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Sample records for reclaimed shower water

  1. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  2. Test results on re-use of reclaimed shower water: Summary. [space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, C. E.; Garcia, R.; Sauer, R.; Linton, A. T.; Elms, T.; Reysa, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    A microgravity whole body shower (WBS) and waste water recovery systems (WWRS) were evaluated in three separate closed loop tests. Following a protocol similar to that anticipated for the U.S. Space Station, test subjects showered in a prototype whole body shower. The WWRS processes evaluated during the test series were phase change and reverse osmosis (RO). A preprototype Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem phase change process was used for the initial test with chemical pretreatment of the shower water waste input. The second and third tests concentrated on RO technologies. The second test evaluated a dynamic RO membrane consisting of zirconium oxide polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membranes deposited on the interior diameter of 316L porous stainless steel tubes while the final test employed a thin semipermeable RO membrane deposited on the interior surface of polysulfone hollow fibers. All reclaimed water was post-treated for purity using ion exchange and granular activated carbon beds immediately followed by microbial control treatment using both heat and iodine. The test hardware, controls exercised for whole body showering, types of soaps evaluated, shower subject response to reclaimed water showering, and shower water collection and chemical pretreatment (if required) for microbial control are described. The WWRS recovered water performance and the effectiveness of the reclaimed water post-treatment techniques used for maintaining water purity and microorganism control are compared. Results on chemical and microbial impurity content of the water samples obtained from various locations in the shower water reuse system are summarized.

  3. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  4. Reclaimed Water for Turfgrass Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunzhong Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable irrigation of turfgrass grown on coarse-textured soils with reclaimed water must avoid detrimental effects of soluble salts on plant growth and soil quality and groundwater enrichment of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P. The purpose of this study was (1 to investigate the effects of irrigating with municipal reclaimed water containing higher concentrations of soluble salts than potable water on turfgrass growth and quality and (2 to compare the effects of reclaimed and potable water on turfgrass assimilation and leaching of N and P. A sand-based medium plumbed to supply potable and reclaimed water and instrumented with lysimeters to collect leachate was planted with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis var. Tifsport and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. L-93. Both species produced high quality turfgrass with the reclaimed water. Although both grasses are moderately or highly salt tolerant when fully established, the bermudagrass growth and quality were reduced by the reclaimed water upon breaking dormancy, and its N use during this period was reduced. Continuous use of reclaimed water of the quality used in the study poses a potential soil Na accumulation problem. Both turfgrasses assimilated high amounts of N and P with minimal potential losses to groundwater.

  5. Shower Water Reuse System-Expanded Operations to Laundry Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Laundry rinse water carries dilute soaps and dirt. Detergents, bleaches, and disinfectants are a significant risk to plants and soils, while some...sulfate is designated as a hazardous substance 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and further regulated by the Clean Water Act...Footprint Camp Program September 2014 Shower Water Reuse System- Expanded Operations to Laundry Water Work Unit WW13-01 Prepared by Valerie H. Adams, Ph.D

  6. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2013-05-01

    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  7. Reclaimed Water Use in Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino Palacios-Diaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L., a toxic species that does not interfere with the food chain, produces biodiesel of better environmental quality than mineral oils. However, in order to cultivate it sustainably, it is necessary to optimize the limited resources used, mainly water and soil. Therefore, in arid areas, it is necessary to cultivate under intensive conditions, irrigate with reclaimed water and cut production costs. To optimize water consumption, partial root-zone drying (PRD, which keeps a part of the root system dry, was used. This water management strategy, employed successfully in other oil crops, yielded less fruit per bunch, but more fruit bunches per plant. This fact will probably allow to establish higher planting density and, consequently, higher productivity per surface unit. This is one of the few available options for improving profitability as production per tree is stable (1.25 kg seed plant−1 year−1 for the most productive trees, with excellent climate and soil, and no limitations water use. A high percentage of fruit lying on the ground (24% and non-uniform timing in fruit production (except some specimens greatly hinder its mechanization. Although this crop’s environmental and socio-economic benefits are not taken into account, it is very difficult, with only the calculated water consumption (15.5 m3 water per L of oil or 5.6 m3 water per L of oil according to our best estimations, to consider it a profitable option.

  8. Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil health in urban green areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Pan, Neng; Wang, Yanchun; Wu, Laosheng

    2015-01-01

    Rapid increase of reclaimed water irrigation in urban green areas requires investigating its impact on soil health conditions. In this research, field study was conducted in 7 parks in Beijing with different histories of reclaimed water irrigation. Twenty soil attributes were analyzed to evaluate the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil health conditions. Results showed that soil nutrient conditions were ameliorated by reclaimed water irrigation, as indicated by the increase of soil organic matter content (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), and available phosphorus (AP). No soil salinization but a slight soil alkalization was observed under reclaimed water irrigation. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil was insignificant. It was also observed that reclaimed water irrigation could significantly improve the soil microorganism activities. Overall, the soil health conditions were improved with reclaimed water irrigation, and the improvement increased when the reclaimed water irrigation period became longer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measure Guideline: Water Management at Tub and Shower Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the high concentrations of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. This guide shows how to install fundamental waterproofing strategies to prevent water related issues at shower and tub areas. When conducting a total gut rehab of a structure or constructing a new home, best practice installation and detailing for effective waterproofing are critically important at bathtub and shower assemblies. Water management issues in a structure may go unrecognized for long periods, so that when they are finally observed, the damage from long-term water exposure is extensive. A gut rehab is often undertaken when a home has experienced a natural disaster or when the homeowners are interested in converting an old, high-energy-use building into a high-quality, efficient structure that meets or exceeds one of the national energy standards, such as ENERGY STAR or LEED for homes. During a gut rehab, bath areas need to be replaced with diligent attention to detail. Employing effective water management practices in the installation and detailing of tub and shower assemblies will minimize or eliminate water issues within the building cavities and on the finished surfaces. A residential tub-and-shower surround or shower-stall assembly is designed to handle a high volume of water - 2.5 gallons per minute, with multiple baths occurring during a typical day. Transitions between dissimilar materials and connections between multiple planes must be installed with care to avoid creating a pathway for water to enter the building assemblies. Due to the high volume of water and the consequential risk of water damage to the home's structure, a comprehensive water management system is imperative to protect the building assemblies underlying the finish surround of tub and shower areas. At each stage of

  10. Use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-16

    Freshwater demands are steadily increasing throughout the United States. As its population increases, more water is needed for domestic use (drinking, cooking, cleaning, etc.) and to supply power and food. In arid parts of the country, existing freshwater supplies are not able to meet the increasing demands for water. New water users are often forced to look to alternative sources of water to meet their needs. Over the past few years, utilities in many locations, including parts of the country not traditionally water-poor (e.g., Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, and North Carolina) have needed to reevaluate the availability of water to meet their cooling needs. This trend will only become more extreme with time. Other trends are likely to increase pressure on freshwater supplies, too. For example, as populations increase, they will require more food. This in turn will likely increase demands for water by the agricultural sector. Another example is the recent increased interest in producing biofuels. Additional water will be required to grow more crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels and to process the raw materials into biofuels. This report provides information about an opportunity to reuse an abundant water source -- treated municipal wastewater, also known as 'reclaimed water' -- for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Innovations for Existing Plants research program (Feeley 2005). This program initiated an energy-water research effort in 2003 that includes the availability and use of 'nontraditional sources' of water for use at power plants. This report represents a unique reference for information on the use of reclaimed water for power plant cooling. In particular, the database of reclaimed water user facilities described in Chapter 2 is the first comprehensive national effort

  11. Soil quality assessment of urban green space under long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sidan; Chen, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is widely used for landscape irrigation with the benefits of saving fresh water and ameliorating soil quality. Field samples were collected from seven parks in Beijing irrigated reclaimed water with different irrigation history in 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the long-term impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil quality. Soil quality index method was used to assess the comprehensive effects of reclaimed water irrigation on soil. Results showed that the effects of reclaimed water irrigation on the soil nutrient conditions were limited. Compared with tap water irrigation, soil salinity was significantly higher in 2011, while the difference was insignificant in 2014; soil heavy metals were slightly higher by 0.5-10.6 % in 2011 and 2014, while the differences were insignificant. Under reclaimed water irrigation, soil biological activities were significantly improved in both years. Total nitrogen in reclaimed water had a largest effect on soil quality irrigated reclaimed water. Soil quality irrigated with reclaimed water increased by 2.6 and 6.8 % respectively in 2011 and 2014, while the increases were insignificant. Soil quality of almost half samples was more than or closed to soil quality of natural forest in Beijing. Soil quality was ameliorated at some extent with long-term reclaimed water irrigation.

  12. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their acceptance of the three major water reuse types of river water supplement, park water supplement, and agriculture irrigation was not high. The beneficial use of reclaimed water was admired by water resource managers, industrial sectors, and researchers, and these stakeholders strongly supported the advancement of reclaimed water reuse. However, some of the stakeholders showed concerns about the potential risks from reclaimed wastewater reuse. Among them, risks from waste water treatment facilities were the biggest concern. Stakeholders’ perception of reclaimed water was influenced by their social-economic attributes. This study will enrich the current survey findings on public perception of reclaimed water reuse, particularly in developing countries.

  13. Assessment of reclaimed water irrigation on growth, yield, and water-use efficiency of forage crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamisi, S. A.; Abdelrahman, H. A.; Ahmed, M.; Goosen, M. F. A.

    2011-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of water quality (reclaimed and fresh water), water quantity, and their interactions on the growth, yield, and water use efficiency of forage maize during two winter seasons in the Arabian Gulf. The plants irrigated with the reclaimed water had higher plant height than those irrigated with the fresh water. The leaf length and leaf area (cm2) did not show any significant differences among the interaction. Reclaimed water had shorter time for 50% male and female flowering of forage maize plants, indicating earlier maturity. Plants irrigated with reclaimed water had higher chlorophyll content for all levels of water applications. A significant difference in green forage yield was found among the interactions. Reclaimed water gave the highest green forage yield of 72.12 and 59.40 t/ha at 1.4ETo and 1.0ETo, respectively. Plants irrigated with the reclaimed water used water more efficiently [3.65 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] than those irrigated with the fresh water [2.91 kg/m3 of DM (dry matter)] for all water quantities. The enhanced growth in wastewater-irrigated crops, compared with fresh water-irrigated crops, was attributed primarily to higher nutrient content (e.g., nitrogen) and lower salinity of the reclaimed water. The study concluded that treated wastewater irrigation increased yields of forage crops and their water use efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis, studies on the use these forage crops as animal feed, and more in depth evaluation of possible crop and soil contamination were recommended.

  14. Soil properties evolution after irrigation with reclaimed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Miguel, A.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Lillo, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many arid and semi-arid countries are forced to look for new and alternative water sources. The availability of suitable quality water for agriculture in these regions often is threatened. In this context of water scarcity, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could represent a feasible solution. Through rigorous planning and management, irrigation with reclaimed water presents some advantages such as saving freshwater, reducing wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies and decreasing the amount of added fertilizers due to the extra supply of nutrients by reclaimed water. The current study, which involves wastewater reuse in agriculture, has been carried out in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevile, Spain). Here, two survey parcels equally designed have been cultivated with Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergetic plant and a non-interfering food security crop. The only difference between the two parcels lies on the irrigation water quality: one is irrigated with groundwater and another one with reclaimed water. The main aim of this study focuses on analysing the outstanding differences in soil properties derived from irrigation with two water qualities, due to their implications for plant growth. To control and monitor the soil variables, soil samples were collected before and after irrigation in the two parcels. pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), kjeldahl nitrogen, organic matter content and nutrients (boron, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using the R package. To evaluate the variance ANOVA test was used and to obtain the relations between water quality and soil parameters, Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. According to other authors, a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and some exchangeable cations were expected. To date and after

  15. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  16. [Assessment of ecological environment benefits of reclaimed water reuse in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Peng; Chen, Wei-Ping

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid development of the social economy and the sustained growth of population, China is facing increasingly serious water problems, and reclaimed water utilization has become an effective measure to solve water shortage problem and to control further deterioration of the ecological environment. Reclaimed water utilization can not only save a lot of fresh water, but also reduce the environmental impact of wastewater discharge, and thus has great ecological environmental benefits, including resource, environmental and human health benefits and so on. This study used the opportunity cost method to construct an evaluation system for ecological environmental benefits of reclaimed water utilization, and Beijing was taken as an example to conduct an estimation of ecological environmental benefits of reclaimed water utilization. Research results indicated that the reclaimed water utilization in Beijing had considerable environmental benefits for ¥ 1.2 billion in 2010, in which replacement of fresh water accounted for the largest share. The benefits of environmental improvement and groundwater recharge were large, while the other benefits were small or negative. The ecological environment benefits of reclaimed water utilization in Beijing was about 1.8 times that of its direct economic benefits, showing that reclaimed water utilization was in accordance with sustainable development. Related methods and results will provide scientific basis to promote the development of reclaimed water utilization in our country.

  17. Reclaiming Water from Wastewater using Forward Osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutchmiah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity is a global issue and waste accumulation is a steadily growing one. The innovative Sewer Mining concept, described in this thesis, is an example of an integrated forward osmosis application which incorporates different technologies to attain one goal: water recovery from wastewater,

  18. Social Acceptance for Reclaimed Water Use: A Case Study in Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ravishankar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of water to the peri-urban areas of Bengaluru is groundwater. Access to groundwater is through tankers, private borewells, Bruhat Bengaluru MahanagaraPalike (Urban Local Body borewells, and public stand posts. All modes other than tankers provide water to the community free of charge. Reclaimed water from sewage treatment plants (STPs is in use by industries and some gated communities and multistoried apartments for toilet flushing and landscaping. For individual households in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru, it could be an additional water source replacing expensive water supply through tankers; reducing demand for groundwater (a finite resource; improving the sanitation system by providing drainage systems and preventing groundwater contamination from black and grey water. Consequently, this research paper investigates the willingness of residents in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru to use reclaimed water for non-potable end uses. To investigate residents’ willingness and key motivations for the use of reclaimed water, a survey of residents in the peri-urban ward of Bellandur was conducted. In this region, the sewerage board had prepared a media advertisement to create awareness of—and to sell—reclaimed water to other users, including local residents. This advertisement was shown to respondents, asking if they were willing to accept and buy the reclaimed water at 15 Indian Rupees (INR per kiloliter. Sixty-seven percent of residents who were household owners were willing to buy reclaimed water, 20% were concerned about hygiene, and 33% of respondents lacked trust in the public agency with respect to water quality standards. The study concludes that public awareness from key stakeholders is essential for the reuse of reclaimed water. It also recommends stringent regulation by levying fees for groundwater extraction in addition to making reclaimed water readily available and supplied free of charge to the consumers. In addition

  19. Water Use Patterns in Vietnamese Hotels: Modeling Toilet and Shower Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Water saving is a key issue in rapidly developing countries, such as Vietnam, that face various water resource management challenges. This study investigated water-use patterns in a hotel in Ho Chi Minh City in Vietnam. It aimed to quantify the efficiency of water-saving devices through modeling toilet and shower usage patterns, including water consumption. The shift in hourly consumption of cold and hot water was also identified. Analysis revealed that, on average, a full toilet flush occurs 3.3 times/day, a half flush 3.0 times/day, water consumption due to shower usage is 48.1 L/day, showering time is 7.3 min/day and the shower water temperature is 37.7 °C. Shifting levels of hot and cold water use revealed high activity in the morning time and that there are two peaks, occurring in the morning and at night.

  20. Does reclaimed water induce morphological changes in midguts of honeybees (Apis mellifera syriaca?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Hananeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the death rate and morphological changes in the midgut of honey worker bees when reclaimed water was the only source of drinking compared with the case when fresh water was the normal source of drinking. Two feeding solutions were implemented: fresh water sugar solution and reclaimed water sugar solution for eight consecutive days. The cages were inspected daily for any deaths of the honeybees. At the end of the experiments, midguts were removed; processed and pathological changes of the midguts were reported. The usage of reclaimed water as a drinking water had negative impacts on the average deaths of the honeybee colonies as well as the morphology of their midguts. To the best of our knowledge, no such studies have been conducted before and this is the first study that addresses the usage of reclaimed water as a sole source drinking water for honeybee colonies.

  1. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reclaimed water and surface water of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhonghong; Wang, Yuqiu; Ma, Yongmin; Xu, Ze; Shi, Guoliang; Zhuang, Yuanyi; Zhu, Tan

    2005-06-30

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxic effects. In this work, 16 PAHs included in the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) priority pollutant list were analyzed using solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) with a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Reclaimed water and surface water sampling was undertaken in Tianjin, northern China. Total PAH concentrations varied from 1800 to 35,000 ng/L in surface waters (main rivers, tributaries, ditches, etc.) with mean value of 14,000 ng/L and from 227 to 600 ng/L in reclaimed water with mean value of 352 ng/L, respectively. The PAH profiles were dominated by low molecular weight PAHs (two- and three-ring components) in reclaimed water samples and surface water samples. These indicated that PAHs in reclaimed water and surface water might origin from oil or sewage contamination (petrogenic input). To elucidate sources, molecular indices based on indices among phenanthrene versus anthracene and fluoranthene versus pyrene were used to evaluate the possible source (pyrogenic and petrogenic sources, respectively) of PAH contamination in reclaimed water and surface water. The collected data showed that petrogenic input was predominant at almost all the stations investigated. To discriminate pattern differences and similarities among samples, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using a correlation matrix. PCA revealed the latent relationships among all the surface water stations investigated and confirmed our analytical results. The analysis results of the ratios and PCA in this study showed that the ratios and PCA could be applied to the surface water investigation to some extent.

  2. Golf Course Irrigation with Reclaimed Water in the Mediterranean: A Risk Management Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Salgot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of water resources is well-known. As a result, the use of conventional water resources for golf course irrigation is increasingly contested and its replacement by reclaimed water has become essential. This paper examines the wide range of issues involved in its use on golf courses, including hazards—due to the presence of microorganisms and pollutants—and the corresponding risks that can appear. The resulting biological, chemical and physical water quality concerns are analyzed. Legal aspects related to the use of reclaimed water are also discussed and good reuse practices are suggested, including a detailed examination of risk assessment procedures and tools through observation or chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The HACCP system—which focuses on quality determination in water samples from relevant control points—is described in detail, as it is generally accepted as one of the most scientific ways to detect health problems on a golf course. The paper concludes that, given the increasing availability of treated and reclaimed water and the water needs of golf courses, the future development of the sport in areas without surplus water resources—such as the Mediterranean basin—will predictably depend upon the use of reclaimed water. In recent years, risk assessment or analysis has emerged as an essential tool to guarantee the application of reclaimed water at an acceptable risk level. There certainly have been considerable advances and improvements in the tools that guarantee the safe use of reclaimed water, although current methods available require simplification for their practical application. Nevertheless, protocols applied at present

  3. Implications of organic carbon in the deterioration of water quality in reclaimed water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren A; Jjemba, Patrick K; Giraldo, Eugenio; LeChevallier, Mark W

    2010-10-01

    Changes in water quality in reclaimed water distribution systems are a major concern especially when considering the potential for growth of pathogenic microbes. A survey of 21 wastewater process configurations confirmed the high quality effluent produced using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology, but suggests that other technologies can be operated to produce similar quality. Data from an intensive twelve-month sampling campaign in four reclaimed water utilities revealed the important trends for various organic carbon parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), and assimilable organic carbon (AOC). Of the four utilities, two were conventional wastewater treatment with open reservoir storage and two employed MBR technology with additional treatment including UV, ozone, and/or chlorine disinfection. Very high BDOC concentrations occurred in conventional systems, accounting for up to 50% of the TOC loading into the system. BDOC concentrations in two conventional plants averaged 1.4 and 6.3 mg/L and MBR plants averaged less than 0.6 mg/L BDOC. Although AOC showed wide variations, ranging from 100 to 2000 μg/L, the AOC concentrations in the conventional plants were typically 3-10 times higher than in the MBR systems. Pipe-loop studies designed to understand the impact of disinfection on the microbiology of reclaimed water in the distribution system revealed that chlorination will increase the level of biodegradable organic matter, thereby increasing the potential for microbial growth in the pipe network. This study concludes that biodegradable organic carbon is an important factor in the microbial quality and stability of reclaimed water and could impact the public health risk of reclaimed water at the point of use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  5. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, protein (PN, and polysaccharide (PS in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  6. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  7. Significance of Plant Root Microorganisms in Reclaiming Water in CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Greene, Catherine; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Since many microorganisms demonstrate the ability to quickly break down complex mixtures of waste and environmental contaminants, examining their potential use for water recycling in a closed environment is appealing. Water contributes approximately 90 percent of the life sustaining provisions in a human space habitat. Nearly half of the daily water requirements will be used for personal hygiene and dish washing. The primary contaminants of the used "gray" water will be the cleansing agents or soaps used to carry out these functions. Reclaiming water from the gray water waste streams is one goal of the NASA program, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). The microorganisms of plane roots are well documented to be of a beneficial effect to promote plant growth. Most plants exhibit a range of bacteria and fungi which can be highly plant-specific. In our investigations with lettuce grown in hydroponic culture, we identified a microflora of normal rhizosphere. When the roots were exposed to an anionic surfactant, the species diversity changed, based on morphological characteristics, with the numbers of species being reduced from 7 to 2 after 48 hours of exposure. In addition, the species that became dominant in the presence of the anionic surfactant also demonstrated a dramatic increase in population density which corresponded to the degradation of the surfactant in the root zone. The potential for using these or other rhizosphere bacteria as a primary or secondary waste processor is promising, but a number of issues still warrant investigation; these include but are not limited to: (1) the full identification of the microbes, (2) the classes of surfactants the microbes will degrade, (3) the environmental conditions required for optimal processing efficiency and (4) the ability of transferring the microbes to a non-living solid matrix such as a bioreactor.

  8. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  9. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Acosta Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR and digital PCR (dPCR were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  10. [Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil chemical properties and culturable microorganisms ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xue; Wang, Ji-hua; Guan, Jian-fei; Yang, Xue-chen; Chen, Dai-ci

    2014-09-01

    This research used batch soil column experiment to study the effects of irrigating with reclaimed water and tap water on the soil chemical properties and culturable microorganisms. The results indicated that reclaimed water could markedly increase the soil organic material (OM) and total nitrogen (TN) content, but it had no obvious effect on total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP) and pH value. Reclaimed water irrigation could significantly enhance the amounts of surface soil bacteria and actinomycetes at a depth of 0-20 cm, but it had little effect on the biomass of 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers. The dominant bacteria in tap water irrigation area was the genus Bacillus whereas that of reclaimed water irrigation area was the genus Acinetobacter. Tap water irrigation area had four endemic genera and reclaimed water irrigation area had six endemic genera. Reclaimed water had no obvious effect on the microbial community Shannon diversity of 0-20 cm soil layer, while it decreased Pielou evenness index, and improved Margalef richness index. Through SPSS 17. 0 correlation analysis between soil microbes quantity and soil chemical properties, it was shown that the soil microbes quantity was positively correlated with OM, TN, TP and AP, but negatively correlated with soil water content (SWC) and pH value. Based on CANOCO 4.5 detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) between soil microbes species and soil chemical properties, it was shown that AP had the strongest correlation with the microbial community (P = 0.002). TN and TP had larger impact on Streptococcus, Aeromonas and Neisseria. OM and AP had larger impact on Aerococcus, Planococcus and Halobacterium.

  11. Solar light irradiation significantly reduced cytotoxicity and disinfection byproducts in chlorinated reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Xue; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-11-15

    Chlorinated reclaimed water is widely used for landscaping and recreational purposes, resulting in human exposure to toxic disinfection byproducts. Although the quality of chlorinated reclaimed water might be affected by sunlight during storage, the effects of solar light irradiation on the toxicity remain unknown. This study investigated the changes in cytotoxicity and total organic halogen (TOX) of chlorinated reclaimed water exposed to solar light. Irradiation with solar light for 12 h was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of chlorinated reclaimed water by about 75%, with ultraviolet light being responsible for the majority of this reduction. Chlorine residual in reclaimed water tended to increase the cytotoxicity, and the synergy between solar light and free chlorine could not enhance the reduction of cytotoxicity. Adding hydroxyl radical scavengers revealed that the contribution of hydroxyl radical to cytotoxicity reduction was limited. Solar light irradiation concurrently reduced TOX. The low molecular weight (1 kDa) fraction was probably caused by photoconversion from high toxic TOX to low toxic TOX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibiotic Concentrations Decrease during Wastewater Treatment but Persist at Low Levels in Reclaimed Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prachi; Olson, Nathan D.; Raspanti, Greg A.; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Sapkota, Amir; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2017-01-01

    Reclaimed water has emerged as a potential irrigation solution to freshwater shortages. However, limited data exist on the persistence of antibiotics in reclaimed water used for irrigation. Therefore, we examined the fate of nine commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, linezolid, oxacillin, oxolinic acid, penicillin G, pipemidic acid, and tetracycline) in differentially treated wastewater and reclaimed water from two U.S. regions. We collected 72 samples from two Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest treatment plants, as well as one Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid-chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests and Kruskal Wallis tests. Overall, antibiotic concentrations in effluent samples were lower than that of influent samples. Mid-Atlantic plants had similar influent but lower effluent antibiotic concentrations compared to Midwest plants. Azithromycin was detected at the highest concentrations (of all antibiotics) in influent and effluent samples from both regions. For most antibiotics, transport from the treatment plant to the irrigation site resulted in no changes in antibiotic concentrations, and UV treatment at the irrigation site had no effect on antibiotic concentrations in reclaimed water. Our findings show that low-level antibiotic concentrations persist in reclaimed water used for irrigation; however, the public health implications are unclear at this time. PMID:28635638

  13. Water quality comparison of secondary effluent and reclaimed water to ambient river water of southern Okinawa Island via biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Park, Chang-Beom; Yasui, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Kentarou; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2017-08-08

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.

  14. Effects of reclaimed water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the chemical properties and microbial community of soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Wei; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Qi, Xue-bin

    2017-01-01

    The ecological effect of reclaimed water irrigation and fertilizer application on the soil environment is receiving more attention. Soil microbial activity and nitrogen (N) levels are important indicators of the effect of reclaimed water irrigation on environment. This study evaluated soil...... physicochemical properties and microbial community structure in soils irrigated with reclaimed water and receiving varied amounts of N fertilizer. The results indicated that the reclaimed water irrigation increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) and soil water content (SWC). The N treatment has highly...... significant effect on the ACE, Chao, Shannon (H) and Coverage indices. Based on a 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequence analysis, the Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Bacteroidetes were more abundant in soil irrigated with reclaimed water than in soil irrigated with clean water. Stronger clustering...

  15. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibao Lu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water.

  16. Higher prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci carriage among reclaimed water spray irrigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rachel Rosenberg; Kleinfelter, Lara; He, Xin; Micallef, Shirley A; George, Ashish; Gibbs, Shawn G; Sapkota, Amy R

    2017-10-01

    Coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are leading causes of nosocomial infections and community-acquired methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS) infections are increasing. CoNS have been previously detected in reclaimed water. To date, no studies have evaluated the prevalence of CoNS carriage among humans exposed to reclaimed water in the U.S. We examined the prevalence and odds of CoNS and antibiotic-resistant CoNS carriage in spray irrigators exposed to reclaimed water compared to controls. We collected nasal and dermal swab samples from 19 reclaimed water spray irrigation workers (n=96 total samples) and 24 controls (n=92 total samples). Samples were analyzed for CoNS using culture-based assays. Isolates were confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests, logistic regression, and generalized linear mixed effects models. The prevalence of CoNS, antibiotic-resistant CoNS, and MRCoNS carriage among spray irrigation workers was 79% (15/19), 32% (6/19), and 16% (3/19), compared to 13% (3/24), 4% (1/24), and 0% (0/24) of controls. Spray irrigators were more likely to be carriers of CoNS (p<0.01), antibiotic-resistant CoNS (p<0.01), and MRCoNS (p=0.02) compared to controls. The odds of CoNS carriage significantly increased with exposure to reclaimed water (p=0.04) even accounting for changes over time (p=0.05). Our data highlight the need to further examine the potential dissemination of CoNS and antibiotic-resistant CoNS from reclaimed water into the environment and human communities and related public health implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  18. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainability of water reclamation: long-term recharge with reclaimed wastewater does not enhance antibiotic resistance in sediment bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Thoug...

  20. [Study on the advanced pre-treatments of reclaimed water used for groundwater recharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Tuan; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    To prevent groundwater contamination, pretreatments of reclaimed water are needed before the groundwater recharge. In this study, five treatments, including ultrafiltration (UF), ozonation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX), UF coupled with ozonation and MIEX coupled with ozonation, were evaluated for their purification efficiencies of the reclaimed water and their influences on the following soil aquifer treatments. For organic matters in the secondary effluents, identified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), 20% DOC and 10% SUVA are removed by MIEX treatment with dose of 5 mL x L(-1), while only 10% DOC and no SUVA are removed by UF, but neither of these two pretreatments enhance the purification of soil aquifer treatments. Differently, SUVA of the secondary effluents are removed by 60%-79% by ozonation alone or coupled with UF/MIEX, increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water. These pretreatments significantly enhance the removal of organic matters by the following soil aquifer with DOC in the final effluents reducing to 1-2 mg x L(-1). For nitrogen, MIEX can remove 25% NO3(-) -N, and ozonation can remove 72% NH4(+) -N. The soil aquifer treatment could efficiently remove NH4(+) -N to below 0.5 mg x L(-1), while no obvious removal is detected for NO3(-) -N. In conclusion, more attentions should be paid to the organic matters and NO3(-) -N during the pretreatments of reclaimed water. Among all the pretreatments tested here, ozonation coupled with MIEX is capable of increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water and removing NO3(-) -N, which is a good choice for the pretreatment of groundwater recharge.

  1. Anti-estrogenic activity formation potential assessment and precursor analysis in reclaimed water during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Wu, Qian Yuan; Du, Ye; Yang, Yang; Hu, Hong Ying

    2014-01-01

    Chlorination was reported to increase the anti-estrogenic activity in reclaimed water from domestic wastewater treatment plants, which may add to the risk of reclaimed water reuse. In order to assess the anti-estrogenic disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors, the anti-estrogenic activity formation potential (AEAFP) during chlorination was studied. Firstly, the conditions for the experimental measurement of AEAFP were determined. A 24-h chlorination experiment was applied for AEAFP measurement. After chlorination, dechlorination using reductive reagents led to significant loss of anti-estrogenic activity formation. In addition, as the presence of ammonia nitrogen and other major chlorine consumers would result in lower anti-estrogenic activity formation, a basic chlorine dose of 3× DOC (mg-Cl2 L(-1)) was adequate for completely transforming the anti-estrogenic DBP precursors while an extra chlorine dose of 8× ammonia-nitrogen + 5× nitrite-nitrogen (mg-Cl2 L(-1)) should be added when there was a high level of ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen in the reclaimed water. Therefore, 24-h chlorination without dechlorination or using only non-reductive quenching reagents (e.g. ammonium) for dechlorination and a total chlorine dose of 3× DOC + 8× ammonia nitrogen + 5× nitrite nitrogen (mg-Cl2 L(-1)) should be fulfilled for the AEAFP measurement. Moreover, the AEAFP (0.2-2.1 mg-TAM L(-1)) of the reclaimed water samples (n = 20) were further analyzed. The AEAFP was highly correlated to UV254 and the fluorescence volume in excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectrum which can be used as surrogates to indicate the level of the AEAFP and assess the precursors in reclaimed water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The reliability evaluation of reclaimed water reused in power plant project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Jia, Ru-sheng; Gao, Yu-lan; Wang, Wan-fen; Cao, Peng-qiang

    2017-12-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water has become one of the important measures to solve the shortage of water resources in many cities, But there is no unified way to evaluate the engineering. Concerning this issue, it took Wanneng power plant project in Huai city as a example, analyzed the reliability of wastewater reuse from the aspects of quality in reclaimed water, water quality of sewage plant, the present sewage quantity in the city and forecast of reclaimed water yield, in particular, it was necessary to make a correction to the actual operation flow rate of the sewage plant. the results showed that on the context of the fluctuation of inlet water quality, the outlet water quality of sewage treatment plants is basically stable, and it can meet the requirement of circulating cooling water, but suspended solids(SS) and total hardness in boiler water exceed the limit, and some advanced treatment should be carried out. In addition, the total sewage discharge will reach 13.91×104m3/d and 14.21×104m3/d respectively in the two planning level years of the project. They are greater than the normal collection capacity of the sewage system which is 12.0×104 m3/d, and the reclaimed water yield can reach 10.74×104m3/d, which is greater than the actual needed quantity 8.25×104m3/d of the power plant, so the wastewater reuse of this sewage plant are feasible and reliable to the power plant in view of engineering.

  3. Using reclaimed water as make-up water for a district heating system: a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajun, Zhang; Huizhen, Wang; Ping, Xu; Cuimin, Feng

    2009-01-01

    Make-up water used for a district heating system in Beijing is about 63 kg/m(2).a, so the total quantity of make-up water is over 10 million m(3) per year. Water deficiency is very serious in Beijing. Using reclaimed water as make-up water is one of the important measures to relieve water crises of the city. This study is mainly on nanofiltration (NF) process. The reclaimed water for the experiment is the effluent of The Sixth Water Plant, an urban reclaimed water plant in Beijing. Micro-filter (MF) and activated carbon filtration are used as pretreatment units to eliminate turbidity, organic matter in reclaimed water to avoid contamination and scale on the surface of NF membrane. Four SAEHAN NE-90 membrane elements with an array of 2-1-1 are selected for the NF unit and the flow rate is controlled around 1 m(3)/h. Through the test, it has been verified that NF membrane has high removal rate to the salt and impurity of reclaimed water. The average salt removal rate of the system is more than 94%, while the rejections of bivalent ions are more than 98%. The removal rates of organic matter, NH(3)-N and TP are 77%, 96% and 84% respectively. Temperature is a main influence of the process. When temperature is increasing, the permeate flux is increasing as well. The operating pressure is an important factor effecting membrane flux also. By the data comparison it is confirmed that the appropriate operating pressure and the water recovery of NF system are 0.75 MPa and 63.5% respectively.

  4. Sustainability of Water Reclamation: Long-Term Recharge with Reclaimed Wastewater Does Not Enhance Antibiotic Resistance in Sediment Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR in environmental bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Though scientific studies have reported high levels of AR in soils irrigated with wastewater, these works often fail to address the soil resistome, or the natural occurrence of AR. This study compared AR patterns in sediment Enterococcus isolated from water storage basins containing either reclaimed water or groundwater in central Arizona. Resistance to 16 antibiotics was quantified in isolates to a depth of 30 cm. Results reveal high levels of resistance to certain antibiotics, including lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin, exists in sediments regardless of the water source (groundwater, reclaimed water, and higher AR was not detectable in reclaimed water sediments. Furthermore, multiple-antibiotic-resistance (MAR was substantially reduced in isolates from reclaimed water sediments, compared to freshwater sediment isolates. Comparing the development of AR in sediment bacteria at these two sites will increase awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of using reclaimed water for irrigation of municipal areas, and illustrates the necessity for control sites in studies examining AR development in environmental microbiota.

  5. Rhizosphere bacterial community of Typha angustifolia L. and water quality in a river wetland supplied with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yihong; Gong, Huili; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2015-03-01

    Wetland plant rhizosphere microorganisms play a significant role in the purification of ecological restoration of reclaimed water replenishment wetlands. In this study, water quality discriminant analysis indicated the wetland had a distinctive role in the purification of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from reclaimed water, of which removal rates were 42.15, 47.34, and 28.56 % respectively. All the sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene clone library were affiliated with Proteobacteria (74.50 %), Bacteroidetes (6.54 %), Gemmatimonadetes (5.88 %), Chloroflexi (4.25 %), Chlorobi (2.94 %), Nitrospira (2.61 %), Acidobacteria (2.29 %), and Actinobacteria (0.98 %). Assessment of water quality purification and rhizosphere bacterial properties revealed that the major biogeochemical reactions were nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and sulfur cycles (33.70, 15.40, 14.40, and 4.90 %, respectively). In addition, approximately 5.90 and 4.60 % of the clones are closely related with the minor biogeochemical degradations of antibiotics and halogenated hydrocarbons, which were the typical characteristics of reclaimed water wetland different from freshwater wetlands. The finding of water quality discriminant is consistent with that of bacterial community, but the latter was a more powerful method than the former which reveals possible implications of wetland plant purification on the reclaimed water.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Sánchez, J; Nicolás, E; Pedrero, F; Alarcón, J J; Maestre-Valero, J F; Fernández, F

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) on the physiological performance and production of lettuce plants grown under greenhouse conditions and supplied with reclaimed water (RW; urban-treated wastewater with high electrical conductivity; 4.19 dS m(-1)). Four treatments, fresh water, fresh water plus AMF inoculation, RW and RW plus AMF inoculation, were applied and their effects, over time, analyzed. Root mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass, leaf-ion content, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were assessed. Overall, our results highlight the significance of the AMF in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Inoculated plants increased the ability to acquire N, Ca, and K from both non-saline and saline media. Moreover, mycorrhization significantly reduced Na plant uptake. Under RW conditions, inoculated plants also showed a better performance of physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, the high concentration of nutrients already dissolved in reclaimed water suggested that adjustments in the calculation of the fertigation should be conducted by farmers. Finally, this experiment has proved that mycorrhization could be a suitable way to induce salt stress resistance in iceberg lettuce crops as plants supplied with reclaimed water satisfied minimum legal commercial size thresholds. Moreover, the maximum values of Escherichia coli in the reclaimed water were close to but never exceeded the international thresholds established (Spanish Royal Decree 1620/2007; Italian Decree, 2003) and hence lettuces were apt for sale.

  7. Formation and control of disinfection byproducts and toxicity during reclaimed water chlorination: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ye; Lv, Xiao-Tong; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhang, Da-Yin; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Peng, Lu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2017-08-01

    Chlorination is essential to the safety of reclaimed water; however, this process leads to concern regarding the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and toxicity. This study reviewed the formation and control strategies for DBPs and toxicity in reclaimed water during chlorination. Both regulated and emerging DBPs have been frequently detected in reclaimed water during chlorination at a higher level than those in drinking water, indicating they pose a greater risk to humans. Luminescent bacteria and Daphnia magna acute toxicity, anti-estrogenic activity and cytotoxicity generally increased after chlorination because of the formation of DBPs. Genotoxicity by umu-test and estrogenic activity were decreased after chlorination because of destruction of toxic chemicals. During chlorination, water quality significantly impacted changes in toxicity. Ammonium tended to attenuate toxicity changes by reacting with chlorine to form chloramine, while bromide tended to aggravate toxicity changes by forming hypobromous acid. During pretreatment by ozonation and coagulation, disinfection byproduct formation potential (DBPFP) and toxicity formation potential (TFP) occasionally increase, which is accompanied by DOC removal; thus, the decrease of DOC was limited to indicate the decrease of DBPFP and TFP. It is more important to eliminate the key fraction of precursors such as hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic neutrals. During chlorination, toxicities can increase with the increasing chlorine dose and contact time. To control the excessive toxicity formation, a relatively low chlorine dose and short contact time were required. Quenching chlorine residual with reductive reagents also effectively abated the formation of toxic compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The impact of river infiltration on the chemistry of shallow groundwater in a reclaimed water irrigation area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shiyang; Wu, Wenyong; Liu, Honglu; Bao, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Reclaimed water reuse is an effective method of alleviating agricultural water shortages, which entails some potential risks for groundwater. In this study, the impacts of wastewater reuse on groundwater were evaluated by combination of groundwater chemistry and isotopes. In reclaimed water infiltration, salt composition was affected not only by ion exchange and dissolution equilibrium but also by carbonic acid equilibrium. The dissolution and precipitation of calcites and dolomites as well as exchange and adsorption between Na and Ca/Mg were simultaneous, leading to significant changes in Na/Cl, (Ca + Mg)/Cl, electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-Ca-HCO3-Cl type, and groundwater recharged by reclaimed water was of the Na-Mg-HCO3 and Mg-Na-HCO3 types. The hydrogeological conditions characterized by sand-clay alternation led to both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies > 95%, and there was no significant difference in those contents between aquifers recharged by precipitation and reclamation water. > 40 years of long-term infiltration and recharge from sewage and reclaimed water did not cause groundwater contamination by nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals. These results indicate that characteristics of the study area, such as the lithologic structure with sand-clay alternation, relatively thick clay layer, and relatively large groundwater depth have a significant role in the high vulnerability.

  9. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  10. Phosphate reclaim from simulated and real eutrophic water by magnetic biochar derived from water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ru; Wang, Xin; Ji, Xionghui; Peng, Bo; Tan, Changyin; Huang, Xi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of aqueous phosphate removal by magnetic biochar derived from water hyacinth (MW) were investigated. The MW pyrolyzed at 450 °C (MW450) exhibited the most prominent phosphate sorption capacity, which was estimated to be 5.07 mg g-1 based on Langmuir-Freundlich model. At an initial phosphorus (P) concentration of 1 mg l-1, >90% P removal was achieved over pH 3-9, but the efficiency decreased sharply at pH > 10. The presence of arsenate and carbonate could remarkably decrease P sorption, while the inhibition effects of antimonate, nitrate and sulfate were less significant. In further application of MW450 to reclaim P from eutrophic lake waters (0.71-0.94 mg l-1 total P), ∼96% P removals were attained in the batch studies and the effluent P concentrations in the column tests were reduced to hyacinth could provide a promising alternative for P removal from most eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of Geochemical Characteristics and Controlling Processes of Groundwater in a Typical Long-Term Reclaimed Water Use Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The usage of reclaimed water can efficiently mitigate water crises, but it may cause groundwater pollution. To clearly understand the potential influences of long-term reclaimed water usage, a total of 91 samples of shallow and deep groundwater were collected from a typical reclaimed water use area during the dry and rainy seasons. The results suggest both shallow and deep groundwater are mainly naturally alkaline freshwater, which are composed mainly of Ca-HCO3, followed by mixed types such as Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-HCO3. A seasonal desalination trend was observed in both shallow and deep aquifers due to dilution effects in the rainy season. Groundwater chemical compositions in both shallow and deep aquifers are still dominantly controlled by natural processes such as silicate weathering, minerals dissolution and cation exchange. Human activities are also the factors influencing groundwater chemistry. Urbanization has been found responsible for the deterioration of groundwater quality, especially in shallow aquifers, because of the relative thin aquitard. Reclaimed water usage for agricultural irrigation and landscape purposes has nearly no influences on groundwater quality in rural areas due to thick aquitards. Therefore, reclaimed water usage should be encouraged in arid and semiarid areas with proper hydrogeological condition.

  12. Fates of salinity and nitrogen in soil and shallow groundwater under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, S.; Chen, W.

    2016-12-01

    Reclaimed water as an alternative water resource has been extensively employed for irrigation. Assessment of groundwater quality is of great concern owing to salt and nitrogen leaching under reclaimed water irrigation. Field investigations were conducted in the shallow groundwater monitoring well of Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and sample sites with growing turf grasses were irrigated by reclaimed water for 9 years. The HYDRUS model and MODFLOW model were coupled to study the transport and distribution of electrical conductivity (ECgw) and nitrate-N (NO3-) in soil and shallow groundwater under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. The results of model calibration and validation showed that the coupled model could simulate the ECgw (RMSE ≤ 0.04 dS/m) and NO3- (RMSE ≤ 0.29 mg/L) in shallow groundwater well. Under long-term reclaimed water irrigation based on the annual average irrigation conditions, average ECgw increased from 0.572 to 0.715 dS/m, and average NO3- decreased from 9.31 to 7.54 mg/L because of initial concentration was high when equilibrium state was reached. Under irrigation water salinity of 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 dS/m, simulated annually average ECgw increased to 0.698, 0.759 and 0.866 dS/m respectively at the equilibrium state. As the increasing of irrigation amount, ECgw in shallow groundwater increased. Annually average NO3- increased also slightly with the increasing of irrigation water nitrogen concentration and water amount. Above all, ECgw and NO3- in shallow groundwater under these simulation scenarios will not exceed the quality standard for groundwater in China. It is not recommended to use water-saving irrigation considering the factors of ECgw and NO3- in shallow groundwater under reclaimed water irrigation in Beijing.

  13. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  14. Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Marjolein C. F. M.

    2017-12-22

    Bathers release bacteria in swimming pool water, but little is known about the fate of these bacteria and potential risks they might cause. Therefore, shower water was characterized and subjected to chlorination to identify the more chlorine-resistant bacteria that might survive in a chlorinated swimming pool and therefore could form a potential health risk. The total community before and after chlorination (1 mg Cl2 L−1 for 30 s) was characterized. More than 99% of the bacteria in the shower water were Gram-negative. The dominant bacterial families with a relative abundance of ≥10% of the total (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) communities were Flavobacteriaceae (24–21%), Xanthomonadaceae (23–24%), Moraxellaceae (12–11%) and Pseudomonadaceae (10–22%). The relative abundance of Pseudomonadaceae increased after chlorination and increased even more with longer contact times at 1 mg Cl2L−1. Therefore, Pseudomonadaceae were suggested to be relatively more chlorine resistant than the other identified bacteria. To determine which bacteria could survive chlorination causing a potential health risk, the relative abundance of the intact cell community was characterized before and after chlorination. The dominant bacterial families in the intact community (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) were Xanthomonadaceae (21–17%) and Moraxellaceae (48–57%). Moraxellaceae were therefore more chlorine resistant than the other identified intact bacteria present.

  15. Development of an iodine generator for reclaimed water purification in manned spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    A successful 30-day test is described of a prototype Iodine Generating and Dispensing System (IGDS). The IGDS was sized to iodinate the drinking water nominally consumed by six men, 4.5 to 13.6 kg (10 to 30 lb) water per man-day with a + or - 10 to 20% variation with iodine (I2) levels of 0.5 to 20 parts per million (ppm). The I2 treats reclaimed water to prevent or eliminate microorganism contamination. Treatment is maintained with a residual of I2 within the manned spacecraft water supply. A simplified version of the chlorogen water disinfection concept, developed by life systems for on-site generation of chlorine (Cl2), was used as a basis for IGDS development. Potable water contaminated with abundant E. Coliform Group organisms was treated by electrolytically generated I2 at levels of 5 to 10 ppm. In all instances, the E. coli were eliminated.

  16. Assessment of reclaimed wastewater irrigation impacts on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation in paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon Seong; Kim, Sang Min; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Jeong Jae; Yoo, Kyung H

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this research was to monitor and assess the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation by comparing the effects of various wastewater treatment levels on the growth and yield of rice. A randomized complete block design was used for the application methods of the wastewater effluents to paddy rice, with five treatments and six replications. The treatments were: control with groundwater irrigation (GW); irrigation with polluted water form a nearby stream (SW); and three treatments of reclaimed wastewater irrigation at different treatment levels. The three levels of wastewater treatments included wastewater effluents: (i) directly from the wastewater plant (WW); (ii) after passing through a sand filter (WSF); and (iii) after passing a sand filter followed by an ultraviolet treatment (WSFUV). Each plot was 4 x 4 m and was planted with rice (Oryza sativa L.) in 2002 and 2003. The results indicated that irrigation of rice with reclaimed municipal wastewater caused no adverse effects on the growth and yield of rice. The chemical compositions of the rice from all plots were within the normal ranges of brown rice quality in Korea. No adverse effects were observed on chemical concentrations including the heavy metals Cu, As, Cd, Zn, Hg, and Pb, in either the brown rice or the field. The results showed that treated municipal wastewater can be safely used as an alternative water source for the irrigation of rice, although continued monitoring will be needed to determine the long-term effects with regard to soil contamination and other potential health concerns.

  17. Optimization and thermoeconomics research of a large reclaimed water source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  18. Significance of rhizosphere microorganisms in reclaiming water in a CELSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, C; Bubenheim, D L; Wignarajah, K

    1997-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions, such as those of the rhizosphere, may be ideally suited for recycling water in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The primary contaminant of waste hygiene water will be surfactants or soaps. We identified changes in the microbial ecology in the rhizosphere of hydroponical1y grown lettuce during exposure to surfactant. Six week old lettuce plants were transferred into a chamber with a recirculating hydroponic system. Microbial density and population composition were determined for the nutrient solution prior to introduction of plants and then again with plants prior to surfactant addition. The surfactant Igepon was added to the recirculating nutrient solution to a final concentration of 1.0 g L-1. Bacteria density and species diversity of the solution were monitored over a 72-h period following introduction of Igepon. Nine distinct bacterial types were identified in the rhisosphere; three species accounted for 87% of the normal rhizosphere population. Microbial cell number increased in the presence of Igepon, however species diversity declined. At the point when Igepon was degraded from solution, diversity was reduced to only two species. Igepon was found to be degraded directly by only one species found in the rhizosphere. Since surfactants are degraded from the waste hygiene water within 24 h, the potential for using rhizosphere bacteria as a waste processor in a CELSS is promising.

  19. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J

    2017-04-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational Exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among Spray Irrigation Workers Using Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Rosenberg Goldstein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As reclaimed water use expands, it is important to evaluate potential occupational health risks from exposure to this alternative water source. We compared odds of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE between spray irrigation workers using reclaimed water and office worker controls. Nasal and dermal swabs from 19 spray irrigation workers and 24 office worker controls were collected and analyzed for MRSA, MSSA, VRE, and VSE. Isolates were confirmed using standard biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion, chi-square, Fisher’s exact tests, and logistic regression. No MRSA or VRE were detected in any samples. MSSA was detected in 26% and 29% of spray irrigators and controls, respectively. VSE was detected in 11% and 0% of spray irrigation workers and controls, respectively. The adjusted odds of MSSA, multidrug-resistant MSSA, and either MSSA or VSE colonization were greater among spray irrigation workers, however results were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further evaluate this relationship.

  1. Occupational exposure to Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. among spray irrigation workers using reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E; Micallef, Shirley A; Gibbs, Shawn G; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W; Sapkota, Amy R

    2014-04-17

    As reclaimed water use expands, it is important to evaluate potential occupational health risks from exposure to this alternative water source. We compared odds of colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) between spray irrigation workers using reclaimed water and office worker controls. Nasal and dermal swabs from 19 spray irrigation workers and 24 office worker controls were collected and analyzed for MRSA, MSSA, VRE, and VSE. Isolates were confirmed using standard biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction assays. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Sensititre® microbroth dilution. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion, chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. No MRSA or VRE were detected in any samples. MSSA was detected in 26% and 29% of spray irrigators and controls, respectively. VSE was detected in 11% and 0% of spray irrigation workers and controls, respectively. The adjusted odds of MSSA, multidrug-resistant MSSA, and either MSSA or VSE colonization were greater among spray irrigation workers, however results were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed to further evaluate this relationship.

  2. Post-treatment of reclaimed waste water based on an electrochemical advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. D.; Salinas, Carlos E.; Rogers, Tom D.

    1992-01-01

    The purification of reclaimed water is essential to water reclamation technology life-support systems in lunar/Mars habitats. An electrochemical UV reactor is being developed which generates oxidants, operates at low temperatures, and requires no chemical expendables. The reactor is the basis for an advanced oxidation process in which electrochemically generated ozone and hydrogen peroxide are used in combination with ultraviolet light irradiation to produce hydroxyl radicals. Results from this process are presented which demonstrate concept feasibility for removal of organic impurities and disinfection of water for potable and hygiene reuse. Power, size requirements, Faradaic efficiency, and process reaction kinetics are discussed. At the completion of this development effort the reactor system will be installed in JSC's regenerative water recovery test facility for evaluation to compare this technique with other candidate processes.

  3. Endocrine-disrupting compounds in reclaimed water and residential ponds and exposure potential for dislodgeable residues in turf irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Harmanpreet S; Wilson, Patrick C; O'Connor, George A

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) occur in reclaimed water (RW), which may serve as an exposure source for humans. The presence of EDCs in RW used to irrigate turf and in nearby water-retention ponds was determined. In addition, the total dislodgeable mass of each EDC was determined after irrigation (using RW) to simulate exposure of a 3-year-child playing in turf grass recently irrigated with RW. Five EDCs (estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, bisphenol A, and 4-n-nonylphenol) were quantified in 28 samples of RWs (wastewater-treatment plant effluents) and 88 samples from residential surface water-retention ponds. St. Augustine variety of turf grass was irrigated with spiked RW to study dislodgement of the five EDCs overtime using a drag-sled method. Grass clippings were analyzed to relate masses of EDC on grass with masses dislodged. EDCs were detected in both RW and ponds at ng/L concentrations. Maximum EDC masses were dislodged immediately after irrigation. Dislodged masses of estrone and 17β-estradiol are two separate EDCs, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethynylestradiol decreased rapidly and were lower than detection limits 4 h after application. Dislodged bisphenol-A and nonylphenol decreased more slowly but were not detected 6 h after application. Avoiding contact with recently irrigated turf grass should decrease the risks of exposure to these EDCs.

  4. Assessment of the viability of using saline reclaimed water in grapefruit in medium to long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Romero-Trigueros

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Citrus trees are strongly affected by salinity, especially in countries where irrigation is required as a semi-arid Mediterranean agronomic region. The aims of the study were i to identify the best reliable plant-based water status indicator for field grown grapefruit trees irrigated with saline reclaimed water during five years of cultivation by measuring seasonal changes in physiological parameters (i.e. gas exchange and stem water potential measurements, leaf structural traits (i.e. leaf chlorophyll content, area-based leaf nitrogen and area-based dry mass, phytotoxic elements and yield; ii to estimate phytotoxicity thresholds at leaf level. Our results showed that the chlorophyll content was the parameter with the highest number of measures with significant differences (p≤0.05, ANOVA between trees irrigated with reclaimed water and control trees throughout growing stages. Moreover, Chl a increased linearly with area-based leaf nitrogen (R2=0.63; p<0.001 and area-based dry mass (R2=0.64; p<0.001. We also determined the salt-induced phytotoxicity thresholds at which a reduction in yields occurs; these levels were Na: 0.1 g/100 g, Cl: 0.6 g/100 gand B: 100 ppm. In conclusion, we revealed the importance of leaf chlorophyll measurements as a significance diagnostic indicator of salt stress on field grown grapefruit trees. This parameter was also related to plant-based water status indicators such as stem water potential, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis. Additionally, a salt accumulation potential at leaf level was shown, leading to possible risk in crop sustainability in the medium to long term.

  5. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  6. Identifying the Physical Properties of Showers That Influence User Satisfaction to Aid in Developing Water-Saving Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Okamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the goal of clarifying the required conditions of water-saving showerheads. In order to this, the research analyzes the mutual relationship between water usage flow, the level of satisfaction and the physical properties of spray of showerheads. The physical properties of spray were measured using physical properties test apparatus of standard or scheme for water-saving showerheads issued in several water-saving countries, and satisfaction evaluation data was acquired through bathing experiments. The evaluated showerheads were separated into three groups according to usage water flow and the level of satisfaction. The relationships between usage water flow, the level of satisfaction and physical properties were compared. The results identified that Spray Force and Spray Force-per-Hole were physical properties that influence usage water flow. Spray force-per-hole, water volume ratio in Spray Patterns within φ 100 and φ 150, Temperature Drop and Spray Angle were identified as physical properties that influenced the level of satisfaction. The level of satisfaction and usage water flow has a spurious correlation through the physical properties of Spray Force-per-Hole and Temperature Drop. It is possible to improve the level of satisfaction independent of amount of water usage through designs that set an appropriate value for water volume ratio and Spray Angle for Spray Patterns within φ 100 and φ 150.

  7. Nonpotable reuse: Development of health criteria and technologies for shower water recycle. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, W.D.; Schmidt, M.O.; Carnevale, R.M.; Schaub, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    The U.S. Army is evaluating recycle of field shower water as a conservation practice in arid regions and is seeking to define appropriate technologies and health criteria. Shower wastewaters at a military installation have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Two treatment technologies havebeen investigated. Microfiltration cartridges with a nominal pore size of 0.2 MU m achieved consistent removals of 75 15% of total organic carbon (TOC) and better than 99% of turbidity from synthetic shower water containing 50 to 100 mg/L of TOC as soap. An alternative treatmenttechnology utilized powered activated carbon and coagulation/flocculation/ sedimentation followed by diatomaceous earth filtration. A TOC reduction of 70 15% was achieved in three separate studies, although at a cost of 1 g/L or more of powered activated carbon. Revised quality criteria for recycled shower water have been developed with guidance from the National Research Council. Parameters which can practically be measured in the field are primarily associated with microbiological safety.

  8. A risk-based approach for developing standards for irrigation with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troldborg, Mads; Duckett, Dominic; Allan, Richard; Hastings, Emily; Hough, Rupert L

    2017-12-01

    A generalised quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is developed to assess the potential harm to human health resulting from irrigation with reclaimed water. The QRA is conducted as a backward calculation starting from a pre-defined acceptable risk level at the receptor point (defined as an annual infection risk of 10 -4 for pathogens and by reference doses (RfD) for chemical hazards) and results in an estimate of the corresponding acceptable concentration levels of the given hazards in the effluent. In this way the QRA is designed to inform the level of water treatment required to achieve an acceptable risk level and help establish reclaimed water quality standards. The QRA considers the exposure of human receptors to microbial and chemical hazards in the effluent through various exposure pathways and routes depending on the specific irrigation scenario. By considering multiple pathways and routes, a number of key aspects relevant to estimating human exposure to recycled water can be accounted for, including irrigation and crop handling practices (e.g., non-edible vs edible, spray vs. drip, withholding time) and volumes consumed (directly vs indirectly). The QRA relies on a large number of inputs, many of which were found to be highly uncertain. A possibilistic approach, based on fuzzy set theory, was used to propagate the uncertain input values through the QRA model to estimate the possible range of hazard concentrations that are deemed acceptable/safe for reclaimed water irrigation. Two scenarios were considered: amenity irrigation and irrigation of ready-to-eat food crops, and calculations were carried out for six example hazards (norovirus, Cryptosporidium, cadmium, lead, PCB118 and naphthalene) and using UK-specific input values. The human health risks associated with using reclaimed water for amenity irrigation were overall deemed low, i.e. the calculated acceptable concentration levels for most of the selected hazards were generally far greater than levels

  9. Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation on soil antibiotic resistome in urban parks of Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-04-01

    The effluents from wastewater treatment plants have been recognized as a significant environmental reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) is increasingly used as a practical solution for combating water scarcity in arid and semiarid regions, however, impacts of RWI on the patterns of ARGs and the soil bacterial community remain unclear. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques to compare the diversity, abundance and composition of a broad-spectrum of ARGs and total bacteria in 12 urban parks with and without RWI in Victoria, Australia. A total of 40 unique ARGs were detected across all park soils, with genes conferring resistance to β-lactam being the most prevalent ARG type. The total numbers and the fold changes of the detected ARGs were significantly increased by RWI, and marked shifts in ARG patterns were also observed in urban parks with RWI compared to those without RWI. The changes in ARG patterns were paralleled by a significant effect of RWI on the bacterial community structure and a co-occurrence pattern of the detected ARG types. There were significant and positive correlations between the fold changes of the integrase intI1 gene and two β-lactam resistance genes (KPC and IMP-2 groups), but no significant impacts of RWI on the abundances of intI1 and the transposase tnpA gene were found, indicating that RWI did not improve the potential for horizontal gene transfer of soil ARGs. Taken together, our findings suggested that irrigation of urban parks with reclaimed water could influence the abundance, diversity, and compositions of a wide variety of soil ARGs of clinical relevance. Irrigation of urban parks with treated wastewater significantly increased the abundance and diversity of various antibiotic resistance genes, but did not significantly enhance their potential for horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  10. Reclaiming agricultural drainage water with nanofiltration membranes: Imperial Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Schroeder, R.A.; Setmire, J.G.; ,

    2003-01-01

    We conducted pilot-scale field experiments using nanofiltration membranes to lower the salinity and remove Se, As and other toxic contaminants from saline agricultural wastewater in the Imperial Valley, California, USA. Farmlands in the desert climate (rainfall - 7.4 cm/a) of Imperial Valley cover -200,000 ha that are irrigated with water (-1.7 km3 annually) imported from the Colorado River. The salinity (-850 mg/L) and concentration of Se (-2.5 ??g/L) in the Colorado River water are high and evapotranpiration further concentrates salts in irrigation drainage water, reaching salinities of 3,000-15,000 mg/L TDS and a median Se value of -30 ??g/L. Experiments were conducted with two commercially available nanofiltration membranes, using drainage water of varying composition, and with or without the addition of organic precipitation inhibitors. Results show that these membranes selectively remove more than 95% of Se, SO4, Mo, U and DOC, and -30% of As from this wastewater. Low percentages of Cl, NO3 and HCO3, with enough cations to maintain electrical neutrality also were removed. The product water treated by these membranes comprised more than 90% of the wastewater tested. Results indicate that the treated product water from the Alamo River likely will have less than 0.2 ??g/L Se, salinity of 300-500 mg/L TDS and other chemical concentrations that meet the water quality criteria for irrigation and potable use. Because acceptability is a major issue for providing treated wastewater to urban centers, it may be prudent to use the reclaimed water for irrigation and creation of lower salinity wetlands near the Salton Sea; an equivalent volume of Colorado River water can then be diverted for the use of increasing populations of San Diego and other urban centers in southern California. Nanofiltration membranes yield greater reclaimed-water output and require lower pressure and less pretreatment, and therefore are generally more cost effective than traditional reverse

  11. Phosphorus dynamics in soils irrigated with reclaimed waste water or fresh water - A study using oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, I.; Shaviv, A.; Young, M.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.; Paytan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Transformations of phosphate (Pi) in different soil fractions were tracked using the stable isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (??18Op) and Pi concentrations. Clay soil from Israel was treated with either reclaimed waste water (secondary, low grade) or with fresh water amended with a chemical fertilizer of a known isotopic signature. Changes of ??18Op and Pi within different soil fractions, during a month of incubation, elucidate biogeochemical processes in the soil, revealing the biological and the chemical transformation impacting the various P pools. P in the soil solution is affected primarily by enzymatic activity that yields isotopic equilibrium with the water molecules in the soil solution. The dissolved P interacts rapidly with the loosely bound P (extracted by bicarbonate). The oxides and mineral P fractions (extracted by NaOH and HCl, respectively), which are considered as relatively stable pools of P, also exhibited isotopic alterations in the first two weeks after P application, likely related to the activity of microbial populations associated with soil surfaces. Specifically, isotopic depletion which could result from organic P mineralization was followed by isotopic enrichment which could result from preferential biological uptake of depleted P from the mineralized pool. Similar transformations were observed in both soils although transformations related to biological activity were more pronounced in the soil treated with reclaimed waste water compared to the fertilizer treated soil. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

    2005-12-01

    Our goal in this study is to utilize novel anionic clay sorbents for treating and reclaiming/reusing power-plant effluents, in particular, boiler blow-down waters containing heavy metals, such as As and Se. Developing and using novel materials for such application is dictated by the challenge posed by reclaiming and recycling these too-clean-to-clean effluent streams, generated during electricity production, whose contaminant levels are in the ppm/ppb (or even less) trace levels. During the study model blow-down streams have been treated in batch experiments. Adsorption isotherms as a function of pH/temperature have been established for both As and Se. Adsorption rates have also measured as a function of concentration, temperature, pH, and space time. For both the equilibrium and rate measurements, we have studied the As/Se interaction, and competition from background anions. A homogeneous surface diffusion model is used to describe the experimental kinetic data. The estimated diffusivity values are shown to depend on the particle size. On the other hand, a model taking into account the polycrystalline nature of these adsorbent particles, and the presence of an intercrystallite porous region predicts correctly that the surface diffusivity is particle size independent. A mathematical model to describe flow experiments in packed-beds has also been developed during phase I of this project. The goal is to validate this model with flow experiments in packed-beds during the phase II of this project, to determine the adsorption capacity under flow conditions, and to compare it with the capacity estimated from the adsorption isotherms determined from the batch studies.

  13. Chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis: revisiting reclaimed water regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Reyes-Gómez, Lidia María; Hernández-Muñoz, Aurelio; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Iturbe, Ulises

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic organisms can be transmitted orally through drinking water or through skin and mucosae by both direct and indirect contact, and their presence in water thus has a negative impact on public health. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), water is disinfected to inactivate pathogens. The quantification of several microbial indicators in aquatic systems is required to estimate the biological quality of such systems. So far, coliform bacteria have been used as traditional indicators world-wide. This study has assessed the resistance of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis to three dosages of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at two exposure times. The bacteria were isolated from secondary effluents of a WWTP located in Hidalgo, Mexico. The results show that the number of colony-forming units of all studied bacterial types decreased when both the NaClO concentration and exposure times increased. However, they were not eliminated. The inclusion of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa in regulations for treated wastewater quality as a new indicator is highly recommended due to its importance as an opportunistic pathogen. The detection of this species along with the traditional organisms could be particulary significant for reclaimed water to be used with direct human contact.

  14. Influence of Policy Making in the Profitability of Forage Production Irrigated with Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino Palacios-Diaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of water at low prices and the current scheme for specific supply arrangements (SSA/REA, both determined at the political level, explain that the goal of being self-sufficient in terms of forage consumption is currently unattainable in the Canaries. The “PFORCA” Plan aims to counteract this reality and increase their level of self-sufficiency. The financial aid relating to the REA reduces the amount payable for the imported fodder (annual 83,000 t versus local product, which influences the decision making by farmers. According to calculations, performed by reusing the water instead of discharging, Maralfalfa production could be competitive against imports, being financially viable with water prices in a range of 0.20–0.30 €/m3 (prices perfectly acceptable for reclaimed water with low levels of treatment, but fulfilling requirements reuse of Spanish law, RD 1620/2007. The economic contribution of forage crops could represent the creation of 640 new jobs, the enhancement of land currently abandoned, plus an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP of the archipelago on more than 23 million € (M€, product of the substitution of imports by local production. Also, it would help to save the REA’s aid (6 M€.

  15. Water Treatment Unit Breadboard: Ground test facility for the recycling of urine and shower water for one astronaut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E. F.; Lamaze, Brigitte; Clauwaert, Peter; Christiaens, Marlies E. R.; Rabaey, Korneel; Vlaeminck, Siegfried; Vanoppen, Marjolein; Demey, Dries; Farinas, Bernabé Alonso; Coessens, Wout; De Paepe, Jolien; Dotremont, Chris; Beckers, Herman; Verliefde, Arne

    2016-07-01

    One of the major challenges for long-term manned Space missions is the requirement of a regenerative life support system. Average water consumption in Western Countries is >100 L d-1. Even when minimizing the amount of water available per astronauts to 13 L d-1, a mission of 6 crew members requires almost 30 ton of fresh water supplies per year. Note that the International Space Station (ISS) weighs approximately 400 ton. Therefore the development of an efficient water recovery system is essential to future Space exploration. The ISS currently uses a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) unit following the addition of chromic and sulphuric acid for the microbial stabilization of urine (Carter, Tobias et al. 2012), yielding a water recovery percentage of only 70% due to scaling control. Additionally, Vapor Compression Distillation of 1.5 L urine cap 1 d-1 has a significantly higher power demand with 6.5 W cap-1 compared to a combination of electrodialysis (ED) and reverse osmosis (RO) with 1.9 and 0.6 W cap-1 respectively (Udert and Wächter 2012). A Water Treatment Unit Breadboard (WTUB) has been developed which combines a physicochemical and biological treatment. The aim was to recover 90% of the water in urine, condensate and shower water produced by one crew member and this life support testbed facility was inspired by the MELiSSA loop concept, ESA's Life Support System. Our experimental results showed that: 1) using a crystallisation reactor prior to the nitrification reduced scaling risks by Ca2+- and Mg2+ removal 2) the stabilization of urine diluted with condensate resulted in the biological conversion of 99% of Total Kjeldahl nitrogen into nitrate in the biological nitrification reactor 3) salinity and nitrate produced could be removed by 60-80% by electrodialysis, 4) shower water contaminated with skin microbiota and Neutrogena soap ® could be mixed with electrodialysis diluate and filtered directly over a ceramic nanofiltration at 93% water recovery and 5

  16. Effect of transportation and pre‐slaughter water shower spray with resting on AMP‐activated protein kinase, glycolysis and meat quality of broilers during summer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Tong; Xu, Xinglian; Jiang, Nannan; Deng, ShaoLin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pre‐slaughter transport during summer and subsequent water shower spray on stress, postmortem glycolysis, energy metabolism and adenosine monophosphate...

  17. Leaching and reclamation of a biochar and compost amended saline-sodic soil with moderate SAR reclaimed water

    OpenAIRE

    Chaganti, VN; Crohn, DM; Šimůnek, J

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Remediating saline-sodic soils with organic amendments is increasingly seen as a cheaper and sustainable alternative to inorganic materials. The reclamation potential of biochar, biosolids and greenwaste composts applied to a saline-sodic soil was evaluated in a laboratory leaching experiment using moderate SAR reclaimed water. Treatments included biochar, biosolids co-compost, greenwaste compost (all applied at a 75tha -1 rate), gypsum (50% soil gypsum ...

  18. Effects of middle-term land reclamation on nickel soil-water interaction: a case study from reclaimed salt marshes of Po River Delta, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Reclaimed salt marshes are fragile environments where water salinization and accumulation of heavy metals can easily occur. This type of environment constitutes a large part of the Po River Delta (Italy), where intensive agricultural activities take place. Given the higher Ni background of Po River Delta soils and its water-soluble nature, the main aim of this contribution is to understand if reclamation can influence the Ni behavior over time. In this study, we investigated the geochemical features of 40 soils sampled in two different localities from the Po River Delta with different reclamation ages. Samples of salt marsh soils reclaimed in 1964 were taken from Valle del Mezzano while soils reclaimed in 1872 were taken nearby Codigoro town. Batch solubility tests and consecutive determination of Ni in pore-water were compared to bulk physicochemical compositions of soils. Bulk Ni content of the studied soils is naturally high, since these soils originated from Po River sediments derived from the erosion of ultramafic rocks. Moreover, it seems that Ni concentration increases during soil evolution, being probably related to the degradation of serpentine. Instead, the water-soluble Ni measured in the leaching tests is greater in soils recently reclaimed compared to the oldest soils. Soil properties of two soil profiles from a reclaimed wetland area were examined to determine soil evolution over one century. Following reclamation, pedogenic processes of the superficial horizons resulted in organic matter mineralization, pH buffer, and a decrease of Ni water solubility from recently to evolved reclaimed soil.

  19. Synthetic lepidocrocite for phosphorous removal from reclaimed water: optimization using convex optimization method and successive adsorption in fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Muhua; Wu, Jiang; Li, Yuyou; Gao, Yingxin; Li, Weicheng; Jin, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The batch and column experimental studies on the adsorption of phosphate onto synthetic lepidocrocite from reclaimed water are presented. A second-order polynomial model in the batch study is successfully applied to describe phosphate immobilization performance using the response surface methodology. The model proposed is further linked with the convex optimization method to determine the optimal variables for maximum phosphate uptake since convex method is a global optimization method. Consequently, under optimal parameters determined as pH of 3.88, an initial P concentration of 0.66 mg/L, and a dosage of 0.15 g, the corresponding phosphate removal efficiency can reach up to 97.4%. Adsorption behavior is further revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observation and FTIR spectra. A comparative column study indicates that co-existing competing anions in artificial reclaimed water do not significantly interfere with P adsorption under the neutral condition. The experimental results highlight that synthetic lepidocrocite is an excellent absorbent for sustainable P removal from reclaimed water.

  20. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    The lake of Massaciuccoli (7 km2 wide and about 2 m deep) and its palustrine nearby areas (about 13 km2 wide) constitute a residual coastal lacustrine and marshy area largerly drained by 1930. In terms of hydrological boundaries, the lake watershed is bordered by carbonate to arenaceous reliefs on the east, by a sandy coastal shallow aquifer on the west (preventing groundwater salinisation), while south and north by the Serchio River and the Burlamacca-Gora di Stiava channels alignment respectively. Since reclamation of the peaty soils started, subsidence began (2 to 3 m in 70 years), leaving the lake perched and central respect the low drained area, now 0 to -3 m below m.s.l., and requiring 16 km embankment construction. During the dry summer season, the lake undergoes a severe water stress, that, along with nutrients input, causes the continuous ecosystem degradation resulting in water salinisation and eutrophication. Water stress results in a head decrease below m.s.l., causing seawater intrusion along the main outlet, and reaching its highest point at the end of the summer season (common head values between -0.40 and -0.5 a.m.s.l.). The water budget for an average dry season lasting about 100 days was computed, considering a 10% error, in order to understand and evaluate all the components leading to the above mentioned water stress by means of several multidisciplinary activities during the years 2008-2009. They started with a thoroughly literature review, continued with hydrological, hydrogeochemical monitoring and testing (both for surface water and the shallow aquifer) and agronomical investigations (to characterize cropping systems, evapotranspiration rates and irrigation schemes). All the collected data were then processed by means of statistical methods, time series analysis, numerical modelling of the shallow aquifer and hydrological modelling. The results demonstrate the presence of two interrelated hydrological sub-systems: the lake and the reclaimed

  1. Assessing human exposure and odor detection during showering with crude 4-(methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, Amanda E; Dietrich, Andrea M; Smiley, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2015-12-15

    In 2014, crude (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (MCHM) spilled, contaminating the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginians and requiring "do not use" orders to protect human health. When the spill occurred, known crude MCHM physicochemical properties were insufficient to predict human inhalation and ingestion exposures. Objectives are (1) determine Henry's Law Constants (HLCs) for 4-MCHM isomers at 7, 25, 40, and 80°C using gas chromatography; (2) predict air concentrations of 4-MCHM and methyl-4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate (MMCHC) during showering using an established shower model; (3) estimate human ingestion and inhalation exposure to 4-MCHM and MMCHC; and (4) determine if predicted air 4-MCHM exceeded odor threshold concentrations. Dimensionless HLCs of crude cis- and trans-4-MCHM were measured to be 1.42×10(-4)±6% and 3.08×10(-4)±3% at 25°C, respectively, and increase exponentially with temperature as predicted by the van't Hoff equation. Shower air concentrations for cis- and trans-4-MCHM are predicted to be 0.089 and 0.390ppm-v respectively after 10min, exceeding the US EPA's 0.01ppm-v air screening level during initial spill conditions. Human exposure doses were predicted using measured drinking water and predicted shower air concentrations and found to greatly exceed available guidance levels in the days directly following the spill. Odors would be rapidly detected by 50% of individuals at aqueous concentrations below analytical gas chromatographic detection limits. MMCHC, a minor odorous component (0.935%) of crude MCHM, is also highly volatile and therefore is predicted to contribute to inhalation exposures and odors experienced by consumers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Transformation of dissolved organic matter in a novel groundwater recharge system with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linlin; Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Meng

    2011-12-01

    A novel process, enhanced direct injection-well recharge system (EnDir), can overcome the technical difficulties during the application of conventional surface spreading and has been developed to recharge groundwater with reclaimed water. In this study, removal and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the system were investigated in laboratory-scale experiments. Results demonstrated that dissolved organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential values could be reduced from 6.54 +/- 1.30 mg/L and 267.9 +/- 24.3 microg/L to 1.59 +/- 0.64 mg/L and 104.5 +/- 10.2 microg/L, respectively, as a result of DOM biodegradation in the aerobic short-term vadose soil treatment. Fluorescence spectra showed that aromatic protein-like substances and soluble microbial byproducts could be removed, to a great extent, in the soil system. Despite different removal efficiencies of DOM in different molecular weight fractions, the residual DOM was composed mainly of fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like substances, with molecular weights of 500 Da to 1 kDa.

  3. Byproduct recovery from reclaimed water reverse osmosis concentrate using lime and soda-ash treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadesmaeili, Farah; Badr, Mostafa Kabiri; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Fox, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Lime and soda-ash softening of reclaimed water reverse osmosis concentrates as a pretreatment step for concentration by seawater reverse osmosis was the focus of this study. The objectives were removal of the potential fouling minerals of calcium, magnesium, and silica by selective precipitation, while producing byproducts with potential resale value. Three different bench-scale lime-soda processes were evaluated. The traditional method produced low-quality magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) byproducts. A modified process with pre-acidification to eliminate carbonate removed 98 to 99% of calcium and magnesium and produced CaCO3 that was > 94% pure. To prevent the contamination of byproducts with calcium sulfate (CaSO4) in high-sulfate concentrates, a CaSO4 crystallization step was added successfully to the modified process to precipitate CaSO4 before Mg(OH)2 precipitation and produce gypsum that was 92% pure. The modified lime-soda process also removed 94 to 97% silica, 72 to 77% barium, and 95 to 96% strontium, which are known as reverse osmosis membrane foulants.

  4. Reclaimed municipal wastewater as source of water and nutrients for plant nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, R; Lubello, C; Ferrini, F; Nicese, F

    2004-01-01

    A three year experimental activity was carried out to evaluate the possibility of reusing Reclaimed Wastewater (RWW) in Pistoia's nursery area (Central Italy). The research was aimed at: 1. identifying the best tertiary treatment facilities in order to make the effluent in compliance with the current Italian legislation for RWW reuse, 2. evaluating the effects of RWW irrigation on some ornamental, 3. quantifying fertilizing value and environmental impacts of RWW irrigation. In this paper the results of the last year experimental activity are presented. Experimental results indicated that filtration and disinfection with peracetic acid plus UV were very effective in indicator bacteria removal; as a matter of fact, neither Escherichia coli nor Total Coliforms were detected in any samples of pilot plant effluent. Results of an agronomical experiment indicated the suitability of the tertiary effluent for the irrigation: at the end of the growing season a higher (or equal) total dry mass was detected in RWW irrigated plants than well-water (WW) irrigated ones. Finally, the tertiary effluent can be considered as an important source of fertilizer for container-grown plants. As a matter of fact RWW irrigation showed to be able to replace at least one of the traditional fertilization treatments.

  5. Effect of a strengthened ecological floating bed on the purification of urban landscape water supplied with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Huai; Wang, Yi; Li, Zhi; Wei, Cun-Zhi; Zhao, Jing-Chan; Sun, Lu-Qin

    2018-05-01

    A floating bed (FB) system vegetated with calamus, iris, lythrum, and Hydrocotyle vulgaris, and a strengthened FB (SFB) system with zeolite and sponge iron as fillers were simultaneously applied to purify urban landscape water in different zones. The urban landscape water, an artificial lake of approximately 326m 2 , was supplied with reclaimed water during a six-month experiment. Results indicated that the concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the SFB zone (SFBZ) were significantly lower than those in the control zone (CZ) and the FB zone (FBZ) after six months of operation. The average removal efficiencies (AREs) in the SFBZ, FBZ and CZ were 89.98%, 77.39% and 56.37%, respectively, for ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N); 92.49%, 79.55% and 47.85%, respectively, for phosphate (PO 4 3- -P). Meanwhile, the average concentration of Chlorophyll a and the algae density in SFBZ during the experiment were 12.54μg/L and 1.31×10 4 cells/mL, which were lower, obviously, than those in the FBZ and CZ. Moreover, the contribution rates analysis of nutrient removal exhibited that the plant absorption in the removal of N and P occupied 27.85% and 26.36%, whereas the filler adsorption occupied 7.93% and 11.93%, respectively, in the SFB. Thus, the water quality of the artificial lake was improved greatly by the SFB which hybridized fillers and FB together. Finally, it was found that the AREs of NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P in the SFBZ could reach 73.93% and 84.56%, approximately 1.39 and 1.41 times that of the FBZ during the winter. Therefore, the application of an SFB can keep a stable water quality in urban landscape water and avoid the lower removal rate of an FB at low-temperature. In summary, the SFB could effectively improve the water quality of urban landscape water supplied with reclaimed water even in winter. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. On the risks from sediment and overlying water by replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Dong; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xiaochang C; Liu, Yanzheng; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Wang, Nan

    2018-02-06

    The extensive use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) as a source of urban landscape pond replenishment, stimulated by the lack of surface water (SW) resources, has raised public concern. Greater attention should be paid to pond sediments, which act as 'sinks' and 'sources' of contaminants to the overlying pond water. Three ponds replenished with RW (RW ponds) in three Chinese cities were chosen to investigate 22 indices of sediment quality in four categories: eutrophication, heavy metal, ecotoxicity and pathogens risk. RW ponds were compared with other ponds of similar characteristics in the same cities that were replenished with SW (SW ponds). Our results show a strong impact of RW to the eutrophication and pathogenic risks, which are represented by organic matter, water content, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphorus fractions, and pathogens. In particular, total phosphorus concentrations in the RW pond sediments were, on average, 50% higher than those of SW ponds. Moreover, the content of phosphorus, extracted by bicarbonate/dithionite (normally represented by BD-P) and NaOH (NaOH-P), were 2.0- and 2.83-times higher in RW ponds, respectively. For pathogens, the concentrations of norovirus and rotavirus in RW pond sediments were, on average, 0.52 and 0.30- log times those of SW ponds. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the eutrophication and pathogens risks from sediments. The continued use of RW for replenishment increases the eutrophication risk, and the pathogens risk, especially by viral pathogens, becomes greater. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential For Denitrification near Reclaimed Water Application Sites in Orange County, Florida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Smith, Richard L.; Repert, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for denitrification was tested in water samples from four Upper Floridan aquifer wells near a reclaimed water application site, in west Orange County Florida, and two adjacent springs. Results of the study indicate that denitrifying bacteria are present in the groundwater and spring water samples, and that these bacteria can readily denitrify the waters when suitable geochemical conditions exist. The acetylene block technique was used to assess nitrous oxide in the samples that was produced by denitrification. The laboratory incubation experiment consisted of four different treatments to each of the six samples: (1) ambient water (no added nitrate or glucose), (2) ambient water amended with 1.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) nitrate as nitrogen (N), (3) ambient water amended with 5.0 mg/L nitrate as N, and (4) ambient water amended with 5.0 mg/L nitrate as N and 10 mg/L glucose as C6H12O6. A companion set of incubations using treatment 2 tracked changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration with time. The rate of denitrification in treatment 2 ranged from 0.059 to 0.124 milligram per liter per day nitrogen [(mg/L)/d N] and in treatment 3 ranged from 0.071 to 0.226 (mg/L)/d N. At all of the sampling sites, treatment 4 yielded denitrification rates at least an order of magnitude greater than those measured for the other treatments; rates ranged from 2.3 to 4.4 (mg/L)/d N. The electron donor supply, dissolved organic carbon, in the groundwater and springwater is sufficient to remove at least 1.1-1.4 mg/L nitrate as N in 20 to 30 days, as indicated by nitrous oxide production rates under ambient conditions (treatment 1). The even higher nitrate removal observed with addition of supplemental carbon in treatment 4 suggests that carbon is a limiting nutrient in this reaction. Denitrifying activity might explain the low ambient nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer in this area.

  8. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  9. Use of bacteriophages for the management of the microbiological quality of reclaimed water; Los bacteriofagos, un instrumento util en la gestion de la calidad microbiologica del agua regenerada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jofre, J.; Lucena, F.

    2006-07-01

    Massive water reuse requires guaranties about its security, including the non transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. The security control is based in the use of microbial indicators as bacteria (in the case of reclaimed water faecal coliform bacteria or E. Coli). Studies on pathogens elimination in tertiary treatment show that the quality criteria based only in bacterial indicators mat not be sufficient to guarantee the security. The somatic coli phages, a group of bacteriophages that infect E. coli, might be a very useful additional indicator for the management of the microbiological quality of reclaimed water. The somatic coli phages contribute additional and non redundant information to the information contributed by the bacterial indicators regarding the elimination of different types of microorganisms by tertiary treatments. As well, data are presented that indicate that the introduction of reclaimed water quality criteria based in somatic coli phages will be technically and economically acceptable by the sector. (Author) 25 refs.

  10. Reclaimed water quality during simulated ozone-managed aquifer recharge hybrid

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2014-06-17

    A synergistic hybrid of two treatment processes, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) combined with ozonation, was proposed for wastewater reclamation and water reuse applications. Batch reactor and soil-column experiments were performed to evaluate reclaimed water quality using various chemical and bacterial analyses. The ozone process was optimized at low ozone dose (0.5 mg O3/mg DOC) based on the control of N-nitrosodimethylamine (<5 ng L-1) and bromate (<10 μg L-1), and applied prior to (i.e., O3-MAR) and after MAR (i.e., MAR-O3). This work demonstrates that effluent organic matter (EfOM) and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) are effectively removed during the hybrid process of MAR combined ozonation, compared to MAR only. Based on fluorescence excitation-emission matrices analyses, both MAR and ozonation reduce soluble microbial (protein-like) products while only ozonation contributes in reducing humic and fulvic substances. Even at low ozone dose of 0.5 mg O3/mg DOC, the O3-MAR hybrid significantly reduced UV absorbance by ≥2 m-1, BDOC by ≥64 %, and total (Σ) TOrC concentrations by ≥70 % in the effluent water quality. However, no significant improvement (<10 %) in the removal of Σ16 TOrC concentrations was observed for the increased ozone dose at 1.0 mg O3/mg DOC during MAR combined ozonation processes. Overall, O3-MAR was effective by 10-30 % in treating effluent water than MAR based on DOC, UV254 nm EfOM, TOrC and bacterial analyses. In addition, MAR-O3 was better than O3-MAR for the reduction of fluorescence (close MQ), TOrCs (≥74 %) and total bacteria cell concentrations (>3 log reduction). Therefore, implementing MAR prior to ozonation appears to remove the bio-amenable compounds that react rapidly with ozone, thereby reducing oxidant demand and treatment efficiency. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Evaluation of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to reclaim domestic clothes wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation has been performed of a multifiltration water reclamation subsystem to determine its capability to recover water from domestic clothes wash water. A total of 32.89 kg (72.5 lb) of clothes were washed during eight wash cycles which used 1.4 lb of detergent, 145 gallons of hot water and 133.9 gallons of cold water. Water recovered at a weighted average process rate of 3.81 gallons per hour met the majority of the 23 requirements established for potable water by the U.S. Public Health Service. Average power consumed during this evaluation was approximately 71 watt-hours per gallon of water recovered. Filter replacement, which was required primarily for the control of micro-organisms in the recovered water averaged 4.86 filters per 100 gallons of wash water processed. The subsystem removed approximately 98 percent and virtually 100 percent of the phosphates and surfactants, respectively, from the wash water.

  12. Influence of transport conditions and pre-slaughter water shower spray during summer on protein characteristics and water distribution of broiler breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Tong; Li, Yun Han; Li, Ming; Jiang, Nan Nan; Xu, Xing Lian; Zhou, Guang Hong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of pre-slaughter transport during summer and subsequent water shower spray on broiler meat quality and protein characteristics. Arbor Acres broiler chickens (n = 126, 42 days old, mixed sex, 2.5-3 kg) were randomly categorized into three treatments: (i) control group without transport (C); (ii) 30 min transport (T); and (iii) 30 min transport followed by 10 min water shower spray and 20 min lairage (T/W). Each treatment consisted of six replicates with seven birds each. Ambient temperature was 32-35°C during transportation. Results indicated that transport during high ambient temperature denatured myosin and sarcoplasmic proteins, led to decreased protein solubility and resulted in glycogen phosphorylase precipitated to the myofibrillar fraction. Furthermore, meat quality in the transport group showed a pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like syndrome. Water shower spray during lairage after transport reduced the degree of protein denaturation and lessened the deterioration of meat quality. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Water Quality and Geochemical Modeling of Water at an Abandoned Coal Mine Reclaimed With Coal Combustion By-Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    An abandoned coal mine in eastern Ohio was reclaimed with 125 tons per acre of pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) by-product. Water quality at the site (known as the Fleming site) was monitored for 7 years after reclamation; samples included water from soil-suction lysimeters (interstitial water), wells, and spring sites established downgradient of the application area. This report presents a summary of data collected at the Fleming site during the period September 1994 through June 2001. Additionally, results of geochemical modeling are included in this report to evaluate the potential fate of elements derived from the PFBC by-product. Chemical analyses of samples of interstitial waters within the PFBC by-product application area indicated elevated levels of pH and specific conductance and elevated concentrations of boron, calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, strontium, and sulfate compared to water samples collected in a control area where traditional reclamation methods were used. Magnesium-to-calcium (Mg:Ca) mole ratios and sulfur-isotope ratios were used to trace the PFBC by-product leachate and showed that little, if any, leachate reached ground water. Concentrations of most constituents in interstitial waters in the application-area decreased during the seven sampling rounds and approached background concentrations observed in the control area; however, median pH in the application area remained above 6, indicating that some acid-neutralizing capacity was still present. Although notable changes in water quality were observed in interstitial waters during the study period, quality of ground water and spring water remained poor. Water from the Fleming site was not potable, given exceedances of primary and secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for inorganic constituents in drinking water set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Only fluoride and sulfate, which were found in higher concentrations in application

  14. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  15. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-01-01

    to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW...... water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress......Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked...

  16. Effect of reclaimed water effluent on bacterial community structure in the Typha angustifolia L. rhizosphere soil of urbanized riverside wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xingru; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the impact of reclaimed water on the ecology of bacterial communities in the Typha angustifolia L. rhizosphere soil, bacterial community structure was investigated using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene clone library. The results revealed significant spatial variation of bacterial communities along the river from upstream and downstream. For example, a higher relative abundance of γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and a lower proportion of β-Proteobacteria and ε-Proteobacteria was detected at the downstream site compared to the upstream site. Additionally, with an increase of the reclaimed water interference intensity, the rhizosphere bacterial community showed a decrease in taxon richness, evenness and diversity. The relative abundance of bacteria closely related to the resistant of heavy-metal was markedly increased, while the bacteria related for carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus/sulfur cycling wasn't strikingly changed. Besides that, the pathogenic bacteria markedly increased in the downstream rhizosphere soil since reclaimed water supplement, while the possible plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria obviously reduced in the downstream sediment. Together these data suggest cause and effect between reclaimed water input into the wetland, shift in bacterial communities through habitat change, and alteration of capacity for biogeochemical cycling of contaminants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Occurrence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals in reclaimed water and receiving groundwater in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Xiang, Xi; Li, Miao; Ma, Yeping; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion. However, pollutants in reclaimed water could be recharged into groundwater during this process, thereby posing a risk to groundwater and human health. In this study, 12 cities in northern China were selected for reclaimed water and groundwater sampling. Analysis of the samples revealed the presence of nine pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and five endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In reclaimed water, all the PPCPs and EDCs were found, with sulpiride (SP) and estriol (E3) being most frequently detected. In groundwater samples, only ketoprofen (KP), mefenamic acid (MA), nalidixic acid (NA) and SP were detected among PPCPs, while bisphenol-A (BPA) was dominant among the target EDCs. The risk quotients (RQs) of all target PPCPs and EDCs except 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and E3 were below 1 in groundwater samples, indicating that EE2 and E3 deserve priority preferential treatment before recharging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zero-valent iron-biosand filtration is capable of reducing antimicrobials and generic E. coli concentrations in unbuffered conventionally-treated reclaimed water: a CONSERVE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: If conventionally treated reclaimed water (RW) is to be adopted as analternative to freshwater irrigation, it is necessary to investigate reuse site-based mitigation options that can further reduce contaminantssuch as foodborne pathogens andpharmaceuticals and personal care products (P...

  19. Life-cycle impacts of shower water waste heat recovery: case study of an installation at a university sport facility in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Kenneth; She, Kaiming; Adeyeye, Kemi

    2017-10-18

    Recovering heat from waste water discharged from showers to preheat the incoming cold water has been promoted as a cost-effective, energy-efficient, and low-carbon design option which has been included in the UK's Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) for demonstrating compliance with the Building Regulation for dwellings. Incentivized by its carbon cost-effectiveness, waste water heat exchangers (WWHX) have been selected and incorporated in a newly constructed Sports Pavilion at the University of Brighton in the UK. This £2-m sports development serving several football fields was completed in August 2015 providing eight water- and energy-efficient shower rooms for students, staff, and external organizations. Six of the shower rooms are located on the ground floor and two on the first floor, each fitted with five or six thermostatically controlled shower units. Inline type of WWHX were installed, each consisted of a copper pipe section wound by an external coil of smaller copper pipe through which the cold water would be warmed before entering the shower mixers. Using the installation at Sport Pavilion as the case study, this research aims to evaluate the environmental and financial sustainability of a vertical waste heat recovery device, over a life cycle of 50 years, with comparison to the normal use of a PVC-u pipe. A heat transfer mathematical model representing the system has been developed to inform the development of the methodology for measuring the in-situ thermal performance of individual and multiple use of showers in each changing room. Adopting a system thinking modeling technique, a quasi-dynamic simulation computer model was established enabling the prediction of annual energy consumptions under different shower usage profiles. Data based on the process map and inventory of a functional unit of WWHX were applied to a proprietary assessment software to establish the relevant outputs for the life-cycle environmental impact assessment. Life-cycle cost

  20. Pharmaceuticals and pesticides in reclaimed water: Efficiency assessment of a microfiltration-reverse osmosis (MF-RO) pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Ricart, Marta; Köck-Schulmeyer, Marianne; Guasch, Helena; Bonnineau, Chloe; Proia, Lorenzo; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Sabater, Sergi; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-23

    Water reuse is becoming a common practice in several areas in the world, particularly in those impacted by water scarcity driven by climate change and/or by rising human demand. Since conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not able to efficiently remove many organic contaminants and pathogens, more advanced water treatment processes should be applied to WWTP effluents for water reclamation purposes. In this work, a pilot plant based on microfiltration (MF) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) filtration was applied to the effluents of an urban WWTP. Both the WWTP and the pilot plant were investigated with regards to the removal of a group of relevant contaminants widely spread in the environment: 28 pharmaceuticals and 20 pesticides. The combined treatment by the MF-RO system was able to quantitatively remove the target micropollutants present in the WWTP effluents to values either in the low ng/L range or below limits of quantification. Monitoring of water quality of reclaimed water and water reclamation sources is equally necessary to design the most adequate treatment procedures aimed to water reuse for different needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to estimate the health risk of mixtures of trihalomethanes from reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiguang; Zang, Xue; Zhang, Ying

    2015-03-21

    To estimate the health risk of mixture of trihalomethanes (THMs) from reclaimed water during toilet flushing, the interaction-based Hazard Index (HI(interaction-based)) and the mixture carcinogenic risk (CRM) according to tissue dose were conducted through the integrated use of both the exposure concentrations model and the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of THMs. Monte Carlo simulations were employed to implement the probabilistic risk analysis and sensitivity analysis. Nine samples were analyzed, which were collected from J Water Reclamation Plant (JWRP) in Tianjin of China. The results indicated that the mean HI(interaction-based) (=0.85) was lower than the acceptable risk level (=1). The probability that the HI(interaction-based) exceeded the acceptable risk level is 22.97%. For carcinogenic risk, the CRM ranges from 9.41×10(-7) to 3.54×10(-5), with a mean of 5.49×10(-6). Moreover, the probability of exceeding the acceptable risk level (1×10(-6)) is near 100%. And the values of HI(interaction-based) from sample no. 1, 5, and 7 exceeded 1, while the values of CRM for all samples exceeded 1×10(-6). Consequently, the reclaimed water used for flushing toilets should be paid more attention, though non-carcinogenic effect is relatively small. Furthermore, the concentrations of DBCM had greater impact on both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk based on sensitivity analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reclaimed wastewater use alternatives and quality standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dalahmeh, Sahar; Baresel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Reclaimed wastewater use is crucial for increasing water availability, improving water resources management, minimising environmental pollution and permitting sustainable nutrient recycling. However, wastewater also contains microbiological and chemical pollutants posing risks to human health and the environment, and these risks have to be handled. Successful use of reclaimed wastewater requires stringent standards for its treatment, disposal and distribution. This report summarises global an...

  3. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam).

  4. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  5. Stainless steel corrosion scale formed in reclaimed water: Characteristics, model for scale growth and metal element release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Hu, Hongying; Tang, Fusheng; Li, Yuhong; Yu, Kanghua

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steels generally have extremely good corrosion resistance, but are still susceptible to pitting corrosion. As a result, corrosion scales can form on the surface of stainless steel after extended exposure to aggressive aqueous environments. Corrosion scales play an important role in affecting water quality. These research results showed that interior regions of stainless steel corrosion scales have a high percentage of chromium phases. We reveal the morphology, micro-structure and physicochemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scales. Stainless steel corrosion scale is identified as a podiform chromite deposit according to these characteristics, which is unlike deposit formed during iron corrosion. A conceptual model to explain the formation and growth of stainless steel corrosion scale is proposed based on its composition and structure. The scale growth process involves pitting corrosion on the stainless steel surface and the consecutive generation and homogeneous deposition of corrosion products, which is governed by a series of chemical and electrochemical reactions. This model shows the role of corrosion scales in the mechanism of iron and chromium release from pitting corroded stainless steel materials. The formation of corrosion scale is strongly related to water quality parameters. The presence of HClO results in higher ferric content inside the scales. Cl- and SO42- ions in reclaimed water play an important role in corrosion pitting of stainless steel and promote the formation of scales. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed waters by modified clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hanxin; Lin, Hai; Dong, Yingbo; Cheng, Huang; Wang, Han; Cao, Lixia

    2012-08-30

    This paper presents the investigation of the ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed wastewater by modified clinoptilolite. The results showed that the modified clinoptilolite has a high sorption efficiency and removal performance. The ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates removal rate of the modified clinoptilolite reached to 98.46% and 99.80%, respectively. The surface of modified clinoptilolite became loose and some pores appeared, which enlarged the specific surface area; the contents of Na and Fe increased, and the contents of Ca and Mg decreased. The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid sorption and slow balance characteristics and ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption is more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates follows the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation, which describes the sorption of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates in aqueous solution as mainly a chemical sorption. Results from the thermodynamics experiment involving ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption reveal that the process is a spontaneous and endothermic process, and is mainly driven by entropy effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of operating conditions on trihalomethanes formation and speciation during chloramination in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Gao, Baoyu; Ma, Defang; Li, Ruihua; Sun, Shenglei; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a hybrid powdered activated carbon-membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) system was used to treat municipal wastewater in northern China intended for recycle. In order to control microbiological hazards in PAC-MBR effluent, chloramine was chosen as the disinfectant which could reduce the disinfection by-product yields. Effects of reaction time, chloramines dose, pH value, and bromide ion concentration on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation and speciation during chloramination of the reclaimed effluent were investigated. Study results indicated that the yield of total THMs (TTHM) increased at higher reaction time and chloramines dose. The trend of growth showed that slow reacting precursors were the main components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in PAC-MBR effluent. THMs formation potential of PAC-MBR effluent achieved the maximum at chloramines dosage of 20 mg/L. Meanwhile, THMs formation was enhanced evidently under alkaline conditions. The yields of THMs species were in following order: CHCl3 > CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3, although in different reaction time, chloramines dose, and pH value. Furthermore, the formation of Br-THMs was promoted by the increasing concentration of bromide ion.

  8. The impacts of irrigation with transferred and saline reclaimed water in the soil biological quality of two citrus species: Adaptations to low water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Felipe; Abadía, Joaquín; García, Carlos; Torres, Irene; Ruiz Navarro, Antonio; José Alarcón, Juan; Nicolás, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agroecosystems are limited by the availability of water and hence it is fundamental to find new water sources for sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change. Here, the effects of irrigation with water from different sources were analyzed in the soil microbial community and plant status of grapefruit and mandarin trees in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem located in south-east of Spain. Four irrigation treatments were evaluated: i) water with an average electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.1 dS m-1 from the "Tagus-Segura" water-transfer canal (TW); ii) reclaimed water (EC = 3.21 dS m-1) from a wastewater-treatment-plant (RW); iii) irrigation with TW, except in the second stage of fruit development, when RW was applied (TWc); and iv) irrigation with RW except in the second stage, when TW was used (RWc). Phospholipid fatty acids indicated that microbial biomass was greater under grapefruit than under mandarin. In the case of grapefruit, TW showed a lower bacterial biomass than RW, RWc, and TWc, while RW showed the lowest values in the mandarin soil. In grapefruit soil, β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities, related to C cycling, were greater in RW and TWc than in TW and RWc. In mandarin soil, the greatest activity of these enzymes was found in TWc. The saline stress induced lower net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) in plants of RW, RWc and TWc in comparison with TW. The annual use of reclaimed water or the combined irrigation with TWc positively influenced the soil biological quality of a grapefruit agro-ecosystem. Conversely, the mandarin soil community was more sensitive to the annual irrigation with RW.

  9. Shower heat exchanger : Reuse of energy from heated drinking water for CO2 reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, Z.; Mol, S.; Van der Hoek, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The heating of drinking water in households contributes significantly to the emission of greenhouse gases. As a water utility aiming to operate at a climate neutral level by 2020, Waternet needs to reduce its CO2 emission by 53?kton?yr?1. To contribute to this ambition, a pilot project was carried

  10. Ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed waters by modified clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huo, Hanxin [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Beijing 100083 (China); Lin, Hai, E-mail: linhai@ces.ustb.edu.cn [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Beijing 100083 (China); Dong, Yingbo; Cheng, Huang; Wang, Han; Cao, Lixia [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education of China for High-Efficient Mining and Safety of Metal Mines, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The salt and thermally modified clinoptilolite can effectively sorb NH{sub 3}-N and phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorus and nitrogen removal was consistent with Langmuir isotherm model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid adsorption and slow balance characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption is more in line with the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The entropy effect plays the role of the main driving force in the adsorption. - Abstract: This paper presents the investigation of the ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption from simulated reclaimed wastewater by modified clinoptilolite. The results showed that the modified clinoptilolite has a high sorption efficiency and removal performance. The ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates removal rate of the modified clinoptilolite reached to 98.46% and 99.80%, respectively. The surface of modified clinoptilolite became loose and some pores appeared, which enlarged the specific surface area; the contents of Na and Fe increased, and the contents of Ca and Mg decreased. The modified clinoptilolite possesses rapid sorption and slow balance characteristics and ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption is more consistent with the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates follows the Elovich adsorption dynamics equation, which describes the sorption of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates in aqueous solution as mainly a chemical sorption. Results from the thermodynamics experiment involving ammonia-nitrogen and phosphates sorption reveal that the process is a spontaneous and endothermic process, and is mainly driven by entropy effect.

  11. Reweighting Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Johannes; Richardson, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej; Webster, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    We report on the possibility of reweighting parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions for scale variations in the parton-shower algorithm. The method is based on a generalization of the Sudakov veto algorithm. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach using example physical distributions. Implementations are available for both the parton-shower modules in the Herwig 7 event generator.

  12. Uncoverd-collector, solar water heater for swimming pool showers. Impianti solari con collettori scoperti per produzione stagionale di acqua calda in stabilimenti balneari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertocchi, A.; Caselli, G.; Maccari, A.

    1990-01-01

    The solar water heater, designed for use in climates such as that found on the Adriatic coastline, makes use of a single, or direct pass system (thus eliminating any need for storage tanks and thermostatic valves) to satisfy typical requirements such as 2,000 liters/day of 24-27 degrees C minimum/35 degrees maximum hot water for showers. This supply can be met by a 6.3 square meter, polypropylene collector surface area to heat 15 degree, network fed water. The basis of the system's design and its main performance characteristics, simulated and prototype, are outlined in this paper.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the shallow groundwater quality in a typical irrigation area with reclaimed water, North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaomin; Xiao, Yong; Yin, Shiyang; Pan, Xingyao; Niu, Yong; Shao, Jingli; Cui, Yali; Zhang, Qiulan; Hao, Qichen

    2017-09-22

    In this study, the hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater were analyzed to get insight into the factors affecting groundwater quality in a typical agricultural dominated area of the North China Plain. Forty-four shallow groundwater samples were collected for chemical analysis. The water type changes from Ca·Na-HCO3 type in grass land to Ca·Na-Cl (+NO3) type and Na (Ca)-Cl (+NO3+SO4) type in construction and facility agricultural land, indicating the influence of human activities. The factor analysis and geostatistical analysis revealed that the two major factors contributing to the groundwater hydrochemical compositions were the water-rock interaction and contamination from sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizers. The major ions (F, HCO3) and trace element (As) in the shallow groundwater represented the natural origin, while the nitrate and sulfate concentrations were related to the application of fertilizer and sewage discharge in the facility agricultural area, which was mainly affected by the human activities. The values of pH, total dissolved solids, electric conductivity, and conventional component (K, Ca, Na, Mg, Cl) in shallow groundwater increased from grass land and cultivated land, to construction land and to facility agriculture which were originated from the combination sources of natural processes (e.g., water-rock interaction) and human activities (e.g., domestic effluents). The study indicated that both natural processes and human activities had influences on the groundwater hydrochemical compositions in shallow groundwater, while anthropogenic processes had more contribution, especially in the reclaimed water irrigation area.

  14. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reclaiming the lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2016-01-01

    belonging during a weeklong uprising in defense of Lake Conococha. Highlighting the collective actions and personal narratives from participants in the region-wide blockade, the article therefore seeks to understand how dispossessions of environmental resources perceived as common property are cast in terms...... of individual rights that move well beyond the site of conflict. It is therefore argued that the actions to reclaim Lake Conococha were not only a battle for natural resources and clean water, but more fundamentally an attempt to repossess a citizenship that may be constitutionally secured but all too oft en...

  16. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers’ willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owusu Amponsah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals into the environment. The indiscriminative use of pharmaceutical products by households in many of these countries is another source of health concern. Low quality water treatment in these countries has however been hampered by the high cost of infrastructure provision and maintenance. Cost-sharing among stakeholders appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations were selected and interviewed in Kumasi in Ghana using semi-structured interview schedules and interview guides respectively. The results of the study show that approximately three out of every five vegetable farmers were willing to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation. The results further show that the probability of being willing to pay by farmers who agreed that the current water they used for irrigation was harmful is approximately 5.3 times greater than that of those who did not. The analysis of the farmers’ ability to pay revealed that all the farmers would be capable of paying for reclaimed water at a price of US$0.11/m3. This has implications for land tenure security and vegetable consumers' willingness to pay higher prices for the produce.

  17. The policy implications of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers' willingness and ability to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Braimah, Imoro

    2016-01-01

    The acute waste management problems, coupled with the proliferation of small scale industries in many developing countries, make low quality water treatment before use inevitable in the long run. These industries have the potential to discharge effluent containing chemicals and heavy metals...... appears to be a promising strategy to finance and maintain the wastewater treatment infrastructure. In this study therefore, the willingness and ability of urban open space commercial vegetable farmers to pay for reclaimed water for irrigation purposes has been assessed. One hundred open space commercial...

  18. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Meteor showers in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Recent work on meteor showers is reviewed. New data is presented on the long duration showers that wander in sun-centered ecliptic coordinates. Since the early days of meteor photography, much progress has been made in mapping visual meteor showers, using low-light video cameras instead. Now, some 820,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured by four orbit surveys during 2007-2015. Mapped in sun-centered ecliptic coordinates in 5° intervals of solar longitude, the data show a number of long duration (>15 days) meteor showers that have drifting radiants and speeds with solar longitude. 18 showers emerge from the antihelion source and follow a drift pattern towards high ecliptic latitudes. 27 Halley-type showers in the apex source move mostly towards lower ecliptic longitudes, but those at high ecliptic latitudes move backwards. Also, 5 low-speed showers appear between the toroidal ring and the apex source, moving towards the antihelion source. Most other showers do not last long, or do not move much in sun-centered ecliptic coordinates. The surveys also detected episodic showers, which mostly document the early stages of meteoroid stream formation. New data on the sporadic background have shed light on the dynamical evolution of the zodiacal cloud.

  20. Ecotoxicity assessment of artificial groundwater recharge with reclaimed water: a pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan

    2013-11-01

    A demonstration of artificial groundwater recharge with tertiary effluent was evaluated using a set of bioassays (acute toxicity to Daphnia, genotoxicity, estrogenic and antiestrogenic toxicity). Around 95 % genotoxicity and 53 % antiestrogenicity were removed from the feed water by ozonation, whereas significant reduction of acute toxicity to Daphnia magna was achieved during a 3 days vadose soil treatment. The toxicity was further removed to the same level as the local groundwater during a 20 days aquifer soil treatment. The pilot study has shown that ozonation and soil treatments can improve the quality of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents for possible groundwater recharge purposes.

  1. Removal of Nitrogen and COD from Reclaimed Water during Long-Term Simulated Soil Aquifer Treatment System under Different Hydraulic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Pan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed water is an important supplementary source for fresh water. Purification is necessary prior to utilization in order to minimize the pollution and human-health risk. A three-year experiment was carried out to study the removal of nitrogen and organics through a simulated soil aquifer treatment (SAT system under continuous wetting and wetting/drying conditions. The removal performance of nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand (COD was improved in the wetting/drying column. The average removal efficiencies of the three years were 51% and 78% for the NO3–N, 41% and 51% for the NH4–N, and 40% and 50% for the COD in the continuous wetting and wetting/drying columns. Nitrogen and COD removal mainly took place within the top 20 cm of the columns, which was highly correlated with the distribution of microorganisms. The amount of microorganisms was also positively correlated with the content of organic matter and dissolved oxygen (DO in both soil columns. NO3–N can be removed effectively via aerobic denitrifying bacteria as the DO concentration was 3–6 mg/L. DO and NO3–N were simultaneously reduced as the electron acceptors for COD degradation, and DO only accounted for 40% of total electron acceptor in COD degradation for the continuous wetting column. Nitrogen and COD can be effectively and steadily removed from reclaimed water during the long-term operation of a SAT system.

  2. The Vincia parton shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, W.T.; Hartgring, L.; Kosower, D.A.; Laenen, E.L.M.P.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lopez-Villarejo, J.; Ritzmann, M.; Skands, P.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in the VINCIA parton shower. After a brief review of the basics of the formalism, the extension of VINCIA to hadron collisions is sketched. We then turn to improvements of the efficiency of tree-level matching by making the shower history unique and by incorporating

  3. Novel Anionic Clay Adsorbents for Boiler-Blow-Down Waters Reclaim and Reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore Tsotsis

    2010-01-08

    Arsenic (As) and Selenium (Se) are found in water in the form of oxyanions. Relatively high concentrations of As and Se have been reported both in power plant discharges, as well as, in fresh water supplies. The International Agency for Research on Cancer currently classifies As as a group 1 chemical, that is considered to be carcinogenic to humans. In Phase I of this project we studied the adsorption of As and Se by uncalcined and calcined layered double hydroxide (LDH). The focus of the present work is a systematic study of the adsorption of As and Se by conditioned LDH adsorbents. Conditioning the adsorbent significantly reduced the Mg and Al dissolution observed with uncalcined and calcined LDH. The adsorption rates and isotherms have been investigated in batch experiments using particles of four different particle size ranges. As(V) adsorption is shown to follow a Sips-type adsorption isotherm. The As(V) adsorption rate on conditioned LDH increases with decreasing adsorbent particle size; the adsorption capacity, on the other hand, is independent of the particle size. A homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) and a bi-disperse pore model (BPM) - the latter viewing the LDH particles as assemblages of microparticles and taking into account bulk diffusion in the intraparticle pore space, and surface diffusion within the microparticles themselves - were used to fit the experimental kinetic data. The HSDM estimated diffusivity values dependent on the particle size, whereas the BPM predicted an intracrystalline diffusivity, which is fairly invariant with particle size. The removal of As(V) on conditioned LDH adsorbents was also investigated in flow columns, where the impact of important solution and operational parameters such as influent As concentration, pH, sorbent particle size and flow rate were studied. An early breakthrough and saturation was observed at higher flow rates and at higher influent concentrations, whereas a decrease in the sorbent particle

  4. The long-term resistance mechanisms, critical irrigation threshold and relief capacity shown by Eugenia myrtifolia plants in response to saline reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José Ramón; Hernández, José Antonio; Álvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Sánchez-Blanco, María Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Salts present in irrigation water are serious problems for commercial horticulture, particularly in semi-arid regions. Reclaimed water (RW) typically contains, among others elements, high levels of salts, boron and heavy metal. Phytotoxic ion accumulation in the substrate has been linked to different electric conductivities of the treatments. Based on these premises, we studied the long-term effect of three reclaimed water treatments with different saline concentrations on Eugenia myrtifolia plants. We also looked at the ability of these plants to recover when no drainage was applied. The RW with the highest electric conductivity (RW3, EC = 6.96 dS m-1) provoked a number of responses to salinity in these plants, including: 1) accumulation and extrusion of phytotoxic ions in roots; 2) a decrease in the shoot/root ratio, leaf area, number of leaves; 3) a decrease in root hydraulic conductivity, leaf water potential, the relative water content of leaves, leaf stomatal conductance, the leaf photosynthetic rate, water-use efficiency and accumulated evapotranspiration in order to limit water loss; and 4) changes in the antioxidant defence mechanisms. These different responses induced oxidative stress, which can explain the damage caused in the membranes, leading to the death of RW3 plants during the relief period. The behaviour observed in RW2 plants was slightly better compared with RW3 plants, although at the end of the experiment about 55% of the RW2 plants also died, however RW containing low salinity level (RW1, EC = 2.97 dS m-1) can be effective for plant irrigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Underground water Cherenkov muon detector array with the Tibet air shower array for gamma-ray astronomy in the 100 TeV region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenomori, M.; Ayabe, S.; Bi, X. J.; Chen, D.; Cui, S. W.; Danzengluobu; Ding, L. K.; Ding, X. H.; Feng, C. F.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. Y.; Geng, Q. X.; Guo, H. W.; He, H. H.; He, M.; Hibino, K.; Hotta, N.; Hu, Haibing; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J.; Huang, Q.; Jia, H. Y.; Kajino, F.; Kasahara, K.; Katayose, Y.; Kato, C.; Kawata, K.; Labaciren; Le, G. M.; Li, A. F.; Li, J. Y.; Lu, H.; Lu, S. L.; Meng, X. R.; Mizutani, K.; Mu, J.; Munakata, K.; Nagai, A.; Nanjo, H.; Nishizawa, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohta, I.; Onuma, H.; Ouchi, T.; Ozawa, S.; Ren, J. R.; Saito, T.; Saito, T. Y.; Sakata, M.; Sako, T. K.; Sasaki, T.; Shibata, M.; Shiomi, A.; Shirai, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Takita, M.; Tan, Y. H.; Tateyama, N.; Torii, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Udo, S.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, H. R.; Xue, L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yan, C. T.; Yang, X. C.; Yasue, S.; Ye, Z. H.; Yu, G. C.; Yuan, A. F.; Yuda, T.; Zhang, H. M.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, N. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yi; Zhaxisangzhu; Zhou, X. X.

    2007-06-01

    We propose to build a large water-Cherenkov-type muon-detector array (Tibet MD array) around the 37 000 m2 Tibet air shower array (Tibet AS array) already constructed at 4300 m above sea level in Tibet, China. Each muon detector is a waterproof concrete pool, 6 m wide × 6 m long × 1.5 m deep in size, equipped with a 20 inch-in-diameter PMT. The Tibet MD array consists of 240 muon detectors set up 2.5 m underground. Its total effective area will be 8640 m2 for muon detection. The Tibet MD array will significantly improve gamma-ray sensitivity of the Tibet AS array in the 100 TeV region (10 1000 TeV) by means of gamma/hadron separation based on counting the number of muons accompanying an air shower. The Tibet AS+MD array will have the sensitivity to gamma rays in the 100 TeV region by an order of magnitude better than any other previous existing detectors in the world.

  6. Characteristics of GHG flux from water-air interface along a reclaimed water intake area of the Chaobai River in Shunyi, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baonan; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-01

    To understand greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in reclaimed water intake area impact on urban climate, 'static chamber' method was used to investigate the spatio-diurnal variations and the influence factors of GHG fluxes at water-air interface from Jian River to Chaobai River. Results showed that the average fluxes of CO2 from the Jian River and the Chaobai River were 73.46 mg(m2·h)-1 and -64.75 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively. CO2 was emitted the most in the Jian River, but it was absorbed from the atmosphere in the Chaobai River. Unary linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and pH variation controlled the carbon source and sink from the Jian River to the Chaobai River. The diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes was higher at night than in the daytime in the Jian River, and it was the inverse in the Chaobai River, which highly correlated with dissociative CO2 and HCO3- transformation to CO32-. The average fluxes of CH4 from the Jian River and Chaobai River were 0.973 mg(m2·h)-1 and 5.556 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively, which increased along the water flow direction. Unary and multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chl a and total organic carbon (TOC) controlled the increase of CH4 along the flow direction. The diurnal variation of CH4 fluxes was slightly higher in the daytime than at night due to the effect of water temperature.

  7. Simultaneous determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reclaimed water using solid-phase extraction followed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Zhiyong; Lv, Surong; Du, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-03-01

    A new fast and effective analysis method has been developed to simultaneously determine 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reclaimed water samples by ultra-performance convergence chromatography with photodiode array detection and solid-phase extraction. The parameters of ultra-performance convergence chromatography on the separation behaviors and the crucial condition of solid-phase extraction were investigated systematically. Under optimal conditions, the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could be separated within 4 min. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.4-4 and 1-10 μg/L in water, respectively. This approach has been applied to a real industrial wastewater treatment plant successfully. The results showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were dramatically decreased after chemical treatment procedure, and the oxidation procedure was effective to remove trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. On hadronic shower simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wellisch, J P

    1999-01-01

    The exploitation of hadronic final states played a key role in the successes of all recent HEP collider experiments, and the ability to use the hadronic final state will continue to be one of the decisive issues during the LHC era. Monte Carlo techniques to make efficient use of hadronic final states have been developed for many years, and have a technological culmination in object oriented tool-kits for hadronic shower simulation that now are becoming available. In the present paper we give a brief overview on the physics modeling underlying hadronic shower simulation, and report on advanced techniques used and developed for simulation of hadronic showers in HEP experiments. We will discuss the three basic types of modelling - data driven, parametrisation driven, and theory driven modelling - and demonstrate ways to combine them in a flexible manner for concrete applications. We will confront the different types of modelling with the stringent requirements on hadronic shower simulation posed by LHC, and inve...

  9. Paddy periphyton: an important regulator in phosphorus migration between the soil and water interface in coastal reclaimed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiying; Xu, Zhaolong; Shao, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    Periphyton plays an important role in nutrient cycling of wetland ecosystems, however, the significance of periphyton that growing in paddy ecosystem (paddy periphyton), especially on soil surface of mudflat reclamation, on phosphorus and salt migration in coastal reclaimed paddy filed is still unclear. In the present paper, a paddy field was simulated in a greenhouse to investigate how periphyton influences P migration in paddy ecosystem. Results showed that periphyton colonizing on paddy field significantly reduced the salt content in the topsoil (0-10 cm) from about 6.0 to 2.5 ms cm-1. Also, the presence of periphyton greatly reduced P content in paddy floodwater but increased P bioavailability of paddy soil. Furthermore, comparing with the control, the maximal P sorption capacity (qm) and equilibrium P concentration at zero sorption (EPC0) of the paddy soil based on Langmuir model were enhanced under periphyton treatments. The paddy periphyton captured P up to 1.4 mg g-1 with Ca-P as the dominant P fraction and can be a potential crop fertilizer. This study not only provides valuable insights into the understanding of phosphorus cycling with periphyton or similar aggregates, but for technical support for P regulation in paddy field.

  10. Analysis of profitability of using a heat recovery system from grey water discharged from the shower (case study of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordana, Sabina; Słys, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The paper analyses the profitability of the use of Drain Water Heat Recovery units. An original simulation model was used for this purpose, and a detached residential building located in Poland was selected as the test facility. The conducted analysis proved that the type of the hot water heater has decisive influence on the profitability level of such an investment. Application of the abovementioned technology is particularly profitable, when water is heated with the use of an electrical device. When the energy source in the system is a gas water heater, the obtained calculation results are not as favourable, and the period of investment return in many cases exceeds the expected service life of these devices. Moreover, the analysis demonstrated that the potential energy savings, and thus also the financial savings, may be in both cases increased as a result of simultaneous intake of water from various water taps.

  11. Annual variations and effects of temperature on Legionella spp. and other potential opportunistic pathogens in tap and shower water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data contained in this worksheet provides the quantitative detection of potential pathogens for the bathroom water samples used in this study. This dataset is...

  12. Reclaiming an environmental advantage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Orders for purpose-built, high-capacity coal stockyard machines are booming, thanks to greater ecological awareness. The article reports on recent orders for stackers and reclaimers placed with major manufacturers Sandvik Mining and Construction, Schade Lagertechnik and Takraf. 4 photos.

  13. Health risk assessment of inhalation exposure of irrigation workers and the public to trihalomethanes from reclaimed water in landscape irrigation in Tianjin, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Chen; Niu, Zhi-Guang; Zhang, Ying

    2013-11-15

    To estimate the concentration in air and the cancer risk of irrigation workers and the public exposed to the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) in reclaimed water used for landscape irrigation, a probabilistic health risk assessment was conducted through the integrated use of one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) Monte Carlo simulations. Before the 2-D simulation, a sensitivity analysis corresponding to the 1-D simulation was carried out to identity the factors most affecting the outputs. The results reveal that the TTHM concentration level and cancer risk for workers' exposure is much higher than that for public exposure in landscape irrigation. Moreover, the most influential factors are quite different for workers' exposure and public exposure. The 2-D Monte Carlo risk analysis result for the workers indicated that the lowest-risk, highest-risk and two critical points for irrigation height are 0.7 m, 1.53 m, 1.4m and 1.65 m when the mean value of the risk is selected as the reference statistic for risk management. Based on the risk assessment results, different measures can be suggested for the risk control of different populations. Furthermore, the influential variables should be better characterized to improve the accuracy of health risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vertical distribution of archaeal communities associated with anaerobic degradation of pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) in river-based groundwater recharge with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulin; Ma, Mengsi; Liu, Xiang; Ma, Weifang; Li, Yangyao

    2018-02-01

    When groundwater is recharged with reclaimed water, the presence of trace amounts of biorefractory pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE, specifically BDE-99) might cause potential groundwater pollution. A laboratory-scale column was designed to investigate the distribution of the community of archaea in this scenario and the associated anaerobic degradation of BDE-99. The concentration of BDE-99 decreased significantly as soil depth increased, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis suggested that archaea exerted significant effects on the biodegradation of PBDE. Through 454 pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes, we found that the distribution and structure of the archaeal community associated with anaerobic degradation of BDE-99 in the river-based aquifer media changed significantly between different soil depths. The primary debrominated metabolites varied with changes in the vertically distributed archaeal community. The archaea in the surface layer were dominated by Methanomethylovorans, and the middle layer was mainly composed of Nitrososphaera. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrososphaera were equally abundant in the bottom layer. In addition, Methanomethylovorans abundance depended on the depth of soil, and the relative abundance of Nitrosopumilus increased with increasing depth, which was associated with the oxidation-reduction potential and the content of intermediate metabolites. We propose that Nitrososphaera and Nitrosopumilus might be the key archaeal taxa mediating the biodegradation of BDE-99.

  15. Some aspects of analytical chemistry as applied to water quality assurance techniques for reclaimed water: The potential use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for automated on-line fast real-time simultaneous multi-component analysis of inorganic pollutants in reclaimed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, A. C.; Macpherson, L. H.; Rey, M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential use of isotopically excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry for automated on line fast real time (5 to 15 minutes) simultaneous multicomponent (up to 20) trace (1 to 10 parts per billion) analysis of inorganic pollutants in reclaimed water was examined. Three anionic elements (chromium 6, arsenic and selenium) were studied. The inherent lack of sensitivity of XRF spectrometry for these elements mandates use of a preconcentration technique and various methods were examined, including: several direct and indirect evaporation methods; ion exchange membranes; selective and nonselective precipitation; and complexation processes. It is shown tha XRF spectrometry itself is well suited for automated on line quality assurance, and can provide a nondestructive (and thus sample storage and repeat analysis capabilities) and particularly convenient analytical method. Further, the use of an isotopically excited energy dispersive unit (50 mCi Cd-109 source) coupled with a suitable preconcentration process can provide sufficient sensitivity to achieve the current mandated minimum levels of detection without the need for high power X-ray generating tubes.

  16. Modeling ozone mass transfer in reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pan; Chen, Hsiao-Ting; Babcock, Roger W; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2009-01-01

    Ozone mass transfer in reclaimed water was evaluated at pilot scale to determine mass-transfer characteristics and reaction kinetics and to assess the use of oxygen as a surrogate to measure this process. Tests were conducted in a 40-L/min pilot plant over a 3-year period. Nonsteady-state mass-transfer analyses for both oxygen and ozone were performed for superficial gas flow rates ranging from 0.13m/min to 0.40m/min. The psi factor, which is the ratio of volumetric mass-transfer coefficients of ozone to oxygen, was determined. The decrease in oxygen transfer rate caused by contaminants in reclaimed water was only 10 to 15% compared to tap water. A simple mathematical model was developed to describe transfer rate and steady state ozone concentration. Ozone decay was modeled accurately as a pseudo first-order reaction between ozone and ozone-demanding materials.

  17. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  18. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  19. Water-quality data for two surface coal mines reclaimed with alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge, Clarion County, Pennsylvania, May 1983 through November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, D.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Saad, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-quality and other hydrologic data for two surface coal mines in Clarion County, Pa., were collected during 1983-89 as part of studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. Water samples were collected from streams, seeps, monitor wells, and lysimeters on a monthly basis to evaluate changes in water quality resulting from the addition of alkaline waste or urban sewage sludge to the reclaimed mine-spoil surface. The mines are about 3.5 miles apart and were mined for bituminous coal of the upper and lower Clarion seams of the Allegheny Group of Pennsylvanian age. The coal had high sulfur (greater than 2 weight percent) concentrations. Acidic mine drainage is present at both mines. At one mine, about 8 years after mining was completed, large quantities (greater than 400 tons per acre) of alkaline waste consisting of limestone and lime-kiln flue dust were applied on two 2.5-acre plots within the 65-acre mine area. Water-quality data for the alkaline-addition plots and surrounding area were collected for 1 year before and 3 years after application of the alkaline additives (May 1983-July 1987). Data collected for the alkaline-addition study include ground-water level, surface-water discharge rate, temperature, specific conductance, pH, and concentrations of alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, iron (total and ferrous), manganese, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium. At the other mine, about 3.5 years after mining was completed, urban sewage sludge was applied over 60 acres within the 150-acre mine area. Waterquality data for the sludge-addition study were collected for 3.5 years after the application of the sludge (June 1986-December 1989). Data collected for the sludge-addition study include the above constituents plus dissolved oxygen, redox potential (Eh), and concentrations of dissolved solids, phosphorus, nitrogen species, sulfide, chloride, silica, sodium, potassium, cyanide, arsenic, barium

  20. 17α-Ethynylestradiol biodegradation in different river-based groundwater recharge modes with reclaimed water and degradation-associated community structure of bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weifang; Sun, Jiaji; Li, Yangyao; Lun, Xiaoxiu; Shan, Dan; Nie, Chao; Liu, Miaomiao

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) biodegradation process and primary metabolic pathways associated with community structures of microorganism during groundwater recharge using reclaimed water. The attenuation rate is 1.58 times higher in wetting and drying alternative recharge (WDAR) than in continual recharge (CR). The primary biotransformation pathways of EE2 in WDAR system began with the oxidation of C-17 on ring D to form a ketone group, and D-ring was subsequently hydroxylated and cleaved. In the CR system, the metabolic pathway changed from the oxidation of C-17 on ring D to hydroxylation of C-4 on ring A, and ring A or B subsequently cleaved; this transition was related to DO, and the microbial community structure. Four hundred fifty four pyrosequencing of 16s rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial communities in the upper layer of the WDAR system were more diverse than those found in the bottom layer of the CR system; this result was reversed for archaea. Unweighted UniFrac and taxonomic analyses were conducted to relate the change in bacterial community structure to the metabolic pathway. Microorganism community diversity and structure were related to the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, EE2 and its intermediates in the system. Five known bacterial classes and one known archaeal class, five major bacterial genera and one major archaeal genus might be involved in EE2 degradation. The findings of this study provide an understanding of EE2 biodegradation in groundwater recharge areas under different recharging modes and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of EE2 in underground aquifers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of sucralose in reclaimed and drinking waters and its photo degradation in natural waters from South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchu, Sudha Rani; Quinete, Natalia; Panditi, Venkata R; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-08-22

    Sucralose has gained popularity as a low calorie artificial sweetener worldwide. Due to its high stability and persistence, sucralose has shown widespread occurrence in environmental waters, at concentrations that could reach up to several μg/L. Previous studies have used time consuming sample preparation methods (offline solid phase extraction/derivatization) or methods with rather high detection limits (direct injection) for sucralose analysis. This study described a faster and sensitive analytical method for the determination of sucralose in environmental samples. An online SPE-LC-MS/MS method was developed, being capable to quantify sucralose in 12 minutes using only 10 mL of sample, with method detection limits (MDLs) of 4.5 ng/L, 8.5 ng/L and 45 ng/L for deionized water, drinking and reclaimed waters (1:10 diluted with deionized water), respectively. Sucralose was detected in 82% of the reclaimed water samples at concentrations reaching up to 18 μg/L. The monthly average for a period of one year was 9.1 ± 2.9 μg/L. The calculated mass loads per capita of sucralose discharged through WWTP effluents based on the concentrations detected in wastewaters in the U. S. is 5.0 mg/day/person. As expected, the concentrations observed in drinking water were much lower but still relevant reaching as high as 465 ng/L. In order to evaluate the stability of sucralose, photodegradation experiments were performed in natural waters. Significant photodegradation of sucralose was observed only in freshwater at 254 nm. Minimal degradation (sucralose identified by high resolution mass spectrometry was a de-chlorinated molecule at m/z 362.0535, with molecular formula C12H20Cl2O8. Online SPE LC-APCI/MS/MS developed in the study was applied to more than 100 environmental samples. Sucralose was frequently detected (>80%) indicating that the conventional treatment process employed in the sewage treatment plants is not efficient for its removal. Detection of sucralose

  2. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  3. Investigation into Sources of Fipronil in Surface Water and Identification of a Novel Fipronil Metabolite in Reclaimed Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide used to control termites, fleas, roaches, ants, and other pests in residential and agricultural settings. Fipronil has been found in various environmental media (surface water, wastewater, indoor and outdoor dust, etc) and is known to un...

  4. Solar disinfection of wastewater to reduce contamination of lettuce crops by Escherichia coli in reclaimed water irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichai, Françoise; Polo-López, M Inmaculada; Fernández Ibañez, Pilar

    2012-11-15

    Low-cost disinfection methods to allow safe use of recycled wastewater for irrigation can have important beneficial implications in the developing world. This study aims to assess the efficiency of solar disinfection to reduce microbial contamination of lettuce crops when solar-treated wastewater effluents are used for irrigation. The irrigation study was designed as a complete experimental loop, including (i) the production of irrigation water through solar disinfection of real municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents (WWTPE), (ii) the watering of cultivated lettuce crops at the end of solar treatment, and (iii) the detection of microbial contamination on the irrigated crops 24 h after irrigation. Solar disinfection was performed using two types of reactors: (i) 20-L batch borosilicate glass reactors equipped with CPC to optimize solar irradiation, and (ii) 1.5-L PET bottles, i.e. the traditional SODIS recipients commonly used for disinfection of drinking water in developing communities. Both solar and H(2)O(2)-aided solar disinfection processes were tested during ≤5 h exposure of WWTPE, and Escherichia coli inactivation was analysed. A presence/absence detection method was developed to analyse lettuce leaves sampled 24 h after watering for the detection of E. coli. Results of inactivation assays show that solar disinfection processes can bring down bacterial concentrations of >10(3)-10(4)E. coli CFU mL(-1) in real WWTPE to <2 CFU/mL (detection limit). The absence of E. coli on most lettuce samples after irrigation with solar-disinfected effluents (26 negative samples/28) confirmed an improved safety of irrigation practices due to solar treatment, while crops irrigated with raw WWTPE showed contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New meteor showers – yes or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukal, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    The development of meteor astronomy associated with the development of CCD technology is reflected in a huge increase in databases of meteor orbits. It has never been possible before in the history of meteor astronomy to examine properties of meteors or meteor showers. Existing methods for detecting new meteor showers seem to be inadequate in these circumstances. The spontaneous discovery of new meteor showers leads to ambiguous specifications of new meteor showers. There is a duplication of already discovered meteor showers and a division of existing meteor showers based on their own criteria. The analysis in this article considers some new meteor showers in the IAU MDC database.

  6. The effects of water management on the CO2 uptake of Sphagnum moss in a reclaimed peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Brown

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To harvest Sphagnum on a cyclic basis and rapidly accumulate biomass, active water management is necessary. The goal of this study is to determine the hydrological conditions that will maximise CO2 uptake in Sphagnum farming basins following the moss-layer transfer technique. Plot CO2 uptake doubled from the first growing season to the second, but growth was not uniform across the site. Results indicate that the seasonal oscillations in water table (WT position were more important than actual WT position for estimating Sphagnum ground cover and CO2 uptake when the seasonal WT is shallow (< -25 cm. Plots with higher productivity had a WT range (seasonal maximum – minimum less than 15 cm, a WT position which did not fluctuate more than ± 7.5 cm, and a low WT standard deviation. Each basin was a CO2 source during the second growing season, and seasonal modelled NEE ranged from 107.1 to 266.8 g CO2 m-2. Decomposition from the straw mulch accounted for over half of seasonal respiration, and the site is expected to become a CO2 sink as the straw mulch decomposes and moss cover increases. This study highlights the importance of maintaining stable moisture conditions to increase Sphagnum growth and CO2 sink functions.

  7. The Mbale meteorite shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Betlem, Hans; Betlem, Jan; Barifaijo, Erasmus; Schluter, Thomas; Hampton, Craig; Laubenstien, Matthias; Kunz, Joachim; Heusser, Gerd

    1994-01-01

    On 1992 August 14 at 12:40 UTC, an ordinary chondrite of type L5/6 entered the atmosphere over Mbale, Uganda, broke up, and caused a strewn field of size 3 x 7 km. Shortly after the fall, an expedition gathered eye witness accounts and located the position of 48 impacts of masses between 0.19 and 27.4 kg. Short-lived radionuclide data were measured for two specimens, one of which was only 12 days after the fall. Subsequent recoveries of fragements has resulted in a total of 863 mass estimates by 1993 October. The surfaces of all fragments contain fusion crust. The meteorite shower caused some minor inconveniences. Most remarkably, a young boy was hit on the head by a small specimen. The data interpreted as to indicate that the meteorite had an initial mass between 400-1000 kg (most likely approximately 1000 kg) and approached Mbale from AZ = 185 +/- 15, H = 55 +/- 15, and V(sub infinity) = 13.5 +/- 1.5/s. Orbital elements are given. Fragmentation of the initial mass started probably above 25 km altitude, but the final catastrophic breakup occurred at an altitude of 10-14 km. An estimated 190 +/- 40 kg reached the Earth's surface minutes after the final breakup of which 150 kg of material has been recovered.

  8. The Field Shower Wastewater Recycling System: Development of a Program of Instruction and Preliminary Analysis of Its Potential Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    showers taken during the test. Skin Cancer It is unlikely that contact with recycled shower water would cause epithelial cell mutations leading to...skin cancer . None of the chemicals judged likely to remain in treated water have been epidemiologically associated with skin cancers . Also, standard...other toiletries used in the showering process * Topically applied cosmetic and health care products, such as antiperspirants , aftershave lotions

  9. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and (b...

  10. An analytic initial-state parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. Physik; Reuter, J.; Schmidt, S.; Wiesler, D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We present a new algorithm for an analytic parton shower. While the algorithm for the final-state shower has been known in the literature, the construction of an initial-state shower along these lines is new. The aim is to have a parton shower algorithm for which the full analytic form of the probability distribution for all branchings is known. For these parton shower algorithms it is therefore possible to calculate the probability for a given event to be generated, providing the potential to reweight the event after the simulation. We develop the algorithm for this shower including scale choices and angular ordering. Merging to matrix elements is used to describe high-energy tails of distributions correctly. Finally, we compare our results with those of other parton showers and with experimental data from LEP, Tevatron and LHC. (orig.)

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Lorenz; M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2006-04-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed mine soil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by American Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. This report presents the results from two forest sites reclaimed with topsoil application and reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F) and in 1973 (R73-F), and two forest sites without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1969 (R69-F) and 1962 (R62-F). Results from one site under grass without topsoil application and reclaimed in 1962 (R62-G) are also shown. Three core soil samples were collected from each of the experimental sites and each landscape position (upper, middle and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) pores, and available water capacity (AWC) were determined. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC in 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths among the sites R94-F and R73-F reclaimed with topsoil application and under continuous forest cover (P<0.05). VTP and AWC did also not differ among upper, middle and lower landscape positions. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity in 0-15 cm depth at R73-F was significantly lower at the lower compared to the upper landscape position. No significant differences were observed for Ks among landscape positions at R94-F. No significant differences were observed in VTP and AWC among landscape positions and depths within R69-F, R62-F and R62-G. However, saturated hydraulic conductivity was higher in 0-15 cm depth at R62-F than at R69-F and R62-G. At the latter site, Ks was higher in the upper compared to the lower landscape position whereas Ks did not

  12. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltán [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403-5203 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  13. Ordering variable for parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2014-01-15

    The parton splittings in a parton shower are ordered according to an ordering variable, for example the transverse momentum of the daughter partons relative to the direction of the mother, the virtuality of the splitting, or the angle between the daughter partons. We analyze the choice of the ordering variable and conclude that one particular choice has the advantage of factoring softer splittings from harder splittings graph by graph in a physical gauge.

  14. Corrigendum to “Sorption/desorption of non-hydrophobic and ionisable pharmaceutical and personal care products from reclaimed water onto/from a natural sediment” Sci Total Environ 472 (2014) 273–281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes, E-mail: virtudes.martinez@imdea.org [IMDEA Agua, Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Water, Parque Científico Tecnológico de la Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Meffe, Raffaella; Herrera, Sonia [IMDEA Agua, Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Water, Parque Científico Tecnológico de la Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, Elena [University of Alcalá, Geography and Geology Department, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Bustamante, Irene de [IMDEA Agua, Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies in Water, Parque Científico Tecnológico de la Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); University of Alcalá, Geography and Geology Department, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the sorption of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) (acetaminophen, atenolol, carbamazepine, caffeine, naproxen and sulphamethoxazole) onto the natural organic matter (NOM) and the inorganic surfaces of a natural sandy loam sediment was quantified separately. The quantification was based on the PPCP charge, their degree of ionisation, their octanol-water partitioning coefficient (K{sub OW}) and the sediment organic carbon fraction (ƒ{sub OC}). PPCP desorption from the sediment was examined under conditions of infiltrating water containing a high concentration of inorganic ions (mimicking infiltrating reclaimed water), and a low concentration (and smaller diversity) of inorganic ions (mimicking rainwater infiltration). Batch tests were performed using a sediment/water ratio of 1:4 and a PPCP initial concentration ranging from 1 to 100 μg L{sup −1}. The results showed the type and degree of PPCP ionisation to strongly influence the sorption of these compounds onto the sediment. The sorption of cationic species onto the sediment was higher than that of anionic species and mostly reversible; the sorption of neutral species was negligible with the exception of caffeine. The anionic species sorbed less onto the sediment, but also desorbed less easily. Most of the compounds showed a sorption that was highly influenced by interaction with mineral surfaces. The presence of inorganic ions had no impact on the desorption of the PPCPs from the sediment. According to the calculated percentages of removal, the mobility followed the order: carbamazepine > acetaminophen > naproxen > atenolol > sulphamethoxazole > caffeine.

  15. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater; El reto de la reutilizacion de aguas usadas: tratamiento intensivo de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-07-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. The influence of physicochemical properties on the internal dose of trihalomethanes in humans following a controlled showering exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lalith K; Backer, Lorraine C; Ashley, David L; Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Nuckols, John R; Wilkes, Charles R; Blount, Benjamin C

    2013-01-01

    Although disinfection of domestic water supply is crucial for protecting public health from waterborne diseases, this process forms potentially harmful by-products, such as trihalomethanes (THMs). We evaluated the influence of physicochemical properties of four THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) on the internal dose after showering. One hundred volunteers showered for 10 min in a controlled setting with fixed water flow, air flow, and temperature. We measured THMs in shower water, shower air, bathroom air, and blood samples collected at various time intervals. The geometric mean (GM) for total THM concentration in shower water was 96.2 μg/l. The GM of total THM in air increased from 5.8 μg/m(3) pre shower to 351 μg/m(3) during showering. Similarly, the GM of total-blood THM concentration increased from 16.5 ng/l pre shower to 299 ng/l at 10 min post shower. THM levels were significantly correlated between different matrices (e.g. dibromochloromethane levels) in water and air (r=0.941); blood and water (r=0.845); and blood and air (r=0.831). The slopes of best-fit lines for THM levels in water vs air and blood vs air increased with increasing partition coefficient of water/air and blood/air. The slope of the correlation plot of THM levels in water vs air decreased in a linear (r=0.995) fashion with increasing Henry's law constant. The physicochemical properties (volatility, partition coefficients, and Henry's law constant) are useful parameters for predicting THM movement between matrices and understanding THM exposure during showering.

  17. Application of Reclaimed Wastewater in the Irrigation of Rosebushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Luccas Erickson de Oliveira; Tonetti, Adriano Luiz; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Coraucci Filho, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The use of reclaimed wastewater in agriculture can be a solution for regions with water shortages or low rainfall periods; besides fulfilling the crop's water needs, it would also promote the recycle of nutrients. However, care should be taken regarding soil salinization, especially in closed environments such as greenhouses for the cultivation of ornamental plants. The domestic effluents are rich in sodium which can accumulate on soil and cause soil sealing. This study evaluated the use of effluents from anaerobic filters and intermittent sand filters in the production of rosebushes (Rosa hybrida "Ambiance"). The crop yield of the rosebushes irrigated with reclaimed wastewater exceeded the one obtained with traditional cultivation, reaching a value 31.8 % higher when employing nitrified effluent originated from intermittent sand filters, with no difference in the product quality. The salinity levels are below the critical limits found in the literature; however, there was a significant increase compared to the irrigation with drinking water.

  18. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barberio, E.; /Melbourne U.; Boudreau, J.; /Pittsburgh U.; Butler, B.; /SLAC; Cheung, S.L.; /Toronto U.; Dell' Acqua, A.; /CERN; Di Simone, A.; /CERN; Ehrenfeld, W.; /Hamburg U. /DESY; Gallas, M.V.; /CERN; Glazov, A.; /DESY; Marshall, Z.; /Caltech /Nevis Labs, Columbia U.; Mueller, J.; /Pittsburgh U.; Placakyte, R.; /DESY; Rimoldi, A.; /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia; Savard, P.; /Toronto U.; Tsulaia, V.; /Pittsburgh U.; Waugh, A.; /Sydney U.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  19. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-04-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOM in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 2003 (R03-G), in 1973 (R73-F), in 1969 (R69-G), in 1962 (R62-G and R62-F) and in 1957 (R57-F). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three landscape positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The samples were air dried and using wet sieving technique were fractionated into macro (> 2mm), meso (2-0.25 mm) and microaggregate (0.25-0.053 mm). These fractions were weighted separately and water stable aggregation (WSA) and geometric mean (GMD) and mean weight (MWD) diameters of aggregates were obtained. The soil C and N concentrations were also determined on these aggregate fractions. Analysis of mean values showed that in general, WSA and MWD of aggregates increased with increasing duration since reclamation or age of reclaimed soil for all three landscape positions and two depths in sites under continuous grass. The forest sites were relatively older than grass sites and therefore WSA or MWD of aggregates did not show any increases with age since reclamation. The lower WSA in R57-F site than R73-F clearly showed the effect of soil erosion on aggregate stability. Higher aggregation and aggregate diameters in R73-F than R62-F and R57

  20. Scaling analysis of meteorite shower mass distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Lene; Meibom, A.; Bohr, Jakob

    1998-01-01

    Meteorite showers are the remains of extraterrestrial objects which are captivated by the gravitational field of the Earth. We have analyzed the mass distribution of fragments from 16 meteorite showers for scaling. The distributions exhibit distinct scaling behavior over several orders of magnetude...

  1. Frozen-shower simulation of electromagnetic showers in the ATLAS forward calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulation of calorimeter response for high energy electromagnetic particles is essential for the LHC experiments. Detailed simulation of the electromagnetic showers using Geant4 is however very CPU intensive and various fast simulation methods were proposed instead. The frozen shower simulation substitutes the full propagation of the showers for energies below 1~GeV by showers taken from a pre-simulated library. The method is used for production of the main ATLAS Monte Carlo samples, greatly improving the production time. The frozen showers describe shower shapes, sampling fraction, sampling and noise-related fluctuations very well, while description of the constant term, related to calorimeter non-uniformity, requires a careful choice of the shower library binning. A new method is proposed to tune the binning variables, using multivariate techniques. The method is tested and optimized for the description of the ATLAS forward calorimeter.

  2. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Soil and General Agriculture

    1997-12-22

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA.

  3. Meteor Shower Identification and Characterization with Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea

    2015-01-01

    The short development time associated with Python and the number of astronomical packages available have led to increased usage within NASA. The Meteoroid Environment Office in particular uses the Python language for a number of applications, including daily meteor shower activity reporting, searches for potential parent bodies of meteor showers, and short dynamical simulations. We present our development of a meteor shower identification code that identifies statistically significant groups of meteors on similar orbits. This code overcomes several challenging characteristics of meteor showers such as drastic differences in uncertainties between meteors and between the orbital elements of a single meteor, and the variation of shower characteristics such as duration with age or planetary perturbations. This code has been proven to successfully and quickly identify unusual meteor activity such as the 2014 kappa Cygnid outburst. We present our algorithm along with these successes and discuss our plans for further code development.

  4. Biofilms on Hospital Shower Hoses: Characterization and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the source of drinking water used in hospitals is commonly, biofilms on water pipelines are refuge to bacteria that survive different disinfection strategies. Drinking water (DW) biofilms are well known to harbor opportunistic pathogens, however, these biofilm communities remain poorly characterized by culture-independent approaches that circumvent the limitations of conventional monitoring efforts. Hence, the frequency of pathogens in DW biofilms and how biofilm members withstand high doses of disinfectants and/or chlorine residuals in the water supply remain speculative, but directly impact public health. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of microbial communities growing on five hospital shower hoses using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Two different sequence-based methods were used to characterize the bacterial fractions: 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacterial cultures and next generation sequencing of metagenomes. Based on the metagenomic data, we found that Mycobacterium-like species was the abundant bacterial taxa that overlapped among the five samples. We also recovered the draft genome of a novel Mycobacterium species, closely related to opportunistic pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. rhodesiae and M. tusciae, in addition to other, less abundant species. In contrast, the cultured fraction was mostly affiliated to Proteobacteria, such as members of the Sphingomonas, Blastomonas and Porph

  5. Stackers/reclaimers monitor coal quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, K.; Friedrich, J.; Zdercik, J.; Zeman, V.; Fridrichova, I. [Vitkovice-Prodeco a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2002-01-01

    The recent development and construction of two stacker/reclaimers to operate a coal homogenisation storage facility is discussed. Vitkovice-Prodeco engineers have designed the multifunctional stacker/reclaimers which form a coal storage facility and control system to shift coal from the homogenisation stockyard to the coal preparation plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Effects of selective handling of pyritic, acid-forming materials on the chemistry of pore gas and ground water at a reclaimed surface coal mine in Clarion County, PA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.; Dugas, Diana L.; Brady, Keith; Kovalchuck, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A change from dragline to “selective handling” mining methods at a reclaimed surface coal mine in western Pennsylvania did not significantly affect concentrations of metals in ground water because oxidation of pyrite and dissolution of siderite were not abated. Throughout the mine, placement of pyritic material near the land surface facilitated the oxidation of pyrite, causing the consumption of oxygen (O2) and release of acid, iron, and sulfate ions. Locally in the unsaturated zone, water sampled within or near pyritic zones was acidic, with concentrations of sulfate exceeding 3,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L). However, acidic conditions generally did not persist below the water table because of neutralization by carbonate minerals. Dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite in unsaturated and saturated zones produced elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, iron, and manganese. Alkalinity concentrations of 600 to 800 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in water samples from the unsaturated zone in spoil, and alkalinities of 100 to 400 mg/L as CaCO3 were common in ground-water samples from the underlying saturated zone in spoil and bedrock. Saturation indices indicated that siderite could dissolve in water throughout the spoil, but that calcite dissolution or precipitation could occur locally. Calcite dissolution could be promoted as a result of pyrite oxidation, gypsum precipitation, and calcium ion exchange for sodium. Calcite precipitation could be promoted by evapotranspiration and siderite dissolution, and corresponding increases in concentrations of alkalinity and other solutes. Partial pressures of O2 (Po2) and CO2 (Pco2) in spoil pore gas indicated that oxidation of pyrite and precipitation of ferric hydroxide, coupled with dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and siderite were the primary reactions affecting water quality. Highest vertical gradients in Po2, particularly in the near-surface zone (0-1 m), did not correlate

  7. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  8. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2007-12-31

    This research project was aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of RMS and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. Restoration of disturbed land is followed by the application of nutrients to the soil to promote the vegetation development. Reclamation is important both for preserving the environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. Since reclamation treatments have significant influence on the rate of soil development, a study on subplots was designed with the objectives of assessing the potential of different biosolids on soil organic C (SOC) sequestration rate, soil development, and changes in soil physical and water transmission properties. All sites are owned and maintained by American Electric Power (AEP). These sites were reclaimed by two techniques: (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover.

  9. Established meteor shower activity periods and orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggemans, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The CAMS dataset of 111233 orbits collected in the period 2010-2013 has been checked to verify the online data of the IAU meteor shower list. The activity periods for all meteor streams detected in CAMS data has been derived from the solar longitudes of the individual orbits that were associated with the meteor stream. For meteor showers that were absent in the CAMS data, mainly daylight meteor streams, CMOR data has been used to complete the information. To make future associations easier and to avoid mixing up shower data, the official naming and IAU code with the orbital elements are listed in this contribution.

  10. The HADES Pre-Shower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balanda, A.; Jaskula, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kidon, L.; Korcyl, K.; Kuehn, W.; Kulessa, R.; Malarz, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Petri, M.; Pietraszko, J. E-mail: j.pietraszko@gsi.de; Prokopowicz, W.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Skoczen, A.; Szczybura, M.; Wajda, E.; Walus, W.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T

    2004-10-01

    The Pre-Shower detector was built for the high acceptance di-electron spectrometer to identify electrons produced in pion, proton and heavy ion-induced reactions in the 0.2shower formation. A scintillator wall is placed in front of the detector for time-of-flight measurements. The paper describes the Pre-Shower detector construction, the detector operation, the read-out electronics and its response to charged particles studied with electron, proton and heavy ion beams.

  11. Antenna Showers with Hadronic Initial States

    CERN Document Server

    Ritzmann, M; Skands, P

    2013-01-01

    We present an antenna shower formalism including contributions from initial-state partons and corresponding backwards evolution. We give a set of phase-space maps and antenna functions for massless partons which define a complete shower formalism suitable for computing observables with hadronic initial states. We focus on the initial-state components: initial-initial and initial-final antenna configurations. The formalism includes comprehensive possibilities for uncertainty estimates. We report on some preliminary results obtained with an implementation in the Vincia antenna-shower framework.

  12. A Parton Shower for High Energy Jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz; Lonnblad, Leif; M. Smillie, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to match the multi-parton states generated by the High Energy Jets Monte Carlo with parton showers generated by the Ariadne program using the colour dipole model. The High Energy Jets program already includes a full resummation of soft divergences. Hence, in the matching...... it is important that the corresponding divergences in the parton shower are subtracted, keeping only the collinear parts. We present a novel, shower-independent method for achieving this, enabling us to generate fully exclusive and hadronized events with multiple hard jets, in hadronic collisions. We discuss...

  13. Radar reflection off extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the possibility of detecting extensive air showers by the radar technique. Considering a bistatic radar system and different shower geometries, we simulate reflection of radio waves off the static plasma produced by the shower in the air. Using the Thomson cross-section for radio wave reflection, we obtain the time evolution of the signal received by the antennas. The frequency upshift of the radar echo and the power received are studied to verify the feasibility of the radar detection technique.

  14. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  15. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H. W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%. PMID:21149727

  16. Low Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Sterilization Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, R. P.; Beeler, D.; Meyyappan, M.; Khare, B. N.

    2012-10-01

    Low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sterilization shower to address both forward and backward biological contamination issues is presented. The molecular effects of plasma exposure required to sterilize microorganisms is also analysed.

  17. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  18. Uptake of carbamazepine by cucumber plants--a case study related to irrigation with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenker, Moshe; Harush, Daniella; Ben-Ari, Julius; Chefetz, Benny

    2011-02-01

    Reclaimed wastewater is an important source of irrigation in semiarid and arid zones. Here we report data on carbamazepine (CBZ) uptake by cucumber plants in hydroponic culture and greenhouse experiments using different soil types irrigated with fresh water or reclaimed wastewater. Data obtained from the hydroponic culture experiments suggest that CBZ is mainly translocated by water mass flow, and thus it is concentrated and accumulated to the largest extent in the mature/older leaves. Carbamazepine concentration in cucumber fruits and leaves was negatively correlated with soil organic matter content. The concentrations of CBZ in the roots and stems were relatively low, and most CBZ in the plant (76-84% of total uptake) was detected in the leaves. A greenhouse experiment using fresh water and reclaimed wastewater spiked, or not, with CBZ at 1 μg L(-1) (typical concentration in effluents) revealed that CBZ can be taken up and bioaccumulated from its background concentration in reclaimed wastewater. Bioaccumulation factor (calculated as the ratio of CBZ concentration in the plant to that in the soil solution) for the fruits (0.8-1) was significantly lower than the value calculated for the leaves (17-20). This study emphasizes the potential uptake of active pharmaceutical compounds by crops in organic-matter-poor soils irrigated with reclaimed wastewater and highlights the potential risks associated with this agricultural practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microwave detection of air showers with MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facal San Luis, P., E-mail: facal@kicp.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Genat, J.F.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Privitera, P.; Reyes, I.C.; Rouille d& #x27; Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institue and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); and others

    2012-01-11

    MIDAS (MIcrowave Detector of Air Showers) is a prototype of a microwave telescope to detect extensive air showers: it images a 20{sup Degree-Sign } Multiplication-Sign 10{sup Degree-Sign} region of the sky with a 4.5 m parabolic reflector and 53 feeds in the focal plane. It has been commissioned in March 2010 and is currently taking data. We present the design, performance and first results of MIDAS.

  20. Extensive air showers in the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalà, A.; Blanco, F.; La Rocca, P.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pulvirenti, A.; Riggi, F.

    2007-09-01

    The basic properties of extensive air showers of particles produced in the interaction of a high-energy primary cosmic ray in the Earth's atmosphere are discussed in the context of educational cosmic ray projects involving undergraduate students and high-school teams. Simulation results produced by an air shower development code were made available on the Web by the use of ASCII files and EXCEL spreadsheets to allow people to carry out graphical and numerical analyses in cosmic ray physics.

  1. Investigation into sources of fipronil in surface water and identification of a novel fipronil metabolite in reclaimed wastewater (Carolinas SETAC 2015 presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenyl pyrazole insecticide used to control termites, fleas, roaches, ants, and otherpests in residential and agricultural settings. Fipronil has been found in various environmentalmedia (surface water, wastewater, indoor and outdoor dust, etc) and is known to under...

  2. Water quality of streams draining abandoned and reclaimed mined lands in the Kantishna Hills area, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2008–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    The Kantishna Hills are an area of low elevation mountains in the northwest part of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Streams draining the Kantishna Hills are clearwater streams that support several species of fish and are derived from rain, snowmelt, and subsurface aquifers. However, the water quality of many of these streams has been degraded by mining. Past mining practices generated acid mine drainage and excessive sediment loads that affected water quality and aquatic habitat. Because recovery through natural processes is limited owing to a short growing season, several reclamation projects have been implemented on several streams in the Kantishna Hills region. To assess the current water quality of streams in the Kantishna Hills area and to determine if reclamation efforts have improved water quality, a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service was undertaken during 2008-11. High levels of turbidity, an indicator of high concentrations of suspended sediment, were documented in water-quality data collected in the mid-1980s when mining was active. Mining ceased in 1985 and water-quality data collected during this study indicate that levels of turbidity have declined significantly. Turbidity levels generally were less than 2 Formazin Nephelometric Units and suspended sediment concentrations generally were less than 1 milligram per liter during the current study. Daily turbidity data at Rock Creek, an unmined stream, and at Caribou Creek, a mined stream, documented nearly identical patterns of turbidity in 2009, indicating that reclamation as well as natural revegetation in mined streams has improved water quality. Specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions were highest from streams that had been mined. Most of these streams flow into Moose Creek, which functions as an integrator stream, and dilutes the specific conductance and ion concentrations. Calcium and magnesium are the

  3. Macroscopic treatment of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers based on shower simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Klaus; Scholten, Olaf

    We present a macroscopic calculation of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays, based on currents obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of air showers in a realistic geo-magnetic field. We can clearly relate the time signal to the time

  4. Electroweak splitting functions and high energy showering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junmou; Han, Tao; Tweedie, Brock

    2017-11-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2) L × U(1) Y and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. These are the leading contributions at a splitting scale ( k T ) far above the EW scale ( v). We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in v/ k T . We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching between shower and decay, kinematic back-reaction corrections in multi-stage showers, and mixed-state evolution of neutral bosons ( γ/ Z/ h) using density-matrices. We employ the EW showering formalism to study a number of important physical processes at O (1-10 TeV) energies. They include (a) electroweak partons in the initial state as the basis for vector-boson-fusion; (b) the emergence of "weak jets" such as those initiated by transverse gauge bosons, with individual splitting probabilities as large as O (35%); (c) EW showers initiated by top quarks, including Higgs bosons in the final state; (d) the occurrence of O (1) interference effects within EW showers involving the neutral bosons; and (e) EW corrections to new physics processes, as illustrated by production of a heavy vector boson ( W ') and the subsequent showering of its decay products.

  5. Application of Multi-Barrier Membrane Filtration Technologies to Reclaim Municipal Wastewater for Industrial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Sanz, Ruth; Hermosilla Redondo, Daphne; Merayo Cuevas, Noemí; Gascó, Antonio; Negro Álvarez, Carlos; Blanco Suárez, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    The significant percentage of the world water consumption devoted to industrial use, along with an increasingly higher environmental concern of society, has awaken the interest of industry on using municipal reclaimed water for replacing fresh water use coming from utilities or natural resources. Depending on the type of industry and the specific application, water must meet certain quality requirements. Therefore, those water quality standards that are required for those most relevant indust...

  6. The presence and growth of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps: an exploratory field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; P.W.J.J. van der Wielen; L. Hornstra; E. van der Blom; O.W.W. Nuijten

    2014-01-01

    Legislation in the Netherlands requires routine analysis of drinking water samples for cultivable Legionella species from high-priority installations. A field study was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps. Water samples and the interior of

  7. Lateral Distribution Functions of Extensive Air Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranios, A.; Fokitis, E.; Maltezos, S.; Koutsokosta, D.; Antoniadou, I.; Malandraki, O.; Mastichiadis, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Gika, V.; Dimitrakoudis, S.

    The energy is among the characteristics of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (E>5 x 1019 eV) which could be estimated experimentally. The following paper attempts to estimate the energy of an UHECR proton by applying a Monte Carlo simulation code. A number of extensive air showers, vertical and inclined, is simulated to derive the Lateral Distribution Functions of the shower muons. The scenario of simulations is adopted to the Cerenkov surface detector of the P. AUGER Observatory. Due to the fact that the Lateral Distribution Functions show minimal fluctuations of the muon density at a distance larger than 800 m from the core of the showers, and due to the fact that at a distance of 900 m the distribution functions for inclined showers coincide (which means that it does not change with the zenith angle of the showers), we select the muon density at 900 m to derive the energy of the primary protons. (The project is co-funded by the European Social Fund and National Resources (EPEAEK II) PYTHAGORAS II.)

  8. Analysis of inclined showers measured with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saftoiu, A. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: allixme@gmail.com; Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, we analyze the radio signal from inclined air showers recorded by LOPES-30 in coincidence with KASCADE-Grande. LOPES-30 consists of 30 East-West oriented digital antennas, which are amplitude calibrated by an external source. Radio emission from air showers is considered a geomagnetic effect. Inclined events provide a larger range of values for geomagnetic angle (angle between shower axis and geomagnetic field direction) than vertical showers and thus more information on the emission processes can be gathered. In order to have the geometry of the air shower we use the reconstruction provided by the KASCADE-Grande particle detectors array. Analyzing events observed by both LOPES and the extended part of the KASCADE array, Grande, gives the possibility to test in particular the capability and efficiency of radio detection of more distant events. The results are compared with a previous analysis of inclined events recorded by the initial 10 antenna set-up, LOPES-10, in coincidence with the Grande array.

  9. Humans reclaimed lands in NorthEastern Italy and artificial drainage networks: effects of 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Giulia; Pizzulli, Federica; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture and land-use management has changed drastically in Italy since the end of the Second World War, driven by local but also European agricultural policies. As a result of these changes in farming practices and land use, many drainage networks have changed producing a greater exposure to flooding with a broad range of impacts on society, also because of climate inputs coupling with the human drivers. This study focuses on two main points: which kind of land use and farming changes have been observed in the most recent years ( 30 years)? How do these changes interact with climate and soil conditions? An open challenge to understand how these changes influence the watershed response, is, in fact, to understand if rainfall characteristics and climate have a synergistic effect, if their interaction matters, or to understand what element has the greatest influence on the watershed response connected to agricultural changes. The work is based on a simple model of water infiltration due to soil properties, and a connected evaluation of the distributed surface water storage offered by artificial drainage networks in a study area in Veneto (north-eastern Italy). The analysis shows that economic changes control the development of agro-industrial landscapes, with effects on the hydrological response. However, these changes deeply interact with antecedent soil conditions and climate characteristics. Intense and irregular rainfall events and events with a high recurrence should be expected to be the most critical. The presented outcomes highlight the importance of understanding how agricultural practices can be the driver of or can be used to avoid, or at least mitigate, flooding. The proposed methods can be valuable tools in evaluating the costs and benefits of the management of water in agriculture to inform better policy decision-making. References Sofia G, Tarolli P. 2017. Hydrological Response to 30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management. Land 6 (1): 3 DOI

  10. Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower: Probabilistic assessment and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada)], E-mail: Shakhawat@ce.queensu.ca; Champagne, Pascale [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) through inhalation and dermal contact during showering and bathing may pose risks to human health. During showering and bathing, warm water (35 deg. C - 45 deg. C) is generally used. Warming of chlorinated supply water may increase THMs formation through enhanced reactions between organics and residual chlorine. Exposure assessment using THMs concentrations in cold water may under-predict the possible risks to human health. In this study, THMs concentrations in warm water were estimated by developing a THMs formation rate model. Using THMs in warm water, cancer and non-cancer risks to human health were predicted for three major cities in Ontario (Canada). The parameters for risk assessments were characterized by statistical distributions. The total cancer risks from exposure to THMs during showering were predicted to be 7.6 x 10{sup -6}, 6.3 x 10{sup -6} and 4.3 x 10{sup -6} for Ottawa, Hamilton and Toronto respectively. The cancer risks exceedance probabilities were estimated to be highest in Ottawa at different risk levels. The risks through inhalation exposure were found to be comparable (2.1 x 10{sup -6}-3.7 x 10{sup -6}) to those of the dermal contact (2.2 x 10{sup -6}-3.9 x 10{sup -6}) for the cities. This study predicted 36 cancer incidents from exposure to THMs during showering for these three cities, while Toronto contributed the highest number of possible cancer incidents (22), followed by Ottawa (10) and Hamilton (4). The sensitivity analyses showed that health risks could be controlled by varying shower stall volume and/or shower duration following the power law relationship.

  11. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  12. Showering effectiveness for human hair decontamination of the nerve agent VX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Denis; Wartelle, Julien; Cruz, Catherine

    2015-05-05

    In this work, our goals were to establish whether hair decontamination by showering one hour post-exposure to the highly toxic organophosphate nerve agent VX was effective, whether it required the addition of a detergent to water and, if it could be improved by using the adsorbent Fuller's Earth (FE) or the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) 30 min prior to showering. Hair exposure to VX and decontamination was performed by using an in vitro model. Hair showering led to 72% reduction of contamination. Addition of detergent to water slightly increased the decontamination effectiveness. Hair treatment with FE or RSDL improved the decontamination rate. Combination of FE use and showering, which yielded a decontamination factor of 41, was demonstrated to be the most effective hair decontamination procedure. Hair wiping after showering was shown to contribute to hair decontamination. Altogether, our results highlighted the importance of considering hair decontamination as an important part of body surface decontamination protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cosmic Ray Air Shower Detection with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: haungs@ik.fzk.de; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarb. und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, A.F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, 53010 Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Dept. of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Butcher, H. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-01-15

    LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to investigate radio pulses from extensive air showers experimentally and theoretically. Data taken during half a year of operation of 10 LOPES antennas (LOPES-10), triggered by EAS observed with KASCADE-Grande have been analysed. We report about the results of correlations with shower parameters present in the radio signals measured by LOPES-10. The extended setup LOPES-30 consists of 30 antennas which have an absolute calibration and the data of which will be compared with expectations from detailed Monte-Carlo simulations. In addition, LOPES operates antennas of a different type (LOPES{sup STAR}) which are optimized for an application at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  14. Parton shower matching for electroweak corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Michael; Mueck, Alexander; Oymanns, Lennart [RWTH Aachen, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The POWHEG method is widely used to match next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD calculations with standard parton shower programs. It is also possible to use the POWHEG method to match electroweak (EW) corrections with parton showers. We present how the POWHEG method can be extended to handle EW corrections, including photon radiation, and we use it to investigate the Drell-Yan process (pp → μ{sup +}μ{sup -}). Our implementation is compared to an existing implementation in the POWHEGBOX and to NLO calculations for QCD and EW corrections.

  15. Air shower radio detection with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemer, J; Apel, W D; Arteaga, J C; Badea, F; Bekk, K; Bozdog, H; Daumiller, K [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Baehren, L; Butcher, H [ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M; Chiavassa, A [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P L [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I M [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M; Buchholz, P [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cossavella, F; Souza, V de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: Johannes.Bluemer@ik.fzk.de (and others)

    2008-07-15

    LOPES is an array of 30 radio antenna co-located with the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower detector in Karlsruhe, Germany. It is designed as a digital radio interferometer for the detection of radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES features high bandwidth and fast data processing. A unique asset is the concurrent operation with KASCADE-Grande. We report about the progress in understanding the radio signals measured by LOPES. In addition, the status and further perspectives of LOPES and the large scale application of this novel detection technique are sketched.

  16. Implementing NLO DGLAP evolution in Parton Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höche, Stefan [SLAC; Krauss, Frank [Durham U., IPPP; Prestel, Stefan [Fermilab

    2017-05-02

    We present a parton shower which implements the DGLAP evolution of parton densities and fragmentation functions at next-to-leading order precision up to effects stemming from local four-momentum conservation. The Monte-Carlo simulation is based on including next-to-leading order collinear splitting functions in an existing parton shower and combining their soft enhanced contributions with the corresponding terms at leading order. Soft double counting is avoided by matching to the soft eikonal. Example results from two independent realizations of the algorithm, implemented in the two event generation frameworks Pythia and Sherpa, illustrate the improved precision of the new formalism.

  17. Measurement of parton shower observables with OPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of QCD coherence is presented based on a sample of about 397,000 e+e- hadronic annihilation events collected at √s = 91 GeV with the OPAL detector at LEP. The study is based on four recently proposed observables that are sensitive to coherence effects in the perturbative regime. The measurement of these observables is presented, along with a comparison with the predictions of different parton shower models. The models include both conventional parton shower models and dipole antenna models. Different ordering variables are used to investigate their influence on the predictions.

  18. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  19. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing, packing...

  20. 46 CFR 153.216 - Shower and eyewash fountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shower and eyewash fountains. 153.216 Section 153.216... Vessel Requirements § 153.216 Shower and eyewash fountains. (a) Each non-self-propelled ship must have a fixed or portable shower and eyewash fountain that operates during cargo transfer and meets paragraph (c...

  1. Swimming pools and health-related behaviours: results of an Italian multicentre study on showering habits among pool users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, C; Veronesi, L; Napoli, C; Castaldi, S; Pasquarella, M L; Saccani, E; Colucci, M E; Auxilia, F; Gallè, F; Di Onofrio, V; Tafuri, S; Signorelli, C; Liguori, G

    2013-07-01

    Showering before entering a swimming pool is highly recommended to reduce the risk of biological and chemical contamination. This study evaluated the behaviour of indoor swimming pool users; analysed the variables associated with lack of showering; and assessed awareness of the importance of showering. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about users of swimming pools located in five different Italian cities. The association between specific variables and the lack of showering was assessed. P swim showering was 'to wash oneself' (50.5%); or 'to get used to the temperature of the water' (44.3%); and 5.2% answered 'for both reasons'. Risk factors significantly associated with lack of showering were: female sex (odds ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.59), age 14-17 years (OR 5.09, 95% CI 3.40-7.64); not reading the swimming pool rules (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.41); living in Central Italy (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.65-4.1) or Southern Italy (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.55); and previous/current attendance of a swimming course (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.48-1.97). The results revealed low compliance with the rule of showering before entering a swimming pool, and little awareness of the preventive role of showering in the hygienic management of swimming pools. There is a need for targeted educational interventions to inform swimming pool users of the reasons for the importance of showering before entering a pool. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  3. Precision measurements of cosmic ray air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemented with suitable buffering techniques, the low-frequency part of the SKA can be used as an ultra-precise detector for cosmic-ray air showers at very high energies. This would enable a wealth of scientific applications: the physics of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic

  4. Summing threshold logs in a parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2016-05-15

    When parton distributions are falling steeply as the momentum fractions of the partons increases, there are effects that occur at each order in α{sub s} that combine to affect hard scattering cross sections and need to be summed. We show how to accomplish this in a leading approximation in the context of a parton shower Monte Carlo event generator.

  5. L3+C air shower array

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01: a view of the L3+C air shower array; 50 scintillators on the roof of the SX-hall above L3. Photo 02: view of one of the detectors of the array.Photo 04: detectors seen against the background of the LEP Point 2 facilities.

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-04-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by Americal Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. Three core and three bulk soil samples were collected from each of the experimental site and one unmined site (UMS) for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), texture, saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), volumes of transport (VTP) and storage (VSP) pores, available water capacity (AWC), pH and electrical conductivity (EC), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined. The preliminary results from sites reclaimed with topsoil and grass indicate that sand content was highest (24%) and clay content was lowest (17%) for site reclaimed in 2003 (R03) for 0-15 cm depth. The {rho}{sub b} was highest for R03 (1.24 Mg m{sup -3}) than sites reclaimed in 1987 (R87; 1.02 Mg m{sup -3}), 1978 (R78; 0.98 Mg m{sup -3}) and UMS (0.96 Mg m{sup -3}) for 0-15 cm depth. No significant differences were observed in Ks, VTP, VSP, AWC among these sites (P<0.05). For 15-30 cm depth {rho}{sub b} varied in the order R03 (1.61 Mg m{sup -3})> R87 (1.42 Mg m{sup -3}) = R78 (1.40 Mg m{sup -3}) = UMS (1.34 Mg m{sup -3}). Soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and was favorable for grass growth. The SOC and TN stocks were lower in R03 (3.5 Mg ha{sup -1} and 0.6 Mg ha{sup -1}; respectively) than R78 (30.1 Mg ha{sup -1} and 1.6 Mg ha{sup -1}) and UMS (18.7 Mg ha{sup -1} and 1.8 Mg ha{sup -1}) for 0-15 cm depth. The SOC and TN stocks were also lower in R03 (2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}and 0.8 Mg ha{sup -1}; respectively) than R87 (22

  7. Ground detectors for the study of cosmic ray showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, H [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, Puebla, Pue., 72000 (Mexico); Villasenor, L [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, 58040 (Mexico)], E-mail: villasen@ifm.umich.mx

    2008-06-01

    We describe the work that we have done over the last decade to design and construct instruments to measure properties of cosmic rays in Mexico. We describe the detection of decaying and crossing muons in a water Cherenkov detector and discuss an application of these results to calibrate water Cherenkov detectors. We also describe a technique to separate isolated isolated muons and electrons in water Cherenkov detector. Next we describe the design and performance of a hybrid extensive air shower detector array built on the Campus of the University of Puebla (19 deg. N, 90 deg. W, 800 g/cm{sup 2}) to measure the energy, arrival direction and composition of primary cosmic rays with energies around 1 PeV.

  8. Measurement of radio emission from extensive air showers with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerandel, J.R., E-mail: j.horandel@astro.ru.n [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [IPE, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplan etario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita di Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-02-21

    A new method is explored to detect extensive air showers: the measurement of radio waves emitted during the propagation of the electromagnetic shower component in the magnetic field of the Earth. Recent results of the pioneering experiment LOPES are discussed. It registers radio signals in the frequency range between 40 and 80 MHz. The intensity of the measured radio emission is investigated as a function of different shower parameters, such as shower energy, angle of incidence, and distance to shower axis. In addition, new antenna types are developed in the framework of LOPES{sup star} and new methods are explored to realize a radio self-trigger algorithm in real time.

  9. Predatory Microorganisms Would Help Reclaim Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminson, Morris A.; Lehrer, Stanley

    1995-01-01

    Wastewater-reclamation systems of proposed type use predatory, nonpathogenic microorganisms to consume pathogenic microorganisms. Unlike some other wastewater-reclamation systems, these systems do not require use of toxic chemicals, intense heat, or ionizing radiation (conductivity rays or ultraviolet) to destroy microorganisms.

  10. Bacterial community composition in reclaimed and unreclaimed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was conducted to compare the microbial community structures between contaminated and reclaimed mine tailings of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi province, China. Sample T1 was obtained from tailings site, where reclamation of phytostabilization has been conducted for 20 years successfully whereas, the ...

  11. Reclaiming Adolescence: A Roma Youth Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhabha, Jacqueline; Fuller, Arlan; Matache, Margareta; Vranješevic, Jelena; Chernoff, Miriam C.; Spasic, Boris; Ivanis, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors present data gathered in the Reclaiming Adolescence research project, which investigated the educational hardships of Roma youth by comparing their experiences with their non-Roma peers' in Belgrade, Serbia. Serious inequalities in access to secondary and tertiary education affect the life and career opportunities of…

  12. Aging comets and their meteor showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    Comets are thought to be responsible for the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. The aging of comets is one of the most critical yet poorly understood problems in planetary astronomy. Here we attack this problem by examining different parts of the cometary aging spectrum of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), a group of comets that dominates the cometary influx in the near-Earth space, using both telescopic and meteor observations.We examine two representative JFCs and the population of dormant comets. At the younger end of the aging spectrum, we examine a moderately active JFC, 15P/Finlay, and review the puzzle of the non-detection of the associated Finlayid meteor shower. We find that, although having been behaved like a dying comet in the past several 102 years, 15P/Finlay does possess ability for energetic outbursts without a clear reason. Towards the more aged end of the spectrum, we examine a weakly active JFC, 209P/LINEAR. By bridging telescopic observations at visible and infrared wavelength, meteor observations and dynamical investigations, we find that 209P/LINEAR is indeed likely an aged yet long-lived comet. At the other end of the spectrum, we examine the population of dormant near-Earth comets, by conducting a comprehensive meteor-based survey looking for dormant comets that have recently been active. We find the lower limit of the dormant comet fraction in the near-Earth object (NEO) population to be 2.0 ± 1.7%. This number is at the lower end of the numbers found using dynamical and telescopic techniques, which may imply that a significant fraction of comets in the true JFC population are weakly active and are not yet detected.These results have revealed interesting diversities in dying or dead comets, both in their behaviors as well as their natures. An immediate quest in the understanding of cometary aging would be to examine a large number of dying or dead comets and understand their general characteristics.

  13. Air Shower Detection by Bistatic Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, M. Abou Bakr; Allen, C.; Belz, J.; Besson, D.; Farhang-Boroujeny, B.; Ikeda, D.; Kunwar, S.; Lundquist, J. P.; Kravchenko, I.; Myers, I.; Nakamura, T.; Sagawa, H.; Sokolsky, P.; Takai, H.; Terasawa, T.; Thomson, G. B.

    2011-09-01

    Progress in the field of high-energy cosmic rays is currently limited by the rarity of the most interesting rays striking the Earth. Indeed, the continuation of the field beyond the current generation of observatories may become financially and practically impossible if new ways are not found to achieve remote coverage over large portions of the Earth's surface. We describe the development of an observatory based on such a new technique: the remote sensing via bistatic radar technology of cosmic ray induced extensive air showers. We build on pilot studies performed by MARIACHI which have demonstrated that air shower radar echoes are detectable, the opportunity afforded by the location of the Northern Hemisphere's largest ``conventional'' cosmic ray observatory (The Telescope Array) in radio-quiet western Utah, and the donation of analog television transmission equipment to this effort by a local television station.

  14. Characterizing the 2016 Perseid Meteor Shower Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Moser, D. E.; Molau, S.; Schult, C.; Stober, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Perseid meteor shower has been observed for millennia and is known for its visually spectacular meteors and occasional outbursts. Normal activity displays Zenithal Hourly Rates (ZHRs) of approximately100. The Perseids were expected to outburst in 2016, primarily due to particles released during the 1862 and 1479 revolutions of parent Comet Swift-Tuttle. NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office predicted the timing, strength and duration of the outburst for spacecraft risk using the MSFC Meteoroid Stream Model [1]. A double peak was predicted, with an outburst displaying a ZHR of 210 +/- 50 at 00:30 UTC Aug 12 (139.5deg Solar Longitude), and a traditional peak 12 hours later with rates still heightened from the outburst [2]. Video, visual, and radar observations taken worldwide by various entities were used to characterize the shower and compare to predictions.

  15. Triple collinear emissions in parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höche, Stefan [SLAC; Prestel, Stefan [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A framework to include triple collinear splitting functions into parton showers is presented, and the implementation of flavor-changing NLO splitting kernels is discussed as a first application. The correspondence between the Monte-Carlo integration and the analytic computation of NLO DGLAP evolution kernels is made explicit for both timelike and spacelike parton evolution. Numerical simulation results are obtained with two independent implementations of the new algorithm, using the two independent event generation frameworks Pythia and Sherpa.

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2005-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. Among the three sites chosen for this study one was reclaimed in 1978 (Cumberland), one in 1987 (Switch Grass) and one site was reclaimed in 1994 (Tilton's Run). All three sites were reclaimed with topsoil application and were under continuous grass cover. Eighteen experimental plots were developed on each site. Five fertilization treatments were applied in triplicate on each experimental site. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental plots. Soil samples were analyzed for soil moisture characteristics. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, and available water capacity (AWC) of soil. The infiltration rates after 5 min (i{sub 5}) showed high statistical variability (CV > 0.62) among the three sites. Both steady state infiltration rate and cumulative infiltration showed moderate to high variability (CV > 0.35). The mean values for the infiltration rate after 5 min, steady state infiltration rate, and cumulative infiltration were higher for Switch Grass (2.93 {+-} 2.05 cm min{sup -1}; 0.63 {+-} 0.34 cm min{sup -1}; 113.07 {+-} 39.37 cm) than for Tilton's Run (1.76 {+-} 1.42 cm min{sup -1}; 0.40 {+-} 0.18 cm min{sup -1}; 73.68 {+-} 25.94 cm), and lowest for Cumberland (0.63 {+-} 0.34 cm min{sup -1}; 0.27 {+-} 0.19 cm min{sup -1}; 57.89 {+-} 31.00 cm). The AWC for 0-15 cm soil was highest at Tilton's Run (4.21 {+-} 1.75 cm) followed by Cumberland (3.83 {+-} 0.77 cm) and Switch Grass (3.31 {+-} 0.10 cm). In 15-30 cm depth

  17. The effects of nutrient enrichment on oil sands reclaimed wetlands : a field microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, G. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Bitumen extraction processes generate large amounts of processed materials containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthenic acids (NA), and additional salts. The use of processed materials in reclaimed wetlands and lakes has an impact on aquatic faunal and floral colonization. This study investigated the effects on nutrient enrichment on reclaimed wetlands containing processed materials. Chlorophyll a and total biomass analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the influence of nutrient addition on primary production. The nutrients were added to microcosms with differing levels of fertility for 3 different water types with varying NA concentrations in 3 different reclamation substrates. Results of the study showed different levels of growth depending on both the water and substrate type. Combined planktonic and periphytic growth was highest in water with high levels of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon.

  18. Parton Shower Uncertainties with Herwig 7: Benchmarks at Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, Johannes; Plätzer, Simon; Schichtel, Peter; Siódmok, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sources of perturbative uncertainty in parton shower predictions within the Herwig 7 event generator. We benchmark two rather different parton shower algorithms, based on angular-ordered and dipole-type evolution, against each other. We deliberately choose leading order plus parton shower as the benchmark setting to identify a controllable set of uncertainties. This will enable us to reliably assess improvements by higher-order contributions in a follow-up work.

  19. Helicity-Dependent Showers and Matching with VINCIA

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Skands, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present an antenna-shower formalism that includes helicity dependence for massless partons. The formalism applies to both traditional (global) showers and to sector-based variants. We combine the shower with VINCIA's multiplicative approach to matrix-element matching, generalized to operate on each helicity configuration separately. The result is a substantial gain in computational speed for high parton multiplicities. We present an implementation of both sector and global showers, with min and max variations, and helicity-dependent tree-level matching applied for vector bosons or Higgs decay to q qbar plus up to 4 gluons and for Higgs decay to up to 5 gluons.

  20. A preliminary study on potential of developing shower/laundry wastewater reclamation and reuse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weizhen; Leung, Andrew Y T

    2003-09-01

    With the ever-increasing urban population and economic activities, water usage and demand are continuously increasing. Hence, finding/re-creating adequate water supply and fully utilizing wastewater become important issues in sustainable urban development and environmental benign aspect. Considering Hong Kong's situation, e.g., lack of natural fresh water, domination of municipal wastewater, etc., developing wastewater reclamation and reuse system is of specific significance to exploit new water resource and save natural fresh water supplied from Mainland China. We propose and have carried out some preliminary studies on the potential of categorizing municipal wastewater, developing grey and storm water recycling system in public housing estate, investigating the feasibility and potential of using reclaimed grey water, etc. Since there is very limited experience in grey water recycling, such initial studies can help to understand and increase knowledge in utilizing grey water, to foresee the feasibility of developing new water resource, to estimate the cost-effectiveness of reclaiming grey water in metropolitan city.

  1. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  2. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment.

  3. On sampling fractions and electron shower shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peryshkin, Alexander; Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2011-12-01

    We study the usage of various definitions of sampling fractions in understanding electron shower shapes in a sampling multilayer electromagnetic calorimeter. We show that the sampling fractions obtained by the conventional definition (I) of (average observed energy in layer)/(average deposited energy in layer) will not give the best energy resolution for the calorimeter. The reason for this is shown to be the presence of layer by layer correlations in an electromagnetic shower. The best resolution is obtained by minimizing the deviation from the total input energy using a least squares algorithm. The 'sampling fractions' obtained by this method (II) are shown to give the best resolution for overall energy. We further show that the method (II) sampling fractions are obtained by summing the columns of a non-local {lambda} tensor that incorporates the correlations. We establish that the sampling fractions (II) cannot be used to predict the layer by layer energies and that one needs to employ the full {lambda} tensor for this purpose. This effect is again a result of the correlations.

  4. Forbidden mass ranges for shower meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-10-01

    Burns et al. (1979) use the parameter β to describe the ratio of radiation pressure to gravity for a particle in the Solar System. The central potential that these particles experience is effectively reduced by a factor of (1 - β), which in turn lowers the escape velocity. Burns et al. (1979) derived a simple expression for the value of β at which particles ejected from a comet follow parabolic orbits and thus leave the Solar System; we expand on this to derive an expression for critical β values that takes ejection velocity into account, assuming geometric optics. We use our expression to compute the critical β value and corresponding mass for cometary ejecta leading, trailing, and following the parent comet’s nucleus for 10 major meteor showers. Finally, we numerically solve for critical β values in the case of non-geometric optics. These values determine the mass regimes within which meteoroids are ejected from the Solar System and therefore cannot contribute to meteor showers.

  5. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the North Bengal University array. The differential size spectra at different atmospheric depths show a systematic shift of the knee towards smaller shower size with the increase in atmospheric depth. The measured values of spectral ...

  6. Cosmic ray air showers in the knee energy region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cosmic ray extensive air showers in the knee energy region have been studied by the. North Bengal ... shower (EAS) technique that is the only feasible experimental method by which the energy spectrum can be derived ... The construction and geometry of the apparatus sets the maximum detectable mo- mentum of 500 ...

  7. Macroscopic model of geomagnetic-radiation from air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a macroscopic description of coherent electro-magnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high energy cosmic rays in the presence of the geomagnetic field. This description offers a simple and direct insight in the relation between the properties of the air shower and

  8. Precision study of radio emission from air showers at LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Scholten; Bonardi (A.); S. Buitink; A. Corstanje; U. Ebert (Ute); H. Falcke; J.R. Hörandel; P. Mitra; K. Mulrey; A. Nelles; J.P. Rachen; L. Rossetto; C. Rutjes (Casper); P. Schellart; S. Thoudam; T.N.G. Trinh (Gia); S. ter Veen (Sander); T. Winchen

    2017-01-01

    textabstractRadio detection as well as modeling of cosmic rays has made enormous progress in the past years. We show this by using the subtle circular polarization of the radio pulse from air showers measured in fair weather conditions and the intensity of radio emission from an air shower under

  9. The observability of jets in cosmic air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montanus, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    When a cosmic ray enters the atmosphere of the Earth it initiates a cosmic air shower. The evolution of the shower size along atmospheric depth is called the longitudinal profile. Existing longitudinal profiles can be related to the level of accuracy of the underlying model. The lateral density of

  10. How confident is Fort McKay that industry can reclaim oil sand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, C. [Fort McKay First Nations, AB (Canada)

    2004-02-05

    This presentation described how traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) can provide valuable information for both the reclamation design and assessment of oil sand development in Fort McKay. Conservation is valued by the Fort McKay First Nations communities who claim that current reclamation methods are too slow, and that the land is not being brought back to its original use with the uniqueness of the boreal landscape. Elders have noted that each year the water level in the Athabasca River is lower. The blowing tailings and coke dust are causing trees to dye and driving animals away. There is concern that the animals that remain may not be safe to eat. The Fort McKay First Nation community has stated that it will view reclamation as a success only when it functions with proof over many generations. The major concerns include: salt in the water draining from reclaimed areas; salt in the soils of reclaimed area; muskeg cannot be recreated; and, the issue of whether cranberry, blueberry and streambank forest areas can be recreated, along with traditional medicinal plants. Other concerns include the loss of rivers such as the Beaver Creek and Tar River, and that the water in reclaimed areas may not be suitable for animals to live in or to drink. tabs., figs.

  11. Particle Showers in a Highly Granular Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed highly granular electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for the use in detector systems at a future Linear Collider. The hadron calorimeter uses small scintillator cells individually read out with silicon photomultipliers. The system with 7608 channels has been successfully operated in beam tests at DESY, CERN and Fermilab since 2006, and represents the first large scale tests of these devices in high energy physics experiments. The unprecedented granularity of the detector provides detailed information of the properties of hadronic showers, which helps to constrain hadronic shower models through comparisons with model calculations. We will discuss results on longitudinal and lateral shower profiles compared to a variety of different shower models, and present studies of the energy reconstruction of hadronic showers using software compensation techniques.

  12. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeÂķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcǎu, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process depends only on the local magnetic field vector and on the incoming direction of the air shower. We report on measurements of the electric field vector where, in addition to this geomagnetic component, another component has been observed that cannot be described by the geomagnetic emission process. The data provide strong evidence that the other electric field component is polarized radially with respect to the shower axis, in agreement with predictions made by Askaryan who described radio emission from particle showers due to a negative charge excess in the front of the shower. Our results are compared to calculations which include the radiation mechanism induced by this charge-excess process.

  13. Survey costs associated with the replacement of electric showers for solar heaters; Levantamento de custos associados a substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por aquecedores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchior, Fernando Nunes [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UFEI), MG (Brazil); Araujo, Jose Euripedes de

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to explain the benefits of replacing electric shower for solar water heaters, and a consequent drop in peak demand for electric power generation and residential consumption in the economy. For this, will be shown the lifting of solar radiation per square meter in Brazil, studied in 250 locations, the most representative in terms of solar energy in this country. The costs presented are associated with replacement of 5 million, 10 million and 20 million electric showers. (author)

  14. Online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of sucralose in reclaimed and drinking waters and its photo degradation in natural waters from South Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Batchu, Sudha Rani; Quinete, Natalia; Panditi, Venkata R; Gardinali, Piero R

    2013-01-01

    Background Sucralose has gained popularity as a low calorie artificial sweetener worldwide. Due to its high stability and persistence, sucralose has shown widespread occurrence in environmental waters, at concentrations that could reach up to several ?g/L. Previous studies have used time consuming sample preparation methods (offline solid phase extraction/derivatization) or methods with rather high detection limits (direct injection) for sucralose analysis. This study described a faster and s...

  15. Study on possibility of management with combining the generating electricity by photovoltaic device, pumped water station and agriculture, fishery and the way to improve an ability of protection for flood at planning reclaimed land of Isahaya bay; Isahayawan kantaku yoteichi de taiyoko hatsudensho, yosui hatsudensho oyobi nogyo, gyogyo wo kumiawaseta keiei oyobi suigai boshi noryoku wo takameru hoho no kanosei no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, A.

    1998-09-30

    Study was made on the possibility of (1) combined management of PV power station, pumped water power station, agriculture and fishery on rafts floating on dug inland waters by modifying the present reclaimed land plan of Isahaya bay, (2) efficient agriculture and fishery management by industrial techniques, (3) enhancement of a flood protective capacity by preservation of the existing tideland, and (4) environment preservation by tideland formed by artificial tidal action. Outlines of the modified plan are as follows: (1) moving the inside tideland of the previously completed tidewall to the outside for preservation, (2) digging a tideland area by 1m, (3) installing valves and propeller type motor-generators on the tidewall, (4) floating rafts for PV power generation, fishery and agriculture, (5) constructing a factory for rice-planting, weeding, harvesting, roe collection, delivery and maintenance of PV cell rafts, and (6) enhancing the flood protective capacity by the larger inland waters than an original regulating reservoir and use of the motor-generators for drainage pumps. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Quantum information reclaiming after amplitude damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memarzadeh, Laleh; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano, E-mail: laleh.memarzadeh@unicam.it, E-mail: carlo.cafaro@unicam.it, E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2011-01-28

    We design an effective method to investigate the quantum information reclaim from the environment after amplitude damping has occurred. In particular, we address the question of optimal measurement on the environment to perform the best possible correction on two- and three-dimensional quantum systems. While for qubits we show that the entanglement fidelity is the same for all possible measurements, for qutirits we find that different measurements give rise to different values of the entanglement fidelity. By searching over all possible measurements on the environment we uncover the optimal one leading to the maximum entanglement fidelity.

  17. Microbiological Impact of the Use of Reclaimed Wastewater in Recreational Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Oskar A.; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco J.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, María de Lourdes; Espino-Valdés, María S.

    2017-01-01

    Reclaimed wastewater for irrigation is an opportunity for recovery of this natural resource. In this study, microbial risk from the use of treated wastewater for irrigation of recreational parks in the city of Chihuahua, evaluating the effect of distribution distance, season, and presence of storage tanks, was analyzed. Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from samples of reclaimed water and soils at recreational parks in Chihuahua by the membrane filtration method, using selected agars for microbial growth. Samples were taken at three different seasons. No correlation in the presence of microbial indicators and multidrug-resistant bacteria (p > 0.05) was found between the distance from the wastewater treatment plant to the point of use. Presence of storage tanks in parks showed a significant effect (p wastewater occurred in summer. We isolated 392 multidrug-resistant bacteria from water and soil; cluster analysis showed that the microorganisms at each location were of different origins. Irrigation with reclaimed wastewater did not have a negative effect on the presence of microbial indicators of the quality of soils in the parks. However, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria still represents a potential risk factor for human health. PMID:28869549

  18. A Remote Sensing Approach to Environmental Monitoring in a Reclaimed Mine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchandar Padmanaban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining for resources extraction may lead to geological and associated environmental changes due to ground movements, collision with mining cavities, and deformation of aquifers. Geological changes may continue in a reclaimed mine area, and the deformed aquifers may entail a breakdown of substrates and an increase in ground water tables, which may cause surface area inundation. Consequently, a reclaimed mine area may experience surface area collapse, i.e., subsidence, and degradation of vegetation productivity. Thus, monitoring short-term landscape dynamics in a reclaimed mine area may provide important information on the long-term geological and environmental impacts of mining activities. We studied landscape dynamics in Kirchheller Heide, Germany, which experienced extensive soil movement due to longwall mining without stowing, using Landsat imageries between 2013 and 2016. A Random Forest image classification technique was applied to analyze land-use and landcover dynamics, and the growth of wetland areas was assessed using a Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA. We also analyzed the changes in vegetation productivity using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. We observed a 19.9% growth of wetland area within four years, with 87.2% growth in the coverage of two major waterbodies in the reclaimed mine area. NDVI values indicate that the productivity of 66.5% of vegetation of the Kirchheller Heide was degraded due to changes in ground water tables and surface flooding. Our results inform environmental management and mining reclamation authorities about the subsidence spots and priority mitigation areas from land surface and vegetation degradation in Kirchheller Heide.

  19. Angular resolution of air-shower array-telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    A fundamental limit on the angular resolution of air shower array-telescopes is set by the finite number of shower particles coupled with the finite thickness of the particle swarm. Consequently the angular resolution which can be achieved in practice depends in a determinant manner on the size and number of detectors in an array-telescope, as well as on the detector separation and the timing resolution. It is also necessary to examine the meaning of particle density in whatever type of detector is used. Results are given which can be used to predict the angular resolution of a given instrument for showers of various sizes, and to compare different instruments.

  20. A nation that loves to shower. Report on a representative opinion poll; Dusch- und Badeverhalten. Bericht zu einer Repraesentativumfrage. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Swiss love to shower. And when it comes to saving on water, that's not something that preoccupies the young. These are two findings of an 'opinion poll' on the subject of showering and bathing habits in Switzerland. The poll required interviewing 600 people of both sexes, aged between 10 and 70. Some 75% of the respondents were from German-speaking Switzerland and the remainder from the French-speaking region. The results indicate that on average Swiss men and women shower for 8.7 minutes, six times a week. For those who take baths - and 26% of the Swiss almost never do - the frequency is twice a week and the average duration is 25.1 minutes. It is safe to conclude for most Swiss a shower is always preferable to a bath. The poll found some interesting differences. For example, the average German-speaking Swiss, housewife and old-age pensioner likes a relatively quick shower but does so less frequently than the average French speaker, young man and single person. The longest and most frequent showers are taken by persons aged between 15 and 30. Retired people in particular seem to have an instinctive reflex to save energy. This is not at all the case for most young people. They do not think of the act of washing as a functional necessity to be completed efficiently, but rather in the context of enjoyment, comfort and relaxation, requiring a powerful spray, water that is nice and hot, and above all some good music. If that means wasting water, too bad. Young people take the fewest baths of any age group, but when they do take one, especially youngsters, the bath must be full to the brim. This does not mean that young people are averse to saving energy. Indeed they tend to give more thought to the question of wasting hot water (65%) than the average in all groups (56%). The most commonly cited source of general information on this subject is the media, except for young people, who tend to get their information through discussions with their peers

  1. Livestock impacts for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: The decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, O.J. [BHP World Minerals Navajo Mine, Fruitland, NM (United States); Grogan, S. [Resource Planning & Management Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadzia, K.L. [Resource Management Services, Bernalillo, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Livestock grazing is the post-mining use for reclaimed land at Navajo Mine, a large surface coal mine on the Navajo Nation in northwest New Mexico. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GMP) uses holistic management on approximately 2,083 ha of reclaimed land to plan for final liability release and return of the land to the Navajo Nation, and to minimize the potential for post-release liability. The GMP began in 1991 to establish that livestock grazing on the reclaimed land is sustainable. Assuming that sustainability requires alternatives to conventional land management practices, the GMP created a Management Team consisting of company staff, local, Navajo Nation, and Federal government officials, and technical advisors. Community members contributed to the formation of a holistic goal for the GMP that articulates their values and their desire for sustainable grazing. Major decisions (e.g., artificial insemination, water supply, supplemental feed) are tested against the goal. Biological changes in the land and the grazing animals are monitored daily to provide early feedback to managers, and annually to document the results of grazing. To date, the land has shown resilience to grazing and the animals have generally prospered. Community participation in the GMP and public statements of support by local officials indicate that the GMP`s strategy is likely to succeed.

  2. Nitrogen fluorescence in air for observing extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Keilhauer, B; Fraga, M; Matthews, J; Sakaki, N; Tameda, Y; Tsunesada, Y; Ulrich, A

    2012-01-01

    Extensive air showers initiate the fluorescence emissions from nitrogen molecules in air. The UV-light is emitted isotropically and can be used for observing the longitudinal development of extensive air showers in the atmosphere over tenth of kilometers. This measurement technique is well-established since it is exploited for many decades by several cosmic ray experiments. However, a fundamental aspect of the air shower analyses is the description of the fluorescence emission in dependence on varying atmospheric conditions. Different fluorescence yields affect directly the energy scaling of air shower reconstruction. In order to explore the various details of the nitrogen fluorescence emission in air, a few experimental groups have been performing dedicated measurements over the last decade. Most of the measurements are now finished. These experimental groups have been discussing their techniques and results in a series of \\emph{Air Fluorescence Workshops} commenced in 2002. At the 8$^{\\rm{th}}$ Air Fluoresc...

  3. Multiplicity distributions of shower particles and target fragments in 7 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    emulsion) collisions at 3 A GeV/c are experimentally studied. In the framework of the multisource thermal model, the multicomponent Erlang distribution is used to describe the experimental multiplicity distributions of shower particles, grey fragments ...

  4. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-10-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, water infiltration tests were performed on the soil surface in the experimental sites. Soil samples were analyzed for the soil carbon and nitrogen contents, texture, water stable aggregation, and mean weight and geometric mean diameter of aggregates. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978 and managed under grass (Wilds) and forest (Cumberland) cover, respectively. The trees were planted in 1982 in the Cumberland site. The analyses of data on soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were presented in the third quarter report. This report presents the data on infiltration rates, volume of transport and storage pores, available water capacity (AWC) of soil, particle size distribution, and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and coal carbon contents. The SIC content ranged from 0.04 to 1.68% in Cumberland tree site and 0.01 to 0.65% in the Wilds. The coal content assumed to be the carbon content after oven drying the sample at 350 C varied between 0.04 and 3.18% for Cumberland and 0.06 and 3.49% for Wilds. The sand, silt and clay contents showed moderate to low variability (CV < 0.16) for 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. The volume of transmission (VTP) and storage pores (VSP) also showed moderate to high variability (CV ranged from 0.22 to 0.39 for Wilds and 0.17 to 0.36 for Cumberland). The CV for SIC was high (0.7) in Cumberland whereas that for coal content was high (0.4) in the Wilds. The steady state infiltration rates (i{sub c}) also showed high variability

  5. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Tsukuba U.

    1984-01-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower....

  6. On the hadronic component of extensive air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerandel, J.R.; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bercuci, A.; Bluemerba, H.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hambsch, M.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Iwan, A.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H.O.; Maier, G.; Mathes, H.J.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Mueller, M.; Obenland, R.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schieler, H.; Scholz, J.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Weber, J.H.; Weindl, A.; Wentz, J.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J

    2003-07-01

    The hadronic component of extensive air showers is investigated with the large calorimeter of the KASCADE experiment. The transverse momentum transfer in EAS is explored by investigations of the geometrical structure in the hadronic shower core and the arrival times of hadrons. The flux of unaccompanied hadrons is studied to probe hadronic cross sections. The measured results are compatible with simulations using CORSIKA/QGSJET.

  7. Microwave detection of air showers with the MIDAS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privitera, Paolo [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Alekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Berlin, A. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bogdan, M.; Bohacova, M. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bonifazi, C. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945- 970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, W.R. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mello Neto, J.R.T. de [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945- 970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facal San Luis, P.; Genat, J.F.; Hollon, N.; Mills, E.; Monasor, M.; Reyes, L.C.; Rouille d' Orfeuil, B. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Santos, E.M. [Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Fisica, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945- 970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wayne, S.; Williams, C. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Microwave emission from Extensive Air Showers could provide a novel technique for ultra-high energy cosmic rays detection over large area and with 100% duty cycle. We describe the design, performance and first results of the MIDAS (MIcrowave Detection of Air Showers) detector, a 4.5 m parabolic dish with 53 feeds in its focal plane, currently installed at the University of Chicago.

  8. An analytic parton shower. Algorithms, implementation and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sebastian

    2012-06-15

    The realistic simulation of particle collisions is an indispensable tool to interpret the data measured at high-energy colliders, for example the now running Large Hadron Collider at CERN. These collisions at these colliders are usually simulated in the form of exclusive events. This thesis focuses on the perturbative QCD part involved in the simulation of these events, particularly parton showers and the consistent combination of parton showers and matrix elements. We present an existing parton shower algorithm for emissions off final state partons along with some major improvements. Moreover, we present a new parton shower algorithm for emissions off incoming partons. The aim of these particular algorithms, called analytic parton shower algorithms, is to be able to calculate the probabilities for branchings and for whole events after the event has been generated. This allows a reweighting procedure to be applied after the events have been simulated. We show a detailed description of the algorithms, their implementation and the interfaces to the event generator WHIZARD. Moreover we discuss the implementation of a MLM-type matching procedure and an interface to the shower and hadronization routines from PYTHIA. Finally, we compare several predictions by our implementation to experimental measurements at LEP, Tevatron and LHC, as well as to predictions obtained using PYTHIA. (orig.)

  9. Stackers/reclaimers enjoy a new boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    Demand for stockyard equipment reflects the current rise in coal demand, being greatest in Australia and China but also evident in Europe. Associated British Ports (ABP) has committed 44.5 million pounds to the second phase of the Humber International Terminal (HIT2) at Immingham in the UK. The order has been placed with Voest Alpine Materials Handling (VAMH) which is also involved with new projects in Brazil and Taiwan. The Italian group Bedeschi has won two contracts for stacking/reclaiming systems for circular systems for coal handling in Portugal. The article also reports several contracts recently secured by the Italian specialist Techint Technologies, in Brazil and Iran, and by the Polish company Famak. 2 figs.

  10. Extensive Air Showers with unusual structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beznosko Dmitriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23500 Extensive Air Showers (EAS with energies above ∼ 1016 eV have been detected during the ∼3500 hours of the Horizon-T (HT detectors system operations before Aug. 2016. Among these EAS, more than a thousand had an unusual spatial and temporary structure that showed pulses with several maxima (modals or modes from several detection points of the HT at the same time. These modes are separated in time from each other starting from tens to thousands of ns. These EAS have been called multi-modal. Analysis shows that the multi-modal EAS that have been detected by Horizon-T have the following properties: 1. Multi-modal EAS have energy above ∼1017 eV. 2. Pulses with several modes are located at large distances from the EAS axis. An overview of the collected data will be provided. General comments about the unusual structure of the multi-modal EAS will be presented.

  11. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-01-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed mine soils (RMS). Experimental sites characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil were identified. These sites are owned by Americal Electrical Power and are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. The sites chosen were: (1) reclaimed without topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover), (2) reclaimed with topsoil application (three under forest and three under continuous grass cover) and (3) unmined sites (one under forest and another grass cover). Soil samples were collected from 0 to 15 cm and 15 to 30 cm depths from each of the experimental site under continuous grass and SOC and, total nitrogen (TN) concentration, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined. The results of the study for the quarter (30 September to 31 December, 2003) showed that soil pH was > 5.5 and EC < 4 dS m{sup -1} for all sites and depths and therefore favorable for grass growth. Among the three reclamation treatments, SOC concentration increased from 1.9 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 2003 (newly reclaimed and at baseline) to 11.64 g kg{sup -1} for site reclaimed in 1987 (a 5-fold increase) to 20.41 g kg{sup -1} for sites reclaimed in 1978 (a 10- fold increase). However, for sites reclaimed without topsoil application, soil pH, EC, SOC and TN concentrations were similar for both depths. The SOC concentrations in reclaimed sites with topsoil application in 0 to 15 cm depth increased from a base value of 0.7 g kg{sup -1} at the rate of 0.76 g kg{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. The high SOC concentration for 0-15 cm layer for site reclaimed in 1978 showed the high carbon sequestration potential upon reclamation and establishment of the grass cover on minesoils.

  12. The radio emission pattern of air showers as measured with LOFAR—a tool for the reconstruction of the energy and the shower maximum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, Gia

    2015-01-01

    The pattern of the radio emission of air showers is finely sampled with the Low-Frequency ARray (LOFAR). A set of 382 measured air showers is used to test a fast, analytic parameterization of the distribution of pulse powers. Using this parameterization we are able to reconstruct the shower axis and

  13. Do cosmic ray air showers initiate lightning?: A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and lightning mapping array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.

    2017-08-01

    It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate lightning via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow, cause the local atmosphere in a thundercloud to transition to a conducting state. In response to this claim, other researchers have published simulations showing that the electron density produced by RREA is far too small to be able to affect the conductivity in the cloud sufficiently to initiate lightning. In this paper, we compare 74 days of cosmic ray air shower data collected in north central Florida during 2013-2015, the recorded CRASs having primary energies on the order of 1016 eV to 1018 eV and zenith angles less than 38°, with Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data, and we show that there is no evidence that the detected cosmic ray air showers initiated lightning. Furthermore, we show that the average probability of any of our detected cosmic ray air showers to initiate a lightning flash can be no more than 5%. If all lightning flashes were initiated by cosmic ray air showers, then about 1.6% of detected CRASs would initiate lightning; therefore, we do not have enough data to exclude the possibility that lightning flashes could be initiated by cosmic ray air showers.

  14. Investigations of the radio signal of inclined showers with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saftoiu, A., E-mail: allixme@gmail.com [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Apel, W.D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institut fuer Kernphysik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Universitaet Siegen, Fachbereich Physik (Germany); Buitink, S. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Department of Astrophysics (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); INAF Torino, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell& #x27; Universita Torino (Italy); and others

    2012-01-11

    We report in this paper on an analysis of 20 months of data taken with LOPES. LOPES is radio antenna array set-up in coincidence with the Grande array, both located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany. The data used in this analysis were taken with an antenna configuration composed of 30 inverted V-shape dipole antennas. We have restricted the analysis to a special selection of inclined showers - with zenith angle {theta}>40{sup Ring-Operator }. These inclined showers are of particular interest because they are the events with the largest geomagnetic angles and are therefore suitable to test emission models based on geomagnetic effects.The reconstruction procedure of the emitted radio signal in EAS uses as one ingredient the frequency-dependent antenna gain pattern which is obtained from simulations. Effects of the applied antenna model in the calibration procedure of LOPES are studied. In particular, we have focused on one component of the antenna, a metal pedestal, which generates a resonance effect, a peak in the amplification pattern where it is the most affecting high zenith angles, i.e. inclined showers. In addition, polarization characteristics of inclined showers were studied in detail and compared with the features of more vertical showers for the two cases of antenna models, with and without the pedestal.

  15. Air shower measurements with the LOPES radio antenna array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.haungs@ik.fzk.de; Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    LOPES is set up at the location of the KASCADE-Grande extensive air shower experiment in Karlsruhe, Germany and aims to measure and investigate radio pulses from extensive air showers. Since radio waves suffer very little attenuation, radio measurements allow the detection of very distant or highly inclined showers. These waves can be recorded day and night, and provide a bolometric measure of the leptonic shower component. LOPES is designed as a digital radio interferometer using high bandwidths and fast data processing and profits from the reconstructed air shower observables of KASCADE-Grande. The LOPES antennas are absolutely amplitude calibrated allowing to reconstruct the electric field strength which can be compared with predictions from detailed Monte-Carlo simulations. We report about the analysis of correlations present in the radio signals measured by the LOPES 30 antenna array. Additionally, LOPES operates antennas of a different type (LOPES{sup STAR}) which are optimized for an application at the Pierre Auger Observatory. Status, recent results of the data analysis and further perspectives of LOPES and the possible large scale application of this new detection technique are discussed.

  16. Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ 0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils. PMID:25197699

  17. Predicted Infiltration for Sodic/Saline Soils from Reclaimed Coastal Areas: Sensitivity to Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm3. A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ0 was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  18. Predicted infiltration for sodic/saline soils from reclaimed coastal areas: sensitivity to model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongdong; She, Dongli; Yu, Shuang'en; Shao, Guangcheng; Chen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influences of soil surface conditions and initial soil water content on water movement in unsaturated sodic soils of reclaimed coastal areas. Data was collected from column experiments in which two soils from a Chinese coastal area reclaimed in 2007 (Soil A, saline) and 1960 (Soil B, nonsaline) were used, with bulk densities of 1.4 or 1.5 g/cm(3). A 1D-infiltration model was created using a finite difference method and its sensitivity to hydraulic related parameters was tested. The model well simulated the measured data. The results revealed that soil compaction notably affected the water retention of both soils. Model simulations showed that increasing the ponded water depth had little effect on the infiltration process, since the increases in cumulative infiltration and wetting front advancement rate were small. However, the wetting front advancement rate increased and the cumulative infiltration decreased to a greater extent when θ₀ was increased. Soil physical quality was described better by the S parameter than by the saturated hydraulic conductivity since the latter was also affected by the physical chemical effects on clay swelling occurring in the presence of different levels of electrolytes in the soil solutions of the two soils.

  19. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  20. Soil degradation under reclaimed wastewater in arenados (Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejedor, M.; Jimenez, C.; Hernandez-Moreno, J. M.; Diaz, F.

    2009-07-01

    In the Island of Lanzarote, one of the most arid zones of the EU, a traditional farming system based on the soil mulching with basaltic tephra, locally known as arenados, was developed since the 18th century. This dry-framing system accounts currently for more than 21% of the island surface. However, in the last decades, this system has been transformed with the incorporation of irrigation, due to the availability of new non-conventional water resources (desalinised and reclaimed municipal wastewater). (Author)

  1. Description of station waste water treatment and study of reclaiming industry ceramic red; Caracterizacao de residuos de estacao de tratamento de agua e estudo de reaproveitamento na industria de ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Junior, B.S.; Bezerra, L.P.; Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    So that the water meets potability standards required by the laws it passes through various treatment processes which generate waste called WTS (Water Treatment Sludge). This sludge is disposed of without any processing, however, environmental agencies and the public are demanding alternatives to this situation. Knowing this, this study aims to characterize the sludge from the Water Treatment Plant Botafogo and analyze its viability as a feedstock in the manufacture of red bricks. (author)

  2. Detection of airborne Legionella while showering using liquid impingement and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Ha, Thi-Lan; Robine, Enric; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Mathieu, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    Aerosols of water contaminated with Legionella bacteria constitute the only mode of exposure for humans. However, the prevention strategy against this pathogenic bacteria risk is managed through the survey of water contamination. No relationship linked the Legionella bacteria water concentration and their airborne abundance. Therefore, new approaches in the field of the metrological aspects of Legionella bioaerosols are required. This study was aimed at testing the main principles for bioaerosol collection (solid impaction, liquid impingement and filtration) and the in situ hybridization (FISH) method, both in laboratory and field assays, with the intention of applying such methodologies for airborne Legionella bacteria detection while showering. An aerosolization chamber was developed to generate controlled and reproducible L. pneumophila aerosols. This tool allowed the identification of the liquid impingement method as the most appropriate one for collecting airborne Legionella bacteria. The culturable fraction of airborne L. pneumophila recovered with the liquid impingement principle was 4 and 700 times higher compared to the impaction and filtration techniques, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of airborne L. pneumophila in the impinger fluid were on average 7.0 x 10(5) FISH-cells m(-3) air with the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method versus 9.0 x 10(4) CFU m(-3) air with the culture method. These results, recorded under well-controlled conditions, were confirmed during the field experiments performed on aerosols generated by hot water showers in health institutions. This new approach may provide a more accurate characterization of aerobiocontamination by Legionella bacteria.

  3. Modeling coherent cherenkov radio emissions from high energy electromagnetic showers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.

    1998-04-24

    A technique currently under study for the detection of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray neutrinos involves the measurement of radio emissions from the electromagnetic shower generated by the neutrino in a large volume of naturally occurring dielectric such as the Antarctic ice cap or salt domes. The formation of an electron excess in the shower leads to the emission of coherent Cherenkov radiation, an effect similar to the generation of wakefields in dielectric loaded structures. We have used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) wakefield code ARRAKIS to model coherent Cherenkov radiation fields from high energy showers; we present as an example calculations of expected signals in a proof of principle experiment proposed for the Fermilab Main Injector.

  4. Timelike Dipole-Antenna Showers with Massive Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann-De Ridder, Aude; Skands, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a complete formalism for final-state (timelike) dipole-antenna showers including fermion masses, but neglecting polarization and finite-width effects. We make several comparisons of tree-level expansions of this shower algorithm to fixed-order matrix elements for hadronic Z decays, up to and including Z to 6 partons, to which the algorithm can be consistently matched over all of phase space. We also compare to analytical resummations at the NLL level. The shower algorithm has been implemented in the publicly available VINCIA plugin to the PYTHIA 8 event generator, which enables us to compare to experimental data at the fully hadronized level. We also include comparisons to selected observables in b-tagged Z decays.

  5. Antenna Showers with One-Loop Matrix Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hartgring, L; Skands, P

    2013-01-01

    We consider the probability for a colour-singlet qqbar pair to emit a gluon, in strongly and smoothly ordered antenna showers. We expand to second order in alphaS and compare to the second-order QCD matrix elements for Z -> 3 jets, neglecting terms suppressed by 1/NC^2. We give a prescription that corrects the shower to the matrix-element result at this order for both soft and hard emissions, thereby explicitly reducing its dependence on evolution- and renormalization-scale choices. We confirm that the choice of pT for both of these scales absorbs all logarithms through order alphaS^2, and contrast this with various alternatives. We include these corrections in the VINCIA shower generator and study the impact on LEP event-shape and fragmentation observables. An uncertainty estimate is provided for each event, in the form of a vector of alternative weights.

  6. Matching NLO with parton shower in Monte Carlo scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Sapeta, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    A new method of including NLO QCD corrections to the hard process in the LO Monte Carlo (MC) shower is discussed. The method is based on a recently proposed MC factorization scheme, which dramatically simplifies the NLO coefficient functions. The NLO corrections are introduced by simple reweighing of the events produced by the LO shower with a single, positive MC weight. A practical implementation of the method is presented for the case of electro-weak boson production in the hadron-hadron collision, and the results are compared with well established approaches to NLO+PS matching.

  7. First results of the air shower experiment KASCADE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A. E-mail: haungs@ik3.fzk.de; Antonia, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Dolla, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Heck, H.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Keim, H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D.; Mathes, H.J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Pectu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Schatz, G.; Schimdt, F.K.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2000-06-01

    The main goals of the KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) experiment are the determination of the energy spectrum and elemental composition of the charged cosmic rays in the energy range around the knee at {approx} 5 PeV. Due to the large number of measured observables per single shower a variety of different approaches are applied to the data, preferably on an event-by-event basis. First results are presented and the influence of the high-energy interaction models underlying the analyses is discussed.

  8. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services.

  9. MESSENGER observations of a flux‐transfer‐event shower at Mercury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slavin, James A; Imber, Suzanne M; Boardsen, Scott A; DiBraccio, Gina A; Sundberg, Torbjorn; Sarantos, Menelaos; Nieves‐Chinchilla, Teresa; Szabo, Adam; Anderson, Brian J; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H; Raines, Jim M; Johnson, Catherine L; Winslow, Reka M; Killen, Rosemary M; McNutt, Ralph L; Solomon, Sean C

    2012-01-01

    ... “FTE showers.” The northward and sunward orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field during this shower strongly suggests that the FTEs observed during this event formed just tailward of Mercury's southern magnetic cusp...

  10. Laboratory Mix Design of Asphalt Mixture Containing Reclaimed Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lo Presti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT were used to investigate the change in properties within the specimens and to validate the selected methodology. The study concluded that gyratory compaction is suitable to produce homogeneous test specimens also for mixtures containing high amount of reclaimed asphalt. Nevertheless, preliminary trials for each material are mandatory, as well as final coring and trimming of the specimens due to side effects.

  11. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J

    2015-01-01

    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205...; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means a toilet, washing, or shower space that is accessible only from one single or double occupancy sleeping...

  13. What the radio signal tells about the cosmic-ray air shower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olaf; de Vries, Krijn D.; Werner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The physics of radio emission from cosmic-ray induced air showers is shortly summarized. It will be shown that the radio signal at different distances from the shower axis provides complementary information on the longitudinal shower evolution, in particular the early part, and on the distribution

  14. A new way of air shower detection: measuring the properties of cosmic rays with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelles, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy cosmic rays impinging onto the atmosphere of the Earth initiate cascades of secondary particles: extensive air showers. Many of the particles in a shower are electrons and positrons. During the development of the air shower and by interacting with the geomagnetic field, the

  15. Precision measurements of cosmic ray air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H. D. E.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schroeder, F.

    2014-01-01

    Supplemented with suitable buffering techniques, the low-frequency part of the SKA can be used as an ultra-precise detector for cosmic-ray air showers at very high energies. This would enable a wealth of scientific applications: the physics of the transition from Galactic to extragalactic cosmic

  16. NLO Corrections and Parton Showers in the LHC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Ken Boris

    The Large Hadron Collider provides a challenging environment, not only for experimentalists. Precise predictions are needed in order to use its potential to full capacity. This thesis focuses on predictions including higher-order corrections in a twofold way. Both results for a pure parton level calculation and for a calculation incorporating a parton shower are presented. Higgs boson plus photon production via vector boson fusion was implemented in a fully flexible parton-level Monte-Carlo program. The results at next-to-leading order accuracy are discussed. It is found that the corrections are large in some regions of phase space. For the simulation of a parton shower matched to a next-to-leading order matrix element, a mixed-language runtime interface was established to use existing matrix elements for Higgs boson production via vector boson fusion. Results are discussed for different parton shower algorithms and matching schemes. The simulation is shown to have a substantial dependence on the shower algor...

  17. Observation of Horizontal Air Showers with ARGO-YBJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panico, B., E-mail: beatrice.panico@roma2.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Di Sciascio, G. [INFN, Sezione Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2012-11-11

    A preliminary analysis of Extensive Air Showers reconstructed by ARGO-YBJ with zenith angle greater than 80 Degree-Sign is reported. The measurement of the size spectrum and of the azimuthal distribution is discussed. A description of the topology of these events is also provided.

  18. Distinguishability of Neutrino Flavors Through Their Different Shower Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ching; Chen, Pisin; Hu, Chia-Yu; Lai, K.-C.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new avor identification method to distinguish mu and tau type ultra high energy cosmic neutrinos (UHECN). Energy loss of leptons in matter is an important information for the detection of neutrinos originated from high energy astrophysical sources. 50 years ago, Askaryan proposed to detect Cherenkov radiowave signals emitted from the negative charge excess of neutrino-induced particle shower. The theory of Cherenkov radiation under Fraunhofer approximation has been widely studied in the past two decades. However, at high energies or for high density materials, electromagnetic shower should be elongated due to the Landau-Pomeranchuck-Migdal (LPM) effect. As such the standard Fraunhofer approximation ceases to be valid when the distance between the shower and the detector becomes comparable with the shower length. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed recently to investigate this regime. Here we adopt the deduced relationship between the radio signal and the cascade development profile to investigate its implication to lepton signatures. Our method provides a straightforward technique to identify the neutrino avor through the detected Cherenkov signals.

  19. Air shower detectors in gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnis, Gus [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Extensive air shower (EAS) arrays directly detect the particles in an EAS that reach the observation altitude. This detection technique effectively makes air shower arrays synoptic telescopes -- they are capable of simultaneously and continuously viewing the entire overhead sky. Typical air shower detectors have an effective field-of-view of 2 sr and operate nearly 100% of the time. These two characteristics make them ideal instruments for studying the highest energy gamma rays, extended sources and transient phenomena. Until recently air shower arrays have had insufficient sensitivity to detect gamma-ray sources. Over the past decade, the situation has changed markedly. Milagro, in the US, and the Tibet AS{gamma} array in Tibet, have detected very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and the active galaxy Markarian 421 (both previously known sources). Milagro has discovered TeV diffuse emission from the Milky Way, three unidentified sources of TeV gamma rays, and several candidate sources of TeV gamma rays. Given these successes and the suite of existing and planned instruments in the GeV and TeV regime (AGILE, GLAST, HESS, VERITAS, CTA, AGIS and IceCube) there are strong reasons for pursuing a next generation of EAS detectors. In conjunction with these other instruments the next generation of EAS instruments could answer long-standing problems in astrophysics.

  20. Probing the radio emission from air showers with polarization measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bardenet, R.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Foerster, N.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PeÂķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Preda, T.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Taşcǎu, O.; Thao, N. T.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Martin, L.

    2014-01-01

    The emission of radio waves from air showers has been attributed to the so-called geomagnetic emission process. At frequencies around 50 MHz this process leads to coherent radiation which can be observed with rather simple setups. The direction of the electric field induced by this emission process

  1. Progress in air shower radio measurements : detection of distant events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bähren, L.; Buitink, S.J.; Falcke, H.D.E.; Horneffer, K.H.A.; Kuijpers, J.M.E.; Lafebre, S.J.; Nigl, A.; Petrovic, J.; Singh, K.

    2006-01-01

    Data taken during half a year of operation of 10 LOPES antennas (LOPES-10), triggered by EAS observed with KASCADE-Grande have been analysed. We report about the analysis of correlations of radio signals measured by LOPES-10 with extensive air shower events reconstructed by KASCADE-Grande, including

  2. Meteoroid Environment Modeling: the Meteoroid Engineering Model and Shower Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    The meteoroid environment is often divided conceptually into meteor showers plus a sporadic background component. The sporadic complex poses the bulk of the risk to spacecraft, but showers can produce significant short-term enhancements of the meteoroid flux. The Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has produced two environment models to handle these cases: the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM) and an annual meteor shower forecast. Both MEM and the forecast are used by multiple manned spaceflight projects in their meteoroid risk evaluation, and both tools are being revised to incorporate recent meteor velocity, density, and timing measurements. MEM describes the sporadic meteoroid complex and calculates the flux, speed, and directionality of the meteoroid environment relative to a user-supplied spacecraft trajectory, taking the spacecraft's motion into account. MEM is valid in the inner solar system and offers near-Earth and cis-lunar environments. While the current version of MEM offers a nominal meteoroid environment corresponding to a single meteoroid bulk density, the next version of MEMR3 will offer both flux uncertainties and a density distribution in addition to a revised near-Earth environment. We have updated the near-Earth meteor speed distribution and have made the first determination of uncertainty in this distribution. We have also derived a meteor density distribution from the work of Kikwaya et al. (2011). The annual meteor shower forecast takes the form of a report and data tables that can be used in conjunction with an existing MEM assessment. Fluxes are typically quoted to a constant limiting kinetic energy in order to comport with commonly used ballistic limit equations. For the 2017 annual forecast, the MEO substantially revised the list of showers and their characteristics using 14 years of meteor flux measurements from the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). Defunct or insignificant showers were removed and the temporal profiles of many showers

  3. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  4. A reclaimer scheduling problem arising in coal stockyard management

    OpenAIRE

    Angelelli, Enrico; Kalinowski, Thomas; Kapoor, Reena; Savelsbergh, Martin W. P.

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of variants of an abstract scheduling problem inspired by the scheduling of reclaimers in the stockyard of a coal export terminal. We analyze the complexity of each of the variants, providing complexity proofs for some and polynomial algorithms for others. For one, especially interesting variant, we also develop a constant factor approximation algorithm.

  5. EQUINET : Reclaiming the Resources for Health - Phase V | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EQUINET : Reclaiming the Resources for Health - Phase V. The Southern African Regional Network on Equity in Health (EQUINET) is a network of professionals, researchers, civil society members and policymakers who have come together to work toward health equity and social justice in the Southern African ...

  6. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  7. Beautiful Walls: Reclaiming Urban Space through Mural Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Bethany J.

    2016-01-01

    During the nearly sixteen years she has lived and worked in inner city neighborhoods in New York, Delaware, and Philadelphia, Bethany Welch has seen communities reclaim these spaces by tackling the most visible things first. This includes clearing trash strewn vacant lots and creating murals on expansive exterior walls stained with marks of time.…

  8. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. 300.28 Section 300.28 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... of the respective fibers recovered from such products may be disclosed on the required stamp, tag, or...

  9. Wasted Citizenship? Reclaimers and the Privatised Expansion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Less attention has been paid, however, to the privatised expansion of the public sphere. This article explores such a process in Metsimaholo, South Africa, where the municipality sought to bring landfill recycling into the realm of public policy through a public-private partnership. As informal reclaimers had salvaged ...

  10. Gypsum-saturated water to reclaim alluvial saline sodic and sodic soils Água saturada com gesso na recuperação de solos aluviais salino-sódicos e sódicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Rodrigues da Silveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate management of soil and irrigation water contribute to soil degradation, particularly in the alluvial areas of Northeast Brazil, where salinity and sodicity are already common features. This study evaluates the effects of the addition of gypsum in the irrigation water on physical and chemical properties of soils with different levels of salinity and sodicity. Samples were collected at the Custódia irrigation area of Brazil, predominantly covered by alluvial soils. Leaching tests using simulated irrigation water classified as C3S1, and gypsum-saturated irrigation water were carried out in soil columns of 20 and 50 cm depth. Soil leaching with gypsum saturated water (T2 resulted in an increase in the amounts of exchangeable calcium and potassium, and in a decrease of soil pH, in relation to the original soil (T0, with significant statistical differences to the treatment using only water (T1. There was a reduction in the electrical conductivity, exchangeable sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage in both treatments (T1 and T2, with treatment T2 being more effective in the leaching of soil sodium. No changes of electrical conductivity, calcium and pH in depth were observed, but the 20 - 50 cm layer presented higher amounts of magnesium, sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage. Gypsum saturated water improved the hydraulic conductivity in both layers. The use of gypsum in the irrigation water improved soil physical and chemical properties and should be considered as an alternative in the process of reclamation of saline-sodic and sodic soils in Northeast Brazil.O manejo inadequado do solo e da água de irrigação contribui para a degradação dos solos, particularmente nas áreas aluviais do Nordeste do Brasil, onde a salinidade e a sodicidade são características comumente observadas. Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição do gesso na água de irrigação, sobre as propriedades físicas e químicas de solos com diferentes níveis de

  11. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; K. Lorenz; R. Lal

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The mechanism of physical SOC sequestration is achieved by encapsulation of SOC in spaces within macro and microaggregates. The experimental sites, owned and maintained by American Electrical Power, were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoils and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites were reclaimed both with and without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed in 1994 (R94-F), in 1987 (R87-G), in 1982 (R82-F), in 1978 (R78-G), in 1969 (R69-F), in1956 (R56-G), and from the unmined control (UMS-G). Three sites are under continuous grass cover and three under forest cover since reclamation. The samples were air dried and fractionated using a wet sieving technique into macro (> 2.0 mm), meso (0.25-2.0 mm) and microaggregates (0.053-0.25 mm). The soil C and N concentrations were determined by the dry combustion method on these aggregate fractions. Soil C and N concentrations were higher at the forest sites compared to the grass sites in each aggregate fraction for both depths. Statistical analyses indicated that the number of random samples taken was probably not sufficient to properly consider distribution of SOC and TN concentrations in aggregate size fractions for both depths at each site. Erosional effects on SOC and TN concentrations were, however, small. With increasing time since reclamation, SOC and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations also increased. The higher C and N concentrations in each aggregate size fraction in older than the newly reclaimed sites demonstrated the C sink capacity of newer sites.

  12. Below-ground attributes on reclaimed surface minelands over a 40-year chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, Ryan; Bohrer, Stefanie; Volk, Jay

    2017-04-01

    Reclamation following mining activities often aims to restore stable soils that support productive and diverse native plant communities. The soil re-spread process increases soil compaction, which may alter soil water, plant composition, rooting depths and soil organic matter. This may have a direct impact on vegetation establishment and species recruitment. Seasonal wet/dry and freeze/thaw patterns are thought to alleviate soil compaction over time. However, this has not been formally evaluated on reclaimed landscapes at large scales. Our objectives were to (1) determine soil compaction alleviation, (2) rooting depth and (3) spatial patterns of soil water content over a time-since-reclamation gradient. Soil resistance to penetration varied by depth, with shallow compaction remaining unchanged, but deeper compaction increased over time rather than being alleviated. Root biomass and depth did not increase with time and was consistently less than reference locations. Plant communities initially had a strong native component, but quickly became dominated by invasive species following reclamation and soil water content became increasingly homogeneous over the 40-year chronosequence. Seasonal weather patterns and soil organic matter additions can reduce soil compaction if water infiltration is not limited. Shallow and strongly fibrous-rooted grasses present in reclaimed sites added organic matter to shallow soil layers, but did not penetrate the compacted layers and allow water infiltration. Strong linkages between land management strategies, soil properties and vegetation composition can advance reclamation efforts and promote heterogeneous landscapes. However, current post-reclamation management strategies are not facilitating natural seasonal weather patterns to reducing soil compaction.

  13. Resistive Plate Chamber Digitization in a Hadronic Shower Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Z.

    2016-06-28

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadron Calorimeter (SDHCAL) technological prototype is a sampling calorimeter using Glass Resistive Plate Chamber detectors with a three-threshold readout as the active medium. This technology is one of the two options proposed for the hadron calorimeter of the International Large Detector for the International Linear Collider. The prototype was exposed to beams of muons, electrons and pions of different energies at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. To be able to study the performance of such a calorimeter in future experiments it is important to ensure reliable simulation of its response. In this paper we present our prototype simulation performed with GEANT4 and the digitization procedure achieved with an algorithm called SimDigital. A detailed description of this algorithm is given and the methods to determinate its parameters using muon tracks and electromagnetic showers are explained. The comparison with hadronic shower data shows a good agreement up to 50 GeV. Discrepancies are ...

  14. Efficient Matrix-Element Matching with Sector Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Villarejo, J J

    2011-01-01

    A Markovian shower algorithm based on "sector antennae" is presented and its main properties illustrated. Tree-level full-color matrix elements can be automatically incorporated in the algorithm and are re-interpreted as process-dependent 2 -> n antenna functions. In hard parts of phase-space, these functions generate tree-level matrix-element corrections to the shower. In soft parts, they should improve the logarithmic accuracy of it. The number of matrix-element evaluations required per order of matching is 1, with an unweighting efficiency that remains very high for arbitrary numbers of legs. Total rates can be augmented to NLO precision in a straightforward way. As a proof of concept, we present an implementation in the publicly available VINCIA plug-in to the PYTHIA 8 event generator, for hadronic $Z^0$ decays including tree-level matrix elements through ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^4)$.

  15. Radio detection of cosmic ray air showers with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huege, T.; Apel, W.D. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [IPE, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, A.F. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bercuci, A. [Nat. Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Eng., 7690 Bucharest (Romania); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); IEKP, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Nat. Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Eng., 7690 Bucharest (Romania); Buitink, S. [Dpt. Astrophysics, Radboud Univ., 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57072 Siegen (Germany); Butcher, H. [ASTRON, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [IEKP, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [IK, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-03-15

    In the last few years, radio detection of cosmic ray air showers has experienced a true renaissance, becoming manifest in a number of new experiments and simulation efforts. In particular, the LOPES project has successfully implemented modern interferometric methods to measure the radio emission from extensive air showers. LOPES has confirmed that the emission is coherent and of geomagnetic origin, as expected by the geosynchrotron mechanism, and has demonstrated that a large scale application of the radio technique has great potential to complement current measurements of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We describe the current status, most recent results and open questions regarding radio detection of cosmic rays and give an overview of ongoing research and development for an application of the radio technique in the framework of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  16. Recent results of KASCADE phenomenology of extensive air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G. E-mail: bgschatz@t-online.de; Antoni, T.; Apel, W.D.; Badea, F.; Bekk, K.; Bernloehr, K.; Bluemer, H.; Bollmann, E.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buettner, C.; Chilingarian, A.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engler, J.; Fessler, F.; Gils, H.J.; Glasstetter, R.; Haeusler, R.; Hafemann, W.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hoerandel, J.R.; Holst, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kempa, J.; Klages, H.O.; Knapp, J.; Martello, D.; Mathes, H.J.; Matussek, P.; Mayer, H.J.; Milke, J.; Muehlenberg, D.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Petcu, M.; Rebel, H.; Risse, M.; Roth, M.; Thouw, T.; Ulrich, H.; Vardanyan, A.; Vulpescu, B.; Weber, J.H.; Wentz, J.; Wiegert, T.; Wochele, J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zagromski, S

    2001-04-01

    KASCADE (KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector) is a multi-detector setup to observe the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic air shower components simultaneously in the energy region around the 'knee' of the primary spectrum. Its main aim is to determine energy spectrum and composition of hadrons in primary cosmic rays. This is attempted by registering a large number of observables for each EAS including measurements of electrons, muons and hadrons. This contribution gives a short description of the experiment and then presents some results on the lateral distributions of various particle types and on the spectrum of hadrons. The status of our analyses to determine mass composition is presented in an accompanying contribution by A. Haungs.

  17. Combining states without scale hierarchies with ordered parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine [Monash University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Prestel, Stefan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We present a parameter-free scheme to combine fixed-order multi-jet results with parton-shower evolution. The scheme produces jet cross sections with leading-order accuracy in the complete phase space of multiple emissions, resumming large logarithms when appropriate, while not arbitrarily enforcing ordering on momentum configurations beyond the reach of the parton-shower evolution equation. This requires the development of a matrix-element correction scheme for complex phase-spaces including ordering conditions as well as a systematic scale-setting procedure for unordered phase-space points. The resulting algorithm does not require a merging-scale parameter. We implement the new method in the Vincia framework and compare to LHC data. (orig.)

  18. Matching fully differential NNLO calculations and parton showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone; Bauer, Christian W.; Berggren, Calvin; Walsh, Jonathan R.; Zuberi, Saba [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We present a general method to match fully differential next-to-next-to-leading (NNLO) calculations to parton shower programs. We discuss in detail the perturbative accuracy criteria a complete NNLO+PS matching has to satisfy. Our method is based on consistently improving a given NNLO calculation with the leading-logarithmic (LL) resummation in a chosen jet resolution variable. The resulting NNLO+LL calculation is cast in the form of an event generator for physical events that can be directly interfaced with a parton shower routine, and we give an explicit construction of the input ''Monte Carlo cross sections'' satisfying all required criteria. We also show how other proposed approaches naturally arise as special cases in our method.

  19. qq-production at NLO merged with parton-shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangst, Christian; Muehlleitner, Margarete [KIT - Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Kraemer, Michael [RWTH Aachen University, Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie (Germany); Popenda, Eva; Spira, Michael [Paul Scherrer Institut - Theory Group LTP (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Precise predictions for the production of SUSY-particles at the LHC require the combination of fixed-order NLO-calculations and parton-showers. This so-called merging can be achieved via the POWHEG-method. I present some results obtained with this method for qq-production, based on the implementation of this process in the program-package POWHEG-BOX.

  20. The AMY experiment: Microwave emission from air shower plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez-Muñiz J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You The Air Microwave Yield (AMY experiment investigate the molecular bremsstrahlung radiation emitted in the GHz frequency range from an electron beam induced air-shower. The measurements have been performed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF of Frascati INFN National Laboratories with a 510 MeV electron beam in a wide frequency range between 1 and 20 GHz. We present the apparatus and the results of the tests performed.

  1. On the Impact of Tsallis Statistics on Cosmic Ray Showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the Tsallis nonextensive statistics introduced by intrinsic temperature fluctuations in p-Air ultrahigh energy interactions on observables of cosmic ray showers, such as the slant depth of the maximum Xmax and the muon number on the ground Nμ. The results show that these observables are significantly affected by temperature fluctuations and agree qualitatively with the predictions of Heitler model.

  2. Improving soil enzyme activities and related quality properties of reclaimed soil by applying weathered coal in opencast-mining areas of the Chinese loess plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hua [College of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Shao, Hongbo [CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China); Li, Weixiang; Bi, Rutian [Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu (China); Bai, Zhongke [Department of Land Science Technology, University of Geosciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-03-15

    There are many problems for the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China such as poor soil structure and extreme poverty in soil nutrients and so on. For the sake of finding a better way to improve soil quality, the current study was to apply the weathered coal for repairing soil media and investigate the physicochemical properties of the reclaimed soil and the changes in enzyme activities after planting Robinia pseucdoacacia. The results showed that the application of the weathered coal significantly improved the quality of soil aggregates, increased the content of water stable aggregates, and the organic matter, humus, and the cation exchange capacity of topsoil were significantly improved, but it did not have a significant effect on soil pH. Planting R. pseucdoacacia significantly enhanced the activities of soil catalase, urease, and invertase, but the application of the weathered coal inhibited the activity of catalase. Although the application of appropriate weathered coal was able to significantly increase urease activity, the activities of catalase, urease, or invertase had a close link with the soil profile levels and time. This study suggests that applying weathered coals could improve the physicochemical properties and soil enzyme activities of the reclaimed soil in opencast-mining areas of the Loess Plateau of China and the optimum applied amount of the weathered coal for reclaimed soil remediation is about 27 000 kg hm{sup -2}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. The Effect of New Shower Facilities on Physical Activity Behaviors of Employees: A Quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Eileen K; Pérez, Adriana; Ranjit, Nalini; Amick, Benjamin C; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-02-01

    This quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of new workplace showers on physical activity behaviors in a sample of downtown employees in Austin, TX. The study design was quasi-experimental with 2 comparison groups. Data were collected via internet-based surveys before and 4 months after shower installation at 1 worksite. Differences across study groups in the ranks of change in past-week minutes of physical activity from baseline to follow-up were assessed. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for reporting an increase of ≥10 min past-week physical activity and workday physical activity among those with new showers and existing showers relative to those with no showers were also assessed. No significant differences in changes in physical activity from baseline to follow-up across study groups were found. One-quarter of participants with new workplace showers and 46.9% of those with existing workplace showers at baseline reported ever using the showers. This prospective study did not find significant changes in employee physical activity 4 months after installation of worksite showers. Worksite shower users were highly active at baseline, suggesting a possible early adopter effect, with potential for diffusion. Future studies may benefit from longer exposure times and larger samples.

  4. Status of air-shower measurements with sparse radio arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Frank G.

    2017-03-01

    This proceeding gives a summary of the current status and open questions of the radio technique for cosmic-ray air showers, assuming that the reader is already familiar with the principles. It includes recent results of selected experiments not present at this conference, e.g., LOPES and TREND. Current radio arrays like AERA or Tunka-Rex have demonstrated that areas of several km2 can be instrumented for reasonable costs with antenna spacings of the order of 200m. For the energy of the primary particle such sparse antenna arrays can already compete in absolute accuracy with other precise techniques, like the detection of air-fluorescence or air-Cherenkov light. With further improvements in the antenna calibration, the radio detection might become even more accurate. For the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, Xmax, currently only the dense array LOFAR features a precision similar to the fluorescence technique, but analysis methods for the radio measurement of Xmax are still under development. Moreover, the combination of radio and muon measurements is expected to increase the accuracy of the mass composition, and this around-the-clock recording is not limited to clear nights as are the light-detection methods. Consequently, radio antennas will be a valuable add-on for any air shower array targeting the energy range above 100 PeV.

  5. Status of air-shower measurements with sparse radio arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Frank G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This proceeding gives a summary of the current status and open questions of the radio technique for cosmic-ray air showers, assuming that the reader is already familiar with the principles. It includes recent results of selected experiments not present at this conference, e.g., LOPES and TREND. Current radio arrays like AERA or Tunka-Rex have demonstrated that areas of several km2 can be instrumented for reasonable costs with antenna spacings of the order of 200m. For the energy of the primary particle such sparse antenna arrays can already compete in absolute accuracy with other precise techniques, like the detection of air-fluorescence or air-Cherenkov light. With further improvements in the antenna calibration, the radio detection might become even more accurate. For the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, Xmax, currently only the dense array LOFAR features a precision similar to the fluorescence technique, but analysis methods for the radio measurement of Xmax are still under development. Moreover, the combination of radio and muon measurements is expected to increase the accuracy of the mass composition, and this around-the-clock recording is not limited to clear nights as are the light-detection methods. Consequently, radio antennas will be a valuable add-on for any air shower array targeting the energy range above 100 PeV.

  6. Meteor Showers in the Ancient Maya Hieroglyphic Codices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, J. H.

    2014-07-01

    Researchers of the ancient Maya culture have long been fascinated with the Maya obsession concerning cyclical calendars and precise visual observations of astronomical bodies and phenomena, in particular the Sun, Moon, visible planets, and solar and lunar eclipses. Although considered possible, heretofore no record of specific sightings of comets or meteor showers in the Maya inscriptions has been firmly established by scholars. Besides difficulties with decipherment of the hieroglyphic script, investigators have had to grapple with an ancient Maya calendar that has not been accurately correlated to the European calendar. Recent examination by this researcher has found that it may be possible to recognize written accounts of meteor showers embedded in the hieroglyphic corpus, especially the codices, the screen-fold books that were the tools of the astronomer-priests of that day. By proposing an alternative decipherment of an astronomical sign and using the accompanying hieroglyphic texts and illustrations with appropriate dates, this researcher believes it is possible to demonstrate that the Maya may have recorded meteor showers occurring in the seventh through the tenth centuries AD.

  7. Water from (waste)water--the dependable water resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water.

  8. Influence of the Reclaim from the Cordis Technology on the Core Sand Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the mechanical reclamation of spent moulding sands from the Cordis technology are presented in the paper. The quality assessment of the obtained reclaim and the influence of the reclaim fraction in a matrix on the core sand strength is given. The reclaim quality assessment was performed on the basis of the determination of losses on ignition, Na2O content on reclaim grains and pH values. The reclaim constituted 100%, 75% and 50% of the core sand matrix, for which the bending strength was determined. The matrix reclamation treatment was performed in the experimental rotor reclaimer RD-6. Spent sands were applied in as-delivered condition and after the heating to a temperature of 140 °C. Shaped samples for strength tests were made by shooting and hardening of sands in the warmbox technology.

  9. Delineation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in a large-scaled reclaimed land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B.; Park, S.; Hwang, J.; Song, S.; Choi, J.; Nam, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Saemangeum reclaimed land in Korea is currently under construction for an eco-friendly multifunctional complex including agriculture, eco-tourism, business, and renewable energy industry. Regarding water supply for the reclaimed land, groundwater is the sustainable water resource and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), subsurface fluids flowing from land to the sea, is considered as an alternative one. This study was conducted to identify SGD below a southeastern part of the reclaimed land and to delineate its pathway by investigating groundwater chemistry and electrical resistivity distribution of subsurface. Thirty four groundwater samples were collected from shallow agricultural wells placed along the past coast line (~5 km length) of the southeastern part in May and October, 2009. Field parameters including pH, EC, temperature, and ORP were measured using a portable multi-sensor and alkalinity by titration. They were analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, and NH4), anions (Cl, NO3, SO4, and PO4), and metals (Fe and Mn). Mean EC value was 1,163 µS/cm, corresponding to the appropriate crop growth because the criteria of crop yield is less 2,000 µS/cm. Stable isotopes results were plotted on the local meteoric water line, indicating lighter than those from sea water. It implied that the groundwater originated from inland precipitation and occurred as SGD along the coast line. From the groundwater compositions showing various water types including Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Na-Cl, it could be concluded that small-scale SGD and seawater intrusion have great influences on the groundwater quality. From correlation analysis of EC-pH, Cl-HCO3, NO3-SO4, NO3-Cl, and (Fe, Mn)-NH4, spatial distributions of SGD were identified. A small catchment (0.2 km2) in the reclaimed land was selected to delineate a SGD flow path by two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey. The longitudinal and transverse lines were 760 and 275 m, respectively

  10. Modeling and assessing the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on the nutrient loads from an agricultural watershed containing rice paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Min; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Jeong Jae; Benham, Brian L; Kim, Hak Kwan

    2007-02-15

    Two models were used in concert to predict nutrient loads in a waterbody receiving irrigation return flows from a rice paddy production system. Two irrigation scenarios were simulated, one using reclaimed wastewater as the irrigation water source, the other using water from a surface reservoir designed to supply irrigation water. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads in irrigation return flows from the rice paddy fields were simulated using the field-scale water quality model Chemical, Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management System model for rice paddy fields (CREAMS-PADDY). The output from CREAMS-PADDY was then used as input data for Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) model. HSPF was used to evaluate TN and TP loads in the receiving waterbody at the watershed-scale. CREAMS-PADDY and HSPF were calibrated for both hydrology and water quality using observed data. Both CREAMS-PADDY and HSPF showed good agreement between the observed and simulated data during the calibration and validation periods. Simulation indicated that TN and TP loads from the study paddy fields increased by 207% and 1022% when reclaimed wastewater was used for irrigation compared to conventional irrigation. Irrigating paddy fields (18.8% of the 385 ha study watershed) with reclaimed wastewater increased the TN load at the watershed outlet by 10.3% and TP by 14.0%. The increase in nutrient loads was the result of the high nutrient concentration in the reclaimed wastewater. The procedures used in this research can be used to develop wastewater reuse strategies that minimize environmental impacts on watershed water quality.

  11. Russia’s Next Revolution: Reclaiming Lost Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    of our nation’s founding principles and shared values . intentionally left blank xi TABLE OF CONTENTS RUSSIA’S NEXT REVOLUTION: RECLAIMING...Country Watch Incorporated (2016), 50-53, http://www.countrywatch.com/ Intelligence /CountryReviews?CountryId=142 (accessed October 7, 2016). 2...artificial values , economic challenges, and other serious issues. It also discusses protests and government opposition to them, the challenges

  12. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    OpenAIRE

    Béné, S.; Boivin, P.; Busato, E.; Cârloganu, C.; Combaret, C.; P. Dupieux; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Labazuy, P; Laktineh, I.; Lénat, J.-F.; Miallier, D.; Mirabito, L.; Niess, V.; Portal, A.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated ...

  13. Direct tests of micro channel plates as the active element of a new shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronzhin, A., E-mail: ronzhin@fnal.gov [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Los, S.; Ramberg, E. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Apresyan, A.; Xie, S.; Spiropulu, M. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kim, H. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We continue the study of micro channel plates (MCP) as the active element of a shower maximum (SM) detector. We present below test beam results obtained with MCPs detecting directly secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. The MCP efficiency to shower particles is close to 100%. The time resolution obtained for this new type of the SM detector is at the level of 40 ps.

  14. Parton-shower uncertainties with Herwig 7: benchmarks at leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, Johannes; Schichtel, Peter [Durham University, Department of Physics, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); Nail, Graeme [University of Manchester, Particle Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Plaetzer, Simon [Durham University, Department of Physics, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Particle Physics Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Siodmok, Andrzej [CERN, TH Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    We perform a detailed study of the sources of perturbative uncertainty in parton-shower predictions within the Herwig 7 event generator. We benchmark two rather different parton-shower algorithms, based on angular-ordered and dipole-type evolution, against each other. We deliberately choose leading order plus parton shower as the benchmark setting to identify a controllable set of uncertainties. This will enable us to reliably assess improvements by higher-order contributions in a follow-up work. (orig.)

  15. Regular and transitory showers of comet C/1979 Y1 (Bradfield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduková, M.; Neslušan, L.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We intend to map the whole meteor complex of the long-period comet C/1979 Y1 (Bradfield), which is a proposed parent body of the July Pegasids, No. 175 in the list of meteor showers established by the Meteor Data Center (MDC) of the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Methods: For five perihelion passages of the parent comet in the past, we model associated theoretical stream, its parts, each consisting of 10 000 test particles, and follow the dynamical evolution of these parts up to the present. Subsequently, we analyze the mean orbital characteristics of those particles of the parts that approach the Earth's orbit and, thus, create a shower or showers. The showers are compared with their observed counterparts separated from photographic, radio, and several video databases. Results: The modeled stream of C/1979 Y1 approaches the Earth's orbit in two filaments that correspond to two regular (annual) showers. We confirm the generic relationship between the studied parent comet and 175 July Pegasids. The other predicted shower is a daytime shower with the mean radiant situated symmetrically to the July Pegasids with respect to the apex of the Earth's motion. This shower is not in the IAU MDC list, but we separated it from the Cameras-for-Allsky-Meteor-Surveillance (CAMS) and SonotaCo video data as a new shower. We suggest naming it α-Microscopiids. The stronger influence of the Poynting-Robertson drag deflects the stream away from the Earth's orbit in those sections that correspond to the July Pegasids and the predicted daytime shower, but it makes the stream cross the Earth's orbit in other sections. Corresponding showers are, however, only expected to survive during a limited period and to consist of particles of sizes in a narrow interval. We identified one of these "transitory" filaments to the 104 γ-Bootids in the IAU MDC list of meteor showers.

  16. Pion and proton showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, B.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Lima, J.G.R.; Salcido, R.; Zutshi, V.; Salvatore, F.; Kawagoe, K.; Miyazaki, Y.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Tomita, T.; Ueno, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Lucaci-Timoce, A. -I.; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Tran, H.L.; Buhmann, P.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Wing, M.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J.C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Antequera, J. Berenguer; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chistov, R.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Poschl, R.; Raux, L.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Matthieu, A.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Jeans, D.; Weber, S.

    2015-01-01

    Showers produced by positive hadrons in the highly granular CALICE scintillatorsteel analogue hadronic calorimeter were studied. The experimental data were collected at CERN and FNAL for single particles with initial momenta from 10 to 80 GeV/c. The calorimeter response and resolution and spatial characteristics of shower development for proton- and pion-induced showers for test beam data and simulations using GEANT4 version 9.6 are compared.

  17. A soil quality index for reclaimed mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Verónica; Guala, S D; Vega, Flora A; Covelo, Emma F

    2013-10-01

    The quality of soils found in mines is low if they do not receive any reclamation treatment; yet, to the authors’ knowledge, there are still no equations to evaluate the quality of metal-contaminated mine soils after the application of the most widely used reclamation treatments (planting vegetation and amending with wastes). Therefore, the purposes of the present study were 1) to propose a method for developing soil quality indexes (SQIs); 2) to develop the SQIs for 2 types of mine soils (settling pond and mine tailing) reclaimed by planting trees, amending with wastes, or both; and 3) to assess the quality of these soils under field conditions. The results obtained after the use of an SQI developed for reclaimed mine soils through the selection of an SQI with a factor analysis and the totaling of the scores of the selected variables revealed that this method is a valid tool for developing SQIs. Applying this index with reclaimed mine soils showed that the untreated sites had a very low quality and that the treatment that most improved the soils was amending with wastes (sewage sludges and paper mill residues). The authors recommend the periodic addition of sewage sludges and paper mill residues to degraded sites as they increase the quality of soils, but the effects decrease over time. © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Water Cycle Management: A New Paradigm of Wastewater Reuse and Safety Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Xiaochang C; Zhang, Chongmiao; Ma, Xiaoyan; Luo, Li

    2015-01-01

    .... It introduces a new water cycle management concept for designing water systems that mimic the hydrological cycle, where reclaimed water is produced, stored/regulated, supplied and used in a semi...

  19. The Use of D-Criteria to Assess Meteor Shower Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    In theory, a meteor shower can be distinguished from the sporadic meteor background by its short duration and orbital similarity. In practice, the duration and strength of a shower and the orbital similarity between its constituent meteors varies widely between showers. Further complicating matters is the anisotropy of the sporadic background. These combined factors make it difficult to distinguish between shower and sporadic meteors with a single, static set of criteria. The orbital similarity, or D-, parameters are often used to assess the relationship between meteors [1,2,3]. The more dissimilar two orbits are, the higher their computed D value will be; generally, meteors are considered related if their D-parameter falls below some cutoff value [4]. However, this approach will include some sporadic meteors, and when a weak shower lies near a sporadic source, the false positive rate for shower association can be quite high. Additionally, this cutoff approach does not assess whether the shower itself is significant. We present a method for using D-parameters to extract showers from a dataset that automatically takes shower strength into account and tests for significance [5]. We accomplish this by calculating the false positive rate for shower association using "shower analogs," which are identical to the original shower except in solar longitude. This method is applied to a set of more than 30,000 meteors detected by the NASA All-Sky Fireball Network [6] and the Southern Ontario Meteor Network (SOMN) [7]. We previously detected 29 showers in our data using this method [5]; now, with another year of data, we have several additional detections. Figure 1 presents one example: the 2016 July gamma Draconid outburst. There are several benefits to using our method. First, it provides a test of shower significance (see Fig. 2 for an example of a non-detection). Second, it quantifies the probability that a meteor belongs to a given shower as a function of D

  20. Use of flue gas desulfurization gypsum for leaching Cd and Pb in reclaimed tidal flat soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Li, Xian; Tong, Ze-Jun; Li, Qu-Sheng; He, Bao-Yan; Wang, Li-Li; Guo, Shi-Hong; Xu, Zhi-Min

    2016-04-01

    A soil column leaching experiment was conducted to eliminate heavy metals from reclaimed tidal flat soil. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum was used for leaching. The highest removal rates of Cd and Pb in the upper soil layers (0-30 cm) were 52.7 and 30.5 %, respectively. Most of the exchangeable and carbonate-bound Cd and Pb were removed. The optimum FGD gypsum application rate was 7.05 kg·m(-2), and the optimum leaching water amount for the application was 217.74 L·m(-2). The application of FGD gypsum (two times) and the extension of the leaching interval time to 20 days increased the heavy metal removal rate in the upper soil layers. The heavy metals desorbed from the upper soil layers were re-adsorbed and fixed in the 30-70 cm soil layers.

  1. Assessing Fossil and New Carbon in Reclaimed Mined Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rattan Lal; David Ussiri

    2008-09-30

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool in the reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is the mixture of coal C originating from mining and reclamation activities and recent plant-derived organic carbon (OC). Accurate estimates of OC pools and sequestration rates in the RMS are limited by lack of standard and cost-effective method for determination of coal-C concentration. The main objective of this project was to develop and test analytical procedures for quantifying pool sizes of coal-derived C in RMS and to partition organic C in RMS into coal-derived and newly deposited SOC fractions. Analysis of soil and coal artificial mixtures indicated that the {Delta}{sup 13}C method developed was very effective in estimating coal C added in the mixtures, especially soils under C4 plants. However, most of the reclaimed sites in Ohio are under C3 plants with range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal falling within ranges of coal. The wide range of {Delta}{sup 13}C signal observed in minesoils, (i.e. -26 to -30 for plants and -23 to -26 for coal) limits the ability of this approach to be used for southeast Ohio minesoils. This method is applicable for reclaimed prime farm land under long term corn or corn soybean rotation. Chemi-thermal method was very effective in quantifying coal-C fraction in both soil-coal artificial mixtures and minesoils. The recovery of coal-C from the mixture ranged from 93 to 100% of coal. Cross-validation of chemi-thermal method with radiocarbon analysis revealed that chemi-thermal method was as effective as radiocarbon analysis in quantifying coal-C in RMS. Coal C determined after chemi-thermal treatment of samples was highly correlated with coal C concentration calculated by radiocarbon activity (r{sup 2} = 0.95, P < 0.01). Therefore, both radiocarbon activity and chemi-thermal method were effective in estimating coal carbon concentration in reclaimed minesoils of southeast Ohio. Overall, both coal-C and recent OC fraction exhibited high spatial and depth variation, suggesting

  2. GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE UNCONFINED AQUIFER IN A RECENTLY RECLAIMED WETLAND AREA: A CASE STUDY FROM THE PO RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Di Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the distribution of main anions and nitrogen species in the unconfined aquifer of a recently reclaimed land. In a 6 ha experimental field, 10 piezometers for water level measurement and groundwater sampling have been installed. After one year of monitoring, results show that the high chloride and ammonium concentrations are due to inherited from the previous brackish conditions and to organic matter mineralization, respectively. Seasonal variations and Cl/Br ratio show that the 1 m deep sub surface drainage system is the main factor conditioning the chemical characteristics and the piezometric depth of the aquifer. 

  3. First detection of extensive air showers with the EEE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M; Fabbri, F L; Bressan, E; Librizzi, F; Sartorelli, G; Piragino, G; Ferroli, R Baldini; Maggiora, A; Siddi, E; Zuyeuski, R; Frolov, V; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Zichichi, A; Romano, F; La Rocca, P; Williams, M C S; Cicalo, C; D'Incecco, M; Panareo, M; Menghetti, H; Garbini, M; Moro, R; Cifarelli, L; Riggi, F; Hatzifotiadou, D; Scapparone, E; Chiavassa, A; Gustavino, C; De Gruttola, D; Coccetti, F; Bencivenni, C; Miozzi, S; De Pasquale, S

    2010-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the study of extremely high energy cosmic rays by means of an array of particle detectors distributed all over the Italian territory. Each element of the array (called telescope in the following) is installed in a High School, with the further goal to introduce students to particle and astroparticle physics, and consists of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), that have excellent time resolution and good tracking capability. In this paper the first results on the detection of extensive air showers by means of time coincidences between two telescopes are presented.

  4. First detection of extensive air showers with the EEE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, R.

    2011-03-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the study of extremely high energy cosmic rays by means of an array of particle detectors distributed all over the Italian territory. Each element of the array (called telescope in the following) is installed in a High School, with the further goal to introduce students to particle and astroparticle physics, and consists of three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), that have excellent time resolution and good tracking capability. In this paper the first results on the detection of extensive air showers by means of time coincidences between two telescopes are presented.

  5. The Air-Shower Experiment KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haungs, A., E-mail: haungs@ik.fzk.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    KASCADE-Grande is an extensive air shower experiment at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany. Main parts of the experiment are the Grande array spread over an area of 700x700m{sup 2}, the original KASCADE array covering 200x200m{sup 2} with unshielded and shielded detectors, and additional muon tracking devices. This multi-detector system allows to investigate the energy spectrum, composition, and anisotropies of cosmic rays in the energy range up to 1 EeV. An overview on the performance of the apparatus and first results will be given.

  6. Open b production at LHC and Parton Shower Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, H.; Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present hadron-level predictions from the Monte Carlo generator Cascade and numerical level calculations of beauty quark and inclusive b-jet production in the framework of the kT -factorization QCD approach for CERN LHC energies. The unintegrated gluon densities in a proton are determined using the CCFM evolution equation and the Kimber- Martin-Ryskin (KMR) prescription. We study the theoretical uncertainties of our calcula- tions and investigate the effects coming from parton showers in initial and final states. Our predictions are compared with the recent data taken by the CMS collaboration.

  7. Proposed criteria and indicators of ecosystem function for reclaimed oil sands sites : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welham, C.; Robinson, N. [FOR rx Consulting Inc., Belcarra, BC (Canada)

    2006-10-13

    Sustainable forest management programs develop criteria and indicator (C and I) methodologies in order to demonstrate sustainability as well as to identify problems so that remedial actions can be employed. A critical feature of forestry-based C and I is the assumption that most of the basic ecosystem functions and services are in place at the time management activities are implemented. Application of the C and I approach to open-pit mining is often problematic, as the basic attributes of an ecosystem have been largely removed during mining operations. This report described a comprehensive list of indicators of forest ecosystem function along with a description of how they might be used to assess reclamation success in the oil sands region. Indicators were compiled from a workshop conducted at the University of British Columbia. The list was constrained by the fact that reclaimed oil sands sites are large and spatially heterogenous. The spatial and temporal nature of the data meant that sampling protocols were also necessary. Robust indicators that were economically expensive were favoured. Indicators were grouped under the following 3 criteria: (1) that the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil are restored to target levels; (2) that the structure, composition and vigor of vegetation cover are restored to target levels; and (3) that critical ecosystem processes are restored to target levels. Criteria were selected to reflect the core attributes necessary for assessing development of a reclaimed ecosystem. Indicators included nitrogen-fixing symbionts; soil fauna; soil nutrients; mycorrhizae; snags; invasive species; wetland input water chemistry; foliar nutrition; nutrient budgets; and plant carbon allocation. It was noted that reference sites should be equivalent ecologically to their reclaimed analogue and located close to the restoration project, so that success in oil sands remediation projects can be evaluated by the rate at which a given

  8. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion...

  9. 30 CFR 77.211 - Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.211 Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general. (a) Tunnels located below stockpiles, surge piles, and coal storage silos...

  10. Martian Atmospheric Methane Plumes from Meteor Shower Infall: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Christou, A.; Archer, D.; Conrad, P.; Cooke, W.; Eigenbrode, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Matney, M.; Niles, P.; Sykes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methane plumes in the martian atmosphere have been detected using Earth-based spectroscopy, the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on the ESA Mars Express mission, and the NASA Mars Science Laboratory. The methane's origin remains a mystery, with proposed sources including volcanism, exogenous sources like impacts and interplanetary dust, aqueous alteration of olivine in the presence of carbonaceous material, release from ancient deposits of methane clathrates, and/or biological activity. To date, none of these phenomena have been found to reliably correlate with the detection of methane plumes. An additional source exists, however: meteor showers could generate martian methane via UV pyrolysis of carbon-rich infall material. We find a correlation between the dates of Mars/cometary orbit encounters and detections of methane on Mars. We hypothesize that cometary debris falls onto Mars during these interactions, depositing freshly disaggregated meteor shower material in a regional concentration. The material generates methane via UV photolysis, resulting in a localized "plume" of short-lived methane.

  11. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory : Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Bravo, A. Gascon; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Vitale, P. F. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui De Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Meza, J. J. Masias; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Silva, M. Zimbres; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is

  12. 16 CFR 1201.40 - Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower... Policy and Interpretation § 1201.40 Interpretation concerning bathtub and shower doors and enclosures. (a) Purpose and background. The purpose of this section is to clarify the scope of the terms “bathtub doors...

  13. Probing Atmospheric Electric Fields in Thunderstorms through Radio Emission from Cosmic-Ray-Induced Air Showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, P.; Trinh, Gia; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Ebert, U.; Koehn, C.; Rutjes, C.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J. M.; Avruch, I. M.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J. W.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Ciardi, B.; de Geus, E.; de Vos, M.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fallows, R. A.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Holties, H. A.; Juette, E.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; Mann, G.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Mevius, M.; Moldon, J.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D. J.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Tasse, C.; Toribio, M. C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; Wise, M. W.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the

  14. Parton-shower matching systematics in vector-boson-fusion WW production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Michael [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Plaetzer, Simon [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of next-to-leading order plus parton-shower matching in vector-boson-fusion WW production including leptonic decays. The study is performed in the Herwig 7 framework interfaced to VBFNLO 3, using the angular-ordered and dipole-based parton-shower algorithms combined with the subtractive and multiplicative-matching algorithms. (orig.)

  15. Meteor Shower observations from the Indian Sub-Continent (Visual Photographic and Radio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabhade, R.; Savant, V.; Belapure, J.

    2011-01-01

    We review the present status of meteor shower observing from the Indian sub-continent. Some amateur groups are active in visual observations, although they are restricted by the lack of good observing sites. Ham radio appears to be promising as a technique to monitor the major meteor showers in this region. We present radio observations of the 2006 Quadrantids.

  16. Long-term impacts on macroinvertebrates downstream of reclaimed mountaintop mining valley fills in Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Gregory J; Passmore, Margaret E; Pointon, Nancy D; Felbinger, John K; Walker, Craig A; Krock, Kelly J G; Fulton, Jennifer B; Nash, Whitney L

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have documented adverse effects to biological communities downstream of mountaintop coal mining and valley fills (VF), but few data exist on the longevity of these impacts. We sampled 15 headwater streams with VFs reclaimed 11-33 years prior to 2011 and sampled seven local reference sites that had no VFs. We collected chemical, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrate data in April 2011; additional chemical samples were collected in September 2011. To assess ecological condition, we compared VF and reference abiotic and biotic data using: (1) ordination to detect multivariate differences, (2) benthic indices (a multimetric index and an observed/expected predictive model) calibrated to state reference conditions to detect impairment, and (3) correlation and regression analysis to detect relationships between biotic and abiotic data. Although VF sites had good instream habitat, nearly 90 % of these streams exhibited biological impairment. VF sites with higher index scores were co-located near unaffected tributaries; we suggest that these tributaries were sources of sensitive taxa as drifting colonists. There were clear losses of expected taxa across most VF sites and two functional feeding groups (% scrapers and %shredders) were significantly altered. Percent VF and forested area were related to biological quality but varied more than individual ions and specific conductance. Within the subset of VF sites, other descriptors (e.g., VF age, site distance from VF, the presence of impoundments, % forest) had no detectable relationships with biological condition. Although these VFs were constructed pursuant to permits and regulatory programs that have as their stated goals that (1) mined land be reclaimed and restored to its original use or a use of higher value, and (2) mining does not cause or contribute to violations of water quality standards, we found sustained ecological damage in headwaters streams draining VFs long after reclamation was completed.

  17. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apresyan, A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Los, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Pena, C.; Presutti, F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ronzhin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-08-21

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  18. Direct tests of a pixelated microchannel plate as the active element of a shower maximum detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apresyan, A.; Los, S.; Pena, C.; Presutti, F.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-08-01

    One possibility to make a fast and radiation resistant shower maximum detector is to use a secondary emitter as an active element. We report our studies of microchannel plate photomultipliers (MCPs) as the active element of a shower-maximum detector. We present test beam results obtained using Photonis XP85011 to detect secondary particles of an electromagnetic shower. We focus on the use of the multiple pixels on the Photonis MCP in order to find a transverse two-dimensional shower distribution. A spatial resolution of 0.8 mm was obtained with an 8 GeV electron beam. A method for measuring the arrival time resolution for electromagnetic showers is presented, and we show that time resolution better than 40 ps can be achieved.

  19. Meteor Shower Forecast Improvements from a Survey of All-Sky Network Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Sugar, Glenn; Brown, Peter G.; Cooke, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroid impacts are capable of damaging spacecraft and potentially ending missions. In order to help spacecraft programs mitigate these risks, NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) monitors and predicts meteoroid activity. Temporal variations in near-Earth space are described by the MEO's annual meteor shower forecast, which is based on both past shower activity and model predictions. The MEO and the University of Western Ontario operate sister networks of all-sky meteor cameras. These networks have been in operation for more than 7 years and have computed more than 20,000 meteor orbits. Using these data, we conduct a survey of meteor shower activity in the "fireball" size regime using DBSCAN. For each shower detected in our survey, we compute the date of peak activity and characterize the growth and decay of the shower's activity before and after the peak. These parameters are then incorporated into the annual forecast for an improved treatment of annual activity.

  20. Injuries associated with bathtubs and showers among children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyi J; McKenzie, Lara B; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to describe the epidemiological features of injuries associated with bathtubs and showers, especially those related to slips, trips, and falls, among US children. A retrospective study was performed by using nationally representative data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990 through 2007 for children bathtub- and shower-related injuries among children bathtub. Of the cases with a known place of injury, 97.1% occurred at home. An estimated 2.8% of patients were admitted, transferred to another hospital, or held for observation. This is the first study on bathtub- and shower-related injuries using nationally representative data. Slips, trips, and falls in bathtubs and showers are a common cause of injury among children, especially children bathtub and shower surfaces.

  1. First Experimental Characterization of Microwave Emission from Cosmic Ray Air Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smída, R; Werner, F; Engel, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K-H; Kang, D; Klages, H; Kleifges, M; Krömer, O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Neunteufel, P; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pekala, J; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Riegel, M; Roth, M; Salamida, F; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Stasielak, J; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Unger, M; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wilczyński, H; Will, M; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2014-11-28

    We report the first direct measurement of the overall characteristics of microwave radio emission from extensive air showers. Using a trigger provided by the KASCADE-Grande air shower array, the signals of the microwave antennas of the Cosmic-Ray Observation via Microwave Emission experiment have been read out and searched for signatures of radio emission by high-energy air showers in the GHz frequency range. Microwave signals have been detected for more than 30 showers with energies above 3×10^{16}  eV. The observations presented in this Letter are consistent with a mainly forward-directed and polarized emission process in the GHz frequency range. The measurements show that microwave radiation offers a new means of studying air showers at E≥10^{17}  eV.

  2. Energy dependent fractal dimension in lateral electron distribution of extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purmohammad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available   Secondary electrons at ground level of simulated extensive air showers have been analyzed using a wavelet transform based technique, in order to investigate the variation of fractal dimensions of the lateral distribution of the electrons with shower energy and primary particle mass number. The fractal dimension is shown to increase with shower energy and seems to saturate to constant values near the core of the shower at higher energies. Using the fractal dimension properties at different core distances, a multi-parameter separation technique is then applied to the data. It has been shown that the technique has good accuracy at high energy, provided the energy of the shower is obtained independently.

  3. Tracking within Hadronic Showers in the CALICE SDHCAL prototype using a Hough Transform Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yue, Q.; Yang, Z.; Boumediene, D.; Carloganu, C.; Français, V.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Lee, S. C.; Liu, Z.; Park, W.; Vallecorsa, S.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Pingault, A.; Zaganidis, N.; Bach, O.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Hartbrich, O.; Irles, A.; Kotera, K.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Sudo, Y.; Tran, H. L.; Hirai, H.; Kawagoe, K.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Buridon, V.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Garillot, G.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Kurca, T.; Laktineh, I.; Li, B.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Chadeeva, M.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Graf, C.; Israeli, Y.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Windel, H.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Pöschl, R.; Thiebault, A.; Richard, F.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Ruan, M.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Polak, I.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Zuklin, J.

    2017-05-01

    The high granularity of the CALICE Semi-Digital Hadronic CALorimeter (SDHCAL) provides the capability to reveal the track segments present in hadronic showers. These segments are then used as a tool to probe the behaviour of the active layers in situ, to better reconstruct the energy of these hadronic showers and also to distinguish them from electromagnetic ones. In addition, the comparison of these track segments in data and the simulation helps to discriminate among the different shower models used in the simulation. To extract the track segments in the showers recorded in the SDHCAL, a Hough Transform is used after being adapted to the presence of the dense core of the hadronic showers and the SDHCAL active medium structure.

  4. A deep learning-based reconstruction of cosmic ray-induced air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M.; Glombitza, J.; Walz, D.

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method of reconstructing air showers induced by cosmic rays using deep learning techniques. We simulate an observatory consisting of ground-based particle detectors with fixed locations on a regular grid. The detector's responses to traversing shower particles are signal amplitudes as a function of time, which provide information on transverse and longitudinal shower properties. In order to take advantage of convolutional network techniques specialized in local pattern recognition, we convert all information to the image-like grid of the detectors. In this way, multiple features, such as arrival times of the first particles and optimized characterizations of time traces, are processed by the network. The reconstruction quality of the cosmic ray arrival direction turns out to be competitive with an analytic reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed shower direction, energy and shower depth show the expected improvement in resolution for higher cosmic ray energy.

  5. Extensive Air Showers: from the muonic smoking guns to the hadronic backbone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazon L.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive Air Showers are complex macroscopic objects initiated by single ultra-high energy particles. They are the result of millions of high energy reactions in the atmosphere and can be described as the superposition of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades. The hadronic cascade is the air shower backbone, and it is mainly made of pions. Decays of neutral pions initiate electromagnetic cascades, while the decays of charged pions produce muons which leave the hadronic core and travel many kilometers almost unaffected. Muons are smoking guns of the hadronic cascade: the energy, transverse momentum, spatial distribution and depth of production are key to reconstruct the history of the air shower. In this work, we overview the phenomenology of muons on the air shower and its relation to the hadronic cascade. We briefly review the experimental efforts to analyze muons within air showers and discuss possible paths to use this information.

  6. Geophysical mapping of contaminant leachate around a reclaimed open dumpsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Raji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM, 2D Electrical Resistivity Profiling (2D ERP and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES methods of geophysics were deployed to map the extent of leachate contamination in near-surface rocks around a popular reclaimed dumpsite in north central Nigeria. Two years after abandon and waste excavation; the dumpsite was converted to a residential area with over 80 houses under construction. Prior to waste dumping operation, clay-seal was installed at 2 m depth around the dumpsite to prevent leachate from the waste material flowing to the adjoining area. Results from VLF, 2D ERP, and VES show presence of leachate contamination in rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite. Leachate has spread laterally up to a distance of about 1 km on the northern and southern parts of the dumpsite centre, and up to a depth of about 20 m. Compared to the results of similar survey in an area outside the dumpsite, leachate infiltration raised the conductivity signature of the rocks around the dumpsite by about 200%: from 7% to 22%. Both VLF-EM and 2D ERP show the presence of approximate north – south oriented structures/fracture characterised by high conductivity. VES results show the presence of four – five geo-electric layers. Important conclusions from the study are that (i leachate is still present in the rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite two years after the abandonment and excavation of the waste materials, and (ii the clay seal installed around the dumpsite could not prevent leachate migration to the adjoining areas.

  7. Food web structure in oil sands reclaimed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, K E; Ciborowski, J J H; Daly, C; Dixon, D G; Farwell, A J; Foote, A L; Frederick, K R; Costa, J M Gardner; Kennedy, K; Liber, K; Roy, M C; Slama, C A; Smits, J E G

    2013-07-01

    Boreal wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance. However, their ecosystem function is threatened by direct anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Oil sands surface mining in the boreal regions of Western Canada denudes tracts of land of organic materials, leaves large areas in need of reclamation, and generates considerable quantities of extraction process-affected materials. Knowledge and validation of reclamation techniques that lead to self-sustaining wetlands has lagged behind development of protocols for reclaiming terrestrial systems. It is important to know whether wetlands reclaimed with oil sands process materials can be restored to levels equivalent to their original ecosystem function. We approached this question by assessing carbon flows and food web structure in naturally formed and oil sands-affected wetlands constructed in 1970-2004 in the postmining landscape. We evaluated whether a prescribed reclamation strategy, involving organic matter amendment, accelerated reclaimed wetland development, leading to wetlands that were more similar to their natural marsh counterparts than wetlands that were not supplemented with organic matter. We measured compartment standing stocks for bacterioplankton, microbial biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, and zoobenthos; concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and residual naphthenic acids; and microbial production, gas fluxes, and aquatic-terrestrial exports (i.e., aquatic insect emergence). The total biomass of several biotic compartments differed significantly between oil sands and reference wetlands. Submerged macrophyte biomass, macroinvertebrate trophic diversity, and predator biomass and richness were lower in oil sands-affected wetlands than in reference wetlands. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that wetland age and wetland amendment with peat-mineral mix mitigate effects of oil sands waste materials on the fully aquatic biota. Although high variability was observed within

  8. IAU Meteor Data Center-the shower database: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopek, Tadeusz Jan; Kaňuchová, Zuzana

    2017-09-01

    Currently, the meteor shower part of Meteor Data Center database includes: 112 established showers, 563 in the working list, among them 36 have the pro tempore status. The list of shower complexes contains 25 groups, 3 have established status and 1 has the pro tempore status. In the past three years, new meteor showers submitted to the MDC database were detected amongst the meteors observed by CAMS stations (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance), those included in the EDMOND (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database), those collected by the Japanese SonotaCo Network, recorded in the IMO (International Meteor Organization) database, observed by the Croatian Meteor Network and on the Southern Hemisphere by the SAAMER radar. At the XXIX General Assembly of the IAU in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2015, the names of 18 showers were officially accepted and moved to the list of established ones. Also, one shower already officially named (3/SIA the Southern iota Aquariids) was moved back to the working list of meteor showers. At the XXIX GA IAU the basic shower nomenclature rule was modified, the new formulation predicates ;The general rule is that a meteor shower (and a meteoroid stream) should be named after the constellation that contains the nearest star to the radiant point, using the possessive Latin form;. Over the last three years the MDC database was supplemented with the earlier published original data on meteor showers, which permitted verification of the correctness of the MDC data and extension of bibliographic information. Slowly but surely new database software options are implemented, and software bugs are corrected.

  9. TIERRAS: A package to simulate high energy cosmic ray showers underground, underwater and under-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueros, Matías; Sciutto, Sergio

    2010-02-01

    1 km of standard rock (or 2.5 km of water equivalent). Neutrinos are not tracked on the simulation, but their energy is taken into account in decays. Running time: A TIERRAS for AIRES run of a 10 eV shower with statistical sampling (thinning) below 10 eV and 0.2 weight factor (see [1]) uses approximately 1 h of CPU time on an Intel Core 2 Quad Q6600 at 2.4 GHz. It uses only one core, so 4 simultaneous simulations can be run on this computer. Aires includes a spooling system to run several simultaneous jobs of any type. References:S. Sciutto, AIRES 2.6 User Manual, http://www.fisica.unlp.edu.ar/auger/aires/.

  10. Investigation of beauty production and parton shower effects at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, H.; Lipatov, A.V.; Zotov, N.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present hadron-level predictions from the Monte Carlo generator Cascade and parton level calculations of open b quark, b-flavored hadron and inclusive b-jet production in the framework of the kt-factorization QCD approach for the LHC energies. The unintegrated gluon densities in a proton are determined using the CCFM evolution equation and the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin (KMR) prescription. Our predictions are compared with the first data taken by the CMS and LHCb collaborations at 7 TeV. We study the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and investigate the effects coming from parton showers in initial and final states. The special role of initial gluon transverse momenta in description of the data is pointed out.

  11. The performance of the LHCf detector for hadronic showers

    CERN Document Server

    Kawade, K.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; DAlessandro, R.; Del Prete, M.; Haguenauer, M.; Itow, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Makino, Y.; Masuda, K.; Matsubayashi, E.; Menjo, H.; Mitsuka, G.; Muraki, Y.; Papini, P.; Perrot, A-L.; Ricciarini, S.; Sako, T.; Sakurai, N.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Tricomi, A.; Turner, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider forward (LHCf) experiment has been designed to use the LHC to benchmark the hadronic interaction models used in cosmic-ray physics. The LHCf experiment measures neutral particles emitted in the very forward region of LHC collisions. In this paper, the performances of the LHCf detectors for hadronic showers was studied with MC simulations and beam tests. The detection efficiency for neutrons is from 60% to 70% above 500 GeV. The energy resolutions are about 40% and the position resolution is 0.1 to 1.3mm depend on the incident energy for neutrons. The energy scale determined by the MC simulations and the validity of the MC simulations were examined using 350 GeV proton beams at the CERN-SPS.

  12. The new South Pole air shower experiment - SPASE-2

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, J E; Gaisser, T K; Gill, J R; Hart, S P; Hinton, J A; Lloyd-Evans, J; Martello, D; Miller, T C; Ogden, P A; Patel, M; Rochester, K; Spiczak, G M; Stanev, T; Watson, A A

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new coincidence experiment designed to improve understanding of the composition of the primary cosmic-ray beam around the knee of the spectrum. The experiment consists of an air shower array on the surface (SPASE-2), which works in coincidence with an array of air-Cherenkov detectors (VULCAN), and the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) deep in the ice. The experiment must cover the energy range from approx 10 sup 1 sup 4 to approx 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 eV to overlap with direct measurements at lower energy and encompass the regions of the knee and beyond in the cosmic ray spectrum.

  13. Carbon Sequestration in Reclaimed Mined Soils of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS) is important for preserving environmental quality and increasing agronomic yields. The experimental sites were characterized by distinct age chronosequences of reclaimed minesoil and were located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites are owned and maintained by Americal Electrical Power. These sites were reclaimed (1) with topsoil application, and (2) without topsoil application, and were under continuous grass or forest cover. In this report results are presented from the sites reclaimed without topsoil application between 1956 and 1969. Three sites are under continuous grass cover and the three under forest cover since reclamation. Three core and three bulk soil samples were collected from each site from three slope positions (upper; middle, and lower) for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths, and texture, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) stocks were determined. No differences in sand and clay contents, bulk density, SOC and TN stocks were observed within different slope positions within each site. However, sand [R56-G (17.1%) < R69-G (29.1%) = R62-G (29.1%)], and silt [R56-G (58.3%) > R69-G (47.7%)] contents, bulk density [R62-G (1.25 Mg ha{sup -1}) > R69-G (0.94 Mg ha{sup -1}) = R62-G (0.90 Mg ha{sup -1})] varied significantly on the upper slope position among sites under continuous grass cover. Smaller but significant differences were also observed for pH [R69-G (8.3) > R56-G (7.7) = R62-G (7.9)] and EC [R56-G (0.66 dS m{sup -1}) > R62-G (0.25 dS m{sup -1}) = R69-G (0.24 dS m{sup -1})] on upper slope positions among sites under grass. Comparing all sites stochastically, sand and clay contents were similar among all sites except R62-F for both depths. Similarly, soil bulk density was also similar among all sites except R62-G for both depths. There were few differences in total

  14. Insight into the risk of replenishing urban landscape ponds with reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Ao, Dong; Ji, Jiayuan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Li, Yu-You; Huang, Yue; Xue, Tao; Guo, Hongbing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Lu

    2017-02-15

    Increasing use of reclaimed wastewater (RW) for replenishing urban landscape ponds has aroused public concern about the water quality. Three ponds replenished with RW in three cities in China were chosen to investigate 22 indexes of water quality in five categories. This was achieved by comparing three pairs of ponds in the three different cities, where one pond in each pair was replenished with RW and the other with surface water (SW). The nutrients condition, heavy metal concentration and ecotoxicity did not differ significantly between RW- and SW-replenished ponds. By contrast, significant differences were observed in algal growth and pathogen risk. RW ponds presented a Cyanophyta-Chlorophyta-Bacillariophyta type with high algal diversity while SW ponds presented a Cyanophyta type with low diversity. Regrowth of bacterial pathogens and especially survival of viral pathogens in RW, was the main driver behind the higher risk for RW ponds compared with SW ones. The duration of RW replenishment was proved to have a marked impact on the algal growth and pathogen risk. With continued RW replenishment, non-dominant algal species subjected to decrease while dominant species were enhanced resulting in the biomass increasing but diversity declining, and the risk posed by viral pathogens might become greater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Waterbird habitat-selection during winter and spring in reclaimed coastal wetlands in Nanhui Dongtan, Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jun-Ying; Heng, Nan-Nan; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Xiao; Wang, Tian-Hou

    2011-12-01

    From December 2009 to May 2010 goose and duck (Anatidae) community censuses in winter and shorebird (Charadriiforms) community censuses in spring were conducted across three types artificial wetlands (urban lake wetland, restorative wetland, abandoned wetland) along the coast of Nanhui, Shanghai. Correlation analyses were undertaken between community indices and habitat factors. The results showed there were significant differences in the density of geese and ducks among the wetlands, but no difference in the number of species. The density of geese and ducks in the restorative wetland was 3.77 times that of abandoned wetland and 6.03 times that of urban lake wetlands. The number of species and density of shorebirds in restorative wetlands was 2.88 and 5.70 times that of abandoned wetlands. We found significant differences in the number and density of shorebird species between restorative and abandoned wetlands. The number of species density of geese and ducks and the Shannon-Wiener (H') index were positively correlated with water area. The number of species and H' were negatively correlated with vegetation area. The number of species, species density and H' and evenness were negatively correlated with vegetation coverage. H' was positively correlated with mean water level. The results showed that the number and density of shorebird species were positively correlated with bare muddy areas. Aquaculture ponds and paddy fields in reclaimed area is efficient sufficient compensation mechanism to maintain more water areas for waterbirds and to control vegetation expansion and maintain shorebird habitat after coastal reclamation.

  16. Heavy metal distribution of natural and reclaimed tidal riparian wetlands in south estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honggang; Cui, Baoshan; Zhang, Kejiang

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the distribution and accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in two plant species (Scirpus tripueter Linn. and Cyperus malaccensis Lam.), in water and soils sampled from the reclaimed tidal riparian wetlands (RTRWs) and the natural riparian wetlands (NRWs) in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE). The results showed that the concentrations of studied heavy metals in soils exceeded the eco-toxic threshold recommended by US EPA. The concentrations of Cd, Cr and Zn in plants may lead to toxic effects. The heavy metal concentrations were high in water and low in soils of RTRWs compared with that in the NRWs. The accumulation of heavy metals in the roots of plants was higher in NRWs than those in RTRWs while the opposite result was found for heavy metal accumulation in shoots. Based on the bioaccumulation and translocation factors, the plants in NRWs had a higher capacity to accumulate heavy metals while higher abilities to transport heavy metals from roots to shoots were observed in RTRWs. Heavy metal contaminations in RTRWs were dominated by anthropogenic sources from both side uplands and river water, whereas in NRWs, the metal accumulations were simultaneously affected by anthropogenic and natural factors

  17. Simulation of radio emission from air showers in atmospheric electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Buitink, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of atmospheric electric fields on the radio pulse emitted by cos- mic ray air showers. Under fair weather conditions the dominant part of the radio emission is driven by the geomagnetic field. When the shower charges are acceler- ated and deflected in an electric field additional radiation is emitted. We simulate this effect with the Monte Carlo code REAS2, using CORSIKA-simulated showers as input. In both codes a routine has been implemented that treats the effect of the ...

  18. On the transverse momentum in Z-boson production in a virtually ordered parton shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Zoltan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Soper, Davison E. [Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (United States). Inst. of Theoretical Science

    2009-12-15

    Cross sections for physical processes that involve very different momentum scales in the same process will involve large logarithms of the ratio of the momentum scales when calculated in perturbation theory. One goal of calculations using parton showers is to sum these large logarithms. We ask whether this goal is achieved for the transverse momentum distribution of a Z-boson produced in hadron-hadron collisions when the shower is organized with higher virtuality parton splittings coming first, followed successively by lower virtuality parton splittings. We find that the virtuality ordered shower works well in reproducing the known QCD result. (orig.)

  19. Track segments in hadronic showers in a highly granular scintillator-steel hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Chefdeville, M.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Klempt, W.; Kraaij, E.van der; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I; Ribon, A.; Schlatter, D.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Magnan, A.-M; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Gil, E.Cortina; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Negra, R.Della; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Donckt, M.Vander; Zoccarato, Y.; Alamillo, E.Calvo; Fouz, M.-C; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Lorenzo, S.Conforti di; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; der Kolk, N.van; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; Taille, Ch de la; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the three dimensional substructure of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel hadronic calorimeter. The high granularity of the detector is used to find track segments of minimum ionising particles within hadronic showers, providing sensitivity to the spatial structure and the details of secondary particle production in hadronic cascades. The multiplicity, length and angular distribution of identified track segments are compared to GEANT4 simulations with several different shower models. Track segments also provide the possibility for in-situ calibration of highly granular calorimeters.

  20. Top-quark pair-production with one jet and parton showering at hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone [LBNL and UC Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuster, Juan; Irles, Adrian; Vos, Marcel [IFIC, Univ. de Valencia - CSIC, Paterna (Spain); Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, Peter [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    We present heavy-flavor production in association with one jet in hadronic collisions matched to parton shower Monte Carlo predictions at next-to-leading order QCD with account of top-quark decays and spin correlations. We use the POWHEG BOX for the interface to the parton shower programs PYTHIA or HERWIG. Phenomenological studies for the LHC and the Tevatron are presented with particular emphasis on the inclusion of spin-correlation effects in top decay and the impact of the parton shower on the top-quark charge asymmetries. As a novel application of the present calculation the measurement of the top-quark mass is discussed.

  1. Assessment of the effect of water source of health risk in a pilot project to promote the reuse of reclaimed water in cooling towers; Valoracion del efecto del origen del agua en el riesgo sanitario en una experiencia piloto para promover la reutilizacion de agua regenerada en torres de refrigeracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittipaldi, M.; Codony, F.; Puigdengoles, J. M.; Molist; Morato, J.

    2009-07-01

    Wastewater regeneration and reuse of regenerated water permits to increase the amount of water and guarantees the availability required, in terms of both quantity and quality. In this context, a research project on regenerated water reuse for cooling towers has been carried out by the Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), the Water Catalan Agency (ACA) and the Council of Chambers of Commerce. The research consisted of two steps. A first objective was to verify the effect of water source in the colonization of cooling towers by Legionella. In order to achieve those objectives, effluents from different wastewater treatment plant stages were used. The second objective was to evaluate in situ the disinfection process in order to decrease the sanitary risk from water reuse for cooling towers. For the entire duration of the project, both conventional culture methods and new molecular techniques with real times PCR were performed to detect Legionella from water samples. (Author) 17 refs.

  2. Extensive Air Shower Array at the University of Puebla (EAS-BUAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, H.; Martinez, O.; Moreno, E.; Cotzomi, J.; Villaseñor, L.

    2003-06-01

    We describe the design and operation of the first stage of the EAS-UAP extensive air shower array, as a detector of very high energy cosmic rays (1016 > Eo > 1014eV). The array is located at the Campus of Puebla University. It consist of 18 liquid scintillator detectors, with an active surface of 1 m2 each and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. One Auger Water Cherenkov detector is also included as part of the array. In this report we discuss the stability, the calibration, the arrival direction and lateral distribution function reconstruction capabilities of the detector array, as derived from the 10 detectors in operation in the first stage. Our results shows that the angular accuracy in arrival direction is less than 5.5° in the range from 20° to 60°. The measurements in the Water Cherenkov Detector show us the possibility to separete electromagnetic and muon component. The main characteristics of the array allow us also to use it as educational and training facility.

  3. Effect of biochar on reclaimed tidal land soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck-Soo; Kim, Kwon-Rae; Yang, Jae E; Ok, Yong Sik; Owens, Gary; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd; Kim, Kye-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed tidal land soil (RTLS) often contains high levels of soluble salts and exchangeable Na that can adversely affect plant growth. The current study examined the effect of biochar on the physicochemical properties of RTLS and subsequently the influence on plant growth performance. Rice hull derived biochar (BC) was applied to RTLS at three different rates (1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w)) and maize (Zea mays L.) subsequently cultivated for 6weeks. While maize was cultivated, 0.1% NaCl solution was supplied from the bottom of the pots to simulate the natural RTLS conditions. Biochar induced changes in soil properties were evaluated by the water stable aggregate (WSA) percentage, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), soil organic carbon contents, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable cations. Plant response was measured by growth rate, nutrient contents, and antioxidant enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Application of rice hull derived biochar increased the soil organic carbon content and the percentage of WSA by 36-69%, while decreasing the ESP. The highest dry weight maize yield was observed from soil which received 5% BC (w/w), which was attributed to increased stability of water-stable aggregates and elevated levels of phosphate in BC incorporated soils. Moreover, increased potassium, sourced from the BC, induced mitigation of Na uptake by maize and consequently, reduced the impact of salt stress as evidenced by overall declines in the antioxidant activities of APX and GR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Comprehensive evaluation of improving effects of different organic wastes on a newly reclaimed cultivated land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-tong; Kong, Zhang-liang; Zhang, Ming-kui

    2016-02-01

    There are many problems such as low soil organic matter, available nutrients and microbial activity, compaction, and poor tillage properties for a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and the establishment of a fast, effective measure for improving soil fertility quality is of importance to enhance the quality and production performance of the newly cultivated land. A field experiment was carried out to observe the effect of organic wastes on soil fertility of a newly reclaimed cultivated land, and compared the differences of different types of urban organic wastes. The field experiment included nine treatments, i.e., pig manure, chicken manure, rice straw, vegetable harvest residue, urban sludge, biogas residue, manure+rice straw compost, garbage compost and control without organic fertilizer at annual application rate of 30 t . hm-2, and ran for three consecutive years. The results showed that the application of each type of the eight organic wastes had obvious effects on improving soil fertility. Among them, pig manure, chicken manure, pig manure+rice straw compost, rice straw and biogas residue were the most effective to enhance the carbon pool management index of soil. The addition of pig manure+rice straw compost and biogas residue had the best effect on increasing the soil water stable aggregates and decreasing soil bulk density. Sewage sludge, pig manure+rice straw compost and garbage compost could enhance soil water holding capacity. Pig manure, chicken manure and pig manure+rice straw compost had most obvious effect on increasing soil available nutrients. All kinds of organic wastes increased the number of soil microorganisms and the activity of enzymes. There were some risk of soil heavy metals pollution.for the long-term application of sludge, garbage compost and manure. However, the impact of short-term application of the wastes on soil environmental quality was not obvious. Overall, effects of organic wastes on soil fertility decreased in the order of pig

  5. Air shower simulation for background estimation in muon tomography of volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Béné

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of background for the radiography of volcanoes using atmospheric muons comes from the accidental coincidences produced in the muon telescopes by charged particles belonging to the air shower generated by the primary cosmic ray. In order to quantify this background effect, Monte Carlo simulations of the showers and of the detector are developed by the TOMUVOL collaboration. As a first step, the atmospheric showers were simulated and investigated using two Monte Carlo packages, CORSIKA and GEANT4. We compared the results provided by the two programs for the muonic component of vertical proton-induced showers at three energies: 1, 10 and 100 TeV. We found that the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the muons were in good agreement for the two codes.

  6. Computing the electric field from extensive air showers using a realistic description of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaté, F.; Revenu, B.; García-Fernández, D.; Marin, V.; Dallier, R.; Escudié, A.; Martin, L.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is still poorly known and constitutes a very important topic in the field of high-energy astrophysics. Detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays is carried out via the extensive air showers they create after interacting with the atmosphere constituents. The secondary electrons and positrons within the showers emit a detectable electric field in the kHz-GHz range. It is possible to use this radio signal for the estimation of the atmospheric depth of maximal development of the showers Xmax , with a good accuracy and a duty cycle close to 100%. This value of Xmax is strongly correlated to the nature of the primary cosmic ray that initiated the shower. We show in this paper the importance of using a realistic atmospheric model in order to correct for systematic errors that can prevent a correct and unbiased estimation of Xmax.

  7. Risk Factors for Intracranial Haemorrhage in Accidents Associated with the Shower or Bathtub: e0141812

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas C Sauter; Jannes Kreher; Meret E Ricklin; Dominik G Haider; Aristomenis K Exadaktylos

    2015-01-01

      Background There has been little research on bathroom accidents. It is unknown whether the shower or bathtub are connected with special dangers in different age groups or whether there are specific risk factors for adverse outcomes...

  8. Extensive Air Showers High Energy Phenomena and Astrophysical Aspects - A Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book

    CERN Document Server

    Grieder, Peter K.F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive air showers are a very unique phenomenon. In the more than six decades since their discovery by Auger et al. we have learned a great deal about these extremely energetic events and gained deep insights into high-energy phenomena, particle physics and astrophysics. In this Tutorial, Reference Manual and Data Book Peter K. F. Grieder provides the reader with a comprehensive view of the phenomenology and facts of the various types of interactions and cascades, theoretical background, experimental methods, data evaluation and interpretation, and air shower simulation. He discusses astrophysical aspects of the primary radiation and addresses the questions that continue to puzzle researchers. The book is divided into two parts, each in its own separate volume: Part I in Volume I deals mainly with the basic theoretical framework of the processes that determine an air shower and ends with a summary of ways to extract information on the primary radiation from air shower observations. It also presents a compi...

  9. Long-Term Continuous Double Station Observation of Faint Meteor Showers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanislav Vítek; Petr Pata; Pavel Koten; Karel Fliegel

    2016-01-01

    ... (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyzer) system has been in continuous operation since 2013 and has successfully captured hundreds of meteors belonging to different meteor showers, as well as sporadic meteors...

  10. Studies of Cosmic Ray Composition and Air Shower Structure with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, : J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.

    2009-06-01

    These are presentations to be presented at the 31st International Cosmic Ray Conference, in Lodz, Poland during July 2009. It consists of the following presentations: (1) Measurement of the average depth of shower maximum and its fluctuations with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (2) Study of the nuclear mass composition of UHECR with the surface detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory; (3) Comparison of data from the Pierre Auger Observatory with predictions from air shower simulations: testing models of hadronic interactions; (4) A Monte Carlo exploration of methods to determine the UHECR composition with the Pierre Auger Observatory; (5) The delay of the start-time measured with the Pierre Auger Observatory for inclined showers and a comparison of its variance with models; (6) UHE neutrino signatures in the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory; and (7) The electromagnetic component of inclined air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  11. ANN based Estimation of Ultra High Energy (UHE) Shower Size using Radio Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Kalpana Roy; Datta, Pranayee; Sarma, Kandarpa Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Size estimation is a challenging area in the field of Ultra High Energy (UHE) showers where actual measurements are always associated with uncertainty of events and imperfections in detection mechanisms. The subtle variations resulting out of such factors incorporate certain random behaviour in the readings provided by shower detectors for subsequent processing. Field strength recorded by radio detectors may also be affected by this statistical nature. Hence there is a necessity of development of a system which can remain immune to such random behaviour and provide resilient readings to subsequent stages. Here, we propose a system based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) which accepts radio field strength recorded by radio detectors and provides estimates of shower sizes in the UHE region. The ANN in feed-forward form is trained with a range of shower events with which it can effectively handle the randomness observed in the detector reading due to imperfections in the experimental apparatus and related set-up.

  12. Deep Mapping of Small Solar System Bodies with Galactic Cosmic Ray Secondary Particle Showers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our Phase I study demonstrated that muons, the long-range charged component of GCR showers, can penetrate SSBs on the order of a km in diameter or less,...

  13. Technological aspects of de-icing fluids purification and reclaiming process in the airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. П. Шутько

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented are the results of de-icing fluids use in Ukraine airports. Model of purification and utilization system also block-module unit for collection and reclaiming of de-icing fluids are developed

  14. Development of a non-solvent based test method for evaluating reclaimed asphalt pavement mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The percent of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) used in hot mix asphalt (HMA) is currently established either by arbitrarily setting maximum percent limits, or alternatively, by evaluating both the virgin and recovered binder properties. The first ap...

  15. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavement, phase II : field demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as : aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. An initial phase of research demonstrated that concretes with up to 50 percent : o...

  16. Reclaiming Political Urbanism in Peace Building Processes: The Hands-on Famagusta project, Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socrates Stratis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study is about reclaiming a political form of urbanism before the potential Cyprus reunification by enhancing, through the Hands-on Famagusta project, ‘agonistic’ collective practices across the Cypriot divide.

  17. The reclaiming of online media by civil society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Neumayer, Christina

    as the oxymoron of radical activists on the left using capitalist media platforms and how this influences their political identity. Therefore, there is a need to understand the cyber-material impact of online media on collective action initiated by civil society as well as the relationship between ideological......In light of the financial crisis and harsher migration policies, actions initiated by radical civil society groups are on the rise. This project argues that in this time it is important to understand the reclaiming of online media by civil society. To reach this understanding we will explore how...... activists of the radical left have mobilized protests and solidarity actions through online media. We have chosen to locate our study in Sweden and Greece. Greece has found itself in the eye of the global financial storm whereas Sweden is coming out of the recession more favorably. In general...

  18. Theorizing Critical Placemaking as a Tool for Reclaiming Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolis, Erin E

    2017-03-01

    As economic inequality and segregation continue to grow in the U.S., psychology has an important role to play in exploring and promoting processes that can disrupt social injustice. This paper identifies the privatization of public space as a social problem that contributes to the entrenchment of social, economic, and racial inequality, and advances "critical placemaking" as a tool for reclaiming public space for public use. Drawing from key concepts in environmental psychology, narrative psychology, and community psychology, the proposed framework seeks to theorize the processes by which placemaking may contribute to transforming community narratives and building more inclusive, participatory, and democratic communities. Policy implications and future directions for empirical work are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  19. Reclaiming Fabrication One (Utopian?) Stitch at a Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    of this movement, this paper will investigate how the current discourse on 3D printing and other digitally based maker and craft practices can be understood as simultaneously highly utopian as well as potentially constitutive to the way that we perceive our options for asserting influence on everyday products...... the possibility to change societal structures from the ground up: By reclaiming production and by enabling fabrication to take place on an individual level, 3D printing, reuse and repair practices dream of a society where individuals are able to remodel and repurpose almost anything thus disrupting contemporary...... the way the (capitalist) world works: “Once your first knit is finished there will be no end to your courage, also in other aspects than knitting.” While current repair and fabrication movements diverge in means and aims, what they have in common is the wish for the individual to question contemporary...

  20. Failure of a MEA reclaimer tube bundle due to corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaban, H.; Abdo, M.S.E.; Lal, D.P.

    1988-08-01

    The removal of sulphur compounds from natural gas used in ammonia production is carried out by scrubbing with monoethanol amine (MEA). To avoid build up of corrosion and degradation products, a portion of the circulating MEA solution is passed through a reclaimer. This is essentially a kettle-type reboiler with a tube bundle made of 316L stainless steel. Occasional failures of the tube bundle due to pitting corrosion have been reported. It is suggested that the excessive pitting corrosion observed on the upper rows of the tube bundle could be partly due to high steam temperature but mainly due to the liquid level falling below the tubes leaving an accumulation of corrosive degradation products on the exposed surfaces, normally these corrosive products remain diluted in the MEA solution and cause little corrosion of the covered tubes. Their concentration on the dry upper layers of the hot metal tubes, however, leads to excessive corrosion. (U.K.).

  1. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED MINED SOILS OF OHIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.K. Shukla; R. Lal

    2004-07-01

    This research project is aimed at assessing the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential of reclaimed minesoils (RMS). The experimental sites, owned and maintained by the American Electrical Power, are located in Guernsey, Morgan, Noble, and Muskingum Counties of Ohio. These sites, characterized by age chronosequences, were reclaimed with and without topsoil application and are under continuous grass or forest cover. During this quarter, bulk and core soil samples were collected from all 13 experimental sites for 0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-50 cm depths. In addition, 54 experimental plots (4 x 4 m) were established at three separate locations on reclaimed minesites to assess the influence of compost application on SOC during project period 2. This report presents the results from two sites reclaimed during 1978. The first site is under grass and the other under forest cover. The soil bulk density ({rho}{sub b}), SOC, total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and stocks were determined for these two sites on a 20 x 20 m grid. The preliminary analysis showed that the {rho}{sub b} ranged from 0.88 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.16 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 0.91 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.32 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.93 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths in Cumberland tree site, and it's statistical variability was low. The variability in {rho}{sub b} was also low in Wilds grass site and ranged from 0.82 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} for 0-15 cm, 1.04 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.37 Mg m{sup -3} for 15-30 cm, and 1.18 Mg m{sup -3} to 1.83 Mg m{sup -3} for 30-50 cm depths. The {rho}{sub b} showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm depth only in the Cumberland tree site. The SOC concentrations and stocks were highly variable with CV > 0.36 from all depths in both Wilds grass site and Cumberland tree site. The SOC stocks showed strong spatial dependence for 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and moderate to strong for 20-50 cm depth in the Cumberland tree site. In contrast

  2. Interpretation of the cosmic-ray air shower signal in Askaryan radio detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Krijn D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the radio emission from a cosmic-ray air shower propagating in air before it hits an air-ice boundary after which it completes its propagation inside the ice. The in-air emission, the in-ice emission, as well as the transition radiation from the shower crossing the boundary is considered. We discuss the interpretation of the radio signal observed by an in-ice observer.

  3. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, W.D.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R. [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Bähren, L.; Falcke, H. [ASTRON, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Bertaina, M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Pierro, F. Di [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Str. Reactorului no. 30, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); De Souza, V. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São-Carlense 400, Pq. Arnold Schmidt, São Carlos (Brazil); Fuchs, B. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gemmeke, H. [Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Grupen, C., E-mail: frank.schroeder@kit.edu [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Universität Siegen, Walter-Flex-Straße 3, 57072 Siegen (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above 10{sup 17} eV and zenith angles smaller than 45{sup o}, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of approximately hyperbolic shape. The simulations predict a slightly steeper wavefront towards East than towards West, but this asymmetry is negligible against the measurement uncertainties of LOPES. At axis distances ∼> 50 m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is limited by measurement uncertainties to approximately 140 g/c {sup 2}. But the simulations indicate that under better conditions this method might yield an accuracy for the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, X{sub max}, better than 30 g/c {sup 2}. This would be competitive with the established air-fluorescence and air-Cherenkov techniques, where the radio technique offers the advantage of a significantly higher duty-cycle. Finally, the hyperbolic wavefront can be used to reconstruct the shower geometry more accurately, which potentially allows a better reconstruction of all other shower parameters, too.

  4. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING STYRENE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelzaher E. A. Mostafa; Nasser, A M

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of styrene-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percentages b...

  5. IMPROVING OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS USING VINYL ACETATE-BUTYL ACRYLATE POLYMER

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser, A M; Abd El-Wahab

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent surveys, the European area produced 265 mil tons of asphalt for road applications in 2014, while the amount of available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) was more than 50 mil tons. The use of RAP in new blended mixes reduces the need of neat bitumen, making RAP recycling economically attractive. This study investigates the potential use of vinyl acetate-bacrylate polymer and extracted Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with different percent...

  6. The Effect of Cold Showering on Health and Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierevelt, Inger N.; van der Heijden, Bas C. J. M.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the cumulative effect of a routine (hot-to-) cold shower on sickness, quality of life and work productivity. Methods Between January and March 2015, 3018 participants between 18 and 65 years without severe comorbidity and no routine experience of cold showering were randomized (1:1:1:1) to a (hot-to-) cold shower for 30, 60, 90 seconds or a control group during 30 consecutive days followed by 60 days of showering cold at their own discretion for the intervention groups. The primary outcome was illness days and related sickness absence from work. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, work productivity, anxiety, thermal sensation and adverse reactions. Results 79% of participants in the interventions groups completed the 30 consecutive days protocol. A negative binomial regression model showed a 29% reduction in sickness absence for (hot-to-) cold shower regimen compared to the control group (incident rate ratio: 0.71, P = 0.003). For illness days there was no significant group effect. No related serious advents events were reported. Conclusion A routine (hot-to-) cold shower resulted in a statistical reduction of self-reported sickness absence but not illness days in adults without severe comorbidity. Trial Registration Netherlands National Trial Register NTR5183 PMID:27631616

  7. Influence of Reclamation Process on the Ecological Quality of Reclaim Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereń M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, there were presented results of research on influence of reclamation process on the ecological quality of reclaim sand with furan resin used in nonferrous foundry. The quality of reclaimed sand is mainly define by two group of chemical substances from elution of reclaimed sand: Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC and Total Dissolves Solids (TDS. Reclaimed sand used in test was prepared in experimental thermal reclaimer and mechanical vibration reclaimer REGMAS installed in Faculty of Foundry Engineering at University Of Science and Technology in Krakow. The reference point is molding sand shaking out and crumble in jaw crusher. Test of elution was made in accredited laboratory in Center For Research and Environmental Control in Katowice up to the standard with Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC - PN-EN 1484:1999; Total Dissolves Solids (TDS - PN-EN 15216:2010. The standard for elution test is PN-EN 12457- 4:2006. Except that we were made loss of ignition test, to check how many resin was rest on sand grains.

  8. Modeling RF Emissions from Particle Showers in Dense Mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyneman, Rachel; Belov, Konstantin; Wissel, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment has recorded multiple Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) events via radio-frequency emissions from secondary particle showers in the Earth's atmosphere. The energy of these UHECR particles is reconstructed using Monte Carlo simulations based on first principles. The goal of the SLAC T-510 experiment is to validate these simulations and to provide an energy calibration for ANITA data analysis. We incorporated an RF emission simulation based on ZHS code into the GEANT4 toolkit, used for modeling the passage of particles in accelerator experiments. We predict strong radio emissions at the Cherenkov angle from a cascade of secondary particles in a polyethylene target in moderate magnetic fields. We see a strong dependence of the horizontally polarized component of the electric field on top of the Cherenkov cone on the magnetic field strength. We also observe a skewing of the Cherenkov cone as the magnetic field increases, which we believe to be an indication of the Askaryan effect. Special thanks to the National Science Foundation and the Research Experience for Undergraduates program.

  9. Energy Sources for Yotta-TeV Iceberg Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacAyeal, Douglas [University of Chicago

    2013-05-01

    In late February of 2002, warming climate along the Antarctic Peninsula triggered a macroscopic particle acceleration event that smashed a 350 Gkg floating ice shelf, called the Larsen B. The particle shower released by the acceleration involved on the order of >10^6 iceberg particles accelerated to an aggregate total kinetic energy of ~10^17 J (100 Mt TNT equivalent). The explosion was so extreme that it caught glaciological science by surprise (an injury to the egos of glaciologists worldwide) and caused glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula formerly buttressed by the missing ice shelf to surge (yielding a small increment to sea level rise). In this presentation, I shall describe research, both experimental and field oriented, that has revealed the energy source for this explosive event. I shall also describe how climate warming has the capacity to trigger this type of ice-shelf collapse. A review of the geologic record of ice-rafted debris on the ocean floor suggests that extreme, explosive ice-shelf collapse may be a ubiquitous catastrophe that has happened regularly in the past as part of glacial/interglacial climate cycles.

  10. An ionization chamber shower detector for the LHC luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Beche, J F; Datte, P S; Haguenauer, Maurice; Manfredi, P F; Millaud, J E; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, L; Re, V; Riot, V J; Schmickler, Hermann; Speziali, V; Turner, W C

    2000-01-01

    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction (~235 W at design luminosity 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The system design choices have been strongly influenced by optimization of signal to noise ratio and by the very high radiation environment. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. Data on each bunch are to be separately accumulated over multiple bunch crossings until the desire...

  11. The Leonids: The Lion King of Meteor Showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The night of November 12-13, 1833, sparked awareness of the Leonids meteor shower as well as the birth of meteor astronomy: from much of North America that night, a rain of shooting stars, a shower of flashing light, spread over the entire sky. More than one superstitious person on that spectacular night was certain that the end of the world had come. People kept repeating that the meteors were falling "like snowflakes". In the aftermath of the display, it was realized that meteors could be produced by an extraterrestrial source: streams or swarms of particle that travel around the Sun in more or less well-defined orbits, grazing, at least at one point, the orbit of our Earth. In 1866, G. Schiaparelli established the orbit of the stream of particles that produce the Leonids, and soon others independently noted a striking resemblance of the Leonids with the orbit of periodic comet Tempel-Tuttle. The comet and meteor stream were subsequently found to be following nearly identical orbits with periods of roughly 33 years. A few years earlier (in 1863) it was discovered similarly spectacular Leonid meteor displays had occured prior to 1833, with accounts of the Leonids traceable as far back as A.D. 902. Based solely on the 33-year cycle, a prediction for a meteor storm in the year 1866 verified. In 1899 a re-enactment of the 1833 storm was confidently expected, despite calculations that demonstrated that the orbit of P/Tempel-Tuttle (and probably the associated Leonid particles) were likely perturbed by the planets Jupiter and Saturn. The failure of a storm to materialize seriously damaged the credibility of astronomers in the eyes of the general public. Since 1899, the Leonids have been following a rather erratic and unpredictable schedule: meteor storms unexpectedly occurred in 1900 and 1901; no storm was noted in 1931 and 1932, leading many to believe that Leonid activity had significantly declined. But during the 1960s, they again revived, capped by a short

  12. Experimental Investigation of Wood Decking Assemblies Exposed to Firebrand Showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzello, Samuel L; Suzuki, Sayaka

    2017-09-01

    Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) fires have become a problem of great concern across multiple continents. An important mechanism of structure ignition in WUI fires and urban fires is the production of firebrands. During WUI fires, decking assemblies have been observed to be an ignition vulnerability based on post-fire damage surveys conducted by NIST and elsewhere. The authors have conducted scoping experiments and demonstrated the dangers of the dynamic process of continual, wind-driven firebrand showers landing on decking assemblies for wind speeds of 6 m/s. In this study, eight full-scale experiments were conducted with wood decking assemblies under a wind speed of 8 m/s. The basis for these new investigations was twofold: observe possible vulnerabilities of wood decking assemblies to continuous, wind-driven firebrands at higher wind speed as firebrand accumulation patterns were expected to be influenced by wind speed, and examine if wall ignition occurred due to the burning decking assembly. To this end, sections of wood decking assemblies (1.2 m by 1.2 m) were constructed and attached to a reentrant corner assembly. The deck/reentrant corner assembly was then exposed to continuous, wind-driven firebrand bombardment generated by a full-scale Continuous Feed Firebrand Generator installed in the Fire Research Wind Tunnel Facility (FRWTF) at the Building Research Institute (BRI) in Japan. The mass of firebrands required for flaming ignitions under a wind speed of 8 m/s was considerably less compared with those under a wind speed of 6 m/s. This result is postulated to be due to higher firebrand surface temperatures as the wind speed was increased. For the decking assembly to wall ignition studies, the interface between the decking assembly and the wall appeared to be a weak point; this is not addressed in the current test methods.

  13. Chloramine-induced anaphylaxis while showering: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Alò Simona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sodium-N-chlorine-p-toluene sulfonamide, commonly known as chloramine-T, is a derivative of chlorine which is widely used as a disinfectant. For many years, chloramine-T has been described as a cause of immediate-type hypersensitivity, especially with regard to asthma and rhinitis, and as a cause of occupational dermatoses in cleaning personnel in hospitals, although no anaphylactic reaction has yet been reported. Hence, to the best of our knowledge we present the first case of anaphylaxis to chloramine-T with evidence of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. Case presentation We describe the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was in good health and with a negative history for atopy, including no respiratory symptoms of rhinitis or asthma, and with no professional exposure to chloramine-T. She, while showering, applied a chloramine-T solution to a skin area with folliculitis on her leg, and within a few minutes developed generalized urticaria and angioedema, followed by vomiting and collapse with loss of consciousness. A skin prick test with a chloramine-T solution at 10mg/mL concentration was positive, and specific immunoglobulin E to chloramine-T was quantified at a value of 2.9 optical density as measured by the enzyme allergosorbent test technique. Conclusion The strict cause-effect relationship and the results of the skin test and the in vitro test make certain the causative role of chloramine-T in this case of anaphylaxis. This suggests that chloramine-T, based on its wide use as a disinfectant, should be considered a possible cause in anaphylaxis of unknown origin.

  14. Chloramine-induced anaphylaxis while showering: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alò, Simona; De Pasquale, Tiziana; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Illuminati, Ilenia; Mistrello, Gianni; Roncarolo, Daniela; Pucci, Stefano

    2012-09-25

    Sodium-N-chlorine-p-toluene sulfonamide, commonly known as chloramine-T, is a derivative of chlorine which is widely used as a disinfectant. For many years, chloramine-T has been described as a cause of immediate-type hypersensitivity, especially with regard to asthma and rhinitis, and as a cause of occupational dermatoses in cleaning personnel in hospitals, although no anaphylactic reaction has yet been reported. Hence, to the best of our knowledge we present the first case of anaphylaxis to chloramine-T with evidence of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies. We describe the case of a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who was in good health and with a negative history for atopy, including no respiratory symptoms of rhinitis or asthma, and with no professional exposure to chloramine-T. She, while showering, applied a chloramine-T solution to a skin area with folliculitis on her leg, and within a few minutes developed generalized urticaria and angioedema, followed by vomiting and collapse with loss of consciousness. A skin prick test with a chloramine-T solution at 10mg/mL concentration was positive, and specific immunoglobulin E to chloramine-T was quantified at a value of 2.9 optical density as measured by the enzyme allergosorbent test technique. The strict cause-effect relationship and the results of the skin test and the in vitro test make certain the causative role of chloramine-T in this case of anaphylaxis. This suggests that chloramine-T, based on its wide use as a disinfectant, should be considered a possible cause in anaphylaxis of unknown origin.

  15. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE warm season grass stands than would be expected at random. Our results suggest the vegetation at Peabody was sufficient without manipulation to support nesting and brood-rearing northern bobwhite at a low level, but habitat management practices improved vegetation for nesting and brood

  16. Investigating cosmic rays and air shower physics with IceCube/IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dembinski Hans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a cubic-kilometer detector in the deep ice at South Pole. Its square-kilometer surface array, IceTop, is located at 2800 m altitude. IceTop is large and dense enough to cover the cosmic-ray energy spectrum from PeV to EeV energies with a remarkably small systematic uncertainty, thanks to being close to the shower maximum. The experiment offers new insights into hadronic physics of air showers by observing three components: the electromagnetic signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers, and TeV muons in the deep ice. The cosmic-ray flux is measured with the surface signal. The mass composition is extracted from the energy loss of TeV muons observed in the deep ice in coincidence with signals at the surface. The muon lateral distribution is obtained from GeV muons identified in surface signals in the periphery of the shower. The energy spectrum of the most energetic TeV muons is also under study, as well as special events with laterally separated TeV muon tracks which originate from high-pT TeV muons. A combination of all these measurements opens the possibility to perform powerful new tests of hadronic interaction models used to simulate air showers. The latest results will be reviewed from this perspective.

  17. The wavefront of the radio signal emitted by cosmic ray air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Apel, W D; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Fuchs, B; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Huege, T; Isar, P G; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing measurements of the LOPES antenna array together with corresponding CoREAS simulations for more than 300 measured events with energy above $10^{17}$eV and zenith angles smaller than $45^\\circ$, we find that the radio wavefront of cosmic-ray air showers is of hyperbolic shape. At axis distances $\\gtrsim 50$m, the wavefront can be approximated by a simple cone. According to the simulations, the cone angle is clearly correlated with the shower maximum. Thus, we confirm earlier predictions that arrival time measurements can be used to study the longitudinal shower development, but now using a realistic wavefront. Moreover, we show that the hyperbolic wavefront is compatible with our measurement, and we present several experimental indications that the cone angle is indeed sensitive to the shower development. Consequently, the wavefront can be used to statistically study the primary composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. At LOPES, the experimentally achieved precision for the shower maximum is lim...

  18. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes due to cosmic ray shower electrons and positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The University of Valencia has developed a software simulator LEPTRACK to simulate the relativistic runaway electron avalanches, RREA, that are presumed to be the cause of Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flashes and their powerful accompanying Ionization/Excitation Flashes. We show here results of LEPTRACK simulations of RREA by the interaction of MeV energy electrons/positrons and photons in cosmic ray showers traversing plausible electric field geometries expected in storm clouds. The input beams of MeV shower products were created using the CORSIKA software package from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. We present images, videos and plots showing the different Ionization, Excitation and gamma-ray photon density fields produced, along with their time and spatial profile evolution, which depend critically on where the line of shower particles intercept the electric field geometry. We also show a new effect of incoming positrons in the shower, which make up a significant fraction of shower products, in particular their apparent "orbiting" within a high altitude negative induced shielding charge layer, which has been conjectured to produce a signature microwave emission, as well as a short range 511 keV annihilation line. The interesting question posed is if this conjectured positron emission can be observed and correlated with TGF orbital observations to show if a TGF originates in the macro E-fields of storm clouds or the micro E-fields of lightning leaders where this positron "orbiting" is not likely to occur.

  19. Cosmic-ray air-shower thickness timing analyses: expanding a small array's acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVernois, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    A new, small-scale, detector utilizing the finite thickness of air-shower "pancakes" has been developed and operated on the roof of the physics building at the University of Minnesota. (MR. CRATE = Minnesota Rooftop Cosmic-Ray Air-shower Timing Experiment). Such techniques were pioneered by Linsley and collaborators, carried forth in a variety of forms through the 1970s-80s, and with differing technologies by Watson and colleagues. The primary interest in such detector is the ability to use timing of the air shower to allow the array to trigger on events that fall outside of the array. In principal, one can use a single detector to observe air showers out to a distance at which the detector runs out of statistics. The Mark-I detector was simply that. More extensive detectors using these techniques have also been designed and built with an eye towards incorporating them into existing underground or surface air shower detectors. Preliminary results and design studies will be discussed.

  20. Radio morphing - towards a full parametrisation of the radio signal from air showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilles, A.; Charrier, D.; Kotera, K.; Le Coz, S.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Medina, C.; Niess, V.; Tueros, M.; de Vries, K.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, radio detection of air showers has been established as a detection technique for ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays impinging on the Earth's atmosphere with energies far beyond LHC energies. Today’s second-generation of digital radio-detection experiments, as e.g. AERA or LOFAR, are becoming competitive in comparison to already standard techniques e.g. fluorescence light detection. Thanks to a detailed understanding of the physics of the radio emission in extensive air showers, simulations of the radio signal are already successfully tested and applied in the reconstruction of cosmic rays. However the limits of the computational power resources are easily reached when it comes to computing electric fields at the numerous positions requested by large or dense antenna arrays. In the case of mountainous areas as e.g. for the GRAND array, where 3D shower simulations are necessary, the problem arises with even stronger acuity. Therefore we developed a full parametrisation of the emitted radio signal on the basis of generic shower simulations which will reduce the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this talk we will present this concept after a short introduction to the concept of the radio detection of air-shower induced by cosmic rays.

  1. Fγ: A new observable for photon-hadron discrimination in hybrid air shower events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechciol, M.; Risse, M.; Ruehl, P.; Settimo, M.; Younk, P. W.; Yushkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    To search for ultra-high-energy photons in primary cosmic rays, air shower observables are needed that allow a good separation between primary photons and primary hadrons. We present a new observable, Fγ, which can be extracted from ground-array data in hybrid events, where simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal and the lateral shower profile are performed. The observable is based on a template fit to the lateral distribution measured by the ground array with the template taking into account the complementary information from the measurement of the longitudinal profile, i.e. the primary energy and the geometry of the shower. Fγ shows a very good photon-hadron separation, which is even superior to the separation given by the well-known Xmax observable (the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum). At energies around 1 EeV (10 EeV), Fγ provides a background rejection better than 97.8 % (99.9 %) at a signal efficiency of 50 %. Advantages of the observable Fγ are its technical stability with respect to irregularities in the ground array (i.e. missing or temporarily non-operating stations) and that it can be applied over the full energy range accessible to the air shower detector, down to its threshold energy. Furthermore, Fγ complements nicely to Xmax such that both observables can well be combined to achieve an even better discrimination power, exploiting the rich information available in hybrid events.

  2. EMISSION AND TRENDS IN RECLAIMING WASTE HEAT IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  3. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  4. Assessment of the Possibility of Using Reclaimed Materials for Making Cores by the Blowing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative results of investigations of the possibility of using the reclaimed materials after the mechanical, thermal or mechanical-thermal reclamation for making cores by means of the blowing method in the alkaline CO2 technology, are presented in the paper. Three kinds of spent sands: with furfuryl resin, bentonite and alkaline phenolic resin, obtained from the foundry, were subjected to three kinds of reclamation: mechanical, thermal and combined mechanical-thermal, applying for this aim adequate experimental devices. The obtained reclaims were assessed with regard to the degree of the matrix liberation from the determined binding material. Reclaims of moulding sands with binders of the form of resin were assessed with regard to ignition loss values and pH reaction, while reclaims of moulding sands with bentonite with regard to the residual clay content and pH value. In all cases the results of the performed sieve analyses were estimated and the average characteristic diameter dl was determined. The reclaimed matrix was applied as a full substitute of the fresh high-silica sand in typical procedures of preparing core sands used for making shaped samples for bending strength investigations, Rgu.

  5. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  6. Economic and market feasibility analysis, by the point of view of gas and electrical companies, for replacement of the electric powered showers by the natural gas powered showers in ABC Paulista area; Analise da viabilidade economica e do mercado, do ponto de vista das concessionarias de gas e de energia eletrica, pela substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por gas natural, na area do ABC paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callari, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda. (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of an exchange of energy for heating residential water should be seen, by the point of view of the concessionaires, as a single market and exclusionary, in which the development of new customers by the concessionaire of electric energy directly involves the development of these non-customers for the distributor of natural gas. The study shows that, under the terms of concession of electricity, the loss of any part of the markets, current and expansion would be attractive only if the natural gas concessionaire could pass part of their earnings with customers users of electric showers that change their profile to the gas heaters, for electrical distribution. Under the terms of the concession to natural gas, the condition of massive investments replacement of electric showers and absorption of growth and expansion entrant with customers, increase the turnover to allow the search of a mechanism for transferring part of that revenue to absorb also customers of electricity. Thus, both the concessionaire of electricity preserve their revenue and, in turn, the concessionaire of natural gas would have an effective gain of revenue for the absorption of the customers of electric showers. (author.

  7. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  8. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  9. 40 CFR 428.90 - Applicability; description of the pan, dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., dry digestion, and mechanical reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.90 Section 428.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pan, Dry Digestion, and Mechanical Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.90...

  10. Response of microchannel plates to single particles and to electromagnetic showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brianza, L. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Gelli, S. [Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sezione di Roma 1, P.le A. Moro 1, I-00044 Rome (Italy); Ghezzi, A.; Gotti, C.; Govoni, P. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Jorda Lopez, C. [Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sezione di Roma 1, P.le A. Moro 1, I-00044 Rome (Italy); Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Pernié, L. [Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sezione di Roma 1, P.le A. Moro 1, I-00044 Rome (Italy); Pigazzini, S. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F. [Sapienza Università di Roma and INFN, Sezione di Roma 1, P.le A. Moro 1, I-00044 Rome (Italy); Tabarelli de Fatis, T., E-mail: tommaso.tabarelli@mib.infn.it [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Trevisani, N. [Università di Milano Bicocca and INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy)

    2015-10-11

    We report on the response of microchannel plates (MCPs) to single relativistic particles and to electromagnetic showers. Particle detection by means of secondary emission of electrons at the MCP surface has long been proposed and is used extensively in ion time-of-flight mass spectrometers. What has not been investigated in depth is their use to detect the ionizing component of showers. The time resolution of MCPs exceeds anything that has been previously used in calorimeters and, if exploited effectively, could aid in the event reconstruction at high luminosity colliders. Several prototypes of photodetectors with the amplification stage based on MCPs were exposed to cosmic rays and to 491 MeV electrons at the INFN-LNF Beam-Test Facility. The time resolution and the efficiency of the MCPs are measured as a function of the particle multiplicity, and the results used to model the response to high-energy showers.

  11. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Measurement of atmospheric production depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; PÈ©kala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides information about the longitudinal development of the muonic component of extensive air showers. Using the timing information from the flash analog-to-digital converter traces of surface detectors far from the shower core, it is possible to reconstruct a muon production depth distribution. We characterize the goodness of this reconstruction for zenith angles around 60° and different energies of the primary particle. From these distributions, we define Xmaxμ as the depth along the shower axis where the production of muons reaches maximum. We explore the potentiality of Xmaxμ as a useful observable to infer the mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Likewise, we assess its ability to constrain hadronic interaction models.

  12. The time development of hadronic showers and the T3B experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldner, Christian

    2013-06-06

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a future linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operated at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV and with a collision rate of particle bunches of up to 2 GHz. This poses challenging requirements on the detector system. The accumulation of background events, such as {gamma}{gamma}{yields}hadrons resulting from Beamstrahlung, must be minimized through a precise time stamping capability in all subdetector systems. In the event reconstruction, the energy depositions within the calorimeters will be used to assign events precisely to a small set of consecutive bunch crossings. The finite time evolution of hadronic showers, on the other hand, requires an extended integration time to achieve a satisfactory energy resolution in the calorimeter. The energy resolution is also deteriorated by the leakage of shower particles. Tungsten is foreseen as dense absorber material, but the time evolution of hadron showers within such a calorimeter is not sufficiently explored yet. In the context of this thesis, the T3B experiment (short for Tungsten Timing Test Beam) was designed and constructed. It is optimized to measure the time development and the contribution of delayed energy depositions within hadronic cascades. The T3B experiment consists of 15 scintillator cells assembled in a strip. The scintillation light generated within the cells is detected by novel silicon photomultiplier whose signal is read out with fast oscilloscopes providing a sampling rate of 1.25 GHz. This strip was positioned behind two different calorimeter prototypes of the CALICE collaboration which use a tungsten and steel (for comparison) absorber structure. T3B was part of the CALICE test beam campaign 2010/2011 carried out at the PS and SPS at CERN and acquired data on hadronic showers in an energy range of 2-300 GeV. A test beam optimized data acquisition software was developed from scratch. With the development and application of a novel waveform decomposition algorithm

  13. Radio emission of energetic cosmic ray air showers: Polarization measurements with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isar, P.G. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: gina.isar@ik.fzk.de; Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Asch, T. [Inst. Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Auffenberg, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Baehren, L. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-06-01

    LOPES is a radio antenna array co-located with the Karlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector, KASCADE-Grande in Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, which provides well-calibrated trigger information and air shower parameters for primary energies up to 10{sup 18}eV. By the end of 2006, the radio antennas were re-configured to perform polarization measurements of the radio signal of cosmic ray air showers, recording in the same time both, the East-West and North-South polarization directions of the radio emission. The main goal of these measurements is to reconstruct the polarization characteristics of the emitted signal. This will allow a detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. The current status of these measurements is reported here.

  14. Muon Production Height investigated by the Air-Shower Experiment KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, P., E-mail: doll@ik.fzk.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Instituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    A large area (128m{sup 2}) Muon Tracking Detector (MTD), located within the KASCADE experiment, has been built with the aim to identify muons (E{sub m}u>0.8GeV) and their directions in extensive air showers by track measurements under more than 18 r.l. shielding. The orientation of the muon track with respect to the shower axis is expressed in terms of the radial- and tangential angles. By means of triangulation the muon production height H{sub m}u is determined. By means of H{sub m}u, a transition from light to heavy cosmic ray primary particles with increasing shower energy E{sub o} from 1-10 PeV is observed.

  15. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on radio Xmax measurements of air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corstanje Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The refractive index of the atmosphere, which is n ≈ 1:0003 at sea level, varies with altitude and with local temperature, pressure and humidity. When performing radio measurements of air showers, natural variations in n will change the radio lateral intensity distribution, by changing the Cherenkov angle. Using CoREAS simulations, we have evaluated the systematic error on measurements of the shower maximum Xmax due to variations in n. It was found that a 10% increase in refractivity (n – 1 leads to an underestimation of Xmax between 8 and 22 g/cm2 for proton-induced showers at zenith angles from 15 to 45 degrees, respectively.

  16. Extensive Air Shower Detector Array at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotzomi, J.; Moreno, E.; Aguilar, S.; Palma, B.; Martinez, O.; Salazar, H.; Villasenor, L.

    2002-07-01

    We describe the operation of an Extensive Air Shower Array located at the campus of the FCFM-BUAP. The array consists of 8 liquid scintillation detectors with a surface of 1 m2 each and a detector spacing of 20 m in a square grid. The array was designed to measure the energy and arrival direction of primary particles that generate extensive air showers (EAS) in the region of 1013 eV - 1016 eV. The angular distribution measured with this array, Cos8(Theta) xSin(Theta), agrees very well with the literature. We also present the measured energies of a number of vertical showers in the range of 5 x1012 eV to 5 x1013 eV.

  17. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    collaboration, The Pierre Augur

    2014-08-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade models to obtain the relative shower size as an overall normalization parameter. The method is evaluated using simulated showers to test its performance. The energy of the cosmic rays is calibrated using a sub-sample of events reconstructed with both the fluorescence and surface array techniques. The reconstruction method described here provides the basis of complementary analyses including an independent measurement of the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using very inclined events collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  18. Luminous Efficiency of Hypervelocity Meteoroid Impacts on the Moon Derived from the 2015 Geminid Meteor Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Ehlert, S. R.

    2017-01-01

    Meteoroids cannot be observed directly because of their small size. In-situ measurements of the meteoroid environment are rare and have very small collecting areas. The Moon, in contrast, has a large collecting area and therefore can be used as a large meteoroid detector for gram-kilogram sized particles. Meteoroids striking the Moon create an impact flash observable by Earth-based telescopes. Their kinetic energy is converted to luminous energy with some unknown luminous efficiency ?(v), which is likely a function of meteoroid velocity (among other factors). This luminous efficiency is imperative to calculating the kinetic energy and mass of the meteoroid, as well as meteoroid fluxes, and it cannot be determined in the laboratory at meteoroid speeds and sizes due to mechanical constraints. Since laboratory simulations fail to resolve the luminous efficiency problem, observations of the impact flash itself must be utilized. Meteoroids associated with specific meteor showers have known speed and direction, which simplifies the determination of the luminous efficiency. NASA has routinely monitored the Moon for impact flashes since early 2006 [1]. During this time, several meteor showers have produced multiple impact flashes on the Moon, yielding a sufficient sample of impact flashes with which to perform a luminous efficiency analysis similar to that outlined in Bellot Rubio et al. [2, 3] and further described by Moser et al. [4], utilizing Earth-based measurements of the shower flux and mass index. The Geminid meteor shower has produced the most impact flashes in the NASA dataset to date with over 80 detections. More than half of these Geminids were recorded in 2015 (locations pictured in Fig. 1), and may represent the largest single-shower impact flash sample known. This work analyzes the 2015 Geminid lunar impacts and calculates their luminous efficiency. The luminous efficiency is then applied to calculate the kinetic energies and mass-es of these shower

  19. Reclaiming Saline-Sodic Soils Using Electrochemical Processes: A Case Study From Sahl El-Tina Plain, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Fattah Mohamed K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A leaching experiment was conducted using column techniques assessing efficiency of electrochemical process to reclaim saline-sodic soils. Soil material was collected from Sahl El-Tina plain, which located in North West coast of Sinai, Egypt. The experiment was designed as factorial randomized complete block and all treatments were replicated three times. Two 2.5 cm diameterx30 cm height mild stainless steel tubes were inserted into the soil matrix to serve as electrodes (i.e. cathode and anode. Distance between cathode and anode was 10 cm. Electrodes were supplied by a direct current (DC power supply; Volt ages of 0.3 or 9 Volt. Leaching was done using the intermittent method so as to add portions to the already saturated soil columns, and obtain leachates equal to the added portions. Pore volume 0.1 PV was used in the leaching processes which are equal 498.4 cm3, i.e. PV being volume of pores per column, thus 1 PV equals volume of pores (cm3 expressed as water quantity. Electric remediation increased ionic mobility and separated salts from soil. All treatments decreased soil EC and soil sodicity expressed as SAR and ESP. Results showed that 9 Volt treatment was more effective in decreasing the soil EC and soil sodicity than the other treatments. Efficiency of treatments were 9-Volt > 3-Volt > leaching alone (non-DC treatment. This study suggests that leaching using direct current (DC led to improvement of the chemical properties of saline sodic soils and required a short time to reclaim saline-sodic soils compared with leaching alone.

  20. Power station coal yards using scraper reclaimers - 25 years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G. [Gustav Schade Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    25 years ago, the German power station at Scholven became the first in the world to employ a scraper reclaimer for power station coal stockyard duties. Based on experience gained here, many new coal handling systems have been built. The paper describes the current state of development and the different features of each type of today's scraper reclaimer: cantilever, portals, bridge-type and portal bridge scraper reclaimers. Examples are given of their use in linear stockpile systems. Advice is given on how to select a correct stockpile width. The advantages and disadvantages of the recently-introduced circular stockpile systems for power station coal are discussed. Future directions for coaling systems are outlined. 5 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nutrient uptake of maize in reclaimed soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Y.; Hu, Z.; Si, J.; Quan, W. [China University of Mining and Technology (CUMT), Beijing (China). Dept. of Resources Exploitation Engineering

    2002-05-01

    An experiment was carried out on the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, glomus mosseae, on the growth and nutrient uptaking of maize in reclaimed soil with coal fly ash layers at different depths. The research shows that plant yields increase with soil depth. Mycorrhizal plants can absorb more nutrients than non-mycorrhizal ones, and transport less Na to shoot, protecting plants from the excessive accumulation of Na. Plant biomass and nutrient content for mycorrhizal plants in reclaimed soil with a small soil thickness of 5 cm and a great fly ash thickness of 10 cm are higher than those for non-mycorrhizal plants in reclaimed soil with a great soil thickness of 10 cm and a small fly ash thickness of 5 cm. Arbuscular mycorrhizae have a potential to counteract the effect induced by a small thickness of covered soil, and so can reduce reclamation fee. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  3. Measuring the muon content of air showers with IceTop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Javier G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube detector, has been used to measure the energy spectrum of cosmic ray primaries in the range between 1.58 PeV and 1.26 EeV. It can also be used to study the low energy muons in air showers by looking at large distances (> 300 m from the shower axis. We will show the muon lateral distribution function at large lateral distances as measured with IceTop and discuss the implications of this measurement. We will also discuss the prospects for low energy muon studies with IceTop.

  4. Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Aab, A; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Samarai, I Al; Albuquerque, I F M; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Almela, A; Castillo, J Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anastasi, G A; Anchordoqui, L; Andrada, B; Andringa, S; Aramo, C; Arqueros, F; Arsene, N; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Avila, G; Badescu, A M; Baus, C; Beatty, J J; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Berat, C; Bertaina, M E; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Biteau, J; Blaess, S G; Blanco, A; Blazek, J; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Boháčová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Borodai, N; Botti, A M; Brack, J; Brancus, I; Bretz, T; Bridgeman, A; Briechle, F L; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Buitink, S; Buscemi, M; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caccianiga, B; Caccianiga, L; Cancio, A; Canfora, F; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chavez, A G; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colalillo, R; Coleman, A; Collica, L; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cooper, M J; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Cronin, J; Dallier, R; D'Amico, S; Daniel, B; Dasso, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; de Jong, S J; De Mauro, G; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Oliveira, J; de Souza, V; Debatin, J; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Dhital, N; Di Giulio, C; Di Matteo, A; Castro, M L Díaz; Diogo, F; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dorofeev, A; Anjos, R C dos; Dova, M T; Dundovic, A; Ebr, J; Engel, R; Erdmann, M; Erfani, M; Escobar, C O; Espadanal, J; Etchegoyen, A; Falcke, H; Fang, K; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferguson, A P; Fick, B; Figueira, J M; Filevich, A; Filipčič, A; Fratu, O; Freire, M M; Fujii, T; Fuster, A; Gallo, F; García, B; Garcia-Pinto, D; Gate, F; Gemmeke, H; Gherghel-Lascu, A; Ghia, P L; Giaccari, U; Giammarchi, M; Giller, M; Głas, D; Glaser, C; Glass, H; Golup, G; Berisso, M Gómez; Vitale, P F Gómez; González, N; Gookin, B; Gordon, J; Gorgi, A; Gorham, P; Gouffon, P; Griffith, N; Grillo, A F; Grubb, T D; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hampel, M R; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harrison, T A; Harton, J L; Hasankiadeh, Q; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Heimann, P; Herve, A E; Hill, G C; Hojvat, C; Hollon, N; Holt, E; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horvath, P; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hulsman, J; Insolia, A; Isar, P G; Jandt, I; Jansen, S; Jarne, C; Johnsen, J A; Josebachuili, M; Kääpä, A; Kambeitz, O; Kampert, K H; Kasper, P; Katkov, I; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Krause, R; Krohm, N; Kuempel, D; Mezek, G Kukec; Kunka, N; Awad, A Kuotb; LaHurd, D; Latronico, L; Lauscher, M; Lautridou, P; Lebrun, P; Legumina, R; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; Link, K; Lopes, L; López, R; Casado, A López; Lucero, A; Malacari, M; Mallamaci, M; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Mariş, I C; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martinez, H; Bravo, O Martínez; Meza, J J Masías; Mathes, H J; Mathys, S; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mayotte, E; Mazur, P O; Medina, C; Medina-Tanco, G; Mello, V B B; Melo, D; Menshikov, A; Messina, S; Micheletti, M I; Middendorf, L; Minaya, I A; Miramonti, L; Mitrica, B; Mockler, D; Molina-Bueno, L; Mollerach, S; Montanet, F; Morello, C; Mostafá, M; Moura, C A; Müller, G; Muller, M A; Müller, S; Naranjo, I; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nelles, A; Neuser, J; Nguyen, P H; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M; Niechciol, M; Niemietz, L; Niggemann, T; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Novotny, V; Nožka, H; Núñez, L A; Ochilo, L; Oikonomou, F; Olinto, A; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Papenbreer, P; Parente, G; Parra, A; Paul, T; Pech, M; Pedreira, F; Pękala, J; Pelayo, R; Peña-Rodriguez, J; Pepe, I M; Pereira, L A S; Perrone, L; Petermann, E; Peters, C; Petrera, S; Phuntsok, J; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pieroni, P; Pimenta, M; Pirronello, V; Platino, M; Plum, M; Porowski, C; Prado, R R; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Querchfeld, S; Quinn, S; Rautenberg, J; Ravel, O; Ravignani, D; Revenu, B; Ridky, J; Risse, M; Ristori, P; Rizi, V; de Carvalho, W Rodrigues; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Rogozin, D; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Saffi, S J; Saftoiu, A; Salazar, H; Saleh, A; Greus, F Salesa; Salina, G; Gomez, J D Sanabria; Sánchez, F; Sanchez-Lucas, P; Santos, E M; Santos, E; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, B; Sarmento, R; Sarmiento-Cano, C; Sato, R; Scarso, C; Schauer, M; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, D; Scholten, O; Schoorlemmer, H; Schovánek, P; Schröder, F G; Schulz, A; Schulz, J; Schumacher, J; Sciutto, S J; Segreto, A; Settimo, M; Shadkam, A; Shellard, R C; Sigl, G; Sima, O; Śmiałkowski, A; Šmída, R; Snow, G R; Sommers, P; Sonntag, S; Sorokin, J; Squartini, R; Stanca, D; Stanič, S; Stapleton, J; Stasielak, J; Strafella, F; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Durán, M Suarez; Sudholz, T; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Taborda, O A; Tapia, A; Tepe, A; Theodoro, V M; Timmermans, C; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomankova, L; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Elipe, G Torralba; Machado, D Torres; Travnicek, P; Trini, M; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valbuena-Delgado, A; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van Aar, G; van Bodegom, P; Berg, A M van den; van Vliet, A; Varela, E; Cárdenas, B Vargas; Varner, G; Vázquez, J R; Vázquez, R A; Veberič, D; Verzi, V; Vicha, J; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walz, D; Watson, A A; Weber, M; Weindl, A; Wiencke, L; Wilczyński, H; Winchen, T; Wittkowski, D; Wundheiler, B; Wykes, S; Yang, L; Yapici, T; Yelos, D; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zepeda, A; Zimmermann, B; Ziolkowski, M; Zong, Z; Zuccarello, F

    2016-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6-16 EeV (E_CM = 110-170 TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The average hadronic shower is 1.33 +- 0.16 (1.61 +- 0.21) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.

  5. Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J. D.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chirinos Diaz, J. C.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Dallier, R.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G. R.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gallo, F.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Lebrun, P.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mello, V. B. B.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Naranjo, I.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pepe, I. M.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sanabria Gomez, J. D.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Scarso, C.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Strafella, F.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valbuena-Delgado, A.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yang, L.; Yapici, T.; Yelos, D.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6-16 EeV (ECM=110 - 170 TeV ), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The average hadronic shower is 1.33 ±0.16 (1.61 ±0.21 ) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.

  6. Detailed Measurements of Shower Properties in a High Granularity Digital Electromagnetic Calorimeter arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00290589

    The MAPS prototype of the proposed ALICE Forward Calorimeter (FoCal) is the highest granularity electromagnetic calorimeter, with 39 million pixels of $30 \\times 30 \\mu$m$^{2}$. Particle showers can be studied with unprecedented detail with this prototype. Electromagnetic showers at energies between 2 GeV and 244 GeV have been studied and compared to Geant4 simulations. Simulation models can be tested in more detail than ever before and the differences observed between FoCal data and Geant4 simulations illustrates that improvements in electromagnetic models are still possible.

  7. Cherenkov Radiation from e+e- Pairs and Its Effect on nu e InducedShowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sourav K.; Klein, Spencer R.; Jackson, J. David

    2005-06-08

    We calculate the Cherenkov radiation from an e{sup +}e{sup -} pair at small separations, as occurs shortly after a pair conversion. The radiation is reduced (compared to that from two independent particles) when the pair separation is smaller than the wavelength of the emitted light. We estimate the reduction in light in large electromagnetic showers, and discuss the implications for detectors that observe Cherenkov radiation from showers in the Earth's atmosphere, as well as in oceans and Antarctic ice.

  8. QGSJET-II: physics, recent improvements, and results for air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapchenko S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of high energy hadronic and nuclear interactions by the QGSJET-II generator is discussed. Recent updates related to the treatment of nonlinear effects inthe interaction dynamics and to the model calibration with new LHC data are described. A special attention is devoted to the predictions of the new model version forcharacteristics of extensive air showers initiated by high energy cosmic rays. In particular, an improved description of charge exchange processes in pion collisionsis discussed and the respective enhancement of the shower muon content is analyzed.

  9. The cosmic-ray energy spectrum above 1016 eV measured with the LOFAR radboud air shower array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoudam, S.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Trinh, T. N G; Van Kessel, L.

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR Radboud Air Shower Array (LORA) is an array of 20 plastic scintillation detectors installed in the center of the LOFAR radio telescope in the Netherlands to measure extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere. The primary goals of LORA are to trigger the read-out

  10. A measurement of the muon number in showers using inclined events detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez G.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The average muon content of measured showers with zenith angles between 62∘ and 80∘ detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory is obtained as a function of shower energy using a reconstruction method specifically designed for inclined showers and the hybrid character of the detector. The reconstruction of inclined showers relies on a comparison between the measured signals at ground and reference patterns at ground level from which an overall normalization factor is obtained. Since inclined showers are dominated by muons this factor gives the relative muon size. It can be calibrated using a subsample of showers simultaneously recorded with the fluorescence detector (FD and the surface detector (SD which provides an independent calorimetric measurement of the energy. The muon size obtained for each shower becomes a measurement of the relative number of muons with respect to the reference distributions. The precision of the measurement is assessed using simulated events which are reconstructed using exactly the same procedure. We compare the relative number of muons versus energy as obtained to simulations. Proton simulations with QGSJETII show a factor of 2.13 ± 0.04(stat ± 0.11(sys at 1019eV without significant variations in the energy range explored between 4 × 1018eV to 7 × 1019eV. We find that none of the current shower models, neither for proton nor for iron primaries, are able to predict as many muons as are observed.

  11. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  12. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF SWITCHGRASS ON RECLAIMED MINE SOIL [English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David; Shankle, Brandon; Oswalt, Ernest; Duckworth, Jeremy; Sanborn, Judd; Buell, Rebecca; Roberson, Bill

    2010-06-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native warm season perennial grass that has productive potential of up to 20 Mg ha-1 of biomass and it persists for decades when harvested once per year. Switchgrass provides excellent ground cover and soil stabilization once established and contributes to soil sequestration of new carbon. Slow establishment on newly reclaimed soil, however, provides for significant erosive opportunities thereby requiring initial soil stabilization with a cover crop. Several planting options were evaluated on two topsoil substitute soils. The planting options included: 1) an existing stand of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) that was killed with glyphosate followed by disking in red oxidized topsoil substitute and prime farmland topsoil respread in 2007, 2) red oxidized topsoil substitute was seeded directly with switchgrass, 3) browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) was established with switchgrass, 4) or switchgrass was established in senescing browntop millet or wheat without tillage. Switchgrass was successfully established into a bermudagrass sod that had been killed with herbicides and disked as well as into a senescing stand of browntop millet or wheat. Significant soil erosion occurred on the disked area in 2008 leading to considerable repair work followed by planting wheat. Disked areas that did not erode had an excellent stand of switchgrass with 23.3 plants m-2 in November, 2008. Eroded areas replanted in April, 2009 into senescing wheat had 46 plants m-2 by July, 2009. The area planted directly into newly respread soil in May, 2009 was eroded severely by a 75 mm thunderstorm and was repaired, disked and replanted to switchgrass and browntop millet. Switchgrass seeded with browntop millet had a sparse switchgrass stand and was replanted to switchgrass in August, 2009. Rainfall volumes from August, 2009 to October, 2009 totaled 750 mm, but new erosion damage in areas successfully planted to switchgrass has been minimal.

  13. The Scream of the Butterfly: on Reclaiming the Feminine Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Daly, Bernice

    My thesis is that the Feminine Divine has re-entered our age as a primary image for human spiritual growth. Her central energies are immanence, interconnection, mutuality, and interdependence. Emerging from the ancient Goddess tradition, She is reflected anew in contemporary thought in multiple ways. I have explored Her re-emergence in spirituality, psychology, cross-cultural studies, ecofeminism and the new physics. I have focused my research on the experiences of women because women are the original and natural bearers of feminine energies. In the area of spirituality, She expresses Herself through women's reclaiming their sacred image in the women's spirituality movement. Further insights are gained from diverse indigenous cultures which honor the spirit-world in their everyday lives. Ritual, as the enactment of our beliefs, values and world-view, becomes powerful personal and communal expressions of Her re-emergence. From a psychological perspective, I have studied current theories of "Self-in-Relation" and Integrative Psychology. "Self-in-Relation" stresses personal development from within the context of relational growth, both within oneself and with others. Integrative Psychology articulates a body-oriented reconception of feminine and masculine energies. Ecofeminism expresses the confluence of women and nature as intrinsic to meeting environmental demands. Recognizing that treating 'mother' and 'earth' as inexhaustible resources is no longer possible, an ecofeminist position asserts that our assumptions about both women and nature be re -examined. The new physics reconstructs our perception of the universe through quantum physics and chaos theories. These perspectives view the universe as an alive, integrated whole; all aspects, including ourselves, inter-relate with all other aspects. These areas of research demonstrate the emergence of relatedness and interdependence as expressions of a new consciousness which honors the feminine Divine.

  14. 'Religion' and 'body': reclaiming the missing links of Western education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Ergas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts Western education as being led by a scientific ethos of objectivity. Such an ethos lends itself clearly to a disengagement from ‘religion’ as representing the realm of so-called ‘unscientific knowledge’ and speculation on the one hand, and to a disengagement from the ‘body’ as the locus of sentiment and idiosyncrasy on the other. It is argued, that Western education thus promotes a secular mind-oriented ideology, weeding out the spiritual realm on the one hand, and the emotional-physical realm on the other. It is claimed that education can only take place once it becomes an exploratory path which poses the question ‘who am I?’ at its core. The exploration of such a question will forever be a depleted one as long as it is deprived of ‘religion’ and the ‘body’ as possible research paths. This paper is thus an orientation call for the field of curriculum development serving as a foundation for the ‘holistic education’ discourse developed in recent years. ‘Well-being’ is claimed to be the goal of education. Following this it is showed why this goal cannot be achieved given Western education’s rational (‘body-less’ – secular (‘religion-less’ epistemology. There is thus a need for an attempt to reconceptualize education, which can be made by means of reclaiming the ‘body’ and ‘religion’ as Western education’s missing links, reintegrating them into its proper epistemological/ontological basis. Our inherent dualistic conceptualization of reality (education included should be dealt with, as it constitutes an obstacle to the reconceptualization of education.

  15. The influence of reclaim on properties of moulding sand with furan resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of properties of moulding sands with furan resin, prepared on the matrix of the reclaimed material obtained in themechanical reclamation process - are presented in the paper. A sieve and thermogravimetric analysis of a fresh sand as well as of a reclaimwere performed. An increased dusting of the reclaimed material was found, which can result in a higher binder demand. Laboratoryexaminations indicate that for achieving a longer lifespan of moulding sand the participation of a resin and hardener, H/R = 0.3, would be advantageous, however, this result requires a verification under industrial conditions.

  16. Making the most of minimal water

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    dissipate communal tensions over water use, and help manage canal systems. These facilitated missions have communicated lessons from the Egyptian experience with wastewater use, which included different scenarios such as the use of reclaimed water from natural and mechanical treatment plants, as well as the use of ...

  17. High resolution electrical resistivity tomography of golf course greens irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: Hydrological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Lovera, Raúl; Himi, Mahjoub; Gallardo, Helena; Sendrós, Alexandre; Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Casas, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Actually, there are over 300 golf courses and more than three thousand licensed players in Spain. For this reason golf cannot be considered simply a hobby or a sport, but a very significant economic activity. Considered as one of the most rapidly expanding land-use and water demanding business in the Mediterranean, golf course development generates controversy. In the recent years there has been a considerable demand for golf courses to adopt environmentally sustainable strategies and particularly water authorities are forcing by law golf managers to irrigate with alternative water resources, mainly reclaimed wastewater. Watering practices must be based on soil properties that are characterized by samples removed from the different zones of the golf course and submitted to an accredited physical soil testing laboratory. Watering schedules are critical on greens with poor drainage or on greens with excessively high infiltration rates. The geophysical survey was conducted over the greens of the Girona Golf Club. Eighteen electrical resistivity tomographies were acquired using a mixed Wenner-Schlumberger configuration with electrodes placed 0.5 meter apart. Small stainless-steel nails were used as electrodes to avoid any damage in the fine turfgrass of greens The resistivity meter was set for systematically and automatically selects current electrodes and measurement electrodes to sample apparent resistivity values. Particle size analysis (PSA) has been performed on soil materials of any putting green. The PSA analysis has been composed of two distinct phases. The first has been the textural analysis of the soils for determining the content of sand, silt, and clay fraction via the use of a stack of sieves with decreasing sized openings from the top sieve to the bottom. Subsequently, the hydraulic conductivity of the substrates has been evaluated by means of Bredding and Hazen empirical relationships. The results of this research show that the electrical resistivity

  18. Necessity of irrigation for revegetation on reclaimed land with fly ash. Sekitanbai umetatechi ni okeru ryokuka no tameno kangai no hitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiyama, Tetsuo; Kozakai, Kazuki; Okabe, Katsumi.

    1989-02-01

    In view of the growing importance of revegetation measures of a reclaimed land with fly ash discharged from a coal burning thermal power plant, a study was made on necessity of irrigation in case of the positive execution of the above revegetation. This is a report of the above study. The conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Comparing the available moisture amounts in terms of volume percentage of moisture, about 36% is for fly ash and about 34% for volcanic ash soil, but when fly ash is solidified, the above figure for fly ash becomes about 90% of that for volcanic ash soil. (2) The maximum water infiltration capacity of fly ash is 1/10-1/50 of that of volcanic ash soil and the surface run-off is much. The furrow or drip irrigation system is suitable. (3) The evaporation in fly ash is almost same as that in volcanic ash soil and the designed duty of water irrigation is considered to be 7-8mm/day (in case of cultivation of tangerine and pasture). (4) In case when the above reclaimed land is covered with volcanic ash soil, an aquifer is observed at the boundary layer between the surface soil coverage and the land. Hence draining measures such as underdrainage systems are desirable from the viewpoint of the growth of plants. 8 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Rhizospheric soil enzyme activities and phytominimg potential of Aeluropus lagopoides and Cyperus conglomeratus growing in contaminated soils at the banks of artificial lake of reclaimed wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zahid Khorshid

    2017-11-02

    This work investigates the phytoremediation potential of Aeluropus lagopoides and Cyperus conglomeratus, growing indigenously in the vicinity of an artificial lake of reclaimed water in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia . The sampling sites were located at different distances from the wastewater treatment plants. Trace metal contents were higher in roots than shoots in both these plants. Soil urease activity in rhizophere increased linearly along the sampling sites, however, soil alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities were higher at site 2 but at site 3, the activities of both these soil enzymes reduced. Significant correlations were observed between soil urease activity and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Cd, Cu, Pb, and As in A. lagopoides and translocation factor (TF) for all metals in both these plants. Soil β-glucosidase activity was negatively correlated with the TF of Cd, Cu, Pb, and As in A. lagopoides and positively in C. conglomeratus, respectively. Higher BCF of Cd, Cu and Pb than C. conglomeratus and suitable for phytostabilization, however at site 3, C. conglomeratus showed better phytostabilization efficiency for As, as the BCF of As was higher than the A. lagopoides. On the basis of metal accumulation efficiency and rhizospheric soil urease and β-glucosidase activities, A. lagopoides species proved to be a better option for application in phytostabilization strategy than C. conglomeratus plants in the area surrounding the artificial lake of reclaimed water in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.

  20. Environmental and Public Health Implications of Water Reuse: Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Pei-Ying

    2013-07-31

    Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water.

  1. Modelling Effects of Cover Material and Cover Depth on Hydrological Regime and Salt Redistribution in Reclaimed Oil Sand Landscapes in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welegedara, N.; Grant, R. F.; Quideau, S.; Lloret, E.

    2014-12-01

    Large-Scale surface mining is continuing in the Athabasca oil sands region in northern Alberta, Canada, causing significant ecosystem disturbances and changes in hydrology. Reclamation efforts in this region require understanding processes that control water, nutrient and salt fluxes through reclaimed landscapes which is critical to restoring their productivity. These processes were tested in a comprehensive mathematical model, ecosys, which was used to determine the effect of different cover thicknesses on water balance, water buffering capacity, salinity and the productivity in the South Bison Hills reclamation site of Syncrude Canada (SCL). This site was constructed in 1999 by capping peat mineral mix and secondary (glacial till) soil over saline sodic overburden. The site was constructed with three different soil cover thicknesses: 35 cm (thin), 50 cm (intermediate) and 100 cm (thick) along a 20% north facing slope. Model outputs were validated with field measured volumetric water content, runoff, snow data, electrical conductivity (EC) and plant productivity data recorded from 1999 to 2013. Model and field results show differences in horizontal and vertical water transport among the three reclaimed prototype covers. Lower water retention capacity in the 35 cm cover compared to the 50 cm and 100 cm covers caused greater soil moisture variation so that permanent wilting point was reached during dry years, decreasing plant growth due to water stress. In addition, the modeled and field-measured EC values indicated some upward salt movement from overburden to cover material over the time. This movement caused higher EC values (6 - 8 dS m-1) to be reached in the shallow rooting zone of the 35 cm and 50 cm covers than of the 100 cm cover several years after the covers were established. The determination of cost effective but ecologically sustainable cover depth is a challenge and will be a focus in future simulations.

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CAPE HATTERAS in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North Atlantic Ocean from 2005-01-05 to 2006-05-27 (NODC Accession 0051983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0051983 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CAPE HATTERAS in the Coastal Waters of Florida and North...

  3. The shape of the radio wavefront of extensive air showers as measured with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstanje, A.; et al., [Unknown; Swinbank, J.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive air showers, induced by high energy cosmic rays impinging on the Earth’s atmosphere, produce radio emission that is measured with the LOFAR radio telescope. As the emission comes from a finite distance of a few kilometers, the incident wavefront is non-planar. A spherical, conical or

  4. Radio detection of air showers with the ARIANNA experiment on the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, S. W.; Besson, D. Z.; Burgman, A.; Chiem, E.; Hallgren, A.; Hanson, J. C.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinfelder, S. A.; Nelles, A.; Persichilli, C.; Phillips, S.; Prakash, T.; Reed, C.; Shively, S. R.; Tatar, J.; Unger, E.; Walker, J.; Yodh, G.

    2017-04-01

    The ARIANNA hexagonal radio array (HRA) is an experiment in its pilot phase designed to detect cosmogenic neutrinos of energies above 1016 eV. The most neutrino-like background stems from the radio emission of air showers. This article reports on dedicated efforts of simulating and detecting the signals of cosmic rays. A description of the fully radio self-triggered data-set, the properties of the detected air shower signals in the frequency range of 100-500 MHz and the consequences for neutrino detection are given. 38 air shower signals are identified by their distinct waveform characteristics, are in good agreement with simulations and their signals provide evidence that neutrino-induced radio signals will be distinguishable with high efficiency in ARIANNA. The cosmic ray flux at a mean energy of 6.5-1.0+1.2 ×1017 eV is measured to be 1.1-0.7+1.0 ×10-16 eV-1 km-2 sr-1 yr-1 and one five-fold coincident event is used to illustrate the capabilities of the ARIANNA detector to reconstruct arrival direction and energy of air showers.

  5. Influence of atmospheric electric fields on the radio emission from extensive air showers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Buitink, S.

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very nonlinear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of ...

  6. A model of non-perturbative gluon emission in an initial state parton shower

    CERN Document Server

    Gieseke, Stefan; Siódmok, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    We consider a model of transverse momentum production in which non-perturbative smearing takes place throughout the perturbative evolution, by a simple modification to an initial state parton shower algorithm. We find a reasonable description of data over a wide range of energy and discuss the extrapolation to the LHC.

  7. Muons in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory: Mean number in highly inclined events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J. J.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2015-01-01

    We present the first hybrid measurement of the average muon number in air showers at ultrahigh energies, initiated by cosmic rays with zenith angles between 62° and 80°. The measurement is based on 174 hybrid events recorded simultaneously with the surface detector array and the fluorescence

  8. Reconstruction of inclined air showers detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Cheng, S. H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; D\\'\\iaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garc\\'\\ia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Islo, K.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agëra, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Mart\\'\\inez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Mas\\'\\ias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, A. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Newton, D.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodr\\'\\iguez-Fr\\'\\ias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Rühle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiał kowski, A.; Šm\\'\\ida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Thao, N. T.; Theodoro, V. M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the method devised to reconstruct inclined cosmic-ray air showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the surface array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The measured signals at the ground level are fitted to muon density distributions predicted with atmospheric cascade

  9. Depth of maximum of air-shower profiles at the Pierre Auger Observatory. II. Composition implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertania, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fuji, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2014-01-01

    Using the data taken at the Pierre Auger Observatory between December 2004 and December 2012, we have examined the implications of the distributions of depths of atmospheric shower maximum (X-max), using a hybrid technique, for composition and hadronic interaction models. We do this by fitting the

  10. Analysis of the muon spectra for inclined air showers measured with the KASCADE-grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga-Velazquez, Juan Carlos [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The solving of the mystery of the second knee in the cosmic ray spectrum is one of the main objectives of the KASCADE-grande observatory. KASCADE-grande is a ground array composed of different subsystems of detectors that, as a whole, allows to study simultaneously the electromagnetic and penetrating component of cosmic ray air showers in the energy range between 100 TeV and 1 EeV. Vertical showers (with zenith angles below 40 ) are studied in detail at KASCADE-grande. Now, the analyses are being extended to higher zenith angles as a way to study the muon content of air showers and to increase the statistics of the experiment. In this talk, the muon spectra reconstructed for vertical and inclined air showers measured by the KASCADE-grande observatory are presented and also confronted with Monte Carlos simulations based on the hadronic interaction models QGSJET II and EPOS. In addition, the result of the analysis of the observed spectra with the ''constant intensity cut method'' is shown. This method was applied in a first attempt to understand the origin of a systematic discrepancy found between the predicted and measured muon spectra, which increases with the zenith angle.

  11. EVALUATION OF STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM A SHOWER STALL/BATHTUB MANUFACTURING FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of emissions measurements carried out at a representative facility (Eljer Plumbingware in Wilson, NC) that manufactures polyester-resin-reinforced shower stalls and bathtubs by spraying styrene-based resins onto molds in vented, open, spray booths. Styren...

  12. High-precision measurements of extensive air showers with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huege, T.; Bray, J. D.; Buitink, S.; Dallier, R.; Ekers, R. D.; Falcke, H.; Haungs, A.; James, C. W.; Martin, L.; Revenu, B.; Scholten, O.; Schröder, F. G.; Zilles, A.

    2015-01-01

    As of 2023, the Square Kilometre Array will constitute the world's largest radio telescope, offering unprecedented capabilities for a diverse science programme in radio astronomy. At the same time, the SKA will be ideally suited to detect extensive air showers initiated by cosmic rays in the Earth's

  13. Reconstruction of 10(exp 20)ev Showers in EUSO and JEM EUSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V.; Adams, J.; Cline, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the procedure to reconstruct 10(exp 20) ev showers in Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). We show the angular and energy resolution is excellent. We now apply this to the newly proposed Japanese JEM-EUSO and will present results at the meeting.

  14. Interpretation of the depths of maximum of extensive air showers measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Baughman, B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K.H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buroker, L.; Burton, R. E.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Cheng, S.H.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R.M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fliescher, S.; Fox, B. D.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fratu, O.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Gaior, R.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Roca, S. T.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Gitto, J.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Jiraskova, S.; Josebachuili, M.; Kadija, K.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Kotera, K.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, J.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nhung, P. T.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Porcelli, A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, J.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Cabo, I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehle, C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulz, J.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Straub, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Tapia, A.; Tartare, M.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Machado, D. Torres; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Widom, A.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano Garcia, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Martin, L.

    To interpret the mean depth of cosmic ray air shower maximum and its dispersion, we parametrize those two observables as functions of the first two moments of the ln A distribution. We examine the goodness of this simple method through simulations of test mass distributions. The application of the

  15. A study of the radio frequency spectrum emitted by high-energy air showers with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetto, L.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N G

    2015-01-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a multipurpose radio antenna array aimed to detect radio signals in the frequency range 10 - 240 MHz, covering a large surface in Northern Europe with a higher density in the Northern Netherlands. The detection of the radio signal emitted by extensive air showers

  16. A general framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs. The POWHEG BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alioli, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, Paolo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Oleari, Carlo [INFN, Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Milano-Bicocca Univ. (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology

    2010-02-15

    In this work we illustrate the POWHEG BOX, a general computer code framework for implementing NLO calculations in shower Monte Carlo programs according to the POWHEG method. Aim of this work is to provide an illustration of the needed theoretical ingredients, a view of how the code is organized and a description of what a user should provide in order to use it. (orig.)

  17. Measuring the radio emission of cosmic ray air showers with LOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, F.G., E-mail: Frank.Schroeder@kit.ed [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Asch, T. [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Badea, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Baehren, L. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Biermann, P.L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie Bonn (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Buitink, S. [Department of Astrophysics, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany)

    2010-05-21

    When ultra high energy cosmic rays hit the atmosphere, they produce a shower of millions of secondary particles. Thereby the charged particles in the shower emit a radio pulse whilst deflected in the Earth's magnetic field. LOPES is a digital antenna array measuring these radio pulses in the frequency range from 40 to 80 MHz. It is located at the site of and triggered by the air shower experiment KASCADE-Grande at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany. In its present configuration, it consists of 15 east-west-polarized and 15 north-south-polarized, absolutely calibrated short dipole antennas, as well as 10 LPDAs (with two channels each). Furthermore, it serves as a test bench for technological developments, like new antenna types or a radio-based self-triggering (LOPES{sup STAR}). To achieve a good angular reconstruction and to digitally form a beam into the arrival direction of the shower, it has a precise time calibration.

  18. Test of the hadronic interaction model EPOS with KASCADE air shower data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerandel, J.R., E-mail: j.horandel@astro.ru.n [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Arteaga, J.C. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Badea, F.; Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box Mg-6, RO-7690 Bucharest (Romania); Brueggemann, M.; Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, 10133 Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Souza, V. de [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Di Pierro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, 10125 Torino (Italy); Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Predictions of the hadronic interaction model EPOS 1.61 as implemented in the air shower simulation program CORSIKA are compared to observations with the KASCADE experiment. The investigations reveal that the predictions of EPOS are not compatible with KASCADE measurements. The discrepancies seen are most likely due to use of a set of inelastic hadronic cross sections that are too high.

  19. The Time Structure of Hadronic Showers in Calorimeters with Scintillator and with Gas Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Szalay, M

    2015-01-01

    The time structure of hadronic showers is characterized by apromptcomponent from relativistic particles and by late components predominantly connected to neutrons in the cascade.The sensitivity to this late component thus depends on the choice of the active medium for hadronic calorimeters.

  20. Application of thermoluminescence for detection of cascade shower 1: Hardware and software of reader system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, M.; Kawaguchi, S.; Watanabe, Z.; Misaki, A.; Niwa, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Fujinaga, T.; Ichimura, M.; Shibata, T.; Dake, S.

    1985-01-01

    A reader system for the detection of cascade showers via luminescence induced by heating sensitive material (BaSO4:Eu) is developed. The reader system is composed of following six instruments: (1) heater, (2) light guide, (3) image intensifier, (4) CCD camera, (5) image processor, (6) microcomputer. The efficiency of these apparatuses and software application for image analysis is reported.

  1. Detection of Extensive Cosmic Air Showers by Small Scintillation Detectors with Wavelength-Shifting Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiola, Salvatore; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    A set of three small scintillation detectors was employed to measure correlated events due to the passage of cosmic muons originating from extensive air showers. The coincidence rate between (any) two detectors was extracted as a function of their relative distance. The difference between the arrival times in three non-aligned detectors was used…

  2. Polarized radio emission and radio wavefront shape of extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstanje, A.; Buitink, S.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; Ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N G

    2015-01-01

    The LOFAR radio telescope located in the north of the Netherlands offers a high density of omnidirectional radio antennas. The LOFAR key science project Cosmic Rays is therefore well suited for detailed studies of the radio signal from air showers, and has been measuring since mid-2011 at primary

  3. New additional material of meteor showers during 9th -19th centuries in the Islamic history

    CERN Document Server

    Basurah, Hassan M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents twelve records of meteor showers in Arabic chronicles covering period from the 9th to the 19th century. The observations were in Egypt, Morocco, Syria and Yemen. These new addition historical records are considered to be important events which indicate a serious current interest in astronomy.

  4. Circular polarization of radio emission from air showers in thunderstorm conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.N.G. Trinh (Gia); O. Scholten; Bonardi (A.); S. Buitink; A. Corstanje; U. Ebert (Ute); J.E. Enriquez; H. Falcke; J.R. Hörandel; P. Mitra; K. Mulrey; A. Nelles; S. Thoudam; J.P. Rachen; L. Rossetto; C. Rutjes (Casper); P. Schellart; S. ter Veen (Sander); T. Winchen

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present measured radio emission from cosmic-ray-induced air showers under thunderstorm conditions. We observe for these events large differences in intensity, linear polarization and circular polarization from the events measured under fair-weather conditions. This can be explained by

  5. The air shower maximum probed by Cherenkov effects from radio emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    Radio detection of cosmic-ray-induced air showers has come to a flight the last decade. Along with the experimental efforts, several theoretical models were developed. The main radio-emission mechanisms are established to be the geomagnetic emission due to deflection of electrons and positrons in

  6. The Hisparc cosmic ray experiment : data acquisition and reconstruction of shower direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, D.; Fokkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    The field of cosmic ray physics is a century old and an exciting area of research. When cosmic ray particles enter our atmosphere they collide with air molecules creating new high-energy particles. These particles participate in further collisions and the entire process is known as an air shower.

  7. Measurement of the muon content in air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veberič Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The muon content of extensive air showers produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays is an observable sensitive to the composition of primary particles and to the properties of hadronic interactions governing the evolution of air-shower cascades. We present different methods for estimation of the number of muons at the ground and the muon production depth. These methods use measurements of the longitudinal, lateral, and temporal distribution of particles in air showers recorded by the detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory. The results, obtained at about 140 TeV center-of-mass energy for proton primaries, are compared to the predictions of LHC-tuned hadronic-interaction models used in simulations with different primary masses. The models exhibit a deficitin the predicted muon content. The combination of these results with other independent mass composition analyses, such as those involving the depth of shower maximum observablemax, provide additional constraints on hadronic-interaction models for energies beyond the reach of the LHC.

  8. Artificial Neural Network as the FPGA Trigger in the Cyclone V based Front-End for a Detection of Neutrino-Origin Showers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Glas, Dariusz [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, Faculty of High-Energy Astrophysics, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 149 (Poland); Pytel, Krzysztof [University of Lodz, Department of Physics and Applied Informatics, Faculty of Informatics, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Neutrinos play a fundamental role in the understanding of the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. They interact through charged and neutral currents in the atmosphere generating extensive air showers. However, their a very low rate of events potentially generated by neutrinos is a significant challenge for a detection technique and requires both sophisticated algorithms and high-resolution hardware. A trigger based on a artificial neural network was implemented into the Cyclone{sup R} V E FPGA 5CEFA9F31I7 - the heart of the prototype Front-End boards developed for tests of new algorithms in the Pierre Auger surface detectors. Showers for muon and tau neutrino initiating particles on various altitudes, angles and energies were simulated in CORSICA and Offline platforms giving pattern of ADC traces in Auger water Cherenkov detectors. The 3-layer 12-8-1 neural network was taught in MATLAB by simulated ADC traces according the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Results show that a probability of a ADC traces generation is very low due to a small neutrino cross-section. Nevertheless, ADC traces, if occur, for 1-10 EeV showers are relatively short and can be analyzed by 16-point input algorithm. We optimized the coefficients from MATLAB to get a maximal range of potentially registered events and for fixed-point FPGA processing to minimize calculation errors. New sophisticated triggers implemented in Cyclone{sup R} V E FPGAs with large amount of DSP blocks, embedded memory running with 120 - 160 MHz sampling may support a discovery of neutrino events in the Pierre Auger Observatory. (authors)

  9. Reintroducing the intrinsic self-healing properties in reclaimed asphalt by rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Shirazi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reclaimed Asphalt (RA) is one of the largest fractions of raw materials used in road construction today. Probably over 90% of the total RA in the Netherlands is being reused in new asphalt constructions. RA contains aggregates coated with very hard bitumen (penetration grade of 10-20). During

  10. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  11. Reclaiming the Disengaged: Reform of New Zealand's Vocational Education and Training and Social Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas' theory of the state and his idea of legitimation crisis to critically evaluate recent reforms in New Zealand designed to engage young people (16-24 years of age) in paid employment and/or education and training. The paper identifies three broad strategies adopted by the state to reclaim the disengaged and hence, resolve…

  12. Rheological properties of a reclaimed waste tire rubber through high-pressure high-temperature sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Yunus, N. A.; Aziz, S. A. A.; Wahab, N. A. A.; Mazlan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) sintering method has successfully revulcanized waste tire rubber (WTR) without any additional virgin rubber. The crumb rubber cleaned from its fabric and metals was reclaimed by applying high pressure (25 MPa) and high temperature (200 °C) for an hour along with common vulcanization agents such as sulfur, zinc oxide, and stearic acid. Dynamic properties of reclaimed WTR were assessed through shear rheology test on MCR302 Rheometer, Anton Paar, Austria. The results indicated that under steady test, the yield stress occurred at 31 kPa at 5% linear viscoelastic limit. The storage modulus ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 MPa under excitation frequency of 0.1 to 100 Hz and 1% strain amplitude. Under ramp strain amplitude, the storage modulus showed Payne Effect phenomenon at 0.8 to 1 % strain amplitude and 1 Hz excitation frequency. In general, the resulted dynamic properties was comparable with non-reclaimed rubber based on a literature survey. The results confirmed that HPHT sintering method was capable of reclaiming 100% WTR without an additional virgin rubber and achieving acceptable dynamic properties.

  13. Selenium geochemistry in reclaimed phosphate mine soils and its relationship with plant bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims Selenium contamination and accumulation in vegetation have resulted in Se toxicity in livestock and wildlife in reclaimed phosphate mine soils in Southeastern Idaho. Methods Plant and soil samples were collected from five study sites near phosphate mines. Soil physiochemical pr...

  14. The Use of Amine Reclaimer Wastes as a NOx Reduction Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botheju, Deshai; Glarborg, Peter; Tokheim, Lars-Andre

    2013-01-01

    of thermo-gravimetric analyses provided important information on vaporization characteristics of amine reclaimer bottom wastes. The proposed methodology can lead to simultaneous energy and material resource recovery while primarily solving two environmental pollution problems, i.e. toxic ARW wastes...... generated in CCS, and emission of NOx a class of highly active greenhouse gases....

  15. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The