Effects of Hearing and Aging on Sentence-Level Time-Gated Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molis, Michelle R.; Kampel, Sean D.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Dann, Serena M.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Aging is known to influence temporal processing, but its relationship to speech perception has not been clearly defined. To examine listeners' use of contextual and phonetic information, the Revised Speech Perception in Noise test (R-SPIN) was used to develop a time-gated word (TGW) task. Method: In Experiment 1, R-SPIN sentence lists…

  1. Pattern recognition based on time-frequency analysis and convolutional neural networks for vibrational events in φ-OTDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengjin; Guan, Junjun; Bao, Ming; Lu, Jiangang; Ye, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Based on vibration signals detected by a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer distributed optical fiber sensing system, this paper presents an implement of time-frequency analysis and convolutional neural network (CNN), used to classify different types of vibrational events. First, spectral subtraction and the short-time Fourier transform are used to enhance time-frequency features of vibration signals and transform different types of vibration signals into spectrograms, which are input to the CNN for automatic feature extraction and classification. Finally, by replacing the soft-max layer in the CNN with a multiclass support vector machine, the performance of the classifier is enhanced. Experiments show that after using this method to process 4000 vibration signal samples generated by four different vibration events, namely, digging, walking, vehicles passing, and damaging, the recognition rates of vibration events are over 90%. The experimental results prove that this method can automatically make an effective feature selection and greatly improve the classification accuracy of vibrational events in distributed optical fiber sensing systems.

  2. Impaired recognition of happy facial expressions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor-Savage, Linette; Sponheim, Scott R; Goghari, Vina M

    2014-08-01

    The ability to accurately judge facial expressions is important in social interactions. Individuals with bipolar disorder have been found to be impaired in emotion recognition; however, the specifics of the impairment are unclear. This study investigated whether facial emotion recognition difficulties in bipolar disorder reflect general cognitive, or emotion-specific, impairments. Impairment in the recognition of particular emotions and the role of processing speed in facial emotion recognition were also investigated. Clinically stable bipolar patients (n = 17) and healthy controls (n = 50) judged five facial expressions in two presentation types, time-limited and self-paced. An age recognition condition was used as an experimental control. Bipolar patients' overall facial recognition ability was unimpaired. However, patients' specific ability to judge happy expressions under time constraints was impaired. Findings suggest a deficit in happy emotion recognition impacted by processing speed. Given the limited sample size, further investigation with a larger patient sample is warranted.

  3. Measuring Gait Quality in Parkinson’s Disease through Real-Time Gait Phase Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Mileti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring gait quality in daily activities through wearable sensors has the potential to improve medical assessment in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. In this study, four gait partitioning methods, two based on thresholds and two based on a machine learning approach, considering the four-phase model, were compared. The methods were tested on 26 PD patients, both in OFF and ON levodopa conditions, and 11 healthy subjects, during walking tasks. All subjects were equipped with inertial sensors placed on feet. Force resistive sensors were used to assess reference time sequence of gait phases. Goodness Index (G was evaluated to assess accuracy in gait phases estimation. A novel synthetic index called Gait Phase Quality Index (GPQI was proposed for gait quality assessment. Results revealed optimum performance (G < 0.25 for three tested methods and good performance (0.25 < G < 0.70 for one threshold method. The GPQI resulted significantly higher in PD patients than in healthy subjects, showing a moderate correlation with clinical scales score. Furthermore, in patients with severe gait impairment, GPQI was found higher in OFF than in ON state. Our results unveil the possibility of monitoring gait quality in PD through real-time gait partitioning based on wearable sensors.

  4. A hierarchical graph neuron scheme for real-time pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, B B; Khan, A I

    2008-02-01

    The hierarchical graph neuron (HGN) implements a single cycle memorization and recall operation through a novel algorithmic design. The HGN is an improvement on the already published original graph neuron (GN) algorithm. In this improved approach, it recognizes incomplete/noisy patterns. It also resolves the crosstalk problem, which is identified in the previous publications, within closely matched patterns. To accomplish this, the HGN links multiple GN networks for filtering noise and crosstalk out of pattern data inputs. Intrinsically, the HGN is a lightweight in-network processing algorithm which does not require expensive floating point computations; hence, it is very suitable for real-time applications and tiny devices such as the wireless sensor networks. This paper describes that the HGN's pattern matching capability and the small response time remain insensitive to the increases in the number of stored patterns. Moreover, the HGN does not require definition of rules or setting of thresholds by the operator to achieve the desired results nor does it require heuristics entailing iterative operations for memorization and recall of patterns.

  5. A New Minimum Trees-Based Approach for Shape Matching with Improved Time Computing: Application to Graphical Symbols Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patrick; Ogier, Jean-Marc; Loonis, Pierre; Mullot, Rémy

    Recently we have developed a model for shape description and matching. Based on minimum spanning trees construction and specifics stages like the mixture, it seems to have many desirable properties. Recognition invariance in front shift, rotated and noisy shape was checked through median scale tests related to GREC symbol reference database. Even if extracting the topology of a shape by mapping the shortest path connecting all the pixels seems to be powerful, the construction of graph induces an expensive algorithmic cost. In this article we discuss on the ways to reduce time computing. An alternative solution based on image compression concepts is provided and evaluated. The model no longer operates in the image space but in a compact space, namely the Discrete Cosine space. The use of block discrete cosine transform is discussed and justified. The experimental results led on the GREC2003 database show that the proposed method is characterized by a good discrimination power, a real robustness to noise with an acceptable time computing.

  6. Computation by symmetry operations in a structured model of the brain: Recognition of rotational invariance and time reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, John V.; Shaw, Gordon L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Leng, Xiaodan; Mathews, Robert B.

    1994-06-01

    Symmetries have long been recognized as a vital component of physical and biological systems. What we propose here is that symmetry operations are an important feature of higher brain function and result from the spatial and temporal modularity of the cortex. These symmetry operations arise naturally in the trion model of the cortex. The trion model is a highly structured mathematical realization of the Mountcastle organizational principle [Mountcastle, in The Mindful Brain (MIT, Cambridge, 1978)] in which the cortical column is the basic neural network of the cortex and is comprised of subunit minicolumns, which are idealized as trions with three levels of firing. A columnar network of a small number of trions has a large repertoire of quasistable, periodic spatial-temporal firing magic patterns (MP's), which can be excited. The MP's are related by specific symmetries: Spatial rotation, parity, ``spin'' reversal, and time reversal as well as other ``global'' symmetry operations in this abstract internal language of the brain. These MP's can be readily enhanced (as well as inherent categories of MP's) by only a small change in connection strengths via a Hebb learning rule. Learning introduces small breaking of the symmetries in the connectivities which enables a symmetry in the patterns to be recognized in the Monte Carlo evolution of the MP's. Examples of the recognition of rotational invariance and of a time-reversed pattern are presented. We propose the possibility of building a logic device from the hardware implementation of a higher level architecture of trion cortical columns.

  7. Tree-based indexing for real-time ConvNet landmark-based visual place recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent impressive studies on using ConvNet landmarks for visual place recognition take an approach that involves three steps: (a detection of landmarks, (b description of the landmarks by ConvNet features using a convolutional neural network, and (c matching of the landmarks in the current view with those in the database views. Such an approach has been shown to achieve the state-of-the-art accuracy even under significant viewpoint and environmental changes. However, the computational burden in step (c significantly prevents this approach from being applied in practice, due to the complexity of linear search in high-dimensional space of the ConvNet features. In this article, we propose two simple and efficient search methods to tackle this issue. Both methods are built upon tree-based indexing. Given a set of ConvNet features of a query image, the first method directly searches the features’ approximate nearest neighbors in a tree structure that is constructed from ConvNet features of database images. The database images are voted on by features in the query image, according to a lookup table which maps each ConvNet feature to its corresponding database image. The database image with the highest vote is considered the solution. Our second method uses a coarse-to-fine procedure: the coarse step uses the first method to coarsely find the top-N database images, and the fine step performs a linear search in Hamming space of the hash codes of the ConvNet features to determine the best match. Experimental results demonstrate that our methods achieve real-time search performance on five data sets with different sizes and various conditions. Most notably, by achieving an average search time of 0.035 seconds/query, our second method improves the matching efficiency by the three orders of magnitude over a linear search baseline on a database with 20,688 images, with negligible loss in place recognition accuracy.

  8. Combining high-speed SVM learning with CNN feature encoding for real-time target recognition in high-definition video for ISR missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Christine; von der Werth, Monika; Leuck, Holger; Stahl, Christoph; Schertler, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    For Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) missions of manned and unmanned air systems typical electrooptical payloads provide high-definition video data which has to be exploited with respect to relevant ground targets in real-time by automatic/assisted target recognition software. Airbus Defence and Space is developing required technologies for real-time sensor exploitation since years and has combined the latest advances of Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) with a proprietary high-speed Support Vector Machine (SVM) learning method into a powerful object recognition system with impressive results on relevant high-definition video scenes compared to conventional target recognition approaches. This paper describes the principal requirements for real-time target recognition in high-definition video for ISR missions and the Airbus approach of combining an invariant feature extraction using pre-trained CNNs and the high-speed training and classification ability of a novel frequency-domain SVM training method. The frequency-domain approach allows for a highly optimized implementation for General Purpose Computation on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) and also an efficient training of large training samples. The selected CNN which is pre-trained only once on domain-extrinsic data reveals a highly invariant feature extraction. This allows for a significantly reduced adaptation and training of the target recognition method for new target classes and mission scenarios. A comprehensive training and test dataset was defined and prepared using relevant high-definition airborne video sequences. The assessment concept is explained and performance results are given using the established precision-recall diagrams, average precision and runtime figures on representative test data. A comparison to legacy target recognition approaches shows the impressive performance increase by the proposed CNN+SVM machine-learning approach and the capability of real-time high

  9. Crystal Structures of Mouse CD1d-IGb3 Complex And Its Cognate Valpha14 T Cell Receptor Suggest a Model for Dual Recognition of Foreign And Self Glycolipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajonc, D.M.; Saveage, P.B.; Bendelac, A.; Wilson, I.A.; Teyton, L.

    2009-05-28

    The semi-invariant Valpha14Jalpha18 T cell receptor (TCR) is expressed by regulatory NKT cells and has the unique ability to recognize chemically diverse ligands presented by CD1d. The crystal structure of CD1d complexed to a natural, endogenous ligand, isoglobotrihexosylceramide (iGb3), illustrates the extent of this diversity when compared to the binding of potent, exogenous ligands, such as alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). A single mode of recognition for these two classes of ligands would then appear problematic for a single T cell receptor. However, the Valpha14 TCR adopts two different conformations in the crystal where, in one configuration, the presence of a larger cavity between the two CDR3 regions could accommodate iGb3 and, in the other, a smaller cavity fits alpha-GalCer more snugly. Alternatively, the extended iGb3 headgroup could be 'squashed' upon docking of the TCR and accommodated between the CD1 and TCR surfaces. Thus, the same TCR may adopt alternative modes of recognition for these foreign and self-ligands for NKT cell activation.

  10. A Real-Time Angle- and Illumination-Aware Face Recognition System Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisateru Kato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic authentication systems, using biometric technology, are becoming increasingly important with the increased need for person verification in our daily life. A few years back, fingerprint verification was done only in criminal investigations. Now fingerprints and face images are widely used in bank tellers, airports, and building entrances. Face images are easy to obtain, but successful recognition depends on proper orientation and illumination of the image, compared to the one taken at registration time. Facial features heavily change with illumination and orientation angle, leading to increased false rejection as well as false acceptance. Registering face images for all possible angles and illumination is impossible. In this work, we proposed a memory efficient way to register (store multiple angle and changing illumination face image data, and a computationally efficient authentication technique, using multilayer perceptron (MLP. Though MLP is trained using a few registered images with different orientation, due to generalization property of MLP, interpolation of features for intermediate orientation angles was possible. The algorithm is further extended to include illumination robust authentication system. Results of extensive experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Bidirectional Modulation of Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jonathan W; Poeta, Devon L; Jacobson, Tara K; Zolnik, Timothy A; Neske, Garrett T; Connors, Barry W; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2015-09-30

    Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects. For example, animals and humans with perirhinal damage are unable to distinguish familiar from novel objects in recognition memory tasks. In the normal brain, perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by increasing or decreasing firing rates. Recent work also implicates oscillatory activity in the low-beta and low-gamma frequency bands in sensory detection, perception, and recognition. Using optogenetic methods in a spontaneous object exploration (SOR) task, we altered recognition memory performance in rats. In the SOR task, normal rats preferentially explore novel images over familiar ones. We modulated exploratory behavior in this task by optically stimulating channelrhodopsin-expressing perirhinal neurons at various frequencies while rats looked at novel or familiar 2D images. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz during looking caused rats to treat a familiar image as if it were novel by increasing time looking at the image. Stimulation at 30-40 Hz was not effective in increasing exploration of novel images. Stimulation at 10-15 Hz caused animals to treat a novel image as familiar by decreasing time looking at the image, but did not affect looking times for images that were already familiar. We conclude that optical stimulation of PER at different frequencies can alter visual recognition memory bidirectionally. Significance statement: Recognition of novelty and familiarity are important for learning, memory, and decision making. Perirhinal cortex (PER) has a well established role in the familiarity-based recognition of individual items and objects, but how novelty and familiarity are encoded and transmitted in the brain is not known. Perirhinal neurons respond to novelty and familiarity by changing firing rates, but recent work suggests that brain oscillations may also be important for recognition. In this study, we showed that stimulation of

  12. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  13. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  14. AMPA receptor phosphorylation and recognition memory: learning-related, time-dependent changes in the chick brain following filial imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonia, Revaz O; Meparishvili, Maia; Mikautadze, Ekaterine; Kunelauri, Nana; Apkhazava, David; McCabe, Brian J

    2013-04-01

    There is strong evidence that a restricted part of the chick forebrain, the intermediate medial mesopallium (IMM), stores information acquired through the learning process of visual imprinting. We have previously demonstrated that at 1 h but not 24 h after imprinting training, a learning-specific increase in the amount of membrane Thr286-autophosphorylated α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII), and in the proportion of total αCaMKII that is phosphorylated, occurs in the IMM but not in a control brain region, the posterior pole of the nidopallium (PPN). αCaMKII directly phosphorylates Ser831 in the GluA1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor. In the present study we have inquired whether the learning-related increase in αCaMKII autophosphorylation is followed by changes in the Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 (P-GluA1) and in the total amount of this subunit (T-GluA1). Trained chicks together with untrained control chicks were killed either 1 or 24 h after training. Tissue was removed from the IMM together with tissue from the PPN as a control. Amounts of P-GluA1 and T-GluA1 were measured. In the left IMM of the 1 h group the P-GluA1/T-GluA1 ratio increased in a learning-specific way. No learning-related changes were observed in other brain regions at 1 h or in any region 24 h after training. The results indicate that a time- and regionally-dependent, learning-specific increase in GluA1 phosphorylation occurs early in recognition memory formation.

  15. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  16. Clarification of the memory artefact in the assessment of suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P

    2008-04-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS) assesses suggestibility by asking respondents to recall a short story, followed by exposure to leading questions and pressure to change their responses. Suggestibility, as assessed by the GSS, appears to be elevated in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This has been shown to reflect to some extent the fact that people with ID have poor recall of the story; however, there are discrepancies in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a closer match between memory and suggestibility would be found using a measure of recognition memory rather than free recall. Three modifications to the procedure were presented to users of a learning disabilities day service. In all three experiments, a measure of forced-choice recognition memory was built into the suggestibility test. In experiments 1 and 2, the GSS was presented using either divided presentation (splitting the story into two halves, with memory and suggestibility tests after each half) or multiple presentation (the story was presented three times before presentation of the memory and suggestibility tests). Participants were tested twice, once with the standard version of the test and once with one of the modified versions. In experiment 3, an alternative suggestibility scale (ASS3) was created, based on real events in a learning disabilities day service. The ASS3 was presented to one group of participants who had been present at the events, and a second group who attended a different day service, to whom the events were unfamiliar. As observed previously, suggestibility was not closely related to free recall performance: recall was increased equally by all three manipulations, but they produced, respectively, no effect, a modest effect and a large effect on suggestibility. However, the effects on suggestibility were closely related to performance on the forced-choice recognition memory task: divided presentation of the GSS2 had no

  17. Extracting time-frequency feature of single-channel vastus medialis EMG signals for knee exercise pattern recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available The EMG signal indicates the electrophysiological response to daily living of activities, particularly to lower-limb knee exercises. Literature reports have shown numerous benefits of the Wavelet analysis in EMG feature extraction for pattern recognition. However, its application to typical knee exercises when using only a single EMG channel is limited. In this study, three types of knee exercises, i.e., flexion of the leg up (standing, hip extension from a sitting position (sitting and gait (walking are investigated from 14 healthy untrained subjects, while EMG signals from the muscle group of vastus medialis and the goniometer on the knee joint of the detected leg are synchronously monitored and recorded. Four types of lower-limb motions including standing, sitting, stance phase of walking, and swing phase of walking, are segmented. The Wavelet Transform (WT based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD approach is proposed for the classification of four lower-limb motions using a single-channel EMG signal from the muscle group of vastus medialis. Based on lower-limb motions from all subjects, the combination of five-level wavelet decomposition and SVD is used to comprise the feature vector. The Support Vector Machine (SVM is then configured to build a multiple-subject classifier for which the subject independent accuracy will be given across all subjects for the classification of four types of lower-limb motions. In order to effectively indicate the classification performance, EMG features from time-domain (e.g., Mean Absolute Value (MAV, Root-Mean-Square (RMS, integrated EMG (iEMG, Zero Crossing (ZC and frequency-domain (e.g., Mean Frequency (MNF and Median Frequency (MDF are also used to classify lower-limb motions. The five-fold cross validation is performed and it repeats fifty times in order to acquire the robust subject independent accuracy. Results show that the proposed WT-based SVD approach has the classification accuracy of 91.85%±0

  18. Invariant Face recognition Using Infrared Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few decades, face recognition has become a rapidly growing research topic due to the increasing demands in many applications of our daily life such as airport surveillance, personal identification in law enforcement, surveillance systems, information safety, securing financial transactions, and computer security. The objective of this thesis is to develop a face recognition system capable of recognizing persons with a high recognition capability, low processing time, and under different illumination conditions, and different facial expressions. The thesis presents a study for the performance of the face recognition system using two techniques; the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and the Zernike Moments (ZM). The performance of the recognition system is evaluated according to several aspects including the recognition rate, and the processing time. Face recognition systems that use visual images are sensitive to variations in the lighting conditions and facial expressions. The performance of these systems may be degraded under poor illumination conditions or for subjects of various skin colors. Several solutions have been proposed to overcome these limitations. One of these solutions is to work in the Infrared (IR) spectrum. IR images have been suggested as an alternative source of information for detection and recognition of faces, when there is little or no control over lighting conditions. This arises from the fact that these images are formed due to thermal emissions from skin, which is an intrinsic property because these emissions depend on the distribution of blood vessels under the skin. On the other hand IR face recognition systems still have limitations with temperature variations and recognition of persons wearing eye glasses. In this thesis we will fuse IR images with visible images to enhance the performance of face recognition systems. Images are fused using the wavelet transform. Simulation results show that the fusion of visible and

  19. Beyond ROC Curvature: Strength Effects and Response Time Data Support Continuous-Evidence Models of Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Chad; Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    A classic question in the recognition memory literature is whether retrieval is best described as a continuous-evidence process consistent with signal detection theory (SDT), or a threshold process consistent with many multinomial processing tree (MPT) models. Because receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) based on confidence ratings are…

  20. The reasonable timing of the adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent: suggestion based on progression patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Oh, Dong Ryul; Bae, Duk Soo

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to identify and suggest the reasonable timing of adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of uterine carcinosarcoma according to the surgical intent and patterns of progression. We retrospectively analyzed a total of 50 carcinosarcoma patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2010. Among these 50 patients, 32 underwent curative surgery and 13 underwent maximal tumor debulking surgery. The remaining five patients underwent biopsy only. Twenty-six patients received chemotherapy, and 15 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. The median follow-up period was 17.3 months. Curative resection (p < 0.001) and stage (p < 0.001) were statistically significant factors affecting survival. During follow-up, 30 patients showed progression. Among these, eight patients (16.0%) had loco-regional progression only. The patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy did not show loco-regional progression, and radiotherapy was a significant negative risk factor for loco-regional progression (p = 0.01). The time to loco-regional progression was much earlier for non-curative than curative resection (range, 0.7 to 7.6 months vs. 7.5 to 39.0 months). Adjuvant radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinosarcoma might be related to a low loco-regional progression rate. Radiotherapy should be considered in non-curatively resected patients as soon as possible.

  1. Oscillation-Driven Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity Allows Multiple Overlapping Pattern Recognition in Inhibitory Interneuron Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Jesús A.; Luque, Niceto R.; Tolu, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The majority of operations carried out by the brain require learning complex signal patterns for future recognition, retrieval and reuse. Although learning is thought to depend on multiple forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, the way this latter contributes to pattern recognition is still poorly...... and at the inhibitory interneuron-interneuron synapses, the interneurons rapidly learned complex input patterns. Interestingly, induction of plasticity required that the network be entrained into theta-frequency band oscillations, setting the internal phase-reference required to drive STDP. Inhibitory plasticity...... effectively distributed multiple patterns among available interneurons, thus allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple overlapping patterns. The addition of plasticity in intrinsic excitability made the system more robust allowing self-adjustment and rescaling in response to a broad range of input...

  2. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-01-01

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using ...

  3. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  4. One-against-all weighted dynamic time warping for language-independent and speaker-dependent speech recognition in adverse conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglilan Zhang

    Full Text Available Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English names, language-independent (LI with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD automatic speech recognition (ASR is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW. This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW, as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions.

  5. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  6. Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza, S; Wong, W S; Fröjdh, E; Norlin, B; Fröjdh, C; Thungström, G; Thim, J

    2012-01-01

    The function of a dosimeter is to determine the absorbed dose of radiation, for those cases in which, generally, the particular type of radiation is already known. Lately, a number of applications have emerged in which all kinds of radiation are absorbed and are sorted by pattern recognition, such as the Medipix2 application in [1]. This form of smart dosimetry enables measurements where not only the total dosage is measured, but also the contributions of different types of radiation impacting upon the detector surface. Furthermore, the use of a photon counting system, where the energy deposition can be measured in each individual pixel, ensures measurements with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the pattern recognition. In this article a Timepix [2] detector system has been used in the creation of a smart dosimeter for Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation. When a radioactive particle hits the detector surface it generates charge clusters and those impacting upon the detector surface are read out and image processing algorithms are then used to classify each charge cluster. The individual clusters are calculated and as a result, the dosage for each type of radiation is given. In some cases, several particles can impact in roughly the same place, forming overlapping clusters. In order to handle this problem, a cluster separation method has been added to the pattern recognition algorithm. When the clusters have been separated, they are classified by shape and sorted into the correct type of radiation. The algorithms and methods used in this dosimeter have been developed so as to be simple and computationally effective, in order to enable implementation on a portable device.

  7. Object recognition memory in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Morrill, Adam; Holcombe, Adam; Johnston, Travis; Gallup, Joshua; Fouad, Karim; Schalomon, Melike; Hamilton, Trevor James

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition, or novel-object preference (NOP) test is employed to assess recognition memory in a variety of organisms. The subject is exposed to two identical objects, then after a delay, it is placed back in the original environment containing one of the original objects and a novel object. If the subject spends more time exploring one object, this can be interpreted as memory retention. To date, this test has not been fully explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish possess recognition memory for simple 2- and 3-dimensional geometrical shapes, yet it is unknown if this translates to complex 3-dimensional objects. In this study we evaluated recognition memory in zebrafish using complex objects of different sizes. Contrary to rodents, zebrafish preferentially explored familiar over novel objects. Familiarity preference disappeared after delays of 5 mins. Leopard danios, another strain of D. rerio, also preferred the familiar object after a 1 min delay. Object preference could be re-established in zebra danios by administration of nicotine tartrate salt (50mg/L) prior to stimuli presentation, suggesting a memory-enhancing effect of nicotine. Additionally, exploration biases were present only when the objects were of intermediate size (2 × 5 cm). Our results demonstrate zebra and leopard danios have recognition memory, and that low nicotine doses can improve this memory type in zebra danios. However, exploration biases, from which memory is inferred, depend on object size. These findings suggest zebrafish ecology might influence object preference, as zebrafish neophobia could reflect natural anti-predatory behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. RangerMaster trademark: Real-time pattern recognition software for in-field analysis of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.S.; Ziemba, F.; Szluk, N.

    1998-01-01

    RangerMaster trademark is the embedded firmware for Quantrad Sensor's integrated nuclear instrument package, the Ranger trademark. The Ranger trademark, which is both a gamma-ray and neutron detection system, was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in situ surveys at the Plutonium Facility to confirm the presence of nuclear materials. The new RangerMaster trademark software expands the library of isotopes and simplifies the operation of the instrument by providing an easy mode suitable for untrained operators. The expanded library of the Ranger trademark now includes medical isotopes 99 Tc, 201 Tl, 111 In, 67 Ga, 133 Xe, 103 Pa, and 131 I; industrial isotopes 241 Am, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 40 K, 60 Co, 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 207 Bi; and nuclear materials 235 U, 238 U, 233 U, and 239 Pu. To accomplish isotopic identification, a simulated spectrum for each of the isotopes was generated using SYNTH. The SYNTH spectra formed the basis for the knowledge-based expert system and selection of the regions of interest that are used in the pattern recognition system. The knowledge-based pattern recognition system was tested against actual spectra under field conditions

  9. RangerMasterTM: real-time pattern recognition software for in-field analysis of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.S.; Ziemba, F.; Szluk, N.

    1998-01-01

    RangerMaster TM is the embedded firmware for Quantrad Sensor's integrated nuclear instrument package, the Ranger TM . The Ranger TM , which is both a gamma-ray and neutron detection system, was originally developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for in situ surveys at the Plutonium Facility to confirm the presence of nuclear materials. The new RangerMaster TM software expands the library of isotopes and simplifies the operation of the instrument by providing an 'easy' mode suitable for untrained operators. The expanded library of the Ranger TM now includes medical isotopes 99 Tc, 201 Tl, 111 In, 67 Ga, 133 Xe, 103 Pa, and 131 I; industrial isotopes 241 Am, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 40 K, 60 Co, 232 Th, 226 Ra, and 207 Bi; and nuclear materials 235 U, 238 U, 233 U, and 239 Pu. To accomplish isotopic identification, a simulated spectrum for each of the isotopes was generated using SYNTH 2 . The SYNTH spectra formed the basis for the knowledge-based expert system and selection of the regions of interest that are used in the pattern recognition system. The knowledge-based pattern recognition system was tested against actual spectra under field conditions. (author)

  10. Classification of chilli sauces: Multivariate pattern recognition using selected GCMS retention time peaks of chilli sauces samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Kah Hin; Sharifuddin Mohd Zain; Mohd Radzi Abas

    2008-01-01

    As a preliminary work on the possibility of separating classes of chili sauces based on taste or customer preferences, organic compounds from different kinds of chili sauces of various brands were separated and analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/ MS). It was found that these organic compounds do form a basis for separation of different types of sauces. The similarity and dissimilarity of chromatograms due to the organic composition of the chili sauces were explored by multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Both CA and PCA results exhibit four linearly separable classes, namely general sauces, hot sauces, sauces with benzoic acid and sauces with garlic. It was concluded that by using chosen retention peaks in the chromatograms of various sauce samples as multivariate features, CA and PCA can be successfully used to reveal the natural clusters existing in chili sauces according to their organic composition. (author)

  11. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  12. Self-organization comprehensive real-time state evaluation model for oil pump unit on the basis of operating condition classification and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yu, Xuchao; Zhang, Laibin; Lu, Wenqing

    2018-05-01

    In oil transmission station, the operating condition (OC) of an oil pump unit sometimes switches accordingly, which will lead to changes in operating parameters. If not taking the switching of OCs into consideration while performing a state evaluation on the pump unit, the accuracy of evaluation would be largely influenced. Hence, in this paper, a self-organization Comprehensive Real-Time State Evaluation Model (self-organization CRTSEM) is proposed based on OC classification and recognition. However, the underlying model CRTSEM is built through incorporating the advantages of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model (FCEM) first. That is to say, independent state models are established for every state characteristic parameter according to their distribution types (i.e. the Gaussian distribution and logistic regression distribution). Meanwhile, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is utilized to calculate the weights of state characteristic parameters. Then, the OC classification is determined by the types of oil delivery tasks, and CRTSEMs of different standard OCs are built to constitute the CRTSEM matrix. On the other side, the OC recognition is realized by a self-organization model that is established on the basis of Back Propagation (BP) model. After the self-organization CRTSEM is derived through integration, real-time monitoring data can be inputted for OC recognition. At the end, the current state of the pump unit can be evaluated by using the right CRTSEM. The case study manifests that the proposed self-organization CRTSEM can provide reasonable and accurate state evaluation results for the pump unit. Besides, the assumption that the switching of OCs will influence the results of state evaluation is also verified.

  13. TISK 1.0: An easy-to-use Python implementation of the time-invariant string kernel model of spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Heejo; Magnuson, James S

    2018-04-30

    This article describes a new Python distribution of TISK, the time-invariant string kernel model of spoken word recognition (Hannagan et al. in Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 563, 2013). TISK is an interactive-activation model similar to the TRACE model (McClelland & Elman in Cognitive Psychology, 18, 1-86, 1986), but TISK replaces most of TRACE's reduplicated, time-specific nodes with theoretically motivated time-invariant, open-diphone nodes. We discuss the utility of computational models as theory development tools, the relative merits of TISK as compared to other models, and the ways in which researchers might use this implementation to guide their own research and theory development. We describe a TISK model that includes features that facilitate in-line graphing of simulation results, integration with standard Python data formats, and graph and data export. The distribution can be downloaded from https://github.com/maglab-uconn/TISK1.0 .

  14. The recognition of female voice based on voice registers in singing techniques in real-time using hankel transform method and macdonald function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyanti, R.; Subandi, A.; Fuqara, N.; Budiman, M. A.; Siahaan, A. P. U.

    2018-03-01

    A singer doesn’t just recite the lyrics of a song, but also with the use of particular sound techniques to make it more beautiful. In the singing technique, more female have a diverse sound registers than male. There are so many registers of the human voice, but the voice registers used while singing, among others, Chest Voice, Head Voice, Falsetto, and Vocal fry. Research of speech recognition based on the female’s voice registers in singing technique is built using Borland Delphi 7.0. Speech recognition process performed by the input recorded voice samples and also in real time. Voice input will result in weight energy values based on calculations using Hankel Transformation method and Macdonald Functions. The results showed that the accuracy of the system depends on the accuracy of sound engineering that trained and tested, and obtained an average percentage of the successful introduction of the voice registers record reached 48.75 percent, while the average percentage of the successful introduction of the voice registers in real time to reach 57 percent.

  15. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  16. Real-time PCR detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates suggests horizontal gene transfer between multiple genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lee; Owens, Erica; Tambling, Karen; O'Neill, David; O'Connor, Laura; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    Nitriles are widespread in the environment as a result of biological and industrial activity. Nitrile hydratases catalyse the hydration of nitriles to the corresponding amide and are often associated with amidases, which catalyze the conversion of amides to the corresponding acids. Nitrile hydratases have potential as biocatalysts in bioremediation and biotransformation applications, and several successful examples demonstrate the advantages. In this work a real-time PCR assay was designed for the detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates purified from nitrile-enriched soils and seaweeds. Specific PCR primers were also designed for amplification and sequencing of the genes. Identical or highly homologous nitrile hydratase genes were detected from isolates of numerous genera from geographically diverse sites, as were numerous novel genes. The genes were also detected from isolates of genera not previously reported to harbour nitrile hydratases. The results provide further evidence that many bacteria have acquired the genes via horizontal gene transfer. The real-time PCR assay should prove useful in searching for nitrile hydratases that could have novel substrate specificities and therefore potential in industrial applications.

  17. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alvaro; Yoon, Sook; Kim, Sang Cheol; Park, Dong Sun

    2017-09-04

    Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN), Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN), and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD), which for the purpose of this work are called "deep learning meta-architectures". We combine each of these meta-architectures with "deep feature extractors" such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet). We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant's surrounding area.

  18. A Robust Deep-Learning-Based Detector for Real-Time Tomato Plant Diseases and Pests Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Fuentes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant Diseases and Pests are a major challenge in the agriculture sector. An accurate and a faster detection of diseases and pests in plants could help to develop an early treatment technique while substantially reducing economic losses. Recent developments in Deep Neural Networks have allowed researchers to drastically improve the accuracy of object detection and recognition systems. In this paper, we present a deep-learning-based approach to detect diseases and pests in tomato plants using images captured in-place by camera devices with various resolutions. Our goal is to find the more suitable deep-learning architecture for our task. Therefore, we consider three main families of detectors: Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Network (Faster R-CNN, Region-based Fully Convolutional Network (R-FCN, and Single Shot Multibox Detector (SSD, which for the purpose of this work are called “deep learning meta-architectures”. We combine each of these meta-architectures with “deep feature extractors” such as VGG net and Residual Network (ResNet. We demonstrate the performance of deep meta-architectures and feature extractors, and additionally propose a method for local and global class annotation and data augmentation to increase the accuracy and reduce the number of false positives during training. We train and test our systems end-to-end on our large Tomato Diseases and Pests Dataset, which contains challenging images with diseases and pests, including several inter- and extra-class variations, such as infection status and location in the plant. Experimental results show that our proposed system can effectively recognize nine different types of diseases and pests, with the ability to deal with complex scenarios from a plant’s surrounding area.

  19. Exploratory Data Analysis of Acceleration Signals to Select Light-Weight and Accurate Features for Real-Time Activity Recognition on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Won Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR recognizes users’ activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR or long data-window (DW to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz and a small DW (3 s. The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  20. Exploratory data analysis of acceleration signals to select light-weight and accurate features for real-time activity recognition on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Seok-Won

    2013-09-27

    Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR) recognizes users' activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification) is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR) or long data-window (DW) to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR) process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz) and a small DW (3 s). The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  1. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  2. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  3. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  4. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...

  5. How fast is famous face recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys eBarragan-Jason

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid recognition of familiar faces is crucial for social interactions. However the actual speed with which recognition can be achieved remains largely unknown as most studies have been carried out without any speed constraints. Different paradigms have been used, leading to conflicting results, and although many authors suggest that face recognition is fast, the speed of face recognition has not been directly compared to fast visual tasks. In this study, we sought to overcome these limitations. Subjects performed three tasks, a familiarity categorization task (famous faces among unknown faces, a superordinate categorization task (human faces among animal ones and a gender categorization task. All tasks were performed under speed constraints. The results show that, despite the use of speed constraints, subjects were slow when they had to categorize famous faces: minimum reaction time was 467 ms, which is 180 ms more than during superordinate categorization and 160 ms more than in the gender condition. Our results are compatible with a hierarchy of face processing from the superordinate level to the familiarity level. The processes taking place between detection and recognition need to be investigated in detail.

  6. Effects of Time-Compressed Narration and Representational Adjunct Images on Cued-Recall, Content Recognition, and Learner Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzhaupt, Albert Dieter; Barron, Ann

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of time-compressed narration and representational adjunct images on a learner's ability to recall and recognize information. The experiment was a 4 Audio Speeds (1.0 = normal vs. 1.5 = moderate vs. 2.0 = fast vs. 2.5 = fastest rate) x Adjunct Image (Image Present vs. Image Absent) factorial…

  7. Development of a high-speed real-time PCR system for rapid and precise nucleotide recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method used to create copies of a specific target region of a DNA sequence and to produce large quantities of DNA. A few DNA molecules, which act as templates, are rapidly amplified by PCR into many billions of copies. PCR is a key technology in genome-based biological analysis, revolutionizing many life science fields such as medical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and countermeasures against bioterrorism. Thus, many applications have been developed with the thermal cycling. For these PCR applications, one of the most important key factors is reduction in the data acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, it is necessary to decrease the temperature transition time between the high and low ends as much as possible. We have developed a novel rapid real-time PCR system based on rapid exchange of media maintained at different temperatures. This system consists of two thermal reservoirs and a reaction chamber for PCR observation. The temperature transition was achieved within 0.3 sec, and good thermal stability was achieved during thermal cycling with rapid exchange of circulating media. This system allows rigorous optimization of the temperatures required for each stage of the PCR processes. Resulting amplicons were confirmed by electrophoresis. Using the system, rapid DNA amplification was accomplished within 3.5 min, including initial heating and complete 50 PCR cycles. It clearly shows that the device could allow us faster temperature switching than the conventional conduction-based heating systems based on Peltier heating/cooling.

  8. A time-resolved luminescent competitive assay to detect L-selectin using aptamers as recognition elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cywiński, Piotr J.; Olejko, Lydia; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2015-01-01

    L-selectin is a protein with potential importance for numerous diseases and clinical disorders. In this paper, we present a new aptamer-based luminescent assay developed to detect L-selectin. The sensing system working principle is based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from a donor terbium complex (TbC) to an acceptor cyanine dye (Cy5). In the present approach, the biotinylated aptamer is combined with Cy5-labelled streptavidin (Cy5-Strep) to yield an aptamer-based acceptor construct (Apta-Cy5-Strep), while L-selectin is conjugated using luminescent TbC. Upon aptamer binding to the TbC-labelled L-selectin (L-selectin-TbC), permanent donor-acceptor proximity is established which allows for radiationless energy transfer to occur. However, when unlabelled L-selectin is added, it competes with the L-selectin-TbC and the FRET signal decreases as the L-selectin concentration increases. FRET from the TbC to Cy5 was observed with time-gated time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. A significant change in the corrected luminescence signal was observed in the dynamic range of 10–500 ng/mL L-selectin, the concentration range relevant for accelerated cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease, with a limit of detection (LOD) equal to 10 ng/mL. The aptasensor-based assay is homogeneous and can be realized within one hour. Therefore, this method has the potential to become an alternative to tedious heterogeneous analytical methods, e.g. based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). - Highlights: • Tb-based FRET assay with aptamers toward a protein is presented for the first time. • L-selectin can be detected in concentrations relevant for the Alzheimer's Disease. • The assay can be realized in one hour with the LOD equal to 10 ng/ml

  9. A time-resolved luminescent competitive assay to detect L-selectin using aptamers as recognition elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cywiński, Piotr J., E-mail: piotr.cywinski@iap.fraunhofer.de [Functional Materials and Devices, Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research, Geiselberstr.69, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Olejko, Lydia; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2015-08-05

    L-selectin is a protein with potential importance for numerous diseases and clinical disorders. In this paper, we present a new aptamer-based luminescent assay developed to detect L-selectin. The sensing system working principle is based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from a donor terbium complex (TbC) to an acceptor cyanine dye (Cy5). In the present approach, the biotinylated aptamer is combined with Cy5-labelled streptavidin (Cy5-Strep) to yield an aptamer-based acceptor construct (Apta-Cy5-Strep), while L-selectin is conjugated using luminescent TbC. Upon aptamer binding to the TbC-labelled L-selectin (L-selectin-TbC), permanent donor-acceptor proximity is established which allows for radiationless energy transfer to occur. However, when unlabelled L-selectin is added, it competes with the L-selectin-TbC and the FRET signal decreases as the L-selectin concentration increases. FRET from the TbC to Cy5 was observed with time-gated time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. A significant change in the corrected luminescence signal was observed in the dynamic range of 10–500 ng/mL L-selectin, the concentration range relevant for accelerated cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease, with a limit of detection (LOD) equal to 10 ng/mL. The aptasensor-based assay is homogeneous and can be realized within one hour. Therefore, this method has the potential to become an alternative to tedious heterogeneous analytical methods, e.g. based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). - Highlights: • Tb-based FRET assay with aptamers toward a protein is presented for the first time. • L-selectin can be detected in concentrations relevant for the Alzheimer's Disease. • The assay can be realized in one hour with the LOD equal to 10 ng/ml.

  10. Real-time learning of predictive recognition categories that chunk sequences of items stored in working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eGrossberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available How are sequences of events that are temporarily stored in a cognitive working memory unitized, or chunked, through learning? Such sequential learning is needed by the brain in order to enable language, spatial understanding, and motor skills to develop. In particular, how does the brain learn categories, or list chunks, that become selectively tuned to different temporal sequences of items in lists of variable length as they are stored in working memory, and how does this learning process occur in real time? The present article introduces a neural model that simulates learning of such list chunks. In this model, sequences of items are temporarily stored in an Item-and-Order, or competitive queuing, working memory before learning categorizes them using a categorization network, called a Masking Field, which is a self-similar, multiple-scale, recurrent on-center off-surround network that can weigh the evidence for variable-length sequences of items as they are stored in the working memory through time. A Masking Field hereby activates the learned list chunks that represent the most predictive item groupings at any time, while suppressing less predictive chunks. In a network with a given number of input items, all possible ordered sets of these item sequences, up to a fixed length, can be learned with unsupervised or supervised learning. The self-similar multiple-scale properties of Masking Fields interacting with an Item-and-Order working memory provide a natural explanation of George Miller's Magical Number Seven and Nelson Cowan's Magical Number Four. The article explains why linguistic, spatial, and action event sequences may all be stored by Item-and-Order working memories that obey similar design principles, and thus how the current results may apply across modalities. Item-and-Order properties may readily be extended to Item-Order-Rank working memories in which the same item can be stored in multiple list positions, or ranks, as in the list

  11. Juvenile magma recognition and eruptive dynamics inferred from the analysis of ash time series: The 2015 reawakening of Cotopaxi volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, H. Elizabeth; Bernard, Benjamin; Hidalgo, Silvana; Proano, Antonio; Wright, Heather M.; Mothes, Patricia; Criollo, Evelyn; Kueppers, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future activity and performing hazard assessments during the reactivation of volcanoes remain great challenges for the volcanological community. On August 14, 2015 Cotopaxi volcano erupted for the first time in 73 years after approximately four months of precursory activity, which included an increase in seismicity, gas emissions, and minor ground deformation. Here we discuss the use of near real-time petrological monitoring of ash samples as a complementary aid to geophysical monitoring, in order to infer eruption dynamics and evaluate possible future eruptive activity at Cotopaxi. Twenty ash samples were collected between August 14 and November 23, 2015 from a monitoring site on the west flank of the volcano. These samples contain a range of grain types that we classified as: hydrothermal/altered, lithic, juvenile, and free crystals. The relative proportions of theses grains evolved as the eruption progressed, with increasing amounts of juvenile material and a decrease in hydrothermally altered material. In samples from the initial explosion, juvenile grains are glassy, microlite-poor and contain hydrothermal minerals (opal and alunite). The rising magma came in contact with the hydrothermal system under confinement, causing hydro-magmatic explosions that cleared the upper part of the plumbing system. Subsequently, the magmatic column produced a thermal aureole in the conduit and dried out the hydrothermal system, allowing for dry eruptions. Magma ascent rates were low enough to allow for efficient outgassing and microlite growth. Constant supply of magma from below caused quasi-continuous disruption of the uppermost magma volume through a combination of shear-deformation and gas expansion. The combination of increasing crystallinity of juvenile grains, and high measured SO2 flux indicate decreasing integrated magma ascent rates and clearing of the hydrothermal system along transport pathways in a system open to gas loss. The near real-time

  12. Normal time course of auditory recognition in schizophrenia, despite impaired precision of the auditory sensory ("echoic") memory code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, L; Cienfuegos, A; Goldbloom, L; Ritter, W; Cowan, N; Javitt, D C

    1999-02-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated impaired precision of processing within the auditory sensory memory (ASM) system in schizophrenia. This study used auditory backward masking to evaluate the degree to which such deficits resulted from impaired overall precision versus premature decay of information within the short-term auditory store. ASM performance was evaluated in 14 schizophrenic participants and 16 controls. Schizophrenic participants were severely impaired in their ability to match tones following delay. However, when no-mask performance was equated across participants, schizophrenic participants were no more susceptible to the effects of backward maskers than were controls. Thus, despite impaired precision of ASM performance, schizophrenic participants showed no deficits in the time course over which short-term representations could be used within the ASM system.

  13. A novel patterning control strategy based on real-time fingerprint recognition and adaptive wafer level scanner optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekli, Hakki Ergun; Nije, Jelle; Ypma, Alexander; Bastani, Vahid; Sonntag, Dag; Niesing, Henk; Zhang, Linmiao; Ullah, Zakir; Subramony, Venky; Somasundaram, Ravin; Susanto, William; Matsunobu, Masazumi; Johnson, Jeff; Tabery, Cyrus; Lin, Chenxi; Zou, Yi

    2018-03-01

    In addition to lithography process and equipment induced variations, processes like etching, annealing, film deposition and planarization exhibit variations, each having their own intrinsic characteristics and leaving an effect, a `fingerprint', on the wafers. With ever tighter requirements for CD and overlay, controlling these process induced variations is both increasingly important and increasingly challenging in advanced integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. For example, the on-product overlay (OPO) requirement for future nodes is approaching process induced variance to become extremely small. Process variance control is seen as an bottleneck to further shrink which drives the need for more sophisticated process control strategies. In this context we developed a novel `computational process control strategy' which provides the capability of proactive control of each individual wafer with aim to maximize the yield, without introducing a significant impact on metrology requirements, cycle time or productivity. The complexity of the wafer process is approached by characterizing the full wafer stack building a fingerprint library containing key patterning performance parameters like Overlay, Focus, etc. Historical wafer metrology is decomposed into dominant fingerprints using Principal Component Analysis. By associating observed fingerprints with their origin e.g. process steps, tools and variables, we can give an inline assessment of the strength and origin of the fingerprints on every wafer. Once the fingerprint library is established, a wafer specific fingerprint correction recipes can be determined based on its processing history. Data science techniques are used in real-time to ensure that the library is adaptive. To realize this concept, ASML TWINSCAN scanners play a vital role with their on-board full wafer detection and exposure correction capabilities. High density metrology data is created by the scanner for each wafer and on every layer during the

  14. Syllabic Length Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ranjbar Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on visual word recognition have resulted in different and sometimes contradictory proposals as Multi-Trace Memory Model (MTM, Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC, and Parallel Distribution Processing Model (PDP. The role of the number of syllables in word recognition was examined by the use of five groups of English words and non-words. The reaction time of the participants to these words was measured using reaction time measuring software. The results indicated that there was syllabic effect on recognition of both high and low frequency words. The pattern was incremental in terms of syllable number. This pattern prevailed in high and low frequency words and non-words except in one syllable words. In general, the results are in line with the PDP model which claims that a single processing mechanism is used in both words and non-words recognition. In other words, the findings suggest that lexical items are mainly processed via a lexical route.  A pedagogical implication of the findings would be that reading in English as a foreign language involves analytical processing of the syllable of the words.

  15. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  16. Expanding the functionality of speech recognition in radiology: creating a real-time methodology for measurement and analysis of occupational stress and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2013-02-01

    While occupational stress and fatigue have been well described throughout medicine, the radiology community is particularly susceptible due to declining reimbursements, heightened demands for service deliverables, and increasing exam volume and complexity. The resulting occupational stress can be variable in nature and dependent upon a number of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors. Intrinsic stressors largely account for inter-radiologist stress variability and relate to unique attributes of the radiologist such as personality, emotional state, education/training, and experience. Extrinsic stressors may account for intra-radiologist stress variability and include cumulative workload and task complexity. The creation of personalized stress profiles creates a mechanism for accounting for both inter- and intra-radiologist stress variability, which is essential in creating customizable stress intervention strategies. One viable option for real-time occupational stress measurement is voice stress analysis, which can be directly implemented through existing speech recognition technology and has been proven to be effective in stress measurement and analysis outside of medicine. This technology operates by detecting stress in the acoustic properties of speech through a number of different variables including duration, glottis source factors, pitch distribution, spectral structure, and intensity. The correlation of these speech derived stress measures with outcomes data can be used to determine the user-specific inflection point at which stress becomes detrimental to clinical performance.

  17. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    support vector machines. Building from the success of statistical EVT based recognition methods such as PI-SVM and W-SVM on the open set problem, we present a new general supervised learning algorithm for multi-class classification and multi-class open set recognition called the Extreme Value Local Basis (EVLB). The design of this algorithm is motivated by the observation that extrema from known negative class distributions are the closest negative points to any positive sample during training, and thus should be used to define the parameters of a probabilistic decision model. In the EVLB, the kernel distribution for each positive training sample is estimated via an EVT distribution fit over the distances to the separating hyperplane between positive training sample and closest negative samples, with a subset of the overall positive training data retained to form a probabilistic decision boundary. Using this subset as a frame of reference, the probability of a sample at test time decreases as it moves away from the positive class. Possessing this property, the EVLB is well-suited to open set recognition problems where samples from unknown or novel classes are encountered at test. Our experimental evaluation shows that the EVLB provides a substantial improvement in scalability compared to standard radial basis function kernel machines, as well as P I-SVM and W-SVM, with improved accuracy in many cases. We evaluate our algorithm on open set variations of the standard visual learning benchmarks, as well as with an open subset of classes from Caltech 256 and ImageNet. Our experiments show that PI-SVM, WSVM and EVLB provide significant advances over the previous state-of-the-art solutions for the same tasks.

  18. The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wendy L.

    1986-01-01

    Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…

  19. Changing predictions, stable recognition: Children's representations of downward incline motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael; Howe, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Various studies to-date have demonstrated children hold ill-conceived expressed beliefs about the physical world such as that one ball will fall faster than another because it is heavier. At the same time, they also demonstrate accurate recognition of dynamic events. How these representations relate is still unresolved. This study examined 5- to 11-year-olds' (N = 130) predictions and recognition of motion down inclines. Predictions were typically in error, matching previous work, but children largely recognized correct events as correct and rejected incorrect ones. The results also demonstrate while predictions change with increasing age, recognition shows signs of stability. The findings provide further support for a hybrid model of object representations and argue in favour of stable core cognition existing alongside developmental changes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children's predictions of physical events show limitations in accuracy Their recognition of such events suggests children may use different knowledge sources in their reasoning What the present study adds? Predictions fluctuate more strongly than recognition, suggesting stable core cognition But recognition also shows some fluctuation, arguing for a hybrid model of knowledge representation. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The influence of suggestibility on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge; Collins, Thérèse; Gounden, Yannick; Roediger, Henry L

    2011-06-01

    We provide a translation of Binet and Henri's pioneering 1894 paper on the influence of suggestibility on memory. Alfred Binet (1857-1911) is famous as the author who created the IQ test that bears his name, but he is almost unknown as the psychological investigator who generated numerous original experiments and fascinating results in the study of memory. His experiments published in 1894 manipulated suggestibility in several ways to determine effects on remembering. Three particular modes of suggestion were employed to induce false recognitions: (1) indirect suggestion by a preconceived idea; (2) direct suggestion; and (3) collective suggestion. In the commentary we suggest that Binet and Henri's (1894) paper written over 115 years ago is still highly relevant even today. In particular, Binet's legacy lives on in modern research on misinformation effects in memory, in studies of conformity, and in experiments on the social contagion of memory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  2. Suggestions for Christmas gifts.

    CERN Document Server

    Connie Potter; Markus Nordberg

    Have you been working long hours lately? Stuck in meetings too long to make it in time before the shops close? No need to worry. The ATLAS secretariat has plenty of items that will make great Christmas gifts for friends and family. Here are some of the items in stock. Note that you can negotiate a good price for bulk order. ATLAS caps (new item), 12 chf ATLAS t-shirts designed by Alan Alda, 20 chf ATLAS fleece jackets in several sizes and colors, 30 chf grey or dark blue in men's sizes pale blue for women's sizes (limited quantity) red for children (limited quantity) ATLAS puzzles with 500 pieces made by the Ravensburger company 15 chf for 1 box (price is less when purchasing more boxes) 50 chf for 5 boxes or more can also be purchased in boxes of 24, ready to ship to your institute ATLAS 3-D viewers, 5 chf ATLAS DVD, 5 chf CERN playing cards, 2 chf Make sure to get several boxes of the ATLAS puzzle for Christmas gifts. Offer hours of entertainement to friends and family! We tak...

  3. Semantic Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Thonnat , Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Extracting automatically the semantics from visual data is a real challenge. We describe in this paper how recent work in cognitive vision leads to significative results in activity recognition for visualsurveillance and video monitoring. In particular we present work performed in the domain of video understanding in our PULSAR team at INRIA in Sophia Antipolis. Our main objective is to analyse in real-time video streams captured by static video cameras and to recogniz...

  4. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  5. Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal signal analysis based on sophisticated sensors, efficient communicationsystems and fast parallel processing methods has a rapidly increasing range of multidisciplinaryapplications. The present paper is devoted to pattern recognition, machine learning, and the analysisof sleep stages in the detection of sleep disorders using polysomnography (PSG data, includingelectroencephalography (EEG, breathing (Flow, and electro-oculogram (EOG signals. The proposedmethod is based on the classification of selected features by a neural network system with sigmoidaland softmax transfer functions using Bayesian methods for the evaluation of the probabilities of theseparate classes. The application is devoted to the analysis of the sleep stages of 184 individualswith different diagnoses, using EEG and further PSG signals. Data analysis points to an averageincrease of the length of the Wake stage by 2.7% per 10 years and a decrease of the length of theRapid Eye Movement (REM stages by 0.8% per 10 years. The mean classification accuracy for givensets of records and single EEG and multimodal features is 88.7% ( standard deviation, STD: 2.1 and89.6% (STD:1.9, respectively. The proposed methods enable the use of adaptive learning processesfor the detection and classification of health disorders based on prior specialist experience andman–machine interaction.

  6. Similarity recognition of online data curves based on dynamic spatial time warping for the estimation of lithium-ion battery capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Laifa; Lu, Chen; Noktehdan, Azadeh

    2015-10-01

    Battery capacity estimation is a significant recent challenge given the complex physical and chemical processes that occur within batteries and the restrictions on the accessibility of capacity degradation data. In this study, we describe an approach called dynamic spatial time warping, which is used to determine the similarities of two arbitrary curves. Unlike classical dynamic time warping methods, this approach can maintain the invariance of curve similarity to the rotations and translations of curves, which is vital in curve similarity search. Moreover, it utilizes the online charging or discharging data that are easily collected and do not require special assumptions. The accuracy of this approach is verified using NASA battery datasets. Results suggest that the proposed approach provides a highly accurate means of estimating battery capacity at less time cost than traditional dynamic time warping methods do for different individuals and under various operating conditions.

  7. Recognition memory: a review of the critical findings and an integrated theory for relating them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg, Kenneth J

    2008-12-01

    The development of formal models has aided theoretical progress in recognition memory research. Here, I review the findings that are critical for testing them, including behavioral and brain imaging results of single-item recognition, plurality discrimination, and associative recognition experiments under a variety of testing conditions. I also review the major approaches to measurement and process modeling of recognition. The review indicates that several extant dual-process measures of recollection are unreliable, and thus they are unsuitable as a basis for forming strong conclusions. At the process level, however, the retrieval dynamics of recognition memory and the effect of strengthening operations suggest that a recall-to-reject process plays an important role in plurality discrimination and associative recognition, but not necessarily in single-item recognition. A new theoretical framework proposes that the contribution of recollection to recognition depends on whether the retrieval of episodic details improves accuracy, and it organizes the models around the construct of efficiency. Accordingly, subjects adopt strategies that they believe will produce a desired level of accuracy in the shortest amount of time. Several models derived from this framework are shown to account the accuracy, latency, and confidence with which the various recognition tasks are performed.

  8. Role of syllable segmentation processes in peripheral word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Calabrèse, Aurélie; Castet, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies of foveal visual word recognition provide evidence for a low-level syllable decomposition mechanism occurring during the recognition of a word. We investigated if such a decomposition mechanism also exists in peripheral word recognition. Single words were visually presented to subjects in the peripheral field using a 6° square gaze-contingent simulated central scotoma. In the first experiment, words were either unicolor or had their adjacent syllables segmented with two different colors (color/syllable congruent condition). Reaction times for correct word identification were measured for the two different conditions and for two different print sizes. Results show a significant decrease in reaction time for the color/syllable congruent condition compared with the unicolor condition. A second experiment suggests that this effect is specific to syllable decomposition and results from strategic, presumably involving attentional factors, rather than stimulus-driven control.

  9. Brief Report: Accuracy and Response Time for the Recognition of Facial Emotions in a Large Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Wierda, Marlies; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The empirical literature has presented inconsistent evidence for deficits in the recognition of basic emotion expressions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which may be due to the focus on research with relatively small sample sizes. Additionally, it is proposed that although children with ASD may correctly identify emotion…

  10. Visual Scan Paths and Recognition of Facial Identity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. Ellie; Palermo, Romina; Brock, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have impaired facial identity recognition, and also exhibit abnormal visual scanning of faces. Here, two hypotheses accounting for an association between these observations were tested: i) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased gaze time on the Eye region; ii) better facial identity recognition is associated with increased eye-movements around the face. Methodology and Principal Findings Eye-movements of 11 children with ASD and 11 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls were recorded whilst they viewed a series of faces, and then completed a two alternative forced-choice recognition memory test for the faces. Scores on the memory task were standardized according to age. In both groups, there was no evidence of an association between the proportion of time spent looking at the Eye region of faces and age-standardized recognition performance, thus the first hypothesis was rejected. However, the ‘Dynamic Scanning Index’ – which was incremented each time the participant saccaded into and out of one of the core-feature interest areas – was strongly associated with age-standardized face recognition scores in both groups, even after controlling for various other potential predictors of performance. Conclusions and Significance In support of the second hypothesis, results suggested that increased saccading between core-features was associated with more accurate face recognition ability, both in typical development and ASD. Causal directions of this relationship remain undetermined. PMID:22666378

  11. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE RECOGNITION OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS OF EMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS FELIPE PARDO-VÉLEZ

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the recognition of facial expressions of anger, happiness and sadness wereresearched in students 18-25 years of age. A reaction time procedure was used, and the percentage ofcorrect answers when recognizing was also measured. Though the work hypothesis expected genderdifferences in facial expression recognition, results suggest that these differences are not significant at alevel of 0.05%. Statistical analysis shows a greater easiness (at a non-significant level for women torecognize happiness expressions, and for men to recognize anger expressions. The implications ofthese data are discussed, and possible extensions of this investigation in terms of sample size andcollege major of the participants.

  12. Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Regions Required for the Consolidation of Social Recognition Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimizu, Toshiyuki; Kenney, Justin W; Okano, Emiko; Kadoma, Kazune; Frankland, Paul W; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-04-12

    found that social recognition memory is consolidated through CREB-meditated gene expression in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala. Importantly, network analyses based on c-fos expression suggest that functional connectivity of these four brain regions with other brain regions is increased with time spent in social investigation toward the generation of brain networks to consolidate social recognition memory. Furthermore, our findings suggest that hippocampus functions as a hub to integrate brain networks and generate social recognition memory, whereas ACC and amygdala are important for coordinating brain activity when social interaction is initiated by connecting with other brain regions. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/374103-14$15.00/0.

  13. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  14. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  15. The Roles of recognition processes and look-ahead search in time-constrained expert problem solving: Evidence from grandmaster level chess.

    OpenAIRE

    Gobet, F; Simon, H A

    1996-01-01

    Chess has long served as an important standard task environment for research on human memory and problem-solving abilities and processes. In this paper, we report evidence on the relative importance of recognition processes and planning (look-ahead) processes in very high level expert performance in chess. The data show that the rated skill of a top-level grandmaster is only slightly lower when he is playing simultaneously against a half dozen grandmaster opponents than under tournament con...

  16. Interplay of oxytocin, vasopressin, and sex hormones in the regulation of social recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Christopher S; Phan, Anna; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2012-02-01

    Social Recognition is a fundamental skill that forms the basis of behaviors essential to the proper functioning of pair or group living in most social species. We review here various neurobiological and genetic studies that point to an interplay of oxytocin (OT), arginine-vasopressin (AVP), and the gonadal hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in the mediation of social recognition. Results of a number of studies have shown that OT and its actions at the medial amygdala seem to be essential for social recognition in both sexes. Estrogens facilitate social recognition, possibly by regulating OT production in the hypothalamus and the OT receptors at the medial amygdala. Estrogens also affect social recognition on a rapid time scale, likely through nongenomic actions. The mechanisms of these rapid effects are currently unknown but available evidence points at the hippocampus as the possible site of action. Male rodents seem to be more dependent on AVP acting at the level of the lateral septum for social recognition than female rodents. Results of various studies suggest that testosterone and its metabolites (including estradiol) influence social recognition in males primarily through the AVP V1a receptor. Overall, it appears that gonadal hormone modulation of OT and AVP regulates and fine tunes social recognition and those behaviors that depend upon it (e.g., social bonds, social hierarchies) in a sex specific manner. This points at an important role for these neuroendocrine systems in the regulation of the sex differences that are evident in social behavior and of sociality as a whole.

  17. Self-Recognition in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; McKissick, Fawn Celeste

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen autistic children (four to six years old) were assessed for visual self-recognition ability, as well as for object permanence and gestural imitation. It was found that 13 of 15 autistic children showed evidence of self-recognition. Consistent relationships were suggested between self-cognition and object permanence but not between…

  18. Dynamic Programming Algorithms in Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Felix FURTUNA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a system of speech recognition containing words, the recognition requires the comparison between the entry signal of the word and the various words of the dictionary. The problem can be solved efficiently by a dynamic comparison algorithm whose goal is to put in optimal correspondence the temporal scales of the two words. An algorithm of this type is Dynamic Time Warping. This paper presents two alternatives for implementation of the algorithm designed for recognition of the isolated words.

  19. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations.

  20. Indirect recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    categories are struggled over, and groups of actors seek to legitimate their presence, their activities, and their resource use by occupation, mapping, and construction of "public" infrastructure. In the case of conservation in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, we find that rather than one overarching......Government institutions and local people in Indonesia have entrenched, resurrected, and reinvented space through their different territorial and property claims. From colonial times, onward, government institutions have dissolved local political orders and territorialized and reordered spatial...

  1. Participation, Recognition and the Democratic Doxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2006-01-01

    to the exclusionary effects of norms of citizenship, i.e. the exclusionfrom within, and suggest the recognition of group differences. This paper tries to suggest, how a Bourdieu-perspective can help bridge the gap of dichotomies such as individual/group, universalism/particularism and rights/recognition. The paper...... suggest that a democratisation of the political doxa, involving the recognition of differences in political habitus and (most importantly) practices is necessary to oppose the tendencies of exclusion and to further a widespread empowerment of citizens in late modern societies, without this turing...

  2. Reading in developmental prosopagnosia: Evidence for a dissociation between word and face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Klargaard, Solja K; Petersen, Anders; Gerlach, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Recent models suggest that face and word recognition may rely on overlapping cognitive processes and neural regions. In support of this notion, face recognition deficits have been demonstrated in developmental dyslexia. Here we test whether the opposite association can also be found, that is, impaired reading in developmental prosopagnosia. We tested 10 adults with developmental prosopagnosia and 20 matched controls. All participants completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, the Cambridge Face Perception test and a Face recognition questionnaire used to quantify everyday face recognition experience. Reading was measured in four experimental tasks, testing different levels of letter, word, and text reading: (a) single word reading with words of varying length,(b) vocal response times in single letter and short word naming, (c) recognition of single letters and short words at brief exposure durations (targeting the word superiority effect), and d) text reading. Participants with developmental prosopagnosia performed strikingly similar to controls across the four reading tasks. Formal analysis revealed a significant dissociation between word and face recognition, as the difference in performance with faces and words was significantly greater for participants with developmental prosopagnosia than for controls. Adult developmental prosopagnosics read as quickly and fluently as controls, while they are seemingly unable to learn efficient strategies for recognizing faces. We suggest that this is due to the differing demands that face and word recognition put on the perceptual system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. An Indoor Scene Recognition-Based 3D Registration Mechanism for Real-Time AR-GIS Visualization in Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR systems are becoming ideal platforms for visualization, permitting users to better comprehend and interact with spatial information. Subsequently, this technological development, in turn, has prompted efforts to enhance mechanisms for registering virtual objects in real world contexts. Most existing AR 3D Registration techniques lack the scene recognition capabilities needed to describe accurately the positioning of virtual objects in scenes representing reality. Moreover, the application of such registration methods in indoor AR-GIS systems is further impeded by the limited capacity of these systems to detect the geometry and semantic information in indoor environments. In this paper, we propose a novel method for fusing virtual objects and indoor scenes, based on indoor scene recognition technology. To accomplish scene fusion in AR-GIS, we first detect key points in reference images. Then, we perform interior layout extraction using a Fully Connected Networks (FCN algorithm to acquire layout coordinate points for the tracking targets. We detect and recognize the target scene in a video frame image to track targets and estimate the camera pose. In this method, virtual 3D objects are fused precisely to a real scene, according to the camera pose and the previously extracted layout coordinate points. Our results demonstrate that this approach enables accurate fusion of virtual objects with representations of real world indoor environments. Based on this fusion technique, users can better grasp virtual three-dimensional representations on an AR-GIS platform.

  4. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches. PMID:25268914

  5. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Díaz-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset, achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches.

  6. An audiovisual emotion recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi; Wang, Guoyin; Yang, Yong; He, Kun

    2007-12-01

    Human emotions could be expressed by many bio-symbols. Speech and facial expression are two of them. They are both regarded as emotional information which is playing an important role in human-computer interaction. Based on our previous studies on emotion recognition, an audiovisual emotion recognition system is developed and represented in this paper. The system is designed for real-time practice, and is guaranteed by some integrated modules. These modules include speech enhancement for eliminating noises, rapid face detection for locating face from background image, example based shape learning for facial feature alignment, and optical flow based tracking algorithm for facial feature tracking. It is known that irrelevant features and high dimensionality of the data can hurt the performance of classifier. Rough set-based feature selection is a good method for dimension reduction. So 13 speech features out of 37 ones and 10 facial features out of 33 ones are selected to represent emotional information, and 52 audiovisual features are selected due to the synchronization when speech and video fused together. The experiment results have demonstrated that this system performs well in real-time practice and has high recognition rate. Our results also show that the work in multimodules fused recognition will become the trend of emotion recognition in the future.

  7. One process is not enough! A speed-accuracy tradeoff study of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldini, Angela; Russo, Riccardo; Avons, S E

    2004-04-01

    Speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. In these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and are required to make recognition decisions under various time constraints. In this experiment, we presented word lists under incidental learning conditions, varying the modality of presentation and level of processing. At test, we manipulated the interval between each visually presented test item and a response signal, thus controlling the amount of time available to retrieve target information. Study-test modality match had a beneficial effect on recognition accuracy at short response-signal delays (deep than from shallow processing at study only at relatively long response-signal delays (> or =300 msec). The results are congruent with views suggesting that both fast familiarity and slower recollection processes contribute to recognition memory.

  8. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  9. Graphical symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. , Santosh; Wendling , Laurent

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  10. Looking for myself: current multisensory input alters self-face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Manos

    2008-01-01

    How do I know the person I see in the mirror is really me? Is it because I know the person simply looks like me, or is it because the mirror reflection moves when I move, and I see it being touched when I feel touch myself? Studies of face-recognition suggest that visual recognition of stored visual features inform self-face recognition. In contrast, body-recognition studies conclude that multisensory integration is the main cue to selfhood. The present study investigates for the first time the specific contribution of current multisensory input for self-face recognition. Participants were stroked on their face while they were looking at a morphed face being touched in synchrony or asynchrony. Before and after the visuo-tactile stimulation participants performed a self-recognition task. The results show that multisensory signals have a significant effect on self-face recognition. Synchronous tactile stimulation while watching another person's face being similarly touched produced a bias in recognizing one's own face, in the direction of the other person included in the representation of one's own face. Multisensory integration can update cognitive representations of one's body, such as the sense of ownership. The present study extends this converging evidence by showing that the correlation of synchronous multisensory signals also updates the representation of one's face. The face is a key feature of our identity, but at the same time is a source of rich multisensory experiences used to maintain or update self-representations.

  11. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  12. Is having similar eye movement patterns during face learning and recognition beneficial for recognition performance? Evidence from hidden Markov modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2017-12-01

    The hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach for eye movement analysis is able to reflect individual differences in both spatial and temporal aspects of eye movements. Here we used this approach to understand the relationship between eye movements during face learning and recognition, and its association with recognition performance. We discovered holistic (i.e., mainly looking at the face center) and analytic (i.e., specifically looking at the two eyes in addition to the face center) patterns during both learning and recognition. Although for both learning and recognition, participants who adopted analytic patterns had better recognition performance than those with holistic patterns, a significant positive correlation between the likelihood of participants' patterns being classified as analytic and their recognition performance was only observed during recognition. Significantly more participants adopted holistic patterns during learning than recognition. Interestingly, about 40% of the participants used different patterns between learning and recognition, and among them 90% switched their patterns from holistic at learning to analytic at recognition. In contrast to the scan path theory, which posits that eye movements during learning have to be recapitulated during recognition for the recognition to be successful, participants who used the same or different patterns during learning and recognition did not differ in recognition performance. The similarity between their learning and recognition eye movement patterns also did not correlate with their recognition performance. These findings suggested that perceptuomotor memory elicited by eye movement patterns during learning does not play an important role in recognition. In contrast, the retrieval of diagnostic information for recognition, such as the eyes for face recognition, is a better predictor for recognition performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  14. Simultaneous tracking and activity recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    be used to improve the prediction step of the tracking, while, at the same time, tracking information can be used for online activity recognition. Experimental results in two different settings show that our approach 1) decreases the error rate and improves the identity maintenance of the positional......Many tracking problems involve several distinct objects interacting with each other. We develop a framework that takes into account interactions between objects allowing the recognition of complex activities. In contrast to classic approaches that consider distinct phases of tracking and activity...... tracking and 2) identifies the correct activity with higher accuracy than standard approaches....

  15. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  16. Assessment of Self-Recognition in Young Children with Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty young children with handicaps were assessed on five self-recognition mirror tasks. The set of tasks formed a reproducible scale, indicating that these tasks are an appropriate measure of self-recognition in this population. Data analysis suggested that stage of self-recognition is positively and significantly related to cognitive…

  17. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  20. Iris Recognition for Partially Occluded Images: Methodology and Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaberi A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate iris detection is a crucial part of an iris recognition system. One of the main issues in iris segmentation is coping with occlusion that happens due to eyelids and eyelashes. In the literature, some various methods have been suggested to solve the occlusion problem. In this paper, two different segmentations of iris are presented. In the first algorithm, a circle is located around the pupil with an appropriate diameter. The iris area encircled by the circular boundary is used for recognition purposes then. In the second method, again a circle is located around the pupil with a larger diameter. This time, however, only the lower part of the encircled iris area is utilized for individual recognition. Wavelet-based texture features are used in the process. Hamming and harmonic mean distance classifiers are exploited as a mixed classifier in suggested algorithm. It is observed that relying on a smaller but more reliable part of the iris, though reducing the net amount of information, improves the overall performance. Experimental results on CASIA database show that our method has a promising performance with an accuracy of 99.31%. The sensitivity of the proposed method is analyzed versus contrast, illumination, and noise as well, where lower sensitivity to all factors is observed when the lower half of the iris is used for recognition.

  1. Familiar Person Recognition: Is Autonoetic Consciousness More Likely to Accompany Face Recognition Than Voice Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsics, Catherine; Brédart, Serge

    2010-11-01

    Autonoetic consciousness is a fundamental property of human memory, enabling us to experience mental time travel, to recollect past events with a feeling of self-involvement, and to project ourselves in the future. Autonoetic consciousness is a characteristic of episodic memory. By contrast, awareness of the past associated with a mere feeling of familiarity or knowing relies on noetic consciousness, depending on semantic memory integrity. Present research was aimed at evaluating whether conscious recollection of episodic memories is more likely to occur following the recognition of a familiar face than following the recognition of a familiar voice. Recall of semantic information (biographical information) was also assessed. Previous studies that investigated the recall of biographical information following person recognition used faces and voices of famous people as stimuli. In this study, the participants were presented with personally familiar people's voices and faces, thus avoiding the presence of identity cues in the spoken extracts and allowing a stricter control of frequency exposure with both types of stimuli (voices and faces). In the present study, the rate of retrieved episodic memories, associated with autonoetic awareness, was significantly higher from familiar faces than familiar voices even though the level of overall recognition was similar for both these stimuli domains. The same pattern was observed regarding semantic information retrieval. These results and their implications for current Interactive Activation and Competition person recognition models are discussed.

  2. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  3. [Effect of opioid receptors on acute stress-induced changes in recognition memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Yu-Wei; Qian, Zhao-Qiang; Yan, Cai-Fang; Fan, Ka-Min; Xu, Jin-Hui; Li, Xiao; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-12-25

    Although ample evidence has shown that acute stress impairs memory, the influences of acute stress on different phases of memory, such as acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, are different. Experimental data from both human and animals support that endogenous opioid system plays a role in stress, as endogenous opioid release is increased and opioid receptors are activated during stress experience. On the other hand, endogenous opioid system mediates learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute forced swimming stress on recognition memory of C57 mice and the role of opioid receptors in this process by using a three-day pattern of new object recognition task. The results showed that 15-min acute forced swimming damaged the retrieval of recognition memory, but had no effect on acquisition and consolidation of recognition memory. No significant change of object recognition memory was found in mice that were given naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, by intraperitoneal injection. But intraperitoneal injection of naloxone before forced swimming stress could inhibit the impairment of recognition memory retrieval caused by forced swimming stress. The results of real-time PCR showed that acute forced swimming decreased the μ opioid receptor mRNA levels in whole brain and hippocampus, while the injection of naloxone before stress could reverse this change. These results suggest that acute stress may impair recognition memory retrieval via opioid receptors.

  4. Stages of processing in associative recognition: evidence from behavior, EEG, and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Jelmer P; Schneider, Darryl W; Walsh, Matthew M; Anderson, John R

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the stages of information processing in associative recognition. We recorded EEG data while participants performed an associative recognition task that involved manipulations of word length, associative fan, and probe type, which were hypothesized to affect the perceptual encoding, retrieval, and decision stages of the recognition task, respectively. Analyses of the behavioral and EEG data, supplemented with classification of the EEG data using machine-learning techniques, provided evidence that generally supported the sequence of stages assumed by a computational model developed in the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational cognitive architecture. However, the results suggested a more complex relationship between memory retrieval and decision-making than assumed by the model. Implications of the results for modeling associative recognition are discussed. The study illustrates how a classifier approach, in combination with focused manipulations, can be used to investigate the timing of processing stages.

  5. L2 Word Recognition: Influence of L1 Orthography on Multi-Syllabic Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi

    2017-01-01

    L2 reading research suggests that L1 orthographic experience influences L2 word recognition. Nevertheless, the findings on multi-syllabic words in English are still limited despite the fact that a vast majority of words are multi-syllabic. The study investigated whether L1 orthography influences the recognition of multi-syllabic words, focusing on…

  6. Recurrent processing during object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. O'Reilly

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain learn to recognize objects visually, and perform this difficult feat robustly in the face of many sources of ambiguity and variability? We present a computational model based on the biology of the relevant visual pathways that learns to reliably recognize 100 different object categories in the face of of naturally-occurring variability in location, rotation, size, and lighting. The model exhibits robustness to highly ambiguous, partially occluded inputs. Both the unified, biologically plausible learning mechanism and the robustness to occlusion derive from the role that recurrent connectivity and recurrent processing mechanisms play in the model. Furthermore, this interaction of recurrent connectivity and learning predicts that high-level visual representations should be shaped by error signals from nearby, associated brain areas over the course of visual learning. Consistent with this prediction, we show how semantic knowledge about object categories changes the nature of their learned visual representations, as well as how this representational shift supports the mapping between perceptual and conceptual knowledge. Altogether, these findings support the potential importance of ongoing recurrent processing throughout the brain's visual system and suggest ways in which object recognition can be understood in terms of interactions within and between processes over time.

  7. Congruent bodily arousal promotes the constructive recognition of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kever, Anne; Grynberg, Delphine; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has shown that bodily states shape affect and cognition. Here, we examined whether transient states of bodily arousal influence the categorization speed of high arousal, low arousal, and neutral words. Participants realized two blocks of a constructive recognition task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal), and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Results revealed overall faster response times for high arousal compared to low arousal words, and for positive compared to negative words. Importantly, low arousal words were categorized significantly faster after the relaxation than after the cycling, suggesting that a decrease in bodily arousal promotes the recognition of stimuli matching one's current arousal state. These findings highlight the importance of the arousal dimension in emotional processing, and suggest the presence of arousal-congruency effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) act on OT receptors and not AVP V1a receptors to enhance social recognition in adult Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhimin; Larkin, Tony E; Malley, Maureen O'; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-05-01

    Social recognition is a fundamental requirement for all forms of social relationships. A majority of studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying social recognition in rodents have investigated relatively neutral social stimuli such as juveniles or ovariectomized females over short time intervals (e.g., 2h). The present study developed a new testing model to study social recognition among adult males using a potent social stimulus. Flank gland odors are used extensively in social communication in Syrian hamsters and convey important information such as dominance status. We found that the recognition of flank gland odors after a 3min exposure lasted for at least 24h, substantially longer than the recognition of other social cues in rats and mice. Intracerebroventricular injections of OT and AVP prolonged the recognition of flank gland odor for up to 48h. Selective OTR but not V1aR agonists, mimicked these enhancing effects of OT and AVP. Similarly, selective OTR but not V1aR antagonists blocked recognition of the odors after 20min. In contrast, the recognition of non-social stimuli was not blocked by either the OTR or the V1aR antagonists. Our findings suggest both OT and AVP enhance social recognition via acting on OTRs and not V1aRs and that the recognition enhancing effects of OT and AVP are limited to social stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Neuropsychology of Familiar Person Recognition from Face and Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gainotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Prosopagnosia has been considered for a long period of time as the most important and almost exclusive disorder in the recognition of familiar people. In recent years, however, this conviction has been undermined by the description of patients showing a concomitant defect in the recognition of familiar faces and voices as a consequence of lesions encroaching upon the right anterior temporal lobe (ATL. These new data have obliged researchers to reconsider on one hand the construct of ‘associative prosopagnosia’ and on the other hand current models of people recognition. A systematic review of the patterns of familiar people recognition disorders observed in patients with right and left ATL lesions has shown that in patients with right ATL lesions face familiarity feelings and the retrieval of person-specific semantic information from faces are selectively affected, whereas in patients with left ATL lesions the defect selectively concerns famous people naming. Furthermore, some patients with right ATL lesions and intact face familiarity feelings show a defect in the retrieval of person-specific semantic knowledge greater from face than from name. These data are at variance with current models assuming: (a that familiarity feelings are generated at the level of person identity nodes (PINs where information processed by various sensory modalities converge, and (b that PINs provide a modality-free gateway to a single semantic system, where information about people is stored in an amodal format. They suggest, on the contrary: (a that familiarity feelings are generated at the level of modality-specific recognition units; (b that face and voice recognition units are represented more in the right than in the left ATLs; (c that in the right ATL are mainly stored person-specific information based on a convergence of perceptual information, whereas in the left ATLs are represented verbally-mediated person-specific information.

  10. Culture/Religion and Identity: Social Justice versus Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekerman, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    Recognition is the main word attached to multicultural perspectives. The multicultural call for recognition, the one calling for the recognition of cultural minorities and identities, the one now voiced by liberal states all over and also in Israel was a more difficult one. It took the author some time to realize that calling for the recognition…

  11. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  12. Time-Frequency Feature Representation Using Multi-Resolution Texture Analysis and Acoustic Activity Detector for Real-Life Speech Emotion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ching Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of emotional speech is mostly considered in speech-related research on human-computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, the purpose is to present a novel feature extraction based on multi-resolutions texture image information (MRTII. The MRTII feature set is derived from multi-resolution texture analysis for characterization and classification of different emotions in a speech signal. The motivation is that we have to consider emotions have different intensity values in different frequency bands. In terms of human visual perceptual, the texture property on multi-resolution of emotional speech spectrogram should be a good feature set for emotion classification in speech. Furthermore, the multi-resolution analysis on texture can give a clearer discrimination between each emotion than uniform-resolution analysis on texture. In order to provide high accuracy of emotional discrimination especially in real-life, an acoustic activity detection (AAD algorithm must be applied into the MRTII-based feature extraction. Considering the presence of many blended emotions in real life, in this paper make use of two corpora of naturally-occurring dialogs recorded in real-life call centers. Compared with the traditional Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC and the state-of-the-art features, the MRTII features also can improve the correct classification rates of proposed systems among different language databases. Experimental results show that the proposed MRTII-based feature information inspired by human visual perception of the spectrogram image can provide significant classification for real-life emotional recognition in speech.

  13. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  14. Recall, Recognition, and the Measurement of Memory for Print Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Richard P. Bagozzi; Alvin J. Silk

    1983-01-01

    The recall and recognition of people for 95 print ads were examined with an aim toward investigating memory structure and decay processes. It was found that recall and recognition do not, by themselves, measure a single underlying memory state. Rather, memory is multidimensional, and recall and recognition capture only a portion of memory, while at the same time reflecting other mental states. When interest in the ads was held constant, however, recall and recognition did measure memory as a ...

  15. Sex influence on face recognition memory moderated by presentation duration and reencoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Meissner, Lucia; Heinz, Andreas; Bengner, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that women have a better face recognition memory than men. Here we analyzed whether this advantage depends on a better encoding or consolidation of information and if the advantage is visible during short-term memory (STM), only, or whether it also remains evident in long-term memory (LTM). We tested short- and long-term face recognition memory in 36 nonclinical participants (19 women). We varied the duration of item presentation (1, 5, and 10 s), the time of testing (immediately after the study phase, 1 hr, and 24 hr later), and the possibility to reencode items (none, immediately after the study phase, after 1 hr). Women showed better overall face recognition memory than men (ηp² = .15, p face recognition was visible mainly if participants had the possibility to reencode faces during former test trials. Our results suggest women do not have a better face recognition memory than men per se, but may profit more than men from longer durations of presentation during encoding or the possibility for reencoding. Future research on sex differences in face recognition memory should explicate possible causes for the better encoding of face information in women.

  16. A Case Study of the Recognition of the Foundation Degree Qualification for Pharmacy Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Helena; Brown, David; Portlock, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The Foundation Degree (FD) is a work-related, intermediate-level higher education qualification. Issues around its recognition can affect success in attracting students where the literature suggests that uptake should be adequate. This research represented a case study which explored for the first time, whether the above applied to the FD for…

  17. Rapid Discrimination for Traditional Complex Herbal Medicines from Different Parts, Collection Time, and Origins Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Near-Infrared Spectral Fingerprints with Aid of Pattern Recognition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an effective method, the fingerprint technique, which emphasized the whole compositions of samples, has already been used in various fields, especially in identifying and assessing the quality of herbal medicines. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and near-infrared (NIR, with their unique characteristics of reliability, versatility, precision, and simple measurement, played an important role among all the fingerprint techniques. In this paper, a supervised pattern recognition method based on PLSDA algorithm by HPLC and NIR has been established to identify the information of Hibiscus mutabilis L. and Berberidis radix, two common kinds of herbal medicines. By comparing component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, and particularly partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA with different fingerprint preprocessing of NIR spectra variables, PLSDA model showed perfect functions on the analysis of samples as well as chromatograms. Most important, this pattern recognition method by HPLC and NIR can be used to identify different collection parts, collection time, and different origins or various species belonging to the same genera of herbal medicines which proved to be a promising approach for the identification of complex information of herbal medicines.

  18. Cortical Networks for Visual Self-Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed.

  19. Cortical networks for visual self-recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2007-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent developments regarding the brain mechanisms of visual self-recognition. A special cognitive mechanism for visual self-recognition has been postulated based on behavioral and neuropsychological evidence, but its neural substrate remains controversial. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that multiple cortical mechanisms play self-specific roles during visual self-recognition, reconciling the existing controversy. Respective roles for the left occipitotemporal, right parietal, and frontal cortices in symbolic, visuospatial, and conceptual aspects of self-representation have been proposed. (author)

  20. Emotion recognition in borderline personality disorder: effects of emotional information on negative bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Sabrina; Lis, Stefanie; Liebke, Lisa; Niedtfeld, Inga; Kirsch, Peter; Mier, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe deficits in social interactions, which might be linked to deficits in emotion recognition. Research on emotion recognition abilities in BPD revealed heterogeneous results, ranging from deficits to heightened sensitivity. The most stable findings point to an impairment in the evaluation of neutral facial expressions as neutral, as well as to a negative bias in emotion recognition; that is the tendency to attribute negative emotions to neutral expressions, or in a broader sense to report a more negative emotion category than depicted. However, it remains unclear which contextual factors influence the occurrence of this negative bias. Previous studies suggest that priming by preceding emotional information and also constrained processing time might augment the emotion recognition deficit in BPD. To test these assumptions, 32 female BPD patients and 31 healthy females, matched for age and education, participated in an emotion recognition study, in which every facial expression was preceded by either a positive, neutral or negative scene. Furthermore, time constraints for processing were varied by presenting the facial expressions with short (100 ms) or long duration (up to 3000 ms) in two separate blocks. BPD patients showed a significant deficit in emotion recognition for neutral and positive facial expression, associated with a significant negative bias. In BPD patients, this emotion recognition deficit was differentially affected by preceding emotional information and time constraints, with a greater influence of emotional information during long face presentations and a greater influence of neutral information during short face presentations. Our results are in line with previous findings supporting the existence of a negative bias in emotion recognition in BPD patients, and provide further insights into biased social perceptions in BPD patients.

  1. Development of visuo-haptic transfer for object recognition in typical preschool and school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, Giulia; Cioni, Giovanni; Tinelli, Francesca

    2018-07-01

    Object recognition is a long and complex adaptive process and its full maturation requires combination of many different sensory experiences as well as cognitive abilities to manipulate previous experiences in order to develop new percepts and subsequently to learn from the environment. It is well recognized that the transfer of visual and haptic information facilitates object recognition in adults, but less is known about development of this ability. In this study, we explored the developmental course of object recognition capacity in children using unimodal visual information, unimodal haptic information, and visuo-haptic information transfer in children from 4 years to 10 years and 11 months of age. Participants were tested through a clinical protocol, involving visual exploration of black-and-white photographs of common objects, haptic exploration of real objects, and visuo-haptic transfer of these two types of information. Results show an age-dependent development of object recognition abilities for visual, haptic, and visuo-haptic modalities. A significant effect of time on development of unimodal and crossmodal recognition skills was found. Moreover, our data suggest that multisensory processes for common object recognition are active at 4 years of age. They facilitate recognition of common objects, and, although not fully mature, are significant in adaptive behavior from the first years of age. The study of typical development of visuo-haptic processes in childhood is a starting point for future studies regarding object recognition in impaired populations.

  2. Adults' strategies for simple addition and multiplication: verbal self-reports and the operand recognition paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W S; Campbell, Jamie I D

    2011-05-01

    Accurate measurement of cognitive strategies is important in diverse areas of psychological research. Strategy self-reports are a common measure, but C. Thevenot, M. Fanget, and M. Fayol (2007) proposed a more objective method to distinguish different strategies in the context of mental arithmetic. In their operand recognition paradigm, speed of recognition memory for problem operands after solving a problem indexes strategy (e.g., direct memory retrieval vs. a procedural strategy). Here, in 2 experiments, operand recognition time was the same following simple addition or multiplication, but, consistent with a wide variety of previous research, strategy reports indicated much greater use of procedures (e.g., counting) for addition than multiplication. Operation, problem size (e.g., 2 + 3 vs. 8 + 9), and operand format (digits vs. words) had interactive effects on reported procedure use that were not reflected in recognition performance. Regression analyses suggested that recognition time was influenced at least as much by the relative difficulty of the preceding problem as by the strategy used. The findings indicate that the operand recognition paradigm is not a reliable substitute for strategy reports and highlight the potential impact of difficulty-related carryover effects in sequential cognitive tasks.

  3. Facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amelia K; Porter, Melanie A; Williams, Tracey A; Bzishvili, Samantha; North, Kathryn N; Payne, Jonathan M

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate face scan paths and face perception abilities in children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and how these might relate to emotion recognition abilities in this population. The authors investigated facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in 29 children with NF1 compared to 29 chronological age-matched typically developing controls. Correlations between facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in children with NF1 were examined. Children with NF1 displayed significantly poorer recognition of fearful expressions compared to controls, as well as a nonsignificant trend toward poorer recognition of anger. Although there was no significant difference between groups in time spent viewing individual core facial features (eyes, nose, mouth, and nonfeature regions), children with NF1 spent significantly less time than controls viewing the face as a whole. Children with NF1 also displayed significantly poorer face perception abilities than typically developing controls. Facial emotion recognition deficits were not significantly associated with aberrant face scan paths or face perception abilities in the NF1 group. These results suggest that impairments in the perception, identification, and interpretation of information from faces are important aspects of the social-cognitive phenotype of NF1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Mobile Visual Recognition on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwen Gui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the recognition of large-scale outdoor scenes on smartphones by fusing outputs of inertial sensors and computer vision techniques. The main contributions can be summarized as follows. Firstly, we propose an ORD (overlap region divide method to plot image position area, which is fast enough to find the nearest visiting area and can also reduce the search range compared with the traditional approaches. Secondly, the vocabulary tree-based approach is improved by introducing GAGCC (gravity-aligned geometric consistency constraint. Our method involves no operation in the high-dimensional feature space and does not assume a global transform between a pair of images. Thus, it substantially reduces the computational complexity and memory usage, which makes the city scale image recognition feasible on the smartphone. Experiments on a collected database including 0.16 million images show that the proposed method demonstrates excellent recognition performance, while maintaining the average recognition time about 1 s.

  5. Multitasking During Degraded Speech Recognition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Ward, Kristina M; Brehm, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Multitasking requires individuals to allocate their cognitive resources across different tasks. The purpose of the current study was to assess school-age children's multitasking abilities during degraded speech recognition. Children (8 to 12 years old) completed a dual-task paradigm including a sentence recognition (primary) task containing speech that was either unprocessed or noise-band vocoded with 8, 6, or 4 spectral channels and a visual monitoring (secondary) task. Children's accuracy and reaction time on the visual monitoring task was quantified during the dual-task paradigm in each condition of the primary task and compared with single-task performance. Children experienced dual-task costs in the 6- and 4-channel conditions of the primary speech recognition task with decreased accuracy on the visual monitoring task relative to baseline performance. In all conditions, children's dual-task performance on the visual monitoring task was strongly predicted by their single-task (baseline) performance on the task. Results suggest that children's proficiency with the secondary task contributes to the magnitude of dual-task costs while multitasking during degraded speech recognition.

  6. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce-which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one.

  7. Food-Induced Emotional Resonance Improves Emotion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Elisa; Sacripante, Riccardo; Cardini, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    The effect of food substances on emotional states has been widely investigated, showing, for example, that eating chocolate is able to reduce negative mood. Here, for the first time, we have shown that the consumption of specific food substances is not only able to induce particular emotional states, but more importantly, to facilitate recognition of corresponding emotional facial expressions in others. Participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task before and after eating either a piece of chocolate or a small amount of fish sauce—which we expected to induce happiness or disgust, respectively. Our results showed that being in a specific emotional state improves recognition of the corresponding emotional facial expression. Indeed, eating chocolate improved recognition of happy faces, while disgusted expressions were more readily recognized after eating fish sauce. In line with the embodied account of emotion understanding, we suggest that people are better at inferring the emotional state of others when their own emotional state resonates with the observed one. PMID:27973559

  8. Neural Mechanism for Mirrored Self-face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Nozawa, Takayuki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Hanawa, Sugiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Sakuma, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Seishu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-09-01

    Self-face recognition in the mirror is considered to involve multiple processes that integrate 2 perceptual cues: temporal contingency of the visual feedback on one's action (contingency cue) and matching with self-face representation in long-term memory (figurative cue). The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases of these processes by manipulating 2 perceptual cues using a "virtual mirror" system. This system allowed online dynamic presentations of real-time and delayed self- or other facial actions. Perception-level processes were identified as responses to only a single perceptual cue. The effect of the contingency cue was identified in the cuneus. The regions sensitive to the figurative cue were subdivided by the response to a static self-face, which was identified in the right temporal, parietal, and frontal regions, but not in the bilateral occipitoparietal regions. Semantic- or integration-level processes, including amodal self-representation and belief validation, which allow modality-independent self-recognition and the resolution of potential conflicts between perceptual cues, respectively, were identified in distinct regions in the right frontal and insular cortices. The results are supportive of the multicomponent notion of self-recognition and suggest a critical role for contingency detection in the co-emergence of self-recognition and empathy in infants. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  10. Infant Visual Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan A.; Feldman, Judith F.; Jankowski, Jeffery J.

    2004-01-01

    Visual recognition memory is a robust form of memory that is evident from early infancy, shows pronounced developmental change, and is influenced by many of the same factors that affect adult memory; it is surprisingly resistant to decay and interference. Infant visual recognition memory shows (a) modest reliability, (b) good discriminant…

  11. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  12. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  13. Exploiting core knowledge for visual object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Humans recognize thousands of objects, and with relative tolerance to variable retinal inputs. The acquisition of this ability is not fully understood, and it remains an area in which artificial systems have yet to surpass people. We sought to investigate the memory process that supports object recognition. Specifically, we investigated the association of inputs that co-occur over short periods of time. We tested the hypothesis that human perception exploits expectations about object kinematics to limit the scope of association to inputs that are likely to have the same token as a source. In several experiments we exposed participants to images of objects, and we then tested recognition sensitivity. Using motion, we manipulated whether successive encounters with an image took place through kinematics that implied the same or a different token as the source of those encounters. Images were injected with noise, or shown at varying orientations, and we included 2 manipulations of motion kinematics. Across all experiments, memory performance was better for images that had been previously encountered with kinematics that implied a single token. A model-based analysis similarly showed greater memory strength when images were shown via kinematics that implied a single token. These results suggest that constraints from physics are built into the mechanisms that support memory about objects. Such constraints-often characterized as 'Core Knowledge'-are known to support perception and cognition broadly, even in young infants. But they have never been considered as a mechanism for memory with respect to recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  15. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  16. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  17. Robust speaker recognition in noisy environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses speaker recognition methods to deal with realistic variable noisy environments. The text covers authentication systems for; robust noisy background environments, functions in real time and incorporated in mobile devices. The book focuses on different approaches to enhance the accuracy of speaker recognition in presence of varying background environments. The authors examine: (a) Feature compensation using multiple background models, (b) Feature mapping using data-driven stochastic models, (c) Design of super vector- based GMM-SVM framework for robust speaker recognition, (d) Total variability modeling (i-vectors) in a discriminative framework and (e) Boosting method to fuse evidences from multiple SVM models.

  18. The recognition heuristic: a review of theory and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Todd, Peter M; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Schooler, Lael J; Goldstein, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d) that its use can produce the less-is-more effect - the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference).

  19. The Recognition Heuristic: A Review of Theory and Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten ePachur

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d that its use can produce the less-is-more effect—the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference.

  20. The Recognition Heuristic: A Review of Theory and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Todd, Peter M.; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Schooler, Lael J.; Goldstein, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    The recognition heuristic is a prime example of how, by exploiting a match between mind and environment, a simple mental strategy can lead to efficient decision making. The proposal of the heuristic initiated a debate about the processes underlying the use of recognition in decision making. We review research addressing four key aspects of the recognition heuristic: (a) that recognition is often an ecologically valid cue; (b) that people often follow recognition when making inferences; (c) that recognition supersedes further cue knowledge; (d) that its use can produce the less-is-more effect – the phenomenon that lesser states of recognition knowledge can lead to more accurate inferences than more complete states. After we contrast the recognition heuristic to other related concepts, including availability and fluency, we carve out, from the existing findings, some boundary conditions of the use of the recognition heuristic as well as key questions for future research. Moreover, we summarize developments concerning the connection of the recognition heuristic with memory models. We suggest that the recognition heuristic is used adaptively and that, compared to other cues, recognition seems to have a special status in decision making. Finally, we discuss how systematic ignorance is exploited in other cognitive mechanisms (e.g., estimation and preference). PMID:21779266

  1. Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

    2012-02-06

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  2. Pupil dilation during recognition memory: Isolating unexpected recognition from judgment uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Ravi D; O'Connor, Akira R; Dobbins, Ian G

    2016-09-01

    Optimally discriminating familiar from novel stimuli demands a decision-making process informed by prior expectations. Here we demonstrate that pupillary dilation (PD) responses during recognition memory decisions are modulated by expectations, and more specifically, that pupil dilation increases for unexpected compared to expected recognition. Furthermore, multi-level modeling demonstrated that the time course of the dilation during each individual trial contains separable early and late dilation components, with the early amplitude capturing unexpected recognition, and the later trailing slope reflecting general judgment uncertainty or effort. This is the first demonstration that the early dilation response during recognition is dependent upon observer expectations and that separate recognition expectation and judgment uncertainty components are present in the dilation time course of every trial. The findings provide novel insights into adaptive memory-linked orienting mechanisms as well as the general cognitive underpinnings of the pupillary index of autonomic nervous system activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seismic amplitude measurements suggest foreshocks have different focal mechanisms than aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A.; Fuis, G.; Mantis, C.

    1978-01-01

    The ratio of the amplitudes of P and S waves from the foreshocks and aftershocks to three recent California earthquakes show a characteristic change at the time of the main events. As this ratio is extremely sensitive to small changes in the orientation of the fault plane, a small systematic change in stress or fault configuration in the source region may be inferred. These results suggest an approach to the recognition of foreshocks based on simple measurements of the amplitudes of seismic waves. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  4. Autonomy, recognition and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Vitório Cenci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Honneth’s concept of autonomy from two dimensions of his work, distinct, though inseparable. The first one is suggested through the subject’s positive practical self-relation linked to the patterns of reciprocal recognition of love, right and social esteem; the second is formulated as non-centered autonomy opposed to the present-day criticism of the modern autonomous subject encompassing three levels, namely: the capacity of linguistic articulation, the narrative coherence of life and the complementation of being guided by principles with some criteria of moral sensitivity to the context. We defend the position that, by metaphysically anchoring the concept of autonomy onto the intersubjective assumptions of his/her theory of the subject, and exploring it linked to the subject’s positive practical self-relation and to a non-centered meaning, Honneth has managed to renew it, which allows drawing important consequences of such effort to the field of education.

  5. FY1995 four-terminal-device intelligent LSI system for real-time event recognition; 1995 nendo shunji ninshiki kino wo motta 4 tanshi device chino LSI no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of an intelligent LSI system having real-time response capability for real-word events. This is accomplished by enhancing the functionality of an elemental device, employing ultra-fine-grain parallelism and merging software directly in the LSI hardware. Intelligent functions are created directly on the LSI hardware, thus enabling real-time recognition by electronic systems. The origin of human intelligence lies in the huge memory data base acquired through one's life and the very fast search mechanism to recall the 'most similar' event to the current input. Based on this principle components of intelligent LSI systems have been developed. An analog EEPROM technology capable of storing 256 levels of data per cell without time-consuming write/verify operations has been developed. In situ monitoring of memory content during writing has allowed us high-accuracy data writing. A high-speed parallel-search engine for the minimum distance vector (an associator) has been developed using neuron MOS technology. The associator has been applied to the motion vector detector as an example, which has shown a very fast detection with an extremely simple hardware configuration. The association architecture has been applied to a real-time motion picture compression system, demonstrating three orders of magnitude higher performance than typical CISC processors (Pentium 166MHz). (NEDO)

  6. FY1995 four-terminal-device intelligent LSI system for real-time event recognition; 1995 nendo shunji ninshiki kino wo motta 4 tanshi device chino LSI no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Development of an intelligent LSI system having real-time response capability for real-word events. This is accomplished by enhancing the functionality of an elemental device, employing ultra-fine-grain parallelism and merging software directly in the LSI hardware. Intelligent functions are created directly on the LSI hardware, thus enabling real-time recognition by electronic systems. The origin of human intelligence lies in the huge memory data base acquired through one's life and the very fast search mechanism to recall the 'most similar' event to the current input. Based on this principle components of intelligent LSI systems have been developed. An analog EEPROM technology capable of storing 256 levels of data per cell without time-consuming write/verify operations has been developed. In situ monitoring of memory content during writing has allowed us high-accuracy data writing. A high-speed parallel-search engine for the minimum distance vector (an associator) has been developed using neuron MOS technology. The associator has been applied to the motion vector detector as an example, which has shown a very fast detection with an extremely simple hardware configuration. The association architecture has been applied to a real-time motion picture compression system, demonstrating three orders of magnitude higher performance than typical CISC processors (Pentium 166MHz). (NEDO)

  7. An FPGA-Based WASN for Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Endangered Species: A Case Study on the Birdsong Recognition of Botaurus stellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervás, Marcos; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma; Alías, Francesc; Salvador, Martí

    2017-06-08

    Fast environmental variations due to climate change can cause mass decline or even extinctions of species, having a dramatic impact on the future of biodiversity. During the last decade, different approaches have been proposed to track and monitor endangered species, generally based on costly semi-automatic systems that require human supervision adding limitations in coverage and time. However, the recent emergence of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN) has allowed non-intrusive remote monitoring of endangered species in real time through the automatic identification of the sound they emit. In this work, an FPGA-based WASN centralized architecture is proposed and validated on a simulated operation environment. The feasibility of the architecture is evaluated in a case study designed to detect the threatened Botaurus stellaris among other 19 cohabiting birds species in The Parc Natural dels Aiguamolls de l'Empord.

  8. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  9. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  10. Individual differences in forced-choice recognition memory: partitioning contributions of recollection and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migo, Ellen M; Quamme, Joel R; Holmes, Selina; Bendell, Andrew; Norman, Kenneth A; Mayes, Andrew R; Montaldi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In forced-choice recognition memory, two different testing formats are possible under conditions of high target-foil similarity: Each target can be presented alongside foils similar to itself (forced-choice corresponding; FCC), or alongside foils similar to other targets (forced-choice noncorresponding; FCNC). Recent behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that FCC performance can be supported by familiarity whereas FCNC performance is supported primarily by recollection. In this paper, we corroborate this finding from an individual differences perspective. A group of older adults were given a test of FCC and FCNC recognition for object pictures, as well as standardized tests of recall, recognition, and IQ. Recall measures were found to predict FCNC, but not FCC performance, consistent with a critical role for recollection in FCNC only. After the common influence of recall was removed, standardized tests of recognition predicted FCC, but not FCNC performance. This is consistent with a contribution of only familiarity in FCC. Simulations show that a two-process model, where familiarity and recollection make separate contributions to recognition, is 10 times more likely to give these results than a single-process model. This evidence highlights the importance of recognition memory test design when examining the involvement of recollection and familiarity.

  11. Kin-informative recognition cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E F; Santorelli, Lorenzo A

    2011-01-01

    behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation--social insect colonies--because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have...... found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical...... prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential...

  12. Reversing the picture superiority effect: a speed-accuracy trade-off study of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldini, Angela; Russo, Riccardo; Punia, Sahiba; Avons, S E

    2007-01-01

    Speed-accuracy trade-off methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. With these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and required to make recognition decisions under various time constraints. In three experiments, we presented words and pictures to be intentionally learned; test stimuli were always visually presented words. At test, we manipulated the interval between the presentation of each test stimulus and that of a response signal, thus controlling the amount of time available to retrieve target information. The standard picture superiority effect was significant in long response deadline conditions (i.e., > or = 2,000 msec). Conversely, a significant reverse picture superiority effect emerged at short response-signal deadlines (< 200 msec). The results are congruent with views suggesting that both fast familiarity and slower recollection processes contribute to recognition memory. Alternative accounts are also discussed.

  13. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  14. Efficient Interaction Recognition through Positive Action Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to decompose two-person interaction into a Positive Action and a Negative Action for more efficient behavior recognition. A Positive Action plays the decisive role in a two-person exchange. Thus, interaction recognition can be simplified to Positive Action-based recognition, focusing on an action representation of just one person. Recently, a new depth sensor has become widely available, the Microsoft Kinect camera, which provides RGB-D data with 3D spatial information for quantitative analysis. However, there are few publicly accessible test datasets using this camera, to assess two-person interaction recognition approaches. Therefore, we created a new dataset with six types of complex human interactions (i.e., named K3HI, including kicking, pointing, punching, pushing, exchanging an object, and shaking hands. Three types of features were extracted for each Positive Action: joint, plane, and velocity features. We used continuous Hidden Markov Models (HMMs to evaluate the Positive Action-based interaction recognition method and the traditional two-person interaction recognition approach with our test dataset. Experimental results showed that the proposed recognition technique is more accurate than the traditional method, shortens the sample training time, and therefore achieves comprehensive superiority.

  15. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks of the Oligocene Creede Formation fill the moat of the Creede caldera, which formed at about 26.9 Ma during the eruption of the Snowshoe Mountain Tuff. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies of two cores (418 and 703 m long) that penetrated the lower half of the Creede Formation, in addition to paleomagnetic and isotopic dating studies of stratigraphically bracketing volcanic units, provide information on the age and the time span of sedimentation of the caldera fill. Normal polarity magnetization are found in Snowshoe Mountain Tuff beneath the moat sediments; in detrital-magnetite-bearing graded tuffs near the bottom of the moat fill; in an ash-fall deposit about 200 m stratigraphically about the top of core 2; and in postcaldera lava flows of the Fisher Dacite that overlie the Creede Formation. Normal polarity also characterizes detrital-magnetite-bearing tuff and sandstone unites within the caldera moat rocks that did not undergo severe sulfidic alteration. The combination of initially low magnitude of remanent magnetization and the destructive effects of subsequent diagenetic sulfidization on detrital iron oxides results in a poor paleomagnetic record for the fine-grained sedimentary rocks of the Creede Formation. these fine-grained rocks have either normal or revered polarity magnetizations that are carried by magnetite and/or maghemite. Many more apparent reversals are found that can be accommodated by any geomagnetic polarity time scale over the interval spanned by the ages of the bracketing extrusive rocks. Moreover, opposite polarity magnetization are found in specimens separated by only a few centimeters, without intervening hiatuses, and by specimens in several tuff beds, each of which represents a single depositional event. These polarity changes cannot, therefore, be attributed to detrital remanent magnetization. Many polarity changes are apparently related to chemical remanent magnetizations carried by

  16. The optimal viewing position in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Liu, Tina T

    2012-02-28

    In English word recognition, the best recognition performance is usually obtained when the initial fixation is directed to the left of the center (optimal viewing position, OVP). This effect has been argued to involve an interplay of left hemisphere lateralization for language processing and the perceptual experience of fixating at word beginnings most often. While both factors predict a left-biased OVP in visual word recognition, in face recognition they predict contrasting biases: People prefer to fixate the left half-face, suggesting that the OVP should be to the left of the center; nevertheless, the right hemisphere lateralization in face processing suggests that the OVP should be to the right of the center in order to project most of the face to the right hemisphere. Here, we show that the OVP in face recognition was to the left of the center, suggesting greater influence from the perceptual experience than hemispheric asymmetry in central vision. In contrast, hemispheric lateralization effects emerged when faces were presented away from the center; there was an interaction between presented visual field and location (center vs. periphery), suggesting differential influence from perceptual experience and hemispheric asymmetry in central and peripheral vision.

  17. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  18. Social power and recognition of emotional prosody: High power is associated with lower recognition accuracy than low power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskul, Ayse K; Paulmann, Silke; Weick, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Listeners have to pay close attention to a speaker's tone of voice (prosody) during daily conversations. This is particularly important when trying to infer the emotional state of the speaker. Although a growing body of research has explored how emotions are processed from speech in general, little is known about how psychosocial factors such as social power can shape the perception of vocal emotional attributes. Thus, the present studies explored how social power affects emotional prosody recognition. In a correlational study (Study 1) and an experimental study (Study 2), we show that high power is associated with lower accuracy in emotional prosody recognition than low power. These results, for the first time, suggest that individuals experiencing high or low power perceive emotional tone of voice differently. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  20. CASE Recognition Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currents, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A total of 294 schools, colleges, and universities received prizes in this year's CASE Recognition program. Awards were given in: public relations programs, student recruitment, marketing, program pulications, news writing, fund raising, radio programming, school periodicals, etc. (MLW)

  1. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  2. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  3. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  4. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  5. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  6. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  7. Comparison of Ecological Micro-Expression Recognition in Patients with Depression and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlin Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have focused on the characteristics of ordinary facial expressions in patients with depression, and have not investigated the processing characteristics of ecological micro-expressions (MEs, i.e., MEs that presented in different background expressions in these patients. Based on this, adopting the ecological MEs recognition paradigm, this study aimed to comparatively evaluate facial ME recognition in depressed and healthy individuals. The findings of the study are as follows: (1 background expression: the accuracy (ACC in the neutral background condition tended to be higher than that in the fear background condition, and the reaction time (RT in the neutral background condition was significantly longer than that in other backgrounds. The type of ME and its interaction with the type of background expression could affect participants’ ecological MEs recognition ACC and speed. Depression type: there was no significant difference between the ecological MEs recognition ACC of patients with depression and healthy individuals, but the patients’ RT was significantly longer than that of healthy individuals; and (2 patients with depression judged happy MEs that were presented against different backgrounds as neutral and judged neutral MEs that were presented against sad backgrounds as sad. The present study suggested the following: (1 ecological MEs recognition was influenced by background expressions. The ACC of happy MEs was the highest, of neutral ME moderate and of sadness and fear the lowest. The response to the happy MEs was significantly shorter than that of identifying other MEs. It is necessary to conduct research on ecological MEs recognition; (2 the speed of patients with depression in identifying ecological MEs was slower than of healthy individuals; indicating that the patients’ cognitive function was impaired; and (3 the patients with depression showed negative bias in the ecological MEs recognition task, reflecting

  8. Further insight into self-face recognition in schizophrenia patients: Why ambiguity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Raffard, Stephane

    2016-03-01

    Although some studies reported specifically self-face processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia disorder (SZ), it remains unclear whether these deficits rather reflect a more global face processing deficit. Contradictory results are probably due to the different methodologies employed and the lack of control of other confounding factors. Moreover, no study has so far evaluated possible daily life self-face recognition difficulties in SZ. Therefore, our primary objective was to investigate self-face recognition in patients suffering from SZ compared to healthy controls (HC) using an "objective measure" (reaction time and accuracy) and a "subjective measure" (self-report of daily self-face recognition difficulties). Twenty-four patients with SZ and 23 HC performed a self-face recognition task and completed a questionnaire evaluating daily difficulties in self-face recognition. Recognition task material consisted in three different faces (the own, a famous and an unknown) being morphed in steps of 20%. Results showed that SZ were overall slower than HC regardless of the face identity, but less accurate only for the faces containing 60%-40% morphing. Moreover, SZ and HC reported a similar amount of daily problems with self/other face recognition. No significant correlations were found between objective and subjective measures (p > 0.05). The small sample size and relatively mild severity of psychopathology does not allow us to generalize our results. These results suggest that: (1) patients with SZ are as capable of recognizing their own face as HC, although they are susceptible to ambiguity; (2) there are far less self recognition deficits in schizophrenia patients than previously postulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  10. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  11. New technique for number-plate recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Shi, Peng-Fei

    2001-09-01

    This paper presents an alternative algorithm for number plate recognition. The algorithm consists of three modules. Respectively, they are number plate location module, character segmentation module and character recognition module. Number plate location module extracts the number plate from the detected car image by analyzing the color and the texture properties. Different from most license plate location methods, the algorithm has fewer limits to the car size, the car position in the image and the image background. Character segmentation module applies connected region algorithm both to eliminate noise points and to segment characters. Touching characters and broken characters can be processed correctly. Character recognition module recognizes characters with HHIC (Hierarchical Hybrid Integrated Classifier). The system has been tested with 100 images obtained from crossroad and parking lot, etc, where the cars have different size, position, background and illumination. Successful recognition rate is about 92%. The average processing time is 1.2 second.

  12. Would you say "yes" in the evening? Time-of-day effect on response bias in four types of working memory recognition tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Koryna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Marek, Tadeusz; Oginska, Halszka; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Across a wide range of tasks, cognitive functioning is affected by circadian fluctuations. In this study, we investigated diurnal variations of working memory performance, taking into account not only hits and errors rates, but also sensitivity (d') and response bias (c) indexes (established by signal detection theory). Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed four experimental tasks twice - in the morning and in the evening (approximately 1 and 10 h after awakening). All tasks were based on Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm version dedicated to study working/short-term memory distortions. Participants were to memorize sets of stimuli characterized by either conceptual or perceptual similarity, and to answer if they recognized subsequent stimulus (probe) as an "old" one (i.e. presented in the preceding memory set). The probe was of three types: positive, negative or related lure. In two verbal tasks, memory sets were characterized by semantic or phonological similarity. In two visual tasks, abstract objects were characterized by a number of overlapping similarities or differed in only one detail. The type of experimental material and the participants' diurnal preference were taken into account. The analysis showed significant effect of time of day on false alarms rate (F (1,50)  = 5.29, p = 0.03, η p 2  = 0.1) and response bias (F (1,50)  = 11.16, p = 0.002, η p 2  = 0.18). In other words, in the evening participants responded in more liberal way than in the morning (answering "yes" more often). As the link between variations in false alarms rate, response bias and locus coeruleus activity was indicated in literature before, we believe that our data may be interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that diurnal fluctuations in norepinephrine release have effect on cognitive functioning in terms of decision threshold.

  13. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  14. Visual recognition of permuted words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sheikh Faisal; Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-02-01

    In current study we examine how letter permutation affects in visual recognition of words for two orthographically dissimilar languages, Urdu and German. We present the hypothesis that recognition or reading of permuted and non-permuted words are two distinct mental level processes, and that people use different strategies in handling permuted words as compared to normal words. A comparison between reading behavior of people in these languages is also presented. We present our study in context of dual route theories of reading and it is observed that the dual-route theory is consistent with explanation of our hypothesis of distinction in underlying cognitive behavior for reading permuted and non-permuted words. We conducted three experiments in lexical decision tasks to analyze how reading is degraded or affected by letter permutation. We performed analysis of variance (ANOVA), distribution free rank test, and t-test to determine the significance differences in response time latencies for two classes of data. Results showed that the recognition accuracy for permuted words is decreased 31% in case of Urdu and 11% in case of German language. We also found a considerable difference in reading behavior for cursive and alphabetic languages and it is observed that reading of Urdu is comparatively slower than reading of German due to characteristics of cursive script.

  15. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana M. Vargas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  16. Emotion recognition in Chinese people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Raymond; Wang, Kai; Lee, Tatia M C

    2008-01-15

    This study examined whether people with paranoid or nonparanoid schizophrenia would show emotion-recognition deficits, both facial and prosodic. Furthermore, this study examined the neuropsychological predictors of emotion-recognition ability in people with schizophrenia. Participants comprised 86 people, of whom: 43 were people diagnosed with schizophrenia and 43 were controls. The 43 clinical participants were placed in either the paranoid group (n=19) or the nonparanoid group (n=24). Each participant was administered the Facial Emotion Recognition task and the Prosodic Recognition task, together with other neuropsychological measures of attention and visual perception. People suffering from nonparanoid schizophrenia were found to have deficits in both facial and prosodic emotion recognition, after correction for the differences in the intelligence and depression scores between the two groups. Furthermore, spatial perception was observed to be the best predictor of facial emotion identification in individuals with nonparanoid schizophrenia, whereas attentional processing control predicted both prosodic emotion identification and discrimination in nonparanoid schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia in remission may still suffer from impairment of certain aspects of emotion recognition.

  17. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  18. Oxytocin improves emotion recognition for older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice E; Glue, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Older adults (≥60 years) perform worse than young adults (18-30 years) when recognizing facial expressions of emotion. The hypothesized cause of these changes might be declines in neurotransmitters that could affect information processing within the brain. In the present study, we examined the neuropeptide oxytocin that functions to increase neurotransmission. Research suggests that oxytocin benefits the emotion recognition of less socially able individuals. Men tend to have lower levels of oxytocin and older men tend to have worse emotion recognition than older women; therefore, there is reason to think that older men will be particularly likely to benefit from oxytocin. We examined this idea using a double-blind design, testing 68 older and 68 young adults randomly allocated to receive oxytocin nasal spray (20 international units) or placebo. Forty-five minutes afterward they completed an emotion recognition task assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, neutral, and sad faces. Older males receiving oxytocin showed improved emotion recognition relative to those taking placebo. No differences were found for older females or young adults. We hypothesize that oxytocin facilitates emotion recognition by improving neurotransmission in the group with the worst emotion recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  20. Gender differences in the recognition of emotional faces: are men less efficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz-Ibáñez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As research in recollection of stimuli with emotional valence indicates, emotions influence memory. Many studies in face and emotional facial expression recognition have focused on age (young and old people and gender-associated (men and women differences. Nevertheless, this kind of studies has produced contradictory results, because of that, it would be necessary to study gender involvement in depth. The main objective of our research consists of analyzing the differences in image recognition using faces with emotional facial expressions between two groups composed by university students aged 18-30. The first group is constituted by men and the second one by women. The results showed statistically significant differences in face corrected recognition (hit rate - false alarm rate: the women demonstrated a better recognition than the men. However, other analyzed variables as time or efficiency do not provide conclusive results. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between the time used and the efficiency when doing the task was found in the male group. This information reinforces not only the hypothesis of gender difference in face recognition, in favor of women, but also these ones that suggest a different cognitive processing of facial stimuli in both sexes. Finally, we argue the necessity of a greater research related to variables as age or sociocultural level.

  1. A dynamic approach to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Gregory E; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2017-11-01

    We present a dynamic model of memory that integrates the processes of perception, retrieval from knowledge, retrieval of events, and decision making as these evolve from 1 moment to the next. The core of the model is that recognition depends on tracking changes in familiarity over time from an initial baseline generally determined by context, with these changes depending on the availability of different kinds of information at different times. A mathematical implementation of this model leads to precise, accurate predictions of accuracy, response time, and speed-accuracy trade-off in episodic recognition at the levels of both groups and individuals across a variety of paradigms. Our approach leads to novel insights regarding word frequency, speeded responding, context reinstatement, short-term priming, similarity, source memory, and associative recognition, revealing how the same set of core dynamic principles can help unify otherwise disparate phenomena in the study of memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Probabilistic recognition of human faces from video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Saohua; Krüger, Volker; Chellappa, Rama

    2003-01-01

    Recognition of human faces using a gallery of still or video images and a probe set of videos is systematically investigated using a probabilistic framework. In still-to-video recognition, where the gallery consists of still images, a time series state space model is proposed to fuse temporal...... of the identity variable produces the recognition result. The model formulation is very general and it allows a variety of image representations and transformations. Experimental results using videos collected by NIST/USF and CMU illustrate the effectiveness of this approach for both still-to-video and video-to-video...... information in a probe video, which simultaneously characterizes the kinematics and identity using a motion vector and an identity variable, respectively. The joint posterior distribution of the motion vector and the identity variable is estimated at each time instant and then propagated to the next time...

  3. Taxon and trait recognition from digitized herbarium specimens using deep convolutional neural networks

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Sohaib; Weiland, Claus; Hoehndorf, Robert; Dressler, Stefan; Hickler, Thomas; Seeger, Bernhard; Schmidt, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Herbaria worldwide are housing a treasure of hundreds of millions of herbarium specimens, which are increasingly being digitized and thereby more accessible to the scientific community. At the same time, deep-learning algorithms are rapidly improving pattern recognition from images and these techniques are more and more being applied to biological objects. In this study, we are using digital images of herbarium specimens in order to identify taxa and traits of these collection objects by applying convolutional neural networks (CNN). Images of the 1000 species most frequently documented by herbarium specimens on GBIF have been downloaded and combined with morphological trait data, preprocessed and divided into training and test datasets for species and trait recognition. Good performance in both domains suggests substantial potential of this approach for supporting taxonomy and natural history collection management. Trait recognition is also promising for applications in functional ecology.

  4. Taxon and trait recognition from digitized herbarium specimens using deep convolutional neural networks

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Sohaib

    2018-03-13

    Herbaria worldwide are housing a treasure of hundreds of millions of herbarium specimens, which are increasingly being digitized and thereby more accessible to the scientific community. At the same time, deep-learning algorithms are rapidly improving pattern recognition from images and these techniques are more and more being applied to biological objects. In this study, we are using digital images of herbarium specimens in order to identify taxa and traits of these collection objects by applying convolutional neural networks (CNN). Images of the 1000 species most frequently documented by herbarium specimens on GBIF have been downloaded and combined with morphological trait data, preprocessed and divided into training and test datasets for species and trait recognition. Good performance in both domains suggests substantial potential of this approach for supporting taxonomy and natural history collection management. Trait recognition is also promising for applications in functional ecology.

  5. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA and discrete wavelet transform (DWT were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  6. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  7. Metabolomics Study of Resina Draconis on Myocardial Ischemia Rats Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Pattern Recognition Methods and Metabolic Pathway Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resina draconis (bright red resin isolated from Dracaena cochinchinensis, RD has been clinically used for treatment of myocardial ischemia (MI for many years. However, the mechanisms of its pharmacological action on MI are still poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize the plasma metabolic profiles of MI and investigate the mechanisms of RD on MI using ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics combined with pattern recognition methods and metabolic pathway analysis. Twenty metabolite markers characterizing metabolic profile of MI were revealed, which were mainly involved in aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, and so forth. After RD treatment, however, levels of seven MI metabolite markers, including phytosphingosine, sphinganine, acetylcarnitine, cGMP, cAMP, L-tyrosine, and L-valine, were turned over, indicating that RD is likely to alleviate MI through regulating the disturbed vascular smooth muscle contraction, sphingolipid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, and BCAA metabolism. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study to investigate the mechanisms of RD for treating MI, from a metabolomics point of view. Our findings are very valuable to gain a better understanding of MI metabolic profiles and provide novel insights for exploring the mechanisms of RD on MI.

  8. Oxytocin improves facial emotion recognition in young adults with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Marion; Jeung, Haang; Schmitt, Ruth; Boll, Sabrina; Freitag, Christine M; Bertsch, Katja; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-11-01

    Deficient facial emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie aggression in individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). As the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been shown to improve facial emotion recognition, it might also exert beneficial effects in individuals providing so much harm to the society. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial, 22 individuals with ASPD and 29 healthy control (HC) subjects (matched for age, sex, intelligence, and education) were intranasally administered either OT (24 IU) or a placebo 45min before participating in an emotion classification paradigm with fearful, angry, and happy faces. We assessed the number of correct classifications and reaction times as indicators of emotion recognition ability. Significant group×substance×emotion interactions were found in correct classifications and reaction times. Compared to HC, individuals with ASPD showed deficits in recognizing fearful and happy faces; these group differences were no longer observable under OT. Additionally, reaction times for angry faces differed significantly between the ASPD and HC group in the placebo condition. This effect was mainly driven by longer reaction times in HC subjects after placebo administration compared to OT administration while individuals with ASPD revealed descriptively the contrary response pattern. Our data indicate an improvement of the recognition of fearful and happy facial expressions by OT in young adults with ASPD. Particularly the increased recognition of facial fear is of high importance since the correct perception of distress signals in others is thought to inhibit aggression. Beneficial effects of OT might be further mediated by improved recognition of facial happiness probably reflecting increased social reward responsiveness. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Stereotypes and prejudice affect the recognition of emotional body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J

    2018-03-26

    Most research on emotion recognition focuses on facial expressions. However, people communicate emotional information through bodily cues as well. Prior research on facial expressions has demonstrated that emotion recognition is modulated by top-down processes. Here, we tested whether this top-down modulation generalizes to the recognition of emotions from body postures. We report three studies demonstrating that stereotypes and prejudice about men and women may affect how fast people classify various emotional body postures. Our results suggest that gender cues activate gender associations, which affect the recognition of emotions from body postures in a top-down fashion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The role of the hippocampus in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Chris M

    2017-08-01

    Many theories of declarative memory propose that it is supported by partially separable processes underpinned by different brain structures. The hippocampus plays a critical role in binding together item and contextual information together and processing the relationships between individual items. By contrast, the processing of individual items and their later recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL), particularly when recognition is based on feelings of familiarity without the retrieval of any associated information. These theories are domain-general in that "items" might be words, faces, objects, scenes, etc. However, there is mixed evidence that item recognition does not require the hippocampus, or that familiarity-based recognition can be supported by extrahippocampal regions. By contrast, there is compelling evidence that in humans, hippocampal damage does not affect recognition memory for unfamiliar faces, whilst recognition memory for several other stimulus classes is impaired. I propose that regions outside of the hippocampus can support recognition of unfamiliar faces because they are perceived as discrete items and have no prior conceptual associations. Conversely, extrahippocampal processes are inadequate for recognition of items which (a) have been previously experienced, (b) are conceptually meaningful, or (c) are perceived as being comprised of individual elements. This account reconciles findings from primate and human studies of recognition memory. Furthermore, it suggests that while the hippocampus is critical for binding and relational processing, these processes are required for item recognition memory in most situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inagaki, Masumi

    2012-07-01

    The present study aimed to review previous research conducted on face recognition in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Face recognition is a key question in the ASD research field because it can provide clues for elucidating the neural substrates responsible for the social impairment of these patients. Historically, behavioral studies have reported low performance and/or unique strategies of face recognition among ASD patients. However, the performance and strategy of ASD patients is comparable to those of the control group, depending on the experimental situation or developmental stage, suggesting that face recognition of ASD patients is not entirely impaired. Recent brain function studies, including event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, have investigated the cognitive process of face recognition in ASD patients, and revealed impaired function in the brain's neural network comprising the fusiform gyrus and amygdala. This impaired function is potentially involved in the diminished preference for faces, and in the atypical development of face recognition, eliciting symptoms of unstable behavioral characteristics in these patients. Additionally, face recognition in ASD patients is examined from a different perspective, namely self-face recognition, and facial emotion recognition. While the former topic is intimately linked to basic social abilities such as self-other discrimination, the latter is closely associated with mentalizing. Further research on face recognition in ASD patients should investigate the connection between behavioral and neurological specifics in these patients, by considering developmental changes and the spectrum clinical condition of ASD.

  12. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-01-01

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  13. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs recency-dependent object recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, David J.; Hindley, Emma; Smeaton, Emily; Denny, Nick; Taylor, Amy; Barkus, Chris; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit impairs short-term spatial recognition memory. It has been suggested that short-term recognition depends upon memory caused by the recent presentation of a stimulus that is independent of contextual–retrieval processes. The aim of the present set of experiments was to test whether the role of GluA1 extends to nonspatial recognition memory. Wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice were tested on the standard object recognition task and a context-independent recognition task that required recency-dependent memory. In a first set of experiments it was found that GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on either of the object recognition or recency-dependent tasks. However, GluA1 knockout mice displayed increased levels of exploration of the objects in both the sample and test phases compared to controls. In contrast, when the time that GluA1 knockout mice spent exploring the objects was yoked to control mice during the sample phase, it was found that GluA1 deletion now impaired performance on both the object recognition and the recency-dependent tasks. GluA1 deletion failed to impair performance on a context-dependent recognition task regardless of whether object exposure in knockout mice was yoked to controls or not. These results demonstrate that GluA1 is necessary for nonspatial as well as spatial recognition memory and plays an important role in recency-dependent memory processes. PMID:21378100

  14. The role of nitric oxide in the object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition task (NORT) assesses recognition memory in animals. It is a non-rewarded paradigm that it is based on spontaneous exploratory behavior in rodents. This procedure is widely used for testing the effects of compounds on recognition memory. Recognition memory is a type of memory severely compromised in schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease patients. Nitric oxide (NO) is sought to be an intra- and inter-cellular messenger in the central nervous system and its implication in learning and memory is well documented. Here I intended to critically review the role of NO-related compounds on different aspects of recognition memory. Current analysis shows that both NO donors and NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors are involved in object recognition memory and suggests that NO might be a promising target for cognition impairments. However, the potential neurotoxicity of NO would add a note of caution in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  16. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  17. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  18. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  19. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  20. Star pattern recognition algorithm aided by inertial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Wang, Ke-dong; Zhang, Chao

    2011-08-01

    Star pattern recognition is one of the key problems of the celestial navigation. The traditional star pattern recognition approaches, such as the triangle algorithm and the star angular distance algorithm, are a kind of all-sky matching method whose recognition speed is slow and recognition success rate is not high. Therefore, the real time and reliability of CNS (Celestial Navigation System) is reduced to some extent, especially for the maneuvering spacecraft. However, if the direction of the camera optical axis can be estimated by other navigation systems such as INS (Inertial Navigation System), the star pattern recognition can be fulfilled in the vicinity of the estimated direction of the optical axis. The benefits of the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm include at least the improved matching speed and the improved success rate. In this paper, the direction of the camera optical axis, the local matching sky, and the projection of stars on the image plane are estimated by the aiding of INS firstly. Then, the local star catalog for the star pattern recognition is established in real time dynamically. The star images extracted in the camera plane are matched in the local sky. Compared to the traditional all-sky star pattern recognition algorithms, the memory of storing the star catalog is reduced significantly. Finally, the INS-aided star pattern recognition algorithm is validated by simulations. The results of simulations show that the algorithm's computation time is reduced sharply and its matching success rate is improved greatly.

  1. Super-recognition in development: A case study of an adolescent with extraordinary face recognition skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Mole, Joseph; Bate, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Face recognition abilities vary widely. While face recognition deficits have been reported in children, it is unclear whether superior face recognition skills can be encountered during development. This paper presents O.B., a 14-year-old female with extraordinary face recognition skills: a "super-recognizer" (SR). O.B. demonstrated exceptional face-processing skills across multiple tasks, with a level of performance that is comparable to adult SRs. Her superior abilities appear to be specific to face identity: She showed an exaggerated face inversion effect and her superior abilities did not extend to object processing or non-identity aspects of face recognition. Finally, an eye-movement task demonstrated that O.B. spent more time than controls examining the nose - a pattern previously reported in adult SRs. O.B. is therefore particularly skilled at extracting and using identity-specific facial cues, indicating that face and object recognition are dissociable during development, and that super recognition can be detected in adolescence.

  2. Slow potentials in a melody recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, R; Schellberg, D

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, slow negative shifts were found in the EEG of subjects listening to well-known melodies. The two experiments reported here were designed to investigate the variables to which these slow potentials are related. In the first experiment, two opposite hypotheses were tested: The slow shifts might express subjects' acquaintance with the melodies or, on the contrary, the effort invested to identify them. To this end, some of the melodies were presented in the rhythms of other melodies to make recognition more difficult. Further, melodies rated as very well-known and as very unknown were analysed separately. However, the slow shifts were not affected by these experimental variations. Therefore in the second experiment, on the one hand the purely physical parameters intensity and duration were varied, but this variation had no impact on the slow shifts either. On the other hand, recognition was made more difficult by monotonously repeating the pitch of the 4th tone for the rest of some melodies. The slow negative shifts were enhanced with these monotonous melodies. This enhancement supports the "effort" hypothesis. Accordingly, the ofter shifts obtained in both experiments might likewise reflect effort. But since the task was not demanding, it is suggested that these constant shifts reflect the effort invested for coping with the entire underarousing situation rather than with the task. Frequently, slow eye movements occurred in the same time range as the slow potentials, resulting in EOG potentials spreading to the EEG recording sites. Yet results did not change substantially when the EEG recordings were corrected for the influence of EOG potentials.

  3. Three-dimensional fingerprint recognition by using convolution neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianyu; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-01-01

    With the development of science and technology and the improvement of social information, fingerprint recognition technology has become a hot research direction and been widely applied in many actual fields because of its feasibility and reliability. The traditional two-dimensional (2D) fingerprint recognition method relies on matching feature points. This method is not only time-consuming, but also lost three-dimensional (3D) information of fingerprint, with the fingerprint rotation, scaling, damage and other issues, a serious decline in robustness. To solve these problems, 3D fingerprint has been used to recognize human being. Because it is a new research field, there are still lots of challenging problems in 3D fingerprint recognition. This paper presents a new 3D fingerprint recognition method by using a convolution neural network (CNN). By combining 2D fingerprint and fingerprint depth map into CNN, and then through another CNN feature fusion, the characteristics of the fusion complete 3D fingerprint recognition after classification. This method not only can preserve 3D information of fingerprints, but also solves the problem of CNN input. Moreover, the recognition process is simpler than traditional feature point matching algorithm. 3D fingerprint recognition rate by using CNN is compared with other fingerprint recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the proposed 3D fingerprint recognition method has good recognition rate and robustness.

  4. Contemporary deep recurrent learning for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Alam, M.; Vidyaratne, L.

    2017-05-01

    Large-scale feed-forward neural networks have seen intense application in many computer vision problems. However, these networks can get hefty and computationally intensive with increasing complexity of the task. Our work, for the first time in literature, introduces a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN) based hierarchical neural network for object detection. CSRN has shown to be more effective to solving complex tasks such as maze traversal and image processing when compared to generic feed forward networks. While deep neural networks (DNN) have exhibited excellent performance in object detection and recognition, such hierarchical structure has largely been absent in neural networks with recurrency. Further, our work introduces deep hierarchy in SRN for object recognition. The simultaneous recurrency results in an unfolding effect of the SRN through time, potentially enabling the design of an arbitrarily deep network. This paper shows experiments using face, facial expression and character recognition tasks using novel deep recurrent model and compares recognition performance with that of generic deep feed forward model. Finally, we demonstrate the flexibility of incorporating our proposed deep SRN based recognition framework in a humanoid robotic platform called NAO.

  5. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...

  6. School IPM Recognition and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schools and school districts can get support and recognition for implementation of school IPM. EPA is developing a program to provide recognition for school districts that are working towards or have achieved a level of success with school IPM programs.

  7. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  8. The nature of visual self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddendorf, Thomas; Butler, David L

    2013-03-01

    Visual self-recognition is often controversially cited as an indicator of self-awareness and assessed with the mirror-mark test. Great apes and humans, unlike small apes and monkeys, have repeatedly passed mirror tests, suggesting that the underlying brain processes are homologous and evolved 14-18 million years ago. However, neuroscientific, developmental, and clinical dissociations show that the medium used for self-recognition (mirror vs photograph vs video) significantly alters behavioral and brain responses, likely due to perceptual differences among the different media and prior experience. On the basis of this evidence and evolutionary considerations, we argue that the visual self-recognition skills evident in humans and great apes are a byproduct of a general capacity to collate representations, and need not index other aspects of self-awareness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Recognition bias and the physical attractiveness stereotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Jean-Christophe; Rasmussen, Anders

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found a recognition bias for information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype (PAS), in which participants believe that they remember that attractive individuals have positive qualities and that unattractive individuals have negative qualities, regardless of what information actually occurred. The purpose of this research was to examine whether recognition bias for PAS congruent information is replicable and invariant across a variety of conditions (i.e. generalizable). The effects of nine different moderator variables were examined in two experiments. With a few exceptions, the effect of PAS congruence on recognition bias was independent of the moderator variables. The results suggest that the tendency to believe that one remembers information consistent with the physical attractiveness stereotype is a robust phenomenon. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. Unrealistic optimism and 'nosognosia': illness recognition in the healthy brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Buchmann, Andreas; Germann, Nicole; Yu, Shancong; Brugger, Peter

    2014-12-01

    At the centenary of research on anosognosia, the time seems ripe to supplement work in anosognosic patients with empirical studies on nosognosia in healthy participants. To this end, we adopted a signal detection framework to investigate the lateralized recognition of illness words--an operational measure of nosognosia--in healthy participants. As positively biased reports about one's current health status (anosognosia) and future health status (unrealistic optimism) have both been associated with deficient right hemispheric functioning, and conversely with undisturbed left hemispheric functioning, we hypothesised that more optimistic participants would adopt a more conservative response criterion, and/or display less sensitivity, when identifying illnesses in our nosognosia task; especially harmful illnesses presented to the left hemisphere via the right visual field. Thirty-two healthy right-handed men estimated their own relative risk of contracting a series of illnesses in the future, and then completed a novel computer task assessing their recognition of illness names presented to the left or right visual field. To check that effects were specific to the recognition of illness (rather than reflecting recognition of lexical items per se), we also administered a standard lateralized lexical decision task. Highly optimistic participants tended to be more conservative in detecting illnesses, especially harmful illnesses presented to the right visual field. Contrary to expectation, they were also more sensitive to illness names in this half-field. We suggest that, in evolutionary terms, unrealistic optimism may be an adaptive trait that combines a high perceptual sensitivity to threat with a high threshold for acknowledging its presence. The signal detection approach to nosognosia developed here may open up new avenues for the understanding of anosognosia in neurological patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A REVIEW: OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Tomar*1 & Amit Kishore2

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents detailed review in the field of Optical Character Recognition. Various techniques are determine that have been proposed to realize the center of character recognition in an optical character recognition system. Even though, sufficient studies and papers are describes the techniques for converting textual content from a paper document into machine readable form. Optical character recognition is a process where the computer understands automatically the image of handwritten ...

  12. Facial Expression Recognition Based on TensorFlow Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xiao-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition have a wide range of applications in human-machine interaction, pattern recognition, image understanding, machine vision and other fields. Recent years, it has gradually become a hot research. However, different people have different ways of expressing their emotions, and under the influence of brightness, background and other factors, there are some difficulties in facial expression recognition. In this paper, based on the Inception-v3 model of TensorFlow platform, we use the transfer learning techniques to retrain facial expression dataset (The Extended Cohn-Kanade dataset, which can keep the accuracy of recognition and greatly reduce the training time.

  13. Improved RGB-D-T based Face Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliu Simon, Marc; Corneanu, Ciprian; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    years. At the same time a multimodal facial recognition is a promising approach. This paper combines the latest successes in both directions by applying deep learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to the multimodal RGB-D-T based facial recognition problem outperforming previously published results......Reliable facial recognition systems are of crucial importance in various applications from entertainment to security. Thanks to the deep-learning concepts introduced in the field, a significant improvement in the performance of the unimodal facial recognition systems has been observed in the recent...

  14. Description and recognition of patterns in stochastic signals. [Electroencephalograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flik, T [Technische Univ. Berlin (F.R. Germany). Informatik-Forschungsgruppe Rechnerorganisation und Schaltwerke

    1975-10-01

    A method is shown for the description and recognition of patterns in stochastic signals such as electroencephalograms. For pattern extraction the signal is segmented at times of minimum amplitudes. The describing features consist of geometric values of the so defined patterns. The classification algorithm is based on the regression analysis, which is well known in the field of character recognition. For an economic classification a method is proposed which reduces the number of features. The quality of this pattern recognition method is demonstrated by the detection of spike wave complexes in electroencephalograms. The pattern description and recognition are provided for processing on a digital computer. (DE)

  15. Timing, timing, timing: Fast decoding of object information from intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hesheng; Agam, Yigal; Madsen, Joseph R.; Kreiman, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Summary The difficulty of visual recognition stems from the need to achieve high selectivity while maintaining robustness to object transformations within hundreds of milliseconds. Theories of visual recognition differ in whether the neuronal circuits invoke recurrent feedback connections or not. The timing of neurophysiological responses in visual cortex plays a key role in distinguishing between bottom-up and top-down theories. Here we quantified at millisecond resolution the amount of visual information conveyed by intracranial field potentials from 912 electrodes in 11 human subjects. We could decode object category information from human visual cortex in single trials as early as 100 ms post-stimulus. Decoding performance was robust to depth rotation and scale changes. The results suggest that physiological activity in the temporal lobe can account for key properties of visual recognition. The fast decoding in single trials is compatible with feed-forward theories and provides strong constraints for computational models of human vision. PMID:19409272

  16. Hybrid methodological approach to context-dependent speech recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Mišković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of contextual information in speech recognition has been acknowledged for a long time now, it has remained clearly underutilized even in state-of-the-art speech recognition systems. This article introduces a novel, methodologically hybrid approach to the research question of context-dependent speech recognition in human–machine interaction. To the extent that it is hybrid, the approach integrates aspects of both statistical and representational paradigms. We extend the standard statistical pattern-matching approach with a cognitively inspired and analytically tractable model with explanatory power. This methodological extension allows for accounting for contextual information which is otherwise unavailable in speech recognition systems, and using it to improve post-processing of recognition hypotheses. The article introduces an algorithm for evaluation of recognition hypotheses, illustrates it for concrete interaction domains, and discusses its implementation within two prototype conversational agents.

  17. Can corrective feedback improve recognition memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2010-06-01

    An understanding of the effects of corrective feedback on recognition memory can inform both recognition theory and memory training programs, but few published studies have investigated the issue. Although the evidence to date suggests that feedback does not improve recognition accuracy, few studies have directly examined its effect on sensitivity, and fewer have created conditions that facilitate a feedback advantage by encouraging controlled processing at test. In Experiment 1, null effects of feedback were observed following both deep and shallow encoding of categorized study lists. In Experiment 2, feedback robustly influenced response bias by allowing participants to discern highly uneven base rates of old and new items, but sensitivity remained unaffected. In Experiment 3, a false-memory procedure, feedback failed to attenuate false recognition of critical lures. In Experiment 4, participants were unable to use feedback to learn a simple category rule separating old items from new items, despite the fact that feedback was of substantial benefit in a nearly identical categorization task. The recognition system, despite a documented ability to utilize controlled strategic or inferential decision-making processes, appears largely impenetrable to a benefit of corrective feedback.

  18. An exploratory study on emotion recognition in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehna, Margit; Neuper, Christa; Petrovic, Katja; Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fuchs, Siegrid; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic multifocal CNS disorder which can affect higher order cognitive processes. Whereas cognitive disturbances in MS are increasingly better characterised, emotional facial expression (EFE) has rarely been tested, despite its importance for adequate social behaviour. We tested 20 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS (CIS) or MS and 23 healthy controls (HC) for the ability to differ between emotional facial stimuli, controlling for the influence of depressive mood (ADS-L). We screened for cognitive dysfunction using The Faces Symbol Test (FST). The patients demonstrated significant decreased reaction-times regarding emotion recognition tests compared to HC. However, the results also suggested worse cognitive abilities in the patients. Emotional and cognitive test results were correlated. This exploratory pilot study suggests that emotion recognition deficits might be prevalent in MS. However, future studies will be needed to overcome the limitations of this study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Placebo-mediated, Naloxone-sensitive suggestibility of short-term memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jair; Candia, Victor; Porchet, Roseline I; Krummenacher, Peter; Folkers, Gerd; Schedlowski, Manfred; Ettlin, Dominik A; Schönbächler, Georg

    2011-03-01

    Physiological studies of placebo-mediated suggestion have been recently performed beyond their traditional clinical context of pain and analgesia. Various neurotransmitter systems and immunological modulators have been used in successful placebo suggestions, including Dopamine, Cholecystokinin and, most extensively, opioids. We adhered to an established conceptual framework of placebo research and used the μ-opioid-antagonist Naloxone to test the applicability of this framework within a cognitive domain (e.g. memory) in healthy volunteers. Healthy men (n=62, age 29, SD=9) were required to perform a task-battery, including standardized and custom-designed memory tasks, to test short-term recall and delayed recognition. Tasks were performed twice, before and after intravenous injection of either NaCl (0.9%) or Naloxone (both 0.15 mg/kg), in a double-blind setting. While one group was given neutral information (S-), the other was told that it might receive a drug with suspected memory-boosting properties (S+). Objective and subjective indexes of memory performance and salivary cortisol (as a stress marker) were recorded during both runs and differences between groups were assessed. Short-term memory recall, but not delayed recognition, was objectively increased after placebo-mediated suggestion in the NaCl-group. Naloxone specifically blocked the suggestion effect without interfering with memory performance. These results were not affected when changes in salivary cortisol levels were considered. No reaction time changes, recorded to uncover unspecific attentional impairment, were seen. Placebo-mediated suggestion produced a training-independent, objective and Naloxone-sensitive increase in memory performance. These results indicate an opioid-mediated placebo effect within a circumscribed cognitive domain in healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  1. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  2. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  3. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  4. Improvement of the detection response time of gas sensors using the association of artificial neural networks with pattern recognition technique; Amelioration de la reponse temporelle de capteurs de gaz par reconnaissance de forme a l'aide de reseaux de neurones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordieu, Ch.; Rebiere, D. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL, UMR CNRS 5818, 33 (France); Pistre, J.; Planata, R. [Centre d' Etudes du Bouchet, 91 - Vert-le-Petit (France)

    1999-07-01

    The association of artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptrons) with a real time pattern recognition technique (shifting windows) allowed the development of systems for the detection and the quantification of gases. Shifting window technique is presented and offers an interesting way to improve the detection response time. The partial detector characterization with regard to its parameters was realized. Applications dealing with the detection of gas compounds using surface acoustic sensors permit to show the shifting window technique feasibility. (author)

  5. Fast neuromimetic object recognition using FPGA outperforms GPU implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Garrick; Martin, Jacob G; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of objects in still images has traditionally been regarded as a difficult computational problem. Although modern automated methods for visual object recognition have achieved steadily increasing recognition accuracy, even the most advanced computational vision approaches are unable to obtain performance equal to that of humans. This has led to the creation of many biologically inspired models of visual object recognition, among them the hierarchical model and X (HMAX) model. HMAX is traditionally known to achieve high accuracy in visual object recognition tasks at the expense of significant computational complexity. Increasing complexity, in turn, increases computation time, reducing the number of images that can be processed per unit time. In this paper we describe how the computationally intensive and biologically inspired HMAX model for visual object recognition can be modified for implementation on a commercial field-programmable aate Array, specifically the Xilinx Virtex 6 ML605 evaluation board with XC6VLX240T FPGA. We show that with minor modifications to the traditional HMAX model we can perform recognition on images of size 128 × 128 pixels at a rate of 190 images per second with a less than 1% loss in recognition accuracy in both binary and multiclass visual object recognition tasks.

  6. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  8. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  9. SSVEP recognition using common feature analysis in brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-04-15

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been successfully applied to steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) recognition for brain-computer interface (BCI) application. Although the CCA method outperforms the traditional power spectral density analysis through multi-channel detection, it requires additionally pre-constructed reference signals of sine-cosine waves. It is likely to encounter overfitting in using a short time window since the reference signals include no features from training data. We consider that a group of electroencephalogram (EEG) data trials recorded at a certain stimulus frequency on a same subject should share some common features that may bear the real SSVEP characteristics. This study therefore proposes a common feature analysis (CFA)-based method to exploit the latent common features as natural reference signals in using correlation analysis for SSVEP recognition. Good performance of the CFA method for SSVEP recognition is validated with EEG data recorded from ten healthy subjects, in contrast to CCA and a multiway extension of CCA (MCCA). Experimental results indicate that the CFA method significantly outperformed the CCA and the MCCA methods for SSVEP recognition in using a short time window (i.e., less than 1s). The superiority of the proposed CFA method suggests it is promising for the development of a real-time SSVEP-based BCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory, Cognitive, and Sensorimotor Learning Effects in Recognition Memory for Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Brian; Tillmann, Barbara; Palmer, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Recent research suggests that perception and action are strongly interrelated and that motor experience may aid memory recognition. We investigated the role of motor experience in auditory memory recognition processes by musicians using behavioral, ERP, and neural source current density measures. Skilled pianists learned one set of novel melodies by producing them and another set by perception only. Pianists then completed an auditory memory recognition test during which the previously learned melodies were presented with or without an out-of-key pitch alteration while the EEG was recorded. Pianists indicated whether each melody was altered from or identical to one of the original melodies. Altered pitches elicited a larger N2 ERP component than original pitches, and pitches within previously produced melodies elicited a larger N2 than pitches in previously perceived melodies. Cortical motor planning regions were more strongly activated within the time frame of the N2 following altered pitches in previously produced melodies compared with previously perceived melodies, and larger N2 amplitudes were associated with greater detection accuracy following production learning than perception learning. Early sensory (N1) and later cognitive (P3a) components elicited by pitch alterations correlated with predictions of sensory echoic and schematic tonality models, respectively, but only for the perception learning condition, suggesting that production experience alters the extent to which performers rely on sensory and tonal recognition cues. These findings provide evidence for distinct time courses of sensory, schematic, and motoric influences within the same recognition task and suggest that learned auditory-motor associations influence responses to out-of-key pitches.

  11. Deep Convolutional and LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks for Multimodal Wearable Activity Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Ordóñez; Daniel Roggen

    2016-01-01

    Human activity recognition (HAR) tasks have traditionally been solved using engineered features obtained by heuristic processes. Current research suggests that deep convolutional neural networks are suited to automate feature extraction from raw sensor inputs. However, human activities are made of complex sequences of motor movements, and capturing this temporal dynamics is fundamental for successful HAR. Based on the recent success of recurrent neural networks for time series domains, we pro...

  12. Fine-grained recognition of plants from images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Milan; Matas, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Fine-grained recognition of plants from images is a challenging computer vision task, due to the diverse appearance and complex structure of plants, high intra-class variability and small inter-class differences. We review the state-of-the-art and discuss plant recognition tasks, from identification of plants from specific plant organs to general plant recognition "in the wild". We propose texture analysis and deep learning methods for different plant recognition tasks. The methods are evaluated and compared them to the state-of-the-art. Texture analysis is only applied to images with unambiguous segmentation (bark and leaf recognition), whereas CNNs are only applied when sufficiently large datasets are available. The results provide an insight in the complexity of different plant recognition tasks. The proposed methods outperform the state-of-the-art in leaf and bark classification and achieve very competitive results in plant recognition "in the wild". The results suggest that recognition of segmented leaves is practically a solved problem, when high volumes of training data are available. The generality and higher capacity of state-of-the-art CNNs makes them suitable for plant recognition "in the wild" where the views on plant organs or plants vary significantly and the difficulty is increased by occlusions and background clutter.

  13. Aging and Confidence Judgments in Item Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskuilen, Chelsea; Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2018-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging on performance in an item-recognition experiment with confidence judgments. A model for confidence judgments and response time (RTs; Ratcliff & Starns, 2013) was used to fit a large amount of data from a new sample of older adults and a previously reported sample of younger adults. This model of confidence…

  14. Obligatory and facultative brain regions for voice-identity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswandowitz, Claudia; Kappes, Claudia; Obrig, Hellmuth; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing the identity of others by their voice is an important skill for social interactions. To date, it remains controversial which parts of the brain are critical structures for this skill. Based on neuroimaging findings, standard models of person-identity recognition suggest that the right temporal lobe is the hub for voice-identity recognition. Neuropsychological case studies, however, reported selective deficits of voice-identity recognition in patients predominantly with right inferior parietal lobe lesions. Here, our aim was to work towards resolving the discrepancy between neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological case studies to find out which brain structures are critical for voice-identity recognition in humans. We performed a voxel-based lesion-behaviour mapping study in a cohort of patients (n = 58) with unilateral focal brain lesions. The study included a comprehensive behavioural test battery on voice-identity recognition of newly learned (voice-name, voice-face association learning) and familiar voices (famous voice recognition) as well as visual (face-identity recognition) and acoustic control tests (vocal-pitch and vocal-timbre discrimination). The study also comprised clinically established tests (neuropsychological assessment, audiometry) and high-resolution structural brain images. The three key findings were: (i) a strong association between voice-identity recognition performance and right posterior/mid temporal and right inferior parietal lobe lesions; (ii) a selective association between right posterior/mid temporal lobe lesions and voice-identity recognition performance when face-identity recognition performance was factored out; and (iii) an association of right inferior parietal lobe lesions with tasks requiring the association between voices and faces but not voices and names. The results imply that the right posterior/mid temporal lobe is an obligatory structure for voice-identity recognition, while the inferior parietal

  15. Stereo vision with distance and gradient recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Suk-Bum; Yang, Tae-Kyu

    2007-12-01

    Robot vision technology is needed for the stable walking, object recognition and the movement to the target spot. By some sensors which use infrared rays and ultrasonic, robot can overcome the urgent state or dangerous time. But stereo vision of three dimensional space would make robot have powerful artificial intelligence. In this paper we consider about the stereo vision for stable and correct movement of a biped robot. When a robot confront with an inclination plane or steps, particular algorithms are needed to go on without failure. This study developed the recognition algorithm of distance and gradient of environment by stereo matching process.

  16. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  17. Optical Pattern Recognition for Missile Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-15

    directed to novel pattern recognition algo- rithms (that allow pattern recognition and object classification in the face of various geometrical and...I wats EF5 = 50) p.j/t’ni 2 (for btith image pat tern recognitio itas a preproicessing oiperatiton. Ini devices). TIhe rt’ad light intensity (0.33t mW...electrodes on its large faces . This Priz light modulator and the motivation for its devel- SLM is known as the Prom (Pockels real-time optical opment. In Sec

  18. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  19. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  20. Exposure effects on music preference and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, I; Gaudreau, D; Bonnel, A M

    1998-09-01

    In three experiments, the effects of exposure to melodies on their subsequent liking and recognition were explored. In each experiment, the subjects first listened to a set of familiar and unfamiliar melodies in a study phase. In the subsequent test phase, the melodies were repeated, along with a set of distractors matched in familiarity. Half the subjects were required to rate their liking of each melody, and half had to identify the melodies they had heard earlier in the study phase. Repetition of the studied melodies was found to increase liking of the unfamiliar melodies in the affect task and to be best for detection of familiar melodies in the recognition task (Experiments 1, 2, and 3). These memory effects were found to fade at different time delays between study and test in the affect and recognition tasks, with the latter leading to the most persistent effects (Experiment 2). Both study-to-test changes in melody timbre and manipulation of study tasks had a marked impact on recognition and little influence on liking judgments (Experiment 3). Thus, all manipulated variables were found to dissociate the memory effects in the two tasks. The results are consistent with the view that memory effects in the affect and recognition tasks pertain to the implicit and explicit forms of memory, respectively. Part of the results are, however, at variance with the literature on implicit and explicit memory in the auditory domain. Attribution of these differences to the use of musical material is discussed.

  1. Quality based approach for adaptive face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2009-05-01

    Recent advances in biometric technology have pushed towards more robust and reliable systems. We aim to build systems that have low recognition errors and are less affected by variation in recording conditions. Recognition errors are often attributed to the usage of low quality biometric samples. Hence, there is a need to develop new intelligent techniques and strategies to automatically measure/quantify the quality of biometric image samples and if necessary restore image quality according to the need of the intended application. In this paper, we present no-reference image quality measures in the spatial domain that have impact on face recognition. The first is called symmetrical adaptive local quality index (SALQI) and the second is called middle halve (MH). Also, an adaptive strategy has been developed to select the best way to restore the image quality, called symmetrical adaptive histogram equalization (SAHE). The main benefits of using quality measures for adaptive strategy are: (1) avoidance of excessive unnecessary enhancement procedures that may cause undesired artifacts, and (2) reduced computational complexity which is essential for real time applications. We test the success of the proposed measures and adaptive approach for a wavelet-based face recognition system that uses the nearest neighborhood classifier. We shall demonstrate noticeable improvements in the performance of adaptive face recognition system over the corresponding non-adaptive scheme.

  2. Fast Pedestrian Recognition Based on Multisensor Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast pedestrian recognition algorithm based on multisensor fusion is presented in this paper. Firstly, potential pedestrian locations are estimated by laser radar scanning in the world coordinates, and then their corresponding candidate regions in the image are located by camera calibration and the perspective mapping model. For avoiding time consuming in the training and recognition process caused by large numbers of feature vector dimensions, region of interest-based integral histograms of oriented gradients (ROI-IHOG feature extraction method is proposed later. A support vector machine (SVM classifier is trained by a novel pedestrian sample dataset which adapt to the urban road environment for online recognition. Finally, we test the validity of the proposed approach with several video sequences from realistic urban road scenarios. Reliable and timewise performances are shown based on our multisensor fusing method.

  3. Brain dynamics of upstream perceptual processes leading to visual object recognition: a high density ERP topographic mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Delplanque, Sylvain; Pourtois, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that visual object recognition is a proactive process through which perceptual evidence accumulates over time before a decision can be made about the object. However, the exact electrophysiological correlates and time-course of this complex process remain unclear. In addition, the potential influence of emotion on this process has not been investigated yet. We recorded high density EEG in healthy adult participants performing a novel perceptual recognition task. For each trial, an initial blurred visual scene was first shown, before the actual content of the stimulus was gradually revealed by progressively adding diagnostic high spatial frequency information. Participants were asked to stop this stimulus sequence as soon as they could correctly perform an animacy judgment task. Behavioral results showed that participants reliably gathered perceptual evidence before recognition. Furthermore, prolonged exploration times were observed for pleasant, relative to either neutral or unpleasant scenes. ERP results showed distinct effects starting at 280 ms post-stimulus onset in distant brain regions during stimulus processing, mainly characterized by: (i) a monotonic accumulation of evidence, involving regions of the posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus, and (ii) true categorical recognition effects in medial frontal regions, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These findings provide evidence for the early involvement, following stimulus onset, of non-overlapping brain networks during proactive processes eventually leading to visual object recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute effects of triazolam on false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Griffiths, R R

    2000-12-01

    Neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological techniques have been applied to the study of false recognition; however, psychopharmacological techniques have not been applied. Benzodiazepine sedative/anxiolytic drugs produce memory deficits similar to those observed in organic amnesia and may be useful tools for studying normal and abnormal memory mechanisms. The present double-blind, placebo-controlled repeated measures study examined the acute effects of orally administered triazolam (Halcion; 0.125 and 0.25 mg/70 kg), a benzodiazepine hypnotic, on performance in the Deese (1959)/Roediger-McDermott (1995) false recognition paradigm in 24 healthy volunteers. Paralleling previous demonstrations in amnesic patients, triazolam produced significant dose-related reductions in false recognition rates to nonstudied words associatively related to studied words, suggesting that false recognition relies on normal memory mechanisms impaired in benzodiazepine-induced amnesia. The results also suggested that relative to placebo, triazolam reduced participants' reliance on memory for item-specific versus list-common semantic information and reduced participants' use of remember versus know responses.

  5. Approach to recognition of flexible form for credit card expiration date recognition as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshkus, Alexander; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Ingacheva, Anastasia; Skoryukina, Natalya

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider a task of finding information fields within document with flexible form for credit card expiration date field as example. We discuss main difficulties and suggest possible solutions. In our case this task is to be solved on mobile devices therefore computational complexity has to be as low as possible. In this paper we provide results of the analysis of suggested algorithm. Error distribution of the recognition system shows that suggested algorithm solves the task with required accuracy.

  6. Threshold models of recognition and the recognition heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Erdfelder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the recognition heuristic (RH theory, decisions follow the recognition principle: Given a high validity of the recognition cue, people should prefer recognized choice options compared to unrecognized ones. Assuming that the memory strength of choice options is strongly correlated with both the choice criterion and recognition judgments, the RH is a reasonable strategy that approximates optimal decisions with a minimum of cognitive effort (Davis-Stober, Dana, and Budescu, 2010. However, theories of recognition memory are not generally compatible with this assumption. For example, some threshold models of recognition presume that recognition judgments can arise from two types of cognitive states: (1 certainty states in which judgments are almost perfectly correlated with memory strength and (2 uncertainty states in which recognition judgments reflect guessing rather than differences in memory strength. We report an experiment designed to test the prediction that the RH applies to certainty states only. Our results show that memory states rather than recognition judgments affect use of recognition information in binary decisions.

  7. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  8. Image preprocessing study on KPCA-based face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition as an important biometric identification method, with its friendly, natural, convenient advantages, has obtained more and more attention. This paper intends to research a face recognition system including face detection, feature extraction and face recognition, mainly through researching on related theory and the key technology of various preprocessing methods in face detection process, using KPCA method, focuses on the different recognition results in different preprocessing methods. In this paper, we choose YCbCr color space for skin segmentation and choose integral projection for face location. We use erosion and dilation of the opening and closing operation and illumination compensation method to preprocess face images, and then use the face recognition method based on kernel principal component analysis method for analysis and research, and the experiments were carried out using the typical face database. The algorithms experiment on MATLAB platform. Experimental results show that integration of the kernel method based on PCA algorithm under certain conditions make the extracted features represent the original image information better for using nonlinear feature extraction method, which can obtain higher recognition rate. In the image preprocessing stage, we found that images under various operations may appear different results, so as to obtain different recognition rate in recognition stage. At the same time, in the process of the kernel principal component analysis, the value of the power of the polynomial function can affect the recognition result.

  9. Understanding eye movements in face recognition using hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuk, Tim; Chan, Antoni B; Hsiao, Janet H

    2014-09-16

    We use a hidden Markov model (HMM) based approach to analyze eye movement data in face recognition. HMMs are statistical models that are specialized in handling time-series data. We conducted a face recognition task with Asian participants, and model each participant's eye movement pattern with an HMM, which summarized the participant's scan paths in face recognition with both regions of interest and the transition probabilities among them. By clustering these HMMs, we showed that participants' eye movements could be categorized into holistic or analytic patterns, demonstrating significant individual differences even within the same culture. Participants with the analytic pattern had longer response times, but did not differ significantly in recognition accuracy from those with the holistic pattern. We also found that correct and wrong recognitions were associated with distinctive eye movement patterns; the difference between the two patterns lies in the transitions rather than locations of the fixations alone. © 2014 ARVO.

  10. Eye-movement strategies in developmental prosopagnosia and "super" face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Anna K; Parris, Benjamin A; Gregory, Nicola J; Bennetts, Rachel J; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a cognitive condition characterized by a severe deficit in face recognition. Few investigations have examined whether impairments at the early stages of processing may underpin the condition, and it is also unknown whether DP is simply the "bottom end" of the typical face-processing spectrum. To address these issues, we monitored the eye-movements of DPs, typical perceivers, and "super recognizers" (SRs) while they viewed a set of static images displaying people engaged in naturalistic social scenarios. Three key findings emerged: (a) Individuals with more severe prosopagnosia spent less time examining the internal facial region, (b) as observed in acquired prosopagnosia, some DPs spent less time examining the eyes and more time examining the mouth than controls, and (c) SRs spent more time examining the nose-a measure that also correlated with face recognition ability in controls. These findings support previous suggestions that DP is a heterogeneous condition, but suggest that at least the most severe cases represent a group of individuals that qualitatively differ from the typical population. While SRs seem to merely be those at the "top end" of normal, this work identifies the nose as a critical region for successful face recognition.

  11. Forecasting elections with mere recognition from small, lousy samples: A comparison of collective recognition, wisdom of crowds, and representative polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Gaissmeier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the extent to which the human capacity for recognition helps to forecast political elections: We compared naive recognition-based election forecasts computed from convenience samples of citizens' recognition of party names to (i standard polling forecasts computed from representative samples of citizens' voting intentions, and to (ii simple---and typically very accurate---wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts computed from the same convenience samples of citizens' aggregated hunches about election results. Results from four major German elections show that mere recognition of party names forecast the parties' electoral success fairly well. Recognition-based forecasts were most competitive with the other models when forecasting the smaller parties' success and for small sample sizes. However, wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts outperformed recognition-based forecasts in most cases. It seems that wisdom-of-crowds-forecasts are able to draw on the benefits of recognition while at the same time avoiding its downsides, such as lack of discrimination among very famous parties or recognition caused by factors unrelated to electoral success. Yet it seems that a simple extension of the recognition-based forecasts---asking people what proportion of the population would recognize a party instead of whether they themselves recognize it---is also able to eliminate these downsides.

  12. Face Recognition, Musical Appraisal, and Emotional Crossmodal Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitto, Sara; Calcagnì, Antonio; Mignozzi, Arianna; Scardino, Rosanna; Piraino, Giulia; Turchi, Daniele; De Feudis, Irio; Brunetti, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; de Tommaso, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Recent research on the crossmodal integration of visual and auditory perception suggests that evaluations of emotional information in one sensory modality may tend toward the emotional value generated in another sensory modality. This implies that the emotions elicited by musical stimuli can influence the perception of emotional stimuli presented in other sensory modalities, through a top-down process. The aim of this work was to investigate how crossmodal perceptual processing influences emotional face recognition and how potential modulation of this processing induced by music could be influenced by the subject's musical competence. We investigated how emotional face recognition processing could be modulated by listening to music and how this modulation varies according to the subjective emotional salience of the music and the listener's musical competence. The sample consisted of 24 participants: 12 professional musicians and 12 university students (non-musicians). Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task whilst listening to music by Albeniz, Chopin, or Mozart. The target stimuli were emotionally neutral facial expressions. We examined the N170 Event-Related Potential (ERP) and behavioral responses (i.e., motor reaction time to target recognition and musical emotional judgment). A linear mixed-effects model and a decision-tree learning technique were applied to N170 amplitudes and latencies. The main findings of the study were that musicians' behavioral responses and N170 is more affected by the emotional value of music administered in the emotional go/no-go task and this bias is also apparent in responses to the non-target emotional face. This suggests that emotional information, coming from multiple sensory channels, activates a crossmodal integration process that depends upon the stimuli emotional salience and the listener's appraisal.

  13. Face Recognition, Musical Appraisal, and Emotional Crossmodal Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Invitto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the crossmodal integration of visual and auditory perception suggests that evaluations of emotional information in one sensory modality may tend toward the emotional value generated in another sensory modality. This implies that the emotions elicited by musical stimuli can influence the perception of emotional stimuli presented in other sensory modalities, through a top-down process. The aim of this work was to investigate how crossmodal perceptual processing influences emotional face recognition and how potential modulation of this processing induced by music could be influenced by the subject's musical competence. We investigated how emotional face recognition processing could be modulated by listening to music and how this modulation varies according to the subjective emotional salience of the music and the listener's musical competence. The sample consisted of 24 participants: 12 professional musicians and 12 university students (non-musicians. Participants performed an emotional go/no-go task whilst listening to music by Albeniz, Chopin, or Mozart. The target stimuli were emotionally neutral facial expressions. We examined the N170 Event-Related Potential (ERP and behavioral responses (i.e., motor reaction time to target recognition and musical emotional judgment. A linear mixed-effects model and a decision-tree learning technique were applied to N170 amplitudes and latencies. The main findings of the study were that musicians' behavioral responses and N170 is more affected by the emotional value of music administered in the emotional go/no-go task and this bias is also apparent in responses to the non-target emotional face. This suggests that emotional information, coming from multiple sensory channels, activates a crossmodal integration process that depends upon the stimuli emotional salience and the listener's appraisal.

  14. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  15. Weighted Feature Gaussian Kernel SVM for Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Jia, Qingxuan

    2016-01-01

    Emotion recognition with weighted feature based on facial expression is a challenging research topic and has attracted great attention in the past few years. This paper presents a novel method, utilizing subregion recognition rate to weight kernel function. First, we divide the facial expression image into some uniform subregions and calculate corresponding recognition rate and weight. Then, we get a weighted feature Gaussian kernel function and construct a classifier based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). At last, the experimental results suggest that the approach based on weighted feature Gaussian kernel function has good performance on the correct rate in emotion recognition. The experiments on the extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) dataset show that our method has achieved encouraging recognition results compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Recognition of Handwriting from Electromyography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, Michael; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.

    2009-01-01

    Handwriting – one of the most important developments in human culture – is also a methodological tool in several scientific disciplines, most importantly handwriting recognition methods, graphology and medical diagnostics. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of handwritten traces or kinematic analysis of handwriting; whereas electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with handwriting have received little attention. Here we show for the first time, a method in which EMG signals generated by hand and forearm muscles during handwriting activity are reliably translated into both algorithm-generated handwriting traces and font characters using decoding algorithms. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of recreating handwriting solely from EMG signals – the finding that can be utilized in computer peripherals and myoelectric prosthetic devices. Moreover, this approach may provide a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosing a variety of neurogenerative diseases before other symptoms become clear. PMID:19707562

  17. Automatic speech recognition (zero crossing method). Automatic recognition of isolated vowels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupeyrat, Benoit

    1975-01-01

    This note describes a recognition method of isolated vowels, using a preprocessing of the vocal signal. The processing extracts the extrema of the vocal signal and the interval time separating them (Zero crossing distances of the first derivative of the signal). The recognition of vowels uses normalized histograms of the values of these intervals. The program determines a distance between the histogram of the sound to be recognized and histograms models built during a learning phase. The results processed on real time by a minicomputer, are relatively independent of the speaker, the fundamental frequency being not allowed to vary too much (i.e. speakers of the same sex). (author) [fr

  18. Intact suppression of increased false recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Anthony P; Dodson, Chad S; Goff, Donald C; Schacter, Daniel L; Heckers, Stephan

    2002-09-01

    Recognition memory is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, as they rely largely on item familiarity, rather than conscious recollection, to make mnemonic decisions. False recognition of novel items (foils) is increased in schizophrenia and may relate to this deficit in conscious recollection. By studying pictures of the target word during encoding, healthy adults can suppress false recognition. This study examined the effect of pictorial encoding on subsequent recognition of repeated foils in patients with schizophrenia. The study included 40 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy comparison subjects. After incidental encoding of 60 words or pictures, subjects were tested for recognition of target items intermixed with 60 new foils. These new foils were subsequently repeated following either a two- or 24-word delay. Subjects were instructed to label these repeated foils as new and not to mistake them for old target words. Schizophrenic patients showed greater overall false recognition of repeated foils. The rate of false recognition of repeated foils was lower after picture encoding than after word encoding. Despite higher levels of false recognition of repeated new items, patients and comparison subjects demonstrated a similar degree of false recognition suppression after picture, as compared to word, encoding. Patients with schizophrenia displayed greater false recognition of repeated foils than comparison subjects, suggesting both a decrement of item- (or source-) specific recollection and a consequent reliance on familiarity in schizophrenia. Despite these deficits, presenting pictorial information at encoding allowed schizophrenic subjects to suppress false recognition to a similar degree as the comparison group, implying the intact use of a high-level cognitive strategy in this population.

  19. [Recognition and management of Tourette syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuo-Yu; Wang, Huei-Shyong; See, Lai-Chu

    2009-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic tic disorder that occurs in childhood. Children with TS may have multiple tic incidents during a day, even many times per minute. Such sudden, rapid and short utterings or movements may influence sufferers' ability to perform daily activities and present barriers to normal interaction with others. Anger, depression and low self-esteem are commonly seen in many children with TS. Awareness of TS is not great in Taiwan, and so many pediatric patients fail to obtain an early diagnosis and / or are mistreated or punished due to disorder-related behaviors. Such results in elevated physical, psychological and social stresses for sufferers. In this paper, we briefly introduce TS symptoms, diagnosis, classification, prognosis, co-morbidity, related psycho-social stresses, and common treatments. In order to facilitate the effective management of TS, we provide suggestion for patient families and schools as well as recommendations on how to interact effectively with others. We hope this article is helpful for healthcare workers, patients, families and schools to improve the recognition and management of TS.

  20. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  1. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  2. Facial emotion recognition in paranoid schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Michael; Schlitt, Sabine; Hainz, Daniela; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Walter, Henrik; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share deficits in emotion processing. In order to identify convergent and divergent mechanisms, we investigated facial emotion recognition in SZ, high-functioning ASD (HFASD), and typically developed controls (TD). Different degrees of task difficulty and emotion complexity (face, eyes; basic emotions, complex emotions) were used. Two Benton tests were implemented in order to elicit potentially confounding visuo-perceptual functioning and facial processing. Nineteen participants with paranoid SZ, 22 with HFASD and 20 TD were included, aged between 14 and 33 years. Individuals with SZ were comparable to TD in all obtained emotion recognition measures, but showed reduced basic visuo-perceptual abilities. The HFASD group was impaired in the recognition of basic and complex emotions compared to both, SZ and TD. When facial identity recognition was adjusted for, group differences remained for the recognition of complex emotions only. Our results suggest that there is a SZ subgroup with predominantly paranoid symptoms that does not show problems in face processing and emotion recognition, but visuo-perceptual impairments. They also confirm the notion of a general facial and emotion recognition deficit in HFASD. No shared emotion recognition deficit was found for paranoid SZ and HFASD, emphasizing the differential cognitive underpinnings of both disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-09-29

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  4. Recognition of Face and Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tayyib Kadak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a genetically transferred neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe and permanent deficits in many interpersonal relation areas like communication, social interaction and emotional responsiveness. Patients with autism have deficits in face recognition, eye contact and recognition of emotional expression. Both recognition of face and expression of facial emotion carried on face processing. Structural and functional impairment in fusiform gyrus, amygdala, superior temporal sulcus and other brain regions lead to deficits in recognition of face and facial emotion. Therefore studies suggest that face processing deficits resulted in problems in areas of social interaction and emotion in autism. Studies revealed that children with autism had problems in recognition of facial expression and used mouth region more than eye region. It was also shown that autistic patients interpreted ambiguous expressions as negative emotion. In autism, deficits related in various stages of face processing like detection of gaze, face identity, recognition of emotional expression were determined, so far. Social interaction impairments in autistic spectrum disorders originated from face processing deficits during the periods of infancy, childhood and adolescence. Recognition of face and expression of facial emotion could be affected either automatically by orienting towards faces after birth, or by “learning” processes in developmental periods such as identity and emotion processing. This article aimed to review neurobiological basis of face processing and recognition of emotional facial expressions during normal development and in autism.

  5. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali; Khashab, Niveen M.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Friedman, Douglas C.; Colvin, Michael T.; Coti, Karla K.; Bení tez, Diego S.; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Olsen, John Carl; Belowich, Matthew E.; Carmieli, Raanan; Khatib, Hussam A.; Goddard, William Andrew III; Wasielewski, Michael R.; Stoddart, Fraser Fraser Raser

    2009-01-01

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic speech recognition for report generation in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichgraeber, U.K.M.; Ehrenstein, T.; Lemke, M.; Liebig, T.; Stobbe, H.; Hosten, N.; Keske, U.; Felix, R.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A study was performed to compare the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) with conventional transcription. Materials and Methods: 100 CT reports were generated by using ASR and 100 CT reports were dictated and written by medical transcriptionists. The time for dictation and correction of errors by the radiologist was assessed and the type of mistakes was analysed. The text recognition rate was calculated in both groups and the average time between completion of the imaging study by the technologist and generation of the written report was assessed. A commercially available speech recognition technology (ASKA Software, IBM Via Voice) running of a personal computer was used. Results: The time for the dictation using digital voice recognition was 9.4±2.3 min compared to 4.5±3.6 min with an ordinary Dictaphone. The text recognition rate was 97% with digital voice recognition and 99% with medical transcriptionists. The average time from imaging completion to written report finalisation was reduced from 47.3 hours with medical transcriptionists to 12.7 hours with ASR. The analysis of misspellings demonstrated (ASR vs. medical transcriptionists): 3 vs. 4 for syntax errors, 0 vs. 37 orthographic mistakes, 16 vs. 22 mistakes in substance and 47 vs. erroneously applied terms. Conclusions: The use of digital voice recognition as a replacement for medical transcription is recommendable when an immediate availability of written reports is necessary. (orig.) [de

  8. Control of Target Molecular Recognition in a Small Pore Space with Biomolecule-Recognition Gating Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroto; Oshiba, Yuhei; Ohashi, Hidenori; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2018-05-01

    A biomolecule-recognition gating membrane, which introduces thermosensitive graft polymer including molecular recognition receptor into porous membrane substrate, can close its pores by recognizing target biomolecule. The present study reports strategies for improving both versatility and sensitivity of the gating membrane. First, the membrane is fabricated by introducing the receptor via a selectively reactive click reaction improving the versatility. Second, the sensitivity of the membrane is enhanced via an active delivering method of the target molecules into the pores. In the method, the tiny signal of the target biomolecule is amplified as obvious pressure change. Furthermore, this offers 15 times higher sensitivity compared to the previously reported passive delivering method (membrane immersion to sample solution) with significantly shorter recognition time. The improvement will aid in applying the gating membrane to membrane sensors in medical fields. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Leveraging Cognitive Context for Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    established, links have an associated strength value which affects how much activation is passed along the link from chunk j to chunk i. Link strengths ... strength is updated iteratively whenever the model thinks about chunks i context suggests that an apple is most likely to be seen next (since it primes...1998. 1, 4 [3] M. E. Auckland , K. R. Cave, and N. Donnelly. Non- target objects can influence perceptual processes dur- ing object recognition

  10. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within......The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Odor Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anholt, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... We characterized the transduction pathway for the recognition of pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and also characterized subpopulations of olfactory neurons expressing different axonal G proteins...

  12. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  13. Role of the medial temporal lobes in relational memory: Neuropsychological evidence from a cued recognition paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Irene P.; Giovanello, Kelly S.; Schnyer, David M.; Makris, Nikos; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the role of the hippocampus in relational memory by comparing item recognition performance in amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage and their matched controls. Specifically, we investigated the contribution of associative memory to item recognition using a cued recognition paradigm. Control subjects studied cue-target pairs once, whereas amnesic patients studied cue-target pairs six times. Following study, subjects made recognition judgments about ...

  14. Syntactic and semantic errors in radiology reports associated with speech recognition software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Michael D; Goss, Brian C; Bartholmai, Brian J

    2017-03-01

    Speech recognition software can increase the frequency of errors in radiology reports, which may affect patient care. We retrieved 213,977 speech recognition software-generated reports from 147 different radiologists and proofread them for errors. Errors were classified as "material" if they were believed to alter interpretation of the report. "Immaterial" errors were subclassified as intrusion/omission or spelling errors. The proportion of errors and error type were compared among individual radiologists, imaging subspecialty, and time periods. In all, 20,759 reports (9.7%) contained errors, of which 3992 (1.9%) were material errors. Among immaterial errors, spelling errors were more common than intrusion/omission errors ( p reports, reports reinterpreting results of outside examinations, and procedural studies (all p < .001). Error rate decreased over time ( p < .001), which suggests that a quality control program with regular feedback may reduce errors.

  15. Recognition of knowledge – A step towards optimization of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Rebolj

    2011-03-01

    In her presentation of the knowledge recognition procedures, the author relies on constructivist theories on knowledge and highlights the importance of the achieved levels of knowledge, paying equal attention to the low levels (skills, higher levels and the highest levels (problem­solving, none of which should be omitted in the assessment and recognition procedures. The author then presents the experience in knowledge recognition gained in the last five years by several colleges providing part­time studies, starting with a course in accounting and proceeding with other programmes. It is essential that knowledge recognition should not be pushed into the domain of experts or become an administrative procedure; it must remain part of the regular teaching procedure and under control of the teacher. This requires implementation of appropriate teacher training. Despite the fact that the recognition procedures developed so far have proved to be valid and have gained on credibility, numerous new research issues are being raised in this field.

  16. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Local Feature Learning for Face Recognition under Varying Poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....

  18. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans.

  19. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conceptual fluency at test shifts recognition response bias in Alzheimer's disease: implications for increased false recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Carl A; Marchant, Natalie L; Koutstaal, Wilma; Schacter, Daniel L; Budson, Andrew E

    2007-09-20

    The presence or absence of conceptual information in pictorial stimuli may explain the mixed findings of previous studies of false recognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test this hypothesis, 48 patients with AD were compared to 48 healthy older adults on a recognition task first described by Koutstaal et al. [Koutstaal, W., Reddy, C., Jackson, E. M., Prince, S., Cendan, D. L., & Schacter D. L. (2003). False recognition of abstract versus common objects in older and younger adults: Testing the semantic categorization account. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29, 499-510]. Participants studied and were tested on their memory for categorized ambiguous pictures of common objects. The presence of conceptual information at study and/or test was manipulated by providing or withholding disambiguating semantic labels. Analyses focused on testing two competing theories. The semantic encoding hypothesis, which posits that the inter-item perceptual details are not encoded by AD patients when conceptual information is present in the stimuli, was not supported by the findings. In contrast, the conceptual fluency hypothesis was supported. Enhanced conceptual fluency at test dramatically shifted AD patients to a more liberal response bias, raising their false recognition. These results suggest that patients with AD rely on the fluency of test items in making recognition memory decisions. We speculate that AD patients' over reliance upon fluency may be attributable to (1) dysfunction of the hippocampus, disrupting recollection, and/or (2) dysfunction of prefrontal cortex, disrupting post-retrieval processes.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  2. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...... at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma (A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among...

  3. Dinosaur peptides suggest mechanisms of protein survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, James D; Schweitzer, Mary H; Jensen, Shane T; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P R O

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  4. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O. (Harvard-Med); (IIT); (NCSU); (UPENN); (Manchester); (Orthovita)

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  5. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara; Rockwood, Alyn; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR's ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    Full Text Available Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  8. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  9. Pattern recognition in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenner, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    In high energy physics experiments tracks of elementary particles are recorded by different types of equipment. Coordinates of points of these tracks have to be measured for the geometrical reconstruction and the further analysis of the observed events. Pattern recognition methods may facilitate the detection of tracks or whole events and the separation of relevant from non-relevant information. They may also serve for the automation of measurement. Generally, all work is done by digital computation. In a bubble chamber tracks appear as strings of vapour bubbles that can be recorded photographically. Two methods of pattern recognition are discussed. The flying spot digitizer encodes the pattern on the photograph into point coordinates in the memory of a computer. The computer carries out the pattern recognition procedure entirely on the basis of the stored information. Cathode ray instruments scan the photograph by means of a computer steered optical device. Data acquisition from the film is performed in a feedback loop of the computation. In electronic experimental equipment tracks are defined by the spacial distribution of hits of counters (wire counters, scintillation counters, spark chambers). Pattern recognition is generally performed in various stages both by on-line and off-line equipment. Problems in the data handling arise both from the great abundance of data and from the time limits imposed on the on-line computation by high measuring rates. The on-line computation is carried out by hardwired logic, small computers, and to an increasing extent by microprocessors. (Auth.)

  10. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  11. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  12. Listening for recollection: a multi-voxel pattern analysis of recognition memory retrieval strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R Quamme

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of recognition memory indicate that subjects can strategically vary how much they rely on recollection of specific details vs. feelings of familiarity when making recognition judgments. One possible explanation of these results is that subjects can establish an internally-directed attentional state (listening for recollection that enhances retrieval of studied details; fluctuations in this attentional state over time should be associated with fluctuations in subjects' recognition behavior. In this study, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to identify brain regions that are involved in listening for recollection. Specifically, we looked for brain regions that met the following criteria: 1 Distinct neural patterns should be present when subjects are instructed to rely on recollection vs. familiarity, and 2 fluctuations in these neural patterns should be related to recognition behavior in the manner predicted by dual-process theories of recognition: Specifically, the presence of the recollection pattern during the pre-stimulus interval (indicating that subjects are listening for recollection at that moment should be associated with a selective decrease in false alarms to related lures. We found that pre-stimulus activity in the right supramarginal gyrus met all of these criteria, suggesting that this region proactively establishes an internally-directed attentional state that fosters recollection. We also found other regions (e.g., left middle temporal gyrus where the pattern of neural activity was related to subjects’ responding to related lures after stimulus onset (but not before, suggesting that these regions implement processes that are engaged in a reactive fashion to boost recollection.

  13. Integration trumps selection in object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P.; Landy, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several “cues” (color, luminance, texture etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1–3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue-invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5–8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10,11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11,12], imaging [13–16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17,18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19–21]. Objects are among the suggested “units” of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19–21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near-optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. PMID:25802154

  14. Integration trumps selection in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Toni P; Landy, Michael S

    2015-03-30

    Finding and recognizing objects is a fundamental task of vision. Objects can be defined by several "cues" (color, luminance, texture, etc.), and humans can integrate sensory cues to improve detection and recognition [1-3]. Cortical mechanisms fuse information from multiple cues [4], and shape-selective neural mechanisms can display cue invariance by responding to a given shape independent of the visual cue defining it [5-8]. Selective attention, in contrast, improves recognition by isolating a subset of the visual information [9]. Humans can select single features (red or vertical) within a perceptual dimension (color or orientation), giving faster and more accurate responses to items having the attended feature [10, 11]. Attention elevates neural responses and sharpens neural tuning to the attended feature, as shown by studies in psychophysics and modeling [11, 12], imaging [13-16], and single-cell and neural population recordings [17, 18]. Besides single features, attention can select whole objects [19-21]. Objects are among the suggested "units" of attention because attention to a single feature of an object causes the selection of all of its features [19-21]. Here, we pit integration against attentional selection in object recognition. We find, first, that humans can integrate information near optimally from several perceptual dimensions (color, texture, luminance) to improve recognition. They cannot, however, isolate a single dimension even when the other dimensions provide task-irrelevant, potentially conflicting information. For object recognition, it appears that there is mandatory integration of information from multiple dimensions of visual experience. The advantage afforded by this integration, however, comes at the expense of attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eNoack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behaviour in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behaviour measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it – at least partially – reduced the aggressive behaviour shown by the experimental subjects towards the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odours as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory.

  16. The Role of Verbal Instruction and Visual Guidance in Training Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie S. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We used a novel approach to examine whether it is possible to improve the perceptual–cognitive skill of pattern recognition using a video-based training intervention. Moreover, we investigated whether any improvements in pattern recognition transfer to an improved ability to make anticipation judgments. Finally, we compared the relative effectiveness of verbal and visual guidance interventions compared to a group that merely viewed the same sequences without any intervention and a control group that only completed pre- and post-tests. We found a significant effect for time of testing. Participants were more sensitive in their ability to perceive patterns and distinguish between novel and familiar sequences at post- compared to pre-test. However, this improvement was not influenced by the nature of the intervention, despite some trends in the data. An analysis of anticipation accuracy showed no change from pre- to post-test following the pattern recognition training intervention, suggesting that the link between pattern perception and anticipation may not be strong. We present a series of recommendations for scientists and practitioners when employing training methods to improve pattern recognition and anticipation.

  17. Emotion recognition abilities across stimulus modalities in schizophrenia and the role of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Claire; Pinkham, Amy E; Kelsven, Skylar; Sasson, Noah J

    2013-12-01

    Emotion can be expressed by both the voice and face, and previous work suggests that presentation modality may impact emotion recognition performance in individuals with schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of stimulus modality on emotion recognition accuracy and the potential role of visual attention to faces in emotion recognition abilities. Thirty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia (n=8) or schizoaffective disorder (n=23) and 30 non-clinical control individuals participated. Both groups identified emotional expressions in three different conditions: audio only, visual only, combined audiovisual. In the visual only and combined conditions, time spent visually fixating salient features of the face were recorded. Patients were significantly less accurate than controls in emotion recognition during both the audio and visual only conditions but did not differ from controls on the combined condition. Analysis of visual scanning behaviors demonstrated that patients attended less than healthy individuals to the mouth in the visual condition but did not differ in visual attention to salient facial features in the combined condition, which may in part explain the absence of a deficit for patients in this condition. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that patients benefit from multimodal stimulus presentations of emotion and support hypotheses that visual attention to salient facial features may serve as a mechanism for accurate emotion identification. © 2013.

  18. Colour agnosia impairs the recognition of natural but not of non-natural scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Van Der Smagt, Maarten J; Van Zandvoort, Martine J E; De Haan, Edward H F

    2007-03-01

    Scene recognition can be enhanced by appropriate colour information, yet the level of visual processing at which colour exerts its effects is still unclear. It has been suggested that colour supports low-level sensory processing, while others have claimed that colour information aids semantic categorization and recognition of objects and scenes. We investigated the effect of colour on scene recognition in a case of colour agnosia, M.A.H. In a scene identification task, participants had to name images of natural or non-natural scenes in six different formats. Irrespective of scene format, M.A.H. was much slower on the natural than on the non-natural scenes. As expected, neither M.A.H. nor control participants showed any difference in performance for the non-natural scenes. However, for the natural scenes, appropriate colour facilitated scene recognition in control participants (i.e., shorter reaction times), whereas M.A.H.'s performance did not differ across formats. Our data thus support the hypothesis that the effect of colour occurs at the level of learned associations.

  19. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  20. The Influence of Emotion on Recognition Memory for Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Pryde, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    According to dual-process models, recognition memory is supported by two distinct processes: familiarity, a relatively automatic process that involves the retrieval of a previously encountered item, and recollection, a more effortful process that involves the retrieval of information associated with the context in which an item was encoded (Mickes, Wais & Wixted, 2009). There is a wealth of research suggesting that recognition memory performance is affected by the emotional content of stimul...

  1. Unequal recognition, misrecognition and injustice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2012-01-01

    by the state of religious minorities. It argues that state–religion relations can be analysed as relations of recognition, which are not only unequal but also multi-dimensional, and that it is difficult to answer the question whether multi-dimensional recognitive inequalities are unjust or wrong if one...

  2. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  3. Infants' Recognition Memory for Hue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1976-01-01

    Fifty 4-month-old infants were habituated to one wavelength of light and then tested for recognition with the original and two new spectral lights. After short- and long-term delays with different types of retroactive interference, the results indicated that the infants' recognition memory for hue was quite resilient to interference or delay. (JMB)

  4. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  5. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  6. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  7. Object recognition with hierarchical discriminant saliency networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sunhyoung; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    computer vision literatures. This demonstrates benefits for all the functional enhancements of the HDSN, the class tuning inherent to discriminant saliency, and saliency layers based on templates of increasing target selectivity and invariance. Altogether, these experiments suggest that there are non-trivial benefits in integrating attention and recognition.

  8. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  9. Action recognition using mined hierarchical compound features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Bowden, Richard

    2011-05-01

    The field of Action Recognition has seen a large increase in activity in recent years. Much of the progress has been through incorporating ideas from single-frame object recognition and adapting them for temporal-based action recognition. Inspired by the success of interest points in the 2D spatial domain, their 3D (space-time) counterparts typically form the basic components used to describe actions, and in action recognition the features used are often engineered to fire sparsely. This is to ensure that the problem is tractable; however, this can sacrifice recognition accuracy as it cannot be assumed that the optimum features in terms of class discrimination are obtained from this approach. In contrast, we propose to initially use an overcomplete set of simple 2D corners in both space and time. These are grouped spatially and temporally using a hierarchical process, with an increasing search area. At each stage of the hierarchy, the most distinctive and descriptive features are learned efficiently through data mining. This allows large amounts of data to be searched for frequently reoccurring patterns of features. At each level of the hierarchy, the mined compound features become more complex, discriminative, and sparse. This results in fast, accurate recognition with real-time performance on high-resolution video. As the compound features are constructed and selected based upon their ability to discriminate, their speed and accuracy increase at each level of the hierarchy. The approach is tested on four state-of-the-art data sets, the popular KTH data set to provide a comparison with other state-of-the-art approaches, the Multi-KTH data set to illustrate performance at simultaneous multiaction classification, despite no explicit localization information provided during training. Finally, the recent Hollywood and Hollywood2 data sets provide challenging complex actions taken from commercial movie sequences. For all four data sets, the proposed hierarchical

  10. Online handwritten mathematical expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükbayrak, Hakan; Yanikoglu, Berrin; Erçil, Aytül

    2007-01-01

    We describe a system for recognizing online, handwritten mathematical expressions. The system is designed with a user-interface for writing scientific articles, supporting the recognition of basic mathematical expressions as well as integrals, summations, matrices etc. A feed-forward neural network recognizes symbols which are assumed to be single-stroke and a recursive algorithm parses the expression by combining neural network output and the structure of the expression. Preliminary results show that writer-dependent recognition rates are very high (99.8%) while writer-independent symbol recognition rates are lower (75%). The interface associated with the proposed system integrates the built-in recognition capabilities of the Microsoft's Tablet PC API for recognizing textual input and supports conversion of hand-drawn figures into PNG format. This enables the user to enter text, mathematics and draw figures in a single interface. After recognition, all output is combined into one LATEX code and compiled into a PDF file.

  11. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  12. Pattern Recognition Methods and Features Selection for Speech Emotion Recognition System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav; Tovarek, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the classification method and features selection for the speech emotion recognition accuracy is discussed in this paper. Selecting the correct parameters in combination with the classifier is an important part of reducing the complexity of system computing. This step is necessary especially for systems that will be deployed in real-time applications. The reason for the development and improvement of speech emotion recognition systems is wide usability in nowadays automatic voice controlled systems. Berlin database of emotional recordings was used in this experiment. Classification accuracy of artificial neural networks, k-nearest neighbours, and Gaussian mixture model is measured considering the selection of prosodic, spectral, and voice quality features. The purpose was to find an optimal combination of methods and group of features for stress detection in human speech. The research contribution lies in the design of the speech emotion recognition system due to its accuracy and efficiency.

  13. Pattern Recognition Methods and Features Selection for Speech Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Partila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the classification method and features selection for the speech emotion recognition accuracy is discussed in this paper. Selecting the correct parameters in combination with the classifier is an important part of reducing the complexity of system computing. This step is necessary especially for systems that will be deployed in real-time applications. The reason for the development and improvement of speech emotion recognition systems is wide usability in nowadays automatic voice controlled systems. Berlin database of emotional recordings was used in this experiment. Classification accuracy of artificial neural networks, k-nearest neighbours, and Gaussian mixture model is measured considering the selection of prosodic, spectral, and voice quality features. The purpose was to find an optimal combination of methods and group of features for stress detection in human speech. The research contribution lies in the design of the speech emotion recognition system due to its accuracy and efficiency.

  14. Usage of semantic representations in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Hirano, Tetsuji; Ukita, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Meanings of words facilitate false acceptance as well as correct rejection of lures in recognition memory tests, depending on the experimental context. This suggests that semantic representations are both directly and indirectly (i.e., mediated by perceptual representations) used in remembering. Studies using memory conjunction errors (MCEs) paradigms, in which the lures consist of component parts of studied words, have reported semantic facilitation of rejection of the lures. However, attending to components of the lures could potentially cause this. Therefore, we investigated whether semantic overlap of lures facilitates MCEs using Japanese Kanji words in which a whole-word image is more concerned in reading. Experiments demonstrated semantic facilitation of MCEs in a delayed recognition test (Experiment 1), and in immediate recognition tests in which participants were prevented from using phonological or orthographic representations (Experiment 2), and the salient effect on individuals with high semantic memory capacities (Experiment 3). Additionally, analysis of the receiver operating characteristic suggested that this effect is attributed to familiarity-based memory judgement and phantom recollection. These findings indicate that semantic representations can be directly used in remembering, even when perceptual representations of studied words are available.

  15. GENDER RECOGNITION BASED ON SIFT FEATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Yousefi; Morteza Zahedi

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust approach for face detection and gender classification in color images. Previous researches about gender recognition suppose an expensive computational and time-consuming pre-processing step in order to alignment in which face images are aligned so that facial landmarks like eyes, nose, lips, chin are placed in uniform locations in image. In this paper, a novel technique based on mathematical analysis is represented in three stages that eliminates align...

  16. Random clustering ferns for multimodal object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Villamizar Vergel, Michael Alejandro; Garrell Zulueta, Anais; Sanfeliu Cortés, Alberto; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    The final publication is available at link.springer.com We propose an efficient and robust method for the recognition of objects exhibiting multiple intra-class modes, where each one is associated with a particular object appearance. The proposed method, called random clustering ferns, combines synergically a single and real-time classifier, based on the boosted assembling of extremely randomized trees (ferns), with an unsupervised and probabilistic approach in order to recognize efficient...

  17. Temporal lobe structures and facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia patients and nonpsychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Macdonald, Angus W; Sponheim, Scott R

    2011-11-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions.

  18. Emotional recognition in depressed epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Jesse G; Burton, Leslie A; Schaffer, Sarah G; Alper, Kenneth R; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William B

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined the relationship between emotional recognition and depression using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2), in a population with epilepsy. Participants were a mixture of surgical candidates in addition to those receiving neuropsychological testing as part of a comprehensive evaluation. Results suggested that patients with epilepsy reporting increased levels of depression (Scale D) performed better than those patients reporting low levels of depression on an index of simple facial recognition, and depression was associated with poor prosody discrimination. Further, it is notable that more than half of the present sample had significantly elevated Scale D scores. The potential effects of a mood-congruent bias and implications for social functioning in depressed patients with epilepsy are discussed.

  19. Visual recognition and inference using dynamic overcomplete sparse learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph F; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

    2007-09-01

    We present a hierarchical architecture and learning algorithm for visual recognition and other visual inference tasks such as imagination, reconstruction of occluded images, and expectation-driven segmentation. Using properties of biological vision for guidance, we posit a stochastic generative world model and from it develop a simplified world model (SWM) based on a tractable variational approximation that is designed to enforce sparse coding. Recent developments in computational methods for learning overcomplete representations (Lewicki & Sejnowski, 2000; Teh, Welling, Osindero, & Hinton, 2003) suggest that overcompleteness can be useful for visual tasks, and we use an overcomplete dictionary learning algorithm (Kreutz-Delgado, et al., 2003) as a preprocessing stage to produce accurate, sparse codings of images. Inference is performed by constructing a dynamic multilayer network with feedforward, feedback, and lateral connections, which is trained to approximate the SWM. Learning is done with a variant of the back-propagation-through-time algorithm, which encourages convergence to desired states within a fixed number of iterations. Vision tasks require large networks, and to make learning efficient, we take advantage of the sparsity of each layer to update only a small subset of elements in a large weight matrix at each iteration. Experiments on a set of rotated objects demonstrate various types of visual inference and show that increasing the degree of overcompleteness improves recognition performance in difficult scenes with occluded objects in clutter.

  20. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  1. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  2. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  3. Specification for projects of radiogeologic recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This instruction is a guidance to achievement of radiogeologic recognition projects. The radiogeologic recognition is a prospecting method that join the classic geologic recognition with measures of rock radioactivity. (C.M.)

  4. Increased Efficiency of Face Recognition System using Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Muraleedharan

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was inspired by the need of a flexible and cost effective biometric security system. The flexibility of the wireless sensor network makes it a natural choice for data transmission. Swarm intelligence (SI is used to optimize routing in distributed time varying network. In this paper, SI maintains the required bit error rate (BER for varied channel conditions while consuming minimal energy. A specific biometric, the face recognition system, is discussed as an example. Simulation shows that the wireless sensor network is efficient in energy consumption while keeping the transmission accuracy, and the wireless face recognition system is competitive to the traditional wired face recognition system in classification accuracy.

  5. Action Recognition Using Motion Primitives and Probabilistic Edit Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a recognition approach based on the notion of primitives. As opposed to recognizing actions based on temporal trajectories or temporal volumes, primitive-based recognition is based on representing a temporal sequence containing an action by only a few characteristic time...... into a string containing a sequence of symbols, each representing a primitives. After pruning the string a probabilistic Edit Distance classifier is applied to identify which action best describes the pruned string. The approach is evaluated on five one-arm gestures and the recognition rate is 91...

  6. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  7. Individual recognition based on communication behaviour of male fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolynn L; Taubert, Jessica; Weldon, Kimberly; Evans, Christopher S

    2016-04-01

    Correctly directing social behaviour towards a specific individual requires an ability to discriminate between conspecifics. The mechanisms of individual recognition include phenotype matching and familiarity-based recognition. Communication-based recognition is a subset of familiarity-based recognition wherein the classification is based on behavioural or distinctive signalling properties. Male fowl (Gallus gallus) produce a visual display (tidbitting) upon finding food in the presence of a female. Females typically approach displaying males. However, males may tidbit without food. We used the distinctiveness of the visual display and the unreliability of some males to test for communication-based recognition in female fowl. We manipulated the prior experience of the hens with the males to create two classes of males: S(+) wherein the tidbitting signal was paired with a food reward to the female, and S (-) wherein the tidbitting signal occurred without food reward. We then conducted a sequential discrimination test with hens using a live video feed of a familiar male. The results of the discrimination tests revealed that hens discriminated between categories of males based on their signalling behaviour. These results suggest that fowl possess a communication-based recognition system. This is the first demonstration of live-to-video transfer of recognition in any species of bird. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pera-Guardiola

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths' impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects.

  9. The interaction between embodiment and empathy in facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jospe, Karine; Flöel, Agnes; Lavidor, Michal

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the Action-Observation Network (AON) is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that interfering with the AON will impair action recognition and that this impairment will be modulated by empathy levels. In Experiment 1 (n = 90), participants were asked to recognize facial expressions while their facial motion was restricted. In Experiment 2 (n = 50), we interfered with the AON by applying transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the motor cortex. In both experiments, we found that interfering with the AON impaired the performance of participants with high empathy levels; however, for the first time, we demonstrated that the interference enhanced the performance of participants with low empathy. This novel finding suggests that the embodiment module may be flexible, and that it can be enhanced in individuals with low empathy by simple manipulation of motor activation.

  10. Sexual health and older adults: suggestions for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Sharron

    2016-11-01

    The body of evidence on older adults' sexual health is beginning to grow. However, it remains an under-researched area particularly within the social sciences. This viewpoint outlines four considerations for those who carry out social science research in this area: 1. defining the age category "older adults"; 2. being clear about the types of sex under research; 3. capturing a range of diverse voices; and 4. considering the use of qualitative research methods to explore the topic in depth. These suggestions are aimed at helping researchers to avoid some of the pitfalls of research in this area, as well as improving the evidence base in order to advance recognition of the issues and drive change in service provision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Data-Model Relationship in Text-Independent Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stapert Robert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text-independent speaker recognition systems such as those based on Gaussian mixture models (GMMs do not include time sequence information (TSI within the model itself. The level of importance of TSI in speaker recognition is an interesting question and one addressed in this paper. Recent works has shown that the utilisation of higher-level information such as idiolect, pronunciation, and prosodics can be useful in reducing speaker recognition error rates. In accordance with these developments, the aim of this paper is to show that as more data becomes available, the basic GMM can be enhanced by utilising TSI, even in a text-independent mode. This paper presents experimental work incorporating TSI into the conventional GMM. The resulting system, known as the segmental mixture model (SMM, embeds dynamic time warping (DTW into a GMM framework. Results are presented on the 2000-speaker SpeechDat Welsh database which show improved speaker recognition performance with the SMM.

  12. Action Recognition by Joint Spatial-Temporal Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for human action recognition based on optical flow motion features extraction. Automatic spatial and temporal alignments are combined together in order to encourage the temporal consistence on each action by an enhanced dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. At the same time, a fast method based on coarse-to-fine DTW constraint to improve computational performance without reducing accuracy is induced. The main contributions of this study include (1 a joint spatial-temporal multiresolution optical flow computation method which can keep encoding more informative motion information than recent proposed methods, (2 an enhanced DTW method to improve temporal consistence of motion in action recognition, and (3 coarse-to-fine DTW constraint on motion features pyramids to speed up recognition performance. Using this method, high recognition accuracy is achieved on different action databases like Weizmann database and KTH database.

  13. Suggestibility and Expectancy in a Counseling Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Theodore J.; Parker, Clyde A.

    1971-01-01

    The data indicated that (a) subjectively experienced suggestibility was more closely related to attitude change than was objective suggestibility, and (b) the generalized expectancy treatments were ineffective in influencing different criterion scores. (Author)

  14. Vision-Based Navigation and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1998-01-01

    .... (4) Invariants: both geometric and other types. (5) Human faces: Analysis of images of human faces, including feature extraction, face recognition, compression, and recognition of facial expressions...

  15. Vision-Based Navigation and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1996-01-01

    .... (4) Invariants -- both geometric and other types. (5) Human faces: Analysis of images of human faces, including feature extraction, face recognition, compression, and recognition of facial expressions...

  16. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  17. Auditory Modeling for Noisy Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... digital filtering for noise cancellation which interfaces to speech recognition software. It uses auditory features in speech recognition training, and provides applications to multilingual spoken language translation...

  18. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  19. Evidentiality and Suggestibility: A New Research Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Cagla; Ceci, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that acquisition of mental-state language may influence conceptual development. We examine this possibility by investigating the conceptual links between evidentiality in language and suggestibility. Young children are disproportionately suggestible and tend to change their reports or memories when questioned. The authors…

  20. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)