Sample records for recognition molecule nb-2

  1. PTX3, a humoral pattern recognition molecule at the interface between microbe and matrix recognition.

    Garlanda, Cecilia; Jaillon, Sebastien; Doni, Andrea; Bottazzi, Barbara; Mantovani, Alberto


    Innate immunity consists of a cellular and a humoral arm. PTX3 is a fluid patter recognition molecule (PRM) with antibody-like properties. Gene targeted mice and genetic associations in humans suggest that PTX3 plays a non-redundant role in resistance against selected pathogens (e.g. Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, uropathogenic Escherichia coli) and in the regulation of inflammation. PTX3 acts as an extrinsic oncosuppressor by taming complement elicited tumor-promoting inflammation. Recent results indicate that, by interacting with provisional matrix components, PTX3 contributes to the orchestration of tissue repair. An acidic pH sets PTX3 in a tissue repair mode, while retaining anti-microbial recognition. Based on these data and scattered information on humoral PRM and matrix components, we surmise that matrix and microbial recognition are related functions in evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calixarenes: Versatile molecules as molecular sensors for ion recognition study

    Subrata Patra; Debdeep Maity; Ravi Gunupuru; Pragati Agnihotri; Parimal Paul


    This article presents a brief account on designing of calixarene-based molecular sensor for recognition of various metal ions and anions and also different analytical techniques to monitor the recognition event. This review focuses only on calix[4]arene derivatives, in which mainly the lower rim is modified incorporating either crown moiety to make calix-crown hybrid ionophore to encapsulate metal ions or some fluoregenic inorganic and organic moieties to use it as signalling unit. In order to investigate effect of conformation of the calixarene unit and steric crowding on ion selectivity, designing of these molecules have been made using both the cone and 1,3-alternate conformations of the calixarene unit and also incorporating bulky tert-butyl group in few cases to impose controlled steric crowding. Among various ions, here focuses are mainly on biologically and commercially important alkali metal ion such as K+, toxic metal ions such as Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, important transition metal ion such as Cu2+ and toxic anion like F−. The techniques used to monitor the recognition event and also to determine binding constants with strongly interacting ions are fluorescence, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Most of the ionophores reported in this review have been characterized crystallographically, however no structural information (except one case) are incorporated in this article, as it will occupy space without significant enhancement of chemistry part. Different factors such as size of the ionophore cavity, size of metal ion, coordination sites/donor atoms, steric crowding and solvents, which determine selectivity have been discussed. Response of ion recognition process to different analytical techniques is another interesting factor discussed in this article.

  3. Heme as a danger molecule in pathogen recognition.

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hauser, Carl J; Otterbein, Leo E


    Appropriate control of redox mechanisms are critical for and effective innate immune response, which employs multiple cell types, receptors and molecules that recognize danger signals when they reach the host. Recognition of pathogen-associated pattern molecules (PAMPs) is a fundamental host survival mechanism for efficient elimination of invading pathogens and resolution of the infection and inflammation. In addition to PAMPs, eukaryotic cells contain a plethora of intracellular molecules that are normally secured within the confines of the plasma membrane, but if liberated and encountered in the extracellular milieu can provoke rapid cell activation. These are known as Alarmins or Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) and can be released actively by cells or passively as a result of sterile cellular injury after trauma, ischemia, or toxin-induced cell rupture. Both PAMPs and DAMPs are recognized by a series of cognate receptors that increase the generation of free radicals and activate specific signaling pathways that result in regulation of a variety of stress response, redox sensitive genes. Multiple mediators released, as cells die include, but are not limited to ATP, hydrogen peroxide, heme, formyl peptides, DNA or mitochondria provide the second signal to amplify immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how sterile and infective stimuli activate the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1, HO-1), a master gene critical to an appropriate host response that is now recognized as one with enormous therapeutic potential. HO-1 gene expression is regulated in large part by redox-sensitive proteins including but not limited to nrf2. Both PAMPs and DAMPs increase the activation of nrf2 and HO-1. Heme is a powerful pro-oxidant and as such should be qualified as a DAMP. With its degradation by HO-1a molecule of carbon monoxide (CO) is generated that in turn serves as a bioactive signaling molecule. PAMPs such as bacterial endotoxin activate HO-1

  4. Streptococcal Receptor Polysaccharides: Recognition Molecules for Oral Biofilm Formation

    Kolenbrander Paul E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strains of viridans group streptococci that initiate colonization of the human tooth surface typically coaggregate with each other and with Actinomyces naeslundii, another member of the developing biofilm community. These interactions generally involve adhesin-mediated recognition of streptococcal receptor polysaccharides (RPS. The objective of our studies is to understand the role of these polysaccharides in oral biofilm development. Methods Different structural types of RPS have been characterized by their reactions with specific antibodies and lectin-like adhesins. Streptococcal gene clusters for RPS biosynthesis were identified, sequenced, characterized and compared. RPS-producing bacteria were detected in biofilm samples using specific antibodies and gene probes. Results Six different types of RPS have been identified from representative viridans group streptococci that coaggregate with A. naeslundii. Each type is composed of a different hexa- or heptasaccharide repeating unit, the structures of which contain host-like motifs, either GalNAcβ1-3Gal or Galβ1-3GalNAc. These motifs account for RPS-mediated recognition, whereas other features of these polysaccharides are more closely associated with RPS antigenicity. The RPS-dependent interaction of S. oralis with A. naeslundii promotes growth of these bacteria and biofilm formation in flowing saliva. Type specific differences in RPS production have been noted among the resident streptococcal floras of different individuals, raising the possibility of RPS-based differences in the composition of oral biofilm communities. Conclusion The structural, functional and molecular properties of streptococcal RPS support a recognition role of these cell surface molecules in oral biofilm formation.

  5. Mechanically Interlocked Molecules Assembled by π–π Recognition

    Barin, Gokhan [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Coskun, Ali [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Fouda, Moustafa M. G. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Stoddart, J. Fraser [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korea Advanced Inst. Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The beauty and utility of interlocked architectures have been making their way relentlessly into chemistry in the form of mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) for almost half a century now. Few would challenge the assertion that the emergence of template-directed synthetic protocols has aided and abetted the facile and efficient construction of MIMs compared with the statistical approaches employed while the field was still in its infancy. To date, a panoply of MIMs has been created in the wake of emerging recognition motifs and the template-directed synthetic protocols they have forged. Among these motifs, those dependent on π–π stacking in the form of donor–acceptor interactions have played an important role in the increasingly rapid development of the field. The few integrated systems that have so far emerged based on this class of MIMs demonstrate their ability to act as active components in many potential applications. This review focuses on the progress which has been accomplished during the past decade involving MIMs comprising aromatic π–π stacking interactions. While progress has been remarkable, opportunities still abound for MIMs assembled by π–π recognition.

  6. Nb2O5 nanofiber memristor

    Grishin, A. M.; Velichko, A. A.; Jalalian, A.


    Non-woven bead-free 100 μm long and 80-200 nm in diameter highly crystalline orthorhombic T-Nb2O5 nanofibers were sintered by sol-gel assisted electrospinning technique. Electrical and dielectric spectroscopy tests of individual fibers clamped onto Pt coated Si substrate were performed using a spreading resistance mode of atomic force microscope. Reproducible resistive switching with ON-OFF resistance ratio as high as 2 × 104 has a bipolar character, starts with a threshold voltage of 0.8-1.7 V, and follows by continuous growth of conductivity. Resistive memory effect is associated with a voltage-driven accumulation/depletion of oxygen vacancies at Nb2O5/Pt cathode interface. Poole-Frenkel emission from the electronic states trapped at reduced NbOx complexes determines a shape of Nb2O5/Pt diode I-V characteristics. Simple thermodynamic model explains a threshold character of switching, relates experimentally observed characteristics in low and high resistive states, and gives a reasonable estimate of the concentration of oxygen vacancies.

  7. Ficolins and FIBCD1: Soluble and membrane bound pattern recognition molecules with acetyl group selectivity

    Thomsen, Theresa; Schlosser, Anders; Holmskov, Uffe


    A network of molecules, which recognizes pathogens, work together to establish a quick and efficient immune response to infectious agents. Molecules containing a fibrinogen related domain in invertebrates and vertebrates have been implicated in immune responses against pathogens, and characterize......D-containing molecules, and discusses structural resemblance but also diversity in recognition of acetylated ligands....

  8. The Quest for Metal-Metal Quadruple and Quintuple Bonds in Metal Carbonyl Derivatives: Nb2(CO)9 and Nb2(CO)8.

    Tang, Lihong; Luo, Qiong; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; King, R Bruce; Schaefer, Henry F


    The synthesis by Power and co-workers of the first metal-metal quintuple bond (Science2005, 310, 844) is a landmark in inorganic chemistry. The 18-electron rule suggests that Nb2(CO)9 and Nb2(CO)8 are candidates for binary metal carbonyls containing metal-metal quadruple and quintuple bonds, respectively. Density functional theory (MPW1PW91 and BP86) indeed predicts structures having very short Nb-Nb distances of ∼2.5 Å for Nb2(CO)9 and ∼2.4 Å for Nb2(CO)8 as well as relatively large Nb-Nb Wiberg bond indices supporting these high formal Nb-Nb bond orders. However, analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals of these unbridged structures suggests formal Nb≡Nb triple bonds and 16-electron metal configurations. This contrasts with an analysis of the frontier orbitals in a model chromium(I) alkyl linear CH3CrCrCH3, which confirms the generally accepted presence of chromium-chromium quintuple bonds in such molecules. The presence of Nb≡Nb triple bonds rather than quadruple or quintuple bonds in the Nb2(CO)n (n = 9, 8) structures frees up d(xy) and d(x(2)-y(2)) orbitals for dπ→pπ* back-bonding to the carbonyl groups. The lowest energy Nb2(CO)n structures (n = 9, 8) are not these unbridged structures but structures having bridging carbonyl groups of various types and formal Nb-Nb orders no higher than three. Thus, the two lowest energy Nb2(CO)9 structures have Nb≡Nb triple bond distances of ∼2.8 Å and three semibridging carbonyl groups, leading to a 16-electron configuration rather than an 18-electron configuration for one of the niobium atoms. The lowest energy structure of the highly unsaturated Nb2(CO)8 is unusual since it has a formal single Nb-Nb bond of length ∼3.1 Å and two four-electron donor η(2)-μ-CO groups, thereby giving each niobium atom only a 16-electron configuration.

  9. Recognition of Nucleic Acid Junctions Using Triptycene-Based Molecules

    Barros, Stephanie A.; Chenoweth, David M.


    Nucleic acid modulation by small molecules is an essential process across the kingdoms of life. Targeting nucleic acids with small molecules represents a significant challenge at the forefront of chemical biology. Nucleic acid junctions are ubiquitous structural motifs in nature and in designed materials. Herein, we describe a new class of structure specific nucleic acid junction stabilizers based on a triptycene scaffold. Triptycenes provide significant stabilization of DNA and RNA three-way...

  10. Electronic Single Molecule Identification of Carbohydrate Isomers by Recognition Tunneling

    Im, JongOne; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yanan; Sen, Suman; Biswas, Sudipta; Ashcroft, Brian; Borges, Chad; Wang, Xu; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming


    Glycans play a central role as mediators in most biological processes, but their structures are complicated by isomerism. Epimers and anomers, regioisomers, and branched sequences contribute to a structural variability that dwarfs those of nucleic acids and proteins, challenging even the most sophisticated analytical tools, such as NMR and mass spectrometry. Here, we introduce an electron tunneling technique that is label-free and can identify carbohydrates at the single-molecule level, offering significant benefits over existing technology. It is capable of analyzing sub-picomole quantities of sample, counting the number of individual molecules in each subset in a population of coexisting isomers, and is quantitative over more than four orders of magnitude of concentration. It resolves epimers not well separated by ion-mobility and can be implemented on a silicon chip. It also provides a readout mechanism for direct single-molecule sequencing of linear oligosaccharides.

  11. Pattern recognition molecules and innate immunity to parasites.

    McGuinness, David H; Dehal, Prabhjyot K; Pleass, Richard J


    Recent pioneering advances in understanding how plants, insects and worms eliminate pathogens has led to the realization that innate immunity plays a vital role in protecting humans from infection. This comprehensive review examines the molecules involved in innate immune responses, how they act to control parasites and if their engagement can explain many immune features characteristic of parasitic infections.

  12. Single-crystalline nanoporous Nb2O5 nanotubes

    Liu Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Single-crystalline nanoporous Nb2O5 nanotubes were fabricated by a two-step solution route, the growth of uniform single-crystalline Nb2O5 nanorods and the following ion-assisted selective dissolution along the [001] direction. Nb2O5 tubular structure was created by preferentially etching (001 crystallographic planes, which has a nearly homogeneous diameter and length. Dense nanopores with the diameters of several nanometers were created on the shell of Nb2O5 tubular structures, which can also retain the crystallographic orientation of Nb2O5 precursor nanorods. The present chemical etching strategy is versatile and can be extended to different-sized nanorod precursors. Furthermore, these as-obtained nanorod precursors and nanotube products can also be used as template for the fabrication of 1 D nanostructured niobates, such as LiNbO3, NaNbO3, and KNbO3.

  13. Interactions of the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 with the complement system

    Doni, Andrea; Garlanda, Cecilia; Bottazzi, Barbara


    The innate immune system comprises a cellular and a humoral arm. The long pentraxin PTX3 is a fluid phase pattern recognition molecule, which acts as an essential component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. PTX3 has antibody-like properties including interactions with complement components. ...

  14. Assay for the pattern recognition molecule collectin liver 1 (CL-L1)

    Axelgaard, Esben; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Jensen, Lisbeth;

    Collectin liver 1 (also termed collectin 10 and CL-L1) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) in the innate immune system1. We have produced antibodies against CL-L1 and have developed a sandwich-type time-resolved immuno-fluorometric assay (TRIFMA...

  15. Metal-organic frameworks with functional pores for recognition of small molecules.

    Chen, Banglin; Xiang, Shengchang; Qian, Guodong


    Molecular recognition, an important process in biological and chemical systems, governs the diverse functions of a variety of enzymes and unique properties of some synthetic receptors. Because molecular recognition is based on weak interactions between receptors and substrates, the design and assembly of synthetic receptors to mimic biological systems and the development of novel materials to discriminate different substrates for selective recognition of specific molecules has proved challenging. The extensive research on synthetic receptors for molecular recognition, particularly on noncovalent complexes self-assembled by hydrogen bonding and metal-organic coordination, has revealed some underlying principles. In particular, these studies have demonstrated that the shapes of the supramolecular receptors play significant roles in their specific and selective recognition of substrates: receptors can offer concave surfaces that complement their convex targets. This Account describes our research to develop a synthetic molecular recognition platform using porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). These materials contain functional pores to direct their specific and unique recognition of small molecules through several types of interactions: van der Waals interactions of the framework surface with the substrate, metal-substrate interactions, and hydrogen bonding of the framework surface with the substrate. These materials have potential applications for gas storage, separation, and sensing. We demonstrate a simple strategy to construct a primitive cubic net of interpenetrated microporous MOFs from the self-assembly of the paddle-wheel clusters M(2)(CO(2))(4) (M = Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) with two types of organic dicarboxylic acid and pillar bidentate linkers. This efficient method allows us to rationally tune the micropores to size-exclusively sort different small gas molecules, leading to the highly selective separation and purification of gases. By optimizing the

  16. The pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy

    Axelgaard, Esben; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    The pattern-recognition molecule mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy Esben Axelgaard*; Steffen Thiel*; Jakob Appel Østergaard† and Troels Krarup Hansen† *Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Wilhelm Meyer´s Allé 4, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. †Department...... of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and The Danish Diabetes Academy, Nørrebrogade 44, build. 3, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark The complement system is part of the innate immune system and is an important part of the first line of defence against pathogens. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the pattern-recognition...... mechanisms are proposed, 1) the formation of neoepitopes for MBL pattern recognition on host cells would enable lectin pathway activation and 2) inactivation of complement regulatory proteins by glycation that may exaggerate complement attack on host cells. MBL initiates the lectin pathway through binding...

  17. Using chiral molecules as an approach to address low-druggability recognition sites.

    Lucas, Xavier; Günther, Stefan


    The content of chiral carbon atoms or structural complexity, which is known to correlate well with relevant physicochemical properties of small molecules, represents a promising descriptor that could fill the gap in existing drug discovery between ligand library filtering rules and the corresponding properties of the target's recognition site. Herein, we present an in silico study on the yet unclear underlying correlations between molecular complexity and other more sophisticated physicochemical and biological properties. By analyzing thousands of protein-ligand complexes from DrugBank, we show that increasing molecular complexity of drugs is an approach to addressing particularly low-druggability and polar recognition sites. We also show that biologically relevant protein classes characteristically bind molecules with a certain degree of structural complexity. Three distinct behaviors toward drug recognition are described. The reported results set the basis for a better understanding of protein-drug recognition, and open the possibility of including target information in the filtering of large ligand libraries for screening.

  18. Precise small-molecule recognition of a toxic CUG RNA repeat expansion.

    Rzuczek, Suzanne G; Colgan, Lesley A; Nakai, Yoshio; Cameron, Michael D; Furling, Denis; Yasuda, Ryohei; Disney, Matthew D


    Excluding the ribosome and riboswitches, developing small molecules that selectively target RNA is a longstanding problem in chemical biology. A typical cellular RNA is difficult to target because it has little tertiary, but abundant secondary structure. We designed allele-selective compounds that target such an RNA, the toxic noncoding repeat expansion (r(CUG)(exp)) that causes myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). We developed several strategies to generate allele-selective small molecules, including non-covalent binding, covalent binding, cleavage and on-site probe synthesis. Covalent binding and cleavage enabled target profiling in cells derived from individuals with DM1, showing precise recognition of r(CUG)(exp). In the on-site probe synthesis approach, small molecules bound adjacent sites in r(CUG)(exp) and reacted to afford picomolar inhibitors via a proximity-based click reaction only in DM1-affected cells. We expanded this approach to image r(CUG)(exp) in its natural context.

  19. Assay for the pattern recognition molecule collectin liver 1 (CL-L1)

    Axelgaard, Esben; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Thiel, Steffen

    Collectin liver 1 (also termed collectin 10 and CL-L1) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) in the innate immune system1. We have produced antibodies against CL-L1 and have developed a sandwich-type time-resolved immuno-fluorometric assay (TRIFMA...... to co-purify with MASPs, possibly rendering it a role in complement. CL-L1 showed binding activity towards mannose-TSK beads in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This binding could be inhibited by mannose and glucose, but not by galactose, indicating that CL-L1 binds via its carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)....

  20. Electronic single-molecule identification of carbohydrate isomers by recognition tunnelling

    Im, Jongone; Biswas, Sovan; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Yanan; Sen, Suman; Biswas, Sudipta; Ashcroft, Brian; Borges, Chad; Wang, Xu; Lindsay, Stuart; Zhang, Peiming


    Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization. Combining measurements of collision cross section with mass spectrometry (IM-MS) helps, but many isomers are still difficult to separate. Here, we show that recognition tunnelling (RT) can classify many anomers and epimers via the current fluctuations they produce when captured in a tunnel junction functionalized with recognition molecules. Most importantly, RT is a nanoscale technique utilizing sub-picomole quantities of analyte. If integrated into a nanopore, RT would provide a unique approach to sequencing linear polysaccharides.

  1. Catalytic Effect of Nb2O5 in MgH2-Nb2O5 Ball-Milled Composites

    Somei Ohnuki


    Full Text Available We report a study on the desorption properties, crystallography and chemical state of MgH2 and 1 mol% Nb2O5 ball-milled composites. Desorption temperatures of the composites decreased with increase of ball-milling time. Size of MgH2 crystallites decreased during ball-milling. Reduction of Nb2O5 after ball-milling was confirmed by tracing the chemical state of Nb and was further supported by TEM observation. The reduced phases may act as more effective catalysts improving the desorption properties.

  2. Immunopathological Roles of Cytokines, Chemokines, Signaling Molecules, and Pattern-Recognition Receptors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Shui-Lian Yu


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology affecting more than one million individuals each year. It is characterized by B- and T-cell hyperactivity and by defects in the clearance of apoptotic cells and immune complexes. Understanding the complex process involved and the interaction between various cytokines, chemokines, signaling molecules, and pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs in the immune pathways will provide valuable information on the development of novel therapeutic targets for treating SLE. In this paper, we review the immunopathological roles of novel cytokines, chemokines, signaling molecules, PRRs, and their interactions in immunoregulatory networks and suggest how their disturbances may implicate pathological conditions in SLE.

  3. An acidic microenvironment sets the humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 in a tissue repair mode.

    Doni, Andrea; Musso, Tiziana; Morone, Diego; Bastone, Antonio; Zambelli, Vanessa; Sironi, Marina; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Cambieri, Irene; Stravalaci, Matteo; Pasqualini, Fabio; Laface, Ilaria; Valentino, Sonia; Tartari, Silvia; Ponzetta, Andrea; Maina, Virginia; Barbieri, Silvia S; Tremoli, Elena; Catapano, Alberico L; Norata, Giuseppe D; Bottazzi, Barbara; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto


    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. In four different models of tissue damage in mice, PTX3 deficiency was associated with increased fibrin deposition and persistence, and thicker clots, followed by increased collagen deposition, when compared with controls. Ptx3-deficient macrophages showed defective pericellular fibrinolysis in vitro. PTX3-bound fibrinogen/fibrin and plasminogen at acidic pH and increased plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis. The second exon-encoded N-terminal domain of PTX3 recapitulated the activity of the intact molecule. Thus, a prototypic component of humoral innate immunity, PTX3, plays a nonredundant role in the orchestration of tissue repair and remodeling. Tissue acidification resulting from metabolic adaptation during tissue repair sets PTX3 in a tissue remodeling and repair mode, suggesting that matrix and microbial recognition are common, ancestral features of the humoral arm of innate immunity. © 2015 Doni et al.

  4. Single-molecule dynamics reveals cooperative binding-folding in protein recognition.

    Jin Wang


    Full Text Available The study of associations between two biomolecules is the key to understanding molecular function and recognition. Molecular function is often thought to be determined by underlying structures. Here, combining a single-molecule study of protein binding with an energy-landscape-inspired microscopic model, we found strong evidence that biomolecular recognition is determined by flexibilities in addition to structures. Our model is based on coarse-grained molecular dynamics on the residue level with the energy function biased toward the native binding structure (the Go model. With our model, the underlying free-energy landscape of the binding can be explored. There are two distinct conformational states at the free-energy minimum, one with partial folding of CBD itself and significant interface binding of CBD to Cdc42, and the other with native folding of CBD itself and native interface binding of CBD to Cdc42. This shows that the binding process proceeds with a significant interface binding of CBD with Cdc42 first, without a complete folding of CBD itself, and that binding and folding are then coupled to reach the native binding state. The single-molecule experimental finding of dynamic fluctuations among the loosely and closely bound conformational states can be identified with the theoretical, calculated free-energy minimum and explained quantitatively in the model as a result of binding associated with large conformational changes. The theoretical predictions identified certain key residues for binding that were consistent with mutational experiments. The combined study identified fundamental mechanisms and provided insights about designing and further exploring biomolecular recognition with large conformational changes.

  5. Design and preparation of matrine surface-imprinted material and studies on its molecule recognition selectivity.

    Lei, Qingjuan; Gao, Baojiao; Zhang, Dandan


    A matrine molecule surface-imprinted material was designed and prepared using an effective surface-imprinting technique developed by our group, and its molecular recognition performance and mechanism were investigated in depth. Monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was first graft-polymerized on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles in surface-initiated graft polymerization manner, obtaining the grafted particles PGMA/SiO(2) with high grafting degree. Subsequently, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted macromolecules PGMA with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) was carried out, resulting in the functional grafted particle SA-PGMA/SiO(2), on whose surfaces salicylic acid as functional group was chemically bonded. By right of the mutual strong secondary bond forces, electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles produced strong adsorption for matrine. Finally, with this strong adsorption, matrine molecule surface imprinting was carried out on the surfaces of SA-PGMA/SiO(2) particles with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether as cross-linking agent, resulting in the matrine molecule surface-imprinted material MIP-SAP/SiO(2). The binding characteristic of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) toward matrine was investigated in depth with both batch and column methods and using oxymatrine and cytisine as two contrast alkaloids. The experimental results show that MIP-SAP/SiO(2) has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for matrine. Relative to oxymatrine and cytisine, the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SAP/SiO(2) for matrine are 5.66 and 11.17, respectively.

  6. Complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with collagen-like regions, mannan-binding lectin, ficolins and associated proteins

    Thiel, Steffen


    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), L-ficolin, M-ficolin and H-ficolin are all complement activating soluble pattern recognition molecules with recognition domains linked to collagen-like regions. All four may form complexes with four structurally related proteins, the three MBL-associated serine...... proteases (MASPs), MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3, and a smaller MBL-associated protein (MAp19). The four recognition molecules recognize patterns of carbohydrate or acetyl-group containing ligands. After binding to the relevant targets all four are able to activate the complement system. We thus have a system...... where four different and/or overlapping patterns of microbial origin or patterns of altered-self may be recognized, but in all cases the signalling molecules, the MASPs, are shared. MASP-1 and MASP-3 are formed from one gene, MASP1/3, by alternative splicing generating two different mRNAs from a single...

  7. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemosensors of Ion and Molecule Recognition

    Czarnik, A


    In the broad field of supramolecular chemistry, the design and hence the use of chemosensors for ion and molecule recognition have developed at an extroardinary rate. This imaginative and creative area which involves the interface of different disciplines, e.g. organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, biology, medicine, environmental science, is not only fundamental in nature. It is also clear that progress is most rewarding for several new sensor applications deriving from the specific signal delivered by the analyte-probe interaction. Indeed, if calcium sensing in real time for biological purposes is actually possible, owing to the emergence of efficient fluorescent receptors, other elements can also be specifically detected, identified and finally titrated using tailored chemosensors. Pollutants such as heavy metals or radionuclides are among the main targets since their detection and removal could be envisioned at very low concentrations with, in addition, sensors displaying specific and stron...

  8. Self-Assembled Core-Satellite Gold Nanoparticle Networks for Ultrasensitive Detection of Chiral Molecules by Recognition Tunneling Current.

    Zhang, Yuanchao; Liu, Jingquan; Li, Da; Dai, Xing; Yan, Fuhua; Conlan, Xavier A; Zhou, Ruhong; Barrow, Colin J; He, Jin; Wang, Xin; Yang, Wenrong


    Chirality sensing is a very challenging task. Here, we report a method for ultrasensitive detection of chiral molecule l/d-carnitine based on changes in the recognition tunneling current across self-assembled core-satellite gold nanoparticle (GNP) networks. The recognition tunneling technique has been demonstrated to work at the single molecule level where the binding between the reader molecules and the analytes in a nanojunction. This process was observed to generate a unique and sensitive change in tunneling current, which can be used to identify the analytes of interest. The molecular recognition mechanism between amino acid l-cysteine and l/d-carnitine has been studied with the aid of SERS. The different binding strength between homo- or heterochiral pairs can be effectively probed by the copper ion replacement fracture. The device resistance was measured before and after the sequential exposures to l/d-carnitine and copper ions. The normalized resistance change was found to be extremely sensitive to the chirality of carnitine molecule. The results suggested that a GNP networks device optimized for recognition tunneling was successfully built and that such a device can be used for ultrasensitive detection of chiral molecules.

  9. The innate pattern recognition molecule Ficolin-1 is secreted by monocytes/macrophages and is circulating in human plasma

    Honoré, Christian; Rørvig, Sara; Munthe-Fog, Lea


    Ficolin-1 (M-Ficolin) is a pattern recognition molecule of the complement system that is expressed by myeloid cells and type II alveolar epithelial cells. Ficolin-1 has been shown to localize in the secretory granules of these cells and attached to cell surfaces, but whether Ficolin-1 exists...

  10. CL-L1 and CL-K1 and other complement associated pattern recognition molecules in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Troldborg, Anne; Thiel, Steffen; Jensen, Lisbeth


    The objective of this study was to explore the involvement of collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and other pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) of the lectin pathway of the complement system in a cross-sectional cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients...

  11. The pattern recognition molecule deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) and synthetic mimics inhibit liposomal nucleic acid delivery

    Lund Hansen, Pernille; Blaich, Stephanie; End, Caroline;


    Liposomal nucleic acid delivery is a preferred option for therapeutic settings. The cellular pattern recognition molecule DMBT1, secreted at high levels in various diseases, and synthetic mimics efficiently inhibit liposomal nucleic acid delivery to human cells. These findings may have relevance...

  12. Structure of the F-spondin Domain of Mindin an Integrin Ligand and Pattern Recognition Molecule

    Y Li; C Cao; W Jia; L Yu; M Mo; Q Wang; Y Huang; J Lim; M Ishihara; et. al.


    Mindin (spondin-2) is an extracellular matrix protein of unknown structure that is required for efficient T-cell priming by dendritic cells. Additionally, mindin functions as a pattern recognition molecule for initiating innate immune responses. These dual functions are mediated by interactions with integrins and microbial pathogens, respectively. Mindin comprises an N-terminal F-spondin (FS) domain and C-terminal thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR). We determined the structure of the FS domain at 1.8-A resolution. The structure revealed an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-sandwich motif resembling that of membrane-targeting C2 domains, including a bound calcium ion. We demonstrated that the FS domain mediates integrin binding and identified the binding site by mutagenesis. The mindin FS domain therefore represents a new integrin ligand. We further showed that mindin recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through its TSR domain, and obtained evidence that C-mannosylation of the TSR influences LPS binding. Through these dual interactions, the FS and TSR domains of mindin promote activation of both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  13. Structure of the F-Spondin Domain of Mindin, an Integrin Ligand and Pattern Recognition Molecule

    Li, Y.; Cao, C; Jia, W; Yu, L; Mo, M; Wang, Q; Huang, Y; Lim, J; Ishihara, M; et. al.


    Mindin (spondin-2) is an extracellular matrix protein of unknown structure that is required for efficient T-cell priming by dendritic cells. Additionally, mindin functions as a pattern recognition molecule for initiating innate immune responses. These dual functions are mediated by interactions with integrins and microbial pathogens, respectively. Mindin comprises an N-terminal F-spondin (FS) domain and C-terminal thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR). We determined the structure of the FS domain at 1.8-A resolution. The structure revealed an eight-stranded antiparallel ?-sandwich motif resembling that of membrane-targeting C2 domains, including a bound calcium ion. We demonstrated that the FS domain mediates integrin binding and identified the binding site by mutagenesis. The mindin FS domain therefore represents a new integrin ligand. We further showed that mindin recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through its TSR domain, and obtained evidence that C-mannosylation of the TSR influences LPS binding. Through these dual interactions, the FS and TSR domains of mindin promote activation of both adaptive and innate immune responses.

  14. Ion and molecule sensors using molecular recognition in luminescent, conductive polymers. FY 1997 year-end progress report

    Wasielewski, M.R.


    'The purpose of this project is to use molecular recognition strategies to develop sensor technology based on luminescent, conductive polymers that contain sites for binding specific molecules or ions in the presence of related molecules or ions. Selective binding of a particular molecule or ion of interest to these polymers will result in a large change in their luminescence and/or conductivity, which can be used to both qualitatively and quantitatively sense the presence of the bound molecules or ions. The main thrusts and accomplishments in the first year of this project involve developing polymer syntheses that yield conjugated polymers to which a wide variety of ligands for metal ion binding can be readily incorporated.'

  15. Dielectric Properties of Rhombohedral PbNb2O6

    Kriti Ranjan Sahu


    Full Text Available Dielectric materials are needed in many electrical and electronic applications. So, basic characterizations need to be done for all dielectrics. PbNb2O6 (PN is ferroelectric and piezoelectric only in its orthorhombic phase, with potential high temperature applications. So, its rhombohedral phase, frequently formed as an undesirable impurity in the preparation of orthorhombic PN, has been ignored with respect to possible dielectric characterizations. Here, essentially single phase rhombohedral PN has been prepared, checking structure from XRD Rietveld Analysis, and the real and imaginary parts of permittivity measured in an Impedance Spectrometer (IS up to ~700∘C and over 20 Hz to 5.5 MHz range, for heating and some cooling runs. Variations, with temperature, of relaxation time constant (τ, AC and DC conductivity, bulk resistance, activation energy and capacitance have been explored from our IS data.

  16. Orthodenticle Is Required for the Expression of Principal Recognition Molecules That Control Axon Targeting in the Drosophila Retina.

    Chiara Mencarelli


    Full Text Available Parallel processing of neuronal inputs relies on assembling neural circuits into distinct synaptic-columns and layers. This is orchestrated by matching recognition molecules between afferent growth cones and target areas. Controlling the expression of these molecules during development is crucial but not well understood. The developing Drosophila visual system is a powerful genetic model for addressing this question. In this model system, the achromatic R1-6 photoreceptors project their axons in the lamina while the R7 and R8 photoreceptors, which are involved in colour detection, project their axons to two distinct synaptic-layers in the medulla. Here we show that the conserved homeodomain transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd, which in the eye is a main regulator of rhodopsin expression, is also required for R1-6 photoreceptor synaptic-column specific innervation of the lamina. Our data indicate that otd function in these photoreceptors is largely mediated by the recognition molecules flamingo (fmi and golden goal (gogo. In addition, we find that otd regulates synaptic-layer targeting of R8. We demonstrate that during this process, otd and the R8-specific transcription factor senseless/Gfi1 (sens function as independent transcriptional inputs that are required for the expression of fmi, gogo and the adhesion molecule capricious (caps, which govern R8 synaptic-layer targeting. Our work therefore demonstrates that otd is a main component of the gene regulatory network that regulates synaptic-column and layer targeting in the fly visual system.

  17. Anti-proliferative effects of deflazacort on Nb2 cells as quantitated by formazan production.

    Adler, R A; Naumann, S A; Mansouri, A; Krieg, R J; Latta, K; Sanders, K M


    Prolactin and other lactogenic hormones are mitogenic for the rat T-cell lymphoma line, Nb2. Glucocorticoids have antiproliferative effects on these cells. A limiting feature of experiments utilizing the Nb2 line is their labor-intensive nature. We therefore adapted the commonly used MTT dye proliferation assay for the Nb2 cell line. While rPRL, hPRL, oPRL, hGH, bPL, and to a lesser extent bPRL stimulated the Nb2 cells, hormones without lactogenic activity, rGH and oGH did not. Human serum and rat sera from animals bearing a PRL-secreting tumor stimulated the Nb2 cells in parallel to standards. Glucocorticoids had anti-proliferative effects on Nb2 cells in the presence of half-maximal or maximal PRL doses, as measured by the MTT proliferation assay. It has been claimed that an oxazoline steroid, deflazacort, has anti-inflammatory effects in clinical studies with fewer of the deleterious side-effects common to glucocorticoids. We therefore compared the in vitro anti-proliferative effects of deflazacort with other glucocorticoids. Deflazacort's negative effect on Nb2 cell proliferation was similar to that of cortisol and prednisolone and less than that of dexamethasone. We conclude that the MTT proliferation assay can be used to study both mitogenic and anti-proliferative substances in Nb2 cells. In addition we found that deflazacort acts similarly in vitro to other glucocorticoids.

  18. Hexagonal-like Nb2O5 Nanoplates-Based Photodetectors and Photocatalyst with High Performances

    Liu, Hui; Gao, Nan; Liao, Meiyong; Fang, Xiaosheng


    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors are important tools in the fields of optical imaging, environmental monitoring, and air and water sterilization, as well as flame sensing and early rocket plume detection. Herein, hexagonal-like Nb2O5 nanoplates are synthesized using a facile solvothermal method. UV photodetectors based on single Nb2O5 nanoplates are constructed and the optoelectronic properties have been probed. The photodetectors show remarkable sensitivity with a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 9617%, and adequate wavelength selectivity with respect to UV-A light. In addition, the photodetectors exhibit robust stability and strong dependence of photocurrent on light intensity. Also, a low-cost drop-casting method is used to fabricate photodetectors based on Nb2O5 nanoplate film, which exhibit singular thermal stability. Moreover, the hexagonal-like Nb2O5 nanoplates show significantly better photocatalytic performances in decomposing Methylene-blue and Rhdamine B dyes than commercial Nb2O5.

  19. Dehydriding reaction kinetic mechanism of MgH2-Nb2O5 by Chou model


    Chou model was used to investigate the dehydriding reaction kinetic mechanism of MgH2-Nb2O5 hydrogen storage materials at 573 K.A new conception,"characteristic absorption/desorption time(yc)"was introduced to characterize the reaction rate.The fitting results show that for the hydrogen desorbing mechanism.the surface penetration iS the rate.controlling step.The mechanism remains the same even when the original particle size of Nb2O5 is before ball milling(BM)or when the BM time changes.And tc indicates that the desorption rate of MgH2-Nb2O5 will be faster than that of MgH2-Nb2O5 by BM.The dehydriding reaction rate of MgH2-Nb2O5(micro particle)BMed for 50 h is 4.76 times faster than that of the MgH2-Nb2O5(micro particle)BMed for 0.25 h,while the dehydriding reaction rate of MgH2-Nb2O5(nano particle)BMed for 50 h is only 1.1 8 times as that of the MgH2-Nb2O5 (nano particle)BMed for 0.25 h.The dehydriding reaction rate of the BMed MgH2-Nb2O5(nano particle)is 1-9 times faster than that of the BMed MgH2-Nb2O5(micro particle).

  20. Avaliação da atividade fotocatalítica de Nb2O5 = Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of Nb2O5

    Veronice Slusarski Santana


    Full Text Available Como a fotocatálise heterogênea é um dos métodos de tratamento de efluentes mais promissores, o estudo da atividade fotocatalítica de novos catalisadores é de primordial interesse. Assim, testes de degradação de solução de sacarose parcialmente caramelizada foram realizados empregando 2 g de Nb2O5 e TiO2 mássicos e Nb2O5 impregnado em microesferas de vidro (5,0, 10 e 15%Nb2O5 vidro-1 sob radiação UV durante 168h. TiO2 e Nb2O5 foram submetidos a processo de aglomeração (tamanho de partícula: 0,210 e 0,297 mm e calcinados a 500ºC por 5h. Nb2O5 foi solubilizado em ácido oxálico (0,5 mol L-1 a 70ºC por 8h, misturado com as microesferas de vidro, seco a 110ºC por 12h e calcinado a 500ºC por 5h. A eficiência do processo fotocatalítico foi avaliada por espectrofotometria UV-VIS e método DNS. Os resultados mostraram que catalisadores de Nb2O5 são promissores para aplicação em fotocatálise, principalmente o 15% Nb2O5 vidro-1, o qual apresentou resultados semelhantes ao do TiO2.As heterogeneous photocatalysis has proved to be one of the most promising methods for the treatment of effluents, the study of photocatalytic activity of new catalysts is of great interest. Thus,degradation tests of burnt sugar solution were conducted through using 2 g of Nb2O5 and TiO2, massic, and Nb2O5 impregnated in glass beads (5.0, 10 and 15% Nb2O5 glass-1 under UV radiation for 168 hours. TiO2 and Nb2O5 were submitted to the agglomeration process(particle size: 0.210 and 0.297 mm and calcined at 500ºC for 5h. Nb2O5 was solubilized in oxalic acid (0.5 mol L-1 at 70ºC for 8h, mixed with the glass beads, dried at 110ºC for 12h and calcined at 500ºC for 5h. The efficiency of the photocatalytic process was evaluated by UV-VIS spectrophotometry and DNS method. The results showed that catalysts of Nb2O5 are promising for application in photocatalysis, mainly 15% Nb2O5 glass-1, which presented similar results to TiO2.

  1. The pattern recognition molecule ficolin-1 exhibits differential binding to lymphocyte subsets, providing a novel link between innate and adaptive immunity

    Genster, Ninette; Ma, Ying Jie; Munthe-Fog, Lea


    via the pathogen-recognition domain of ficolin-1 to sialic acid on the cell surface. Thus, the differential binding of ficolin-1 to lymphocyte subsets suggests ficolin-1 as a novel link between innate and adaptive immunity. Our results provide new insight about the recognition properties of ficolin-1...... and point toward additional immune modulating functions of the molecule besides its role in pathogen recognition....

  2. Animal lectins as self/non-self recognition molecules. Biochemical and genetic approaches to understanding their biological roles and evolution.

    Vasta, G R; Ahmed, H; Fink, N E; Elola, M T; Marsh, A G; Snowden, A; Odom, E W


    In recent years, the significant contributions from molecular research studies on animal lectins have elucidated structural aspects and provided clues not only to their evolution but also to their multiple biological functions. The experimental evidence has suggested that distinct, and probably unrelated, groups of molecules are included under the term "lectin." Within the invertebrate taxa, major groups of lectins can be identified: One group would include lectins that show significant homology to membrane-integrated or soluble vertebrate C-type lectins. The second would include those beta-galactosyl-specific lectins homologous to the S-type vertebrate lectins. The third group would be constituted by lectins that show homology to vertebrate pentraxins that exhibit lectin-like properties, such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P. Finally, there are examples that do not exhibit similarities to any of the aforementioned categories. Moreover, the vast majority of invertebrate lectins described so far cannot yet be placed in one or another group because of the lack of information regarding their primary structure. (See Table 1.) Animal lectins do not express a recombinatorial diversity like that of antibodies, but a limited diversity in recognition capabilities would be accomplished by the occurrence of multiple lectins with distinct specificities, the presence of more than one binding site, specific for different carbohydrates in a single molecule, and by certain "flexibility" of the binding sites that would allow the recognition of a range of structurally related carbohydrates. In order to identify the lectins' "natural" ligands, we have investigated the interactions between those proteins and the putative endogenous or exogenous glycosylated substances or cells that may be relevant to their biological function. Results from these studies, together with information on the biochemical properties of invertebrate and vertebrate lectins, including their structural

  3. The effect of the Nb2O5 dispersion on ethylene vinyl acetate to obtain ethylene vinyl acetate/Nb2O5 nanostructured materials.

    Valentim, Ana Claudia S; Tavares, Maria Inês Bruno; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira


    This work investigated the effect of niobium pentoxide nanoparticles (Nb2O5) on the molecular organization of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix containing 28% vinyl acetate groups, according to their dispersion and distribution in the polymer matrix. Due to niobium pentoxide's characteristics and properties, it may interfere in the chemical and UV resistance, as well as in the EVA mechanical properties, increasing mechanical resistance. The EVA/Nb2O5 nanocomposite films, with Nb2O5 varying from 0.25 to 1% in relation to the total EVA mass, were prepared by solution casting. The Nb2O5 was well dispersed with the use of ultrasound. These films were mainly characterized by X-ray diffraction and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance through relaxometry, in order to obtain responses on the structural organization and molecular dynamic, respectively, and consequently to understand the effect of the nanoparticles on the EVA matrix. The results showed that the addition of Nb2O5 to the EVA matrix caused changes in its crystallinity and molecular mobility, due to the new interactions formed by the good dispersion of nanoparticles and also their distribution in the EVA matrix, changing the copolymer characteristics due to the formation of a new material.

  4. Molecule Recognition Imaging and Highly Ordered Gold Nanoparticle Templating of Functional Bacterial S-Layer Nanoarrays

    Jilin TANG; Andreas Ebner; Helga Badelt-Lichtblau; Christian Rankl; Michael Leitner; Hermann J.Gruber; Uwe B.Sleytr; Nicola Ilk; Peter Hinterdorfer


    @@ Molecular recognition between receptors and their cognate ligands plays an important role in life sciences.Such specific interactions include those between complementary strands of DNA,enzyme and substrate,antigen and antibody,lectin and carbohydrate,ligands and cell surface receptors as well as between cell adhesion proteins.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembled carbon nanotube films with molecule recognition function and lower capacitive background current.

    Kong, Bo; Zeng, Jinxiang; Luo, Guangming; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi; Li, Jun


    Multilayer films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with molecule recognition function were assembled on glassy carbon (GC) electrode with lower capacitive background current by two steps: first, MWCNTs interacted with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with the aid of sonication to form beta-CD-MWCNTs nanocomposite, then the beta-CD-MWCNTs nanocomposite was assembled on GC electrode using layer-by-layer (LBL) method based on electrostatic interaction of positively charged biopolymer chitosan and negatively charged MWCNTs. The assembled beta-CD-MWCNTs multilayer films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The SEM indicated that the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD were somewhat more compact than that of the MWCNTs multilayer films without beta-CD. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that the assembled MWCNTs with beta-CD on GC electrode exhibited lower capacitive background current than the assembled MWCNTs without beta-CD. The MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD were studied with respect to the electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). Compared with the MWCNTs multilayer films without beta-CD, the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD possesses a much lower capacitive background current and higher electrocatalytic activity in phosphate buffer, which was ascribed to the relatively compact three-dimensional structure of the MWCNTs multilayer films with beta-CD and the excellent molecule recognition function of beta-CD.

  6. Soluble Collectin-12 (CL-12) Is a Pattern Recognition Molecule Initiating Complement Activation via the Alternative Pathway.

    Ma, Ying Jie; Hein, Estrid; Munthe-Fog, Lea; Skjoedt, Mikkel-Ole; Bayarri-Olmos, Rafael; Romani, Luigina; Garred, Peter


    Soluble defense collagens including the collectins play important roles in innate immunity. Recently, a new member of the collectin family named collectin-12 (CL-12 or CL-P1) has been identified. CL-12 is highly expressed in umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells as a transmembrane receptor and may recognize certain bacteria and fungi, leading to opsonophagocytosis. However, based on its structural and functional similarities with soluble collectins, we hypothesized the existence of a fluid-phase analog of CL-12 released from cells, which may function as a soluble pattern-recognition molecule. Using recombinant CL-12 full length or CL-12 extracellular domain, we determined the occurrence of soluble CL-12 shed from in vitro cultured cells. Western blot showed that soluble recombinant CL-12 migrated with a band corresponding to ∼ 120 kDa under reducing conditions, whereas under nonreducing conditions it presented multimeric assembly forms. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of human umbilical cord plasma enabled identification of a natural soluble form of CL-12 having an electrophoretic mobility pattern close to that of shed soluble recombinant CL-12. Soluble CL-12 could recognize Aspergillus fumigatus partially through the carbohydrate-recognition domain in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. This led to activation of the alternative pathway of complement exclusively via association with properdin on A. fumigatus as validated by detection of C3b deposition and formation of the terminal complement complex. These results demonstrate the existence of CL-12 in a soluble form and indicate a novel mechanism by which the alternative pathway of complement may be triggered directly by a soluble pattern-recognition molecule.

  7. IgE and Drug Allergy: Antibody Recognition of ‘Small’ Molecules of Widely Varying Structures and Activities

    Brian A. Baldo


    Full Text Available The variety of chemically diverse pharmacologically-active compounds administered to patients is large and seemingly forever growing, and, with every new drug released and administered, there is always the potential of an allergic reaction. The most commonly occurring allergic responses to drugs are the type I, or immediate hypersensitivity reactions mediated by IgE antibodies. These reactions may affect a single organ, such as the nasopharynx (allergic rhinitis, eyes (conjunctivitis, mucosa of mouth/throat/tongue (angioedema, bronchopulmonary tissue (asthma, gastrointestinal tract (gastroenteritis and skin (urticaria, eczema, or multiple organs (anaphylaxis, causing symptoms ranging from minor itching and inflammation to death. It seems that almost every drug is capable of causing an immediate reaction and it is unusual to find a drug that has not provoked an anaphylactic response in at least one patient. These facts alone indicate the extraordinary breadth of recognition of IgE antibodies for drugs ranging from relatively simple structures, for example, aspirin, to complex molecules, such as the macrolide antibiotics composed of a large macrocyclic ring with attached deoxy sugars. This wide recognition profile is borne out at the molecular level by results of quantitative immunochemical studies where hapten inhibition investigations have identified structural determinants complementary to IgE antibodies in the sera of allergic subjects. Allergenic determinants have been identified on a variety of drugs including neuromuscular blockers, penicillins, cephalosporins, opioids, thiopentone, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, quinolones, chlorhexidine and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug aspirin. It is already clear that IgE can distinguish fine structural differences on a wide variety of molecules, determinants may be at least as small as an amino group or encompass the whole molecule, and individual drugs may demonstrate allergenic heterogeneity.

  8. [{Cp2(tBuSe)Nb}2E] (E = O and Se) with bridging oxide or selenide ligands.

    Hector, Andrew L; Jura, Marek; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Reid, Stuart D; Webster, Michael


    The title compounds, mu-oxido-bis[(tert-butylselenolato)bis(eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl)niobium(IV)] toluene solvate, [Nb(2)(C(5)H(5))(4)(C(4)H(9)Se)(2)O] x C(7)H(8), and mu-selenido-bis[(tert-butylselenolato)bis(eta(5)-cyclopentadienyl)niobium(IV)], [Nb(2)(C(5)H(5))(4)(C(4)H(9)Se)(2)Se], consist of niobium(IV) centres each bonded to two eta(5)-coordinated cyclopentadienyl groups and one tert-butylselenolate ligand and are the first organometallic niobium selenolates to be structurally characterized. A bridging oxide or selenide completes the niobium coordination spheres of the discrete dinuclear molecules. In the oxide, the O atom lies on an inversion centre, resulting in a linear Nb-O-Nb linkage, whereas the selenide has a bent bridging group [Nb-Se-Nb = 139.76 (2) degrees]. The difference is attributable to strong pi bonding in the oxide case, although the effects on the Nb-C and Nb-Se(t)Bu bond lengths are small.

  9. Small-molecule recognition for controlling molecular motion in hydrogen-bond-assembled rotaxanes.

    Martinez-Cuezva, Alberto; Berna, Jose; Orenes, Raul-Angel; Pastor, Aurelia; Alajarin, Mateo


    Di(acylamino)pyridines successfully template the formation of hydrogen-bonded rotaxanes through five-component clipping reactions. A solid-state study showed the participation of the pyridine nitrogen atom in the stabilization of the mechanical bond between the thread and the benzylic amide macrocycle. The addition of external complementary binders to a series of interlocked bis(2,6-di(acylamino)pyridines) promoted restraint of the back and forward ring motion. The original translation can be restored through a competitive recognition event by the addition of a preorganized bis(di(acylamino)pyridine) that forms stronger ADA-DAD complexes with the external binders.

  10. Lithium-ion capacitors with 2D Nb2CTx (MXene) - carbon nanotube electrodes

    Byeon, Ayeong; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Anasori, Babak; Urbankowski, Patrick; Li, Jingwen; Byles, Bryan W.; Blake, Brian; Van Aken, Katherine L.; Kota, Sankalp; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Lee, Jae W.; Chen, Ying; Gogotsi, Yury


    There is a growing interest to hybrid energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion capacitors, in which battery-type electrodes are combined with capacitor-type ones. It is anticipated that the energy density (either gravimetric or volumetric) of lithium-ion capacitors is improved if pseudocapacitive or fast insertion materials are used instead of conventional activated carbon (AC) in the capacitor-type electrode. MXenes, a new family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, demonstrate metallic conductivity and fast charge-discharge behavior that make them suitable for this application. In this study, we move beyond single electrodes, half-cell studies and demonstrate three types of hybrid cells using Nb2CTx-carbon nanotube (CNT) films. It is shown that lithiated graphite/Nb2CTx-CNT, Nb2CTx-CNT/LiFePO4 and lithiated Nb2CTx-CNT/Nb2CTx-CNT cells are all able to operate within 3 V voltage windows and deliver capacities of 43, 24 and 36 mAh/g (per total weight of two electrodes), respectively. Moreover, the polarity of the electrodes can be reversed in the symmetric Nb2CTx-CNT cells from providing a positive potential between 0 and 3 V to a negative one from -3 to 0 V. It is shown that the volumetric energy density (50-70 Wh/L) of our first-generation devices with MXene electrodes exceeds that of a lithium titanate/AC capacitor.

  11. Differential recognition of MHC class I molecules of xeno-/allo-endothelial cells by human NK cells


    Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) as target cells, human peripheral blood NK cells (PBNK) and NK92 cells as effector cells, the differential cytotoxicities of NK cells to allo- and xeno-endothelial cells were studied. The influence of MHC class I molecules on the cytotoxicity of human NK cells was assayed using acid treatment, and blockades of MHC class I antigens, CD94 and KIR (NKB1). The results indicated that the killing of PAEC by the two kinds of NK cells is higher than that of HUVEC. After acid- treatment, the cytotoxicity of the two kinds of NK cells to PAEC and HUVEC is significantly enhanced, but the magnitude of the enhancement is different. The enhancement of NK killing to acid treated HUVEC is much greater than that to PAEC. Blockade of CD94 mAb did not alter the NK cytotoxicity, while blockade of NKB1 mAb enhanced the cytotoxicity of PBNK to HUVEC and PAEC by 95% and 29% respectively. The results above suggested that the differential recognition of MHC I molecules of xeno-endothelial cells by human NK cells could be the major reason for higher NK cytotoxicity to PAEC. KIR might be the primary molecule that transduced inhibitory signals when endothelial cells were injured by NK cells.

  12. Valence band electronic structure of Nb2Pd1.2Se5 and Nb2Pd0.95S5 superconductors

    Lohani, H.; Mishra, P.; Goyal, R.; Awana, V. P. S.; Sekhar, B. R.


    We present a comparative study of our valence band photoemission results on Nb2Pd1.2Se5 and Nb2Pd0.95S5 superconductors which are supported by our DFT based electronic structure calculations. We observe that the VB spectra of both the compounds are qualitatively similar, except for some slight differences in the binding energy positions of all the features. This could be due to the unequal electronegativities of Se and S atom. The calculated density of states (DOS) reveals that the VB features are mainly composed of Pd-Se/S hybridized states. The nature of DOS originating from the distinctly coordinated Pd atoms is different. Further, various Pd-4d and Nb-4d states crossing the Fermi level (Ef) signifies the multiband character of these compounds. In addition, we find a temperature dependent pseudogap in Nb2Pd0.95S5 which is absent in Nb2Pd1.2Se5.

  13. Functional metalloproteins integrated with conductive substrates: detecting single molecules and sensing individual recognition events.

    Bonanni, B; Andolfi, L; Bizzarri, A R; Cannistraro, S


    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the integration of biomaterials with electronic elements: combining biological functions of biomolecules with nanotechnology offers new perspectives for implementation of ultrasensitive hybrid nanodevices. In particular, great attention has been devoted to redox metalloproteins, since they possess unique characteristics, such as electron-transfer capability, possibility of gating redox activity, and nanometric size, which make them appealing for bioelectronics applications at the nanoscale. The reliable connection of redox proteins to electrodes, aimed at ensuring good electrical contact with the conducting substrate besides preserving protein functionality, is a fundamental step for designing a hybrid nanodevice and calls for a full characterization of the immobilized proteins, possibly at the single-molecule level. Here, we describe how a multitechnique approach, based on several scanning probe microscopy techniques, may provide a comprehensive characterization of different metalloproteins on metal electrodes, disclosing unique information not only about morphological properties of the adsorbed molecules but also about the effectiveness of electrical coupling with the conductive substrate, or even concerning the preserved biorecognition capability upon adsorption. We also show how the success of an immobilization strategy, which is of primary importance for optimal integration of metalloproteins with a metal electrode, can be promptly assessed by means of the proposed approach. Besides the characterization aspect, the complementary employment of the proposed techniques deserves major potentialities for ultrasensitive detection of adsorbed biomolecules. In particular, it is shown how sensing of single metalloproteins may be optimized by monitoring the most appropriate observable. Additionally, we suggest how the combination of several experimental techniques might offer increased versatility, real

  14. Laser Controlled Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticle Arrays for Low Concentration Molecule Recognition

    Enza Fazio


    Full Text Available Nanostructured gold and silver thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition.Performing the process in an ambient gas (Ar leads to the nucleation and growth ofnanoparticles in the ablation plasma and their self-organization on the substrate. Thedependence of surface nanostructuring of the films on the deposition parameters is discussedconsidering in particular the number of laser pulses and the ambient gas nature and pressure.The performance of the deposited thin films as substrates for surface-enhanced Ramanspectroscopy (SERS was tested against the detection of molecules at a low concentration.Taking Raman maps on micrometer-sized areas, the spatial homogeneity of the substrateswith respect to the SERS signal was tested.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Nb2O5@C core-shell nanorods and Nb2O5nanorods by reacting Nb(OEt5via RAPET (reaction under autogenic pressure at elevated temperatures technique

    George PP


    Full Text Available AbstractThe reaction of pentaethoxy niobate, Nb(OEt5, at elevated temperature (800 °C under autogenic pressure provides a chemical route to niobium oxide nanorods coated with amorphous carbon. This synthetic approach yielded nanocrystalline particles of Nb2O5@C. As prepared Nb2O5@C core-shell nanorods is annealed under air at 500 °C for 3 h (removing the carbon coating results in neat Nb2O5nanorods. According to the TEM measurements, the Nb2O5crystals exhibit particle sizes between 25 nm and 100 nm, and the Nb2O5crystals display rod-like shapes without any indication of an amorphous character. The optical band gap of the Nb2O5nanorods was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and was found to be 3.8 eV.

  16. A proactive role of water molecules in acceptor recognition by Protein-O-fucosyltransferase 2

    Valero-González, Jessika; Leonhard-Melief, Christina; Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Hernández-Ruiz, Cristina; Pallarés, María Carmen; Yruela, Inmaculada; Vasudevan, Deepika; Lostao, Anabel; Corzana, Francisco; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon


    Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (POFUT2) is an essential enzyme that fucosylates serine/threonine residues of folded thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs). To date, the mechanism by which this enzyme recognizes very dissimilar TSRs remained unclear. By engineering of a fusion protein, we report the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans POFUT2 (CePOFUT2) in complex with GDP and human TSR1 that suggests an inverting mechanism for fucose transfer assisted by a catalytic base, and shows that nearly half of the TSR1 is embraced by CePOFUT2. A small number of direct interactions and a large network of water molecules maintain the complex. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that POFUT2 fucosylates threonine preferentially over serine and relies on folded TSRs containing the minimal consensus sequence CXX(S/T)C. Crystallographic and mutagenesis data together with atomic-level simulations uncover an unprecedented binding mechanism by which POFUT2 promiscuously recognizes the structural fingerprint of poorly homologous TSRs through a dynamic network of water-mediated interactions. PMID:26854667

  17. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), a serine protease associated with humoral pattern-recognition molecules

    Thiel, Steffen; Degn, Søren Egedal; Nielsen, H J;


    The pattern-recognition molecules mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the three ficolins circulate in blood in complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When MBL or ficolin recognizes a microorganism, activation of the MASPs occurs leading to activation of the complement system, an impo...

  18. Nb2O5 microstructures: a high-performance anode for lithium ion batteries

    Liu, Sainan; Zhou, Jiang; Cai, Zhenyang; Fang, Guozhao; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan


    We report the synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures by a facile hydrothermal approach with subsequent annealing treatment. As anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the 3D urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures exhibit superior electrochemical performance with excellent rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability. The electrode delivers high capacity of 131 mA h g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1 A g-1. The excellent electrochemical performance suggests the 3D urchin-like Nb2O5 microstructures may be a promising anode candidate for high-power lithium ion batteries.

  19. Biocompatible Nb2O5 thin films prepared by means of the sol-gel process.

    Velten, D; Eisenbarth, E; Schanne, N; Breme, J


    Thin biocompatible oxide films with an optimised composition and structure on the surface of titanium and its alloys can improve the implant integration. The preparation of these thin oxide layers with the intended improvement of the surface properties can be realised by means of the sol-gel process. Nb2O5 is a promising coating material for this application because of its extremely high corrosion resistance and thermodynamic stability. In this study, thin Nb2O5 layers ( TiO2 sol-gel coated cp-titanium concerning the spreading of cells, collagen I synthesis and wettability.

  20. The influence of the carrier molecule on amoxicillin recognition by specific IgE in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams.

    Ariza, Adriana; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Salas, María; Doña, Inmaculada; Martín-Serrano, Ángela; Pérez-Inestrosa, Ezequiel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Guzmán, Antonio E; Montañez, María I; Torres, María J


    The optimal recognition of penicillin determinants, including amoxicillin (AX), by specific IgE antibodies is widely believed to require covalent binding to a carrier molecule. The nature of the carrier and its contribution to the antigenic determinant is not well known. Here we aimed to evaluate the specific-IgE recognition of different AX-derived structures. We studied patients with immediate hypersensitivity reactions to AX, classified as selective or cross-reactors to penicillins. Competitive immunoassays were performed using AX itself, amoxicilloic acid, AX bound to butylamine (AXO-BA) or to human serum albumin (AXO-HSA) in the fluid phase, as inhibitors, and amoxicilloyl-poli-L-lysine (AXO-PLL) in the solid-phase. Two distinct patterns of AX recognition by IgE were found: Group A showed a higher recognition of AX itself and AX-modified components of low molecular weights, whilst Group B showed similar recognition of both unconjugated and conjugated AX. Amoxicilloic acid was poorly recognized in both groups, which reinforces the need for AX conjugation to a carrier for optimal recognition. Remarkably, IgE recognition in Group A (selective responders to AX) is influenced by the mode of binding and/or the nature of the carrier; whereas IgE in Group B (cross-responders to penicillins) recognizes AX independently of the nature of the carrier.

  1. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    Li, Ying [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Huang, Xiaohua [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); An, Yue [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Ren, Feng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta [Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Xiao, Zhicheng, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Ma, Keli, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Li, Yali, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078 (Singapore)


    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  2. Atomic force microscopy imaging and single molecule recognition force spectroscopy of coat proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    Tang, Jilin; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhu, Rong; Ebner, Andreas; Cutting, Simon; Gruber, Hermann J; Barak, Imrich; Hinterdorfer, Peter


    Coat assembly in Bacillus subtilis serves as a tractable model for the study of the self-assembly process of biological structures and has a significant potential for use in nano-biotechnological applications. In the present study, the morphology of B. subtilis spores was investigated by magnetically driven dynamic force microscopy (MAC mode atomic force microscopy) under physiological conditions. B. subtilis spores appeared as prolate structures, with a length of 0.6-3 microm and a width of about 0.5-2 microm. The spore surface was mainly covered with bump-like structures with diameters ranging from 8 to 70 nm. Besides topographical explorations, single molecule recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) was used to characterize the spore coat protein CotA. This protein was specifically recognized by a polyclonal antibody directed against CotA (anti-CotA), the antibody being covalently tethered to the AFM tip via a polyethylene glycol linker. The unbinding force between CotA and anti-CotA was determined as 55 +/- 2 pN. From the high-binding probability of more than 20% in force-distance cycles it is concluded that CotA locates in the outer surface of B. subtilis spores.

  3. Hydrogen gas detection of Nb2O5 nanoparticle-decorated CuO nanorod sensors

    Kheel, Hyejoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Lee, Jae Kyung; Mirzaei, Ali; Choi, Seungbok; Lee, Chongmu


    Pristine and Nb2O5 nanoparticles-decorated CuO nanorods were prepared successfully by a two step process: the thermal evaporation of a Cu foil and the spin coating of NbCl5 solution on CuO nanorods followed by thermal annealing. X-ray diffraction was performed to examine the structure and purity of the synthesized nanoatuctures. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the morphology and shape of the nanostuctures. The Nb2O5 nanoparticles-decorated CuO nanorod sensor showed responses of 217.05-862.54%, response times of 161-199 s and recovery times of 163-171 s toward H2 gas with concentrations in a range of 0.5 - 5% at the optimal working temperature of 300 °C. The Nb2O5 nanoparticle-decorated CuO nanorod sensor showed superior sensing performance to the pristine CuO nanorod sensor for the same H2 concentration range. The underlying mechanism for the enhanced hydrogen sensing performance of the CuO nanorods decorated with Nb2O5 nanoparticles is discussed.

  4. Association of the pattern recognition molecule H-ficolin with incident microalbuminuria in an inception cohort of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    Østergaard, Jakob A; Thiel, Steffen; Hovind, Peter;


    recognition molecule that activates the complement cascade on binding to glycated surfaces, but the role of H-ficolin in diabetic nephropathy is unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between circulating H-ficolin levels and the incidence of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We measured......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Increasing evidence links complement activation through the lectin pathway to diabetic nephropathy. Adverse complement recognition of proteins modified by glycation has been suggested to trigger complement auto-attack in diabetes. H-ficolin (also known as ficolin-3) is a pattern...

  5. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells using Nb2O5 blocking layer made by sol-gel method.

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jongsung


    In this study, nanocrystalline Nb2O5 thin film has been prepared via sol-gel process using niobium ethoxide as a precursor. Sol-gel films using various ratios of H2O/Nb have been prepared on fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate, and used as electron-blocking layer of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Nb2O5 film as deposited was amorphous, but became crystalline with hexagonal phase after heat treatment at 600 degrees C. With higher H2O/Nb molar ratio, denser and more uniform Nb2O5 film surface was obtained. DSSCs with the structure of FTO/Nb2O5/TiO2/Dye/EL/Pt/FTO have been prepared, and their solar-cell performance was evaluated. By introduction of Nb2O5 sol-gel film between FTO and TiO2 layer in DSSCs, energy conversion efficiency could be improved.

  6. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic behavior of WO3-TiO2/Nb2O5 catalysts


    TiO2/Nb2O5 photocatalyst loaded with WO3 (WO3-TiO2/Nb2O5) was prepared by a modified hydrolysis process, and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra and UV-Vis diffuse refraction spectroscopy.The photocatalytic activity of WO3-TiO2/Nb2O5 was investigated by employing splitting of water for O2 evolution. The results indicate that WO3 loading can pronouncedly improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2/Nb2O5 by using Fe3+ as an electron acceptor under UV irradiation. The optimum molar fraction of the loaded WO3 is 2%, and the largest speed of O2 evolution for 2%WO3-TiO2/Nb2O5 catalyst is 151.8 μmol/(L·h).

  7. Lack of character displacement in the male recognition molecule, bindin, in Altantic sea urchins of the genus Echinometra.

    Geyer, Laura B; Lessios, H A


    Bindin, a protein involved in sea urchin sperm-egg recognition and adhesion, is under positive selection in genera with sympatric species but evolves neutrally in genera in which all species are allopatric. This pattern has led to suggestions that reinforcement may be the source of the observed selection. Reproductive character displacement, or increased divergence of reproductive characters in areas where closely related species overlap, is often a consequence of reinforcement and has been shown to be present in one Indo-Pacific species of the genus Echinometra. In the Atlantic species of the same genus, positive selection has been shown to act on bindin of Echinometra lucunter. To examine whether the source of this selection is reinforcement, we determined variation on the first exon of bindin in E. lucunter in the Caribbean, where it is sympatric with Echinometra viridis, and in the rest of the Atlantic, where E. viridis is absent. There was no differentiation between bindin sequences from the two geographic regions; similar levels of positive selection were found to be acting in both areas. The similarities were not due to gene flow; mitochondrial DNA from the two regions indicates that E. lucunter populations most likely originated in the Atlantic and have not exchanged genes with Caribbean populations for approximately 200,000 years. The lack of evidence of stronger selection on bindin of E. lucunter in areas of sympatry with its sister species suggests that the source of selection is not reinforcement. Processes acting within species, such as sexual selection, sperm competition, or sexual conflict, are more likely to be involved in the evolution of this molecule.

  8. Lack of the pattern recognition molecule mannose-binding lectin increases susceptibility to influenza A virus infection

    Hartshorn Kevan L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a pattern recognition innate immune molecule, inhibits influenza A virus infection in vitro. MBL deficiency due to gene polymorphism in humans has been associated with infection susceptibility. These clinical observations were confirmed by animal model studies, in which mice genetically lacking MBL were susceptible to certain pathogens, including herpes simplex virus 2. Results We demonstrate that MBL is present in the lung of naïve healthy wild type (WT mice and that MBL null mice are more susceptible to IAV infection. Administration of recombinant human MBL (rhMBL reverses the infection phenotype, confirming that the infection susceptibility is MBL-mediated. The anti-viral mechanisms of MBL include activation of the lectin complement pathway and coagulation, requiring serum factors. White blood cells (WBCs in the lung increase in WT mice compared with MBL null mice on day 1 post-infection. In contrast, apoptotic macrophages (MΦs are two-fold higher in the lung of MBL null mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, MBL deficient macrophages appear to be susceptible to apoptosis in vitro. Lastly, soluble factors, which are associated with lung injury, are increased in the lungs of MBL null mice during IAV infection. These results suggest that MBL plays a key role against IAV infection. Conclusion MBL plays a key role in clearing IAV and maintaining lung homeostasis. In addition, our findings also suggest that MBL deficiency maybe a risk factor in IAV infection and MBL may be a useful adjunctive therapy for IAV infection.

  9. Glass to crystal transformation in the ternary BaOsbnd Nb2O5sbnd P2O5 system

    Kalenda, Petr; Koudelka, Ladislav; Mošner, Petr; Montagne, Lionel; Revel, Bertrand; Trebosc, Julien


    Study of the glass to crystal transformation was realized for two ternary compounds belonging to the glass-forming region of the BaOsbnd Nb2O5sbnd P2O5 system: Ba3Nb2(PO4)4O2 with 16.66 mol% Nb2O5 (glass composition 3BaO.1Nb2O5.2P2O5) and BaNb2P2O11 with 33.33 mol% Nb2O5 (glass composition 1BaO.1Nb2O5.1P2O5). Physico-chemical properties of the corresponding glasses and crystals were compared, as well as their Raman, 31P and 93Nb NMR spectra. The density of polycrystalline samples is higher by 0.24-0.25 g cm-3 than the density of the corresponding glasses. 31P MAS NMR spectra show a close similarity of phosphorus environments in glasses and the corresponding crystalline samples. High-field (18.8T) NMR and 93Nb decoupling were necessary to obtain enough resolution on 31P NMR spectra to separate the 2 different short range environments of phosphorus atoms in Ba3Nb2(PO4)4O2. Static 93Nb NMR spectra showed the presence of distorted NbO6 octahedra both in the 3BaO.1Nb2O5.2P2O5 glass and the corresponding Ba3Nb2(PO4)4O2 crystals, while the presence of more symmetric NbO6 octahedra was detected in the BaNb2P2O11 compound, which is in accordance with the crystalline structures. Raman and NMR spectra showed similar short-range structural features in glasses and polycrystalline samples, whereas Raman spectra could detect some differences in the medium-range order of the BaO.Nb2O5.P2O5 glass and the corresponding BaNb2P2O11 crystal.

  10. Adhesive-Bonded Ca(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3/Ba(Zn_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3 Layered Dielectric Resonators


    Ca(Mg_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 and Ba(Zn_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 ceramic cylinders with the same diameter were bonded by adhesive with low dielectric loss to yield the layered dielectric resonators, and the microwave dielectric characteristics were evaluated with TE_ 01δ mode. With increasing the Ba(Zn_ 1/3 Nb_ 2/3 )O_3 thickness fraction, the resonant frequency (f_0) decreased, while the effective dielectric constant (ε_ r,eff ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ_f) increased. Good microwave dielectri...

  11. Luminescence properties of red-emission Mg4 Nb2 O9:Eu3+ phosphor.

    Cao, Renping; Cao, Chunyan; Yu, Xiaoguang; Qiu, Jianrong


    Red-emitting Mg4 Nb2 O9 :Eu(3+) phosphor is synthesized via a solid-state reaction method in air, and its crystal structure and luminescence are investigated. The phosphor can be excited efficiently by ~ 395 nm light, coupled well with a ~ 395 nm near-ultraviolet chip and emits red light at ~ 613 nm with sharp spectra due to (5) D0  → (7)  F2 transition of the Eu(3+) ion. Mg4 Nb2 O9 :Eu(3+) phosphor sintered at 1350 ºC shows Commission international de I'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.6354, y = 0.3592, and is a potential red-emitting phosphor candidate for white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) under ~ 395 nm near-ultraviolet LED chip excitation.

  12. Preparation of nanocrystalline ferroelectric BaNb2O6 by citrate gel method

    S P Gaikwad; Violet Samuel; Renu Pasricha; V Ravi


    A gel was formed when a aqueous solution of BaCl2, NbF5 and citric acid in stoichiometric ratio is heated on a water bath. This gel on decomposition at 600°C yielded the nano crystallites of BaNb2O6, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction study (XRD). This is a much lower temperature as compared to that prepared by traditional solid state method (1000°C) as reported for the formation of BaNb2O6. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations revealed that the average particle size is 50 nm for the calcined powders. The room temperature dielectric constant at 1 kHz is found to be 1000. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop parameters of these samples were also studied.

  13. Study of magnetic defects in Nb2VSbO10

    Typek, J.; Cyran, A.; Zolnierkiewicz, G.; Bobrowska, M.; Filipek, E.; Piz, M.


    Magnetic properties of Nb2VSbO10, the compound formed in V-Sb-Nb oxide system, were investigated by dc magnetisation measurements using an MPMS-7 SQUID magnetometer and EPR conventional X-band Bruker E 500 spectrometer. Although the nominal valences of the constituting metal ions indicated a diamagnetic material, Nb2VSbO10 displayed rich and interesting magnetic behaviour due to the existence of numerous defects related to oxygen vacancies. Isothermal magnetisation has revealed the presence of three spin subsystems - two different paramagnetic systems and antiferromagnetic spin clusters. EPR spectra showed the presence of three components, involving isolated and interacting V4+ ions as well as antiferromagnetic spin clusters. All these magnetic defects are the result of valence changes of metal ions due to charge compensation in the neighborhood of oxygen vacancies, most probably located on grains boundaries.

  14. Facile preparation of C, N co-modified Nb2O5 nanoneedles with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Xue, Jiao


    C, N co-modified niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) nanoneedles have been successfully synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method with Niobium Chloride (NbCl5) as a precursor and triethylamine as both the carbon and nitrogen source. The formation process of Nb2O5 nanoneedles has been presented in detail by investigating the effect of the crystallization temperature, the amount of triethylamine and the calcination temperature. The as-prepared Nb2O5 nanoneedles exhibit more efficient photocatalytic activity than commercial Degussa P25 and commercial Nb2O5 towards photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) at a concentration of 10 mg L−1 under visible light. Special chemical species, such as carbonate species and NOX species, that exist on the surface of the as-prepared catalyst could extend the absorption into the visible region and thus enhance the photocatalytic activity of the Nb2O5 nanoneedles. At the same time, the obtained Nb2O5 nanoneedles exhibit excellent stability even after three successive cycles. A possible photodegradation mechanism was proposed and the corresponding photodecomposition process of RhB over the Nb2O5 nanoneedles was elucidated by a reactive species trapping experiment, suggesting that h+ and O2˙− play a major role in the photodegradation of RhB in aqueous solution.

  15. Ultrafine Nb2O5 Nanocrystal Coating on Reduced Graphene Oxide as Anode Material for High Performance Sodium Ion Battery.

    Yan, Litao; Chen, Gen; Sarker, Swagotom; Richins, Stephanie; Wang, Huiqiang; Xu, Weichuan; Rui, Xianhong; Luo, Hongmei


    Ultrafine niobium oxide nanocrystals/reduced graphene oxide (Nb2O5 NCs/rGO) was demonstrated as a promising anode material for sodium ion battery with high rate performance and high cycle durability. Nb2O5 NCs/rGO was synthesized by controllable hydrolysis of niobium ethoxide and followed by heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing forming gas. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that Nb2O5 NCs with average particle size of 3 nm were uniformly deposited on rGO sheets and voids among Nb2O5 NCs existed. The architecture of ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs anchored on a highly conductive rGO network can not only enhance charge transfer and buffer the volume change during sodiation/desodiation process but also provide more active surface area for sodium ion storage, resulting in superior rate and cycle performance. Ex situ XPS analysis revealed that the sodium ion storage mechanism in Nb2O5 could be accompanied by Nb(5+)/Nb(4+) redox reaction and the ultrafine Nb2O5 NCs provide more surface area to accomplish the redox reaction.

  16. Electronic parameters of Sr2Nb2O7 and chemical bonding

    Atuchin, V.V.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Korotkov, A.S.


    /2)) and Delta(O-Sr) = BE(O 1s)-BE(Sr 3d(5/2)), were used to characterize the valence electron transfer on the formation of the Nb-O and Sr-O bonds. The chemical bonding effects were considered on the basis of our XPS results for Sr2Nb2O7 and earlier published structural and XPS data for other Sr- or Nb...

  17. The Optical Properties of Crystalline Zn3Nb2O8 Nanomaterials Obtained by Hydrothermal Method

    Mihaela Birdeanu; Mirela Vaida; Eugenia Fagadar-Cosma


    The present study is focused on the obtaining of the Zn3Nb2O8 nanomaterial using the hydrothermal method and its characterization through different techniques. X-ray diffraction at room temperature revealed that a novel crystalline form of the nanomaterial forms at 1100°C belonging to monoclinic space group C2/c. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy evidenced the columnar morphology of the particle’s agglomeration and the high resolution electron transmission microscopy confirms the me...

  18. Synthesis of Ba3ZnNb2O9–Sr3ZnNb2O9 solid solution and their dielectric properties

    M Thirumal; A K Ganguli


    Oxides of the type, Ba3–SrZnNb2O9 (0 ≤ ≤ 3), were synthesized by the solid state route. Oxides calcined at 1000°C show single cubic phase for all the compositions. The cubic lattice parameter (a) decreases with increase in Sr concentration from 4.0938(2) for = 0 to 4.0067(2) for = 3. Scanning electron micrographs show maximum grain size for the = 1 composition (∼ 2 m) at 1200°C. Disks sintered at 1200°C show dielectric constant variation between 28 and 40 (at 500 kHz) for different values of with the maximum dielectric constant at = 1.

  19. Magnetic properties of the (CoxMn1-x)4Nb2O9 solid solution series

    Schwarz, B.; Kraft, D.; Theissmann, R.; Ehrenberg, H.


    Co4Nb2O9 and Mn4Nb2O9 order collinear antiferromagnetically with the same magnetic spin structure type below 30 and 125 K, respectively. Magnetization measurements on powder samples of the solid solution series (Co,Mn)4Nb2O9 prepared by arc melting reveal a linear progression of the Néel-temperature with Co/Mn ratio. Powder neutron diffraction experiments performed for a selected composition confirm the existence of the same magnetic structure type as found for the end members. (Co,Mn)4Nb2O9 samples prepared by subsolidus reaction and comparably much lower cooling rates after tempering contain very small amounts of additional (Co,Mn)3O4 spinel phases with strongly varying transition temperatures as a function of the Co/Mn ratio.

  20. Mesoporous orthorhombic Nb2O5 nanofibers as pseudocapacitive electrodes with ultra-stable Li storage characteristics

    Cheong, Jun Young; Jung, Ji-Won; Youn, Doo-Young; Kim, Chanhoon; Yu, Sunmoon; Cho, Su-Ho; Yoon, Ki Ro; Kim, Il-Doo


    Ultra-stable pseudocapacitive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are increasing in demand as highly sustainable energy storage system with excellent charge transport is important. The establishment of facile, controllable, and scalable synthesis of pseudocapacitive electrode materials is an attractive solution to realize such objectives. Here, we have successfully fabricated mesoporous orthorhombic Nb2O5 nanofibers (m-T-Nb2O5 NFs) by simple single-spinneret electrospinning followed by calcination at 600 °C. As-formed m-T-Nb2O5 NFs exhibit high surface area (23.7 m2 g-1) and a number of mesopores in the vacant sites where organic polymer was once decomposed. Such rationally designed m-T-Nb2O5-NFs allow facile Li ion and electron transport, with pseudocapacitive behavior. Arising from the high surface area coupled with mesopores in-between the Nb2O5 nanograins, it exhibits ultra-long cycle retention (a capacity of ∼160 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1 after 2000 cycles and ∼88 mAh g-1 at 3000 mA g-1 after 5000 cycles) and higher rate capability (∼70 mAh g-1 at 5000 mA g-1). Such cycle retention characteristics of m-T-Nb2O5-NFs are at least 100-fold slower capacity decay compared with previously reported one-dimensional (1D) Nb2O5 nanostructures and even superior or comparable to recently reported Nb2O5-graphene composite materials.

  1. On the Superior Activity and Selectivity of PtCo/Nb2O5 Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    den Otter, J. H.; Yoshida, H.; Ledesma, C.; Chen, D.; de Jong, K. P.


    In this study Co/Nb2O5 catalysts and the effect of Pt-promotion thereon are investigated in comparison with γ-Al2O3- and α-Al2O3-supported catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Upon Pt-promotion of Co/Nb2O5 the cobalt-weight normalized FT activity was found to increase by a factor of

  2. Photoelectrochemical properties of titanium niobate (TiNb2O7) and titanium tantalate (TiTa2O7)

    Haart, L.G.J. de; Boessenkool, H.J.; Blasse, G.


    The diffuse reflection spectra and the photoelectrochemlcal properties of TiNb2O7 and TiTa2O7 are reported. Both compounds show an optical absorption edge near 3.0 eV. TiNb2O7 can be used as photoanode In a photoelectrochemlcal cell. The onset potential of the photocurrent is about −0.9 V SCE In 1M

  3. Micro-X-ray fluorescence as a general high-throughput screening method for catalyst discovery and small molecule recognition.

    Miller, Thomasin C; Mann, Grace; Havrilla, George J; Wells, Cyndi A; Warner, Benjamin P; Baker, R Tom


    A powerful high-throughput screening technique is described for the rapid screening of bead-based libraries for catalyst discovery and molecular recognition. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) screens materials for elemental composition with mesoscale analysis. This method is nondestructive and requires minimal sample preparation and no special tags for analysis, and the screening time is dependent on the desired sensitivity. The speed, sensitivity, and simplicity of MXRF as a high-throughput screening technique were applied to screen bead-based libraries of oligopeptides for phosphate hydrolysis catalysts and molecular recognition of selective receptors for the degradation products and analogues of chemical warfare agents. This paper demonstrates the analytical or HTS capability of MXRF for combinatorial screening. It is meant only to show the capabilities of MXRF and is not meant as an exhaustive study of the catalyst and molecular recognition systems presented.

  4. Acquisition method of the peculiar recognition molecule for separation and analysis; Bunri {center_dot} bunseki no tameno tokuiteki ninshiki bunshi no shutokuho

    Kato, Shigeo; Murao, Kenji [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan)


    In this review on acquisition method of the peculiar recognition molecule for separation and analysis, the following were outlined: Protein production which fused the affinity tag for the specific separation and selection process of monoclonal antibody from combinatorial library. And, the usefulness of anti-peptide antibody in the immunisation affinity separation was described. N- of the separation object protein or anti-peptide antibody for the peptide of the C- end part adsorbed antigen peptide and object protein, and the adsorption protein was able to be eluted under the moderate condition in the eluate including the antigen peptide. (translated by NEDO)

  5. High-Rate Intercalation without Nanostructuring in Metastable Nb2O5 Bronze Phases.

    Griffith, Kent J; Forse, Alexander C; Griffin, John M; Grey, Clare P


    Nanostructuring and nanosizing have been widely employed to increase the rate capability in a variety of energy storage materials. While nanoprocessing is required for many materials, we show here that both the capacity and rate performance of low-temperature bronze-phase TT- and T-polymorphs of Nb2O5 are inherent properties of the bulk crystal structure. Their unique "room-and-pillar" NbO6/NbO7 framework structure provides a stable host for lithium intercalation; bond valence sum mapping exposes the degenerate diffusion pathways in the sites (rooms) surrounding the oxygen pillars of this complex structure. Electrochemical analysis of thick films of micrometer-sized, insulating niobia particles indicates that the capacity of the T-phase, measured over a fixed potential window, is limited only by the Ohmic drop up to at least 60C (12.1 A·g(-1)), while the higher temperature (Wadsley-Roth, crystallographic shear structure) H-phase shows high intercalation capacity (>200 mA·h·g(-1)) but only at moderate rates. High-resolution (6/7)Li solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of T-Nb2O5 revealed two distinct spin reservoirs, a small initial rigid population and a majority-component mobile distribution of lithium. Variable-temperature NMR showed lithium dynamics for the majority lithium characterized by very low activation energies of 58(2)-98(1) meV. The fast rate, high density, good gravimetric capacity, excellent capacity retention, and safety features of bulk, insulating Nb2O5 synthesized in a single step at relatively low temperatures suggest that this material not only is structurally and electronically exceptional but merits consideration for a range of further applications. In addition, the realization of high rate performance without nanostructuring in a complex insulating oxide expands the field for battery material exploration beyond conventional strategies and structural motifs.

  6. A coprecipitation technique to prepare ZnNb2O6 powders

    V V Deshpande; M M Patil; S C Navale; V Ravi


    A simple coprecipitation technique was successfully applied for the preparation of pure ultrafine single phase, ZnNb2O6 (ZN). Ammonium hydroxide was used to precipitate Zn2+ and Nb5+ cations as hydroxides simultaneously. This precursor on heating at 750°, produced ZN powders. For comparison, ZN powders were also prepared by the traditional solid state method. The phase contents and lattice parameters were studied by the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size and morphology were studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM).

  7. Morphology and Luminescence of Nanocrystalline Nb2O5 Doped with Eu3+

    Daniele Falcomer


    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanocrystalline Nb2O5:Eu3+ has been achieved by using a Pechini procedure. The obtained materials are single-phase niobia with the orthorhombic structure, average crystallite size around 25 nm and average lattice strain of about 0.002. TEM images show that the particles are rectangular and reasonably isolated. The luminescence of the Eu3+ ions in the niobia lattice is efficient and affected by a strong inhomogeneous broadening, due to an important disorder around the lanthanide ions.

  8. Preparation of niobium nanoparticles by sodiothermic reduction of Nb_2O_5 in molten salts


    Niobium nanoparticles with high purity were prepared by a sodiothermic reduction process using Nb2O5 as the raw material, LiCl, NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 as the diluents and sodium as the reducing reagent. The effects of the different molten salt systems, CaCl2 content, reaction time, excessive sodium and reaction temperature on the characteristics of the obtained niobium powder were discussed. The as-prepared niobium nanoparticles under the optimum experimental conditions were obtained by sodiothermic reduction ...

  9. Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo.

    Hein, E; Munthe-Fog, L; Thiara, A S; Fiane, A E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P


    The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands, including biomaterials in vitro, and low ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Bloods were drawn at five time-points before, during and postoperatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosphorylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, ficolin-1 and -3. In the Bioline® group the ficolin-2 levels decreased significantly after initiation of surgery (P circuits. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was reduced significantly in both groups after start of operation (P circuits and did not reach baseline level 24 h postoperation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures.

  10. Flexible Nb2O5 nanowires/graphene film electrode for high-performance hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors

    Song, Hao; Fu, Jijiang; Ding, Kang; Huang, Chao; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xuming; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Peng, Xiang; Chu, Paul K.


    The hybrid Li-ion electrochemical supercapacitor (Li-HSC) combining the battery-like anode with capacitive cathode is a promising energy storage device boasting large energy and power densities. Orthorhombic Nb2O5 is a good anode material in Li-HSCs because of its large pseudocapacitive Li-ion intercalation capacity. Herein, we report a high-performance, binder-free and flexible anode consisting of long Nb2O5 nanowires and graphene (L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO). The paper-like L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO film electrode has a large mass loading of Nb2O5 of 93.5 wt% as well as short solid-state ion diffusion length, and enhanced conductivity (5.1 S cm-1). The hybrid L-Nb2O5 NWs/rGO paper electrode shows a high reversible specific capacity of 160 mA h g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, superior rate capability with capacitance retention of 60% when the current density increases from 0.2 to 5 A g-1, as well as excellent cycle stability. The Li-HSC device based on the L-Nb2O5/rGO anode and the cathode of biomass-derived carbon nanosheets delivers an energy density of 106 Wh kg-1 at 580 W kg-1 and 32 Wh kg-1 at a large power density of 14 kW kg-1. Moreover, the Li-HSC device exhibits excellent cycling performance without obvious capacitance decay after 1000 cycles.

  11. Effect of quenching in the Ti-Nb-2%Al alloys structure; Efeito da tempera na estrutura das ligas Ti-Nb-2%Al

    Santos, L.C.O.; Matlakhova, L.A.; Matlakhov, A.N.; Toledo, R. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Lab. de Materiais Avancados (LAMAV)], e-mail:


    In the present work, the Ti-Nb-2%Al alloys, with the rate varied Nb from 15 to 40%, they were submitted to the quenched since 1000 deg C, in water, to verify the influence of Nb in the structure and phase composition. The alloys were obtained in a process of five coalitions in an oven to electric arch and, soon afterwards, wrought the hot and homogenized to 1200 deg C, for 10 hours. After the quenching and conventional metallographic preparation of the samples obliquely cut, the alloys were examined through the optic microscopic, diffraction of ray-X and Vickers hardness. The very defined correlation was shown between the niobium rate and the structure resulting from the quenched alloys. The phase martensitic was revealed in the alloy with 15% Nb, the phases martensitic and beta metastable in the alloys containing above 30% Nb and the phase beta in the alloys with 38% Nb and 40% Nb. the hardness of the phase martensitic increases with the increment of the niobium rate. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Nb2O5 and Ag/Nb2O5 in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes from textile industries

    Silva M.K.


    Full Text Available The textile industries are distinguished by the use of dyes that are applied to textiles. Dyes are pollutant materials that are difficult to decompose by microbiological treatment. An alternative way to prevent contamination of the environment by dyes is the oxidation of these materials through photocatalysis, a process by which illumination of an oxide semiconductor produces photoexcited electrons and cations that migrate over the surface of the oxide, effectively participating in the chemical reaction. The purpose of this work is to synthesize catalysts and study their performance in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes. Niobium pentoxide and silver oxide supported on niobium pentoxide (Ag/Nb2O5, prepared by the impregnation method, were used as catalysts. Prior to use the catalysts were submitted to thermal treatment for drying and calcination. Drying was carried out at 150degreesC for 12 hours and then the solids were calcined at 500degreesC for 5 hours. After that the catalysts were applied in the photocatalytic degradation of different types of dyes from textile industries. Discoloration tests were carried out in a photocatalytic reaction unit during a period of 24 hours under different operational conditions in the presence and absence of ultraviolet light (UV. The results, evaluated by spectrophotometry, show that photodegradation of the dyes occurs, which allows evaluation of the influence of the silver on photocatalytic degradation.

  13. The Optical Properties of Crystalline Zn3Nb2O8 Nanomaterials Obtained by Hydrothermal Method

    Mihaela Birdeanu


    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the obtaining of the Zn3Nb2O8 nanomaterial using the hydrothermal method and its characterization through different techniques. X-ray diffraction at room temperature revealed that a novel crystalline form of the nanomaterial forms at 1100°C belonging to monoclinic space group C2/c. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy evidenced the columnar morphology of the particle’s agglomeration and the high resolution electron transmission microscopy confirms the measured interplanar distances calculated from the X-ray diffraction experiments. Using the UV-VIS spectrum and Kubelka-Munk equations, the absorbance and the band gap for the Zn3Nb2O8 nanomaterial were calculated. PL spectrum reveals a single peak at 465 nm corresponding to the blue color fluorescence. The novel crystalline nanomaterial might find applications in fluorescence covering of technical devices, due to its capacity to preserve blue fluorescence both in acrylic based paint and after embedding in isopropyl alcohol.

  14. Nb2O5 Nanostructure Evolution on Nb Surfaces via Low-Energy He(+) Ion Irradiation.

    Novakowski, Theodore Joseph; Tripathi, Jitendra Kumar; Hassanein, Ahmed


    We propose low-energy, broad-beam He(+) ion irradiation as a novel processing technique for the generation of Nb2O5 surface nanostructures due to its relative simplicity and scalability in a commercial setting. Since there have been relatively few studies involving the interaction of high-fluence, low-energy He(+) ion irradiation and Nb (or its oxidized states), this systematic study explores both effects of fluence and sample temperature during irradiation on resulting surface morphology. Detailed normal and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal subsurface He bubble formation and elucidate potential driving mechanisms for nanostructure evolution. A combination of specular optical reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is also used to gain additional information on roughness and stoichiometry of irradiated surfaces. Our investigations show significant surface modification for all tested irradiation conditions; the resulting surface structure size and geometry have a strong dependence on both sample temperature during irradiation and total ion fluence. Optical reflectivity measurements on irradiated surfaces demonstrate increased surface roughening with increasing ion fluence, and XPS shows higher oxidation levels for samples irradiated at lower temperatures, suggesting larger surface roughness and porosity. Overall, it was found that low-energy He(+) ion irradiation is an efficient processing technique for nanostructure formation, and surface structures are highly tunable by adjusting ion fluence and Nb2O5 sample temperature during irradiation. These findings may have excellent potential applications for solar energy conversion through improved efficiency due to effective light absorption.

  15. Flux-assisted synthesis of SnNb2O6 for tuning photocatalytic properties

    Noureldine, Dalal


    A flux-assisted method was used to synthesize SnNb2O6 as a visible-light-responsive metal oxide photocatalyst. The role of flux was investigated in detail using different flux to reactant molar ratios (1 : 1, 3 : 1, 6 : 1, 10 : 1, and 14 : 1) and different reaction temperatures (300, 500, and 600 °C). The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET), and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Flux-assisted synthesis led to tin niobate particles of platelet morphology with smooth surfaces. The synthesized crystal showed a 2D anisotropic growth along the (600) plane as the flux ratio increased. The particles synthesized with a high reactant to flux ratio (1 : 10 or higher) exhibited slightly improved photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from an aqueous methanol solution under visible radiation (λ > 420 nm). The photo-deposition of platinum and PbO2 was examined to gain a better understanding of electrons and hole migration pathways in these layered materials. The HR-STEM observation revealed that no preferential deposition of these nanoparticles was observed depending on the surface facets of SnNb 2O6. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  16. Cooperative Reformable Channel System with Unique Recognition of Small Gas Molecules in a two-dimensional ZIF-membrane

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Liu, Zhe

    We report a cooperative reformable channel system in a coordination porous polymer, named as ZIF-L. Three types of local flexible ligands coexist in the crystal structure of this polymer, resulting in ultra-flexibility. The reformable channel is able to regulate permeation of a nonspherical guest molecule, such as N2 or CO2, based on its longer molecular dimension, which is in a striking contrast to conventional molecular sieves that regulate the shorter cross-sectional dimension of the guest molecules. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the guest molecule induces dynamic motion of the flexible ligands, leading to the channel reformation, and then the guest molecule reorientates itself to fit in the reformed channel. Such a unique ``induced fit-in'' mechanism causes the gas molecule to pass through 6 membered-ring windows in the c- crystal direction of ZIF-L with its longer axis parallel to the window plane. Our experimental permeance of N2 through the ZIF-L membranes is about three times greater than that of CO2, supporting the DFT simulation predictions.

  17. Strict major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule class-specific binding by co-receptors enforces MHC-restricted αβTCR recognition during T lineage subset commitment

    Xiao-long eLi


    Full Text Available Since the discovery of co-receptor dependent αβTCR recognition, considerable effort has been spent on elucidating the basis of CD4 and CD8 lineage commitment in the thymus. The latter is responsible for generating mature CD4 helper and CD8αβ cytotoxic T cell subsets. Although CD4+ and CD8+ T cell recognition of peptide antigens is known to be MHC class I- and MHC class II-restricted, respectively, the mechanism of single positive (SP thymocyte lineage commitment from bipotential double positive (DP progenitors is not fully elucidated. Classical models to explain thymic CD4 versus CD8 fate determination have included a stochastic selection model or instructional models. The latter are based either on strength of signal or duration of signal impacting fate. More recently, differential co-receptor gene imprinting has been shown to be involved in expression of transcription factors impacting cytotoxic T cell development. Here, we address commitment from a structural perspective, focusing on the nature of co-receptor binding to MHC molecules. By surveying 58 MHC class II and 224 MHC class I crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB, it becomes clear that CD4 cannot bind to MHC I molecules, nor can CD8αβ or CD8αα bind to MHC II molecules. Given that the co-receptor delivers Lck to phosphorylate exposed CD3 ITAMs within a peptide/MHC (pMHC-ligated TCR complex to initiate cell signaling, this strict co-receptor recognition fosters MHC class-restricted SP thymocyte lineage commitment at the DP stage even though both co-receptors are expressed on a single cell. In short, the binding preference of an αβTCR for a peptide complexed with an MHC molecule dictates which co-receptor subsequently binds, thereby supporting development of that subset lineage. How function within the lineage is linked further to biopotential fate determination is discussed.

  18. Investigation of Boron-doping Effect on Photoluminescence Properties of CdNb2O6: Eu(3+) Phosphors.

    Başak, Ali Sadi; Ekmekçi, Mete Kaan; Erdem, Murat; Ilhan, Mustafa; Mergen, Ayhan


    Pure, Eu(3+) - doped and Eu(3+),B(3+) co-doped CdNb2O6 powders have been prepared by a molten salt synthesis method using Li2SO4/Na2SO4 salt mixture as a flux at a relatively low temperatures as compared to solid state reaction. X-ray diffraction patterns of pure CdNb2O6 samples indicated orthorhombic single phase. Photoluminescence investigations of CdNb2O6 samples showed a strong blue emission band centered at 460 nm. For Eu-doped CdNb2O6 samples, the luminescence of Eu(3+) was observed with the host red emission varying with the Eu-doping concentrations. This PL characteristic of the doped samples may be attributed to the energy transfer between Eu(3+) and niobate groups (NbO6). Boron incorporation has remarkably increased the luminescence of Eu(3+)-doped CdNb2O6.

  19. [Design and synthesis of imine compound for metal cation logical gates recognition and setup of double-control fluorescent molecule switch].

    Huang, Tao; Zhu, Yu-lian; Dai, Xue-qin; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yan


    The Schiff base's reduced product N,N-bis(4-methoxybenzyl) ethane-1,2-diamine, which was used as a receptor L, was designed and synthesized for the first time in the present article. It was found that Cu2+ and Fe3+ could quench L in fluorescence observably and Zn2+ and Cd2+ could enhance L remarkably. So the two pair metal cation could set up "OR" logical gate relation with the receptor molecule L, then a logical recognition system be formed. The data of resolved ZnL's single crystal indicated that ZnL belonged to monoclinic (CCDC No. 747994). Integrated spectrum instrument was used to characterize the structure of its alike series of complex compound. According to ZnL's excellent fluorescence character and the ability to exchange with contiguous metal cation, ZnZ+/ZnL/Co2+, Zn2+/ZnL/Nit+ fluorescent molecule switch was designed. It is hoped that the work above could be positive for the development of molecule computer, bio-intellectualized inspection technology (therapy) and instrument.

  20. Ultrasonic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of Basic Red-2 by using Nb2O5 nano catalyst

    Gunvant H. Sonawane


    Full Text Available The ultrasonic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of Basic Red-2 accompanied by Nb2O5 nano catalysts were studied. The structure and morphology of synthesized Nb2O5 nano catalyst was investigated using scanning election microscopy (SEM, Electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD.The effects of various experimental parameters such as the Basic Red-2 concentration, catalyst dose, pH and addition of H2O2 on the ultrasonic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation were investigated. Photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of Basic Red-2 was strongly affected by initial dye concentration, catalyst dose, H2O2 addition and pH. Basic pH (pH-10 was favored for the ultrasonic (US, photocatalytic (UV + Nb2O5 and sonophotocatalytic (US + UV + Nb2O5 degradation of Basic Red-2 by using Nb2O5 nano catalyst. The ultrasonic degradation of Basic Red-2 was enhanced by the addition of photocatalyst. Then, the effect of Nb2O5 dose on photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation were studied, and it was found that increase in catalyst dose increase in the percentage degradation of Basic Red-2. In addition, the effects of H2O2 on ultrasonic, photolytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation was also investigated, and it was found that H2O2 enhances the % degradation of Basic Red-2. The possible mechanism of ultrasonic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of Basic Red-2 reported by LC-MS shows generation of different degradation products

  1. Ftmw Study of the Chirality Recognition Between Two Different Chiral Molecules: the Glycidol-Propylene Oxide Complex

    Thomas, Javix; Sunahori, Fumie X.; Borho, Nicole; Xu, Yunjie


    The chirality recognition effect between the prototype chiral molecular systems, i.e. glycidol and propylene oxide has been studied using rotational spectroscopy and high level ab initio calculations. Extensive ab initio calculations have been performed to locate all possible low energy conformers of the diastereomeric pair and twenty eight minima have been found. The four most sable hetero and four homo chiral dimers, formed from the two lowest energy monomer conformations G+g- and G-g+ of the glycidol, were predicted to be close in their stability. Jet-cooled rotational spectra of some of them have been detected using a pulsed molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometer and been assigned for the first time. All the low energy binary conformers observed show one primary intermolecular O-H- - -O hydrogen bond and two secondary intermolecular C-H- - -O hydrogen bonds. The induced fit phenomenon detectedwill be discussed.

  2. DMBT1 functions as pattern-recognition molecule for poly-sulfated and poly-phosphorylated ligands

    End, Caroline; Bikker, Floris; Renner, Marcus


    Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted glycoprotein displaying a broad bacterial-binding spectrum. Recent functional and genetic studies linked DMBT1 to the suppression of LPS-induced TLR4-mediated NF-kappaB activation and to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. Here, we aimed...... at unraveling the molecular basis of its function in mucosal protection and of its broad pathogen-binding specificity. We report that DMBT1 directly interacts with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and carrageenan, a structurally similar sulfated polysaccharide, which is used as a texturizer and thickener in human...... dietary products. However, binding of DMBT1 does not reduce the cytotoxic effects of these agents to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. DSS and carrageenan compete for DMBT1-mediated bacterial aggregation via interaction with its bacterial-recognition motif. Competition and ELISA studies identify poly...

  3. Kinetic Rates of the Fischer Tropsch Synthesis on a Co/Nb2O5 Catalyst

    Víctor R.Ahón; Paulo L.C.Lage; Carlos Souza; Fabiana M.Mendes; Martin Schmal


    The kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction over a Co/Nb2O5 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out under isothermal and isobaric conditions (T=543 K, P=2.1 MPa) and under different conditions of several H2/CO feed molar ratio (0.49-4.79), space velocities (0.2-3.8 h-1), mass of catalyst (0.3-1.5 g), and CO conversion (10%-29%).Synthesis gas conversion was measured and data were reduced to estimate the kinetic parameters for different Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expressions. Differential and integral reactor models were used for the nonlinear regression of kinetics parameters. One of the rate equations could well explain the data. The hydrocarbon product distributions that were experimentally determined exhibited an unusual behavior,and a possible explanation was discussed.

  4. Coupling dynamics of Nb/Nb2O5 relaxation oscillators.

    Li, Shuai; Liu, Xinjun; Nandi, Sanjoy Kumar; Venkatachalam, Dinesh Kumar; Elliman, Robert Glen


    The coupling dynamics of capacitively coupled Nb/Nb2O5 relaxation oscillators are shown to exhibit rich collective behaviour depending on the negative differential resistance response of the individual devices, the operating voltage and the coupling capacitance. These coupled oscillators are shown to exhibit stable frequency and phase locking states at source voltages as low as 2.2 V, with frequency control in the range from 0.85 to 16.2 MHz and frequency tunability of ∼8 MHz V(-1). The experimental realisation of such compact, scalable and low power coupled-oscillator systems is of particular significance for the development and implementation of large oscillator networks in non-Boolean computing architectures.

  5. Preparation of nanocrystalline Mg4Nb2O9 by citrate gel method

    A Vadivel Murugan; A B Gaikwad; V Ravi


    A gel was formed when a aqueous solution of Mg(NO3)2, NbF5 and citric acid in stoichiometric ratio was heated on a water bath. No precipitation was observed at acidic pH and gellation was complete with evaporation of the solvent. This gel on decomposition at 750°C produced nanocrystallites of ternary oxide, Mg4Nb2O9 (M4N2). The phase contents and lattice parameters were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) at various temperatures. Particle size and morphology were studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). For comparison, M4N2 powders were also prepared by conventional ceramic route at 900°C.

  6. The effect of temperature in flux-assisted synthesis of SnNb2O6

    Noureldine, Dalal


    A flux-assisted method was used to synthesize SnNb2O6 as a visible-light-responsive metal oxide photocatalyst. The role of synthesis temperature was investigated in detail using different reaction temperatures (300, 500, 600, 800, 1000 °C). The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (BET). The synthesis with SnCl2 as a flux led to tin niobate particles in the platelet morphology with smooth surfaces. The synthesized crystal showed 2D anisotropic growth along the (600) plane as the flux ratio increased. The particles synthesized with a high reactant to flux ratio (1:10 or higher) exhibited improved photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution from an aqueous methanol solution under visible radiation (λ > 420 nm). © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  7. Obtencion de isopulegol sobre catalizadores de ir /nb2o5/sio2. aproximacion cinetica

    Rojas, Hugo; CASTAÑEDA, JUAN CARLOS; Reyes,Patricio


    La cinética de la conversión de citronelal hacia isopulegol sobre el catalizador se realizó en un intervalo de temperaturas de 303 – 343 K, presión de hidrógeno de 0.62 a 0.20 MPa y concentraciones de citronelal de 0.1M a 0.025 M. Los resultados indican que el catalizador de Iridio soportado en Nb2O5SiO2 induce la selectividad hacia isopulegol debido a una alta acidez superficial y la presencia de sitios metálicos. Para evitar limitaciones de transferencia de masa se utilizo una agitación vig...

  8. Nb2O2F3: a reduced niobium (III/IV) oxyfluoride with a complex structural, magnetic, and electronic phase transition.

    Tran, T Thao; Gooch, Melissa; Lorenz, Bernd; Litvinchuk, Alexander P; Sorolla, Maurice G; Brgoch, Jakoah; Chu, Paul C W; Guloy, Arnold M


    A new niobium oxyfluoride, Nb2O2F3, synthesized through the reaction of Nb, SnO, and SnF2 in Sn flux, within welded Nb containers, crystallizes in a monoclinic structure (space group: I2/a; a = 5.7048(1)Å, b = 5.1610(1)Å, c = 12.2285(2)Å, β = 95.751(1)°). It features [Nb2X10] units (X = O, F), with short (2.5739(1) Å) Nb-Nb bonds, that are linked through shared O/F vertices to form a 3D structure configurationally isotypic to ζ-Nb2O5. Nb2O2F3 undergoes a structural transition at ∼90 K to a triclinic structure (space group: P1̅; a = 5.1791(5)Å, b = 5.7043(6)Å, c = 6.8911(7)Å, α = 108.669(3)°, β = 109.922(2)°, γ = 90.332(3)°). The transition is described as a disproportionation or charge ordering of [Nb2](7+) dimers: (2[Nb2](7+) → [Nb2](6+) + [Nb2](8+)), resulting in doubly (2.5000(9) Å) and singly bonded (2.6560(9) Å) Nb2 dimers. The structural transition is accompanied by an unusual field-independent "spin-gap-like" magnetic transition.

  9. Toxin warfare agents:recognition molecules and drugs for control%生物毒素战剂:检测识别分子与防治药物



    There are various types of toxins in nature. However, these toxins. which are characterized by the ready availability, easy production and high toxicity, are likely biological warfare agents. Toxin warfare agents are different from traditional bacterial and viral agents or from chemical warfare agents in that they pose a great threat because of their diverse potency and the lack of efficacious drugs. Therefore, it is quite important to develop specific. sensitive recognition molecules for detection of toxins and drugs against intoxication caused by toxin agents. This review focuses on advances in recognition molecules of toxins and some drugs used as prevention and treatment hased on the characteristics of toxin warfare agents .%自然界中存在着种类繁多的毒素物质,但最有可能用作战剂的是那些获取方便、制备容易、毒性强、施放后可致人死亡或失能的毒素.毒素战剂既不同于传统的细菌、病毒战剂,也不同于化学毒剂,其最大的威胁来自它的高毒性及缺乏有效的治疗手段.因此,发展毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物就显得尤为重要.本文讨论了生物毒素战剂相关概念、特征,重点综述了毒素战剂的检测识别分子与防治药物研究进展.

  10. Human L-ficolin, a recognition molecule of the lectin activation pathway of complement, activates complement by binding to pneumolysin, the major toxin of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Ali, Youssif M; Kenawy, Hany I; Muhammad, Adnan; Sim, Robert B; Andrew, Peter W; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J


    The complement system is an essential component of the immune response, providing a critical line of defense against different pathogens including S. pneumoniae. Complement is activated via three distinct pathways: the classical (CP), the alternative (AP) and the lectin pathway (LP). The role of Pneumolysin (PLY), a bacterial toxin released by S. pneumoniae, in triggering complement activation has been studied in vitro. Our results demonstrate that in both human and mouse sera complement was activated via the CP, initiated by direct binding of even non-specific IgM and IgG3 to PLY. Absence of CP activity in C1q(-/-) mouse serum completely abolished any C3 deposition. However, C1q depleted human serum strongly opsonized PLY through abundant deposition of C3 activation products, indicating that the LP may have a vital role in activating the human complement system on PLY. We identified that human L-ficolin is the critical LP recognition molecule that drives LP activation on PLY, while all of the murine LP recognition components fail to bind and activate complement on PLY. This work elucidates the detailed interactions between PLY and complement and shows for the first time a specific role of the LP in PLY-mediated complement activation in human serum.

  11. The discovery of the hydrogen bond from p-Nitrothiophenol by Raman spectroscopy: Guideline for the thioalcohol molecule recognition tool

    Ling, Yun; Xie, Wen Chang; Liu, Guo Kun; Yan, Run Wen; Wu, De Yin; Tang, Jing


    Inter- and intra- molecular hydrogen bonding plays important role in determining molecular structure, physical and chemical properties, which may be easily ignored for molecules with a non-typical hydrogen bonding structure. We demonstrated in this paper that the hydrogen bonding is responsible for the different Raman spectra in solid and solution states of p-Nitrothiophenol (PNTP). The consistence of the theoretical calculation and experiment reveals that the intermolecular hydrogen bonding yields an octatomic ring structure (8) of PNTP in the solid state, confirmed by the characteristic S-H---O stretching vibration mode at 2550 cm−1; when it comes to the solution state, the breakage of hydrogen bond of S-H---O induced the S-H stretching vibration at 2590 cm−1. Our findings may provide a simple and fast method for identifying the intermolecular hydrogen bonding. PMID:27659311

  12. Binding Mode of HIV-1 Gp41 With Its Inhibitor NB-2%HIV-1 gp41蛋白与其抑制剂NB-2的结合模式

    王存新; 丛肖静; 孔韧; 谭建军; 陈慰祖



  13. Visible and Near‐Infrared Photothermal Catalyzed Hydrogenation of Gaseous CO2 over Nanostructured Pd@Nb2O5

    Jia, Jia; O'Brien, Paul G.; He, Le; Qiao, Qiao; Fei, Teng; Reyes, Laura M.; Burrow, Timothy E.; Dong, Yuchan; Liao, Kristine; Varela, Maria; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Helmy, Amr S.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Perovic, Doug D.


    The reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction driven by Nb2O5 nanorod‐supported Pd nanocrystals without external heating using visible and near infrared (NIR) light is demonstrated. By measuring the dependence of the RWGS reaction rates on the intensity and spectral power distribution of filtered light incident onto the nanostructured Pd@Nb2O5 catalyst, it is determined that the RWGS reaction is activated photothermally. That is the RWGS reaction is initiated by heat generated from thermalization of charge carriers in the Pd nanocrystals that are excited by interband and intraband absorption of visible and NIR light. Taking advantage of this photothermal effect, a visible and NIR responsive Pd@Nb2O5 hybrid catalyst that efficiently hydrogenates CO2 to CO at an impressive rate as high as 1.8 mmol gcat−1 h−1 is developed. The mechanism of this photothermal reaction involves H2 dissociation on Pd nanocrystals and subsequent spillover of H to the Nb2O5 nanorods whereupon adsorbed CO2 is hydrogenated to CO. This work represents a significant enhancement in our understanding of the underlying mechanism of photothermally driven CO2 reduction and will help guide the way toward the development of highly efficient catalysts that exploit the full solar spectrum to convert gas‐phase CO2 to valuable chemicals and fuels. PMID:27840802

  14. A Neutron Diffraction Study of the Nuclear and Magnetic Structure of MnNb2O6

    Nielsen, Oliver Vindex; Lebech, Bente; Krebs Larsen, F.;


    A neutron diffraction study was made of the nuclear and the magnetic structure of MnNb2O6 single crystals. The thirteen nuclear parameters (space group Pbcn) were determined from 304 reflections at room temperature. The antiferromagnetic structure (Neel temperature=4.4K), determined at 1.2K, is a...

  15. Magnetic and Structural Studies on Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Co, Cr)

    Kitada, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Masakazu; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Ueda, Yutaka; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Kageyama, Hiroshi


    We report magnetic and structural studies on the two-dimensional antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Cr, Co), prepared by topochemical reactions of a layered perovskite RbLaNb2O7. Electron diffraction of these oxyhalides revealed a superstructure with a √{2}a × √{2}a cell for M = Mn and Co, and a 2a × 2a cell for M = Cr, indicating that the MCl networks are distorted from an ideal square lattice. Neutron diffraction experiments showed that M = Mn and Co exhibit a (π 0 π ) antiferromagnetic order as observed for the S = 1/2 counterparts. (CoCl)LaNb2O7 with a strong spin anisotropy shows an antiferro to weak-ferromagnetic transition at low field, followed by novel two-step metamagnetic transitions likely associated with a 1/2 plateau for 27-54 T. Possible spin structures under magnetic field are discussed in terms of an Ising-type model. By contrast, (CrCl)LaNb2O7 exhibits a (π π π ) order, which is the first observation among related oxyhalides, and a spin-flop transition at 12 T due to a weak spin anisotropy. These results suggest that a slight difference in the MCl structure and spin anisotropy provides a crucial influence on the magnetic properties.

  16. Comparative study of dielectric properties of MgNb2O6 prepared by molten salt and ceramic method

    Vishnu Shanker; Ashok K Ganguli


    Magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6) powder was synthesized by the conventional ceramic route as well as by the molten salt route using a eutectic mixture of NaCl–KCl as the salt and Mg(NO3)$_2\\cdot$6H2O and TiO2 as the starting materials. Pure phase of MgNb2O6 could be obtained by the molten salt method at 1100°C. However, in ceramic method the pure phase of MgNb2O6 was obtained by heating at 1025°C for 20 h. On sintering at 1100°C the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of MgNb2O6 obtained by the molten salt method was found to be 19.5 and 0.004 at 100 kHz at room temperature. Lower values were obtained for these oxides prepared by the ceramic route, 16.6 and 0.000518, respectively. In both cases the dielectric constant was quite stable with frequency.

  17. Effects of Nb2O5 on thermal stability and optical properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glasses

    Zhao Chun; Zhang Qin-Yuan; Pan Yue-Xiao; Jiang Zhong-Hong


    Er3+-doped tellurite glasses with molar compositions of xNb2O5 - (14.7 - x)Na2O-10ZnO-SK2O-10GeO2-60TeO2-0.3Er2O3 (x = 0, 3, 5, 7 and 9) have been investigated for developing 1.5 μm fibre and planar amplifiers. The effects of Nb2O5 on the thermal stability and optical properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glasses have been discussed.It is noted that the incorporation of Nb2O5 (x=5) increases the thermal stability of tellurite glasses significantly.Er3+-doped niobium tellurite glasses exhibit a large stimulated emission cross-section (7.2×10-21 - 10.7×10-21 cm2)and the gain bandwidth, FWHM×σepeak (274×10-28 -480×10-28 cm3), which are significantly higher than that of silicate and phosphate glasses. In addition, the intensity of upconversion luminescence of the Er3+-doped niobium tellurite glasses decreases rapidly with increasing Nb2O5 content. As a result, Er3+-doped niobium tellurite glasses might be a potential candidate for developing laser or optical amplifier devices.

  18. A Single Amino Acid Difference within the α-2 Domain of Two Naturally Occurring Equine MHC Class I Molecules Alters the Recognition of Gag and Rev Epitopes by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Specific CTL1

    Mealey, Robert H.; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.


    Although CTL are critical for control of lentiviruses, including equine infectious anemia virus, relatively little is known regarding the MHC class I molecules that present important epitopes to equine infectious anemia virus-specific CTL. The equine class I molecule 7-6 is associated with the equine leukocyte Ag (ELA)-A1 haplotype and presents the Env-RW12 and Gag-GW12 CTL epitopes. Some ELA-A1 target cells present both epitopes, whereas others are not recognized by Gag-GW12-specific CTL, suggesting that the ELA-A1 haplotype comprises functionally distinct alleles. The Rev-QW11 CTL epitope is also ELA-A1-restricted, but the molecule that presents Rev-QW11 is unknown. To determine whether functionally distinct class I molecules present ELA-A1-restricted CTL epitopes, we sequenced and expressed MHC class I genes from three ELA-A1 horses. Two horses had the 7-6 allele, which when expressed, presented Env-RW12, Gag-GW12, and Rev-QW11 to CTL. The other horse had a distinct allele, designated 141, encoding a molecule that differed from 7-6 by a single amino acid within the α-2 domain. This substitution did not affect recognition of Env-RW12, but resulted in more efficient recognition of Rev-QW11. Significantly, CTL recognition of Gag-GW12 was abrogated, despite Gag-GW12 binding to 141. Molecular modeling suggested that conformational changes in the 141/Gag-GW12 complex led to a loss of TCR recognition. These results confirmed that the ELA-A1 haplotype is comprised of functionally distinct alleles, and demonstrated for the first time that naturally occurring MHC class I molecules that vary by only a single amino acid can result in significantly different patterns of epitope recognition by lentivirus-specific CTL. PMID:17082657

  19. Differential recognition of MHC class I molecules of xeno-/allo-endothelial cells by human NK cells

    冯志民; 张晓峰; 王宏芳; 丰美福


    Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) as target cells, human peripheral blood NK cells (PBNK) and NK92 cells as effector cells, the differential cytotoxicities of NK cells to allo- and xeno-endothelial cells were studied. The influence of MHC class I molecules on the cytotoxicity of human NK cells was assayed using acid treatment, and blockades of MHC class I antigens, CD94 and KIR (NKB1). The results indicated that the killing of PAEC by the two kinds of NK cells is higher than that of HUVEC. After acid-treatment, the cytotoxicity of the two kinds of NK cells to PAEC and HUVEC is significantly enhanced, but the magnitude of the enhancement is different. The enhancement of NK killing to acid treated HUVEC is much greater than that to PAEC. Blockade of CD94 mAb did not alter the NK cytotoxicity, while blockade of NKB1 mAb enhanced the cytotoxicity of PBNK to HUVEC and PAEC by 95% and 29% respectively. The results above suggested that the different

  20. Prospect of detection and recognition of single biological molecules using ultrafast coherent dynamics in quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems

    Sadeghi, S. M.


    Conventional plasmonic sensors are based on the intrinsic resonances of metallic nanoparticles. In such sensors wavelength shift of such resonances are used to detect biological molecules. Recently we introduced ultra-sensitive timedomain nanosensors based on the way variations in the environmental conditions influence coherent dynamics of hybrid systems consisting of metallic nanoparticles and quantum dots. Such dynamics are generated via interaction of these systems with a laser field, generating quantum coherence and coherent exciton-plasmon coupling. These sensors are based on impact of variations of the refractive index of the environment on such dynamics, generating time-dependent changes in the emission of the QDs. In this paper we study the impact of material properties of the metallic nanoparticles on this process and demonstrate the key role played by the design of the quantum dots. We show that Ag nanoparticles, even in a simple spherical shape, may allow these sensors to operate at room temperature, owing to the special properties of quantum dot-metallic nanoparticle systems that may allow coherent effects utilized in such sensors happen in the presence of the ultrafast polarization dephasing of quantum dots.

  1. Theoretical study of the structural, elastic, electronic and thermal properties of the MAX phase Nb 2SiC

    Ghebouli, M. A.; Ghebouli, B.; Bouhemadou, A.; Fatmi, M.


    Structural, elastic, electronic and thermal properties of the MAX phase Nb 2SiC are studied by means of a pseudo-potential plane-wave method based on the density functional theory. The optimized zero pressure geometrical parameters are in good agreement with the available theoretical data. The effect of high pressure, up to 40 GPa, on the lattice constants shows that the contractions along the c-axis were higher than those along the a-axis. The elastic constants C and elastic wave velocities are calculated for monocrystal Nb 2SiC. Numerical estimations of the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, average sound velocity and Debye temperature for ideal polycrystalline Nb 2SiC aggregates are performed in the framework of the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. The band structure shows that Nb 2SiC is an electrical conductor. The analysis of the atomic site projected densities and the charge density distribution shows that the bonding is of covalent-ionic nature with the presence of metallic character. The density of states at Fermi level is dictated by the niobium d states; Si element has a little effect. Thermal effects on some macroscopic properties of Nb 2SiC are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which the lattice vibrations are taken into account. The variations of the primitive cell volume, volume expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, heat capacity and Debye temperature with pressure and temperature in the ranges of 0-40 GPa and 0-2000 K are obtained successfully.

  2. Influence of sintering time on switching of the femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of CuNb2O6

    Priyadarshani, N.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.; Venugopal Rao, S.


    Transition of mixed phases (monoclinic and orthorhombic) to pure orthorhombic phase was achieved during the synthesis process of CuNb2O6 by varying the sintering time. The suppression of monoclinic phase and dominant formation of orthorhombic CuNb2O6 was confirmed from the XRD and FTIR data analysis. FESEM studies demonstrated that due to increase in sintering time, coarsening process initiated the grain growth and trapping of pores leading to pore-free structures. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of mixed and pure copper niobate were studied by the Z-scan technique using near-infrared (800 nm, ∼150 fs, 80 MHz) laser excitation. Mixed phases exhibited saturable absorption and self-defocusing behaviour while pure orthorhombic demonstrated reverse saturable absorption and self-focusing process. The switching of nonlinearity along with increase in NLO coefficient of O-CuNb2O6 was attributed to the decreased metal-oxygen bond length and pore free structure. The increase in nonlinear absorption coefficient with input irradiance suggests the occurrence of effective 3 PA (2 PA followed by ESA) process. The magnitudes of nonlinear absorption coefficient (2.14 × 10-23m3/W2) and nonlinear refractive index (6.0 × 0-17 m2/W) of O-CuNb2O6 were found to be higher than well-known NLO materials. Orthorhombic CuNb2O6 exhibited optical limiting action with low limiting threshold of 38.26 μJ/cm2 and favouring NLO properties suggesting that the material to be an entrant candidate for safety devices against ultrashort pulsed lasers.

  3. Ca2+-dependent translocation of the calcyclin-binding protein in neurons and neuroblastoma NB-2a cells.

    Filipek, Anna; Jastrzebska, Beata; Nowotny, Marcin; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna; Hetman, Michal; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Kuznicki, Jacek


    The calcyclin-binding protein (CacyBP) binds calcyclin (S100A6) at physiological levels of [Ca(2+)] and is highly expressed in brain neurons. Subcellular localization of CacyBP was examined in neurons and neuroblastoma NB-2a cells at different [Ca(2+)](i). Immunostaining indicates that CacyBP is present in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cultured neurons in which resting [Ca(2+)](i) is known to be approximately 50 nm. When [Ca(2+)](i) was increased to above 300 nm by KCl treatment, the immunostaining was mainly apparent as a ring around the nucleus. Such perinuclear localization of CacyBP was observed in untreated neuroblastoma NB-2a cells in which [Ca(2+)](i) is approximately 120 nm. An additional increase in [Ca(2+)](i) to above 300 nm by thapsigargin treatment did not change CacyBP localization. However, when [Ca(2+)](i) in NB-2a cells dropped to 70 nm, because of BAPTA/AM treatment, perinuclear localization was diminished. Ca(2+)-induced translocation of CacyBP was confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy and by fluorescence of NB-2a cells transfected with an EGFP-CacyBP vector. Recombinant CacyBP can be phosphorylated by protein kinase C in vitro. In untreated neuroblastoma NB-2a cells, CacyBP is phosphorylated on a serine residue(s), but exists in the dephosphorylated form in BAPTA/AM-treated cells. Thus, phosphorylation of CacyBP occurs in the same [Ca(2+)](i) range that leads to its perinuclear translocation.

  4. Enhanced emission of CaNb$_2$O$_6$ : Sm$^{3+}$ phosphor by codoping Na$^+$/B$^{3+}$ and the emission properties

    Renping Cao; Zhengdong Qin; Shenhua Jiang; Aihui Liang; Zhiyang Luo; Xiaoguang Yu


    A series of CaNb$_2$O$_6$:$x$Sm$^{3+}$ ($0 \\le x \\le 10$ mol%) and CaNb$_2$O$_6$:Sm$^{3+}$, Na$^+$/B$^{3+}$ phosphors were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method in air. Their crystal structures and luminescence properties were investigated and analysed, respectively. Host CaNb$_2$O$_6$ emitted blue light with excitation 270 nm. CaNb$_2$O$_6$:$x$Sm$^{3+}$ phosphors showed a systematically varied hue from blue to white by changing Sm3+ ion concentration from 0 to 10 mol% with excitation of 270 nm and their chromaticity coordinates were the regions from (0.1665, 0.1767) to (0.2484, 0.2260). Luminescence properties of CaNb$_2$O$_6$:$x$Sm$^{3+}$ phosphor were tuned and improved significantly by codoping B$^{3+}$ or Na$^+$ ions. Energy transfer between Nb$_2$O$^{2-}_6$ group and Sm$^{3+}$ ion was observed and analysed via luminescence properties. The luminous mechanism was explained by energy level scheme and energy transfer process in CaNb$_2$O$_6$:$x$Sm$^{3+}$ phosphor. The strong excitation band peaking at ∼407 nm indicated that the CaNb$_2$O$_6$:$x$Sm$^{3+}$, Na$^+$/B$^{3+}$ phosphor has a potential application in white light-emitting diodes based on near-UV LED chip.

  5. Developmental expression of cell recognition molecules in the mushroom body and antennal lobe of the locust Locusta migratoria.

    Eickhoff, René; Bicker, Gerd


    We examined the development of olfactory neuropils in the hemimetabolous insect Locusta migratoria with an emphasis on the mushroom bodies, protocerebral integration centers implicated in memory formation. Using a marker of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade and lipophilic dye labeling, we obtained new insights into mushroom body organization by resolving previously unrecognized accessory lobelets arising from Class III Kenyon cells. We utilized antibodies against axonal guidance cues, such as the cell surface glycoproteins Semaphorin 1a (Sema 1a) and Fasciclin I (Fas I), as embryonic markers to compile a comprehensive atlas of mushroom body development. During embryogenesis, all neuropils of the olfactory pathway transiently expressed Sema 1a. The immunoreactivity was particularly strong in developing mushroom bodies. During late embryonic stages, Sema 1a expression in the mushroom bodies became restricted to a subset of Kenyon cells in the core region of the peduncle. Sema 1a was differentially sorted to the Kenyon cell axons and absent in the dendrites. In contrast to Drosophila, locust mushroom bodies and antennal lobes expressed Fas I, but not Fas II. While Fas I immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the midbrain during embryogenesis, labeling persisted into adulthood only in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes. Kenyon cells proliferated throughout the larval stages. Their neurites retained the embryonic expression pattern of Sema 1a and Fas I, suggesting a role for these molecules in developmental mushroom body plasticity. Our study serves as an initial step toward functional analyses of Sema 1a and Fas I expression during locust mushroom body formation.

  6. O2- -to-F- substitution on the quasi-two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet (CuCl)LaNb2O7

    Tassel, C.; Kobayashi, Y.; Mitsuoka, S.; Takeiri, F.; Ajiro, Y.; Kageyama, H.


    We present the preparation of the electron-doped quasi-two dimensional quantum antiferromagnet (CuCl)LaNb2O7 by two step-wise topochemical reactions. The first step involves a reductive fluorination of the insulating layered perovskite RbLaNb2O7 using polytetrafluoroethylene that allows electric conduction in the perovskite blocks. The product RbLaNb2O6F was then ion-exchanged with copper dichloride to yield (CuCl)LaNb2O6F. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction study indicates that the structure of the final compound is different from that of the pure (CuCl)LaNb2O7.

  7. Unconventional Andreev reflection on the quasi-one-dimensional superconductor Nb2PdxSe5

    Yeping Jiang


    Full Text Available We have carried out Andreev reflection measurements on point contact junctions between normal metal and single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D superconductor Nb2PdxSe5 (Tc ∼ 5.5 K. The contacts of the junctions were made on either self-cleaved surfaces or crystal edges so that the current flow directions in the two types of junctions are different, and the measurements provide a directional probe for the order parameter of the superconductor. Junctions made in both configurations show typical resistances of ∼20-30 Ohms, and a clear double-gap Andreev reflection feature was consistently observed at low temperatures. Quantitative analysis of the conductance spectrum based on a modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK model suggests that the amplitudes of two order parameters may have angular dependence in the a-c plane. Moreover, the gap to transition temperature ratio (Δ/TC for the larger gap is substantially higher than the BCS ratio expected for phonon-mediated s-wave superconductors. We argue that the anisotropic superconducting order parameter and the extremely large gap to transition temperature ratio may be associated with an unconventional pairing mechanism in the inorganic Q1D superconductor.

  8. Alkali-Phosphate Glasses Containing WO3 and Nb2O5

    L. Bih


    Full Text Available New phosphate glasses in the quaternary system (50-x A2O-x WO3-10 Nb2O5-40 P2O5, with x = 0; 30 and A = Li or Na were prepared by the melt quenching method. The effect on the crystallization behaviour of the glass due to the introduction of WO3 into the glass composition and, consequently, the diminishing of the molar amount of the alkaline oxide and the decreasing of the molar ratio between network modifiers and network formers (M/F was studied. The prepared glasses were heat-treated in air, at 550°C, 600°C, and 650°C for 4 hours. The structure, of the obtained samples, was studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and Raman spectroscopy and the morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the replacement of Li2O or Na2O by WO3 reduces the number of the crystallised phases. In the lithium-niobiophosphate glasses, the presence of WO3 promotes the formation of NbOPO4 instead of the LiNbO3 phase and reduces the formation of ortho- and pyro-phosphate phases. The thermal treatments affect the arrangements of the network structure of the AW40-glasses.

  9. Photoluminescence of rare-earth ion (Eu3+, Tm3+, and Er3+)-doped and co-doped ZnNb2O6 for solar cells

    Gao, Sen-Pei; Qian, Yan-Nan; Wang, Biao


    Visible converted emissions produced at an excitation of 286 nm in ZnNb2O6 ceramics doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu3+, Tm3+, Er3+ or a combination of these ions) were investigated with the aim of increasing the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cells. The structure of RE:ZnNb2O6 ceramics was confirmed by x-ray diffraction patterns. The undoped ZnNb2O6 could emit a blue emission under 286-nm excitation, which is attributed to the self-trapped excitons’ recombination of the efficient luminescence centers of edge-shared NbO6 groups. Upon 286-nm excitation, Eu:ZnNb2O6, Tm:ZnNb2O6, and Er:ZnNb2O6 ceramics showed blue, green, and red emissions, which correspond to the transitions of 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1-4) (Eu3+), 1G4 → 3H6 (Tm3+), and 2H11/2/4S3/2 → 4I15/2 (Er3+), respectively. The calculated CIE chromaticity coordinates of Eu:ZnNb2O6, Tm:ZnNb2O6, and Er:ZnNb2O6 are (0.50, 0.31), (0.14, 0.19), and (0.29, 0.56), respectively. RE ion-co-doped ZnNb2O6 showed a combination of characteristic emissions. The chromaticity coordinates of Eu/Tm:ZnNb2O6, Eu/Er:ZnNb2O6, and Tm/Er:ZnNb2O6 were calculated to be (0.29, 0.24), (0.45, 0.37), and (0.17, 0.25). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 10572155 and 10732100) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. 20130171130003).

  10. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hardness of 9Cr13Mo3Co3Nb2V Steel

    HUO Dengping


    Full Text Available Effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and hardness of 9Cr13Mo3Co3Nb2V steel was studied systematically by metallographic examination and hardness testing. The results show that after quenching, cryogenic treatment and multiple tempering, the retained austenite of 9Cr13Mo3Co3Nb2V steel is adequately transformed into tempered martensite, and the significant secondary hardening effect is brought. Consequently the steel gains stable microstructure and high hardness. Secondary carbide begins to precipitate and the secondary hardening effect emerges when the tempering temperature is above 350℃, and the tempering hardness reaches the maximum value when tempering temperature range is from 480℃ to 520℃.

  11. Discovery of the Ternary Nanolaminated Compound Nb2GeC by a Systematic Theoretical-Experimental Approach

    Eklund, Per; Dahlqvist, Martin; Tengstrand, Olof; Hultman, Lars; Lu, Jun; Nedfors, Nils; Jansson, Ulf; Rosén, Johanna


    Since the advent of theoretical materials science some 60 years ago, there has been a drive to predict and design new materials in silicio. Mathematical optimization procedures to determine phase stability can be generally applicable to complex ternary or higher-order materials systems where the phase diagrams of the binary constituents are sufficiently known. Here, we employ a simplex-optimization procedure to predict new compounds in the ternary Nb-Ge-C system. Our theoretical results show that the hypothetical Nb2GeC is stable, and excludes all reasonably conceivable competing hypothetical phases. We verify the existence of the Nb2GeC phase by thin film synthesis using magnetron sputtering. This hexagonal nanolaminated phase has a and c lattice parameters of ˜3.24Å and 12.82 Å.

  12. Structural and mechanical properties of transition metal borides Nb2MB2 (M=Tc, Ru, and Os) under pressure

    Li, Xiaofeng; Yan, Haiyan; Wei, Qun


    First-principle total energy calculations are employed to provide a fundamental understanding of the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of transition metal borides Nb2MB2 (M=Tc, Ru, and Os) within the tetragonal superstructure P4/mnc structure. The mechanically and dynamically stabilities of three borides have been demonstrated by the elastic constants and phonons calculations under pressure. Among these three compounds, Nb2TcB2 exhibits the biggest bulk and Young's modulus, smallest Poission's ratio, and highest harness. Density of states of them revealed that the strong B-B, Nb-B and M-B covalent bonds are major driving forces for their high bulk and shear moduli as well as small Poisson's ratio.

  13. A coprecipitation technique to prepare Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6

    A Vadivel Murugan; A B Gaikwad; V Samuel; V Ravi


    An aqueous mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium hydroxide was used to coprecipitate barium and strontium ions as oxalates and niobium ions as hydroxide under basic conditions. This precursor on calcining at 750°C yielded Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 phase. This is a much lower temperature than that prepared by traditional solid state method (1000°C) as reported for the formation of Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6 (SBN). Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigations revealed that the average particle size was 80 nm for the calcined powders. The room temperature dielectric constant at 1 kHz was found to be 1100. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop parameters of these samples were also studied.

  14. Deformation behavior of metastable β-type Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn alloy for biomedical applications.

    Guo, S; Meng, Q K; Cheng, X N; Zhao, X Q


    The deformation behavior of metastable β-type Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn (wt%) alloy subjected to different thermo-mechanical treatments was discussed by the combining results from transmission electron microscope, tensile test and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Visible "double yielding" behavior, which is characterized by the presence of stress-plateau, was observed in the solution treated specimen. Upon a cold rolling treatment, the Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn alloy performs nonlinear deformation because of the combined effects of elastic deformation and stress-induced α″ martensitic transformation. After the subsequent annealing, the β phase is completely stabilized and no stress-induced martensitic transformation takes place on loading due to the inhibitory effect of grain boundaries and dislocations on martensitic transformation. As a result, the annealed specimen exhibits linear elastic deformation.

  15. Spin frustration and magnetic ordering in triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9

    Dai, Jia; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Peng-Shuai; Pang, Fei; Munsie, Tim J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Zhang, Jin-Shan; Yu, Wei-Qiang


    We synthesized a quasi-two-dimensional distorted triangular lattice antiferromagnet Ca3CoNb2O9, in which the effective spin of Co2+ is 1/2 at low temperatures, whose magnetic properties were studied by dc susceptibility and magnetization techniques. The x-ray diffraction confirms the quality of our powder samples. The large Weiss constant θCW˜ -55 K and the low Neel temperature TN˜ 1.45 K give a frustration factor f = | θCW/TN | ≈ 38, suggesting that Ca3CoNb2O9 resides in strong frustration regime. Slightly below TN, deviation between the susceptibility data under zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) is observed. A new magnetic state with 1/3 of the saturate magnetization Ms is suggested in the magnetization curve at 0.46 K. Our study indicates that Ca3CoNb2O9 is an interesting material to investigate magnetism in triangular lattice antiferromagnets with weak anisotropy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374364 and 11222433), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00112). Research at McMaster University supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Work at North China Electric Power University supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of -Bi2O3 based solid electrolyte doped with Nb2O5

    Handan Ozlu; Soner Cakar; Caner Bilir; Ersay Ersoy; Orhan Turkoglu


    -phase bismuth oxide is a well known high oxygen ion conductor and can be used as an electrolyte for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). This study aims to determine new phases of Bi2O3–Nb2O5 binary system and the temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties. The reaction products obtained in open air atmosphere were characterized by X-ray powder diffractions (XRD). The unit cell parameters were defined from the indexes of the powder diffraction patterns. The -Bi2O3 crystal system were obtained by doping 0.01 < mole% Nb2O5 < 0.04 at 750 °C for 48 and 96 h. Thermal behaviour and thermal stability of the phases were investigated by thermal analysis techniques. Surface and grain properties of the related phases were determined by SEM analysis. The temperature dependence of the electrical properties of -Bi2O3 solid solution was measured by four-point probe d.c. conductivity method. In the investigated system, the highest value of conductivity was observed for $\\sigma_{T}$ = 0.016 ohm-1 cm-1 at 650 °C on 4 mole% Nb2O5 addition. The electrical conductivity curves of studied materials revealed regular increase with temperature in the form of the Arrhenius type conductivity behaviour.

  17. Synthesis and structural characterization of some Pb(B$^{'}_{1/3}$Nb2/3)O3 type materials by two-stage solid-state route

    Mukul Pastor; P K Bajpai; R N P Choudhary


    Two-stage columbite solid state reaction route has been used for the preparation of Pb (B$^{'}_{1/3}$Nb2/3)O3 materials (B′ = Mg, Ni and Cd). The columbite precursor phase was structurally characterized using diffraction data. MgNb2O6, NiNb2O6 and CdNb2O6 show orthorhombic structures i.e. pure columbite phase. Final phase materials get stabilized in mixed phase. The diffraction pattern shows that it is a mixture of cubic pyrochlore and perovskite phase. Percentage of perovskite phase was calculated using the band intensities of (110) perovskite and (222) pyrochlore peaks. The calculated percentages show the dominant perovskite phase. Possible reasons for mixed phase are discussed.

  18. Facile Synthesis of Nb2O5@Carbon Core-Shell Nanocrystals with Controlled Crystalline Structure for High-Power Anodes in Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Lim, Eunho; Jo, Changshin; Kim, Haegyeom; Kim, Mok-Hwa; Mun, Yeongdong; Chun, Jinyoung; Ye, Youngjin; Hwang, Jongkook; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kang, Kisuk; Yoon, Songhun; Lee, Jinwoo


    Hybrid supercapacitors (battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices, HSCs) deliver high energy within seconds (excellent rate capability) with stable cyclability. One of the key limitations in developing high-performance HSCs is imbalance in power capability between the sluggish Faradaic lithium-intercalation anode and rapid non-Faradaic capacitive cathode. To solve this problem, we synthesize Nb2O5@carbon core-shell nanocyrstals (Nb2O5@C NCs) as high-power anode materials with controlled crystalline phases (orthorhombic (T) and pseudohexagonal (TT)) via a facile one-pot synthesis method based on a water-in-oil microemulsion system. The synthesis of ideal T-Nb2O5 for fast Li(+) diffusion is simply achieved by controlling the microemulsion parameter (e.g., pH control). The T-Nb2O5@C NCs shows a reversible specific capacity of ∼180 mA h g(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1) (1.1-3.0 V vs Li/Li(+)) with rapid rate capability compared to that of TT-Nb2O5@C and carbon shell-free Nb2O5 NCs, mainly due to synergistic effects of (i) the structural merit of T-Nb2O5 and (ii) the conductive carbon shell for high electron mobility. The highest energy (∼63 W h kg(-1)) and power (16 528 W kg(-1) achieved at ∼5 W h kg(-1)) densities within the voltage range of 1.0-3.5 V of the HSC using T-Nb2O5@C anode and MSP-20 cathode are remarkable.

  19. Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofibers as heterogeneous catalysts for efficient conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Jiao, Huanfeng; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lv, Chunxiao; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Dongjiang; Li, Zhenhuan; Yao, Xiangdong


    One-dimensional γ-Al2O3 nanofibers were modified with Nb2O5 to be used as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze biomass into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). At low Nb2O5 loading, the niobia species were well dispersed on γ-Al2O3 nanofiber through Nb–O–Al bridge bonds. The interaction between Nb2O5 precursor and γ-Al2O3 nanofiber results in the niobia species with strong Lewis acid sites and intensive Brønsted acid sites, which made 5-HMF yield from glucose to reach the maximum 55.9~59.0% over Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofiber with a loading of 0.5~1 wt% Nb2O5 at 150 °C for 4 h in dimethyl sulfoxide. However, increasing Nb2O5 loading could lead to the formation of two-dimensional polymerized niobia species, three-dimensional polymerized niobia species and crystallization, which significantly influenced the distribution and quantity of the Lewis acid sites and Brönst acid sites over Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofiber. Lewis acid site Nbδ+ played a key role on the isomerization of glucose to fructose, while Brønsted acid sites are more active for the dehydration of generated fructose to 5-HMF. In addition, the heterogeneous Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofiber catalyst with suitable ratio of Lewis acid to Brönsted sites should display an more excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of glucose to 5-HMF. PMID:27666867

  20. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7: An advanced anode material for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles

    Yang, Chao; Lin, Chunfu; Lin, Shiwei; Chen, Yongjun; Li, Jianbao


    To explore advanced anode materials for lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles, Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doped TiNb2O7 is studied. Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 is successfully fabricated using a facile solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction analyses combined with Rietveld refinements demonstrate that the trace Cu2+/Nb5+ co-doping does not destroy the shear ReO3 crystal structure of TiNb2O7 but increases the lattice parameters and unit cell volume. Specific surface area tests and scanning electron microscopy images reveal a smaller average particle size in Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7. Due to the increased unit cell volume and free 3d electrons in Cu2+ ions, the Li+-ion diffusion coefficient and electronic conductivity of Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 are respectively enhanced by 14.8 times and at least 220 times. Consequently, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 exhibits advanced electrochemical properties in terms of specific capacity, rate capability and cyclic stability. At 0.1 C, it delivers a large first-cycle discharge/charge capacity of 346/315 mAh g-1. At 10 C, it still provides a large capacity of 182 mAh g-1 with tiny loss of only 1.2% over 1000 cycles. In sharp contrast, TiNb2O7 shows a small capacity of only 90 mAh g-1 and large loss of 59.8%. Therefore, Cu0.02Ti0.94Nb2.04O7 possesses great potential for the application in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  1. Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofibers as heterogeneous catalysts for efficient conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

    Jiao, Huanfeng; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lv, Chunxiao; Wang, Yijun; Yang, Dongjiang; Li, Zhenhuan; Yao, Xiangdong


    One-dimensional γ-Al2O3 nanofibers were modified with Nb2O5 to be used as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze biomass into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). At low Nb2O5 loading, the niobia species were well dispersed on γ-Al2O3 nanofiber through Nb–O–Al bridge bonds. The interaction between Nb2O5 precursor and γ-Al2O3 nanofiber results in the niobia species with strong Lewis acid sites and intensive Brønsted acid sites, which made 5-HMF yield from glucose to reach the maximum 55.9~59.0% over Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofiber with a loading of 0.5~1 wt% Nb2O5 at 150 °C for 4 h in dimethyl sulfoxide. However, increasing Nb2O5 loading could lead to the formation of two-dimensional polymerized niobia species, three-dimensional polymerized niobia species and crystallization, which significantly influenced the distribution and quantity of the Lewis acid sites and Brönst acid sites over Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofiber. Lewis acid site Nbδ+ played a key role on the isomerization of glucose to fructose, while Brønsted acid sites are more active for the dehydration of generated fructose to 5-HMF. In addition, the heterogeneous Nb2O5-γ-Al2O3 nanofiber catalyst with suitable ratio of Lewis acid to Brönsted sites should display an more excellent catalytic performance in the conversion of glucose to 5-HMF.

  2. Influence of operational key parameters on the photocatalytic decolorization of Rhodamine B dye using Fe2+/H2O2/Nb2O5/UV system.

    Hashemzadeh, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Rahmatollah; Gaffarinejad, Ali


    The present research deals with the development of a new heterogeneous photocatalysis and Fenton hybrid system for the removal of color from textile dyeing wastewater as Rhodamine B (RhB) solutions by using Fe(2+)/H2O2/Nb2O5 as a photocatalytic system. The application of this photocatalytic system for the decolorization of dye contaminants is not reported in the literature yet. Different parameters like dye concentration, Nb2O5/Fe(2+) catalyst amount, pH, and H2O2 concentration have been studied. The optimum conditions for the decolorization of the dye were initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1) of dye, pH 4, and Nb2O5/Fe(2+) catalyst concentration of 0.5 g L(-1)/50 mg L(-1). The optimum value of H2O2 concentration for the conditions used in this study was 700 mg L(-1). Moreover, the efficiency of the Nb2O5/photo-Fenton hybrid process in comparison to photo-Fenton alone and a dark Fenton process as a control experiment to decolorize the RhB solution has been investigated. The combination of photo-Fenton and Nb2O5 catalysts has been proved to be the most effective for the treatment of such type of wastewaters. The results revealed that the RhB dye was decolorized in a higher percent (78 %) by the Nb2O5/photo-Fenton hybrid process (Fe(2+)/H2O2/Nb2O5/UV) than by the photo-Fenton process alone (37 %) and dark Fenton process (14 %) after 120 min of treatment. Moreover, the Nb2O5 catalyst as a heterogeneous part of the photocatalytic system was demonstrated to have good stability and reusability.

  3. Fabrication, phase formation and microstructure of Ni4Nb2O9 ceramics fabricated by using the two-stage sintering technique

    Khamman, Orawan; Jainumpone, Jiraporn; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Ananta, Supon


    The potential utilization of two-stage sintering for the production of very dense and pure nickel diniobate (Ni4Nb2O9) ceramics with low firing temperature was demonstrated. The effects of the designed sintering conditions on the phase formation, densification and microstructure of the ceramics were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Archimedes method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The minor phase of columbite NiNb2O6 tended to form together with the desired Ni4Nb2O9 phase, depending on the sintering conditions. Optimization of the sintering conditions may lead to a single-phase Ni4Nb2O9 ceramics with an orthorhombic structure. The ceramics doubly sintered at 950/1250 °C for 4 h exhibited a maximum density of ~92%. Microstructures with denser angular grain-packing were generally found in the sintered Ni4Nb2O9 ceramics. However, the grains were irregular in shape when the samples were sintered at 1050/1250 °C. Two-stage sintering was also found to enhance the ferroelectric behavior of the Ni4Nb2O9 ceramic.

  4. Avaliação da atividade fotocatalítica de Nb2O5 - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i1.3923

    Veronice Slusarski Santana


    Full Text Available Como a fotocatálise heterogênea é um dos métodos de tratamento de efluentes mais promissores, o estudo da atividade fotocatalítica de novos catalisadores é de primordial interesse. Assim, testes de degradação de solução de sacarose parcialmente caramelizada foram realizados empregando 2 g de Nb2O5 e TiO2 mássicos e Nb2O5 impregnado em microesferas de vidro (5,0, 10 e 15%Nb2O5 vidro-1 sob radiação UV durante 168h. TiO2 e Nb2O5 foram submetidos a processo de aglomeração (tamanho de partícula: 0,210 e 0,297 mm e calcinados a 500ºC por 5h. Nb2O5 foi solubilizado em ácido oxálico (0,5 mol L-1 a 70ºC por 8h, misturado com as microesferas de vidro, seco a 110ºC por 12h e calcinado a 500ºC por 5h. A eficiência do processo fotocatalítico foi avaliada por espectrofotometria UV-VIS e método DNS. Os resultados mostraram que catalisadores de Nb2O5 são promissores para aplicação em fotocatálise, principalmente o 15% Nb2O5 vidro-1, o qual apresentou resultados semelhantes ao do TiO2.

  5. Optical Properties of Sol-Gel Nb2O5 Films with Tunable Porosity for Sensing Applications

    Rosen Georgiev


    Full Text Available Thin Nb2O5 films with tunable porosity are deposited by the sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly methods using organic template Pluronic PE6100 with different molar fractions with respect to NbCl5 used as a precursor for synthesis of Nb sol. Surface morphology and structure of the films are studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction. The optical characterization of the films is carried out through reflectance spectra measurements of the films deposited on silicon substrates and theoretical modeling in order to obtain refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the films. The overall porosity of the films and the amount of adsorbed acetone vapors in the pores are quantified by means of Bruggeman effective medium approximation using already determined optical constants. The sensing properties of the samples are studied by measuring both the reflectance spectra and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra prior to and after exposure to acetone vapors and liquid, respectively. The potential of using the studied mesoporous Nb2O5 films for chemooptical sensing is demonstrated and discussed.

  6. Caracterização de filmes finos de Nb2O5 com propriedades eletrocrômicas Caracterization of OF Nb2O5 thin films with electrochromic properties

    C. O. Avellaneda


    Full Text Available The sols for thin electrochromic coatings of Nb2O5 were obtained by synthesis of the niobium butoxide from BuONa and NbCl5. The ~300nm thick films were deposited by dip-coating technique from the alkoxide solution and calcined at 560ºC in O2 atmosphere during 3 hours. The particles size of niobium oxide (V powder (~20mm was obtained from x-ray diffraction using the Scherrer equation. The coatings were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and cronoamperommetry techniques. The spectral variation of the optical transmittance were determined in situ as a function of the cyclical potencial and memory effect. The insertion process of lithium is reversible and change the film color from transparent (T=80% to dark blue (T=20%.

  7. Incommensurate modulation, ferroelectric domains and their evolution in uniaxial relaxor Ca0.28 Ba0.72Nb2O6 single crystals%单轴弛豫铁电Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6单晶中的无公度调制、电畴结构及其演变

    卢朝靖; 聂长江; 李建奇; 张怀金; 王继杨


    @@ Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6(CBN-28)single crystals of the tetragonal tungsten bronze(TTB)structure possesses quite similar optical properties like Srl-xBaxNb2O6 (SBN),and its Curie temperature is about 200 K higher than the corresponding temperature of SBN-61[1,2],suggesting that CBN is attractive for potential applications at higher temperatures.

  8. A new sol-gel process for preparing Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 nanopowders

    Fang Lian; Lihua Xu; Fushen Li; Hailei Zhao


    Commercially available niobium (V) oxide [Nb2O5], with barium acetate [Ba(CH3COO)2] and magnesium acetate At first, Nb2O5 reacted with melting sodium hydroxide and transformed into dispersible oxide. The resulting glassy substance after cooling was dispersed and washed several times in distilled water to remove the Na+ ions. The as-prepared colloidal Nb2O5.nH2O was subsequently mixed with acetic solution of barium acetate and magnesium acetate according to the required molar proportions and followed by gelation. The ultrafine BMN powders were finally obtained after heat-treating the gel at 820℃ for 1 h, and the assintered nanoceramics revealed a high relative density of 98.2%, and a high microwave Q-factor, of 10397 at 1.45GHz.

  9. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of fully flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on the Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-nanosheet arrays

    Liu, Wenwu; Hong, Chengxun; Wang, Hui-gang; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min


    Nb2O5 coated hierarchical TiO2 nanowire-sheet arrays photoanode was synthesized on flexible Ti-mesh substrate by using a hydrothermal approach. The effect of TiO2 morphology and Nb2O5 coating layer on the photovoltaic performance of the flexible dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Ti-mesh supported nanostructures were systematically investigated. Compared to the TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs), hierarchical TiO2 nanowire arrays (HNWAs) with enlarged internal surface area and strong light scattering properties exhibited higher overall conversion efficiency. The introduction of thin Nb2O5 coating layers on the surface of the TiO2 HNWAs played a key role in improving the photovoltaic performance of the flexible DSSC. By separating the TiO2 and electrolyte (I-/I3-), the Nb2O5 energy barrier decreased the electron recombination rate and increased electron collection efficiency and injection efficiency, resulting in improved Jsc and Voc. Furthermore, the influence of Nb2O5 coating amounts on the power conversion efficiency were discussed in detail. The fully flexible DSSC based on Nb2O5 coated TiO2 HNWAs films with a thickness of 14 μm displayed a well photovoltaic property of 4.55% (Jsc = 10.50 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.58). The performance enhancement of the flexible DSSC is largely attributed to the reduced electron recombination, enlarged internal surface area and superior light scattering ability of the formed hierarchical nanostructures.

  10. Growth and study of SrBi 2 (Ta, Nb) 2 O 9 thin films by pulsed excimer laser ablation

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Krupanidhi, S. B.


    Thin films of SrBi 2(Ta,Nb) 2O 9 (SBTN) were grown using pulsed-laser ablation and were ex situ crystallized. Ferroelectric properties were achieved by low temperature deposition. A polycrystalline structure was achieved, with a Ta- to Nb-ratio nearly 1:1. The smaller thickness of the film allowed the switching voltage to be low enough (1.5 V), without affecting the insulating nature of the films. The hysteresis results showed an excellent square shaped loop with a remnant polarization ( Pr) of 7.6 μC/cm 2 and a coercive field ( Ec) of 75 kV/cm. This ferroelectric material composition is having a very high Curie temperature with higher stability and can be used in non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) devices.

  11. Structure Refinement of (Sr,BaNb2O6 Ceramic Powder from Neutron and X-Rays Diffraction Data

    J.G. Carrio


    Full Text Available The structure of polycrystalline strontium barium niobate at room temperature was refined by the Rietveld method. Sintered ceramic samples were used to collect powder neutron and X-ray diffraction data. The ratio Sr/Ba ~ 64/36 was found from the initial batch composition Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6, corroborating with the quantitative X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS measurements. The structure is tetragonal with cell parameters a, b = 12.4504(3 Å and c = 3.9325(1 Å and space group P4bm. It was not necessary to introduce any positional disorder for the oxygen atoms. Cation Nb+5 displacements not parallel to the c direction are presented, which can influence the behavior of the ferroelectric properties.

  12. Fabrication and Piezoelectric Property of Highly Textured CaBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics by Tape Casting

    Chen, Huanbei; Fu, Fang; Zhai, Jiwei


    Textured high-Curie-point lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBN), were prepared by the tape casting method. Highly textured ceramics with a single phase and 95% Lotgering factor were obtained by the templated grain growth (TGG) technique. The textured CBN ceramics had a higher piezoelectric constant (d33 = 17.8 pC/N) than their non textured counterparts (d33 = 6.2 pC/N) prepared by a conventional solid-state sintering process. Furthermore, they had excellent thermostable of piezoelectric properties from room temperature to near Curie temperature. This type of textured CBN ceramic that can be prepared using the low-cost and scalable tape casting technique should be a promising candidate for high-temperature piezoelectric applications.


    Astuti Tri Padmaningsih


    Full Text Available Study on the concentration effect of Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst towards total conversion of biodiesel has been conducted. The natural zeolite (ZA was activated by dipping in NH4Cl solution and was calcined using N2 atmosphere at 500 °C for 5h to produce the ZAA sample. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst was made by mixing the activated natural zeolite (ZAA, Nb2O5 3 % (w/w and oxalic acid 10 % (w/w solution, until the paste was formed, followed by drying and calcining the catalyst for 3 h at 500 °C under N2 atmosphere. Catalyst characterizations were conducted by measuring acidity with NH3 gas using gravimetric method and porosimetric analysis using N2 gas adsorption based on the BET equation by surface area analyzer instrument. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst was then used as an acid catalyst in free fatty acid esterification reaction of wasted cooking oil in methanol medium with variation of catalyst concentration: 1.25%; 2.5%; 3.75% and 5% towards the weight of oil+methanol. The reaction was continued by transesterification of triglyceride in the used cooking oil using NaOH catalyst in methanol medium. For comparison, the esterification reaction using H2SO4 catalyst 1.25% towards the weight of oil+methanol has been conducted as well. Methyl ester (biodiesel product was analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The characters of biodiesel were analyzed using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM method. The results showed that modification of ZAA by impregning Nb2O5 3% (w/w increased the total catalyst acidity from 5.00 mmol/g to 5.65 mmol/g. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst has specific surface area of 60.61 m2/g, total pore volume of 37.62x10-3 cc/g and average pore radius of 12.41 Å. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst with concentration of 1.25%-5% produced higher total conversion of biodiesel than that of H2SO4 catalyst 1.25%. The Nb2O5-ZAA catalyst with concentration of 3.75% produced the highest total conversion of biodiesel, i


    Wega Trisunaryanti


    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrocracking of waste lubricant oil into liquid fuel fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, activated natural zeolite (ZAAH and their modification has been investigated. The zeolite was produced in Wonosari, Yogyakarta. Activation of the zeolite was carried out by refluxing with HCl 3M for 30 min, produced the activated natural zeolite (ZAAH. The ZnO/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by impregnation of Zn onto the ZAAH by ion exchange method using salt precursor of Zn(NO32.4H2O. The Nb2O5/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by mixing the ZAAH sample with Nb2O5 and oxalic acid solution until the paste was formed. The impregnation of Zn onto Nb2O5/ZAAH was carried out using the same method to that of the ZnO/ZAAH catalyst resulted ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst. Characterization of catalyst includes determination of Zn metal by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, acidity by gravimetric method and catalyst porosity by Surface Area Analyzer (NOVA-1000. Catalytic hydrocracking was carried out in a semi-batch reactor system using ZnO, ZAAH, ZnO/ZAAH and ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalysts at 450 oC under the H2 flow rate of 15 mL/min. and the ratio of catalyst/feed = 1/5. The composition of liquid products was analyzed by Gas Chromatograpy (GC.The results showed that impregnation of ZnO and/or Nb2O5 on the ZAAH increased the acidity and specific surface area of catalyst. The products of the hydrocracking process were liquid, coke and gas. Conversion of liquid products was increased by the increase of catalyst acidity. The highest liquid product was produced by ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst, 52.97 wt-%, consist of gasoline, 38.87 wt-% and diesel, 14.10 wt-%.   Keywords: hydrocracking, waste lubricant oil, liquid fuel fraction

  15. Characterization and catalytic behavior of MoO3/V2O5/Nb2 O5 systems in isopropanol decomposition

    J. B. de Paiva Jr


    Full Text Available The influence of molybdenum oxide as a promoter on the V2O5/Nb2O5 system was investigated. A series of MoO3/V2O5/Nb2 O5 catalysts, with MoO3 loading ranging from 1 to 3 wt% MoO3 and fixed V2O5 content (21 wt%, were prepared by impregnation of the Nb2O5 support with an aqueous solution of ammonium metavanadate and ammonium molybdate. The acid-base properties of the catalysts were investigated to determine of the selectivity of the isopropanol decomposition reaction. The X-ray diffraction results showed the presence of the beta-(Nb,V2O5 phase. The temperature-programmed reduction profiles showed that the reducibility of vanadium was affected by the presence of molybdenum oxide. Activity results for isopropanol decomposition revealed that the acid-base properties of V2O5/Nb2O5 catalysts are affected upon incorporation of MoO3, specifically for loadings of 3 wt %. For this catalyst composition both propylene and acetone formation rates decreased.

  16. Fabrication and mechanical properties of Al2O3/TiAl in situ composites doped with Nb2O5

    Wang F.


    Full Text Available Al2O3/TiAl composites were successfully fabricated from powder mixtures of Ti, Al, TiO2, Cr2O3 and Nb2O5 by a hot-press-assisted exothermic dispersion method. The effect of the Cr2O3 and Nb2O5 addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al2O3/TiAl composites was characterized. The results showed that the specimens are mainly composed of TiAl, Ti3Al, Al2O3, NbAl3 and Cr2Al. The Vicker-hardness and density of Al2O3/TiAl composites increase gradually with the increase of Nb2O5 content. When the Nb2O5 content was 6.54 wt %, the flexural strength and fracture toughness of the composites have a maximum values of 789.79 MPa and 9.69 MPa•m1/2, respectively. The improvement of mechanical properties is discussed in detail.

  17. Study on optical nonlinearities of ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glass with time-resolved four-wave mixing technique

    Li Jiang(江丽); Shi'an Zhang(张诗按); Yufei Wang(王宇飞); Zhenrong Sun(孙真荣); Zugeng Wang(王祖赓); Jian Lin(林健); Wenhai Huang(黄文旵); Zhizhan Xu(徐至展); Ruxin Li(李儒新)


    We investigated nonlinear optical properties of ZnO-Nb2O5-TeO2 glass excited by a femtosecond laser with time-resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) technique. The unusual FWM signals were observed in samples with ZnO dopant. The mechanism for the optical nonlinearities was discussed.

  18. Investigation of reduced (Srx,Ba1-x)Nb 2O6 as a ferroelectric-based thermoelectric

    Bock, Jonathan A.

    A comprehensive study of a novel type of thermoelectric - a heavily doped material from a ferroelectric base composition - is presented. Due to the low-lying optic modes and scattering of phonons at domain walls, ferroelectrics make interesting candidates for thermoelectrics. The example of (Srx,Ba1-x)Nb2O6-delta (SBN) is explored in detail due to a report of an impressive thermoelectric figure of merit in single crystals. The goal of this research is to understand the source of the large figure of merit in SBN. In attempts to do this, the electron transport mechanism, the coupling between electron transport and ferroelectricity, the phase equilibria, and the single crystalline thermoelectric properties were investigated under various reduction conditions. It was found that the electron transport properties of a normal ferroelectric SBN can be well explained by activation of electrons into the conduction band from a localized impurity band. SBN can be shifted between a normal and relaxor ferroelectric by changing the Sr:Ba ratio. This property of SBN was utilized to study the effect of relaxor ferroelectricity on electron transport. Within the relaxor ferroelectric regime, a change in the activation energy for electronic conduction and an abnormal temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient were found. These properties are attributed to Anderson localization caused by the relaxor ferroelectricity. This is not thought to be the cause of the large thermoelectric figure of merit. The electron transport-ferroelectric coupling was also studied in oxygen deficient (Bax,Sr1-x)TiO3-delta (BST). A metallic-like to nonmetallic transition occurs at the ferroelectric transition, and the temperature of the metallic-like to nonmetallic transition can be shifted via Sr doping. The temperature shift on Sr doping is equivalent to the shift in the paraelectric ferroelectric transition temperature in unreduced samples, showing that the ferroelectric transition is the cause of

  19. Effects of Na2O content on crystallization and dielectric properties of Na2O-PbO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass-ceramic

    GAO Jian; MAO Changhui; DU Jun; TANG Qun


    Na2O-PbO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass-ceramic were synthesized by melt-quench process.The crystallization processing of the dielectric phases were carried out at temperature range from 750 to 900 ℃.The effects of Na2O content on crystallization and dielectric properties of Na2O-PbO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass-ceramic were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis(DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dielectric constant measurements.The results show that Pb2Nb2O7, NaNbO3 and PbNb2O6 are the crystallization phases which would be formed from the Na2O-PbO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass at the temperature range from 750 to 900 ℃.For a definite Na2O content, the dielectric constant increases with crystallization temperature.The initial crystallization temperature of NaNbO3 phase decreases with the increase of Na2O content, leading to the increase of dielectric constant of the glass-ceramic.Formation of PbNb2O6 phase at 850 and 900 ℃ would greatly increase the dielectric constant of Na2O-PbO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass-ceramics, but the increase of Na2O content will inhibit the crystallization of PbNb2O6 phase.

  20. Vibrational modes and Structure of Niobium(V) Oxosulfato Complexes in the Molten Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 System Studied by Raman Spectroscopy

    Paulsen, Andreas L.; Borup, Flemming; Berg, Rolf W.


    The structural and vibrational properties of NbV oxosulfato complexes formed in Nb2O5-K2S2O7 and Nb2O5-K2S2O7-K2SO4 molten mixtures with 0 Raman spectroscopy under static equilibtrium at temperatures up to 700 °C. The spectral features...... for the binary Nb2O5-K2S2O7 molten system indicate that the dissolution of Nb2O5 proceeds with consumption of S2O7 leading to the formation of a NbV oxosulfato complex according to Nb2O5 + nS2O7 --> C2n-; a simple formalism exploiting the relative Raman band intensities is used for determining the stoichiometric...... coefficient, n, pointing to n = 3 and to the following reaction: Nb2O5 + 3S2O7 --> 2NbO(SO4)3, which is consistent with the Raman spectra of the molten mixtures. Nb2O5 could be dissolved much easier when K2SO4 was present in an equimolar (1:1) SO4/Nb ratio; the incremental presence of K2SO4 in Nb2O5-K2S2O7...

  1. Lasing effects in new Nd3+-doped TeO2-Nb2O5-WO3 bulk glasses

    Carreaud, J.; Labruyère, A.; Dardar, H.; Moisy, F.; Duclère, J.-R.; Couderc, V.; Bertrand, A.; Dutreilh-Colas, M.; Delaizir, G.; Hayakawa, T.; Crunteanu, A.; Thomas, P.


    This paper demonstrates for the first time continuous wave (cw) and pulsed lasing effects in a 75TeO2-20NbO2.5-5WO3 glass doped with 1 mol.% in Nd3+. It is divided into two parts: The first part treats all the aspects related to the elaboration and the characterization of the materials. Thus, glasses elaborated within the TeO2-Nb2O5-WO3 ternary system show a rather high glass transition temperature Tg ∼ 375 °C, with an excellent thermal stability of ∼160 °C. Compared to glasses synthesized in either TeO2-Nb2O5 or TeO2-WO3 binary systems, glasses fabricated within such system show improved mechanical performances, with larger Young's modulus values. The structural characteristics of the samples, studied by Raman spectroscopy, are also presented. Linear optical properties (refractive index and extinction coefficient) are accessed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. As well, the optical transmission of the various bulk glasses is measured, in the case of both uncoated and coated glasses. In particular, specific anti-reflective coatings at 808 nm (laser diode pump wavelength) and 1064 nm (laser emission wavelength) are respectively deposited on the two surfaces of the sample in order to minimize the losses due to Fresnel reflections at the two glass/air interfaces. In addition, another specific surface treatment (Rmax at 1064 nm) was employed to serve as the back mirror of the laser cavity. The optical transmission data testified to the real efficiency of all these coatings. Finally, the photoluminescence properties (emission and excitation spectra, and luminescence decay curve) of the Nd3+-doped glasses, measured at room temperature for bulk samples, and as a function of temperature for powder glasses, are discussed. The second part is focused on evidencing (cw) and pulsed lasing effects in such coated bulk lasers. Cylindric samples of only a few millimeters in height and in diameter were tested and led to a laser emission around 1064 nm, characterized by a very low

  2. Small Molecule Recognition and Tools to Study Modulation of r(CGG)(exp) in Fragile X-Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome.

    Yang, Wang-Yong; He, Fang; Strack, Rita L; Oh, Seok Yoon; Frazer, Michelle; Jaffrey, Samie R; Todd, Peter K; Disney, Matthew D


    RNA transcripts containing expanded nucleotide repeats cause many incurable diseases via various mechanisms. One such disorder, fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), is caused by a noncoding r(CGG) repeat expansion (r(CGG)(exp)) that (i) sequesters proteins involved in RNA metabolism in nuclear foci, causing dysregulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and (ii) undergoes repeat associated non-ATG translation (RANT), which produces toxic homopolymeric proteins without using a start codon. Here, we describe the design of two small molecules that inhibit both modes of toxicity and the implementation of various tools to study perturbation of these cellular events. Competitive Chemical Cross Linking and Isolation by Pull Down (C-Chem-CLIP) established that compounds bind r(CGG)(exp) and defined small molecule occupancy of r(CGG)(exp) in cells, the first approach to do so. Using an RNA GFP mimic, r(CGG)(exp)-Spinach2, we observe that our optimal designed compound binds r(CGG)(exp) and affects RNA localization by disrupting preformed RNA foci. These events correlate with an improvement of pre-mRNA splicing defects caused by RNA gain of function. In addition, the compounds reduced levels of toxic homopolymeric proteins formed via RANT. Polysome profiling studies showed that small molecules decreased loading of polysomes onto r(CGG)(exp), explaining decreased translation.

  3. Preparation and properties of the (Sr,BaNb2O6 thin films by using the sputtering method

    Diao Chien-Chen


    Full Text Available Strontium barium niobate (Sr0.3Ba0.7Nb2O6, SBN thin films were deposited on silicon substrate by using the radio frequency magnetron sputtering and under different deposition power and time at room temperature. Surface morphology and thicknesses of the SBN thin films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The crystallization films at different deposition power and time were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD using CuKα radiation from a Rigaku rotating anode with an incident angle of 2°. The remnant polarization (Pr, saturation polarization (Ps, and minimum coercive field (Ec properties of the metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM structure were measured using ferroelectric material test instrument. The SBN thin films deposited at 90 min and 125 W had the maximum Pr, Ps, and minimum Ec of 1.26 μC/cm2, 2.41 μC/cm2, and 201.6 kV/cm, respectively. From above results, it knows that the SBN thin films suit for application on ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM.

  4. Preparation of Bone-Like Apatite Coating on Surface of Ti-25Nb-2Zr Alloy by Biomimetic Growth Method

    ZHOU Yu; HUANG Runmin; CUI Zhenduo; YANG Xianjin


    A bone-like apatite layer consisting of nano-crystals of apatite phase was prepared on the surface of Ti-25Nb-2Zr alloy by chemical biomimetic growth method. TiNbZr alloy specimens were first oxidized at 500℃ for 2 h in the air. Then, they were immersed in 40℃ saturated Na2HPO4 solution for 15 h and 25 ℃ saturated Ca(OH)2 solution for 8 h in turn for pre-calcification. The pre-calcified specimens were immersed in modified simulated body fluid up to 15 d for biomimetic growth. After common oxidization, amorphous titania and anatase were detected on the specimen surface. Except for the substantial amount of calcium and phosphorus, no new phase appeared on the pre-calcified specimens. After the coating process, it was found that the (002) orientation was the preferred orientation during the growing period of hydroxyapatite. The inorganic composition and structure of the coating are very similar to those of human thigh bone, which will be advantageous for its application as biomedical material.

  5. Atomic displacements in PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 under high pressures

    Rotaru, G.-M.; Gvasaliya, S. N.; Pomjakushin, V.; Roessli, B.; Strässle, Th; Lushnikov, S. G.; Shaplygina, T. A.; Günter, P.


    We have investigated the chemical structure of PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 (PMN) relaxor ferroelectric at room temperature under hydrostatic pressures up to 8.37 GPa and at ambient pressure as a function of temperature. The refinement of the crystal structure shows that the amplitude of the displacements of the Pb ions from the (0 0 0) position decreases with increasing pressure. On the other hand, the thermal displacement parameters of Mg/Nb ions are almost insensitive to pressure. The decrease in the Pb displacements correlates with an increase in the anisotropy in the thermal displacement parameter of the O ions. These results are in agreement with those obtained in PbMg1/3Ta2/3O3 (PMT) and show further evidence that the Pb displacements play an important role in the relaxor behavior. The aim of this study is to clarify the microscopic origin for the anomalous pressure effects observed in relaxors as well as to provide new data for the understanding of this class of materials.

  6. Influence Of Thermal Treatment On Relaxor Properties Of BaBi2Nb2O9 Ceramics

    Adamczyk M.


    Full Text Available In the hereby paper the implications of thermal modification of BaBi2Nb2O9 ceramics in high vacuum (5×10−11 bar at a temperature equal of 1173K are widely discussed. The mentioned modification caused changes in the ions concentration (confirmed by EDS and XPS analysis and as a consequence an influence on the value of the unit cell parameters as well as on the dielectric and relaxor properties of described ceramics. The obtained results of EDS and XPS analysis of the sample before and after thermal treatment revealed bismuth ions diffusion to the surface of the sample (which was expected and an almost complete the lack of barium ions on the modified surface. The comparison of EDS and XPS analysis results, suggested that they penetrated the interior of the sample and embedded into the crystal structure in place of bismuth. The hypothesis is in good agreement with the results of X-ray diffraction – the volume of the unit cell had an insignificant increase. The changes in the ions concentration influenced, also in a distinct manner, the dielectric and relaxor properties as well as on the shape of temperature characteristic of thermal stimulated depolarization current observed in BBN ceramics.

  7. 93Nb- and 27Al-NMR/NQR studies of the praseodymium based PrNb2Al20

    Kubo, Tetsuro; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Tou, Hideki; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Nakama, Akihiro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki


    We report a study of 93Nb- and 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in a praseodymium based compound PrNb2Al20. The observed NMR line at around 3 T and 30 K shows a superposition of typical powder patterns of one Nb signal and at least two Al signals. 93Nb-NMR line could be reproduced by using the previously reported NQR frequency νQ ≊ 1.8MHz and asymmetry parameter η ≊ 0 [Kubo T et al 2014 JPS Conf. Proc. 3 012031]. From 27Al-NMR/NQR, NQR parameters are obtained to be νQ,A ≊ 1.53 MHz, and ηA ≊ 0.20 for the site A, and νQ,B ≊ 2.28 MHz, and ηB ≊ 0.17 for the site B. By comparing this result with the previous 27Al-NMR study of PrT2Al20 (T = Ti, V) [Tokunaga Y et al 2013 Phys. Rev. B 88 085124], these two Al site are assigned to the two of three crystallographycally inequivalent Al sites.

  8. Peculiar aging response of near b Ti-25 Nb-2Mo-4Sn alloy for biomedical applications

    Shun Guo; Bin Chen; Qingkun Meng; Ruiwen Zhao; Xinqing Zhao


    In this paper, aging response of a recently developed near b Ti-25Nb-2Mo-4Sn (wt%) alloy with high strength and low modulus was investigated intensively. The experimental results from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the aging production of the Ti-2524 alloy was (bþo) or (bþa) even under the same aging treatment condition, depending on the pre-treatments prior to the aging. Solid evidence confirmed the competition between stable a phase and metastable o phase during the decomposition of b phase on aging. Different aging response of Ti-2524 alloy can be attributed to high-density dislocations and grain boundaries which suppress the formation of o, and alternatively promote a phase formation. This provides a thermo-mechanical approach to inhibit deleterious o phase formation and assist fine a phase precipitation. Upon an appropriate aging treatment, superior mechanical properties of high ultimate tensile strength (1233 MPa) and low elastic modulus (77 GPa) were achieved in Ti-2524 alloy.

  9. Effect of Sintering Aid CuO-MnO2 on Dielectric Proper-ties of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    TIAN Zhongqing; ZHANG Chunyan; WANG Hao; HUANG Weijiu; LIN Lin


    Microstructures and microwave dielectric properties of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x wt% CuO-x wt% MnO2 additions (x=0.25-1) prepared by conventional solid-state route were investigated. It is found that low level-doping of CuO-MnO2 can significantly improve the density of the specimens and their microwave dielectric properties. The relative density of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics can be increased by 95% sintering at 1 330 ℃due to the liquid phase effect. The second phase is not observed in ceramics with CuO-MnO2 addition.The parameterεr increases with increasing sintering temperature, and Qf is effectively promoted by CuO-MnO2 addition. Higher CuO-MnO2 content would make τf value more positive. Meanwhile, εr value of 30.5, Qf value of 63 200 GHz and τf value of 0.5 ppm/ ℃ were obtained for 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with 0.5 wt% CuO-0.5 wt% MnO2 addition sin-tered at 1 330 ℃ for 4 h.

  10. Propriedades dielétricas de cerâmicas (Sr,BaNb2O6 dopadas com terras raras Dielectric properties of (Sr,BaNb2O6 ceramics doped with rare earths

    I. A. Santos


    Full Text Available Cerâmicas de Sr1-xBaxNb2O6, "puras" e dopadas com óxidos de terras raras, foram preparadas com o objetivo de estudar o seu comportamento dielétrico em função da adição desses dopantes. As amostras foram caracterizadas através de medidas dielétricas efetuadas em função da temperatura (30 K a 500 K e da freqüência (1 kHz a 1 MHz. Em todas as amostras estudadas verifica-se a presença de dois processos distintos de relaxação dielétrica. O primeiro processo é observado a temperaturas inferiores a 100 K. O segundo processo é observado próximo a temperatura ambiente, onde a constante dielétrica apresenta seu maior valor. Observou-se que a adição de dopantes causa efeitos distintos nas temperaturas de máximo das constantes dielétricas nas duas regiões de relaxação dielétrica.Ceramics of SBN, undoped and doped with rare earth oxides, were prepared to the study of the influence of the doping on the dielectric properties. The samples were characterised through dielectric measurements as a function of temperature (30 K to 500 K and frequency (1 kHz to 1 MHz. In all samples two distinct dielectric relaxation processes were observed. The first one at temperatures below 100 K; the second one is near room temperature, where the dielectric constant is maximum. The doping causes distinct effects in the maximum temperatures of the dielectric constants in the two dielectric relaxation regions.

  11. The Regions on the Light Chain of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Recognized by T Cells from Toxin-Treated Cervical Dystonia Patients. The Complete Human T-Cell Recognition Map of the Toxin Molecule.

    Oshima, Minako; Deitiker, Philip; Jankovic, Joseph; Atassi, M Zouhair


    We have recently mapped the in vitro proliferative responses of T cells from botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A)-treated cervical dystonia (CD) patients with overlapping peptides encompassing BoNT/A heavy chain (residues 449-1296). In the present study, we determined the recognition profiles, by peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from the same set of patients, of BoNT/A light (L) chain (residues 1-453) by using 32 synthetic overlapping peptides that encompassed the entire L chain. Profiles of the T-cell responses (expressed in stimulation index, SI; Z score based on transformed SI) to the peptides varied among the patients. Samples from 14 patients treated solely with BoNT/A recognized 3-13 (average 7.2) peptides/sample at Z > 3.0 level. Two peptide regions representing residues 113-131 and 225-243 were recognized by around 40% of these patients. Regarding treatment parameters, treatment history with current BOTOX(®) only group produced significantly lower average T-cell responses to the 32 L-chain peptides compared to treatments with mix of type A including original and current BOTOX(®). Influence of other treatment parameters on T-cell recognition of the L-chain peptides was also observed. Results of the submolecular T-cell recognition of the L chain are compared to those of the H chain and the T-cell recognition profile of the entire BoNT/A molecule is discussed. Abbreviations used: BoNT/A, botulinum neurotoxin type A; BoNT/Ai, inactivated BoNT/A; BoNT/B, botulinum neurotoxin type B; CD, cervical dystonia; L chain, the light chain (residues 1-448) of BoNT/A; LNC, lymph node cells; H chain, the heavy chain (residues 449-1296) of BoNT/A; HC, C-terminal domain (residues 855-1296) of H chain; HN, N-terminal domain (residues 449-859) of H chain; MPA, mouse protection assay; SI, stimulation index (SI = cpm of (3)H-thymidine incorporated by antigen-stimulated T cells/cpm incorporated by unstimulated cells); TeNT, tetanus neurotoxin; TeNTi, inactivated TeNT.

  12. The HLA-G*0105N null allele induces cell surface expression of HLA-E molecule and promotes CD94/NKG2A-mediated recognition in JAR choriocarcinoma cell line.

    Sala, Frédéric G; Del Moral, Pierre-Marie; Pizzato, Nathalie; Legrand-Abravanel, Florence; Le Bouteiller, Philippe; Lenfant, Françoise


    HLA-G is a non-classical HLA class Ib molecule primarily expressed in trophoblast cells, and is thought to play a key role in the induction of materno-fetal tolerance during pregnancy. In addition, the HLA-G gene provides a suitable leader sequence peptide capable of binding to HLA-E. However, the existence of placentas homozygous for the HLA-G*0105N null allele suggests that HLA-G1 might not be essential for fetal survival. To investigate whether expression of the HLA-G*0105N allele supports HLA-E cell surface expression, we transfected the HLA-G*0105N gene into JAR trophoblast cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that HLA-G*0105N-transfected cells express surface HLA-E to a similar extent as the unmutated HLA-G gene, whereas HLA-G1 cell surface expression was undetectable. Using the NKL cell line in a standard (51)Cr release assay, the HLA-E molecules were found to inhibit natural killer lysis, through a mechanism partially dependent on CD94/NKG2A-mediated recognition.

  13. Reinvestigation of KMg1/3Nb2/3OPO4Dedicated to Professor Nikolay S. Slobodyanik on the occasion of his 65th birthday.

    Nikolay S. Slobodyanik


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of potassium magnesium niobium oxide phosphate, KMg1/3Nb2/3OPO4, which was described in the space group P4322 [McCarron & Calabrese, (1993. J. Solid State Chem. 102, 354–361], has been redetermined in the revised space group P41. Accordingly, the assignment of the space group P4322 and, therefore, localization of K at a single half-occupied position, as noted in the previous study, proved to be an artifact. As a consequence, two major and two minor positions of K are observed due to the splitting along [001], as first noted for KTiOPO4 structure analogues. It has been shown that the geometry of the {MII1/3Nb2/3O6/2}∞ framework is almost unaffected by the lowering of symmetry.

  14. Structure of Nb2O5-NaPO3 glasses by X-ray and neutron diffraction.

    Hoppe, U; Delevoye, L; Montagne, L; Zimmermann, M v; Hannon, A C


    X-ray and neutron diffraction of excellent resolving power are used to determine the atomic structure of niobium phosphate glasses. These studies complement the results of earlier (31)P and (93)Nb nuclear magnetic resonance, Raman scattering and O1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the (Nb2O5)x-(NaPO3)(1-x) glasses (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40). The Nb-O distances behave uniformly for glasses of 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 with distorted NbO6 octahedra that are characterized by a corner with a short Nb-O bond of 0.174 nm, four bonds of ~0.20 nm and a longer bond. The concomitant change of PO4 units from chain to end groups extends likewise to glasses of x = ~0.20, i.e. only one O atom per Nb contributes to the rupture of phosphate chains. This behaviour differs from that of related crystal structures and phosphate glasses of other oxide additions. Asymmetric Nb-O-Nb bridges that include the short Nb-O bond are formed for glasses of x ≤ 0.20 while symmetric bridges with two Nb-O bonds of ~0.190 nm appear for x > 0.2. A pre-peak at 8 nm(-1) is found in the S(Q) for glasses of 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 which is interpreted as the presence of niobate and sodium phosphate micro-domains. The weakness of this pre-peak if it is compared with that of similar GeO2-KPO3 glasses is explained with modifications of the micro-domain structure by a fraction of non-bridging O in Nb-O···Na(+) sites. The pre-peak vanishes for the glass of x = 0.40.

  15. Immunoassay and Nb2 lymphoma bioassay prolactin levels and mammographic density in premenopausal and postmenopausal women the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Rice, Megan S; Tworoger, Shelley S; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Feeney, Yvonne B; Clevenger, Charles V; Tamimi, Rulla M


    Higher circulating prolactin levels have been associated with higher percent mammographic density among postmenopausal women in some, but not all studies. However, few studies have examined associations with dense area and non-dense breast area breast or considered associations with prolactin Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1,124 premenopausal and 890 postmenopausal women who were controls in breast cancer case-control studies nested in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. Participants provided blood samples in 1989-1990 (NHS) or 1996-1999 (NHSII) and mammograms were obtained from around the time of blood draw. Multivariable linear models were used to assess the associations between prolactin levels (measured by immunoassay or bioassay) with percent density, dense area, and non-dense area. Among 1,124 premenopausal women, percent density, dense area, and non-dense area were not associated with prolactin immunoassay levels in multivariable models (p trends = 0.10, 0.18, and 0.69, respectively). Among 890 postmenopausal women, those with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest versus lowest quartile had modestly, though significantly, higher percent density (difference = 3.01 percentage points, 95 % CI 0.22, 5.80) as well as lower non-dense area (p trend = 0.02). Among women with both immunoassay and bioassay levels, there were no consistent differences in the associations with percent density between bioassay and immunoassay levels. Postmenopausal women with prolactin immunoassay levels in the highest quartile had significantly higher percent density as well as lower non-dense area compared to those in the lowest quartile. Future studies should examine the underlying biologic mechanisms, particularly for non-dense area.




    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de hidrogenación de furfural sobre el catalizador Ir/Nb2O5 que presenta el efecto SMSI (Fuerte interacción metal soporte. Se examinaron el efecto de diferentes parámetros de reacción como concentración inicial en el rango de 0,025 a 0,1 M, presión parcial en el rango de 0,48 MPa a 0,98 Mpa, temperatura de 353 a 393 K y peso del catalizador de 0,1 a 0,4 g. Se encontró una alta selectividad hacía el alcohol insaturado, (alcohol furfurílico, que es el producto más importante de esta reacción. Solventes alcohólicos producen trazas de acetales, especialmente de 2,6 dietil-acetal. Las velocidades iniciales de la hidrogenación de furfural con respecto al estudio de la presión y concentración se incrementaron linealmente con la masa del catalizador, lo que demuestra la ausencia de fenómenos de transporte. La cinética de la reacción se representó con un modelo Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH con un solo tipo de sitio activo. La adición de un átomo de hidrógeno sobre la molécula orgánica demostró ser la etapa determinante de la reacción, ajustándose a los datos experimentales.

  17. Temperature-dependent surface porosity of Nb2O5 under high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation

    Novakowski, T. J.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hosinski, G. M.; Joseph, G.; Hassanein, A.


    The present study reports on high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation as a novel method of enhancing the surface porosity and surface area of naturally oxidized niobium (Nb). Our study shows that ion-irradiation-induced Nb surface micro- and nano-structures are highly tunable by varying the target temperature during ion bombardment. Mirror-polished Nb samples were irradiated with 100 eV He+ ions at a flux of 1.2 × 1021 ions m-2 s-1 to a total fluence of 4.3 × 1024 ions m-2 with simultaneous sample annealing in the temperature range of 773-1223 K to demonstrate the influence of sample temperature on the resulting Nb surface morphology. This surface morphology was primarily characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Below 923 K, Nb surfaces form nano-scale tendrils and exhibit significant increases in surface porosity. Above 923 K, homogeneously populated nano-pores with an average diameter of ∼60 nm are observed in addition to a smaller population of sub-micron sized pores (up to ∼230 nm in diameter). Our analysis shows a significant reduction in surface pore number density and surface porosity with increasing sample temperature. High-resolution ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows Nb2O5 phase in all of the ion-irradiated samples. To further demonstrate the length scales in which radiation-induced surface roughening occurs, optical reflectivity was performed over a spectrum of light between 200 and 1100 nm, showing a recovery of nano-scale surface damage at high sample temperatures.

  18. Microstructure characteristics of Ni-43Ti-4Al-2Nb-2Hf alloy prepared by conventional casting and directional solidification

    Zhou Lei


    Full Text Available To further investigate the microstructure characteristic and solidification mechanism, so as to provide knowledge for the microstructure control of a NiTi-Al based high-temperature structural material, the microstructure of Ni-43Ti-4Al-2Nb-2Hf (at.% alloy ingots prepared by conventional casting (arc-melting and directional solidification (DS at various drawing velocities (2 mm·min-1, 18 mm·min-1, 30 mm·min-1 and 60 mm·min-1, respectively was investigated by means of electron probe microanalyses. Experimental results reveal that the microstructures are composed of NiTi matrix phase, β-Nb phase and Ti2Ni phase for samples obtained by both conventional casting and DS. Conventional casting has an equiaxial structure, while DS has a slender and acicular cellular structure which grows along the [001] orientation preferentially. Small amounts of white β-Nb phase and black Ti2Ni phase co-exist at the grain boundaries or intercellular regions. With an increase in drawing velocity, the NiTi matrix phase is inclined to grow along (100 and (200 crystallographic planes, and the cellular arm spacing reduce gradually, but the directionality of the solidified structure weakens significantly. The homogeneous dispersion of β-Nb phase and the decrease of Ti2Ni phase in DS samples are beneficial to improving the mechanical properties. Solidification mechanism analysis indicates that the dark grey NiTi matrix phase initially precipitates from the liquid phase, and then the divorced eutectic reaction takes place, which produces the light gray matrix phase and β-Nb phase. Finally, the peritectic reaction happens, which generates the black Ti2Ni phase. The complete solidified path of the alloy is L→ NiTi+L → NiTi+ β-Nb+L → NiTi+β-Nb + Ti2Ni.

  19. Syntheses, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Rm+nCo5m+3nB2n

    梁敬魁; 陈怡; 陈小龙


    The phase relations at the 600℃ and 700℃ isothermal sections of the ternary systems R-Co-B for R= Nd, Pr and R = Sm, Gd respectively were summarized in this paper. For Rm+ n Co5m+3n B2n, two new types ofcompounds R3Co13B2(R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Y) (m=2, n=1) andR5Co19B6(R=Pr, Nd) (m=2,n = 3 ) were synthesized by utilizing the principle of structural combination. Their crystalstructures and easymagnetization direction were determined by X-ray powder diffraction, and structures were refined by the Rietveldmethod. The Curie temperature Tc, saturation magnetization M8 and anisotropic field HA of the new compounds weremeasured using a vibrating-sample magnetometer, an extraction sample magnetometer and M(H) - H curves of samplesin different magnetization directions respectively. The Tc and Ms of Rm + n Co5 m + 3 n B2n increase with increasing values of mat a given n value. HA increases with an increase in n when m is kept invariable. The effects of the substitution of Ni for Co on the magnetic properties of Nd13 Co15- x Nix B2 were also investigated. It was found that TsR decreased monotonously as the concentration of Ni increased, and at x = 3 the easy magnetization direction becomes axial at room temperature. The relations between crystal structure and magnetic properties of Rm + nCo5m+ 3nB2n and the possible routes of synthesizing permanent magnetic materials are also discussed.

  20. Low Temperature Phase Transformations in Copper-Quenched Ti-44.5Al-8Nb-2.5V Alloy.

    Cao, Shouzhen; Xiao, Shulong; Chen, Yuyong; Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Han, Jianchao


    In this study, an easily controlled transformation similar to the β + α → β + α + γ and the analysis of metastable phases in a β solidifying Ti-44.5Al-8Nb-2.5V alloy were investigated. Therefore, a liquid alloy copper-quenching followed by annealing at an application temperature (850 °C) has been carried out. Following quenching, a microstructure composed of several supersaturated phases-the basket-weave β₀ (βbv) phase, the plate-like α₂ (αp) phase and the stripe-like γ (γs) phase-was obtained. In the annealing processes, phase transformations in the prior βbv and αp phases domain corresponded nicely to the β + α → β + α + γ transformation during solidification. Also, in the annealed γs phase, the kinetics of the phase transformations involving the metastable L1₂ phase was firstly detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The L1₂ phase had a lattice structure similar to the γ phase, whereas the composition of the phase was similar to the α₂ phase. The formation of the γ pre-twin phase with an anti-phase boundary (APB) was detected in the γs phase of the matrix. The orientation relationships between the γs and precipitated: γ (γp) phase are <101]γs//<114]γp, (10 1 ¯ )γs//( 1 ¯ 10)γp and (0 1 ¯ 0)γs//(22 1 ¯ )γp.

  1. Diffuse second harmonic generation under the ferroelectric switching in Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 crystals

    Isakov, D. V.; Belsley, M. S.; Volk, T. R.; Ivleva, L. I.


    In this work, we present observations of the polarization process in strontium barium niobate Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 (SBN-0.75) crystals by measuring the diffuse generation of the second harmonic converted by the random ferroelectric domains. The ability of a field-controlling intensity of the diffuse second harmonic generation is analyzed and discussed in terms of the specific switching scenario in SBN crystals.

  2. Development of AlN and TiB2 Composites with Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 as Sintering Aids

    González, José C.; Rodríguez, Miguel Á.; Figueroa, Ignacio A.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, María-Elena; Díaz, Gerardo C.


    The synthesis of AlN and TiB2 by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and the effect of Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 additions on the mechanical properties and densification of the produced composites is reported and discussed. After the SPS process, dense AlN and TiB2 composites with Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 were successfully prepared. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that in the AlN composites, the addition of Nb2O5 gives rise to Nb4N3 during sintering. The compound Y3Al5O12 (YAG) was observed as precipitate in the sample with Y2O3. X-ray diffraction analysis of the TiB2 composites showed TiB2 as a single phase in these materials. The maximum Vickers and toughness values were 14.19 ± 1.43 GPa and 27.52 ± 1.75 GPa for the AlN and TiB2 composites, respectively. PMID:28772681

  3. Optical spectra and local structure of Eu3+ ions doped in Nb2O5-La2O3-B2O3-BaO glasses

    Haiping Xia; Jianli Zhang; Jinhao Wang; Yuepin Zhang


    @@ The xNb2O5-(15-x)La2O3-40B2O3-45BaO (x = 5, 7.5, 12.5 mol%) glasses doped with Eu3+ ions in 1mol% are fabricated by the melting method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, phonon sideband spectra, emission and excitation spectra of the glasses are measured. The crystal field parameter and coordination number of Eu3+ ions in the glasses are obtained according to the splitting of their 5D0 - 7F1levels. The intensity parameters Ω2 and Ω4 of Eu3+ ions for optical transition are calculated from their emission spectra in terms of reduced matrix U(t) (λ= 2,4,6) character for optical transitions. The results indicate that the intensity parameters Ω2 and Ω4 increase with the increase of Nb2O5 content, suggesting that the symmetry becomes lower, the band of Eu and O atoms becomes stronger and the covalence increases with the increase of Nb2O5 content.

  4. Effect of Rare Earth Oxides on the Microstructure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 System Ceramics

    WANG Hao; CHEN Wen; LIU Tao


    La2 O3 and SrO-doped CaO-MgO-Nb2 O5-TiO2 system ceramics were prepared by solid-state ceramic technique. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2 O5 -TiO2-La2 O3 ceramics can be adjusted by varying the amount of La3+ or Sr2+ ions respectively. The replacement of Ca2+ by La3+ at A-site of the ceramics increases the quality factor Q value ( at 7.6 GHz) as well as the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τfand decreases the dielectric constant εr and the substitution of Sr2+ at A-site in this ceramics system exhibits opposite characteristics. The microwave properties of La3+ , Sr2+ -doped CaO-MgO-Nb2 O5 - TiO2 system ceramics depend on the degree of octahedral distortion inside materials .

  5. Dielectric and impedance spectroscopic studies of (Sr1–Pb)TiO2 glass ceramics with addition of Nb2O5

    C R Gautam; Devendra Kumar; Om Parkash


    Glasses were made by melt-quench method in the system [(Sr1–Pb)O.TiO2]–[2SiO2.B2O3]–5[K2O–BaO] (0.0 ≤ ≤ 0.4) with addition of 1 mol% Nb2O5. Perovskite strontium lead titanate in solid solution phase has been crystallized in borosilicate glassy matrix with suitable choice of composition and heat treatment schedule. Addition of 1 mol% of Nb2O5 enhances the crystallization of lead strontium titanate phase in the glassy matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is performed to study the surface morphology of the crystallites and crystalline interface to the glass. Dielectric properties of these glass ceramics were studied by measuring capacitance and dissipation factor as a function of temperature at a few selected frequencies. Nb2O5 doped strontium lead titanate glass ceramic shows a high value of dielectric constant. It is of the order of 10,000 while the dielectric constant of undoped glass ceramic sample is of the order of 500. Complex impedance and modulus spectroscopic techniques were used to find out the contributions of polarization of crystallites and glass crystal interfaces to the resulting dielectric behaviour.

  6. Live-cell single-molecule tracking reveals co-recognition of H3K27me3 and DNA targets polycomb Cbx7-PRC1 to chromatin

    Zhen, Chao Yu; Tatavosian, Roubina; Huynh, Thao Ngoc; Duc, Huy Nguyen; Das, Raibatak; Kokotovic, Marko; Grimm, Jonathan B; Lavis, Luke D; Lee, Jun; Mejia, Frances J; Li, Yang; Yao, Tingting; Ren, Xiaojun


    The Polycomb PRC1 plays essential roles in development and disease pathogenesis. Targeting of PRC1 to chromatin is thought to be mediated by the Cbx family proteins (Cbx2/4/6/7/8) binding to histone H3 with a K27me3 modification (H3K27me3). Despite this prevailing view, the molecular mechanisms of targeting remain poorly understood. Here, by combining live-cell single-molecule tracking (SMT) and genetic engineering, we reveal that H3K27me3 contributes significantly to the targeting of Cbx7 and Cbx8 to chromatin, but less to Cbx2, Cbx4, and Cbx6. Genetic disruption of the complex formation of PRC1 facilitates the targeting of Cbx7 to chromatin. Biochemical analyses uncover that the CD and AT-hook-like (ATL) motif of Cbx7 constitute a functional DNA-binding unit. Live-cell SMT of Cbx7 mutants demonstrates that Cbx7 is targeted to chromatin by co-recognizing of H3K27me3 and DNA. Our data suggest a novel hierarchical cooperation mechanism by which histone modifications and DNA coordinate to target chromatin regulatory complexes. DOI: PMID:27723458

  7. A novel junctional adhesion molecule A (CgJAM-A-L) from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) functions as pattern recognition receptor and opsonin.

    Liu, Conghui; Wang, Mengqiang; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Lingling; Chen, Hao; Liu, Zhaoqun; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng


    Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM), a subfamily of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) with a couple of immunoglobulin domains, can act as regulator in homeostasis and inflammation of vertebrates. In the present study, a structural homolog of JAM-A (designated CgJAM-A-L) was screened out from oyster, Crassostrea gigas, through a search of JAM-A D1 domain (N-terminal Ig domain in JAM-A). The cDNA of CgJAM-A-L was of 1188 bp encoding a predicted polypeptide of 395 amino acids. The immunoreactive area of CgJAM-A-L mainly distributed over the plasma membrane of hemocytes. After Vibro splendidus or tumor necrosis factor (CgTNF-1) stimulation, the mRNA transcripts of CgJAM-A-L in hemocytes increased significantly by 4.46-fold and 9.00-fold (p oyster hemocytes towards Gram-negative bacteria V. anguillarum and yeast P. pastoris were significantly enhanced after the incubation of rCgJAM-A-L, and even increased more significantly after the pre-incubation of rCgJAM-A-L with microbes (p oyster. Moreover, as the most primitive specie with homolog of JAMs, the information of CgJAM-A-L in oyster would provide useful clues for the evolutionary study of JAMs and immunoglobulins.

  8. Synthesis of MgNb2O6 Ceramic Fibers by Electrospinning with Sol-gel Process%静电纺丝结合溶胶一凝胶法制备MgNb2O6陶瓷纤维

    卢启芳; 刘素文


    以五氧化二铌(Nb205)和氧化镁(MgO)为原料,柠檬酸作配位剂,采用静电纺丝结合溶胶-凝胶法制备了铌酸镁(MgNb206)陶瓷纤维.在本合成体系中,高质量Nb5+溶液的获得是形成MgNb2O6前驱体溶胶的关键步骤.通过TGA,FTIR,XRD,TEM以及SEM技术对纤维的形貌,微观结构以及组成进行了表征.结果表明,900℃烧结以后得到的MgNb2O6纤维长度约为10 em,具有中空结构,壁厚约为800nm.%MgNb2O6 ceramic fibers were synthesized using niobium oxide and magnesium oxide as starting materials by the electrospinning with sol-gel process.Citric acid was used as the chelating reagent to coordinate to the metal ions.The key step to the formation of MgNb2O6 precursor sols is to obtain a high quality solution of Nb5+.The morphology,structure,and composition of MgNb2O6 fibers were characterized by TGA,FTIR,XRD,TEM and SEM techniques.The results show that MgNb22O6 fibers calcined at 900 °C with length in the order of 10 cm have the hollow structure and are composed of nanoparticles (particle size<100 nm) and the thickness of the wall is no more than 800 nm.

  9. Pattern recognition

    Theodoridis, Sergios


    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  10. The significant effect of heterojunction quality on photoelectrochemical water splitting in bilayer photoelectrodes: Rb(x)WO3 thin films on RbLaNb2O7 layers.

    Nakajima, Tomohiko; Nakamura, Takako; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo


    We have prepared nearly perfect hexagonal m-plane-oriented RbxWO3 films on (010)-oriented RbLaNb2O7 layers. The prepared bilayer films showed Rb diffusion from the RbLaNb2O7 seed layers, and we obtained uniaxially oriented RbxWO3/Rb1-yLaNb2O7 photoanodes. The RbxWO3/Rb1-yLaNb2O7 bilayer photoanodes exhibited enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with the RbxWO3 and RbLaNb2O7 monolayer photoanodes. Furthermore, we clearly demonstrated that the high crystal quality of the heterojunction significantly enhanced water splitting. The photocurrent density of the nearly perfectly oriented RbxWO3/Rb1-yLaNb2O7 photoanode that we prepared was 9.4-fold that of an unoriented bilayer photoanode. This increase was attributed to the inhibition of photo-excited charge recombination and stimulated electron transfer derived from low grain-boundary resistance.

  11. Study on the Structure and Dielectric Properties of ZnO and Nb 2 O 5 Co-doped Barium Strontium Titanate Ceramics%ZnO和Nb2O5共掺杂钛酸锶钡陶瓷的结构及其介电性能研究

    王俊岭; 周恒为; 马晓娇; 丁捷; 徐凡华; 衡晓; 雷婷; 尹红梅


    ZnO and Nb2O5 co-doped Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 ceramics were prepared by the method of solid state reaction. Crystalline structures and complex dielectric constant were measured by X-ray diffraction and dielectric spectra, respectively. The results show that:1) Zinc ions (Zn2+) and Niobium ion (Nb5+) enter the crystal lattice of Ba0.2Sr0.8TiO3 perovskite, and the ceramics have pure structure; 2) with the increase of Nb2O5 contents, the typical dispersion phase transition turns into the relaxation phase transition at low temperature, and a new relaxation processes has been found in the range of 300K-360K; 3) when doped certain amount of ZnO, the dielectric constant decreases and the dielectric loss increases at room temperature with the increasing of Nb 2 O 5 content.%采用固相反应法制备了ZnO、Nb 2 O 5共掺杂Ba 0.2 Sr 0.8 TiO 3陶瓷材料,并用X射线衍射(XRD)和介电谱方法,分别对系列陶瓷样品的结构和复介电常数进行了测量.结果表明:1)Zn2+、Nb5+进入Ba 0.2 Sr 0.8 TiO 3晶格后仍然为钙钛矿型固溶体;2)Nb 2 O 5会使得材料的低温弥散相变过程转变为弛豫相变过程,并在300~360K区域内会出现新的弛豫过程;3)掺入一定量的ZnO后Nb2O5掺入降低了Ba 0.2 Sr 0.8 TiO 3陶瓷材料的介电常数,增大了其介电损耗.

  12. Effects of CuO on the low sintering behavior of (Ni1/3Nb2/3)o.7Tio.3O2 microwave ceramic%CuO对(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O2微波陶瓷低温烧结性能的影响

    张岭; 姜胜林; 郭立; 黄浩; 张光祖


    采用传统固相反应法制作(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti03O2微波陶瓷,研究了CuO掺杂对所制陶瓷低温烧结性能,微观结构、相构成及微波介电性能的影响.结果表明,掺杂少量的CuO就能显著降低(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O2陶瓷的烧结温度,且能改善陶瓷当CuO掺杂量(质量分数)为1.0%时,(Ni1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O2在950℃烧结,显示出良好的微波介电性能:=67.65,Q·f=3 708 GHz,=14.3×10-6/℃.%The (Ni1/3aNb2╱3)0. 7Ti0.302 microwave ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction process.The low singtering behavior, microstructure, phase composition and microwave dielectric properties of prepared ceramics were studied. The results show that a small amount of CuO addition to (Ni1/3Nb2╱3)0.7Ti0.3O2 ceramics decreases the sintering temperature effectively. Also, the τ∫ is optimized by CuO doping. Especially, the 1.0%(mass fraction) CuO-doped (Ni1/3Nb2╱3)0.7Ti0.3O2 ceramics are sintered at 950 ℃ with good microwave dielectric properties ofεr = 67.65, Q ·∫= 3 708GHz, and r∫= 14.3× 10-6/℃.

  13. Stimulation of receptor-associated kinase, tyrosine kinase, and MAP kinase is required for prolactin-mediated macromolecular biosynthesis and mitogenesis in Nb2 lymphoma.

    Carey, G B; Liberti, J P


    Lactogens [prolactin (Prl) and growth hormone] stimulate phosphorylation of the 40S ribosomal protein, S6, in Nb2 cells by mechanisms that do not involve participation of cAMP or protein kinase A, protein kinase C, or cGMP-dependent protein kinase. However, inhibition of tyrosine kinase (TK) abrogates Prl-mediated macromolecular biosynthesis. Inasmuch as lactogen signaling may involve sequential activation of protein kinases, the effect of Prl on the well-characterized mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and S6 kinase (S6K), the enzyme responsible for S6 phosphorylation in vivo, and their relationship to Nb2 macromolecular biosynthesis and mitogenesis were investigated. The results show that MAPK stimulation is transient (peak activity, 30 min) and precedes that of S6K, which reaches a maximum at 1.5-2 h, and slowly returns towards control levels at 6 h. Both staurosporine which inhibits GH receptor-associated kinase (JAK2) and genistein (GEN), an inhibitor of membrane-associated and cytoplasmic TKs, abrogate Prl-stimulated TK, MAPK, and S6K. Rapamycin (RAP), a specific inhibitor of p70S6K, completely blocks S6K but does not affect TK and MAPK. TK and MAPK activity correlates with Prl-stimulated anabolism, i.e., protein and DNA synthesis and mitogenesis. Thus, concentrations of STR and GEN which abrogate TK and MAPK inhibit anabolism virtually 100%. However, RAP, which inhibits S6K (ca. 100%) but not TK or MAPK, only delays Prl-mediated anabolism. These results indicate that Prl signaling in Nb2 cells involves a protein kinase cascade and that regulation of receptor-associated kinase, TK, and MAPK correlates with anabolism. The role of S6K (and S6 phosphorylation) appears to be ancillary.

  14. Versatile and sustainable synthesis of cyclic imides from dicarboxylic acids and amines by Nb2O5 as a base-tolerant heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst.

    Ali, Md Ayub; Siddiki, S M A Hakim; Kon, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Junya; Shimizu, Ken-Ichi


    Catalytic condensation of dicarboxylics acid and amines without excess amount of activating reagents is the most atom-efficient but unprecedented synthetic method of cyclic imides. Here we present the first general catalytic method, proceeding selectively and efficiently in the presence of a commercial Nb2 O5 as a reusable and base-tolerant heterogeneous Lewis acid catalyst. The method is effective for the direct synthesis of pharmaceutically or industrially important cyclic imides, such as phensuximide, N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI), and unsubstituted cyclic imides from dicarboxylic acid or anhydrides with amines, hydroxylamine, or ammonia. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Preparation and Comparison of the Photoelectronic Properties of Sr2Nb207 and Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6.


    eV, but a flat-band potential of 0.1 V vs SCE at a pH of 13.3. Hence, the gain of utilizing a larger portion of the solar spectrum obtained from a tetragonally distorted perovskite , ( 3) whereas Sr2Nb2O7 was reported to be orthorhombic (4). - cell with a quartz window, and a current amplifier as nreviously described (8). The electrolyte, 0.2 M sodium acetate (pH 8.3), was purged of

  16. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) Material for Actuator Applications

    Hana Uršič; Marina Santo Zarnik; Marija Kosec


    Due to its large piezoelectric and electrostrictive responses to an applied electric field the (1−x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solution has been widely investigated as a promising material for different actuator applications. This paper discusses some of the recent achievements in the field of PMN-PT piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators manufactured from PMN-PT single crystals, bulk ceramics, or thick films. The functional properties of PMN-PT materials and some represent...

  17. Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–PbTiO3 (PMN-PT Material for Actuator Applications

    Hana Uršič


    Full Text Available Due to its large piezoelectric and electrostrictive responses to an applied electric field the (1−xPb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3–xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT solid solution has been widely investigated as a promising material for different actuator applications. This paper discusses some of the recent achievements in the field of PMN-PT piezoelectric and electrostrictive actuators manufactured from PMN-PT single crystals, bulk ceramics, or thick films. The functional properties of PMN-PT materials and some representative examples of the investigated PMN-PT actuator structures and their applications are reported.

  18. Mechanical behavior of the directionally solidified. gamma. /. gamma. '--delta eutectic alloy. [Ni-20. 0 percent Nb-2. 5 percent Al-6. 0 percent Cr

    Barkalow, R.H.; Jackson, J.J.; Gell, M.; Leverant, G.R.


    The eutectic alloy Ni-20.0 percent Nb-2.5 percent Al-6.0 percent Cr was tested in short-term creep and long-term exposure to service conditions to assess its suitability for high temperature turbine blade applications. Long-time exposure showed the lamellar microstructure of the alloy to be exceptionally stable. Other properties tested were notch sensitivity, isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue strength, shear strength, and transverse ductility. It was shown that this alloy is superior to the best currently available directionally solidified superalloys over the temperature/stress conditions encountered in turbine airfoils.

  19. Preparation structure and dielectric properties of tungsten bronze ceramics Sr0.5 Ba0.5 Nb2O6%钨青铜陶瓷Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6的制备结构与介电性能研究

    丁剑; 俞建长; 郑兴华; 梁国栋


    采用固相反应法合成Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6陶瓷,并对其结构、介电性能进行表征.研究结果表明,Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6陶瓷为四方钨青铜结构单相,其在100℃附近存在一个明显的弥散介电峰,峰值随测试频率增加而减小,为典型的弛豫铁电相变.室温时,10 kHz频率下,其介电常数约为450,介电损耗为0.121.

  20. 钨青铜陶瓷Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6的合成、结构与介电性能%Synthesis, Structure and Dielectric Properties of Tungsten Bronze Ceramic Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6

    郑兴华; 丁剑; 俞建长; 梁国栋



  1. Phase analysis and dielectric properties of oxides obtained in the MgO-(1-)Nb2O5-()Ta2O5 system

    M Thirumal; A K Ganguli


    MgNb2-TaO6 (0 ≤ ≤ 2) phases can be obtained as the major phase (75 to 90%) by solid state reactions starting from oxides. These oxides crystallize in the orthorhombic columbite structure till = 1.75 and the tetragonal trirutile structure for MgTa2O6 ( = 2.0). For all the compositions there exist secondary phases like Nb2O5 or Ta2O5 in addition to the major AB2O6 phase. Sintered disks (1200°C) show dielectric constants varying between 14.8 and 16.0 for the entire range of composition at a frequency of 500 kHz. The dielectric loss is nearly constant around 0.025 to 0.03 between 0 ≤ ≤ 1 but increases to 0.17 for the MgTa2O6 phase ( = 2.0). Scanning electron micrographs reveal a gradual decrease in grain size with increase in Ta concentration with a size of 3 micron for the = 0 composition (sintered at 1200°C) while the = 2 phase shows a grain size of approximately 0.5 microns. The microwave dielectric constant at ∼14 GHz is found to be 20.9 for the = 0 composition and 17.7 for the = 2 composition.

  2. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua


    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x ( x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz ( f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  3. The effect of sintering temperature on electrical characteristics of Fe2TiO5/Nb2O5 ceramics for NTC thermistor

    Wiendartun, Risdiana, Fitrilawati, Siregar, R. E.


    A study on the fabrication of Iron Titanium Oxide (Fe2TiO5) ceramics for negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors has been carried out, in order to know the effect of sintering temperature on the electrical characteristic of 1.0 % mole Nb2O5 doped Fe2TiO5 ceramics.These ceramics were made by mixing commercial powders of Fe2O3, TiO2 and Nb2O5 with proportional composition to produce Fe2TiO5 based ceramic. The raw pellet was sintered at 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C temperature for 2 hours in air. Analysis of the microstructure and crystal structure were performed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. XRD spectra showed that the crystal structure of all ceramics of Fe2TiO5 made at various sintering temperatures are orthorhombic. The SEM images showed that the grain size of pellet ceramics increase with increasing sintering temperatures. From electrical resistances data that was measured at temperature 30-300 °C, it is found that the value of thermistor constant (B), activation energy (Ea), thermistor sensitivity (α) and room temperature resistance (RRT) decreases with respect to the increasing of sintering temperature. The fabricated Fe2TiO5 ceramics have thermistor constants (B = 6394-6959 K). This can be applied as temperature sensor, and will fulfill the market requirement.

  4. Surface energy effects on the stability of anatase and rutile nanocrystals: A predictive diagram for Nb2O5-doped-TiO2

    da Silva, Andre Luiz; Hotza, Dachamir; Castro, Ricardo H. R.


    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used for photocatalysis, and the relative fraction of titanium dioxide polymorph, i.e. anatase, rutile, or brookite, significantly affects the final performance. Even though conventional phase diagrams indicate a higher stability for the rutile polymorph, it is well established that nanosizes benefit the anatase phase due to its smaller surface energy. However, doping elements are expected to change this behavior, once changes in both surface and bulk energies may occur. Nb2O5 is commonly added to TiO2 to allow property control. However, the effect of niobium on the relative stability of anatase and rutile phases is not well understood from the thermodynamic point of view. The objective of this work was to build a new predictive nanoscale phase diagram for Nb2O5-doped TiO2. Water adsorption microcalorimetry and high temperature oxide melt solution were used to obtain the surface and bulk enthalpies. The phase diagram obtained shows the stable titania polymorph as a function of the composition and size.

  5. Tailoring order–disorder temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3 ceramics

    Tu Lai Sun


    Full Text Available The order–disorder temperature (To–d of Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3 ceramics was determined via X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. To–d was determined to be between 1425 and 1450 °C by a quenching method. The endothermic peak in the DTA curve shows the order–disorder transition. B2O3 was applied to tune the densification temperature (Ts and tailor the microwave dielectric properties. The ordering degree and unloaded quality factor (Qf are improved when Ts is reduced to 1400 °C at B2O3 content of 0.25 mol%. Ts is further decreased and the ordering degree and Qf are decreased when B2O3 content is increased to 0.5 mol%. The dielectric constant (εr and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf decrease slightly with increasing B2O3 content. The optimum microwave dielectric properties (i.e., εr = 34.0, Qf = 50,400 GHz, τf = 5.5 × 10−6/°C are obtained for the Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3-0.25 mol% B2O3 ceramics sintered at a lower temperature.

  6. Dielectric properties and relaxation of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3–BaNb2O6 lead-free ceramics

    Chang-Rong Zhou; Xin-Yu Liu


    A new member of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics of the BNT-based group, (1 – )Bi0.5Na0.5TiO$_{3}–x$ BaNb2O6, was prepared by conventional solid state reaction and its dielectric properties and relaxation was investigated. X-ray diffraction showed that BaNb2O6 diffused into the lattice of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 to form a solid solution with perovskite-type structure. A diffuse character was proved by the linear fitting of the modified Curie–Weiss law. The temperature dependence of dielectric constant at different frequencies revealed that the solid solution exhibited relaxor characteristics different from classic relaxor ferroelectrics. The samples with = 0.002 and 0.006 exhibited obvious relaxor characteristics near the low temperature dielectric abnormal peak, f, and the samples with = 0.010 and 0.014 exhibited obvious relaxor characteristics between room temperature and f. The mechanism of relaxor behaviour was also discussed according to the macro-domain to micro-domain transition theory.

  7. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua


    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x (x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz (f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  8. Optimization on dielectric properties of Y2Ti2O7 ceramics with Bi2O3-Nd2O3-Nb2O5 co-doping

    DING Jiayu; WANG Zhefei; GONG Zhijie; XIAO Yuan; WANG Lixi; ZHANG Qitu


    The present work aimed to explore a kind of microwave dielectric materials with middle-permittivity,high Qf,near-zero τf,and lower sintering temperature.A series of Y2Ti2O7 microwave dielectric ceramics were synthesized by conventional solid-state method.For improving the dielectric properties of Y2Ti2O7 systerm,Bi2O3,Nd2O3 and Nb2O5 were added and their effects on phase composition,microstructure,and dielectric properties at microwave frequencies were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The queuing score method for multi-target orthogonal design was used to obtain the optimum prescription.The results showed that the Y2Ti2O7 ceramics with 8 wt.% Bi2O3 and 1 mol.% Nd2O3-Nb2O5 were well sintered at 1350 ℃,exhibiting excellent dielectric characteristics,i.e.εr≈76,Qf≈18980 GHz,τf=+25.5 ppm/℃.

  9. Controlling the reaction between boron-containing sealing glass and a lanthanum-containing cathode by adding Nb2O5

    Zhao, Dandan; Fang, Lihua; Tang, Dian; Zhang, Teng


    In solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, the volatile boron species present in the sealing glass often react with the lanthanum-containing cathode, degrading the activity of the cathode (this phenomenon is known as boron poisoning). In this work, we report that this detrimental reaction can be effectively reduced by doping bismuth-containing borosilicate sealing glass-ceramic with a niobium dopant. The addition of Nb2O5 not only condenses the [SiO4] structural units in the glass network, but also promotes the conversion of [BO3] to [BO4]. Moreover, the Nb2O5 dopant enhances the formation of boron-containing phases (Ca3B2O6 and CaB2Si2O8), which significantly reduces the volatility of boron compounds in the sealing glass, suppressing the formation of LaBO3 in the reaction couple between the glass and the cathode. The reported results provide a new approach to solve the problem of boron poisoning.

  10. Viral recognition by the innate immune system: the role of pattern recognition receptors

    Silvia Torres Pedraza; Juan Guillermo Betancur; Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima


    Pattern recognition receptors are the main sensors of the innate immune response. Their function is to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which are molecules essential for the survival of microbial pathogens, but are not produced by the host. The recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors leads to the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and co-stimulatory molecules that eliminate pathogens, such as viruses, for the activation of anti...

  11. Tuning the surface charge of graphene for self-assembly synthesis of a SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (2D-2D) nanocomposite with enhanced visible light photoactivity.

    Yuan, Lan; Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun


    A two-dimensional (2D) SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (SnNb2O6-GR) nanocomposite featuring a typical 2D-2D structure has been synthesized via a simple surface charge modified self-assembly approach. The method is afforded by electrostatic attractive interaction between negatively charged SnNb2O6 nanosheets and modified graphene nanosheets with a positively charged surface in an aqueous solution. The SnNb2O6-GR nanocomposite exhibits a distinctly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance toward degradation of organic dye in water as compared to blank SnNb2O6 nanosheets. The enhanced photoactivity is attributed to the integrated factors of the intimate interfacial contact and unique 2D-2D morphology associated with SnNbO6 and GR, which are beneficial for harnessing the electron conductivity of GR, facilitating the transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers over SnNbO6-GR upon visible light irradiation, and thereby contributing to the photoactivity enhancement. It is hoped that this work could enrich the facile, efficient fabrication of various 2D-2D semiconductor nanosheet-graphene composite photocatalysts toward target photocatalytic applications.


    黄建团; 郭海福; 闫鹏; 陈志胜


    采用共沸除氯工艺制备SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5固体超强酸,该方法引入共沸蒸馏,以正丁醇和无水乙醇为溶剂,锡盐醇溶液滴加氨水前除去其中结晶水再除氯离子,免去抽滤除氯步骤,缩短了催化剂制备时间.将制备的SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5用于催化α-蒎烯的异构化反应,考察催化剂制备条件对催化剂活性的影响,采用FT-IR,XRD,TG-DTA等对催化剂的物化性质进行表征,并与沉淀法、sol-gel法制备的催化剂进行对比.结果表明:催化剂最佳制备条件为Nb2O5加入量为SnO2质量的25%、浸渍液硫酸浓度0.5 mol/L、焙烧温度500℃、焙烧时间2h,将该条件下制备的SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5应用于催化α-蒎烯异构化反应时,α-蒎烯完全转化,莰烯选择性为66.49%;与沉淀法、sol-gel法相比,相同条件下共沸除氯法制备的催化剂较好.%SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5 solid superacid catalyst was prepared by azeotropic dechlorination method, using w-butanol and anhydrous alcohol as solvents, a filtration step could be omitted, and thus the catalyst preparation time was much shortened. The prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTA and its catalytic performance was evaluated using isomerization of a-pinene as probe reaction. Test results showed that the optimum preparation conditions of SO42-/SnO2-Nb2O5 solid superacid catalyst were as follows: a Nb2O5/SnO2 mass ratio of 0. 25, the concentration of impregnating sulfuric acid solution was 0. 50 mol/L and calcined at 500 ℃ for 2. 0 h; catalyst prepared under such conditions exhibited good catalytic performance in isomerization of crpinene, the conversion of α-pinene and selectivity of camphene was 100% and 66.49%, respectively. Compared with other preparation methods, such as precipitation and sol-gel methods, catalyst prepared by azeotropic dechlorination method was better.

  13. Nb2O5·nH2O—PtRu/C的制备及其对甲醇氧化的催化作用%Preparation and Activity of Nb2O5·nH2O-PtRu/C for Methanol Oxidation

    李伟伟; 张向军; 卢世刚


    10%Nb2O5·onH2O-20%Pt10%Ru/C electro-catalyst for methanol oxidation was prepared by deposition method, followed with heat treatment in Ar atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment on morphology, structure and electrochemistry performance of the product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperograms. No diffraction peaks of Ru were observed in the XRD patterns, while all the peaks of Pt were in accordance with the face centered cubic crystal structure. The binding energy of Pt was not affected by NbEO5.nH2O. Compared with 20%Pt10%Ru/C, in 10%Nb2O5.nH2O-20%Pt10%Ru/C samples, the activated particles were uniformly dispersed, and the performances of methanol oxidation and resistance to "CO" were better. The results indicated that the introduction of NbEO5.nH2O inhibited the growth of active particles, and decreased the alloying degree of Pt-Ru during heat treatment. Besides, NbEO5onH2O also provided active "-OH" and improved H+ transfer, leading to easier adsorption-desorption of methanol and its oxidation intermediates.%采用沉淀法制备了甲醇氧化电催化剂10%Nb2O5·nH2O.20%Pt10%Ru/C,并在Ar气氛下对它进行了热处理.用X射线衍射(XRD),透射电子显微镜(TEM)和X射线光电子谱(XPS)研究了热处理对催化剂的结构和形貌的影响,用循环伏安法和计时电流法研究了热处理对催化剂的电化学性能的影响.结果表明:催化剂中看不到Ru的衍射峰存在,Pt晶粒以面心立方体结构存在,Nb2O5·nH2O对Pt的结合能基本无影响;与20%Pt10%Ru/C相比,同温度热处理的条件下,10%Nb2O5.nH2O-20%Pt10%Ru/C催化剂中Pt,Ru合金化程度较差,活性组分颗粒较小、分散均匀,而且催化甲醇氧化性能和抗“CO”毒化性能较好,700℃热处理的10%Nb2O5.nH2O.20%Pt10%Ru/C的性能最好.Nb

  14. Enhancement of Sinter Densification of SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 Tungsten-Bronze Glass-Ceramics by Doping with P2O5

    J.C.Chen; Y.Zhang


    Densification behaviors of SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 based glass-ceramics prepared by conventional sintering were investigated with an emphasis on the influence of P2O5 content.Although P2O5 dopant did not modify the surface crystallization mechanism,it resulted in a decrease of the glass transition temperature,which facilitates the viscous glass flow necessary for sintering.However,premature crystallization of (Sr,Ba)Nb2O6 induced by addition of excess amount of P2O5 essentially retarded sintering due to the formation of closed pores in the matrix.The SrO-BaO-Nb2O5-SiO2 glass with 1.0 mol% P2O5 (SBN-1P) showed the best sinter densification,which was accomplished at about 850 ℃.

  15. Tuning the surface charge of graphene for self-assembly synthesis of a SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (2D-2D) nanocomposite with enhanced visible light photoactivity

    Yuan, Lan; Yang, Min-Quan; Xu, Yi-Jun


    A two-dimensional (2D) SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (SnNb2O6-GR) nanocomposite featuring a typical 2D-2D structure has been synthesized via a simple surface charge modified self-assembly approach. The method is afforded by electrostatic attractive interaction between negatively charged SnNb2O6 nanosheets and modified graphene nanosheets with a positively charged surface in an aqueous solution. The SnNb2O6-GR nanocomposite exhibits a distinctly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance toward degradation of organic dye in water as compared to blank SnNb2O6 nanosheets. The enhanced photoactivity is attributed to the integrated factors of the intimate interfacial contact and unique 2D-2D morphology associated with SnNbO6 and GR, which are beneficial for harnessing the electron conductivity of GR, facilitating the transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers over SnNbO6-GR upon visible light irradiation, and thereby contributing to the photoactivity enhancement. It is hoped that this work could enrich the facile, efficient fabrication of various 2D-2D semiconductor nanosheet-graphene composite photocatalysts toward target photocatalytic applications.A two-dimensional (2D) SnNb2O6 nanosheet-graphene (SnNb2O6-GR) nanocomposite featuring a typical 2D-2D structure has been synthesized via a simple surface charge modified self-assembly approach. The method is afforded by electrostatic attractive interaction between negatively charged SnNb2O6 nanosheets and modified graphene nanosheets with a positively charged surface in an aqueous solution. The SnNb2O6-GR nanocomposite exhibits a distinctly enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance toward degradation of organic dye in water as compared to blank SnNb2O6 nanosheets. The enhanced photoactivity is attributed to the integrated factors of the intimate interfacial contact and unique 2D-2D morphology associated with SnNbO6 and GR, which are beneficial for harnessing the electron conductivity of GR

  16. Síntese e caracterização do compósito Al2O3 -YAG e do Al2O3-YAG e Al2O3 aditivados com Nb2O5 Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 -YAG composite and Al2O3-YAG and Al2O3 with Nb2O5 additives

    R. F. Cabral


    Full Text Available O compósito Al2O3-YAG possui alta resistência à corrosão e à fluência em ambientes agressivos, o que permite vislumbrar aplicações bastante atrativas, tais como aletas de motores a jato e de turbinas a gás. Este compósito também apresenta elevada dureza e alta resistência à abrasão possibilitando o seu emprego em blindagens balísticas. Nesse estudo os pós precursores de Al2O3, Y2O3 e Nb2O5 foram homogeneizados em moinho de bolas planetário por 4 h, secados em estufa a 120 ºC por 48 h, desaglomerados e peneirados. O compósito Al2O3-YAG foi produzido a partir das misturas de Al2O3-Y2O3 a 1300 ºC por 2 h. Foram produzidas amostras de Al2O3-YAG, Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 e Al2O3 com Nb2O5. Posteriormente os pós foram prensados uniaxialmente a 70 MPa. A sinterização foi feita a 1400 e 1450 ºC. Os pós como recebidos e os processados foram caracterizados quanto à área de superfície específica e ao tamanho médio de partícula. Os materiais sinterizados foram caracterizados por densidade e porosidade aparente pelo método de Arquimedes e avaliados quanto à retração e à perda de massa. Os resultados mostraram que são necessários ainda ajustes nas condições de sinterização da composição Al2O3-YAG com Nb2O5 para melhorar a densificação e a retração, que foram baixas, da ordem de 60 e 3%, respectivamente. O Al2O3 aditivado com Nb2O5, por sua vez, apresentou uma densificação satisfatória, de 96% e uma retração em torno de 15%.The Al2O3-YAG composite exhibits high corrosion and creep resistance in aggressive environments, which provides quite glimpse attractive applications such as jet engine vanes and as gas turbines. This composite also shows high hardness and wear resistance allowing its use in ballistic armor. In this study, precursor powders of Al2O3, Y2O3 and Nb2O5 were homogeneously mixed in a planetary ball mill for 4 h, dried in an oven at 120 ºC for 48 h, sieved and deagglomerated. The Al2O3-YAG composite

  17. Critical slowing down and elastic anomaly of uniaxial ferroelectric Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 crystals with tungsten bronze structure

    Suzuki, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Dec, J.; Łukasiewicz, T.; Kleemann, W.; Kojima, S.


    The ferroelectric phase transition of uniaxial Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 single crystals with a moderate effective charge disorder was investigated by Brillouin scattering to clarify the dynamic properties. In the tetragonal paraelectric phase a remarkable softening of the sound velocity of the longitudinal acoustic mode and a significant increase in the sound attenuation were observed close to the Curie temperature TC=527K. The intermediate temperature T* ˜640K and the Burns temperature TB ˜790K were determined from the temperature variation in the sound attenuation. The intense broad central peak (CP) caused by polarization and strain fluctuations due to polar nanoregions was clearly observed in the vicinity of TC. The relaxation time determined by the CP width clearly shows critical slowing down towards TC, reflecting a weakly first-order phase transition under weak random fields.

  18. Síntese por Electrospinning de fibras de Nb2O5 e caracterização microestrutural e de propriedades ópticas


    O objetivo deste estudo foi produzir, por electrospinning, fibras de pentóxido de nióbio(Nb2O5), usando como precursor o nióbio metálico. A solução utilizada para o electrospinning foi preparada pela dissolução do precursor em ácido fluorídrico (HF), seguida da adição de ácido acético e da solução polimérica de polivinilpirrolidona (PVP). A solução final foi submetida ao processo de electrospinning com tensão elétrica variando de 14 a 16 kV, distância entre coletor e capilar de 13 cm e fluxo ...

  19. Effect of Process Parameter Optimization in Reducing Sintering Temperature in the Synthesis and Characterization of Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3O3

    P. K. Bajpai


    Full Text Available Controlling the cooling rate during calcination and sintering, phase pure perovskite Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3O3 has been prepared by simple solid state reaction route with density >93% at relatively low sintering of 1175°C making it compatible for microwave dielectric applications. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction shows pure perovskite phase with cubic structure. The lattice constants were obtained a = 4.1032 Å. Detailed studies of ε′ and ε′′ show that the compound exhibits dielectric anomaly at 430°C. Material shows distributed relaxation at higher temperature. Impedance analysis revealed that the impedance is mainly due to the grains. AC conduction activation energies are estimated from Arrhenius plots, and conduction mechanism is discussed.

  20. Characterization of self-organized TiO2 nanotubes on Ti-4Zr-22Nb-2Sn alloys and the application in drug delivery system.

    Liang, Y Q; Cui, Z D; Zhu, S L; Yang, X J


    In this study, the self-organized TiO(2) nanotubes grown by anodization of Ti-4Zr-22Nb-2Sn at different potentials, concentration of NH(4)F and anodization time was investigated. The morphology of nanotubes was observed by FE-SEM. The drug-loaded nanotubes were also fabricated in aqueous media containing minocycline hydrochloride. They were characterized by SEM, XPS and FT-IR. The results showed that the drug of minocycline hydrochloride (MH) was loaded in the nanotubes. The release effects were studied in phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The release rate of MH from TiO(2) nanotubes with shorter tube length in PBS was lower than the one of MH from longer nanotubes. The sustaining release time could last at least 150 h. Hence, it is a promising method to eliminate the harmful reactions by carrying drug in the tubes when the titanium alloys were used as biomedical implants.

  1. Study of the domain structure evolution in single crystals of relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6:Ce1

    Shur, V. Ya.; Pelegov, D. V.; Shikhova, V. A.; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Nikolaeva, E. V.; Rumyantsev, E. L.; Yakutova, O. V.; Granzow, T.


    Optical visualization with simultaneous recording of the switching current was used for studying of domain structure evolution in single crystals relaxor ferroelectric strontium barium niobate (Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6) doped by cerium (0.22 mol %) (SBN61:Ce). It was shown that the maze domain structures can be observed during polarization reversal due to local change of refractive index induced by formation of microscale domains with charged domain walls. It was proposed, that optical inhomogeneities occur in the switching regions, while the optical uniform areas correspond to regions where the switching either has not started yet or has already completed. The original mathematical treatment of the obtained images and switching currents has been used for quantitative characterization of the polarization reversal process.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of Nb2O5 supported Pd(II)@SBA15: Catalytic activity towards oxidation of benzhydrol and Rhodamine-B

    Ramanjaneya Reddy, G.; Chennakesavulu, K.


    The mesoporous silica (SBA15) supported niobium pentoxide(Nb2O5) along with the palladium(II) nanocomposite catalysts was synthesised. The nanocomposites (PdSBA and NbPdSBA) impregnation and stability were studied by several spectroscopic, thermal analysis, sorption and microscopic techniques (FTIR, DRS/UV-Vis, XRD, XPS, BET - nitrogen adsorption isotherms, TGA, SEM and TEM). The catalytic activity of the nanocomposites was studied in liquid phase oxidation of benzhydrol/H2O2 and photo degradation of the Rhodamine-B (RhB) under UV light irradiation. The catalytic activity of the nanocomposite NbPdSBA was shows higher catalytic activity in the benzhydrol oxidation and RhB degradation. The oxidation ability of the nanocomposites was determined by the spectrophotometrically. Thus a reusable catalyst shows comparable activity with fresh catalyst without loss of it's activity.

  3. Effect of Neutron Irradiation on Properties of Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3.

    Kim, Yong-Il; Choi, Namkyoung; Kim, Geunwoo; Lee, Yun-Hee; Baek, Kwang-Sae; Kim, Ki-Bok


    The effect of neutron irradiation on the electrical and piezoelectric properties of a PMN-PT [(Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-PbTiO3)] single crystal such as permittivity, electrical impedance and piezoelectric constant d33 has been investigated at 1 kHz. The changes of d33 and permittivity depending on the dose of neutron irradiation for all samples of PMN-PT single crystal were found. In all samples, the permittivity, and piezoelectric constant d33 decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Changes of XRD patterns depending on the dose of neutron irradiation for all samples were found. From the results of XRDs for analyzing the formation of the PMN-PT single crystals in single phase, the neutron irradiation will affect the crystallinity of PMN-PT single crystals.

  4. Influence of Domain Size on the Scaling Effects in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Crystals.

    Lin, Dabin; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Li, Zhenrong; Xu, Zhuo; Shrout, Thomas R


    The property degradation observed in thin Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) crystals is believed to relate to large domains and subsequent clamping induced by surface-boundary. In this work, the properties were investigated as function of domain size, using controlled poling. The degraded piezoelectric and dielectric properties of thin PMN-PT were found to increase significantly, by decreasing domain size. Furthermore, the fine domain structure was found to be stable at 3kV/cm after 7.0×10(5) negative-pulse cycles, hence, enabling PMN-PT crystals for high-frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound-transducers.

  5. Electron microscopic analysis of surface damaged layer in Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal

    Kasuya, Yusuke; Sato, Yukio; Urakami, Ryosuke; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Teranishi, Ryo; Kaneko, Kenji


    Single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate, Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT), have superior dielectric and piezoelectric properties suitable for medical ultrasound imaging. Imaging devices with superior performance can be manufactured from thinner PMN-PT single crystals by mechanical dicing and/or polishing. Although it is often a concern that a damaged layer may form during the mechanical dicing and/or thinning process, the microscopic characteristics of the damaged layer have not yet been investigated in detail. In this study, the microstructural characterization of a damaged layer was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that mechanical polishing introduced dislocation near the surface of the crystal. It was also found that the domain structure was affected by the introduction of dislocation.

  6. Optical Properties of Ca0.25Ba0.75Nb2O6 Thin Films Prepared by Spinning Coating

    Yuehua Wang; Min Zhang; Xinyin Zhao; Na Zhao


    Ca0.25Ba0.75Nb2O6 (CBN25) thin film was prepared on quartz substrate by spinning coating and the optical properties were investigated by a Hitachi U-3410 spectrophotometer and a Metricon 2010 prism coupler. The optical band gap, thickness and refractive index at 632.8 nm of the CBN25 thin film were determined to be 3.65 eV, 529 nm and 2.2258, respectively. The dispersion of the refractive index fitted to Sellmeier relation well and optical waves could be guided into the thin film, which implied that CBN25 thin films were promising for integrated optics and optically active devices.

  7. Broadband 1.5-μm emission of erbium-doped TeO2-WO3-Nb2O5 glass for potential WDM amplifier

    Shiqing Xu(徐时清); Shixun Dai(戴世勋); Junjie Zhang(张军杰); Lili Hu(胡丽丽); Zhonghong Jiang(姜中宏)


    @@ Erbium-doped glass showing the wider 1.5-/μm emission band is reported in a novel oxide system TeO2-WO3-Nb2O5 and their thermal stability and optical properties such as absorption,emission spectra,cross-sections and fluorescence lifetime were investigated.Compared with other glass hosts,the gain bandwidthproperties of Er3+ in TWN glass is close to that of bismuth glasses,and larger than those of tellurite,germanatc,silicate and phosphate glasses.The broad and flat 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 emission and the largestimulated emission cross-section of Er3+ ions around 1.5 μm can be used as host material for potentialbroadband optical amplifier in the wavelength-division-multiplexing(WDM)network system.

  8. Raman imaging of grain growth mechanism in highly textured Pb(Mg{1{/}3}Nb{2{/}3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} piezoelectric ceramics*

    Colomban, P.; Pham Thi, Mai


    Pb(Mg{1 / 3}Nb{2 / 3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} solid solution ((1-x)PMN-xPT) tape cast ceramics have been prepared by homo-epitaxial templated grain growth (HTGG) using cubic 0.75PMN 0.25 PT single crystal seeds as template (a few wt%) and x = 0.35 nanoparticles for the ceramic matrix. Raman imaging studied representative medium and highly textured ceramics. On the base of a previous study which has shown that the Raman peak centre of gravity depends on the solid solution composition whereas peak intensity is correlated to the unit-cell distortion, Raman imaging shows that the final composition and structure is very close to that of the matrix.

  9. Melt Viscosity of the Soft Magnetic Nanocrystalline Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 Alloy

    Tsepelev, Vladmir; Starodubtsev, Yuri; Konashkov, Victor


    Temperature dependences of the kinematic viscosity of a multicomponent Fe72.5Cu1Nb2Mo1.5Si14B9 melt have been studied. A critical temperature is detected above which the activation energy of the melt' viscous flow changes. Comparison of the temperature dependences of the kinematic viscosity of the melts prepared from the initial ingot and an amorphous ribbon shows that the melt viscosity essentially depends on the initial structural state of the alloy. In amorphous ribbon produced in the mode with overheating, and the melt is above the critical temperature, the enthalpy of crystallization grows; the following heat treatment results in an increase in magnetic permeability.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6- ceramics in different oxygen-reduction conditions

    李宜; 刘剑; 王春雷; 苏文斌; 祝元虎; 李吉超; 梅良模


    The thermoelectric properties of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6−δ ceramics, reduced in different conditions, are investigated in the temperature range from 323 K to 1073 K. The electrical transport behaviors of the samples are dominated by the thermal-activated polaron hopping in the low temperature range, the Fermi glass behavior in the middle temperature range, and the Anderson localized behavior in the high temperature range. The thermal conductivity presents a plateau at high-temperatures, indicating a glass-like thermal conduction behavior. Both the thermoelectric power factor and the thermal conductivity increase with the increase of the degree of oxygen-reduction. Taking these two factors into account, the oxygen-reduction can still contribute to promoting the thermoelectric figure of merit. The highest ZT value is obtained to be∼0.19 at 1073 K in the heaviest oxygen reduced sample.

  11. A study of structural, optical and dielectric properties of crystalline Sr2Nb2O7 nanoparticles synthesized by a modified combustion technique

    Mathai, K. C.; Vidya, S.; Solomon, Sam; Thomas, J. K.


    Nanocrystalline Strontium Pyroniobate is synthesized by a novel auto-igniting combustion technique. The X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that Strontium Niobate possesses orthorhombic structure. Phase purity and structure of the nanopowder is further examined using Fourier-Transform Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The average particle size of the as prepared nanoparticles from the Transmission Electron Microscopy is 30 nm. Sr2Nb2O7 is a photoluminescent material and the optical band gap determined from the UV-DRS spectrum is 2.7eV. The sample is sintered at an optimized temperature of 1350°C for 2 hours and obtained maximum density. The dielectric constant and loss factor values obtained at 5MHz for a well-sintered Strontium Niobate pellet is found to be 40 and 3.9×10-3 respectively, at room temperature.


    Osmando F. Lopes


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that Brazil is the world’s largest niobium mineral producer, governmental interest in exploration of the mineral leading to more valuable derived materials is scarce, which has reduced the country’s knowledge about a wider range of technological applications for this metal. Niobium pentoxide stands out due its remarkable electronic, structural, and textural properties. Therefore, this review aims to highlight its main properties, synthetic methods, and applications, with a particular focus on photocatalysts based on Nb2O5. This review will highlight the potential of Nb2O5 and encourage the study of niobium and its compounds in technological and environmental applications.

  13. Molecule nanoweaver

    Gerald, II; Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela


    A method, apparatus, and system for constructing uniform macroscopic films with tailored geometric assemblies of molecules on the nanometer scale. The method, apparatus, and system include providing starting molecules of selected character, applying one or more force fields to the molecules to cause them to order and condense with NMR spectra and images being used to monitor progress in creating the desired geometrical assembly and functionality of molecules that comprise the films.

  14. Investigação do comportamento eletrocrômico de filmes finos de Nb2O5 por método quimiométrico

    Rosário A. V.


    Full Text Available Filmes de Nb2O5 eletrocrômicos foram produzidos através do método de Pechini e deposição por "dip-coating". A influência das condições de preparação sobre as propriedades do material foi investigada por um planejamento fatorial fracionário com base em oito variáveis. Os filmes tiveram suas propriedades eletrocrômicas investigadas por medidas de voltametria cíclica e espectrofotometria UV-Vis "in situ", em solução de acetonitrila contendo LiClO4 0,1 M como eletrólito suporte. Durante a redução, uma coloração azul é observada no eletrodo eletrocrômico. Este processo de coloração está associado à redução Nb5+ ® Nb4+ e à intercalação de íons Li+ na matriz do óxido, sendo que uma densidade de carga superior a 45 mC/cm2 foi obtida durante varredura catódica à v=10 mV/s. O mesmo filme mostrou boa reversibilidade óptica, com variação de transmitância de aproximadamente 60%. As medidas de difração de raios X revelam que os filmes que apresentaram melhor resposta eletrocrômica são aqueles que possuem maior caráter cristalino. As variáveis de composição da resina são os fatores de maior influência sobre as propriedades dos filmes de Nb2O5.

  15. Facial Recognition

    Mihalache Sergiu; Stoica Mihaela-Zoica


    .... From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain...

  16. Fingerprint recognition

    Diefenderfer, Graig T.


    The use of biometrics is an evolving component in today's society. Fingerprint recognition continues to be one of the most widely used biometric systems. This thesis explores the various steps present in a fingerprint recognition system. The study develops a working algorithm to extract fingerprint minutiae from an input fingerprint image. This stage incorporates a variety of image pre-processing steps necessary for accurate minutiae extraction and includes two different methods of ridge thin...

  17. 溶胶凝胶法制备( Ba0.3Sr0.7)(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3微波介质陶瓷薄膜%FABRICATION OF ( Ba0.3Sr0.7 ) ( Zn1/3Nb2/3 ) O3 MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC CERAMIC THIN FILMS BY SOL-GEL

    杨龙; 王锐; 石锋


    Inexpensive metal nitrates and barium acetate instead of metal alkoxides were used as raw materials, and high quality sol was obtained by utilization of acetylacetone and citric acid. Microwave dielectric ceramic (Ba0 3Sr0 7) (Zn1/3Nb2/3) O3 thin film was fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by spin -coating, then annealed in the environment of oxygen. X - ray diffraction ( XRD) , Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) , and scanning electron microscope ( SEM) were used to study the microstructures and morphological properties of the thin film. The results revealed that the main phases of the thin film were (Ba0 3Sr0 7) (Zn1/3Nb2/3) O3 with less second phase. The thin film was compact in surface and well crystallized without crack.%以柠檬酸和乙酰丙酮为络合剂和稳定剂,金属硝酸盐为起始原料制备溶胶.采用甩胶旋涂法在Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si基片上制膜并在O2环境下退火,重复3次制得所需薄膜.采用XRD,FTIR和SEM分析薄膜的结晶性,微观结构和表面形貌.结果表明:制备的薄膜主晶相为(Ba0.3Sr0.7)(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3,伴有少量的第二相,同时,薄膜表面致密,无气孔,结晶良好,结晶颗粒均匀分布于薄膜的表面.

  18. Highly selective and stable CsPW/Nb2O5 catalysts for dehydration of glycerol to acrolein%高选择性和稳定性的CsPW/Nb2O5催化剂用于甘油脱水制备丙烯醛

    刘蓉; 王铁峰; 刘畅; 金涌


    Acrolein production by gas-phase dehydration of glycerol at 300 °C, catalyzed by a Cs+-substituted Keggin-type phosphotungstate, Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (CsPW), supported on Nb2O5 was investigated. The catalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption. It was demon-strated that Lewis acid sites were responsible for byproduct formation, and that Brönsted acid sites of medium strength were the active sites for acrolein production by glycerol dehydration. The acid-ity of the supported CsPW was affected by the calcination temperature and CsPW loading. The CsPW was well dispersed on Nb2O5 at loadings£20 wt%, and the strong acid sites of bulk CsPW were converted to selective medium acid sites. The CsPW catalyst with 20%of CsPW loading cal-cined at 500 °C gave 96%of glycerol conversion and 80%of acrolein selectivity, and there was no significant deactivation in 10 h. The catalyst with a 20%decrease in activity was regenerated by simple coke burning with air at 500 °C.%以磷钨酸铯盐Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40(CsPW)为活性组分,负载到Nb2O5载体上,并用于甘油脱水制备丙烯醛的反应中.通过调节焙烧温度(400-700°C)以及活性组分负载量(5-60 wt%),对催化剂酸性进行调节. CsPW负载量为20 wt%,500°C焙烧的CsPW/Nb2O5催化剂性能最佳,甘油转化率为96%,丙烯醛选择性为80%,反应10 h内没有失活现象,并且该催化剂具有良好的热稳定性,可通过烧炭进行再生.

  19. Nanoscale study by piezoresponse force microscopy of relaxor 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.3PbTiO(3) and 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.1PbTiO(3) thin films grown on platinum and LaNiO3 electrodes

    Detalle, M.; Ferri, A.; Da Costa, A.; Desfeux, R.; Soyer, C.; Remiens, D.


    Relaxor 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.3PbTiO(3) (70/30 PMN-PT) and 0.9Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-0.1PbTiO(3) (90/10 PMN-PT) thin films have been grown by RF-sputtering on platinum (Pt) and lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO3) bottom electrodes. For both electrodes, macroscopic measurements evidence lower coercive fields, r

  20. Formation of Mgx Nby Ox+y through the Mechanochemical Reaction of MgH2 and Nb2O5, and Its Effect on the Hydrogen-Storage Behavior of MgH2.

    Pukazhselvan, D; Perez, José; Nasani, Narendar; Bdikin, Igor; Kovalevsky, Andrei V; Fagg, Duncan Paul


    The present study aims to understand the catalysis of the MgH2 -Nb2 O5 hydrogen storage system. To clarify the chemical interaction between MgH2 and Nb2 O5 , the mechanochemical reaction products of a composite mixture of MgH2 +0.167 Nb2 O5 was monitored at different time intervals (2, 5, 15, 30, and 45 min, as well as 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 h). The study confirms the formation of catalytically active Nb-doped MgO nanoparticles (typically Mgx Nby Ox+y , with a crystallite size of 4-8 nm) by transforming reactants through an intermediate phase typified by Mgm-x Nb2n-y O5n-(x+y) . The initially formed Mgx Nby Ox+y product is shown to be Nb rich, with the concentration of Mg increasing upon increasing milling time. The nanoscale end-product Mgx Nby Ox+y closely resembles the crystallographic features of MgO, but with at least a 1-4 % higher unit cell volume. Unlike MgO, which is known to passivate the surfaces in MgH2 system, the Nb-dissolved MgO effectively mediates the Mg-H2 sorption reaction in the system. We believe that this observation will lead to new developments in the area of catalysis for metal-gas interactions.

  1. Effect of Ferroelectric Properties of Zr doping on Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 Ceramics%锆掺杂对Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6陶瓷铁电性能的影响

    刘玉杰; 隋万美; 苏龙; 张古品


    Lead-free ferroelectric ceramics Ba0.5Sr0.5Nb2O6 with and without Zr4+ dopant were prepared by a partial co-precipitation method,and their phase transformation,density and ferroelectric properties were investigated.Results indicate that with the cooperative effects of Zr4+ doping and silica sintering additive,all the ceramics can be well sintered and exhibit a dense and pure tungsten-bronze structureon the sintering behaviors,the coercive field Ec of ceramics,as well as the remanent polarization Pr and the spontaneous polarizationPs,decrease with increasing Zr4+ content.%采用部分共沉淀法制备了纯相及锆掺杂的Ba0.5Sr05Nb2O6无铅铁电陶瓷,研究了其相组成、致密度及铁电性能.结果表明,适量的掺杂锆,并引入SiO2为烧结助剂,可制备出致密、单一的钨青铜Ba0.5Sr0.5(ZrxNb1-x)2O6陶瓷.随着Zr4+掺杂量的增加,陶瓷的矫顽场Ec有所降低,剩余极化强度Pr和饱和极化强度Ps均减小.

  2. 钨青铜SrxBa1-xNb2O6陶瓷的制备及介电性能研究%Preparation and dielectric properties study of tungsten bronze SrxBa1-xNb2O6 ceramics

    谷睿; 魏灵灵; 杨祖培


    以SrCO3、BaCO3和Nb2O5为原料,采用传统固相法制备了SrxBa1-xNb2O6(SBN,x = 0.49~0.56)无铅压电陶瓷.研究了SBN陶瓷组分及烧结温度对其相结构、微观形貌和介电性能的影响.结果表明,所有陶瓷组分在1 380 ℃下烧结均可获得钨青铜结构单相.随着x值的增大,陶瓷致密化速度减慢,晶粒生长趋向均匀,介电性能提高,居里温度向低温方向移动.借助居里外斯公式证明了所有陶瓷组分均为典型的弛豫型铁电体.

  3. Porous p-NiO/n-Nb2O5 nanocomposites prepared by an EISA route with enhanced photocatalytic activity in simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and methyl orange decolorization under visible light irradiation.

    Hashemzadeh, Fatemeh; Gaffarinejad, Ali; Rahimi, Rahmatollah


    Porous NiO/Nb2O5 nanocomposites with Ni/Nb molar ratio of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 have been obtained via the EISA route using P123 copolymer as organic template, and are assigned as NiNb0.4, NiNb0.8 and NiNb1.2, respectively. For comparison, pure Nb2O5 sample assigned as NiNb0.0 was also synthesized by the same method. Structural and textural features of the as prepared samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX, UV-vis DRS and BET techniques. The results indicated that the porous p-NiO/n-Nb2O5 junction nanocomposites were formed and coupling of NiO with Nb2O5 resulted a remarkable red shift in the optical response of the nanocomposite samples. The photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite samples, and also synthesized pure Nb2O5 (NiNb0.0) and commercial Nb2O5 as reference catalysts were evaluated for the first time by simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and MO decolorization in aqueous suspension under visible light irradiation at pH 2. NiNb0.4 was found to be the most active photocatalyst, which might be attributed to the extended absorption in the visible light region and the effective photogenerated electron-hole separation by the photosynergistic effects of the p-NiO/n-Nb2O5 composite powder. The photocatalytic efficiency of the most active photocatalyst, NiNb0.4, was found to be rather low for either single Cr(VI) solution or single MO solution. However, the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and photocatalytic decolorization of MO proceed more rapidly for the coexistence system of Cr(VI) and MO than for the single process, showing synergetic effect between the reduction and decolorization reactions. The effects of initial concentration of Cr(VI), MO and the initial pH value on the rate of simultaneous photoreactions over NiNb0.4 sample, were also investigated. The Cr(VI) and MO removal rates were further enhanced by increasing MO and Cr (VI) concentration to an optimal value, respectively, and/or decreasing solution pH.

  4. A study on phase equilibria in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-“Nb2O5”(5 mass pct system in reducing atmosphere

    Yan B.


    Full Text Available Phase equilibria in 5 mass% “Nb2O5” plane of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-“Nb2O5” system at 1873 K in an oxygen partial pressure of 1.78×10-6 Pa have been investigated through isothermal equilibration and quenching followed by EPMA examinations. In order to characterize the effect of niobium oxide on the phase relationship of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system, Nb2O5-containing and Nb2O5-free samples with the same CaO/Al2O3/SiO2 weight ratio were investigated simultaneously. The ratios of CaO/Al2O3/SiO2 were selected from the CaO•2Al2O3-liquid two-phase equilibrium region in the CaO-Al2O3- SiO2 system at1873 K. It was found that the adding of 5 mass% Nb2O5 to the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system caused the original CaO•2Al2O3-liquid equilibrium to become three different new equilibria. The three equilibria were single liquid phase, CaO•6Al2O3-liquid and gehlenite-CaO•2Al2O3-liquid equilibrium respectively. The gehlenite phase may be a new solid solution of 2CaO•Al2O3•SiO2 and NbOx with melting point higher than 1873 K.

  5. Desempenho de catalisadores com Nb2O5 para produção de hidrogênio a partir da reforma de etanol com vapor d’água

    Nádia Regina Camardo Fernandes Machado


    Full Text Available Reforma de etanol com vapor d’água, para produção de hidrogênio, foi estudada sobre catalisadores Cu/Nb2O5 e Cu/Nb2O5/Al2O3. Eles foram preparados por impregnação, com diferentes concentrações de cobre e Nb2O5. Um catalisador comercial, Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 (G66, de reforma do metanol, foi usado para comparação. Dados de redução à temperatura programada mostraram incompleta redução do cobre, com formação de dois picos de redução diferentemente do CuO mássico, cuja redução ocorre em uma única etapa (somente um pico, evidenciando que o cobre é modificado ao ser suportado sobre Nb2O5. Resultados de espectroscopia de reflectância difusa também evidenciam a interação. Testes catalíticos mostraram que a dispersão do pentóxido de nióbio sobre alumina melhorou a ação do catalisador, uma vez que os catalisadores ternários são os que apresentam maior produção de hidrogênio, apesar de também produzirem éter etílico como subproduto. Os catalisadores binários não catalisam reações paralelas, provavelmente, porque, quando Cu/Nb2O5 está disperso sobre alumina, há formação de um novo sítio ativo o qual produz éter etílico.

  6. Subsolidus phase equilibria and properties in the system Bi 2O 3:Mn 2O 3±x:Nb 2O 5

    Vanderah, T. A.; Lufaso, M. W.; Adler, A. U.; Levin, I.; Nino, J. C.; Provenzano, V.; Schenck, P. K.


    Subsolidus phase relations have been determined for the Bi-Mn-Nb-O system in air (750-900 °C). Phases containing Mn 2+, Mn 3+, and Mn 4+ were all observed. Ternary compound formation was limited to pyrochlore (A 2B 2O 6O'), which formed a substantial solid solution region at Bi-deficient stoichiometries (relative to Bi 2(Mn,Nb) 2O 7) suggesting that ≈14-30% of the A-sites are occupied by Mn (likely Mn 2+). X-ray powder diffraction data confirmed that all Bi-Mn-Nb-O pyrochlores form with structural displacements, as found for the analogous pyrochlores with Mn replaced by Zn, Fe, or Co. A structural refinement of the pyrochlore 0.4000:0.3000:0.3000 Bi 2O 3:Mn 2O 3±x:Nb 2O 5 using neutron powder diffraction data is reported with the A and O' atoms displaced (0.36 and 0.33 Å, respectively) from ideal positions to 96g sites, and with Mn 2+ on A-sites and Mn 3+ on B-sites (Bi 1.6Mn 2+0.4(Mn 3+0.8Nb 1.2)O 7, Fd3¯m (♯227), a=10.478(1) Å); evidence of A or O' vacancies was not found. The displacive disorder is crystallographically analogous to that reported for Bi 1.5Zn 0.92Nb 1.5O 6.92, which has a similar concentration of small B-type ions on the A-sites. EELS spectra for this pyrochlore were consistent with an Mn oxidation between 2+ and 3+. Bi-Mn-Nb-O pyrochlores exhibited overall paramagnetic behavior with negative Curie-Weiss temperature intercepts, slight superparamagnetic effects, and depressed observed moments compared to high-spin, spin-only values. At 300 K and 1 MHz the relative dielectric permittivity of Bi 1.600Mn 1.200Nb 1.200O 7 was ≈128 with tan δ=0.05; however, at lower frequencies the sample was conductive which is consistent with the presence of mixed-valent Mn. Low-temperature dielectric relaxation such as that observed for Bi 1.5Zn 0.92Nb 1.5O 6.92 and other bismuth-based pyrochlores was not observed. Bi-Mn-Nb-O pyrochlores were readily obtained as single crystals and also as textured thin films using pulsed laser deposition.

  7. Comparative Studies on the Laser Damage Resistance of Ta2O5 and Nb2O5 Films Performed under Different Electron Beam Currents

    XV Cheng; XU Lin-Min; ZHANG Han-Zhuo; QIANG Ying-Huai; ZHU Ya-Bo; LIU Jiong-Tian; SHAO Jian-Da


    @@ TaO and NbO films are deposited by conventional e-beam method under different electron beam currents.The optical transmittance, chemical composition, absorption, scattering, surface topography and laser-induced damage threshoM (LIDT) of the films are comparatively studied.It is shown that the increase of electron beam current results in a decrease of the optical transmittance and stoichiometry, whereas it increases the absorption, scattering and rms roughness for both TaO and NbO films.However, the LIDT increases first and then decreases with the increase of electron beam current.In addition, the annealing improves the optical transmittance, stoichiometry and LIDT for the two kinds of films.Both the effects of electron beam current and annealing on the LIDT can be mainly attributed to three factors: substoichiometric defects, structural defects and adhesive force.Furthermore, the comparative results indicate that the laser damage resistance of TaO is lower than that of NbO.%Ta2O5 and Nb2Os Rims are deposited by conventional e-beam method under different electron beam currents. The optical transmittance, chemical composition, absorption, scattering, surface topography and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the dims are comparatively studied. It is shown that the increase of electron beam current results in a decrease of the optical transmittance and stoichiometry, whereas it increases the absorption, scattering and rms roughness for both Ta2O5, and Ni2O5 Sims. However, the LIDT increases first and then decreases with the increase of electron beam current. In addition, the annealing improves the optical transmittance, stoichiometry and LIDT for the two kinds of Sims. Both the effects of electron beam current and annealing on the LIDT can be mainly attributed to three factors: substoichiometric defects, structural defects and adhesive force. Furthermore, the comparative results indicate that the laser damage resistance of Ta2O5 is lower than that ofNb2O5.

  8. Polarization-based perturbations to thermopower and electronic conductivity in highly conductive tungsten bronze structured (Sr,Ba)Nb2O6: Relaxors vs normal ferroelectrics

    Bock, Jonathan A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Mahan, Gerald D.; Randall, Clive A.


    Electrical conductivity, thermopower, and lattice strain were investigated in the tetragonal tungsten bronze structured (Srx,Ba1-x)Nb2O6-δ system for 0.7>x>0.4 with large values of δ. These materials show attractive thermoelectric characteristics, especially in single-crystal form. Here, the Sr/Ba ratio was changed in order to vary the material between a normal ferroelectric with long-range polarization to relaxor behavior with short-range order and dynamic polarization. The influence of this on the electrical conduction mechanisms was then investigated. The temperature dependence of both the thermopower and differential activation energy for conduction suggests that the electronic conduction is controlled by an impurity band with a mobility edge separating localized and delocalized states. Conduction is controlled via hopping at low temperatures, and as temperature rises electrons are activated above the mobility edge, resulting in a large increase in electrical conductivity. For relaxor ferroelectric-based compositions, when dynamic short-range order polarization is present in the system, trends in the differential activation energy and thermopower show deviations from this conduction mechanism. The results are consistent with the polarization acting as a source of disorder that affects the location of the mobility edge and, therefore, the activation energy for conduction.

  9. Large-area flexible monolithic ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO electrochromic devices prepared by using magnetron sputter deposition

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Ye, Jia-Ming; Yang, Yueh-Ting; He, Ju-Liang


    Electrochromic devices (ECDs) have been applied in smart windows to control the transmission of sunlight in green buildings, saving up to 40-50% electricity consumption and ultimately reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, the high manufacturing costs and difficulty of transportation of conventional massive large area ECDs has limited widespread applications. A unique design replacing the glass substrate commonly used in the ECD windows with inexpensive, light-weight and flexible polymeric substrate materials would accelerate EC adoption allowing them to be supplemented for regular windows without altering window construction. In this study, an ITO/WO3/Nb2O5/NiVOχ/ITO all-solid-state monolithic ECD with an effective area of 24 cm × 18 cm is successfully integrated on a PET substrate by using magnetron sputter deposition. The electrochromic performance and bending durability of the resultant material are also investigated. The experimental results indicate that the ultimate response times for the prepared ECD is 6 s for coloring at an applied voltage of -3 V and 5 s for bleaching at an applied voltage of +3 V, respectively. The optical transmittances for the bleached and colored state at a wavelength of 633 nm are 53% and 11%, respectively. The prepared ECD can sustain over 8000 repeated coloring and bleaching cycles, as well as tolerate a bending radius of curvature of 7.5 cm.

  10. Spectroscopy and concentration quenching of the infrared emissions in Tm(3+)-doped TeO(2)-TiO(2)-Nb(2)O(5) glass.

    Balda, Rolindes; Fernández, Joaquín; García-Revilla, Sara; Fernández Navarro, Jose M


    In this work, we report the optical properties of Tm(3+) ions in tellurite glasses (TeO(2)-TiO(2)-Nb(2)O(5)) for different Tm(3+) concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 1 wt%. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters have been determined to calculate the radiative transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes of excited states. The stimulated emission cross-sections of the infrared emissions at 1487 nm and 1800 nm have been determined from the line shape of the emission spectra and the lifetimes of levels (3)H(4) and (3)F(4) respectively. The emission spectra obtained under 793 nm excitation reveal the existence of energy transfer via cross-relaxation among Tm(3+) ions. As a result, the intensity of the infrared (3)H(4)?(3)F(4) emission at 1487 nm decreases in relation to the one at 1800 nm, as concentration increases. The non-exponential character of the decays from the (3)H(4) level with increasing concentration indicates the presence of a dipole-dipole quenching process assisted by energy migration. The self-quenching of the (3)F(4)?(3)H(6) emission at 1800 nm can be attributed to limited diffusion within the active centers.

  11. Vacuum brazing of TiAl48Cr2Nb2 casting alloys based on TiAl (γ intermetallic compound

    Z. Mirski


    Full Text Available A growing interest in modern engineering materials characterised by increasingly better operational parameters combined with a necessity to obtain joints of such materials representing good operation properties create important research and technological problems of today. These issues include also titanium joints or joints of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds. Brazing is one of the basic and sometimes even the only available welding method used for joining the aforesaid materials in production of various systems, heat exchangers and, in case of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds, turbine elements and space shuttle plating etc. This article presents the basic physical and chemical properties as well as the brazability of alloys based on intermetallic compounds. The work also describes the principle and mechanisms of diffusion-brazed joint formation as well as reveals the results of metallographic and strength tests involving diffusion-welded joints of TiAl48Cr3Nb2 casting alloy based on TiAl (γ phase with the use of sandwich-type layers of silver-based parent metal (grade B- Ag72Cu-780 (AG 401 and copper (grade CF032A. Structural examination was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS. Furthermore, the article reveals the results of shear strength tests involving the aforementioned joints.

  12. Influence of TEM specimen preparation on chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals.

    Srot, Vesna; Gec, Medeja; van Aken, Peter A; Jeon, Jae-Ho; Ceh, Miran


    The influences of different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimen preparation techniques on the chemical composition of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) single crystals was studied. Ion-milled samples where no cooling with liquid nitrogen (L-N2) was applied show permanently changed composition also deep inside the bulk material. When the PMN-PT samples were cooled to L-N2 temperature during the ion-milling process and in addition lower accelerating voltages were used, the chemical composition was altered only in the thinnest parts close to the specimen edge. Samples prepared using only tripod polishing technique show compositional irregularities close to the specimen edge. For the preparation of lead-containing samples, such as PMN-PT single crystals, a combination of tripod polishing and short Ar-ion-milling at low accelerating voltages while cooling the samples to liquid nitrogen temperature proved to be the most suitable to obtain artefact-free electron-transparent TEM lamellae.

  13. Impedance Spectroscopy Analysis of Mg4Nb2O9 Ceramics with Different Additions of V2O5 for Microwave and Radio Frequency Applications

    Filho, J. M. S.; Rodrigues Junior, C. A.; Sousa, D. G.; Oliveira, R. G. M.; Costa, M. M.; Barroso, G. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.


    The complex impedance spectroscopy study of magnesium niobate Mg4Nb2O9 (MN) ceramics with different additions of V2O5 (0%, 2%, 5%) was performed in this present paper. The preparation of MN samples were carried out by using the solid-state reaction method with a high-energy milling machine. Frequency and temperature dependence of the complex impedance, complex modulus analysis, and conductivity were measured and calculated at different temperatures by using a network impedance analyzer. A non-Debye type relaxation was observed showing a decentralization of the semicircles. Cole-Cole formalism was adopted here with the help of a computer program used to fit the experimental data. A typical universal dielectric response in the frequency-dependent conductivity at different temperatures was found. The frequency dependent ac conductivity at different temperatures indicates that the conduction process is thermally activated. The activation energy was obtained from the Arrhenius fitting by using conductivity and electrical modules data. The results would help to understand deeply the relaxation process in these types of materials.

  14. Structural characterization and ferroelectric properties of strontium barium niobate (Sr xBa1-xNb2O6 thin films

    R.G. Mendes


    Full Text Available Strontium barium niobate (SBN thin films of good quality were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate using a polymeric resin containing metallic ions. Films were crystallized at different temperatures and for different duration of time. The structure of these films was studied using X-ray diffraction. The coexistence of SrNb2O6 (SN and SBN was observed in films crystallized at 700 °C. The amount of SN decreases when the crystallization time increases. Ferroelectric properties were determined for films crystallized at 700 °C for 1 and 5 h. For SBN film crystallized at 700 °C for 1 h, the remanent polarization (Pr and the coercive field (Ec were 2.6 muC/cm² and 71.9 kV/cm, respectively. For the film crystallized at 700 °C for 5 h these parameters were Pr = 1.1 muC/cm² and Ec = 50.5 kV/cm.

  15. Role of site-disorder in energy materials: case of LixNb2O5 pseudocapacitor and β-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte

    Ganesh, P.; Lubimtsev, Andrew A.; Dathar, Gopi K. P.; Anchell, Jonathan; Kent, Paul R. C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Sumpter, Bobby G.


    In this study, we will present computational studies to elucidate the importance of site-disorder in energy materials. We will specifically focus on two recently discovered materials: a Li-ion intercalation pseudocapacitor LixNb2O5 (Nature Materials, 12 518 (2013)) and a Li-ion solid-electrolyte.(JACS, 135 975 (2013)). A combination of theoretical methods, such as density functional theory (DFT) based cluster-expansion, basin hopping, ab initio molecular dynamics, and nudged-elastic-bands calculations were employed to understand the origin of intercalation pseudocapacitance in the niobate-system.(J. Materials Chem. 114951 (2013)). It was found that having multiple sites with similar energies for ion-adsorption, lead to a site-occupancy disorder that eventually lead to a capacitative slope in the voltage profile over the entire range of ion intercalation, as seen in experiments. A similar site-occupancy induced sublattice melting in the β-Li3PS4 solid-electrolyte, which when ``frozen'' to RT, lead to high Li-ion conductivity.(G.K.P.Dathar et al, submitted (2014)). Further, we will elucidate how to take advantage of this control over site-disorder to better engineer improved energy materials for batteries and fuel-cells. (PG, GKPD, PRCK, AJR, BGS) were supported by the CNMS at ORNL, (AAL and JA) were supported by the DOE-HERE program. Computations were performed at NERSC.

  16. Microstructures and wear properties of surface treated Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.35O alloy by electron beam melting (EBM)

    Chen, Zijin; Liu, Yong; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Weidong; Guo, Wei; Tang, Huiping; Liu, Nan


    Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.35O (wt.%) (TNTZO, also called gum metal) alloy was surface treated by electron beam melting (EBM), in order to improve wear properties. The microstructures and phase constitutions of the treated surface were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results showed that the martensitic phase and dendrites were formed from the β phase alloy after the EBM treatment, and microstructures in the surface changed with the processing parameters. Compared with the untreated TNTZO alloy, the surface modified TNTZO alloys exhibited higher nano-hardness, 8.0 GPa, and the wear loss was also decreased apparently. The samples treated at a scanning speed of 0.5 m/s exhibited the highest wear resistance due to the fast cooling rate and the precipitation of acicular α″ phase. The relationship between the wear property and the surface microstructure of TNTZO alloy was discussed.

  17. Electric field effect on elastic properties of uniaxial relaxor Sr x Ba1‑ x Nb2O6 single crystals with strong random fields

    Aftabuzzaman, Md; Helal, Md Al; Dec, Jan; Kleemann, Wolfgang; Kojima, Seiji


    The elastic properties of uniaxial relaxor Sr x Ba1‑ x Nb2O6 (x = 0.70, SBN70) single crystals with strong random fields (RFs) were studied by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy as functions of temperature and external electric field along the [001] direction. A remarkable diffuseness of a ferroelectric phase transition was observed both on zero field heating and zero field cooling. The analysis of elastic anomaly shows the stretched critical slowing down of polar nanoregions (PNRs). Under 3.0 kV/cm, a complete alignment of nanodomains and an enhancement of the long-range ferroelectric order were observed below the Curie temperature T C = 23 °C. The alignment of quasistatic PNRs above T C was also observed under a sufficiently strong electric field. In a field-dependent measurement, a mixed state consisting of field-induced macrodomains and nanodomains caused by RFs was observed at 3.4 kV/cm. This mixed state persisted up to 9.0 kV/cm due to the incomplete switching of nanodomains to the macro/single domain state.

  18. Compositional dependence of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 piezoelectric thin films by combinatorial sputtering

    Kurokawa, Fumiya; Tsujiura, Yuichi; Hida, Hirotaka; Kanno, Isaku


    We evaluated the compositional dependence of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) polycrystalline thin films by combinatorial sputtering. We prepared compositional gradient (1 - x)PMN-xPT polycrystalline thin films with preferential orientation along the direction in the composition range of x = 0-0.62. We determined that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition of PMN-PT polycrystalline thin film existed at around x = 0.35, from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The maximum value of relative dielectric constants (ɛr = 1498) was obtained at approximately x = 0.23. On the other hand, the piezoelectric coefficients (|e31,f| = 14.1 C/m2) peaked at the determined MPB composition of x = 0.35. From the results of the compositional dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric characteristics, the FOM (e_{31,\\text{f}}^{2}/\\varepsilon _{0}\\varepsilon _{\\text{r}}) of the PMN-PT (x = 0.35) thin film reached 21 GPa, which is much higher than that of the other polycrystalline piezoelectric thin films. These results suggest that PMN-PT (x = 0.35) thin film is a promising material for high-efficiency piezoelectric MEMS energy harvesters.

  19. Facial Recognition

    Mihalache Sergiu


    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  20. Atkins' molecules

    Atkins, Peters


    Originally published in 2003, this is the second edition of a title that was called 'the most beautiful chemistry book ever written'. In it, we see the molecules responsible for the experiences of our everyday life - including fabrics, drugs, plastics, explosives, detergents, fragrances, tastes, and sex. With engaging prose Peter Atkins gives a non-technical account of an incredible range of aspects of the world around us, showing unexpected connections, and giving an insight into how this amazing world can be understood in terms of the atoms and molecules from which it is built. The second edition includes dozens of extra molecules, graphical presentation, and an even more accessible and enthralling account of the molecules themselves.

  1. Enumerating molecules.

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (, . Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.


    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  2. Speaker Recognition

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther


    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...... in applications like banking by telephone and voice mail. The focus of this project is speaker identification, which consists of mapping a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a database of known speakers, i.e. the system has been trained with a number of speakers which the system can recognize....

  3. Hardness Response Surface for U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr Alloy: A Study of Recovery/Recrystallization and Phase Transformation Interactions

    Lopes, Denise Adorno; de Oliveira Zimmermann, Angelo José; Restivo, Thomaz Augusto Guisard; Padilha, Angelo Fernando


    Uranium alloys in monolithic form are an option for creating advanced nuclear fuels with very high uranium density, low isotopic enrichment, and high thermal conductivity. One aspect of the metallic fuel development is to demonstrate the retention of similar γ-phase microstructure (γs) in the fuel alloy after fabrication and during the irradiation process. Unfortunately, there are few recent systematic studies in uranium alloys. Additionally, none of them are addressing the theme of recovery/recrystallization and phase transformations interactions that compose the basic metallurgical knowledge to manufacture nuclear fuel plates. This paper discusses this theme for U-7.5Nb-2.5Zr alloy employing a multivariate statistical technique, namely response surface methodology, to analyze the effect of the following process variables: degree of deformation, temperature, and time. Based on the results, in the range studied, the authors demonstrated that at low temperatures, the interaction between the recovery phenomenon and precipitation of metastable α″ phase (isothermal martensitic shear transformation) shows a dependence with the degree of deformation, with prevalence of recovery for higher levels of this parameter. Interaction between α + γ3 phase nucleation and recrystallization is limited to a narrow temperature range [~848 K to 923 K (575 °C to 650 °C)] and during the first hour of annealing. Additionally, the series of phase transformations, γ → γs → γo → α″, produced by shear was observed to be strongly dependent on crystallographic orientations and this fact could be used to enhance the retention of the metastable γs phase.

  4. Effect of Ce doping on the electrocaloric effect of SrxBa1-xNb2O6 single crystals

    Le Goupil, Florian; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Dec, Jan; Berenov, Andrey; Alford, Neil McN.


    The electrocaloric effect (ECE) of SrxBa(1-x)Nb2O6 (SBN100x) single crystals, with a tetragonal tungsten bronze structure and a high ECE near room temperature, is studied by direct measurements. It is shown that although the onset of the ECE peak is closer to room temperature in SBN80 than in SBN75, the effect of the increase of the strontium content is very detrimental to the ECE performances with a decrease to ΔTEC = 0.23 K for SBN80 from the reported value of ΔTEC = 0.42 K under 10 kV/cm for SBN75 [F. Le Goupil et al., "Anisotropy of the electrocaloric effect in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics," Adv. Energy Mater. (published online)]. However, when 1.40% of cerium is introduced in SBN61, the temperature of depolarisation is shifted below 30 °C, while an ECE above 0.6 K is maintained over more than 70 K for a low electric field of 28 kV/cm. The maximum ECE ΔTEC = 0.85 K is measured at 61 °C. In addition to having an ECE peak close to room temperature, the ECE measured in Ce-doped SBN61 is comparable with the best reported values for lead-free materials [Y. Bai et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 094103 (2011); X.-S. Qian et al., Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 1300 (2014)], when linearly extrapolated to higher electric fields.

  5. Palmitoylcarnitine affects localization of growth associated protein GAP-43 in plasma membrane subdomains and its interaction with Gα(o) in neuroblastoma NB-2a cells.

    Tułodziecka, Karolina; Czeredys, Magdalena; Nałęcz, Katarzyna A


    Palmitoylcarnitine was observed previously to promote differentiation of neuroblastoma NB-2a cells, and to affect protein kinase C (PKC). Palmitoylcarnitine was also observed to increase palmitoylation of several proteins, including a PKC substrate, whose expression augments during differentiation of neural cells-a growth associated protein GAP-43, known to bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. Since palmitoylated proteins are preferentially localized in sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich microdomains of plasma membrane, the present study has been focused on a possible effect of palmitoylcarnitine on GAP-43 localization in these microdomains. Palmitoylcarnitine treatment resulted in GAP-43 appearance in floating fractions (rafts) in sucrose gradient and increased co-localization with cholesterol and with PI(4,5)P(2), although co-localization of both lipids decreased. GAP-43 disappeared from raft fraction upon treatment with 2-bromopalmitate (an inhibitor of palmitoylating enzymes) and after treatment with etomoxir (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor). Raft localization of GAP-43 was completely abolished by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, a cholesterol binding agent, while there was no change upon sequestration of PI(4,5)P(2) with neomycin. GAP-43 co-precipitated with a monomeric form of Gα(o), a phenomenon diminished after palmitoylcarnitine treatment and paralleled by a decrease of Gα(o) in the raft fraction. These observations point to palmitoylation of GAP-43 as a mechanism leading to an increased localization of this protein in microdomains of plasma membrane rich in cholesterol, in majority different, however, from microdomains in which PI(4,5)P(2) is present. This localization correlates with decreased interaction with Gα(o) and suppression of its activity-an important step regulating neural cell differentiation.

  6. Host-sensitized luminescence properties in CaNb2O6:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) phosphors with abundant colors.

    Li, Kai; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun


    A series of Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+)) ion doped CaNb2O6 (CNO) phosphors have been prepared via the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and structure refinement, diffuse reflection, photoluminescence (PL), and fluorescent decay curves were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. Under UV radiation, the CNO host present a broad emission band from about 355 to 605 nm centered around 460 nm originating from the NbO6 octahedral groups, which has spectral overlaps with the excitation of f-f transitions of Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) samples. They show both host emission and respective emission lines derived from the characteristic f-f transitions of activators, which present different emission colors owing to the energy transfer from the NbO6 group in the host to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) with increasing activator concentrations. The decreases of decay lifetimes of host emissions in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+) demonstrate the energy transfer from the hosts to Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)/Sm(3+). The energy transfer mechanisms in CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) phosphors have been determined to be a resonant type via dipole-dipole mechanisms. For CNO:Sm(3+), the metal-metal charge transfer transition (MMCT) might contribute to the different variations of decay lifetimes and emission intensity from CNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) samples. The best quantum efficiency is 71.2% for CNO:0.01/0.02Dy(3+). The PL properties of as-prepared materials indicate the promising application in UV-pumped white-emitting lighting diodes field.

  7. Microwave property improvement of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ perovskite by A-site substitution

    Hu, Mingzhe; Xiong, Gang; Ding, Zhao


    The crystal structure and microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramic (CLNZ) are tuned by A-site substitution of Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions in the present paper. The tuning effect on the crystal structure is investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and it illustrates that single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure is formed, however, minor amount of BaNb2O6-type second phase is also detected in (Ca1-xBax)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CBLNZ) in the range of x ≥ 0.025, while pure perovskite phase is obtained in (Ca1-xSrx)[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.95Zr0.15]O3+δ ceramics (CSLNZ) in the whole investigation range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2. With the increase of x value, the unit cell volumes of both CBLNZ and CSLNZ perovskites gradually expand, which results in the degradation of the vibration bond strength between the B-site ions and oxygen in the perovskites. The microscopic structure related thermal parameters in CSLNZ and CBLNZ perovskites are analyzed in terms of Clausius-Mossotti equation to reveal the original contributors in the temperature coefficients. The results show that both Sr2+ and Ba2+ substitution can effectively improve the permittivity and Qf value, especially, improve the temperature coefficient of CLNZ ceramic in a certain range.

  8. Ultrahigh magnetic field sensitivity in laminates of TERFENOL-D and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbTiO3 crystals

    Dong, Shuxiang; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight D.


    It has been found that laminate composites of longitudinally magnetized magnetostrictive TERFENOL-D and a transversely poled piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbTiO3 crystal have extremely high magnetic field sensitivity. At room temperature, an output voltage with an exceptionally good linear response to an ac magnetic field H-ac was found over the range of 10(-11)

  9. Properties of epitaxial, (001)- and (110)-oriented (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 films on silicon described by polarization rotation

    Boota, M.; Houwman, E.P.; Dekkers, J.M.; Nguyen, M.D.; Vergeer, K.H.; Lanzara, G.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.


    Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either

  10. Development of ferroelectric order in relaxor (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 (0≤x≤0.15)

    Ye, Z.-G.; Bing, Y.; Gao, J.; Bokov, A.A.; Stephens, P.; Noheda, B.; Shirane, G.


    The microstructure and phase transition in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN) and its solid solution with PbTiO3 (PT), PMN-xPT, remain to be some of the most puzzling issues of solid-state science. In the present work we have investigated the evolution of the phase symmetry in PMN-xPT cera

  11. Degradação fotocatalítica de efluentes de indústria têxtil empregando TiO2 e Nb2O5, sob irradiação visível

    Veronice Slusarski Santana


    Full Text Available A aplicação de métodos biológicos convencionais de tratamento de efluentes têxteis está limitada pela degradação insatisfatória de alguns corantes. Assim, a fotocatálise heterogênea é uma alternativa no tratamento desse tipo de efluente. Foram realizados testes de degradação fotocatalítica em três efluentes naturais de indústria têxtil, sob irradiação visível, empregando os fotocatalisadores: TiO2, Nb2O5 puros e em combinação, através da mistura mecânica (1:1 e impregnação (5%Nb2O5/TiO2. As análises de caracterização realizadas (RTP, DRS, acidez, FTIR e análise textural indicaram um efeito sinérgico e interação diferenciada entre os óxidos e a formação de uma nova fase no catalisador Nb2O5-TiO2. Os resultados de descoloração e mineralização mostraram que a redução de cor não está diretamente relacionada com a redução de DQO, e que a eficiência do processo fotocatalítico depende tanto do efluente a ser tratado quanto do fotocatalisador empregado, tornando-se promissor o uso do Nb2O5 e irradiação visível na fotodegradação de efluentes têxteis.

  12. The recognition of work

    Nierling, Linda


    The following article argues that recognition structures in work relations differ significantly in the sphere of paid work in contrast to unpaid work in private spheres. According to the systematic approach on recognition of Axel Honneth three different levels of recognition are identified: the interpersonal recognition, organisational recognition and societal recognition. Based on this framework it can be stated that recognition structures in the sphere of paid work and in private spheres di...

  13. Laser damage comparisons of broad-bandwidth, high-reflection optical coatings containing TiO2, Nb2O5, or Ta2O5 high-index layers

    Field, Ella S.; Bellum, John C.; Kletecka, Damon E.


    Broad bandwidth coatings allow angle of incidence flexibility and accommodate spectral shifts due to aging and water absorption. Higher refractive index materials in optical coatings, such as TiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5, can be used to achieve broader bandwidths compared to coatings that contain HfO2 high index layers. We have identified the deposition settings that lead to the highest index, lowest absorption layers of TiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5, via e-beam evaporation using ion-assisted deposition. We paired these high index materials with SiO2 as the low index material to create broad bandwidth high reflection coatings centered at 1054 nm for 45 deg angle of incidence and P polarization. High reflection bandwidths as large as 231 nm were realized. Laser damage tests of these coatings using the ISO 11254 and NIF-MEL protocols are presented, which revealed that the Ta2O5/SiO2 coating exhibits the highest resistance to laser damage, at the expense of lower bandwidth compared to the TiO2/SiO2 and Nb2O5/SiO2 coatings.

  14. Isotopomer-selective spectra of a single intact H2O molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5H2O isotopologue: Going beyond pattern recognition to harvest the structural information encoded in vibrational spectra

    Wolke, Conrad T.; Fournier, Joseph A.; Miliordos, Evangelos; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Johnson, Mark A.


    We report the vibrational signatures of a single H2O molecule occupying distinct sites of the hydration network in the Cs+(H2O)6 cluster. This is accomplished using isotopomer-selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs+(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs+(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. The Cs+(H2O)6 structure was unambiguously assigned to the 4.1.1 isomer (a homodromic water tetramer with two additional flanking water molecules) from the fact that its computed IR spectrum matches the observed overall pattern and recovers the embedded correlations in the two OH stretching bands of the water molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) isotopomers. The 4.1.1 isomer is the lowest in energy among other candidate networks at advanced (e.g., CCSD(T)) levels of theoretical treatment after corrections for (anharmonic) zero-point energy. With the structure in hand, we then explore the mechanical origin of the various band locations using a local electric field formalism. This approach promises to provide a transferrable scheme for the prediction of the OH stretching fundamentals displayed by water networks in close proximity to solute ions.

  15. Isotopomer-selective spectra of a single intact H2O molecule in the Cs(+)(D2O)5H2O isotopologue: Going beyond pattern recognition to harvest the structural information encoded in vibrational spectra.

    Wolke, Conrad T; Fournier, Joseph A; Miliordos, Evangelos; Kathmann, Shawn M; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Johnson, Mark A


    We report the vibrational signatures of a single H2O molecule occupying distinct sites of the hydration network in the Cs(+)(H2O)6 cluster. This is accomplished using isotopomer-selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs(+)(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs(+)(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs(+)(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. The Cs(+)(H2O)6 structure was unambiguously assigned to the 4.1.1 isomer (a homodromic water tetramer with two additional flanking water molecules) from the fact that its computed IR spectrum matches the observed overall pattern and recovers the embedded correlations in the two OH stretching bands of the water molecule in the Cs(+)(D2O)5(H2O) isotopomers. The 4.1.1 isomer is the lowest in energy among other candidate networks at advanced (e.g., CCSD(T)) levels of theoretical treatment after corrections for (anharmonic) zero-point energy. With the structure in hand, we then explore the mechanical origin of the various band locations using a local electric field formalism. This approach promises to provide a transferrable scheme for the prediction of the OH stretching fundamentals displayed by water networks in close proximity to solute ions.

  16. Isotopomer-selective spectra of a single intact H2O molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5H2O isotopologue: Going beyond pattern recognition to harvest the structural information encoded in vibrational spectra

    Wolke, Conrad T.; Fournier, Joseph A.; Miliordos, Evangelos; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Johnson, Mark A.


    We report the vibrational signatures of a single H2O water molecule occupying distinct sites of the hydration network in the Cs+(H2O)6 cluster. This is accomplished using isotopomer selective IR-IR hole-burning on the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) clusters formed by gas-phase exchange of a single, intact H2O molecule for D2O in the Cs+(D2O)6 ion. The OH stretching pattern of the Cs+(H2O)6 isotopologue is accurately recovered by superposition of the isotopomer spectra, thus establishing that the H2O incorporation is random and that the OH stretching manifold is largely due to contributions from decoupled water molecules. This behavior enables a powerful new way to extract structural information from vibrational spectra of size-selected clusters by explicitly identifying the local environments responsible for specific infrared features. The Cs+(H2O)6 structure was unambiguously assigned to the 4.1.1 isomer (a homodromic water tetramer with two additional flanking water molecules) from the fact that its computed IR spectrum matches the observed overall pattern and recovers the embedded correlations in the two OH stretching bands of the water molecule in the Cs+(D2O)5(H2O) isotopomers. The 4.1.1 isomer is the lowest in energy among other candidate networks at advanced (e.g., CCSD(T)) levels of theoretical treatment after corrections for (anharmonic) zero-point energy (ZPE). With the structure in hand, we then explore the mechanical origin of the various band locations using a local electric field formalism. This approach promises to provide a transferrable scheme for the prediction of the OH stretching fundamentals displayed by water networks in close proximity to solute ions.

  17. Li2 O-Nb2 O5-TiO2微波介电陶瓷掺杂改性研究%Study on Doping Modification of Microwave Dielectric Li2 O-Nb2 O5-TiO2 Ceramics

    余韶阳; 李恩竹; 周晓华; 张树人


    采用传统的固相反应法制备Li-Al-B(LAB)掺杂立方晶系Li2 O-Nb2 O5-TiO2(LNT)微波介电陶瓷。运用XRD、SEM和微波介电性能测试等手段,研究了 LAB掺杂对样品烧结性能及微波介电性能的影响。结果表明,在LNT陶瓷中添加LAB,有效促进LNT陶瓷烧结,使材料的介电常数和品质因数显著提高。当掺入LAB的质量分数为4%时,样品在900℃保温2 h后烧结致密,并获得最佳微波性能:介电常数εr=18.05,品质因数与频率的乘积Q×f=22040 GHz(f=6.41 GHz),频率温度系数τf=-20.74×10-6/℃。%Li2 O-Nb2 O5-TiO2 (LNT)microwave dielectric ceramics of cubic crystal system were synthesized by the traditional solid-state reaction method.The effects of LAB(Li-Al-B)doping on sintering character and electric properties of the samples were studied using XRD,SEM and microwave dielectric properties measurements.The re-sults show that adding LAB in the LNT ceramic will effectively promote the sintering,and significantly improve the dielectric constant and the quality factor.When the mass fraction of LAB reaches to 4%,the sample pellets were sin-tered at temperatures of around 900 ℃ for 2 h,and shows the best microwave performances of dielectric constantεr=18.05,quality factor times frequency Q×f=22 040 GHz(f=6.41 GHz),and temperature coefficient of fre-quencyτf=-20.74×10-6/℃.

  18. Densificação e evolução microestrutural de cerâmicas Pb0,59Ba0,41Nb2O 6 Densification and microstructural evolution of Pb0.59Ba0.41Nb2O 6 ceramics

    I. A. Santos


    Full Text Available O niobato de bário e chumbo (PBN possui uma estrutura cristalina do tipo tungstênio-bronze e apresenta propriedades ferroelétricas muito interessantes tanto do ponto de vista científico quanto do ponto de vista tecnológico, revelando-se como um material bastante promissor para aplicação no desenvolvimento de dispositivos eletro-ópticos, piezoelétricos e piroelétricos. Cerâmicas à base de Pb0(0,59Ba0,41Nb2O 6 (PBN59 foram preparadas pelo método convencional de mistura de matérias-primas. Duas rotas distintas de densificação de amostras foram utilizadas nesse trabalho: sinterização convencional e sinterização por prensagem uniaxial a quente. As caracterizações microestruturais efetuadas indicaram que as amostras obtidas via prensagem uniaxial a quente apresentam uma distribuição bimodal de tamanhos de grão e elevadas densidades, indicando que essa técnica propicia uma maior eficiência no processo de densificação das amostras. O tratamento térmico pós-prensagem uniaxial a quente induz o macro-crescimento preferencial de grãos orientados.Lead barium niobate ferroelectric ceramics have a crystallographic tungsten bronze structure and present interesting ferroelectric properties from both scientific and technological points of view, making them very attractive for electro-optical, SAW and pyroelectric device applications. Ceramics of Pb0(0.59Ba0.41Nb2O 6 (PBN59 were prepared through conventional mixed precursors method. Two distinct densification routes were employed in this work: conventional firing and uniaxial hot pressing. The microstructural characterizations indicated that the samples obtained by the latter method present a bimodal grain size distribution and high densities, indicating that this technique is more suitable for obtaining ceramics with high densification rates. The post-pressing annealing induces the preferentially oriented macro grain growth.

  19. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    Trabolsi, Ali


    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Bi2O3-MoO3-Nb2O5 Addition on Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Zn Ferrites with High Permeability%复合添加剂Bi2O3-MoO3-Nb2O5对高磁导率Mn-Zn铁氧体微观结构与磁性能的影响

    孙玉坤; 李冬云; 高朋召; 徐扬; 葛洪良; 颜冲


    采用高温固相反应制备了 Bi2O3–MoO3–Nb2O5复合掺杂高磁导率 Mn–Zn 铁氧体材料,利用扫描电子显微镜、B–H测量仪和阻抗分析仪等对材料结构和性能进行表征,研究了不同含量MoO3复合添加剂Bi2O3–MoO3–Nb2O5对Mn–Zn铁氧体微观结构和磁性能的影响。结果表明:复合添加剂Bi2O3–MoO3–Nb2O5中,适量的MoO3可以有效改善材料的微观结构,提升材料起始磁导率,降低材料比损耗,提升材料饱和磁感应强度,并在Nb2O5=0.020%(质量分数)、Bi2O3=0.015%、MoO3=0.030%时,材料获得最佳的综合性能:起始磁导率μi=12457.51,tanδ/μi=3.76×10–6,饱和磁感应强度Bs=0.416 T。%Mn–Zn ferrites as important magnetic ceramics are widely used due to their low power loss and high initial permeability. Small amounts of oxide additives can greatly affect the properties of ferrites. The additives have a different effect on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrites. In this paper, the Bi2O3–MoO3–Nb2O5 doped a high permeability Mn–Zn ferrites with different MoO3 contents were prepared via high temperature solid state reactions, and the effect of MoO3 on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Mn–Zn ferrites was investigated by scanning electron microscope, B–H tester and impendence analyzer, respectively. The results show that a suitable amount of MoO3 in Bi2O3–MoO3–Nb2O5 co-dopant can improve the microstructure, reduce the specific losses and enhance the saturation induction density of Mn–Zn ferrites effectively. The optimum performance (i.e., initial permeabilityμi=12 457.51;specific loss coefficient tanδ/μi=3.76×10–6;saturation induction density Bs=0.416 T) was obtained at the contents of Nb2O5, Bi2O3 and MoO3 of 0.020%(in mass fraction), 0.015%and 0.030%.

  1. Single Crystal Growth of a New Tetragonal Tungsten Bronze Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 Crystal%新型钨青铜型晶体Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6的生长研究

    宋化龙; 张怀金; 徐现刚; 胡小波; 许心光; 王继扬; 蒋民华


    研究了Ca0.28Ba0.72Nb2O6 (CBN-28)多晶料的制备和单晶的生长,用提拉法成功生长出CBN-28单晶.从X射线粉末衍射数据计算了CBN-28晶体的晶胞参数,并对其粉末衍射图各衍射峰进行了指标化.CBN晶体属四方晶系4mm点群.晶胞参数为a=1.2432(±2)nm,c=0.3957(±1)nm.采用浮力法测得其平均密度为5.372g/cm3,测得其莫式硬度为7,并通过测量CBN-28的介电性质,确定其居里点为260℃.

  2. Structure and Dielectric Properties of Sr1-xBaxNb2O6 Ferroelectric Ceramics with Tungsten Bronze Structure%Sr1-xBaxNb2O6钨青铜铁电陶瓷的结构与介电性能研究

    郑兴华; 梁国栋; 丁剑; 周小红; 杨华珠; 王吉升


    通过固相反应法合成了Sr1-xBax Nb2O6(SBN)钨青铜型铁电陶瓷,并对其结构、介电性能进行了系统的研究.结果表明在所研究的成分范围内,SBN陶瓷均形成了四方钨青铜相,但是SBN25陶瓷的主相为焦绿石相,其他3种成分的SBN陶瓷均为四方钨青铜单相.SBN陶瓷均存在一个明显的弥散介电峰,峰值温度随x的增加从室温(SBN25)升高到130℃左右(SBN60);同时峰值温度随频率往高温偏移,为典型的弛豫铁电相变.

  3. Hadron Molecules

    Gutsche, Thomas; Faessler, Amand; Lee, Ian Woo; Lyubovitskij, Valery E


    We discuss a possible interpretation of the open charm mesons $D_{s0}^*(2317)$, $D_{s1}(2460)$ and the hidden charm mesons X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4140) as hadron molecules. Using a phenomenological Lagrangian approach we review the strong and radiative decays of the $D_{s0}^* (2317)$ and $D_{s1}(2460)$ states. The X(3872) is assumed to consist dominantly of molecular hadronic components with an additional small admixture of a charmonium configuration. Determing the radiative ($\\gamma J/\\psi$ and $\\gamma \\psi(2s)$) and strong ($J/\\psi 2\\pi $ and $ J/\\psi 3\\pi$) decay modes we show that present experimental observation is consistent with the molecular structure assumption of the X(3872). Finally we give evidence for molecular interpretations of the Y(3940) and Y(4140) related to the observed strong decay modes $J/\\psi + \\omega$ or $J/\\psi + \\phi$, respectively.

  4. Phase analysis and dielectric properties of ceramics in PbO–MgO–ZnO–Nb2O5 system: A comparative study of materials obtained by ceramic and molten salt synthesis routes

    M Thirumal; A K Ganguli


    Compositions of the type 3PbO–MgO/ZnO–Nb2O5 were synthesized by the ceramic route at 1000°C and sintered at 1200°C. Powder X-ray diffraction studies of the 1000°C heated products show the presence of the cubic pyrochlore and the columbite (Mg/ZnNb2O6) type phase in the ratio of 3 : 1 for all possible combinations of MgO and ZnO. Further heating at 1200°C led to a decrease in the cubic pyrochlore phase and an increase in the columbite phase by around 10%. Compacted pellets sintered further showed the appearance of the perovskite phase. Similar compositions synthesized using the KCl–NaCl molten salt method at 900°C for 6 h gave a significant amount of the cubic perovskite related phase of the type Pb(Mg/Zn)1/3Nb2/3O3 for all compositions containing MgO. The amount of the perovskite phase was nearly 55% for the Mg rich compositions and decreased with increase in Zn content, the pure Zn composition yielding mainly the cubic pyrochlore phase. On sintering these phases at 1000°C the perovskite phase content decreased. The dielectric constant of the composite materials formed by the ceramic route was in the region of 14 to 20 and varied little with frequency. The composites obtained by the molten salt method, however, showed much larger dielectric constants in the region 40–150 at 500 kHz for various compositions. The dielectric loss tangent of these composites were lower by an order (0.005–0.03 at 500 kHz) compared to the ceramic route.

  5. Optical Dispersion Behavior and Band Gap Energy of Relaxor Ferroelectric 0.92Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.08PbTiO3 Single Crystal

    LIN Yan-Ting; REN Bo; ZHAO Xiang-Yong; WANG Fei-Fei; WANG Yao-Jin; XU Hai-Qing; LIN Di; LUO Hao-Su


    Refractive indices and extinction coefficients of 0.92Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/a )O3-0.08Pb Ti03 (PMN-0.08PT) single crystal are investigated by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) at different wavelengths. The parameters relative to the energy band structure are obtained by fitting to the single-oscillator dispersion equation, and the band gap energy is also deduced from the Tauc equation. Similar to most oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics,PMN-0.08PT has the same dispersion behavior described by the refractive-index dispersion parameters.

  6. Corrosion resistance of a new Ti-12. 5Zr-3Nb-2. 5Sn alloy%新型钛锆铌锡合金的耐蚀性研究

    胡欣; 魏强; 李长义; 邓嘉胤; 刘霜; 张连云


    目的 评价新型钛锆铌锡合金在人工唾液中的耐蚀性,为钛锆铌锡合金的临床应用提供依据.方法 观察钛锆铌锡合金(Ti-12.5Zr-3Nb-2.5Sn)和对照纯钛(TA2)及钛铝钒合金(Ti-fAl-4V)在人工唾液中的电化学行为,比较极化曲线及极化阻力;检测钛锆铌锡合金和钛铝钒合金在人工唾液中1、2、3、5、7、15 d的离子释出情况.结果 极化曲线显示,钛铝钒合金的击穿电位(0.8 V)低于钛锆铌锡合金(>2.5 V);钛锆铌锡合金、纯钛在钝化区的维钝电流密度(icorr)基本保持稳定,分别为3.32×10-6~3.46×10-5A/cm2和5.03×10-6~2.65×10-5A/cm2,低于钛铝钒合金(1.45×10-4~1.09×10-3 A/cm2).纯钛、钛锆铌锡合金、钛铝钒合金的极化阻力分别为371.0、252.0、60.1 kΩ·cm2.离子释出结果显示,随浸泡时间增加,两种钛合金的离子溶出量均有不同程度增加,且各时间点钛铝钒合金的离子溶出量均高于钛锆铌锡合金.结论 钛锆铌锡合金在人工唾液中具有良好的耐蚀性,可用于制作口腔修复体.%Objective To evaluate the corrosion resistance of a new titanium alloy for dental restoration in artificial saliva. Methods In simulated oral environment, the electrochemical behavior of a new titanium alloy(Ti-12. 5Zr-3Nb-2. 5Sn) for dental restoration based on the d-electron alloy design method with high elastic modulus, high mechanical and good biological safety properties was investigated together with that of Ti-6Al-4V and TA2 as control groups. The anodic polarization curve and polarization resistance of these alloys were analyzed and the element release of Ti-12.5Zr-3Nb-2.5Sn and Ti-6Al-4V alloy after immersion in artificial saliva for 1,2,3,5,7,15 d were measured. Results Polarization curve indicated that Ti-6Al-4V alloy had lower breakdown potential(0. 8 V) than Ti-12. 5Zr-3Nb-2. 5Sn alloy did (>2. 5 V) . Ti-6A1-4V alloy showed higher passivation current density (1.45 × 10-4 -1.09 × 10-3 A/cm2

  7. Broadband light scattering of two relaxation processes in relaxor ferroelectric 0.93Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.07PbTiO3 single crystals

    Tsukada, Shinya; Kojima, Seiji


    Dynamical properties of relaxor ferroelectric 0.93Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.07PbTiO3 single crystals have been studied by the broadband inelastic light scattering from gigahertz to terahertz frequency range. The longitudinal- and transverse-acoustic (LA and TA) phonon frequencies deviate below the Burns temperature TB=736 K from a linear temperature dependence above TB, indicating the existence of polarization relaxations induced by the polar nanoregions (PNRs). On further cooling, a central peak (...

  8. Gesture Recognition Summarization

    ZHANG Ting-fang; FENG Zhi-quan; SU Yuan-yuan; JIANG Yan


    Gesture recognition is an important research in the field of human-computer interaction. Hand Gestures are strong variable and flexible, so the gesture recognition has always been an important challenge for the researchers. In this paper, we first outlined the development of gestures recognition, and different classification of gestures based on different purposes. Then we respectively introduced common methods used in the process of gesture segmentation, feature extraction and recognition. Finally, the gesture recognition was summarized and the studying prospects were given.

  9. Iris Recognition Technique

    XIE Mei


    The demand on security is increasing greatly in these years and biometric recognition gradually becomes a hot field of research. Iris recognition is a new branch of biometric recognition, which is regarded as the most stable, safe and accurate biometric recognition method. In these years, much progress in this field has been made by scholars and experts of different countries. In this paper, some successful iris recognition methods are listed and their performance are compared. Furthermore, the existing problems and challenges are discussed.

  10. Quantitative detection of single DNA molecules on DNA tetrahedron decorated substrates.

    Wang, Zhenguang; Xue, Qingwang; Tian, Wenzhi; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei


    A single DNA molecule detection method on DNA tetrahedron decorated substrates has been developed. DNA tetrahedra were introduced onto substrates for both preventing nonspecific adsorption and sensitive recognition of single DNA molecules.

  11. Extracellular recognition of oomycetes during biotrophic infection of plants

    Raaymakers, Tom M.; Van Den Ackerveken, Guido


    Extracellular recognition of pathogens by plants constitutes an important early detection system in plant immunity. Microbe-derived molecules, also named patterns, can be recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on the host cell membrane that trigger plant immune responses. Most knowledge

  12. Synthesis of niobium borides by powder metallurgy methods using Nb2O5, B2O3 and Mg blends%采用混合Nb2O5,B2O3和Mg粉末冶金法合成硼化铌

    Özge Balcı; Duygu Ağaoğulları; M. Lütfi Öveçoğlu; İsmail Duman


    在强还原剂条件下,以相关的金属氧化物为原材料,采用粉末冶金法成功合成具有不同含量NbB、NbB2和Nb3B4相的硼化铌粉末和单相NbB粉末。在室温下使用高能球磨机球磨Nb2O5、B2O3和 Mg混合粉末。随后,利用HCl浸出除去球磨粉末中无用的MgO相,合成最终产物NbB−NbB2−Nb3B4,产物在1500°C下退火4 h,以便观察硼化物之间的转换。采用XRD、DSC、PSA、SEM/EDX、TEM和 VSM表征该产物。研究球磨时间(达9 h)对产物形成、显微组织和热行为的影响。化学计量混合粉末经2 h球磨后,发生了还原反应。在不存在任何二次相和杂质时,通过机械化学法,球磨5 h并采用4 mol/L HCl浸出,得到高纯纳米尺寸NbB−NbB2−Nb3B4粉末。经退火处理后,纯的纳米尺寸NbB−NbB2−Nb3B4粉末转变为单相NbB,不存在NbB2和Nb3B4相。%Niobium boride powders having NbB, NbB2 and Nb3B4 phases in various amounts and single phase NbB powders were successfully synthesized by using powder metallurgy methods from related metal oxide raw materials in the presence of a strong reducing agent. Nb2O5, B2O3 and Mg powder blends were milled at room temperature by a high-energy ball mill for different time. Subsequently, undesired MgO phase was removed from the milled powders by HCl leaching to constitute NbB−NbB2−Nb3B4 as final products and they were subjected to an annealing process at 1500 °C for 4 h to observe probable boride transformation. Characterization was carried out by XRD, DSC, PSA, SEM/EDX, TEM and VSM. The effects of milling time (up to 9 h) on the formation, microstructure and thermal behavior of the final products were investigated. Reduction reaction took place after milling stoichiometric powder blends for 2 h. Nano-sized NbB−NbB2−Nb3B4 powders in high purity were obtained in the absence of any secondary phase and any impurity via mechanochemistry by milling for 5 h and leaching with 4 mol/L HCl

  13. The Assignment of Soft Mode in 0.67 PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33 PbTiO3 Single Crystal%0.67 PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33 PbTiO3单晶中软模模式指认

    程娟; 孙靖雅; 杨洋; 萧季驹; 徐正奎; 刘玉龙


    应用显微拉曼技术对弛豫型铁电体0.67 PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33 PbTiO3 (0.67 PMN-0.33 PT)的偏振拉曼光谱随温度变化的研究表明,在-196 到 600 °C温度范围内0.67 PMN-0.33 PT存在两次相变:三方到四方(R-T)相变和四方到立方(T-C)相变.R-T相变的特征是106 cm-1软模(-196°C时) 随温度的升高而湮没到80 cm-1"静态"模式中.依照群论分析,0.67 PMN-0.33 PT的80 cm-1 和 106 cm-1 (-196 ℃时)两个模式分别为E(1TO) 和 A1(1TO)模.文章对三方相的对称结构(C3v点群)在背向散射配置下不同偏振方向的拉曼散射效率进行了计算.计算结果表明晶体中的A1(1TO) 和E(1TO)模式能够通过使用不同的散射配置进行识别.理论计算和实验结果相比较得到了很好的吻合.%Polarized Raman spectra of ferroelectric relaxor 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - 0.33 PbTiO3 (0.67 PMN-0.33 PT) single crystals have been systematically investigated in a wide temperature range from -196 to 600 ℃ by micro-Raman scattering technique. The two structural phase transitions in the crystal were clearly revealed. One is the rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase transition, other one is the tetragonal-cubic (T-C) phase transition. The characteristic of the R-T phase transition is the soft mode at 106 cm-1 (at -196℃) which merges to the "static" mode at 80 cm-1 as temperature increases. According to the analysis of the group theory, the two modes at about 80 cm-1 and 106 cm-1 (at -196℃), respectively, are attributed to E(1TO) and A1(1TO) in the 0.67PMN-0.33PT. Raman scattering efficiencies of the rhombohedral symmetry structure (C3v point group) for the crystal in backscattering geometry with different polarization directions are calculated. The analytic results indicate that A1(1TO) and E(1TO) modes in the crystal can be identified by using different scattering geometry. A comparison of experimental results with theoretical predictions shows satisfactory agreement.

  14. The carbohydrate recognition domain of collectins

    Veldhuizen, E.J.A.; van Eijk, M.; Haagsman, H.P.


    Collectins are effector molecules of the innate immune system that play an important role in the first line of defence against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Most of their interactions with microorganisms are mediated through their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), which binds in a Ca2+-dependent

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Cell-cell Recognition

    WANG Jia-Huai


    Cell-cell recognition is the key for multicellular organisms to survive. This recognition critically depends on protein-protein interactions from opposing cell surfaces. Recent structural investigations reveal unique features of these cell surface receptors and how they interact. These interactions are specific, but usually relatively weak, with more hydrophilic forces involved in binding. The receptors appear to have specialized ways to present their key interacting elements for ligand-binding from the cell surface. Cell-cell contacts are multivalent. A large group of cell surface molecules are engaged in interactions. Characteristic weak interactions make possible for each individual molecule pair within the group to constantly associate-dissociate-reassociate, such that the cell-cell recognition becomes a dynamic process. The immunological synapse is a good example for immune receptors to be orchestrated in performing immunological function in a collective fashion.

  16. Energy-storage properties and high-temperature dielectric relaxation behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 ceramics

    Zhang, T. F.; Tang, X. G.; Liu, Q. X.; Jiang, Y. P.; Huang, X. X.; Zhou, Q. F.


    (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x  =  0, 5, and 10 mol%) ceramics were prepared using a conventional mixed oxide solid state reaction method. The low-temperature relaxor behavior of (1  -  x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 ceramics were examined in the temperature range from 120 to 523 K. A broad dielectric maximum that shifted to higher temperatures with increasing frequency, signified the relaxor-type behavior of these ceramics. The value of the relaxation parameter γ  =  1.61-1.94 estimated from the linear fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law indicated the relaxor nature. High-temperature dielectric relaxation phenomena were found in the temperature region 600-850 K. Energy-storage properties were also analyzed, and the energy-storage density calculated from hysteresis loops reached about 0.47 J cm-3 at room temperature.

  17. Pyroelectric Study on Dipolar Alignment in 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    ZHAO Liang; SHEN Ming-Rong; CAO Wen-Wu


    Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-Geld heating in [001], [110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals. Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples, the crystals poled by using the Rield cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃, which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal. We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.%Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-field heating in [001],[110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals.Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples,the crystals poled by using the field cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃,which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal.We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.

  18. Solid-state NMR characterization of the structure and thermal stability of hybrid organic-inorganic compounds based on a HLaNb2O7 Dion-Jacobson layered perovskite.

    Cattaneo, Alice S; Ferrara, Chiara; Marculescu, Adriana Mossuto; Giannici, Francesco; Martorana, Antonino; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Tealdi, Cristina


    Dion-Jacobson phases, like MLaNb2O7, are an interesting class of ion-exchangeable layered perovskites possessing electronic and photocatalytic properties. Their protonated and organo-modified homologues, in particular, have already been indicated as promising catalysts. However, the structural analysis of these highly tailorable materials is still incomplete, and both the intercalation process and thermal stability of the included organic moieties are far from being completely understood. In this study, we present a thorough solid-state NMR characterization of HLaNb2O7·xH2O intercalated with different amounts of octylamine, or with decylamine. Samples were analyzed as prepared, and after thermal treatment at different temperatures up to 220 °C. The substitution of pristine proton ions was followed via(1)H MAS NMR spectroscopy, whereas the alkyl chains were monitored through (13)C((1)H) CP MAS experiments. The interactions in the interlayer space were explored using (13)C((1)H) 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments. We demonstrate that some of the protons are involved in the functionalization reaction, and some of them are in close proximity to the alkyl ammonium chains. Heating of the hybrid materials leads first to a rearrangement of the alkyl chains and then to their degradation. The spatial arrangement of the chains, their interactions and the thermal behavior of the materials depend on the extent of the functionalization, and on the nature of the intercalated alkyl ammonium ions.

  19. Effect of La2O3-Dopant on Microstructure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 System Ceramics

    Wang Hao; Chen Wen; Liu Tao


    La2O3-doped CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 system ceramics were prepared by solid-state ceramic technique. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2-La2O3 ceramics can be adjusted by varying the amount of La3+ ions. The results show that the replacement of Ca2+ by La3+ at A-site of the ceramics can increase the quality factor Q*f value as well as the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τf and decrease the dielectric constant εr. With increase of La3+ contents, the dielectric constant decreases from 57 to 35 and Q*f value increases from 33400 GHz to 35000 GHz (at 7.6 GHz). Meanwhile, the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency is improved towards near zero. The dielectric properties of these compounds are related to octahedra tilting due to deficient vacancies at A-site.

  20. Modulation of pathogen recognition by autophagy

    Ji Eun eOh


    Full Text Available Autophagy is an ancient biological process for maintaining cellular homeostasis by degradation of long-lived cytosolic proteins and organelles. Recent studies demonstrated that autophagy is availed by immune cells to regulate innate immunity. On the one hand, cells exert direct effector function by degrading intracellular pathogens; on the other hand, autophagy modulates pathogen recognition and downstream signaling for innate immune responses. Pathogen recognition via pattern recognition receptors induces autophagy. The function of phagocytic cells is enhanced by recruitment of autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, autophagy acts as a delivery system for viral replication complexes to migrate to the endosomal compartments where virus sensing occurs. In another case, key molecules of the autophagic pathway have been found to negatively regulate immune signaling, thus preventing aberrant activation of cytokine production and consequent immune responses. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in the role of autophagy in pathogen recognition and modulation of innate immune responses.

  1. Accessing Specific Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry

    Li, Ming

    Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry”. Molecular recognition is a specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding, such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, van der Waals forces, π−π, hydrophobic, or electrostatic interactions. The association involves kinetic....... Combinatorial chemistry was invented in 1980s based on observation of functional aspects of the adaptive immune system. It was employed for drug development and optimization in conjunction with high-throughput synthesis and screening. (chapter 2) Combinatorial chemistry is able to rapidly produce many thousands...... was studied with this hook peptide library via the beadbead adhesion screening approach. The recognition pairs interlocked and formed a complex. (chapter 8) During accessing peptide molecular recognition by combinatorial chemistry, we faced several problems, which were solved by a range of analytical...

  2. History of Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy.

    Bazer, Fuller W


    The mechanism for signaling pregnancy recognition is highly variable among species, and the signaling molecule itself varies between estrogens in pigs to chorionic gonadotrophin in primates. This chapter provides insight into the menstrual cycle of women and estrous cycles of rodents, dog, cat, pigs, sheep, rabbits, and marsupials, as well as the hormones required for pregnancy recognition. Pregnancy recognition involves specific hormones such as prolactin in rodents or interferons in ruminants and estrogens in pigs that in their own way ensure the maintenance of the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone which is the hormone of pregnancy. However, these pregnancy recognition signals may also modify gene expression in a cell-specific and temporal manner to ensure the growth and development of the conceptus. This chapter provides some historical aspects of the development of understanding of mechanisms for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in several species of mammals.

  3. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.


    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  4. Tailoring Imprinted Titania Nanoparticles for Purines Recognition

    Adnan Mujahid


    Full Text Available Molecular imprinted titania nanoparticles were developed for selective recognition of purines, for example, guanine and its final oxidation product uric acid. Titania nanoparticles were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium butoxide as precursor in the presence of pattern molecules. The morphology of synthesized nanoparticles is evaluated by SEM images. Recognition characteristics of imprinted titania nanoparticles are studied by exposing them to standard solution of guanine and uric acid, respectively. The resultant change in their concentration is determined by UV/Vis analysis that indicated imprinted titania nanoparticles possess high affinity for print molecules. In both cases, nonimprinted titania is taken as control to observe nonspecific binding interactions. Cross sensitivity studies suggested that imprinted titania is at least five times more selective for binding print molecules than competing analyte thus indicating its potential for bioassay of purines.

  5. Giant energy harvesting potential in (100)-oriented 0.68PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 with Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/PbOx buffer layer and (001)-oriented 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 thin films

    Vats, Gaurav; Kushwaha, Himmat Singh; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Parakkandy, Jafar M.; Batoo, Khalid Mujasam


    This work emphasis on the competence of (100)-oriented PMN-PT buffer layered (0.68PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.32PbTiO3 with Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3/PbOx buffer layer) and (001)-oriented PMN-PT (0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3) for low grade thermal energy harvesting using Olsen cycle. Our analysis (based on well-reported experiments in literature) reveals that these films show colossal energy harnessing possibility. Both the films are found to have maximum harnessable energy densities (PMN-PT buffer layered: 8 MJ/m3; PMN-PT: 6.5 MJ/m3) in identical ambient conditions of 30-150°C and 0-600 kV/cm. This energy harnessing plausibility is found to be nearly five times higher than the previously reported values to date.

  6. Dimensional reductions from 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to 1-D ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl) and to 0-D Tl 5[Nb 2S 4C l8]Cl using halide molten salts

    Bang, Hyunjin; Kim, Youngmee; Kim, Seri; Kim, Sung-Jin


    We found new synthetic routes to obtain 1-D quaternary thiophosphate compounds and a 0-D molecular complex containing a Nb 2S 4 core from a 2-D ternary thiophosphate, Nb 4P 2S 21. When Nb 4P 2S 21 was reacted with alkali metal halides ( ACl; A=Na, K, Rb, Cs) or TlCl at 500-700 °C, the -S-S-S- bridges in 2-D Nb 2PS 10-S-S 10PNb 2 were excised to form a 1-D chain, and cations were inserted between the chains to form ANb 2PS 10 ( A=Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl). We also found that thallium chloride (TlCl) is an excellent reagent for further excision, and it substitutes chloride ligands for the sulfur ligands of 2-D Nb 4P 2S 21 to form the molecular complex Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl. Crystal data for TlNb 2PS 10: monoclinic, Pn, a=6.9452(11) Å, b=7.3761(12) Å, 12.873(2) Å, β=104.472(3)°, and Z=2. Crystal data for Tl 5[Nb 2S 4Cl 8]Cl: orthorhombic, Immm, a=7.001(5) Å, b=9.509(7) Å, c=15.546(11) Å, and Z=2.

  7. DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF (0.5BaO0.5SrO)[(1-y)TiO2yNb2O5] COMPOSITE CERAMICS%复相陶瓷(0.5BaO0.5SrO)[(1-y)TiO2yNb2O5]的介电性能研究

    周宗辉; 杜丕一; 翁文剑; 韩高荣; 沈鸽


    通过对组成进行一定的过量控制,利用传统陶瓷工艺,成功制备了具有钙钛矿相钛酸锶钡固溶体和钨青铜相铌酸锶钡固溶体两相稳定共存的(0.5BaO 0.5SrO)[(1-y)TiO2yNb2O5] (BSTN)复相陶瓷.用Riguaku D/max-2400型X射线衍射仪和KEITHLEY 3330阻抗分析仪对所得样品的相结构状态及介电性能进行了测试.结果表明:y值在0.1~0.7之间的BSTN复相陶瓷为钙钛矿相和钨青铜相两相稳定共存的复合相;在该范围以外,则为单一相的钛酸锶钡与Nb或铌酸锶钡与Ti的固溶体.复相陶瓷的介电性能取决于钙钛矿相和钨青铜相的相对含量及其固溶度,当组成y约为0.7时,介电常数达到最大值;随测试频率的提高,介电常数和损耗降低.复相陶瓷中钨青铜相的铁电/顺电相转变温度与钨青铜相中固溶TiO2量相关,随固溶量增加,转变温度降低.同时,受复相陶瓷中钙钛矿相的影响,随钙钛矿相相对含量的增加,转变温度升高;钨青铜相的最低铁电/顺电相转变温度出现在约110 ℃,比Sr0.5Ba0.5Nb2O6下降约240 ℃.%Barium strontium titanate niobate composite ceramics were successfully prepared in situ by controlling excess components according to the formula (0.5BaO 0.5SrO)[(1-y)TiO2yNb2O5] (BSTN) and by using the traditional ceramic process.The phase composition and dielectric properties of the composite ceramics were investigated by XRD and impedance analyzer. The results show that the perovskite phase and the tungsten bronze phase can be coexisted stably in BSTN when 0.1 ≤ y ≤0.7. The dielectric properties of the composite ceramics are dependent on the relative contents of these two phases and the solid solubility of Nb2O5 in the perovskite phase and TiO2 in the tungsten bronze phase, respectively. The dielectric constant reaches to a maximum value when y=0.7. Both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decrease with the increase of the applied frequency for the same y value. The

  8. Graphical symbol recognition

    K.C., Santosh; Wendling, Laurent


    International audience; The chapter focuses on one of the key issues in document image processing i.e., graphical symbol recognition. Graphical symbol recognition is a sub-field of a larger research domain: pattern recognition. The chapter covers several approaches (i.e., statistical, structural and syntactic) and specially designed symbol recognition techniques inspired by real-world industrial problems. It, in general, contains research problems, state-of-the-art methods that convey basic s...

  9. First-principle study of electronic structure and optical properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3%Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3电子结构第一性原理计算及光学性能研究∗

    沈杰; 魏宾; 周静; Shen Shirley Zhiqi; 薛广杰; 刘韩星; 陈文


    Transparent ceramics have been widely researched for their broad range of applications, e.g. from optical windows to laser and optoelectronic switches. However, the challenge is to obtain the optical materials with high refractive index to miniaturize optical functional elements, such as lens for optical information storage and waveguides for flat optical components. The hexagonal complex perovskite Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) ceramic, being widely researched as a type of microwave dielectric ceramics, presents the excellent dielectric properties such as high dielectric constant and high Q value, which indicate its potential application as optical materials. In this paper, the electronic structure of BMN is calculated by using the first principle method, to analyze and predict its intrinsic optical properties. The hexagonal complex perovskite BMN ceramic is synthesized using conventional solid-state reaction at 1600 ◦C for 24 h. The structure parameters are obtained through Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data. The crystal model is established, based on the Rietveld refinement result of the XRD test on synthesized BMN (with the weighted profile R-factor Rwp=6.73%, the profile R-factorRp=5.05%), and then the crystal geometry optimized. With the optimized crystal model, the energy band structure, density of states and optical properties of BMN are calculated using the first principle method based on density functional theory (DFT) with local density approximation (LDA). Results show that BMN has an indirect band gap of 2.728 eV. There are the strong ionic interactions between Mg and O as well as Ba and O, while there is covalent interaction between Nb and O. The energy band near the Fermi level is mainly occupied by O-2p and Nb-4d electrons, which forms the d-p hybrid orbits. With real band gap correction, the optical properties of BMN are obtained from the definition of direct transition probability and the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations along the

  10. Fungal glycans and the innate immune recognition

    Rodrigo Tinoco Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Polysaccharides such as α- and β-glucans, chitin and glycoproteins extensively modified with both N- and O-linked carbohydrates are the major components of fungal surfaces. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for the action of antifungal agents, since most of its components are absent from mammalian cells. Recognition of these carbohydrate-containing molecules by the innate immune system triggers inflammatory responses and activation of microbicidal mechanisms by leukocytes. This review will discuss the structure of surface fungal glycoconjugates and polysaccharides and their recognition by innate immune receptors.

  11. Molecular Recognition Studies on Modified Cyclodextrins

    LIU,Yu; YOU,Chang-Cheng


    This account deacribes our research progress in recent years in the areas of the molecular recognition studies on modified cy clodextrins, including positively charged cyclodextrins, cy clodextrin derivatives with hydrophobic substituent, and dimeric cyclodextrins. Calorimetric titration and various spec trometric techniques were employed to determine the complex stability constants, as well as the thermodynamic parameters, for their inclusion complexation with diverse guest molecules. The results obtained have heen discussed from the viewpoint of size/shape-matching, induced-fit, geometric compensation, and multiple recognition. Thermodynamically, the compen satory relationship between △H and T△S was found to be ex hibited in the inclusion complexation of modified cyclodextrin.

  12. Transição de Fase Difusa e Propriedades Dielétricas de Cerâmicas Ferroelétricas de (Pb, BaNb2O6

    I.A. Santos


    Full Text Available Tungsten bonze structured lead barium niobate (Pb1-xBa xNb2O6 ferroelectric ceramics were prepared by the conventional mixed oxide method and their dielectric properties were carefully investigated. All studied samples presented elevated values of maximum dielectric constant (epsilon'm and its corresponding temperature of maximum (Tm in comparison with perovskite structured ones. The phase transition features indicate that the PBN samples do not present a complete diffuse phase transition. Indeed, the diffuseness degree of the ferroelectric phase transition is highly dependent of the ions Pb2+ content in the sample compositions. The diffuseness of the ferroelectric phase transition is enhanced while the temperature of maximum dielectric constant is decreased with the Pb2+ content decreasing. In addition, the maximum dielectric constant shows an opposite behavior.

  13. Electric field tuning resistance switching behavior of SrRuO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures at various temperatures

    Zhou, Cai; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Chao; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun


    The resistance switching behavior induced by in-plane read current in SrRuO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures is investigated at different temperatures. With decreasing in-plane read current from 10 mA to 0.01 mA, the symmetrical butterfly-like shape of resistance is gradually converted to an antisymmetrical shape at different temperatures, which is resulted from the enhancement of polarization current effect. Specifically, non-volatile resistance behaviors induced by asymmetric bipolar sweeping of electric field and pulsed electric field are achieved at different temperatures. Our results suggests resistance switching behavior dependence of in-plane read current, which is crucial for further application of complex oxide magnetoelectric and spintronic devices.

  14. Surface acoustic wave propagation properties in 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal poled along [111]c

    Li, Xiuming; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Naixing; Lü, Tianquan; Cao, Wenwu


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation properties in relaxor-based 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) ferroelectric single crystals poled along [111]c has been analyzed theoretically. We found that the X-cut PMN-33%PT has lower phase velocity and higher electromechanical coupling coefficient compared to traditional piezoelectric materials. The power flow angle (PFA) can be zero in specific directions, which could drastically improve the performance of SAW devices. Our theoretical results indicate that the direction about 5° canted from [111]c is the optimum direction for the X-cut [111]c poled crystals in SAW device applications. Characteristic curves were also obtained for the phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient, and PFA in Z-cut single-domain PMN-33%PT single crystals. PMID:20069133

  15. Investigation of Carbon ion-implanted waveguides in tungsten bronze (Ca0.28Ba0.72)0.25(Sr0.6Ba0.4)0.75Nb2O6 single crystal

    Jiao, Yang; Wang, Chuan-Kui; Li, Zong-Liang; Ren, Ying-Ying


    Planar optical waveguides were fabricated in (Ca0.28Ba0.72)0.25(Sr0.6Ba0.4)0.75Nb2O6 (CSBN25) crystal by 6.0-MeV C+ ion implantation with fluences of 2, 4 and 6 × 1014 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The mode parameters, refractive indices profiles are measured and the refractive indices behavior in the waveguide region is discussed. The shape of nuclear energy loss distribution of the C+ implantation was similar to those of the waveguide refractive index profiles, which means an inherent relationship between the waveguide formation and the energetic energy deposition. The extraordinary refractive index has a small positive change in the surface region after the implantation.

  16. Orientation effects on the bandgap and dispersion behavior of 0.91Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.09PbTiO3 single crystals

    He Chong-Jun; Fu Xin-Duo; Xu Feng; Wang Ji-Ming; Zhu Kong-Jun; Du Chao-Ling; Liu You-Wen


    0.91Pb(Znl/3Nb2/3)O3-0.09PbTiO3(PZN-9%PT)single crystals with different orientations are investigated by using a spectroscopic ellipsometer,and the refractive indices and the extinction coefficients are obtained.The Sellmeier dispersion equations for the refractive indices are obtained by the least square fitting,which can be used to calculate the refractive indices in a low absorption wavelength range.Average Sellmeier oscillator parameters Eo,λo,So,and Ed are calculated by fitting with the single-term oscillator equation,which are related directly to the electronic energy hand structure.The optical energy bandgaps are obtained from the absorption coefficient spectra.Our results show that the optical properties of [001] and [111] poled crystals are very similar,but quite different from those of the [011]poled crystal.

  17. Relaxor Behavior and Dielectric Relaxation in Lead-Free Solid Solutions of (1 - x)(Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)- x(SrNb2O6)

    Bajpai, P. K.; Singh, K. N.; Tamrakar, Preeti


    Lead-free compositions (1 - x) (Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3)- x(SrNb2O6) (BNT-SN) are synthesized by a simple solid state reaction route. SN diffuse in distorted perovskite BNT for low concentrations of SN ( x ≤ 0.03) and are stabilized in rhombohedral perovskite phase with experimentally observed relative density of the ceramics >92%. A temperature-dependent dielectric response exhibits a broad dielectric peak that shows frequency-dependent shifts towards higher temperatures reflecting typical relaxor behavior. Modified Curie-Weiss law and Lorentz-type empirical relationships are used to fit the dielectric data that exhibit almost complete diffuse phase transition characteristics. In addition, significant dielectric dispersion is observed in a low-frequency regime in both components of the dielectric response and a small dielectric relaxation peak is observed. Cole-Cole plots indicate the poly-dispersive nature of the dielectric relaxation.

  18. Piezoelectric energy harvesting based on shear mode 0.71Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals.

    Ren, Bo; Or, Siu Wing; Wang, Feifei; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Li, Xiaobing; Zhang, Qinhui; Di, Wenning; Zhang, Yaoyao


    In this paper we theoretically and experimentally present a nonresonant vibration energy harvesting device based on the shear mode of 0.71Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-0.29PbTiO3 single crystals. The electrical properties of the energy harvesting device were evaluated using an analytical method. Good consistency was obtained between the analytical and experimental results. Under a mass load of 200 g, a peak voltage of 11.3 V and maximum power of 0.70 mW were obtained at 500 Hz when connecting a matching load resistance of 91 komega. A high output could always be obtained within a very wide frequency range. The results demonstrate the potential of the device in energy harvesting applied to low-power portable electronics and wireless sensors.

  19. Electric field dependence of nonlinearity parameters and third order elastic constants of 0.70Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.30PbTiO3 single crystal

    Liu, Xiaozhou; Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Cao, Wenwu


    Through second harmonic measurements, the ultrasonic nonlinearity parameters of [001]c and [111]c polarized 0.70Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.30PbTiO3(PMN–0.3PT) single crystals have been measured as a function of bias electric field. It was found that the nonlinearity parameter increases almost linearly with field at low field but shows a drastic increase near the coercive field. The [111]c polarized single domain crystal has much smaller nonlinearity parameter than that of the [001]c polarized multidomain crystal. Based on effective symmetries of these crystals, we were able to derive the field dependence of several third order elastic constants, which are important parameters for high field applications. PMID:20198132

  20. Electric field mediated non-volatile tuning magnetism at the single-crystalline Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 interface

    Zhang, Chao; Wang, Fenglong; Dong, Chunhui; Gao, Cunxu; Jia, Chenglong; Jiang, Changjun; Xue, Desheng


    We report non-volatile electric-field control of magnetism modulation in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) heterostructure by fabricating an epitaxial Fe layer on a PMN-PT substrate using a molecular beam epitaxy technique. The remnant magnetization with a different electric field shows a non-symmetric loop-like shape, which demonstrates a change of interfacial chemistry and a large magnetoelectric coupling in Fe/PMN-PT at room temperature to realize low loss multistate memory under an electric field. Fitting with the angular-dependence of the in-plane magnetization reveals that the magnetoelectric effect is dominated by the direct electric-field effect rather than the strain effect at the interface. The magnetoelectric effect and the induced surface anisotropy are found to be dependent on the Fe film thickness and are linear with respect to the applied electric field.

  1. Structural properties of 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 relaxor ferroelectric thin films on SrRuO3 conducting oxides.

    Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Mi Ri; Jo, William; Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Mi Young


    Coating of 0.65Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectrics by a sol-gel method is followed by growth of epitaxial SrRuO(3) (SRO) metallic oxide electrodes on SrTiO(3) (STO) single-crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition. High-quality PMN-PT films on SRO with preferred growth orientation were successfully fabricated by controlling the operation parameters. Structural properties of relaxor ferroelectric PMN-PT thin films on SRO/STO substrates have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In-plane and out-of-plane alignments of the heterostructure are confirmed and the structural twinning of the materials are also revealed.

  2. Real space mapping of polarization dynamics and hysteresis loop formation in relaxor-ferroelectric PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 PbTiO3 solid solutions

    Rodriguez, Brian [University College, Dublin; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Svechnikov, S. V. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kiselev, Dmitri [University of Aveiro, Portugal


    Polarization switching in ergodic relaxor and ferroelectric phases in the PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) system is studied using piezoresponse force microscopy, single point electromechanical relaxation measurements, and voltage spectroscopy mapping. The dependence of relaxation behavior on voltage pulse amplitude and time is found to follow a universal logarithmic behavior with a nearly constant slope. This behavior is indicative of the progressive population of slow relaxation states, as opposed to a linear relaxation in the presence of a broad relaxation time distribution. The role of relaxation behavior, ferroelectric nonlinearity, and the spatial inhomogeneity of the tip field on hysteresis loop behavior is analyzed in detail. The hysteresis loops for ergodic PMN-10%PT are shown to be kinetically limited, while in PMN with larger PT content, true ferroelectric hysteresis loops with low nucleation biases are observed.

  3. Electric-field manipulation of coercivity in FePt/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures investigated by anomalous Hall effect measurement

    Liu, Mingfeng; Hao, Liang; Jin, Tianli; Cao, Jiangwei; Bai, Jianmin; Wu, Dongping; Wang, Ying; Wei, Fulin


    The effect of electric field (E-field) on the magnetism of FePt thin films in FePt/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) heterostructures was investigated by anomalous Hall effect measurement. For FePt films of different thicknesses, the coercivity vs E-field curves show a typical butterfly-like loop behavior. Further results indicate that the coercivity variation is composed of the volatile symmetrical butterfly-like loop and nonvolatile hysteresis loop-like parts, which originate from the volatile and nonvolatile strains induced by the E-field in the PMN-PT(001) substrate, respectively. No significant difference has been observed after inserting a 2 nm W interlayer, suggesting that the charge-mediated coercivity variation is negligible in FePt/PMN-PT heterostructures.

  4. Control of Ferromagnetic Resonance Frequency and Frequency Linewidth by Electrical Fields in FeCo/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) Heterostructures

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.


    We report our detailed investigation of the electrical tuning of the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in multiferroic heterostructures consisting of FeCo thin films grown onto [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32 (PMN-PT) substrates with NiFe underlayers. Our study shows that the electrical tuning range of both ferromagnetic resonance frequency and frequency linewidth in this FeCo/PMN-PT heterostructure can be very large. Specifically, the resonance frequency can be tuned from 1.8 GHz to 10.3 GHz, and the frequency linewidth can be changed from 1.6 GHz to 7.3 GHz. The electrical tuning of these microwave properties is discussed in conjunction with the result from the static magnetic characterization and is explained based on the strain-driven magnetoelectric heterostructured effect.

  5. 准同型相界附近0.02Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.50Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.48Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3陶瓷压电性能研究%Piezoelectric properties of 0.02Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.50Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.48Pb (ZrxTi1-x)O3 ceramics near the morphotropic phrase boundary

    余洋; 李岳彬; 李晓天; 吴金根


    0.02Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.50Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.48Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (0.29≤x≤0.34) quaternary piezo-electric ceramics were prepared by conventional solid reaction process. The crystallites structure and micro structure ,the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the system were investigated. With the increase of Zr/Ti ratio,phrase transforms from tetragonal to hombohedral.It was found that the morphotropic phrase boundary (MPB) composition was in the vicinity of x=0.32.The 0.02PZN-0.50PNN-0.48PZ32T ceramics sintered at 1 240℃exhribited the high piezoelectric properties of piezoelectric constants d33=715 pC/N,electromechanical coupling factor kp=0.541,remnant polarization Pr=25.5μC/cm2,coercive field Ec=5.6 kV/cm. New developed piezoelectric materials are promising for high-performance piezoelectric applications and the simple method may have a great prospect industrial production.%采用传统固相反应法制备四元系0.02Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.50Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.48Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3(0.29≤x≤0.34)陶瓷.观察样品的晶相结构和显微结构,测试压电性能和介电性能.随着Zr/Ti比的增大,晶相从四方相向三方相转变.发现准同型相界位置在x=0.32附近.1240℃烧结的0.02PZN-0.50PNN-0.48PZ32T陶瓷展现了良好的压电性能,压电常数d33为715 pC/N,机电耦合系数kp为0.541,剩余极化强度Pr为25.5μC/cm2,矫顽场强Ec为5.6 kV/cm.新的压电材料适合高性能压电器件应用,且简单的制备方法给生产带来极大便利.

  6. Enhanced Dielectric Properties of [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.9-PbTiO3]0.1 Thin Films Grown on BaPbO3 Perovskite Electrode

    Ho, Sut Kam; Hau, Fei Fei; Wong, Kin Hung


    Polycrystalline and epitaxial [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.9-[PbTiO3]0.1 (PMN-PT) thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on BaPbO3 (BPO) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) oxide electrodes. In comparison, the epitaxial films show higher dielectric constant and the polycrystalline films exhibit lower dielectric loss and smaller leakage current. It is also found that the use of lead based BPO electrodes helps to raise the dielectric constant of the PMN-PT layer by 30%, and to reduce the dielectric leakage by as much as three orders of magnitude. Our results have clearly demonstrated the superiority of using lead based electrodes for growing lead based dielectrics.

  7. Depoling and fatigue behavior of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal at megahertz frequencies under bipolar electric field

    Chen, Zhaojiang; Li, Shiyang; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Wenwu


    Bipolar electric field induced degradation in [001]c poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-0.29PT) single crystals was investigated at megahertz frequencies. The electromechanical coupling factor kt, dielectric constant ɛr, dielectric loss D, and piezoelectric constant d33 were measured as a function of amplitude, frequency, and number of cycles of the applied electric field. Our results showed that samples degrade rapidly when the field amplitude is larger than a critical value due to the onset of domain switching. We define this critical value as the effective coercive field Ec at high frequencies, which increases drastically with frequency. We also demonstrate an effective counter-depoling method by using a dc bias, which could help the design of high field driven devices based on PMN-PT single crystals and operated at megahertz frequencies.

  8. Ferroelectric domain structures of epitaxial CaBi2Nb2O9 thin films on single crystalline Nb doped (1 0 0) SrTiO3 substrates

    Ahn, Yoonho; Seo, Jeong Dae; Son, Jong Yeog


    Epitaxial CaBi2Nb2O9 (CBNO) thin films were deposited on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates. The CBNO thin films as a lead-free ferroelectric material exhibit a good ferroelectric property with the remanent polarization of 10.6 μC/cm2. In the fatigue resistance test, the CBNO thin films have no degradation in polarization up to 1×1012 switching cycles, which is applicable for non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories (FeRAMs). Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy study (PFM) reveals that the CBNO thin films have larger ferroelectric domain structures than those of PbTiO3 thin films. From the Landau, Lifshiftz, and Kittel's scaling law, it is inferred that the domain wall energy of CBNO thin films is probably very similar to that of the PbTiO3 thin films.

  9. Study on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 single crystal with nano-patterned composite electrode.

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Bagal, Abhijeet; Chang, Chih-Hao; Tian, Jian; Han, Pengdi; Jiang, Xiaoning


    Effect of nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling technique on dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.7 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 was studied in this paper. Composite electrode consists of Mn nano-patterns with pitch size of 200 nm, and a blanket layer of Ti/Au was fabricated using a nanolithography based lift-off process, heat treatment, and metal film sputtering. Composite electrode and backswitching poling resulted in 27% increase of d33 and 25% increase of dielectric constant, and we believe that this is attributed to regularly defined nano-domains and irreversible rhombohedral to monoclinic phase transition in crystal. The results indicate that nano-patterned composite electrode and backswitching poling has a great potential in domain engineering of relaxor single crystals for advanced devices.

  10. In-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in an FePt/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 heterostructure

    Guo, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang; Feng, Julong; Liu, Pengfei; Wu, Yong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong


    We report the in-plane electric field controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of L10-FePt films deposited on polarized [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.7-(PbTiO3)0.3 single crystal substrates. The out-of-plane coercivity (H c⊥) of FePt films exhibits a regular response to the in-plane electric field applied on substrates. The experimental change of H c⊥ is approximately 21.3% with the electric field varying from -10 to 10 kV/cm. The magnetization direction can be controlled by switching the electric field. The remanence of FePt films can also be manipulated by the electric field, so that a “W”-shaped sawtooth magnetic signal can be generated by a sawtooth electric field.

  11. Optical, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of multiferroelectric BiFeO3-(K0.5Na0.5)0.4(Sr 0.6Ba0.4)0.8Nb2O6 thin films

    Yao, Yingbang


    Multiferroic BiFeO3-(K0.5Na0.5) 0.4(Sr0.6Ba0.4)0.8Nb 2O6 (BFO-KNSBN) trilayer thin films, were epitaxially grown on MgO(0 0 1) and SrTiO3(0 0 1) by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Their ferroelectric, magnetic, dielectric and optical properties were investigated. It was found that both ferroelectric polarization and dielectric constant of the films were enhanced by introducing KNSBN as a barrier layer. Meanwhile, ferromagnetism of BFO was maintained. More interestingly, a double hysteresis magnetic loop was observed in the KNSBN-BFO-KNSBN trilayer films, where exchange bias and secondary phase in the BFO layer played crucial roles. Interactions between adjacent layers were revealed by temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopic measurements. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the La2O3-Nb2O5-WO3 ternary phase diagram: Isolation and crystal structure determination of the original La3NbWO10 material

    Vu, T.D.


    In the course of the exploration of the La2O3-WO3-Nb2O5 ternary phase diagram, a new compound with the formula La3NbWO10 was discovered. Its structure was determined from a combination of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data. It crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P42/nmc (no. 137) with the lattice parameters: a=10.0807(1) Å; c=12.5540(1) Å. The structure is built up from infinite ribbons of octahedra (W/Nb)O5 which are perpendicular to each other, lanthanum ions being distributed around these ribbons. The electrical properties of this compound were investigated on sintered pellets by means of complex impedance spectroscopy. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Abnormal piezoresponse behavior of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30%PbTiO3 single crystal studied by high vacuum scanning force microscopy

    ZENG Huarong; YIN Qingrui; LI Guorong; LUO Haosu; XU Zhenkui


    The piezoresponse behavior dependence of the Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-30%PbTiO3 single crystal on the vacuum degree has been investigated by scanning force microscopy in the piezoresponse mode under high vacuum. Unusual piezo- response behavior related to the screening charges compensation mechanism is observed on the (111) crystal face. The significant piezoresponse degradation behavior with low piezoresponse signal under high vacuum is attributed to the instability of thepolarization state due to the insufficient compensation of the intrinsic screening charges for the polarization charges in PMN-30%PT single crystal. In contrast, the remarkable domain contrast of the sample at ambient pressure is owing to the dominant surface screening charges deriving from surface adsorption, which plays an important role in determining the stability of the domain behavior and in achieving the optimal properties.

  14. Developments in Molecular Recognition and Sensing at Interfaces

    Hiroshi Endo


    Full Text Available In biological systems, molecular recognition events occur mostly withininterfacial environments such as at membrane surfaces, enzyme reaction sites, or at theinterior of the DNA double helix. Investigation of molecular recognition at model interfacesprovides great insights into biological phenomena. Molecular recognition at interfaces notonly has relevance to biological systems but is also important for modern applications suchas high sensitivity sensors. Selective binding of guest molecules in solution to hostmolecules located at solid surfaces is crucial for electronic or photonic detection of analytesubstances. In response to these demands, molecular recognition at interfaces has beeninvestigated extensively during the past two decades using Langmuir monolayers, self-assembled monolayers, and lipid assemblies as recognition media. In this review, advancesof molecular recognition at interfaces are briefly summarized.

  15. Desenvolvimento e uso do compósito de Nb2O5|Cu como revestimento aplicado por aspersão térmica sobre o aço AISI 1020 para proteção contra a corrosão pelo solo em estruturas enterradas

    Oscar Regis Junior


    Full Text Available An Nb2O|Cu corrosion-resistant coating was developed and applied onto AISI 1020 steel substrate by Powder Flame Spray. A galvanostatic electrochemical technique was employed, with and without ohmic drop, in four different soils (two corrosively aggressive and two less aggressive. Behavior of coatings in different soils was compared using a cathodic hydrogen reduction reaction (equilibrium potential, overvoltage and exchange current density focusing on the effect of ohmic drop. Results allow recommendation of Nb2O5|Cu composite for use in buried structure protection.

  16. Broadband inelastic light scattering study on relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Hyun Kim, Tae; Kojima, Seiji; Ko, Jae-Hyeon


    The broadband inelastic light scattering spectra of ternary Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals were investigated as a function of temperature and crystal orientation by combining Raman and Brillouin spectroscopies. The angular dependence of the strong Raman peak located at ˜50 cm-1 was investigated at 300 °C. The intensity variation of this mode with rotation angle was compatible with the F2g mode of Fm3¯m symmetry, suggesting that this mode arises from the 1:1 chemical order at the B-site in this perovskite structure. The temperature evolution of the polar nanoregions was associated with the growth of two central peaks and the change in the intensity of some Raman peaks, which were known to be sensitive to the rhombohedral symmetry. Both relaxation processes exhibited partial slowing-down behaviors with a common critical temperature of ˜160 °C. Poling the crystal along the [001] direction induced abrupt changes in some of the Raman bands at the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase transition. On the other hand, the diffuse tetragonal-cubic phase transition was not affected by the poling process. This high-temperature phase transformation seems to be smeared out by the inherent disorder and strong random fields enhanced by the addition of Pb(In1/2Nb1/2) into Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3.

  17. Thermal, structural, optical, and dielectric properties of (100 - x)Li2B4O7 - x(BaO-Bi2O3-Nb2O5) glasses and glass-nanocrystal composites.

    Karthik, C; Varma, K B R


    Transparent glasses in the system (100 - x)Li2B4O7 - x(BaO-Bi2O3-Nb2O5) (x = 10, 20, and 30) were fabricated via the conventional melt-quenching technique. The amorphous and glassy characteristics of the as-quenched samples were established by the differential thermal analyses (DTA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies. Glass-nanocrystal composites (GNCs) i.e., the glasses embedded with BaBi2Nb2O9 (BBN) nanocrystals (10-50 nm) were produced by heat-treating the as-quenched glasses at temperatures higher than 500 degrees C. Perovskite BBN phase formation through an intermediate fluorite-like phase in the glass matrix was confirmed via XRD and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. The optical transmission properties of these GNCs were found to have a strong compositional (BBN content) dependence. The refractive index (n = 1.90) and optical polarizability (alphao = 15.3 x 10(-24) cm3) of the GNC (x = 30) were larger than those of as-quenched glasses. The temperature dependent dielectric constant (epsilonr) and loss factor (D) for the glasses and GNCs were determined in the 100-40 MHz frequency range. The epsilonr was found to increase with increase in heat-treatment temperatures, while the loss of the glass-nanocomposites was less than that of as-quenched glasses. The sample heat-treated at 620 degrees C/1 h (x = 30) exhibited relaxor behavior associated with a dielectric anomaly in the 150-250 degrees C temperature range. The frequency dependence of the dielectric maximum temperature was found to obey the Vogel-Fulcher relation (Ea = 0.32 eV and Tf = 201 K).

  18. Temperature-induced and electric-field-induced phase transitions in rhombohedral Pb(In 1 /2Nb1 /2) O3-Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 ternary single crystals

    Wang, Yaojin; Wang, Zhiguang; Ge, Wenwei; Luo, Chengtao; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.; Chen, Jianwei; Luo, Haosu


    Temperature and electric field effects on rhombohedral (R ) ternary Pb(In 1 /2Nb1 /2) O3-Pb(Mg 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric single crystals were comprehensively studied by x-ray diffraction. We have focused on how the individual phase transitions as well as the phase transition sequences depend on thermal and electrical history. Electric field-temperature phase diagrams have been constructed under [001] field-cooling and field-heating conditions. As happens to the R phase of binary PMN-PT crystals [H. Cao, J. F. Li, D. Viehland, and G. Y. Xu, Phys. Rev. B 73, 184110 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevB.73.184110], the R phase of the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state is replaced by a monoclinic A (M A) phase in the field-cooled (FC) diagram. In particular, reciprocal-space mesh scans demonstrated that the M A phase was stable for crystals poled along the [001] crystallographic direction rather than the initial R phase of the ZFC state. Furthermore, an E -field-induced phase transformational sequence of R →M A→ tetragonal (T ) was observed at constant temperature, revealing a gradual increase in the c lattice parameter. These findings demonstrate that the ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit common phase transition features with binary PMN-PT and Pb(Zn 1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) ones for compositions in the low PT side of the morphotropic phase boundary.

  19. Absence of Magnetic Dipolar Phase Transition and Evolution of Low-Energy Excitations in PrNb2Al20 with Crystal Electric Field Γ3 Ground State: Evidence from 93Nb-NQR Studies

    Kubo, Tetsuro; Kotegawa, Hisashi; Tou, Hideki; Higashinaka, Ryuji; Nakama, Akihiro; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki


    We report measurements of bulk magnetic susceptibility and 93Nb nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) in the Pr-based caged compound PrNb2Al20. By analyzing the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization, the crystal electric field (CEF) level scheme of PrNb2Al20 is determined to be Γ3(0 K)-Γ4(21.32 K)-Γ5(43.98 K)-Γ1(51.16 K) within the framework of the localized 4f electron picture. The 93Nb-NQR spectra exhibit neither spectral broadening nor spectral shift upon cooling down to 75 mK. The 93Nb-NQR spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 at 5 K depends on the frequency and remains almost constant below 5 K. The frequency dependence of 1/T1 is attributed to the magnetic fluctuation due to the hyperfine-enhanced 141Pr nuclear moment inherent in the nonmagnetic Γ3 CEF ground state. The present NQR results provide evidence that no symmetry-breaking magnetic dipole order occurs down to 75 mK. Also, considering an invariant form of the quadrupole and octupole couplings between a 93Nb nucleus and Pr 4f electrons, Pr 4f quadrupoles and an octupole can couple with a 93Nb nuclear quadrupole moment and nuclear spin, respectively. Together with the results of bulk measurements, the present NQR results suggest that the possibility of a static quadrupole or octupole ordering can be excluded down to 100 mK. At low temperatures below 500 mK, however, the nuclear spin-echo decay rate gradually increases and the decay curve changes from Gaussian decay to Lorentzian decay, suggesting the evolution of a low-energy excitation.

  20. Dielectric properties of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 solid solution near morphotropic phase boundary


    [1]Shrout,T.R.,Halliyal,A.,Preparation of lead-based ferroelectric relaxors for capacitors,Am.Ceram.Soc.Bull.,1987,66(4): 704.[2]Cross,L.E.,Jang,J.S.,Newnham, al.,Large electrostrictive effects in relaxor ferroelectrics,Ferroelectrics,1980,23: 187.[3]Uchino,K.,Electrostrictive actuators: materials and applications,Am.Ceram.Soc.Bull.,1986,65(4): 647.[4]Chen,J.,Chan,H.M.,Harmer,M.P.,Ordering structure and dielectric properties of undoped and La/Na-doped Pb(Mg{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3,J.Am.Ceram.Soc.,1989,72(4): 593.[5]Wu Zhongli,Gui Zhilun,Li Longtu et al.,A size estimation of ordered domains in Pb(Mg{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3 ceramics,J.Appl.Phys.,1992,(72): 5822.[6]Chu,F.,Reaney,I.M.,Setter,N.,Spontaneous (zero-field) relaxor-to-ferroelectric phase transition in disordered Pb(Sc{1/2}Nb{1/2})O3,J.Appl.Phys.,1995,77(4): 1671.[7]Chu,F.,Setter,N.,Tagantsev,A.K.,The spontaneous relaxor-ferroelectric transition of Pb(Sc{1/2}Nb{1/2})O3,J.Appl.Phys.,1993,74(8): 5129.[8]Li,J.F.,Dai,X.,Chow, al.,Polarization switching mechanisms and electromechanical properties of La-modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics,J.Mater.Res.,1995,10(4): 926.[9]Dai,X.,Digiovanni,A.,Viehland,D.,Dielectric properties of tetragonal lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate ceramics,J.Appl.Phys.,1993,74(5): 3399.[10]Yoon,M.S.,Jang,H.M.,Relaxor-normal ferroelectric transition in tetragonal-rich field of Pb(Ni{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3-PbTiO3-PbZrO3 system,J.Appl.Phys.,1995,77(8): 3391.[11]Yoon,M.S.,Jang,H.M.,Kim,S.,Spontaneous micro-macro ferroelectric domain switching in PbZrO3-doped Pb(Ni{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3-PbTiO3 system,Jpn.J.Appl.Phys.,1995,34(4A): 1916.[12]Robert,G.,Demartin,M.,Damjanovic,D.,Phase diagram for the 0.4Pb(Ni{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3-0.6 Pb(ZrTi)O3 solid solution in the vicinity of a morphotropic phase boundary,J.Am.Ceram.Soc.,1998,81(3): 749.[13]Jiang Xiangping,Fang Jinwen,Chen Daren et al.,Study on the diffuse phase transition of Pb(Zn{1/3}Nb{2/3})O3-PbZrO3-PbTiO3

  1. Surface Acoustic Wave Propagation Properties in 0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3 Single Crystal Poled along[001]c%沿[001]c极化0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3单晶的声表面波传播特性研究

    李秀明; 张锐; 黄乃兴; 吕天全; 曹文武


    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) properties of relaxor-based 0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3 (PMN-30%PT) ferroelectric single crystals poled along[001]c cubic direction has been analyzed theoretically.It can be found that X-cut PMN-30%PT single crystal is a kind of material with low phase velocity and high electromechanical coupling coefficient,besides the single crystal possess some propagation directions with zero power flow angle (PFA).The results are based on the material parameters at room temperature.Theoretical results indicate that the direction about 127° canted from[001]c is the optimum direction for the X-cut[001]c poled PMN-30%PT single crystal in SAW device applications.SAW characteristic curves were also obtained for Y-cut and Z-cut PMN-30%PT single crystals.%以室温下弛豫铁电单晶0.70Pb(Mg_(1/3)Nb_(2/3))O_3-0.30PbTiO_3(PMN-30%PT)的材料参数为基础,研究了该晶体沿[001]c极化情况下,不同切型的声表面波传播特性.研究发现,X-切型的PMN-30%PT单晶是一种具有低相速度和高机电耦合系数的材料,同时存在许多能流角为零的传播方向,综合来看,X-切型的127°左右方向是声表面波的最佳传播方向.

  2. Multimodal eye recognition

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III


    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  3. Preparation of BSA Molecule Surface-imprinted Material and Studies on its Macromolecule Recognition Characters%牛血清白蛋白分子表面印迹材料的制备及其大分子识别特性研究

    史楠; 高保娇; 陈涛


    通过分子设计和过程策划,制备了高性能的牛血清白蛋白(BSA)分子表面印迹材料.首先以甲基丙烯酰氯为试剂,使交联聚乙烯醇(CPVA)微球表面的羟基发生酯化反应,将大量可聚合双键引入到CPVA微球表面.然后以含有可聚合双键的CPVA微球为载体,阳离子单体丙烯酰氧乙基三甲基氯化铵(DAC)为功能单体,N,N’-亚甲基双丙烯酰胺(MBA)为交联剂,牛血清白蛋白(BSA)为模板分子,在水溶液体系中,基于主-客体之间的强静电相互作用,采用接枝聚合与印迹过程同步进行的方式,制备了高性能BSA分子表面印迹微球MIP-PDAC/CPVA.采用红外光谱(IR)和扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对产物微球进行了表征.研究了印迹聚合物微球MIP-PDAC/CPVA对BSA的大分子识别特性.研究结果表明,微球MIP-PDAC/CPVA对BSA具有优良的结合亲和性和特异的识别选择性,结合容量高达108 mg/g,对牛血红蛋白(BHb)却基本不结合;相对于BHb,MIP-PDAC/CPVA对BSA的选择性系数高达60.2.%A bovine serum albumin (BAS) molecule surface-imprinted material with high performance was prepared through molecular design and process planning.The hydroxyl groups on crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol (CPVA) microspheres were first made to be esterified with methyl acryloyl chloride (MAC) as reagent,and a great deal of polymerizable double bonds were introduced onto the surfaces of the microspheres,forming modified microspheres MA-CPVA.Subsequently,with MA-CPVA as matrix and with cationic acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC) as functional monomer as well as with N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker,in a aqueous solution,BAS surface-imprinted material MIP-PDAC/CPVA was smoothly prepared.In this imprinting process,the strong electrostatic interaction between the host-guest molecules was the foundation,and the graft-polymerization of DAC and the imprinting of BAS were carried out synchronously.The product microspheres MIP

  4. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    Anzai, Y


    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  5. Accessing Specific Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry

    Li, Ming

    Molecular recognition is at the basis of all processes for life, and plays a central role in many biological processes, such as protein folding, the structural organization of cells and organelles, signal transduction, and the immune response. Hence, my PhD project is entitled “Accessing Specific...... Peptide Recognition by Combinatorial Chemistry”. Molecular recognition is a specific interaction between two or more molecules through noncovalent bonding, such as hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, van der Waals forces, π−π, hydrophobic, or electrostatic interactions. The association involves kinetic....... Combinatorial chemistry was invented in 1980s based on observation of functional aspects of the adaptive immune system. It was employed for drug development and optimization in conjunction with high-throughput synthesis and screening. (chapter 2) Combinatorial chemistry is able to rapidly produce many thousands...

  6. Investigation of Carbohydrate Recognition via Computer Simulation

    Quentin R. Johnson


    Full Text Available Carbohydrate recognition by proteins, such as lectins and other (biomolecules, can be essential for many biological functions. Recently, interest has arisen due to potential protein and drug design and future bioengineering applications. A quantitative measurement of carbohydrate-protein interaction is thus important for the full characterization of sugar recognition. We focus on the aspect of utilizing computer simulations and biophysical models to evaluate the strength and specificity of carbohydrate recognition in this review. With increasing computational resources, better algorithms and refined modeling parameters, using state-of-the-art supercomputers to calculate the strength of the interaction between molecules has become increasingly mainstream. We review the current state of this technique and its successful applications for studying protein-sugar interactions in recent years.

  7. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    Webb, Andrew R


    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  8. Comparison of associative recognition versus source recognition.

    Park, Heekyeong; Abellanoza, Cheryl; Schaeffer, James D


    The importance of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) for memory of arbitrary associations has been well established. However, the contribution of the MTL in concurrent retrieval of different classes of associations remains unclear. The present fMRI study investigated neural correlates of concurrent retrieval of associative and source memories. Participants studied a list of object pairs with two study tasks and judged the status and context of the pair during test. Associative retrieval was supported by neural activity in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left ventral occipito-temporal cortex, while source recognition was linked to activity in the right caudate. Both the hippocampus and MTL cortex showed retrieval activity for associative and source memory. Importantly, greater brain activity for successful associative recognition accompanied with successful source recognition was evident in left perirhinal and anterior hippocampal regions. These results indicate that the MTL is critical in the retrieval of different classes of associations.

  9. Bacteriophages as recognition and identification agents

    Teodorescu, M.C.; Gaspar, A.


    Bacteriophages are employed as agents for recognition and identification of molecules and cellular materials, using their ability to recognize their bacterial host, by coating them with antibodies or by selecting them to perform in a manner analogous to antibodies. Visibility for identification is effected by incorporating a fluorescent agent, a radioisotope, a metal, an enzyme, or other staining material. The method of this invention may be utilized in selected clinical procedures, and is adaptable to use in an assay kit.

  10. Recognition measured values

    LEITKEP, Zdeněk


    This work deals recognition measured values. The main task is to find suitable method for preprocessing images and create interface to software performing recognition. Created application will be used primarily to analyze the photos on site acquisition. Application is developed in Java and properly documented on javadoc level.

  11. Handwritten Digits Recognition

    Grand, Eric


    My work of diploma consisted in developing a Windows application for the recognition of the handwritten digits. The source images come from a pen-scanner. The user can also draw the digits directly with the mouse and do the recognition of it. In this software, I integrated the SVM Light reconizer.

  12. Multimodal recognition of emotions

    Datcu, D.


    This thesis proposes algorithms and techniques to be used for automatic recognition of six prototypic emotion categories by computer programs, based on the recognition of facial expressions and emotion patterns in voice. Considering the applicability in real-life conditions, the research is carried

  13. Preparation of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ferroelectric Ceramics by Partial Oxalate Process%部分草酸盐工艺制备Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3铁电陶瓷

    方必军; 钱昆; 凌婧; 杜庆柏


    通过部分草酸盐工艺制备了颗粒尺寸较小、粒度分布较均匀、团聚较少的(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3(PMN-PT)前驱体.以活性PMN-PT前驱体为原料,通过固相反应法制备PMN-PT陶瓷.XRD测量表明,通过部分草酸盐工艺制备的PMN-PT陶瓷中含有少量的焦绿石相.随着PbTiO3 (PT)含量的增加,PMN-PT陶瓷的晶体结构从三方铁电相逐渐向四方铁电相转变.烧成的PMN-PT陶瓷具有较高的致密度.组分和烧结温度对PMN-PT陶瓷的电学性能产生影响.随着烧结温度的升高,PMN-PT陶瓷的介电常数最大值εm增大,伴随着εm对应的温度Tc/Tm的不规律变化;剩余极化强度Pr增大,矫顽场Ec减小;压电应变常量d33值增大.随着PT含量的增加,Tc/Tm增大,介电响应特征从弥散型铁电相变向正常铁电相变转变,电滞回线从狭长的回线向接近矩形的形状转变.0.68PMN-0.32PT陶瓷呈现优良的综合电学性能,1200℃烧结的陶瓷1kHz时εm为14070,Tm为148.2℃,d33值为457pC/N,Pr为14.69μC/cm2,Ec为4.72kV/cm.%(1-x)Pb (Mg1/3Nba3)O3HIPbTiO3 (PMN-PT) precursor powders with smaller grain size, better size distribution and less conglomeration were prepared using the partial oxalate method. Then the active precursor powders as-obtained were used to prepare PMN-PT ceramics by the conventional solid-state reaction method. XRO measurement confirmed that all the sintered PMN-PT ceramics contain slight content of pyrochlore phase. With the increase of the content of PbTiO3 (PT), the crystal structure of the PMN-PT ceramics gradually changes from rhombohedral ferroelectric phase to tetragonal. The synthesized PMN-PT ceramics exhibit high relative density. Composition and sintering conditions exert great influences on the electrical properties of the sintered PMN-PT ceramics. With the increase of the sintering temperature, the dielectric constant and the Em increase accompanied by the irregular variation of the Tc/Tm the remnant

  14. Trapping and manipulating single molecules of DNA

    Shon, Min Ju

    This thesis presents the development and application of nanoscale techniques to trap and manipulate biomolecules, with a focus on DNA. These methods combine single-molecule microscopy and nano- and micro-fabrication to study biophysical properties of DNA and proteins. The Dimple Machine is a lab-on-a-chip device that can isolate and confine a small number of molecules from a bulk solution. It traps molecules in nanofabricated chambers, or "dimples", and the trapped molecules are then studied on a fluorescence microscope at the single-molecule level. The sampling of bulk solution by dimples is representative, reproducible, and automated, enabling highthroughput single-molecule experiments. The device was applied to study hybridization of oligonucleotides, particularly in the context of reaction thermodynamics and kinetics in nanoconfinement. The DNA Pulley is a system to study protein binding and the local mechanical properties of DNA. A molecule of DNA is tethered to a surface on one end, and a superparamagnetic bead is attached to the other. A magnet pulls the DNA taut, and a silicon nitride knife with a nanoscale blade scans the DNA along its contour. Information on the local properties of the DNA is extracted by tracking the bead with nanometer precision in a white-light microscope. The system can detect proteins bound to DNA and localize their recognition sites, as shown with a model protein, EcoRI restriction enzyme. Progress on the measurements of nano-mechanical properties of DNA is included.

  15. Gamete Recognition in Higher Plants: An Abstruse but Charming Mystery

    Xiong-Bo Peng; Meng-Xiang Sun


    Although much effort has been made to uncover the mechanism underlying double fertilization, little knowledge has been acquired for understanding the molecular base of gamete recognition, mainly because of technical limitations. Still,progress has been made in terms of the mechanism, including the identification of candidate molecules that are involved in gamete recognition in angiosperms. New cues for gamete recognition have been found by the successful separation of the gametes and construction of gamete-specific cDNA libraries in several species, and the application of molecular approaches for studying this process by mutations. Thus, the topic is considered an abstruse but charming mystery.

  16. Signatures of molecular recognition from the topography of electrostatic potential

    Dhimoy K Roy; P Balanarayan; Shridhar R Gadre


    The recognition of interaction between two molecules is analysed via the topography of their molecular electrostatic potentials (MESP). The point of recognition between two species is proposed to be the geometry at which there is a change in the nature of the set of MESP critical points of one of the molecules vis-a-vis with its MESP topography at infinite separation. These results are presented for certain model systems such as pyridine and benzene dimers, cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine base pairs in various orientations of approach of the two species.

  17. Detection and recognition of analytes based on their crystallization patterns

    Morozov, Victor [Manassas, VA; Bailey, Charles L [Cross Junction, VA; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N [Kensington, MD; Elliott, Adam [Manassas, VA


    The invention contemplates a method for recognition of proteins and other biological molecules by imaging morphology, size and distribution of crystalline and amorphous dry residues in droplets (further referred to as "crystallization pattern") containing predetermined amount of certain crystal-forming organic compounds (reporters) to which protein to be analyzed is added. It has been shown that changes in the crystallization patterns of a number of amino-acids can be used as a "signature" of a protein added. It was also found that both the character of changer in the crystallization patter and the fact of such changes can be used as recognition elements in analysis of protein molecules.

  18. Mobile intention recognition

    Kiefer, Peter


    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  19. PCA facial expression recognition

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali


    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  20. Handbook of Face Recognition

    Li, Stan Z


    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  1. A Diagram of the Structure Evolution of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3 O3-9%PbTiO3 Relaxor Ferroelectric Crystals with Excellent Piezoelectric Properties

    Hua Zhou


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric properties are of significant importance to medical ultrasound, actuators, sensors, and countless other device applications. The mechanism of piezoelectric properties can be deeply understood in light of structure evolutions. In this paper, we report a diagram of the structure evolutions of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/30.91Ti0.09O3 (PZN-9PT crystals with excellent piezoelectric properties among orthorhombic, tetragonal, and cubic phases, with a temperature increasing from room temperature to 220 °C. Through fitting the temperature-dependent XRD curves with Gauss and Lorenz functions, we obtained the evolutions of the content ratio of three kinds of phases (orthorhombic, tetragonal and cubic and the lattice parameters of the PZN-9PT system with the changes of temperature. The XRD fitting results together with Raman and dielectric spectra show that the phase transitions of PZN-9PT are a typical continuous evolution process. Additionally, resonance and anti-resonance spectra show the excellent piezoelectric properties of these crystals, which probably originate from the nano twin domains, as demonstrated by TEM images. Of particular attention is that the thickness electromechanical coupling factor kt is up to 72%.

  2. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Xiaolong Zhang


    Full Text Available The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42 single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The E(TO1 phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  3. Contributions of domain wall motion to complex electromechanical coefficients of 0.62Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.38PbTiO3 crystals

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu


    The loss behavior of 0.62Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.38PbTiO3 (PMN-38%PT) ferroelectric single crystal poled along [001]c was investigated. It was found that the complex electromechanical coefficients and loss factors change dramatically at the coercive field Ec around 250 V∕mm, representing the intrinsic switching barrier. Since the energy loss is related to the domain wall motion, the imaginary parts of the electromechanical coefficients can be used to study the degree of domain wall motions in relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals. Experimental results indicate that for this system, domain wall motion contributes significantly to the imaginary parts of electromechanical coefficients. In addition, [001]c poled PMN-38%PT single crystals have much larger mechanical loss factor compared to that of conventional single crystal like LiNbO3. This phenomenon is proved to be closely related to 90° domain wall motion in this crystal system. PMID:20145700

  4. Crystal Structure, Electronic Structure, and Photocatalytic Activity of Oxysulfides: La2Ta2ZrS2O8, La2Ta2TiS2O8, and La2Nb2TiS2O8.

    Goto, Yosuke; Seo, Jeongsuk; Kumamoto, Kazunori; Hisatomi, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Kamihara, Yoichi; Katayama, Masao; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Domen, Kazunari


    The novel oxysulfides La2Ta2ZrS2O8 (LTZSO), La2Ta2TiS2O8 (LTTSO), and La2Nb2TiS2O8 (LNTSO) were synthesized, and their crystal structures, electronic structures, and photocatalytic activities for water splitting under visible light were investigated. Density functional theory calculations showed that these compounds are direct-band-gap semiconductors. Close to the conduction band minimum, the main contribution to the band structure comes from the d orbitals of Zr or Ti ions, while the region near the valence band maximum is associated with the 3p orbitals of S ions. The absorption-edge wavelength was determined to be 540 nm for LTZSO and 700 nm for LTTSO and LNTSO. An analysis of the crystal structure using synchrotron X-ray diffraction revealed that these compounds contained antisite defects at transition metal ion sites, and these were considered to be the origin of the broad absorption at wavelengths longer than that corresponding to band-gap excitation. LTZSO was revealed to be active in the oxygen evolution reaction from aqueous solution containing a sacrificial electron acceptor under visible-light illumination. This result was supported by the band alignment and flat-band potential determined by photoelectron spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky plots.

  5. Pressure-induced structural transformations in pure and Ru-doped 0.9PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3 near the morphotropic phase boundary

    Waeselmann, N.; Maier, B. J.; Mihailova, B.; Angel, R. J.; Zhao, J.; Gospodinov, M.; Paulmann, C.; Ross, N.; Bismayer, U.


    Pressure-induced structural transformations in relaxor-based perovskite-type (ABO3) 0.9PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.1PbTiO3 single crystals which have a very high piezoelectric response were studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy at room temperature and pressures up to 18.1 GPa. Changes in the state of long-range order were observed near 1.0, 2.1, and 5.9 GPa. Initially, upon pressure increase, the ferroic deviation of the atomic positions from the cubic structure is reduced, but the ferroelectric twinning is enhanced, and near 1.0 GPa, the intrinsic ferroelectric multiphase domain pattern formed in the as-synthesized crystals is changed. At 2.1 GPa, the system undergoes a phase transition from a ferroelectric to a relaxor state, which exhibits an average cubic structure but still contains polar nanoregions. At 5.9 GPa, a reversible phase transition typical of Pb-based perovskite-type relaxors occurs, namely a cubic-to-antiferrodistortive phase transition resulting in a long-range order of antiphase octahedral tilts. On decompression, the ferroelectric state reappears below 2.1 GPa, and the local atomic structure is fully recovered at ambient pressure, but the final domain texture differs from the initial one. Ruthenium doping on the B site does not influence the pressure-induced structural transformations.

  6. Coupling of electric charge and magnetic field via electronic phase separation in (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 multiferroic heterostructures

    Zheng, Ming; Wang, Wei


    The electric-field-tunable non-volatile resistivity and ferromagnetism switching in the (La0.5Pr0.5)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 ferroelectric single-crystal substrates have been investigated. By combining the 180° ferroelectric domain switching and in situ X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements, we identify that this voltage control of order parameters stems from the domain switching-induced accumulation/depletion of charge carriers at the interface rather than induced lattice strain effect. In particular, the polarization-induced charge effect (i.e., ferroelectric field effect) is strongly dependent on the magnetic field. This, together with the charge-modulated magnetoresistance and magnetization, reveals the strong correlation between the electric charge and the magnetic field. Further, we found that this coupling is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation, the relative strength of which could be determined by recording charge-tunability of resistivity [ (Δρ/ρ)c h arg e ] under various magnetic fields. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating essential physics of perovskite manganites and delivering prototype electronic devices for non-volatile information storage.

  7. Pyroelectricity and Spontaneous Polarization in [111] Oriented 0.955 Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.045PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    SHEN Ming-Rong; YAO Dong-Lai; CAO Wen-Wu


    @@ We report that the measurements of the pyroelectric current of the pre-poled [111]-oriented 0. 955 Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.045 PbTiO3 (PZN-4.5%PT) single crystals can shed some light on the phase transition and spontaneous polarization characters of this material in a similar way to measures of remanent polarization and dielectric properties. The pyroelectric current is measured and the corresponding spontaneous polarization is calculated as a function of temperature with various poling fields added during cooling the sample from 200℃ to room temperature. Critical electric field of 0.061 k V/cm is found to be essential to induce the intermediate ferroelectric orthorhombic phase between the ferroelectric rhombohedral and tetragonal phases. Below the critical field, the polarization increases almost linearly with the increase of poling field. At the critical field, the polarization at 30℃ increases abruptly from 14μC/cm2 for a poling field of 0.06kV/cm to 29.5μC/cm2 for a poling field of 0.061 kV/cm, and afterwards, increases slowly and saturates to 31 μC/cm2 for poling fields beyond 0.55 kV/cm.

  8. Step-down piezoelectric transformer fabricated with (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3-xPbTiO3 single crystal.

    Wang, Feifei; Shi, Wangzhou; Luo, Haosu


    In present work, a ring-type unipoled step-down piezoelectric transformer with the dimensions of Phi16x0.7 mm(3) was designed and fabricated using relaxor ferroelectric single crystal (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). Both the input and output parts of this transformer were poled along the thickness direction, utilizing the radial vibration mode of PMN-PT. The electrical measurement results indicated that under the matching load resistance of 257 Omega, a voltage transformation ratio of 0.44 was obtained at the resonance frequency of 105 kHz. The frequency and load dependences of this transformer were also systematically studied and discussed. With the input voltage increasing, a maximum output power of about 0.9 W was obtained with the temperature rise less than 5 degrees C. This step-down single-crystal transformer show potential applications in compact-size, small-power ac-dc converters.

  9. Temperature evolution of central peaks and effect of electric field in relaxor ferroelectric 0.83Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.17PbTiO3 single crystals

    Helal, Md Al; Aftabuzzaman, Md; Svirskas, Sarunas; Banys, Juras; Kojima, Seiji


    Relaxor ferroelectric 0.83Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.17PbTiO3 (PMN–17PT) single crystals were studied by Brillouin scattering to investigate the role of polar nanoregions (PNRs) with intermediate random fields (RFs). Upon cooling, the central peak began to appear at the Burns temperature (T B) of ∼600 K, indicating the existence of polarization relaxations induced by PNRs. The fitting performed using the equation of stretched slowing down at the inverse relaxation time revealed that the slowing down of PNRs was suppressed in PMN–17PT compared with that in PMN–56PT owing to the increase in the strength of RFs. At room temperature, the splitting of the longitudinal acoustic mode at 1.6 kV/cm was observed owing to the coexistence of the macrodomain formed by the external electric field along the [100] axis and the nanodomains formed by RFs. The appearance of the transverse acoustic mode at 3.2 kV/cm indicates the field-induced rhombohedral-to-tetragonal phase.

  10. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/(1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 Multiferroic Heterostructures with Different Ferroelectric Phases.

    Liu, Yan; Zhao, Yonggang; Li, Peisen; Zhang, Sen; Li, Dalai; Wu, Hao; Chen, Aitian; Xu, Yang; Han, X F; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu


    Electric-field control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures composed of Co40Fe40B20 (CoFeB) and (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) with different ferroelectric phases via changing composition and temperature is explored. It is demonstrated that the nonvolatile looplike bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization, previously found in the CoFeB/PMN-xPT heterostructures with PMN-xPT in the rhombohedral (R) phase around the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), also occurs for PMN-xPTs with both R phase (far away from MPB) and monoclinic (M) phase, suggesting that the phenomenon is the common feature of CoFeB/PMN-xPT multiferroic heterostructures for PMN-xPT with different phases. The magnitude of the effect changes with increasing temperature and volatile bipolar-electric-field-controlled magnetization with a butterflylike behavior occurs when the ferroelectric phase changes to the tetragonal phase (T). Moreover, for the R-phase sample with x = 0.18, an abrupt and giant increase of magnetization is observed at a characteristic temperature in the temperature dependence of magnetization curve. These results are discussed in terms of coupling between magnetism and ferroelectric domains including macro- and microdomains for different ferroelectric phases. This work is helpful for understanding the phenomena of electric-field control of magnetism in FM/FE multiferroic heterostructures and is also important for applications.

  11. Spatially Resolved Ferroelectric Domain-Switching-Controlled Magnetism in Co40Fe40B20/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 Multiferroic Heterostructure.

    Li, Peisen; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhang, Sen; Chen, Aitian; Li, Dalai; Ma, Jing; Liu, Yan; Pierce, Daniel T; Unguris, John; Piao, Hong-Guang; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhu, Meihong; Zhang, Xiaozhong; Han, Xiufeng; Pan, Mengchun; Nan, Ce-Wen


    Intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity or phase separation in cuprates, manganites, etc., related to electronic and/or magnetic properties, has attracted much attention due to its significance in fundamental physics and applications. Here we use scanning Kerr microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis with in situ electric fields to reveal the existence of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity of the magnetic response to an electric field on a mesoscale with the coexistence of looplike (nonvolatile) and butterfly-like (volatile) behaviors in Co40Fe40B20/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 ferromagnetic/ferroelectric (FM/FE) multiferroic heterostructures. Both the experimental results and micromagnetic simulations suggest that these two behaviors come from the 109° and the 71°/180° FE domain switching, respectively, which have a spatial distribution. This FE domain-switching-controlled magnetism is significant for understanding the nature of FM/FE coupling on the mesoscale and provides a path for designing magnetoelectric devices through domain engineering.

  12. Temperature dependence of electric-field-induced domain switching in 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.3PbTiO3 single crystal

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu


    The influence of temperature on electric-field-induced domain switching of [0 0 1]c oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.3PbTiO3 (PMN–0.3PT) single crystal has been studied. The piezoelectric properties of PMN–0.3PT single crystal change drastically at one critical field at 30 °C and two critical fields at 90 °C corresponding to electric-field-induced domain switching. The domain structures were studied by polarizing light microscopy on the [100]c surface under the electric field applied along [001]c direction. The PMN–0.3PT single crystal exhibits a rapid increase in piezoresponse at 100 V/mm, which is related to R–MA phase transformation. At 90°C, the M and T0 0 1 phases coexist at 100 V/mm, while T001 mono-domain appears at 300 V/mm. The domain switching process here can be identified as (T100 or T010) → M → T001. The experimental results show that the phase state and domain structures of the crystal are closely related to the piezoelectric behaviors. PMID:23814407

  13. Temperature dependence of electric-field-induced domain switching in 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 single crystal.

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu


    The influence of temperature on electric-field-induced domain switching of [0 0 1]c oriented 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-0.3PT) single crystal has been studied. The piezoelectric properties of PMN-0.3PT single crystal change drastically at one critical field at 30 °C and two critical fields at 90 °C corresponding to electric-field-induced domain switching. The domain structures were studied by polarizing light microscopy on the [100]c surface under the electric field applied along [001]c direction. The PMN-0.3PT single crystal exhibits a rapid increase in piezoresponse at 100 V/mm, which is related to R-MA phase transformation. At 90°C, the M and T0 0 1 phases coexist at 100 V/mm, while T001 mono-domain appears at 300 V/mm. The domain switching process here can be identified as (T100 or T010) → M → T001. The experimental results show that the phase state and domain structures of the crystal are closely related to the piezoelectric behaviors.

  14. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    Wang, Ping


    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  15. Piezostrain tuning non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation in Co2FeAl Heusler alloy film grown on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 heterostructures

    Zhou, Cai; Wang, Fenglong; Dunzhu, Gesang; Yao, Jinli; Jiang, Changjun


    Non-volatile electric field-based control of magnetic anisotropy in Co2FeAl/ Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (CFA/PMN-PT) heterostructures is investigated at room temperature. The remnant magnetization response under different electric fields shows a asymmetric butterfly-like behavior; specifically, this behavior is consistent with the asymmetric butterfly-like piezostrain versus applied electric field curve. Thus electric field-induced non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation can be attributed to the piezostrain effect. Further, the result measured by rotating-angle ferromagnetic resonance demonstrates piezostrain-mediated non-volatile 90° magnetic easy axis rotation at the initial state and the two remnant polarization states after application of the poling fields of 10 and  -10 kV cm-1 turned off. The angular dependence of magnetic damping also indicates a 90° phase shift at the above mentioned three different states. Additionally, the piezostrain-mediated non-volatile stable magnetization reversal in the two directions of easy and hard magnetization axes are observed under positive and negative pulsed electric fields, which can be used to improve the performance of low-loss multiple-state memory devices.

  16. Contribution to the large and stable electric field induced strain for textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 ceramics

    Zeng, Jiangtao; Zhao, Kunyu; Ruan, Wei; Ruan, Xuezheng; Zheng, Liaoying; Li, Guorong


    Textured Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.675Ti0.325O3 (PMN-PT) ceramics were prepared by the templated grain growth method with 3% plate-like BaTiO3 as templates. The degree of grain orientation was about 81% by calculating from the XRD pattern. Temperature dependence of electric field induced strain was measured for both untextured and textured PMN-PT ceramics. The results show that the electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics is much larger and more stable than that for untextured PMN-PT ceramics in a wide temperature range. The contribution from the piezoelectric effect and electrostrictive effect to the strain was analyzed, and it was found that textured PMN-PT ceramics exhibited electrostrictive coefficient Q33 as high as 5.19 × 10-2 m4 C-2 and it was comparable to that of PMN-PT single crystals. The electrostrictive effect contributed the main part of the enhancement of electric field induced strain for textured PMN-PT ceramics.

  17. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 Multiferroic Heterostructures.

    Wang, Ping; Jin, Chao; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Gong, Junlu; Li, Peng; Bai, Haili


    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  18. Properties of epitaxial, (001)- and (110)-oriented (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 films on silicon described by polarization rotation.

    Boota, Muhammad; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Nguyen, Minh D; Vergeer, Kurt H; Lanzara, Giulia; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Guus


    Epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)2/3-(PbTiO3)1/3 (PMN-PT) films with different out-of-plane orientations were prepared using a CeO2/yttria stabilized ZrO2 bilayer buffer and symmetric SrRuO3 electrodes on silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The orientation of the SrRuO3 bottom electrode, either (110) or (001), was controlled by the deposition conditions and the subsequent PMN-PT layer followed the orientation of the bottom electrode. The ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the (SrRuO3/PMN-PT/SrRuO3) ferroelectric capacitors exhibit orientation dependence. The properties of the films are explained in terms of a model based on polarization rotation. At low applied fields domain switching dominates the polarization change. The model indicates that polarization rotation is easier in the (110) film, which is ascribed to a smaller effect of the clamping on the shearing of the pseudo-cubic unit cell compared to the (001) case.

  19. Electrically tunable microwave properties in NiFeTa/[Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) magnetoelectric heterostructures

    Phuoc, Nguyen N.; Ong, C. K.


    The studied magnetoelectric heterostructure consisting of a NiFeTa thin film grown onto a [Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3]0.68-[PbTiO3]0.32(011) (PMN-PT) substrate was prepared by using gradient-composition sputtering technique. A shorted micro-strip transmission-line perturbation method using a vector network analyzer was employed to study the electrical field modulation of microwave properties of the NiFeTa/PMN-PT heterostructure. It was found that the resonance frequency of the sample can be tuned from 1.72 GHz to 2.05 GHz when the applied electrical field is varied from -6 kV/cm to 6 kV/cm. Moreover, we experimentally observed a quasi-linear relationship between the resonance frequency and the electrical field in a wide range of electrical field from 0 kV/cm to 6 kV/cm in the heterostructure, which is suggested to be useful for applications. All the results are discussed taking into account the reverse magnetostrictive effect and the reverse piezoelectric effect.

  20. Shear-Mode-Based Cantilever Driving Low-Frequency Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Using 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3.

    Zeng, Zhou; Ren, Bo; Gai, Linlin; Zhao, Xiangyong; Luo, Haosu; Wang, Dong


    Energy harvesting from external mechanical excitation has become a hot interest area, and relaxor piezoelectric single crystal ( 1 - x )Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 (PMN- x PT or PMN-PT) has attracted continuous attention due to the well-known ultrahigh shear-mode electromechanical response. To exploit the low-frequency application of excellent shear-mode performance of the PMN-PT single crystal, we proposed a Shear-mode-based CANtilever Driving Low-frequency Energy harvester. The device is composed of two symmetrically assembled sandwich structures and a cantilever, in which sandwich structures can be driven by the cantilever. An analytical method was used to illustrate the high output mechanism, and a finite-element method model of the device was also established to optimize the generated electric energy in this device. The electrical properties of the device under different excitation frequencies and load resistances were studied systematically. The maximum voltage and power density at resonance frequency (43.8 Hz) were measured to be 60.8 V and 10.8 mW/cm(3) under a proof mass of 13.5 g, respectively. Both theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the considerable potential of the resonance-excited shear-mode energy harvester applied to wireless sensors and low-power portable electronics.

  1. Polarization Fatigue in Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) Single Crystals.

    Zhang, Shujun; Luo, Jun; Li, Fei; Meyer, Richard J; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R


    Electric fatigue tests have been conducted on pure and manganese modified Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) single crystals along different crystallographic directions. Polarization degradation was observed to suddenly occur above 50-100 bipolar cycles in oriented samples, while oriented samples exhibited almost fatigue free characteristics. The fatigue behavior was investigated as a function of orientation, magnitude of the electric field and manganese dopant. It was found that oriented PIN-PMN-PT crystals were fatigue free, due to its small domain size, being on the order of 1µm. The direction exhibited a strong electrical fatigue behavior due to mechanical degradation. Micro/macro cracks were developed in fatigued oriented single crystals. Fatigue and cracks were the results of strong anisotropic piezoelectric stress and non-180° domain switching, which completely locked the non-180° domains. Furthermore, manganese modified PIN-PMN-PT crystals were found to show improved fatigue behavior due to its enhanced coercive field.

  2. Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Piezoelectric Ceramics

    LIU Li-Ming; ZENG Hua-Bong; CAO Zhen-Zhu; LENG Xue; ZHAO Kun-Yu; LI Guo-Rong; YIN Qing-Rui


    @@ Bismuth zinc titanate dopied lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate[Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (BZT-PMN-PT)]piezoelectric ceramics are synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method.Ferroelectric domain structures and the evolutionary behavior of BZT-PMN-PT ceramics under an external in-plane electric field are investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy(PFM).It is found that the BZT doping has a significant effect on the domain configurations and the domain kinetic behavior of the piezoelectric BZT-PMN-PT solid solution ceramics.Microdomains embedded in the macrodomains, induced by the BZT dopant in the solid solution ceramics, are clearly observed by PFM and their volume increases with increasing amounts of BZT doping.The microdomains of BZT-PMN-PT piezoelectric ceramics exhibit better domain dynamic behavior stability than macrodomains under an external in-plane electric held.

  3. Electromechanical properties of Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) single crystals.

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Shujun; Lin, Dabin; Luo, Jun; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong; Shrout, Thomas R


    The Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were studied as function of phase and orientation. The properties, including the Curie temperature T(C), ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(R∕O-T), coercive field, and piezoelectric∕dielectric responses, were systematically investigated with respect to the composition of PIN-PMN-PT crystals. The Curie temperature T(C) was found to increase from 160 to 220 °C with ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transition temperature T(R-T) and T(O-T) being in the range of 120-105 °C and105-50 °C, respectively. The piezoelectric activity of PIN-PMN-PT crystals was analyzed by Rayleigh approach. The ultrahigh piezoelectric response for domain engineered [001] (1600-2200 pC∕N) and [011] (830-1550 pC∕N) crystals was believed to be mainly from the intrinsic contribution, whereas the enhanced level of piezoelectric and dielectric losses at the compositions around morphotropic phase boundaries (MPBs) was attributed to the phase boundaries motion.

  4. Interweaving domain configurations in [001]-poled rhombohedral phase 0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 single crystals

    Han, Jiaping; Cao, Wenwu


    Domain structures in [001]-poled rhombohedral phase 0.68Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3 single crystals have been investigated using polarized light microcopy. It was found that the observed domain structures are quite different from those previously assumed four domain states with cross intersecting 71° charged domain walls. The pattern can be interpreted as interweaving of two types of twins in three dimensions. Each local twin pattern contains only two domains with a 109° charged domain wall in either [110] or [11¯0]. The stacking of two 90° rotated twins produces a cross-hatching pattern for transmission optical microscope and an effective 4mm macroscopic symmetry. The pattern becomes simple twins when the imaging is focused at different depth. The domain size is 1-2 μm in all the samples observed and the twin layer thickness is about 50-100 μm.

  5. Domain structure analysis of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-9%PbTiO3 single crystals using optical second harmonic generation microscopy

    Kaneshiro, Junichi; Uesu, Yoshiaki


    The domain structures of relaxor-ferroelectric Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-9%PbTiO3 (PZN-9PT) single crystals with a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition are observed with a scanning second harmonic generation (SHG) microscope. Three-dimensional domain structures are obtained from sectional SH images along the axial direction. The domain structures are explained well by the strain compatibility theory that is based on the ferroelectric/ferroelastic phase transition of m3¯mFm(p) with the monoclinic space group Pm . The SHG images are divided into several parts, and the light-polarization dependence (PolD) at each site is calculated by minimizing the least-squares errors of the nonlinear susceptibilities. The PolDs are fitted well by theoretical formulas of the SH intensities for the Pm symmetry, and the two-dimensional map of the PolD coincides well with the corresponding SHG image of the domain structures. The monoclinic Pm symmetry at the MPB of PZN-9PT is determined at the optical diffraction limit of 460 nm.

  6. Development and application of graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite for electrochemical determination of dopamine

    Juliana de Fátima Giarola


    Full Text Available In the present paper an amperometric sensor based on graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite has been successfully prepared for dopamine (DA determination in real samples. The electrochemical behavior of DA at the GRP-SiAlNb-MB has been evaluated by employing cyclic voltammetry. The best ratio (m/m of GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite was found to be 1:0.54. Under optimized conditions (pH 7.5 in 0.15 mol L−1 phosphate buffer the amperometry method responds linearly to DA from 5.0 up to 500.0 μmol L−1 (r = 0.995 with limits of detection and quantification of 1.49 and 4.97 μmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for DA determination in real samples of pharmaceutical formulations and can be used for routine quality control analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing DA. The use of inorganic matrix SiAlNb was found to be very useful to adsorb MB in the composite material with further improvement of the anodic peak current of DA.

  7. Ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of BiScO3-PbTiO3-Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 ternary high temperature piezoelectric ceramics

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Chen, Jianguo; Wang, Chun-Ming; Yu, Yang; Dong, Shuxiang


    (0.95-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3-0.05Pb(Cd1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BS-xPT-PCN) high temperature piezoelectric ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) have been synthesized by traditional solid-state reaction methods. The microstructural morphology, phase structure, and electrical properties of BS-xPT-PCN ceramics were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated BS-xPT-PCN ceramics have a pure perovskite structure. The coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases at MPB composition enhanced the polarizability by the coupling between two dynamically equivalent energy states, resulting in the improved piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties at MPB vicinity. The BS-xPT-PCN (x = 0.60) ceramics possess the optimal piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties with d33 = 505pC/N, kp = 55.9%, kt = 36.5%, strain = 0.23% (under the electric field 37.5 kV/cm), and Pr = 39.7 μC/cm2. High temperature dielectric behaviors showed diffuse phase transition in BS-xPT-PCN ceramics. The Curie temperature Tc was found to increase from 371 °C to 414 °C with x increasing from 0.58 to 0.62. All these results together with the good thermal stabilities make the BS-xPT-PCN ceramics promising candidates for high temperature piezoelectric applications.

  8. Dielectric and electromechanical properties of Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Donnelly, N. J.; Catalan, G.; Morros, C.; Bowman, R. M.; Gregg, J. M.


    Pulsed laser deposition was used to grow thin films of several compositions from the Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solution as dielectric layers in thin film capacitor structures. They were found to display functional behavior characteristic of relaxors, with the only significant difference between thin film and bulk being a severely reduced dielectric permittivity. Room temperature polarization loops showed a general increase in both the remanent polarization and absolute magnitude of the polarization for a given field with PT content. The electric field-induced strain was primarily examined by in situ x-ray diffraction and although fields greater than 20 MV m-1 were applied to the films, the maximum observed strain was only ˜0.3%, considerably less than the 1.4% seen in single crystal samples. Piezo-response atomic force microscopy studies were consistent in that the macroscopic effective piezoelectric coefficient d33, was found to differ from single crystal measurements by an order of magnitude. However, electrostrictive coefficients (Q33), were found to be comparable to published values for both PMN-PT single crystals and ceramics, ranging between 1 and 9×10-2 C-4 cm2. Consequently, it seems that the relatively poor strain response in these thin films is intimately linked to the reduced permittivity and not to a fundamental difference in the electrostrictive coefficients between bulk and thin film.

  9. Domain size engineering in tetragonal Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) crystals.

    Lin, Dabin; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Zhenrong; Li, Fei; Xu, Zhuo; Wada, Satoshi; Luo, Jun; Shrout, Thomas R


    The effect of domain size on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of [111]-oriented tetragonal Pb(In(1∕2)Nb(1∕2))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1∕3)Nb(2∕3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) crystals was investigated. The dielectric permittivity (ɛ(33 ) (T)∕ɛ(0)) and piezoelectric coefficient (d(33)) were found to be on the order of 13 800 and 1630 pC∕N, respectively, for samples with domain size of ∼500 nm, a 3-fold increase to crystals with domain size of ∼50 μm. Rayleigh analysis revealed that the extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectric response increased from ∼8% to 30% with decreasing domain size, due to the increased domain wall density and associated irreversible domain wall motion. The enhanced properties were thought to relate to the fine domain structures, however, showing a poor electric field and temperature stabilities with domain size of 500 nm. Of particular significance is that samples with domain size being on the order of 5 μm exhibit field and temperature stabilities, with yet high piezoelectric properties, make it potential for transducer applications.

  10. Features of the Relaxor State in the Simple-Perovskite Mixed-Oxide System (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Yohei; Chiba, Yuki; Koyama, Yasumasa


    The mixed-oxide system (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-xPT) has a simple perovskite structure and exhibits relaxor behavior for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.30 (low Ti contents). To understand the relaxor state in PMN-xPT, the crystallographic features of the ferroelectric states were investigated via transmission electron microscopy, taking advantage of Friedel's law failure. Polar regions having C and C components were observed separately both below and near Tm, the maximum temperature of the dielectric permittivity for the relaxor. As a result, the relaxor state for 0 < x ≤ 0.30 was identified as an assembly of nanometer-scale polar domains with rhombohedral symmetry. On the other hand, the ferroelectric states for 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.70 are characterized by a ferroelectric MC-type monoclinic state, having a polarization vector in the {100}C planes. Thus, the FR/FMC boundary around x = 0.35 was identified as the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), nearly parallel to the temperature axis.

  11. Equivalent magnetic noise reduction at high frequency range due to polarized direction optimization in Terfenol-D/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    Fang, Cong; Ma, Jiashuai; Yao, Meng; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Xu, Haiqing; Wang, Wei; Luo, Haosu


    In this paper, we investigate the responsivities and output voltage noise power spectral densities of magnetoelectric (ME) laminate sensors, consisting of length magnetized Terfenol-D alloys and transverse/width poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals (i.e. L-T mode and L-W mode respectively), which are directly integrated with custom-build low noise charge amplifier circuits. Both the theoretical analyses and experimental results prove that the L-W mode sensor with the optimized polarized direction of the PMNT plate possesses lower magnetic detection limit at the interested high frequency range of 10 kHz≤f≤50 kHz. The equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz1/2 at 30 kHz, which is about 1.7 times lower than the 1.35 pT/Hz1/2 for conventional L-T mode sensor. Furthermore, an effective method of using operational amplifiers with low equivalent input noise voltage and employing ME laminate composites with high voltage coefficient to reduce the EMNs of the ME laminate sensors at high frequency range has been established.

  12. Micro-Raman study of the microheterogeneity in the MA-MC phase transition in 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 single crystal

    Yang, Y.


    Polarized Raman spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of 0.67PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-33%PT) single crystal in the temperature range from −195 to 300 °C. The M A-M C-cubic transition sequence was observed in the microareas with M A-type (space group Cm) and M C-type (space group Pm) monoclinic structures. Interestingly, the M A-M Cphase transition temperature exhibited remarkable microareal dependence due to the spatial inhomogeneity of polar nanoregions (PNRs). The M C-cubic phase transition took place at 155 °C in both microareas, which consisted well with previous reports. These results reveal that the phase transition in PMN-33%PT single crystal is closely related with the thermal dynamics of PNRs, which will be useful for understanding the microheterogeneity in this compound.

  13. Machine Recognition vs Human Recognition of Voices


    recognized. The accuracy of speaker recognition for disyllables was 87%. For monosyllables, it was 81%, consonant- vowel excerpts were 63%, and... vowel excerpts were 56%. Thus, they demonstrated that the identification performance decreased as the number of phonemes decreased. In [2], the...will still sound natural and the performance of listeners could be tied directly to the degradation of particular frequencies. If the performance

  14. Work and Recognition

    Willig, Rasmus


    individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean......-Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised...

  15. Recognition receptors in biosensors

    Zourob, Mohammed


    This book presents a significant and up-to-date review of the various recognition receptors, their immobilization, and an overview of the used surface characterization techniques. It includes more than 150 illustrations that help explain the ideas presented.

  16. Human Emotion Recognition System

    Dilbag Singh


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc... Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I have achieved 97 percent accurate results and it is easy and simplest way than Emotion recognition using brain activity system. Purposed system depends upon human face as we know face also reflects the human brain activities or emotions. In this paper neural network has been used for better results. In the end of paper comparisons of existing Human Emotion Recognition System has been made with new one.

  17. Forensic speaker recognition

    Meuwly, Didier


    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  18. Work and Recognition

    Willig, Rasmus


    individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean......-Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised...

  19. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    Sturm, Bob L.


    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  20. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  1. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke;


    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  2. Why recognition is rational

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober


    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  3. 添加BaO-B2O3-SiO2玻璃对Sr0.3BaO0.7Nb2O6陶瓷烧结和介电性能的影响%Influences of adding BaO-B2O3-SiO2 glass on sintering and dielectric properties of Sr0.3Ba0.7Nb2O6 ceramics

    职利; 陈国华; 刘俊涛; 刘心宇; 周昌荣; 江民红


    以分析纯的BaCO3,SrCO3,Nb2O5,H38O3和SiO2粉末为原料,采用传统的固相合成法制备添加50BaO-4082O3-10SiO2玻璃(物质的量比)的Sro.3Ba0.7Nb2O6(即SBN70)陶瓷.采用X线衍射仪(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和阻抗分析仪研究添加玻璃对SBN70陶瓷的烧结和介电性能的影响.研究结果表明;随着玻璃含量的增加,陶瓷样品的相对密度先增大后减小;当玻璃含量为5%(质量分数,下同)时,样品的密度达到最大值;添加玻璃降低了陶瓷的烧结温度,于1 250℃时添加5%玻璃的SBN70陶瓷已烧结致密,陶瓷的平均晶粒尺寸约2 μm,晶粒呈短柱状结构;当玻璃含量增大时,晶粒尺寸呈增大趋势;当玻璃添加量≤5%时,样品仍为单相四方钨青铜结构;当含量为10%时,出现了第二相SrB4O7;随着玻璃含量的增加,SBN70衍射峰的位置先移向低角度后移向高角度,而居里温度T0逐渐降低,从195℃下降到25℃左右;随玻璃含量的增加,最大介电常数εmax呈先减小后增大的变化趋势,而介电损耗tan δ则随玻璃含量的增大而减小;添加玻璃的SBN70陶瓷具有弥散相变特性,其弥散系数γ随添加玻璃含量的增加而增大.%Sr0.3Ba0.7Nb2O6 (abbreviated as SBN70) ceramics doped with 50BaO40B2O3-10SiO2 glass were fabricated by solid-state synthesis method using the analytic grade powders including BaCO3, SrCO3, Nb2O5, H3BO3 and SiO2 as raw materials. Effects of glass addition on sintering and microstructure as well as dielectric properties of SBN70 ceramics were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electric microscope (SEM) and dielectric property measurements. The results show that the relative density of the samples firstly increases and then slightly decreases with the increase of glass content and the highest density achieved for the ceramic sample with 5% glass. Adding glass decreases the sintering temperature of SBN70 ceramics. The ceramic samples with 5% glass

  4. Structural aspects of molecular recognition in the immune system. Part II: Pattern recognition receptors


    The vertebrate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect a large variety of molecular signatures (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) from a broad range of different invading pathogens. The PAMPs range in size from relatively small molecules, to others of intermediate size such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, lipopeptides, and oligosaccharides, to macromolecules such as viral DNA, RNA, and pathogen-derived proteins such as flagellin. Underlying this functio...

  5. Humoral pattern recognition and the complement system.

    Degn, S E; Thiel, S


    In the context of immunity, pattern recognition is the art of discriminating friend from foe and innocuous from noxious. The basis of discrimination is the existence of evolutionarily conserved patterns on microorganisms, which are intrinsic to these microorganisms and necessary for their function and existence. Such immutable or slowly evolving patterns are ideal handles for recognition and have been targeted by early cellular immune defence mechanisms such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors and by humoral defence mechanisms such as the complement system. Complement is a proteolytic cascade system comprising around 35 different soluble and membrane-bound proteins. It constitutes a central part of the innate immune system, mediating several major innate effector functions and modulating adaptive immune responses. The complement cascade proceeds via controlled, limited proteolysis and conformational changes of constituent proteins through three activation pathways: the classical pathway, the alternative pathway and the lectin pathway, which converge in common effector functions. Here, we review the nature of the pattern recognition molecules involved in complement activation, as well as their close relatives with no or unknown capacity for activating complement. We proceed to examine the composition of the pattern recognition complexes involved in complement activation, focusing on those of the lectin pathway, and arrive at a new model for their mechanism of operation, supported by recently emerging evidence.

  6. Effect of Coordinate Bond in Molecular Recognition of Enrofloxacin with Imprinted Polymers

    Recilas-mota; J; Jesús; Gracia-mora; Jesús; Bernad-bernad; Josefa


    1 Results Molecular imprinting is a technique for the preparation of functional materials with molecular recognition properties.Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) have become an increasingly active field of study for the construction of new material capable of molecular recognition.In general,MIPs are synthesized by polymerization of cross-linking complexes of template molecules and functional monomers.After removing the template molecules from de polymers,binding sites are formed by functional monomer...

  7. Formation of Ultracold Molecules

    Cote, Robin [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    Advances in our ability to slow down and cool atoms and molecules to ultracold temperatures have paved the way to a revolution in basic research on molecules. Ultracold molecules are sensitive of very weak interactions, even when separated by large distances, which allow studies of the effect of those interactions on the behavior of molecules. In this program, we have explored ways to form ultracold molecules starting from pairs of atoms that have already reached the ultracold regime. We devised methods that enhance the efficiency of ultracold molecule production, for example by tuning external magnetic fields and using appropriate laser excitations. We also investigates the properties of those ultracold molecules, especially their de-excitation into stable molecules. We studied the possibility of creating new classes of ultra-long range molecules, named macrodimers, thousand times more extended than regular molecules. Again, such objects are possible because ultra low temperatures prevent their breakup by collision. Finally, we carried out calculations on how chemical reactions are affected and modified at ultracold temperatures. Normally, reactions become less effective as the temperature decreases, but at ultracold temperatures, they can become very effective. We studied this counter-intuitive behavior for benchmark chemical reactions involving molecular hydrogen.

  8. Nanomechanical recognition of N-methylammonium salts.

    Dionisio, Marco; Oliviero, Giulio; Menozzi, Daniela; Federici, Stefania; Yebeutchou, Roger M; Schmidtchen, Franz P; Dalcanale, Enrico; Bergese, Paolo


    Turning molecular recognition into an effective mechanical response is critical for many applications ranging from molecular motors and responsive materials to sensors. Herein, we demonstrate how the energy of the molecular recognition between a supramolecular host and small alkylammonium salts can be harnessed to perform a nanomechanical task in a univocal way. Nanomechanical Si microcantilevers (MCs) functionalized by a film of tetra-phosphonate cavitands were employed to screen as guests the compounds of the butylammonium chloride series 1-4, which comprises a range of low molecular weight (LMW) molecules (molecular mass 3 ≈ 1 ≫ 4. This trend is consistent with the number of interactions established by each guest with the host. The complementary ITC experiments showed that the host-guest complexation affinity in solution is transferred to the MC bending. These findings were benchmarked by implementing cavitand-functionalized MCs to discriminate sarcosine from glycine in water. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  9. Electromechanical coupling coefficient k31eff for arbitrary aspect ratio resonators made of [001] and [011] poled (1−x)Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–xPbTiO3 single crystals

    Chen, Chuanwen; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhu; Cao, Wenwu


    The dependence of k31eff on the aspect ratio G=l1∕l2 has been calculated for resonators made of [001] poled 0.67Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-0.33PT) and [011] poled 0.71Pb(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3)O3–0.29PbTiO3 (PMN-0.29PT). Based on the derived unified formula, the lateral electromechanical energy conversion efficiency ∣k31eff∣2 decreases with G for [001] poled PMN-0.33PT but increases with G for [011] poled PMN-0.29PT. PMID:19529794

  10. Ultra-soft magnetic properties and correlated phase analysis by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of Fe74Cu0.8Nb2.7Si15.5B7 alloy

    S. Manjura Hoque


    Full Text Available A detailed study of magnetic softness has been performed on FINEMENT type of ribbons by investigating the BH loop with maximum applied field of 960 A/m. The ribbon with the composition of Fe74Cu0.8Nb2.7Si15.5B7 was synthesized by rapid solidification technique and the compositions volume fraction was controlled by changing the annealing condition. Detail phase analysis was performed through X-ray diffraction (XRD, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and Mössbauer spectroscopy in order to correlate the ultrasoft magnetic properties with the volume fraction of amorphous and α-Fe(Si soft nano composites. Bright (BF and dark field (DF image with selective area diffraction (SAD patterns by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM of the sample annealed for the optimized annealed condition at 853 K for 3 min reveals nanocrystals with an average size between 10-15 nm possessing the bcc structure which matches with the grain size revealed by the X-ray diffraction. Kinetics of crystallization of α-Fe(Si phases has been determined by DSC curves. Extremely small coercivity of 30.9 A/m and core loss of 2.5 W/Kg for the sample annealed at 853 K for 3 min was found. Similar values for other crystalline conditions were determined by using BH loop tracer with a maximum applied field of around 960 A/m. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine chemical shift, hyperfine field distribution (HFD, and peak width of different phases. The volume fractions of the relative amount of amorphous and crystalline phases are also determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. High saturation magnetization along with ultrasoft magnetic properties exhibits very high potentials technological applications.

  11. High performance of macro-flexible piezoelectric energy harvester using a 0.3PIN-0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 flake array

    Zeng, Zhou; Xia, Rongyu; Gai, Linlin; Wang, Xian; Lin, Di; Luo, Haosu; Li, Faxin; Wang, Dong


    Harvesting energy from human motion to power wearable devices using flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters is becoming a hot research topic, since this approach could fix the charging problem related to batteries and would do no harm to the environment. Unlike nano-generators, which have a piezoelectric material thickness at the level of a few nm to a few μm, we present a high-performance macro-flexible piezoelectric energy harvester (MF-PEH) with a piezoelectric material thickness of 45 μm, based on a 0.3PIN-0.4PMN-0.3PT (PIMNT) long flake array with an optimized cut. The piezoelectric properties of (110)-oriented PIMNT were studied as a function of thickness and compared to those of 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMNT). The electrical properties of this device under different strain and load resistances are studied systematically. The results of our experiment show that under a strain of 0.225%, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of MF-PEH reach levels as high as 23.2 V and 0.105 mA (at an excitation frequency of 1.1 Hz), respectively, with a maximum electric output power of 245 μW across a piezoelectric materials area of 400 mm2. We have also used the device to harvest mechanical energy from the motion of human knees and charge a battery successfully. Efficient conversion from mechanical energy to electric energy and large output power demonstrate that our MF-PEH is an important complement to flexible energy harvesters and a potential candidate as a self-powered source for wearable low-power electronics.

  12. Low-temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)0.8Ti0.2]3- δ with glass frit added

    In, Chi-Seung; Yeo, Dong-Hun; Shin, Hyo-Soon; Nahm, Sahn; Choi, Won-Youl


    In accordance with the trend for mobile terminals to be high intensity and to have thinner layers, low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) materials with outstanding dielectric loss characteristics and diverse dielectric constants have been in demand, and the need for high-strength materials that can withstand external shocks has increased. Ca[(Li1/3Nb2/3)1- x Ti x ]O3- δ (CLNT) has a quality factor over 14,000 and τ f ≤ 10 when the dielectric constant is 41 ˜ 46, but its sintering temperature is high at 1150 °C. Therefore, it cannot be used as a LTCC component. This study aimed to lower the sintering temperature to 900 °C by adding a low-melting-point glass such as B2O3·SiO2·BaO and B2O3·SiO2·Al2O3. As the glass content in CLNT was increased from 10 wt% to 20 wt%, the density and the Q·f0 property decreased, and the dielectric constant rose. When B2O3·SiO2·BaO was added to CLNT at 15 wt%, the dielectric constant was found to be 27, the Q·f0 property to be 3470, and the τ f to be -18 ppm/°C. When B2O3·SiO2·Al2O3 was added to CLNT at 10 wt%, the dielectric constant was 20, the Q·f0 property was 3990, and the τ f was -15 ppm/°C. As such, in both cases, excellent dielectric properties were observed.

  13. On the Binding Stress-Enhanced Sensitivity of (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3) 0.35 (PMN-PT) Piezoelectric Plate Sensor (PEPS)

    Wu, Wei

    (Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO 3)0.35 (PMN-PT) piezoelectric plate sensor (PEPS) showed enhanced sensitivity in chemical and biological sensing applications which has been attributed to binding-induced crystalline orientation switching in the PMN-PT layer. However, so far there has been no direct demonstration of PEPS crystalline orientation switching upon target-analyte binding. Using biotin and streptavidin binding as a model detection system and by direct X-Ray diffraction observations after analyte binding we have unambiguously demonstrated that switching of the crystalline orientations of the PMN-PT layer indeed occurred. In addition, we have shown that PEPS sensitivity enhancement increased with an increasing transverse electromechanical coupling constant, -k31, of the PMN-PT layer--which is known to correlate with the crystalline orientation switching capability--by increasing the grain size of the PMN-PT layer or by applying a DC bias electric field. Finally, unprecedented high sensitivity of PEPS with high -k31, (i.e., -k31 > 0.3) were illustrated by the aM (10-18 M) sensitivity of in situ DNA hybridization detection without amplification and by the 100 fg/ml (10-13 g/ml) sensitivity of rapid, in situ protein detection in biological fluids such as troponin I detection in serum for early sign of myocardial infarction (heart attack), Her2 detection in serum for cancer treatment and monitoring, Tn antigen and anti-Tn antibody detection in serum for early cancer detection, and Toxins detection in stool for Clostridium difficile infection detection.

  14. Effect of fabrication conditions on phase formation and properties of epitaxial (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)0.67-(PbTiO3)0.33 thin films on (001) SrTiO3

    Boota, M.; Houwman, E.P.; Nguyen, M.D.; Lanzara, G.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.


    The pulsed laser deposition process of 300nm thick films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.67-(PbTiO3)0.33 on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 was studied by varying deposition pressure, substrate deposition temperature, laser fluence on the target and target-substrate distance. Perovskite phase pure, (001)-oriented, epit

  15. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu


    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  16. Trapping molecules on chips

    Santambrogio, Gabriele


    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  17. Recognition as care

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke


    This longitudinal study provides critical insight into the social processes of municipal diabetes training for Arabic-speaking immigrants in Denmark focusing on participants’ experiences. Our study builds on observations of three diabetes courses and 36 interviews with participants at the start of......-based and solidarity-based recognition to analyse what was at stake in these experiences, and we engage Annemarie Mol’s concept of a logic of care to show how recognition unfolded practically during the training. We propose that participants’ wider social context and experiences of misrecognition situated the training...

  18. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script

    Ankita Karia


    Full Text Available Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used to identify all the characters by the further process of OCR i.e. by using feature extraction and post-processing of image. This entire process is done using MATLAB.

  19. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio


    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const


    Figen ERTAŞ


    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  1. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Koyama, Shinichi


    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  2. SH 波在0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3/金刚石界面的反射和透射%Reflection and transmission of SH waves at interface between 0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3 -0.29PbTiO3 and diamond

    孔艳平; 刘金喜; 聂国权


    The reflection and transmission of SH waves at the interface between 0.71Pb (Mg1 /3 Nb2 /3 )O3-0.29PbTiO3 (PMN -0.29PT)and diamond were discussed.The PMN -0.29PT single crystal under consideration was polarized along the [011 ]c direction to get a macroscopic symmetry of orthonormal 2 mm and the cut orientation on the material was made to have an angle with the XZ-plane.The reflection and transmission coefficients and energy distribution coefficients varying with the incident angle were analyzed under the oblique incidence of SH waves.The results show that the cut orientation is critical for the reflection and transmission coefficients and energy distribution coefficients when SH waves are incident from diamond media.When SH waves are incident from piezoelectric media,the larger the cut angle, the smaller the corresponding critical angle,and the cut angle has little influence on the reflection and transmission coefficients for a given large incident angle.The results are valid for the signal processing,transduction,and frequency control of PMN-PT single crystal composite devices.%研究 SH 波分别从0.71Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.29PbTiO3(PMN -0.29PT)介质和金刚石介质倾斜入射时在双材料界面上的反射和透射规律。PMN -0.29PT 单晶沿[011]c方向极化,宏观上呈正交各向异性性质,且材料主轴沿 x3方向旋转切割,数值分析了 SH 波斜入射时在交界面处的反射、透射系数以及能量反射、透射系数随入射角的变化。结果显示:SH 波从金刚石入射时,压电晶体的旋转切割角度对 SH 波的反射、透射系数和能量分配规律起到非常关键的作用;SH 波从压电材料入射时,晶体的旋转切割角度越大,临界角越小,随着入射角的增大,切割角度对 SH 波反射系数的影响逐渐减小。这些结论可为 PMN-PT 单晶材料在传感器和频率控制等领域中的应用提供有价值的理论参考。

  3. Pattern recognition and massively distributed computing.

    Davies, E Keith; Glick, Meir; Harrison, Karl N; Richards, W Graham


    A feature of Peter Kollman's research was his exploitation of the latest computational techniques to devise novel applications of the free energy perturbation method. He would certainly have seized upon the opportunities offered by massively distributed computing. Here we describe the use of over a million personal computers to perform virtual screening of 3.5 billion druglike molecules against protein targets by pharmacophore pattern matching, together with other applications of pattern recognition such as docking ligands without any a priori knowledge about the binding site location.

  4. Structure and Electrical Properties of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-PbZrO3 Ceramics Near Morphotropic Phase Boundary%Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3-PbZrO3陶瓷在准同型相界附近的结构与性能研究

    李强; 夏志国; 斯琴毕力格


    基于Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PMN-PT)和PbZrO3-PbTiO3 (PZT)两个赝二元体系的准同型相界组分和线性组合规律,设计了一系列具有准同型相界组分的PMN-PT-PZ赝三元体系.采用传统的铌铁矿预合成法制备了各组分的铁电陶瓷,研究了它们的相结构及介电、压电和铁电性能.研究表明,该系列PMN-PT-PZ赝三元系铁电陶瓷都具有三方与四方相共存的准同型结构和优异的电学性能.其中,PZ含量为40%(摩尔分数)的0.16PMN-0.44PT-0.4PZ铁电陶瓷样品具有最佳的综合电性能,其室温介电常数εr为2014,压电常数d33为410 pC · N-1,机电耦合系数kp为0.58,剩余极化强度Pr为34.5 μC·cm-2,矫顽场Ec为13.4 kV·cm-1.

  5. Sn含量对PbSnO3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3三元系压电陶瓷相结构和电性能的影响%Effect of Sn Content on the Phase Structure and Electrical Properties of PbSnO3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ternary Ceramics

    王大伟; 赵全亮; 曹茂盛; 崔岩; ZHANG Shu-Jun


    采用两步钶铁矿前驱体工艺制备了PbSnO3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PSn-PMN-PT)三元系压电陶瓷,研究了Sn含量的变化对PSn-PMN-PT三元系压电陶瓷结构和性能的影响.XRD结果表明,所选成分均处于三方相和四方相共存的准同型相界上,当Sn含量减少时,PSn-PMN-PT的XRD图谱基本没有发生变化,而当Sn含量增加时,在XRD图谱中逐渐出现烧绿石相.电性能研究表明,缺失少量Sn可以提高PSn-PMN-PT的压电、介电和铁电性能,减小损耗;而添加过量Sn明显损害其压电和铁电性能,增加损耗.缺失0.2mol%Sn的PSn-PMN-PT具有最佳的压电和铁电性能,d33:~530 pC/N,kp:~56.4%,Qm:~570,εr:~3070,tanδ:~0.32%,Pr:~28.9 μC/cm2,EC:~8 kV/cm.

  6. Algebraic theory of molecules

    Iachello, F


    1. The Wave Mechanics of Diatomic Molecules. 2. Summary of Elements of Algebraic Theory. 3. Mechanics of Molecules. 4. Three-Body Algebraic Theory. 5. Four-Body Algebraic Theory. 6. Classical Limit and Coordinate Representation. 8. Prologue to the Future. Appendices. Properties of Lie Algebras; Coupling of Algebras; Hamiltonian Parameters



    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.



    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  9. Molecules in galaxies

    Omont, Alain


    The main achievements, current developments and prospects of molecular studies in external galaxies are reviewed. They are put in the context of the results of several decades of studies of molecules in local interstellar medium, their chemistry and their importance for star formation. CO observations have revealed the gross structure of molecular gas in galaxies. Together with other molecules, they are among the best tracers of star formation at galactic scales. Our knowledge about molecular abundances in various local galactic environments is progressing. They trace physical conditions and metallicity, and they are closely related to dust processes and large aromatic molecules. Major recent developments include mega-masers, and molecules in Active Galactic Nuclei; millimetre emission of molecules at very high redshift; and infrared H2 emission as tracer of warm molecular gas, shocks and photodissociation regions. The advent of sensitive giant interferometers from the centimetre to sub-millimetre range, espe...

  10. Molecular recognition effects in atomistic models of imprinted polymers.

    Dourado, Eduardo M A; Herdes, Carmelo; van Tassel, Paul R; Sarkisov, Lev


    In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects.

  11. Molecular Recognition Effects in Atomistic Models of Imprinted Polymers

    Carmelo Herdes


    Full Text Available In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects.

  12. Tolerance and recognition

    Hans Marius Hansteen


    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  13. Automatic object recognition

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz


    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  14. Facial Expression Recognition

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.


    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  15. Recognition of fractal graphs

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM


    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems i

  16. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong


    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  17. Pattern recognition in bioinformatics.

    de Ridder, Dick; de Ridder, Jeroen; Reinders, Marcel J T


    Pattern recognition is concerned with the development of systems that learn to solve a given problem using a set of example instances, each represented by a number of features. These problems include clustering, the grouping of similar instances; classification, the task of assigning a discrete label to a given instance; and dimensionality reduction, combining or selecting features to arrive at a more useful representation. The use of statistical pattern recognition algorithms in bioinformatics is pervasive. Classification and clustering are often applied to high-throughput measurement data arising from microarray, mass spectrometry and next-generation sequencing experiments for selecting markers, predicting phenotype and grouping objects or genes. Less explicitly, classification is at the core of a wide range of tools such as predictors of genes, protein function, functional or genetic interactions, etc., and used extensively in systems biology. A course on pattern recognition (or machine learning) should therefore be at the core of any bioinformatics education program. In this review, we discuss the main elements of a pattern recognition course, based on material developed for courses taught at the BSc, MSc and PhD levels to an audience of bioinformaticians, computer scientists and life scientists. We pay attention to common problems and pitfalls encountered in applications and in interpretation of the results obtained.

  18. Whole-book recognition.

    Xiu, Pingping; Baird, Henry S


    Whole-book recognition is a document image analysis strategy that operates on the complete set of a book's page images using automatic adaptation to improve accuracy. We describe an algorithm which expects to be initialized with approximate iconic and linguistic models--derived from (generally errorful) OCR results and (generally imperfect) dictionaries--and then, guided entirely by evidence internal to the test set, corrects the models which, in turn, yields higher recognition accuracy. The iconic model describes image formation and determines the behavior of a character-image classifier, and the linguistic model describes word-occurrence probabilities. Our algorithm detects "disagreements" between these two models by measuring cross entropy between 1) the posterior probability distribution of character classes (the recognition results resulting from image classification alone) and 2) the posterior probability distribution of word classes (the recognition results from image classification combined with linguistic constraints). We show how disagreements can identify candidates for model corrections at both the character and word levels. Some model corrections will reduce the error rate over the whole book, and these can be identified by comparing model disagreements, summed across the whole book, before and after the correction is applied. Experiments on passages up to 180 pages long show that when a candidate model adaptation reduces whole-book disagreement, it is also likely to correct recognition errors. Also, the longer the passage operated on by the algorithm, the more reliable this adaptation policy becomes, and the lower the error rate achieved. The best results occur when both the iconic and linguistic models mutually correct one another. We have observed recognition error rates driven down by nearly an order of magnitude fully automatically without supervision (or indeed without any user intervention or interaction). Improvement is nearly monotonic, and

  19. Enantioselective recognition at mesoporous chiral metal surfaces

    Wattanakit, Chularat; Côme, Yémima Bon Saint; Lapeyre, Veronique; Bopp, Philippe A.; Heim, Matthias; Yadnum, Sudarat; Nokbin, Somkiat; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Kuhn, Alexander


    Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes.

  20. Applications of Pattern Recognition in Drug Discovery


    This is a brief account of the plenary talk given to the meeting of the Chinese Society of Chemical Science and Technology held in Oxford on 6 October 2001. The talk covered the application of pattern recognition techniques to discover molecules which will bind to the binding sites of proteins. Three situations were considered: the structure of the protein being unknown; the structure known but the binding site unknown; and finally, and this is the most important case for the future, both the structure and nature of the target site available in atomic detail. For this case we have developed a massively distributed computer program using a screensaver which now involves over one million personal computers, including over a thousand in China. The project will involve the screening of 3.5 billion small molecules against 16 protein targets, all of which are implicated in the process of cancer.

  1. Autonomy and Recognition

    Miguel Giusti


    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo contiene dos partes. En la primera se hace una breve descripción de las carencias de la reflexión moral a las que parece venir al encuentro el concepto de reconocimiento. Charles Taylor y Axel Honneth, protagonistas en estos debates, dan buenas razones para dirigir la discusión hacia el tema del reconocimiento, pero no coinciden ni en su definición, ni en el modo de recuperar la tesis de Hegel, ni tampoco en la forma de tratar la relación entre autonomía y reconocimiento. En la segunda parte se analiza la concepción propiamente hegeliana, con la intención de destacar el nexo esencial, no la ruptura, que existe entre la noción de reconocimiento y el modelo conceptual de la voluntad libre o del espíritu. Abstract:This essay is divided into two parts. The first one is a short description of the deficiencies of moral reflection, which seem to lead the discussion towards the concept of recognition. Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, two of the protagonists of these debates, give very good reasons for turning the argument towards the issue of recognition, but they do not agree on its definition, on the way to recover the Hegelian thesis, or on how to approach the relationship between autonomy and recognition. The second part constitutes an analysis of the Hegelian conception of recognition, in order to highlight the essential link –rather than the rupture– between the notion of recognition and the conceptual model of free will or spirit.

  2. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  3. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    Lægaard, Sune


    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...




    Full Text Available The recognition and assessment of the component elements of the annual financial statements’ structures is crucial in order that the information released by them fulfils the qualitative characteristics and the reflected image is a “true and fair view”. Therefore, our approach takes into consideration the recognition and assessment methods for the component elements of the financial statements’ structures, as well as certain possible risks arising from the erroneous recognition or non-recognition of some of these elements.

  5. Dynamics of Activated Molecules

    Mullin, Amy S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)


    Experimental studies have been performed to investigate the collisional energy transfer processes of gas-phase molecules that contain large amounts of internal energy. Such molecules are prototypes for molecules under high temperature conditions relevant in combustion and information about their energy transfer mechanisms is needed for a detailed understanding and modeling of the chemistry. We use high resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy to measure the full, nascent product distributions for collisions of small bath molecules that relax highly vibrationally excited pyrazine molecules with E=38000 cm-1 of vibrational energy. To perform these studies, we developed new instrumentation based on modern IR light sources to expand our experimental capabilities to investigate new molecules as collision partners. This final report describes our research in four areas: the characterization of a new transient absorption spectrometer and the results of state-resolved collision studies of pyrazine(E) with HCl, methane and ammonia. Through this research we have gained fundamental new insights into the microscopic details of relatively large complex molecules at high energy as they undergo quenching collisions and redistribute their energy.

  6. Six Regularities of Source Recognition

    Glanzer, Murray; Hilford, Andy; Kim, Kisok


    In recent work, researchers have shown that source-recognition memory can be incorporated in an extended signal detection model that covers both it and item-recognition memory (A. Hilford, M. Glanzer, K. Kim, & L. T. DeCarlo, 2002). In 5 experiments, using learning variables that have an established effect on item recognition, the authors tested…

  7. Superficial Priming in Episodic Recognition

    Dopkins, Stephen; Sargent, Jesse; Ngo, Catherine T.


    We explored the effect of superficial priming in episodic recognition and found it to be different from the effect of semantic priming in episodic recognition. Participants made recognition judgments to pairs of items, with each pair consisting of a prime item and a test item. Correct positive responses to the test item were impeded if the prime…

  8. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.


    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  9. Supporting Quality Teachers with Recognition

    Andrews, Hans A.


    Value has been found in providing recognition and awards programs for excellent teachers. Research has also found a major lack of these programs in both the USA and in Australia. Teachers receiving recognition and awards for their teaching have praised recognition programs as providing motivation for them to continue high-level instruction.…

  10. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.


    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  11. Bio-recognitive photonics of a DNA-guided organic semiconductor.

    Back, Seung Hyuk; Park, Jin Hyuk; Cui, Chunzhi; Ahn, Dong June


    Incorporation of duplex DNA with higher molecular weights has attracted attention for a new opportunity towards a better organic light-emitting diode (OLED) capability. However, biological recognition by OLED materials is yet to be addressed. In this study, specific oligomeric DNA-DNA recognition is successfully achieved by tri (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3), an organic semiconductor. Alq3 rods crystallized with guidance from single-strand DNA molecules show, strikingly, a unique distribution of the DNA molecules with a shape of an 'inverted' hourglass. The crystal's luminescent intensity is enhanced by 1.6-fold upon recognition of the perfect-matched target DNA sequence, but not in the case of a single-base mismatched one. The DNA-DNA recognition forming double-helix structure is identified to occur only in the rod's outer periphery. This study opens up new opportunities of Alq3, one of the most widely used OLED materials, enabling biological recognition.

  12. Heavy Exotic Molecules

    Liu, Yizhuang


    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general strictures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral $X(3872)$. The bottom isotriplet exotic with $J^{PC}=1^{+-}$ binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics $Z^+_b(10610)$ and $Z^+_b(10650)$. The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with $J^{PC}=1^{++}$ is a possible neutral $X_b(10532)$ to be observed.

  13. Heavy exotic molecules

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    We briefly review the formation of pion-mediated heavy-light exotic molecules with both charm and bottom, under the general structures of chiral and heavy quark symmetries. The charm isosinglet exotic molecules with JPC = 1++ binds, which we identify as the reported neutral X(3872). The bottom isotriplet exotic with JPC = 1+1 binds, and is identified as a mixed state of the reported charged exotics Zb+(10610) and Zb-(10650). The bound bottom isosinglet molecule with JPC = 1++ is a possible neutral Xb(10532) to be observed.

  14. Electron correlation in molecules

    Wilson, S


    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  15. Dielectric properties of BaMg1/3Nb2/3O3 doped Ba0.45Sr0.55Tio3 thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Alema, Fikadu; Pokhodnya, Konstantin


    Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMN) doped and undoped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST) thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 substrates. The surface morphology and chemical state analyses of the films have shown that the BMN doped BST film has a smoother surface with reduced oxygen vacancy, resulting in an improved insulating properties of the BST film. Dielectric tunability, loss, and leakage current (LC) of the undoped and BMN doped BST thin films were studied. The BMN dopant has remarkably reduced the dielectric loss (˜38%) with no significant effect on the tunability of the BST film, leading to an increase in figure of merit (FOM). This is attributed to the opposing behavior of large Mg2+ whose detrimental effect on tunability is partially compensated by small Nb5+ as the two substitute Ti4+ in the BST. The coupling between MgTi″ and VO•• charged defects suppresses the dielectric loss in the film by cutting electrons from hopping between Ti ions. The LC of the films was investigated in the temperature range of 300-450K. A reduced LC measured for the BMN doped BST film was correlated to the formation of defect dipoles from MgTi″, VO•• and NbTi• charged defects. The carrier transport properties of the films were analyzed in light of Schottky thermionic emission (SE) and Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission mechanisms. The result indicated that while the carrier transport mechanism in the undoped film is interface limited (SE), the conduction in the BMN doped film was dominated by bulk processes (PF). The change of the conduction mechanism from SE to PF as a result of BMN doping is attributed to the presence of uncoupled NbTi• sitting as a positive trap center at the shallow donor level of the BST.

  16. Which way up? Recognition of homologous DNA segments in parallel and antiparallel alignments.

    O' Lee, Dominic J; Wynveen, Aaron; Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei A


    Homologous gene shuffling between DNA molecules promotes genetic diversity and is an important pathway for DNA repair. For this to occur, homologous genes need to find and recognize each other. However, despite its central role in homologous recombination, the mechanism of homology recognition has remained an unsolved puzzle of molecular biology. While specific proteins are known to play a role at later stages of recombination, an initial coarse grained recognition step has, however, been proposed. This relies on the sequence dependence of the DNA structural parameters, such as twist and rise, mediated by intermolecular interactions, in particular, electrostatic ones. In this proposed mechanism, sequences that have the same base pair text, or are homologous, have lower interaction energy than those sequences with uncorrelated base pair texts. The difference between the two energies is termed the "recognition energy." Here, we probe how the recognition energy changes when one DNA fragment slides past another, and consider, for the first time, homologous sequences in antiparallel alignment. This dependence on sliding is termed the "recognition well." We find there is a recognition well for anti-parallel, homologous DNA tracts, but only a very shallow one, so that their interaction will differ little from the interaction between two nonhomologous tracts. This fact may be utilized in single molecule experiments specially targeted to test the theory. As well as this, we test previous theoretical approximations in calculating the recognition well for parallel molecules against MC simulations and consider more rigorously the optimization of the orientations of the fragments about their long axes upon calculating these recognition energies. The more rigorous treatment affects the recognition energy a little, when the molecules are considered rigid. When torsional flexibility of the DNA molecules is introduced, we find excellent agreement between the analytical

  17. Single molecules and nanotechnology

    Vogel, Horst


    This book focuses on recent advances in the rapidly evolving field of single molecule research. These advances are of importance for the investigation of biopolymers and cellular biochemical reactions, and are essential to the development of quantitative biology. Written by leading experts in the field, the articles cover a broad range of topics, including: quantum photonics of organic dyes and inorganic nanoparticles their use in detecting properties of single molecules the monitoring of single molecule (enzymatic) reactions single protein (un)folding in nanometer-sized confined volumes the dynamics of molecular interactions in biological cells The book is written for advanced students and scientists who wish to survey the concepts, techniques and results of single molecule research and assess them for their own scientific activities.

  18. Electron-molecule collisions

    Takayanagi, Kazuo


    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  19. Quantum dot molecules

    Wu, Jiang


    This book reviews recent advances in the exciting and rapidly growing field of quantum dot molecules (QDMs). It offers state-of-the-art coverage of novel techniques and connects fundamental physical properties with device design.

  20. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey


    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.


    ERTAŞ, Figen


    The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over ma...

  2. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.


    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  3. 锂盐助烧0.68 Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.32PbTiO3陶瓷的介电性能%Dielectric Properties of 0.68 Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.32 PbTiO3 Ceramics with Lithium Salt Sintering Aids

    曹林洪; 徐卓; 姚熹


    采用铌铁矿预产物合成法制备锂盐(Li2CO3,LiNO3,LiF)助烧0.68 Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.32 PbTiO3[PMNPT)弛豫铁电陶瓷.采用XRD分析陶瓷相组成,并对其介电性能进行测试,结果表明:所有陶瓷样品均为纯钙钛矿相,无任何其它杂相出现;添加Li2CO3和LiNO3使PMN-PT陶瓷的介电损耗降低,而介电常数峰宽、介电弛豫特性以及居里点变化不明显;但添加LiF使PMN-PT陶瓷的介电损耗增大,介电常数峰变宽,介电弛豫更明显,以及居里点下降.极化后锂盐助烧PMN-PT陶瓷的介电常数和损耗峰均表现为双峰,第一个峰为三方铁电相一四方铁电相的相变峰,约80℃左右;第二个峰为四方铁电相一顺电相的相变峰,对添加LiF的试样约为130℃,其余试样约为150℃.这主要是由于添加Li2CO3和LiNO3试样只发生Li+在PMNT的B位置换产生氧空位,而添加LiF试样可以通过F-取代反应产生铅空位来补偿Li+取代产生的氧空位.

  4. Preparation and Property Recognition of Nimodipine Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    CHEN Fei-fei


    Objective:To explore the application of molecular imprinting technique in the separation and detection of nimodipine. Methods:Methacrylic acid as functional monomer, pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent were used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with the feature of specific recognition performance on imprinting molecule nimodipine under condition of template molecule nimodipine. The preparation conditions, recognition performance of MIP on nimodipine, different proportions of template molecule and functional monomer, the selectivity to other substrate, and the relationship between adsorption quantity (Q) and time were observed. Results: MIP was prepared successfully by nimodipine as template and pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent, with the feature of speciifc recognition performance on nimodipine. The static adsorption distribution coefifcient (KD) was 0.2264. The equation of Q and the concentration of substrate of template MIP was y = -0.21x+0.2204. Combining capacity of template molecule at the same concentration enhanced with the increasing proportion of functional monomer. Conclusion:Nimodipine MIP based on molecular imprinting technique may become a new approach to chiral separation for nimodipine.

  5. Preparation and Property Recognition of Nimodipine Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Fei-fei CHEN


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of molecular imprinting technique in the separation and detection of nimodipine. Methods: Methacrylic acid as functional monomer, pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent were used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP with the feature of specific recognition performance on imprinting molecule nimodipine under condition of template molecule nimodipine. The preparation conditions, recognition performance of MIP on nimodipine, different proportions of template molecule and functional monomer, the selectivity to other substrate, and the relationship between adsorption quantity (Q and time were observed. Results: MIP was prepared successfully bynimodipine as template and pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent, with the feature of specific recognition performance on nimodipine. The static adsorption distribution coefficient (KD was 0.2264. The equation of Q and the concentration of substrate of template MIP was y = -0.21x+0.2204. Combining capacity of template molecule at the same concentration enhanced with the increasing proportion of functional monomer.Conclusion: Nimodipine MIP based on molecular imprinting technique may become a new approach to chiral separation for nimodipine.

  6. Molecular recognition by gold, silver and copper nanoparticles.

    Tauran, Yannick; Brioude, Arnaud; Coleman, Anthony W; Rhimi, Moez; Kim, Beonjoom


    The intrinsic physical properties of the noble metal nanoparticles, which are highly sensitive to the nature of their local molecular environment, make such systems ideal for the detection of molecular recognition events. The current review describes the state of the art concerning molecular recognition of Noble metal nanoparticles. In the first part the preparation of such nanoparticles is discussed along with methods of capping and stabilization. A brief discussion of the three common methods of functionalization: Electrostatic adsorption; Chemisorption; Affinity-based coordination is given. In the second section a discussion of the optical and electrical properties of nanoparticles is given to aid the reader in understanding the use of such properties in molecular recognition. In the main section the various types of capping agents for molecular recognition; nucleic acid coatings, protein coatings and molecules from the family of supramolecular chemistry are described along with their numerous applications. Emphasis for the nucleic acids is on complementary oligonucleotide and aptamer recognition. For the proteins the recognition properties of antibodies form the core of the section. With respect to the supramolecular systems the cyclodextrins, calix[n]arenes, dendrimers, crown ethers and the cucurbitales are treated in depth. Finally a short section deals with the possible toxicity of the nanoparticles, a concern in public health.

  7. Molecular recognition by gold, silver and copper nanoparticles

    Tauran, Yannick; Brioude, Arnaud; Coleman, Anthony W; Rhimi, Moez; Kim, Beonjoom


    The intrinsic physical properties of the noble metal nanoparticles, which are highly sensitive to the nature of their local molecular environment, make such systems ideal for the detection of molecular recognition events. The current review describes the state of the art concerning molecular recognition of Noble metal nanoparticles. In the first part the preparation of such nanoparticles is discussed along with methods of capping and stabilization. A brief discussion of the three common methods of functionalization: Electrostatic adsorption; Chemisorption; Affinity-based coordination is given. In the second section a discussion of the optical and electrical properties of nanoparticles is given to aid the reader in understanding the use of such properties in molecular recognition. In the main section the various types of capping agents for molecular recognition; nucleic acid coatings, protein coatings and molecules from the family of supramolecular chemistry are described along with their numerous applications. Emphasis for the nucleic acids is on complementary oligonucleotide and aptamer recognition. For the proteins the recognition properties of antibodies form the core of the section. With respect to the supramolecular systems the cyclodextrins, calix[n]arenes, dendrimers, crown ethers and the cucurbitales are treated in depth. Finally a short section deals with the possible toxicity of the nanoparticles, a concern in public health. PMID:23977421

  8. Molecular recognition by gold, silver and copper nanoparticles

    Yannick; Tauran; Arnaud; Brioude; Anthony; W; Coleman; Moez; Rhimi; Beonjoom; Kim


    The intrinsic physical properties of the noble metal nanoparticles,which are highly sensitive to the nature of their local molecular environment,make such systems ideal for the detection of molecular recognition events.The current review describes the state of the art concerning molecular recognition of Noble metal nanoparticles.In the first part the preparation of such nanoparticles is discussed along with methods of capping and stabilization.A brief discussion of the three common methods of functionalization:Electrostatic adsorption;Chemisorption;Affinity-based coordination is given.In the second section a discussion of the optical and electrical properties of nanoparticles is given to aid the reader in understanding the use of such properties in molecular recognition.In the main section the various types of capping agents for molecular recognition;nucleic acid coatings,protein coatings and molecules from the family of supramolecular chemistry are described along with their numerous applications.Emphasis for the nucleic acids is on complementary oligonucleotide and aptamer recognition.For the proteins the recognition properties of antibodies form the core of the section.With respect to the supramolecular systems the cyclodextrins,calix[n]arenes,dendrimers,crown ethers and the cucurbitales are treated in depth.Finally a short section deals with the possible toxicity of the nanoparticles,a concern in public health.

  9. Molecules as Automata

    Cardelli, Luca

    Molecular biology investigates the structure and function of biochemical systems starting from their basic building blocks: macromolecules. A macromolecule is a large, complex molecule (a protein or a nucleic acid) that usually has inner mutable state and external activity. Informal explanations of biochemical events trace individual macromolecules through their state changes and their interaction histories: a macromolecule is endowed with an identity that is retained through its transformations, even through changes in molecular energy and mass. A macromolecule, therefore, is qualitatively different from the small molecules of inorganic chemistry. Such molecules are stateless: in the standard notation for chemical reactions they are seemingly created and destroyed, and their atomic structure is used mainly for the bookkeeping required by the conservation of mass.

  10. Molecules in supernova ejecta

    Cherchneff, Isabelle


    The first molecules detected at infrared wavelengths in the ejecta of a Type II supernova, namely SN1987A, consisted of CO and SiO. Since then, confirmation of the formation of these two species in several other supernovae a few hundred days after explosion has been obtained. However, supernova environments appear to hamper the synthesis of large, complex species due to the lack of microscopically-mixed hydrogen deep in supernova cores. Because these environments also form carbon and silicate dust, it is of importance to understand the role played by molecules in the depletion of elements and how chemical species get incorporated into dust grains. In the present paper, we review our current knowledge of the molecular component of supernova ejecta, and present new trends and results on the synthesis of molecules in these harsh, explosive events.


    Loinard, Laurent; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    We report the detection toward {eta} Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO{sup +}, HCN, HNC, and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, {sup 13}CO and H{sup 13}CN. The line profiles are moderately broad ({approx}100 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO{sup +} do not appear to be underabundant in {eta} Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the {sup 13}C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of {eta} Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  12. Molecules in \\eta\\ Carinae

    Loinard, Laurent; Guesten, Rolf; Zapata, Luis A; Rodriguez, Luis F


    We report the detection toward \\eta\\ Carinae of six new molecules, CO, CN, HCO+, HCN, HNC, and N2H+, and of two of their less abundant isotopic counterparts, 13CO and H13CN. The line profiles are moderately broad (about 100 km /s) indicating that the emission originates in the dense, possibly clumpy, central arcsecond of the Homunculus Nebula. Contrary to previous claims, CO and HCO+ do not appear to be under-abundant in \\eta\\ Carinae. On the other hand, molecules containing nitrogen or the 13C isotope of carbon are overabundant by about one order of magnitude. This demonstrates that, together with the dust responsible for the dimming of eta Carinae following the Great Eruption, the molecules detected here must have formed in situ out of CNO-processed stellar material.

  13. Enzyme molecules as nanomotors.

    Sengupta, Samudra; Dey, Krishna K; Muddana, Hari S; Tabouillot, Tristan; Ibele, Michael E; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman


    Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that the diffusive movements of catalase enzyme molecules increase in the presence of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration-dependent manner. Employing a microfluidic device to generate a substrate concentration gradient, we show that both catalase and urease enzyme molecules spread toward areas of higher substrate concentration, a form of chemotaxis at the molecular scale. Using glucose oxidase and glucose to generate a hydrogen peroxide gradient, we induce the migration of catalase toward glucose oxidase, thereby showing that chemically interconnected enzymes can be drawn together.

  14. Multicolor Bound Soliton Molecule

    Luo, Rui; Lin, Qiang


    We show a new class of bound soliton molecule that exists in a parametrically driven nonlinear optical cavity with appropriate dispersion characteristics. The composed solitons exhibit distinctive colors but coincide in time and share a common phase, bound together via strong inter-soliton four-wave mixing and Cherenkov radiation. The multicolor bound soliton molecule shows intriguing spectral locking characteristics and remarkable capability of spectrum management to tailor soliton frequencies, which may open up a great avenue towards versatile generation and manipulation of multi-octave spanning phase-locked Kerr frequency combs, with great potential for applications in frequency metrology, optical frequency synthesis, and spectroscopy.

  15. Gated container molecules

    LIU Fang; WANG Hao; HOUK K. N.


    Donald J.Cram,the great UCLA chemist,received the Nobel Prize for his discoveries about host-guest complexes [1].Both theoretical and experimental studies have been conducted about the nature and strength of interactions between the host and guest molecules.The concepts of constrictive binding (the activation energy of the binding process) and intrinsic binding (the free energy difference between the complex and the free host and guest molecules) were introduced to characterize different binding properties (Figure 1)[2].

  16. Advances in Speech Recognition

    Neustein, Amy


    This volume is comprised of contributions from eminent leaders in the speech industry, and presents a comprehensive and in depth analysis of the progress of speech technology in the topical areas of mobile settings, healthcare and call centers. The material addresses the technical aspects of voice technology within the framework of societal needs, such as the use of speech recognition software to produce up-to-date electronic health records, not withstanding patients making changes to health plans and physicians. Included will be discussion of speech engineering, linguistics, human factors ana

  17. Human activity recognition and prediction


    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  18. Recent progress in fingerprint recognition


    Fingerprint recognition has been increasingly used to realize personal identification in civilian's daily life, such as ID card, fingerprints hard disk and so on. Great improvement has been achieved in the on-line fingerprint sensing technology and automatic fingerprint recognition algorithms. Various fingerprint recognition techniques, including fingerprint acquisition, classification, enhancement and matching, are highly improved. This paper overviews recent advances in fingerprint recognition and summarizes the algorithm proposed for every step with special focuses on the enhancement of low-quality fingerprints and the matching of the distorted fingerprint images. Both issues are believed to be significant and challenging tasks. In addition, we also discuss the common evaluation for the fingerprint recognition algorithm of the Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004 (FVC2004) and the Fingerprint Vendor Technology Evaluation 2003 (FpVTE2003), based on which we could measure the performance of the recognition algorithm objectively and uniformly.

  19. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Kawai, Nobuyuki


    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  20. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert


    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  1. Pilgrims Face Recognition Dataset -- HUFRD

    Aly, Salah A.


    In this work, we define a new pilgrims face recognition dataset, called HUFRD dataset. The new developed dataset presents various pilgrims' images taken from outside the Holy Masjid El-Harram in Makkah during the 2011-2012 Hajj and Umrah seasons. Such dataset will be used to test our developed facial recognition and detection algorithms, as well as assess in the missing and found recognition system \\cite{crowdsensing}.

  2. Speech recognition in university classrooms

    Wald, Mike; Bain, Keith; Basson, Sara H


    The LIBERATED LEARNING PROJECT (LLP) is an applied research project studying two core questions: 1) Can speech recognition (SR) technology successfully digitize lectures to display spoken words as text in university classrooms? 2) Can speech recognition technology be used successfully as an alternative to traditional classroom notetaking for persons with disabilities? This paper addresses these intriguing questions and explores the underlying complex relationship between speech recognition te...

  3. Colorimetric Sensor Arrays System Based on FPGA for Image Recognition

    Rui Chen; Jian-Hua Xu; Ya-Dong Jiang


    A FPGA-based image recognition system is designed for colorimetric sensor array in order to recognize a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The gas molecule is detected by the responsive sensor array and the responsive image is obtained. The image is decomposed to RGB color components using CMOS image sensor. An embedded image recognition archi- tecture based on Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA is designed to implement the algorithms of image recognition. The algorithm of color coherence vector is discussed in detail[X1] compared with the algorithm of color histograms, and experimental results demonstrate that both of the two algorithms could be analyzed effectively to represent different volatile organic compounds according to their different responsive images in this system.

  4. Synthesis beyond the molecule

    Reinhoudt, D.N.; Crego-Calama, M.


    Weak, noncovalent interactions between molecules control many biological functions. In chemistry, noncovalent interactions are now exploited for the synthesis in solution of large supramolecular aggregates. The aim of these syntheses is not only the creation of a particular structure, but also the i

  5. Disentangling DNA molecules.

    Vologodskii, Alexander


    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  6. Disentangling DNA molecules

    Vologodskii, Alexander


    The widespread circular form of DNA molecules inside cells creates very serious topological problems during replication. Due to the helical structure of the double helix the parental strands of circular DNA form a link of very high order, and yet they have to be unlinked before the cell division. DNA topoisomerases, the enzymes that catalyze passing of one DNA segment through another, solve this problem in principle. However, it is very difficult to remove all entanglements between the replicated DNA molecules due to huge length of DNA comparing to the cell size. One strategy that nature uses to overcome this problem is to create the topoisomerases that can dramatically reduce the fraction of linked circular DNA molecules relative to the corresponding fraction at thermodynamic equilibrium. This striking property of the enzymes means that the enzymes that interact with DNA only locally can access their topology, a global property of circular DNA molecules. This review considers the experimental studies of the phenomenon and analyzes the theoretical models that have been suggested in attempts to explain it. We describe here how various models of enzyme action can be investigated computationally. There is no doubt at the moment that we understand basic principles governing enzyme action. Still, there are essential quantitative discrepancies between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions. We consider how these discrepancies can be overcome.

  7. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Newbury, H. John


    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  8. Diversity in Biological Molecules

    Newbury, H. John


    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  9. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    Manning, Phillip


    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  10. Properties of entanglement molecules

    Huang Yanxia [Department of Physics, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Zhan Mingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)


    We propose a scheme to prepare a certain kind of N-atom entangled state that allows us to construct some possible types of entanglement molecules via cavity QED. The entanglement properties of entanglement molecules vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} are studied with respect to bipartite entanglement that is robust against the disposal of particles and are compared with entanglement molecules {rho}{sub I} introduced in Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 020303). We also give the maximal amount of entanglement achievable for two particular situations in two possible configurations. Meanwhile, we investigate the entanglement properties of entanglement molecules vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} in terms of local measurement using the maximum connectedness and persistency and compare them with other kinds of N-atom entangled states such as |GHZ), vertical bar W{sub N}) and vertical bar {phi}{sub N}). We show that the maximal value N - 1 of the persistency of the state vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} corresponds to the case that all atoms are pairwise entangled. If any pair of atoms {rho}{sub ij} is disentangled, the entanglement of the state vertical bar {psi}{sub N}){sub {alpha}} is very easy to destroy by a single local measurement.

  11. Properties of entanglement molecules

    Huang, Yan-Xia; Zhan, Ming-Sheng


    We propose a scheme to prepare a certain kind of N-atom entangled state that allows us to construct some possible types of entanglement molecules via cavity QED. The entanglement properties of entanglement molecules |psgrNrangagr are studied with respect to bipartite entanglement that is robust against the disposal of particles and are compared with entanglement molecules rgrI introduced in Dur (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 020303). We also give the maximal amount of entanglement achievable for two particular situations in two possible configurations. Meanwhile, we investigate the entanglement properties of entanglement molecules |psgrNrangagr in terms of local measurement using the maximum connectedness and persistency and compare them with other kinds of N-atom entangled states such as |GHZrang, |WNrang and |phgrNrang. We show that the maximal value N - 1 of the persistency of the state |psgrNrangagr corresponds to the case that all atoms are pairwise entangled. If any pair of atoms rgrij is disentangled, the entanglement of the state |psgrNrangagr is very easy to destroy by a single local measurement.

  12. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    Plotz, Thomas


    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  13. Sudden Event Recognition: A Survey

    Suriani, Nor Surayahani; Hussain, Aini; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf


    Event recognition is one of the most active research areas in video surveillance fields. Advancement in event recognition systems mainly aims to provide convenience, safety and an efficient lifestyle for humanity. A precise, accurate and robust approach is necessary to enable event recognition systems to respond to sudden changes in various uncontrolled environments, such as the case of an emergency, physical threat and a fire or bomb alert. The performance of sudden event recognition systems depends heavily on the accuracy of low level processing, like detection, recognition, tracking and machine learning algorithms. This survey aims to detect and characterize a sudden event, which is a subset of an abnormal event in several video surveillance applications. This paper discusses the following in detail: (1) the importance of a sudden event over a general anomalous event; (2) frameworks used in sudden event recognition; (3) the requirements and comparative studies of a sudden event recognition system and (4) various decision-making approaches for sudden event recognition. The advantages and drawbacks of using 3D images from multiple cameras for real-time application are also discussed. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research directions in sudden event recognition. PMID:23921828

  14. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge


    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...... in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within...... command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry....

  15. Frequency-Based Fingerprint Recognition

    Aguilar, Gualberto; Sánchez, Gabriel; Toscano, Karina; Pérez, Héctor

    abstract Fingerprint recognition is one of the most popular methods used for identification with greater success degree. Fingerprint has unique characteristics called minutiae, which are points where a curve track ends, intersects, or branches off. In this chapter a fingerprint recognition method is proposed in which a combination of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gabor filters is used for image enhancement. A novel recognition stage using local features for recognition is also proposed. Also a verification stage is introduced to be used when the system output has more than one person.

  16. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Sangeeta Kaushik


    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  17. Bacterial invasion reconstructed molecule by molecule

    Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We propose to visualize the initial stages of bacterial infection of a human host cell with unmatched spatial and temporal resolution. This work will develop a new capability for the laboratory (super-resolution optical imaging), will test unresolved scientific hypotheses regarding host-pathogen interaction dynamics, and leverages state of the art 3D molecular tracking instrumentation developed recently by our group. There is much to be gained by applying new single molecule tools to the important and familiar problem of pathogen entry into a host cell. For example, conventional fluorescence microscopy has identified key host receptors, such as CD44 and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin, that aggregate near the site of Salmonella typhimurium infection of human cells. However, due to the small size of the bacteria ({approx} 2 {micro}m) and the diffraction of the emitted light, one just sees a fluorescent 'blob' of host receptors that aggregate at the site of attachment, making it difficult to determine the exact number of receptors present or whether there is any particular spatial arrangement of the receptors that facilitates bacterial adhesion/entry. Using newly developed single molecule based super-resolution imaging methods, we will visualize how host receptors are directed to the site of pathogen adhesion and whether host receptors adopt a specific spatial arrangement for successful infection. Furthermore, we will employ our 3D molecular tracking methods to follow the injection of virulence proteins, or effectors, into the host cell by the pathogen Type III secretion system (TTSS). We expect these studies to provide mechanistic insights into the early events of pathogen infection that have here-to-fore been technically beyond our reach. Our Research Goals are: Goal 1--Construct a super-resolution fluorescence microscope and use this new capability to image the spatial distribution of different host receptors (e.g. CD44, as {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) at the

  18. Tuning stamp surface energy for soft lithography of polar molecules to fabricate bioactive small-molecule microarrays.

    Vaish, Amit; Shuster, Mitchell J; Cheunkar, Sarawut; Weiss, Paul S; Andrews, Anne M


    Soft-lithography-based techniques are widely used to fabricate microarrays. Here, the use of microcontact insertion printing is described, a soft-lithography method specifically developed for patterning at the dilute scales necessary for highly selective biorecognition. By carefully tuning the polar surface energy of polymeric stamps, problems associated with patterning hydrophilic tether molecules inserted into hydrophilic host self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are surmounted. Both prefunctionalized tethers and on-chip functionalization of SAMs patterned by microcontact insertion printing enable the fabrication of small-molecule microarrays. Substrates patterned with the neurotransmitter precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan selectively capture a number of different types of membrane-associated receptor proteins, which are native binding partners evolved to recognize free serotonin. These advances provide new avenues for chemically patterning small molecules and fabricating small molecule microarrays with highly specific molecular recognition capabilities. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Attribute measure recognition approach and its applications to emitter recognition

    GUAN Xin; HE You; YI Xiao


    This paper studies the emitter recognition problem. A new recognition method based on attribute measure for emitter recognition is put forward. The steps of the method are presented. The approach to determining the weight coefficient is also discussed. Moreover, considering the temporal redundancy of emitter information detected by multi-sensor system, this new recognition method is generalized to multi-sensor system. A method based on the combination of attribute measure and D-S evidence theory is proposed. The implementation of D-S reasoning is always restricted by basic probability assignment function. Constructing basic probability assignment function based on attribute measure is presented in multi-sensor recognition system. Examples of recognizing the emitter purpose and system are selected to demonstrate the method proposed. Experimental results show that the performance of this new method is accurate and effective.

  20. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    De Meulder, Maartje


    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…