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Sample records for reclaimed lignite strip

  1. Time-dependent phosphate dynamics in reclaimed lignite-mine soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Dirk; Slazak, Anna

    2017-04-01

    . With increasing age of trees the ratio of available P to total P decreased in tendency for all soil layers. The total P content increased slightly over time in all soil layers. But the amount of Fe and Al oxides increased also over time and therefore the overall P sorption capacity increased, too. Hence, the ratio between available P and total P shifted more to the less available forms of P in soil. Within a period of 20 years, R. pseudoacacia L. cultivation on post mining sites increased the contents of available P and total P, repectively. The P sorption increased with time of soil development showing the maximum at the oldest site. Nevertheless, P sorption of these initial post mining soils is still rather low. The results suggest, that the SRC of R. pseudoacacia L. on post mining sites have a positive influence on the P dynamics. References Freese, D., Van Riemsdijk, W.H., Van Der Zee, S.E.A.T.M., 1995. Modelling phosphate-sorption kinetics in acid soils. European Journal of Soil Science 46(2), 239-245. Matos, E.S., Freese, D., Böhm, C., Quinkenstein, A., Hüttl, R.F., 2012. Organic Matter Dynamics in Reclaimed Lignite Mine Soils under Robinia pseudoacacia L. Plantations of Different Ages in Germany. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 43(5), 745-755.

  2. Ameliorative properties of lignite fly ash in reclaiming saline and alkali soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalingam, P K

    1973-08-01

    Statistical analysis of the yield of rice grain and straw reveals that there is a significant increase in the yield of grain and straw due to the application of lignite fly ash over controls and application of lignite fly ash either at 5 tons or 10 tons per acre was on par with gypsum application at 5 tons/acre. Maximum yield was recorded in treatment with 5 tons of daincha plus 5 tons of lignite fly ash per acre. This is due to the combined effect of green manure and lignite fly ash. 4 references, 3 tables.

  3. Lignite utilisation for binding of radionuclides and uranium determination by adsorptive stripping chronopotentiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavodska, L.

    2010-01-01

    This work in its first part deals with non-energetic use of young brown coal - lignite. The goal of the work was to perform a complex physical and chemical characterisation of the Slovak lignite (deposit Cary) which could contribute to rts use in binding of radionuclides in the environment. The characteristics of Slovak lignite were compared to leonardite (Gascoyne, USA) and Czech lignite (the area of Mikulcice). In the samples the residual humidity was determined. as well. as the content of ashes. representation of selected inorganic (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) as well as organo-elements (C, H, N, 0, S) and crystalline forms of inorganic phase in lignite. The specific surface (BET isotherm) of lignite was determined, representation of total and free humic acids and their cation exchange capacity. The samples underwent al.so gamma-spectrometric analysis ( 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ac, 137 Cs and 60 Co). Using the radio-indicator method ( 85 Sr and 137 Cs) the kinetics of sorption of Cs + and Sr + ions in Slovak lignite was studied. The efficiency of sorption for both cations on lignite was evaluated on the basis of constructed sorption isotherms. The sorption of Cs + ions on Slovak lignite is more suitable for the Freundlich type of isotherm, in case of Sr + ions the sorption is better described by Langmuir isotherm. The results of sorption experiments on lignite in comparison with clinoptilolite and montmorillonite K-10 showed a more efficient sorption for Sr Ions. despite the more coarse-grained fraction of this matrix. This finding supports the possibility of lignite application for binding of a quite mobile radiostrontium, which may be applied for construction of radioactive waste repositories or for remediation of contaminated soils. The second part of the work deals with the development and validation of new fast and reliable electrochemical method of uranium determination in natural waters. It is based on physical adsorption of created complex of uranium

  4. Hydrogeochemical Processes Causing Persistent Low pH in Lakes within a Reclaimed Lignite Mine, East Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J. C.; Schwab, P.; Knappett, P.; Deng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Surface water pH values ranging from 2.5 to 2.6 have been reported in three lakes at a reclaimed lignite mine located in the Wilcox Formation of East Texas (the site). Traditional neutralization processes using alkaline chemicals to neutralize the surface water were found to be temporary solutions at the site. Low pH conditions usually are caused by oxidation of pyritic materials in the original tailings, but that was not always apparent based on previous studies at this site. The objective of this study is to determine factors contributing to acid seepage to aid in developing pre- and post-mining strategies to mitigate persistent acidity in surface waters at this and other sites. Mineralogy, hydrogeology, and hydrogeochemical reactions were evaluated. A network of 30 wells was used to monitor the water table and chemistry of the shallow, unconfined aquifer surrounding the lakes. Pressure transducers were deployed in 18 of these wells and each of the lakes to measure high frequency water levels over approximately one year. These water levels were contoured to visualize changing hydraulic head over time and determine the correlation in time between ground water flow directions and local rainfall events. Boreholes at 15 of the monitoring wells were continuously cored, and samples were taken at selected depth intervals based on pH measurements. XRD, SEM, and TEM were used to determine the mineralogy of select soil samples. Ion chromatography was used to determine sulfate concentration, and ICP-MS was used to determine solute concentrations from water and digested soil samples. Framboidal and microcrystalline pyrite were identified in the vadose zone in silt and clay-sized fractions; these minerals have high surface area that is conducive to rapid oxidation and acidification as ground water permeates from the vadose into the saturated zone. Morphology in addition to quantity of weatherable pyrite plays a significant role in acidification. Computer models were used to

  5. Factors of Reclamation Success at the Lignite Strip-Mined Land in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse ecological conditions at the lignite mines of Ptolemaida make the landscape reclamation difficult. The naturally established vegetation and soil properties were studied prior to reclamation. Various forest species were planted to assess the afforestation potential. The natural vegetation was heterogeneous but can be used for the analysis of the site. The soil of the spoil heaps was heterogeneous with unfavourable physicochemical properties. Surface soil temperature was still 24º C higher in bare soil than in soil covered with vegetation. The most successful species of the afforestation trial were Robinia pseudoacacia and Cedrus atlantica. Covering of fly ash spoils with topsoil presented poor results, while sewage sludge gave a favorable amelioration response in areas with high fly ash content. Topsoil from older stands was the suggested method to establish Robinia pseudoacacia. Reclamation success was dependent on appropriate planning; thus, the new landscape had to be designed in harmony with the surrounding landscape before the start of the mining activity.

  6. Auxiliary mechanisms for work to dry stripping sections of the north Cheshskiy lignite basin of the CSSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandek, J

    1979-01-01

    A brief examination is made of the employed methods for drying fields of lignite open pits: removal of water on water pumping channels, pumping out of water by mobile pump units, pumping out of water through wells (diameter 300 mm). Certain parameters of hydraulic excavators used for drying operations which are divided into three groups according to drive power are presented: 1) drive power over 100 kW (DN 101, aDN 103); 2 group drive power 50-100 kW (K 606, TMR 71, TEZM, Satur 051k, UDS 110a, UDS 113 and UDS 119 p, as well as the trench digger ER 7 am); third group drive power less than 50 kW (CASTOR 602, Poclain TY 45 and trench digger ETU 354). The expediency is indicated of unifying the hydraulic excavators based on the UDS 110 p excavator.

  7. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  8. Habitat use and food habits of snowshoe hares associated with a reclaimed strip mine in interior Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    The value of reclaimed coal stripmine spoils as snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) habitat in interior Alaska was examined. Hare density in 3 cover types (tall shrub, conifer forest, revegetated lands) was determined using the pellet plot method. Hare food habits were determined via microhistological examination of fecal material. Snowshoe hares used the tall shrub cover type more than any other habitat examined. Hare density in the shrub zone was 10/ha in winter and 18/ha in summer. Shrubs (mainly willow species) comprised the major portion of the summer diet (69%), while spruce made up 51% of the winter diet. Based on dietary data and habitat use, the long-term loss of coniferous forests and tall shrubs due to mining, and the lack of emphasis on the re-establishment of woody vegetation in present reclamation procedures; will greatly reduce and possibly eliminate snowshoe hare populations on large-scale surface coal mines in the northern boreal regions

  9. Lignite; Braunkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbach, Erwin; Maassen, Uwe [Debriv e.V., Berlin und Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The domestic lignite is the most important and in the foreseeable future, the only domestic energy resource that is available in large quantities and economically. It makes an essential contribution to secure and competitive energy supply and has a high regional as macroeconomic importance. The required guarantied capacity for the development of renewable energy, the lignite provides under competition conditions. The flexibility of the lignite power plants is in addition to security of supply and competitiveness, a strategic added value for a reliable power supply. [German] Die heimische Braunkohle ist die wichtigste und in ueberschaubarer Zukunft auch die einzige heimische Energieressource, die in grossen Mengen und wirtschaftlich zur Verfuegung steht. Sie leistet einen unverzichtbaren Beitrag zur sicheren und wettbewerbsfaehigen Energieversorgung und hat eine hohe regional- wie gesamtwirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Die fuer den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien notwendige gesicherte Leistung stellt die Braunkohle unter Wettbewerbsbedingungen zur Verfuegung. Die Flexibilitaet des Braunkohlenkraftwerksparks ist neben Versorgungssicherheit und Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit ein strategischer Zusatznutzen fuer eine sichere Stromversorgung.

  10. Powerful boost for Indian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) of India has begun the first phase of an expansion program that will open a second mine and boost lignite production in Tamil Nadu to nearly five times its present level within the next 15 years. Mining conditions at Neyveli are particularly difficult. The harsh abrasive overburden strata present severe and strenuous conditions; sticky and marshy surface clays, the presence of groundwater aquifers, the cyclonic and monsoonal climate and high stripping ratios are other problems. The overburden is drilled and blasted; in areas of sticky topsoil, non-stick liners for the buckets etc. are used. Adequate safeguards and infrastructure are being developed to deal with differing strata conditions. The conveyor transport system features slow, wider belt conveyors, changeover from fixed type roller to freely hanging garland type, interlinking of benches and specially designed drive heads. The groundwater aquifers are continuously depressurized by grid pumping from a series of pumps; boreholes have been sunk to 120 m.

  11. Lignite in North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the lignite industry are working together in a partnership called the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program provides funds and supports activities which: preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Since 1987, 70 grants totaling $24 million have been awarded. Each program dollar has resulted in nearly five of matching dollars. These program investments have yielded returns for the state and industry, including an additional $20 million annually from by-products at the Great Plains Synfuels Plant; about $1 million annually from improved reclamation practices; and combustion options, which preserve 2,000 megawatts of existing generation capacity. Research activities have identified future opportunities, including: the SynCoal demonstration plant, requiring 800,000 tons per year of new production; new chemical feedstock by-products from Great Plains worth an additional $26 million annually; revised reclamation practices that could substantially reduce cost; and potential new markets for upgraded lignite of about 12 million tons annually. This program helps ensure a healthy future for the North Dakota lignite industry, which currently represents 10% of the state's total economic base. Such a program is important because it will encourage the development of new and better uses of North Dakota's most abundant resource--lignite coal

  12. Appraisal of Hydrologic Information Needed in Anticipation of Lignite Mining in Lauderdale County, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William Scott

    1981-01-01

    Lignite in western Tennessee occurs as lenses or beds at various stratigraphic horizons in the Coastal Plain sediments of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The occurrence of this lignite has been known for many decades, but not until the energy crisis was it considered an important energy resource. In recent years, several energy companies have conducted extensive exploration programs in western Tennessee, and tremendous reserves of lignite have been found. From available information, Lauderdale County was selected as one of the counties where strip-mining of lignite will most likely occur. Lignite in this county occurs in the Jackson and Cockfield Formations, undivided, of Tertiary age. The hydrology of the county is known only from regional studies and the collection of some site-specific data. Therefore, in anticipation of the future mining of lignite, a plan is needed for obtaining hydrologic and geologic information to adequately define the hydrologic system before mining begins and to monitor the effects of strip-mining once it is begun. For this planning effort, available hydrologic, geologic, land use, and associated data were located and compiled; a summary description of the surface and shallow subsurface hydrologic system was prepared: the need for additional baseline hydrologic information was outlined; and plans to monitor the effects of strip-mining were proposed. This planning approach, although limited to a county area, has transferability to other Coastal Plain areas under consideration for strip-mining of lignite.

  13. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  14. Catalytic cracking of lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.; Nowak, S.; Naegler, T.; Zimmermann, J. [Hochschule Merseburg (Germany); Welscher, J.; Schwieger, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany); Hahn, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    A most important factor for the chemical industry is the availability of cheap raw materials. As the oil price of crude oil is rising alternative feedstocks like coal are coming into focus. This work, the catalytic cracking of lignite is part of the alliance ibi (innovative Braunkohlenintegration) to use lignite as a raw material to produce chemicals. With this new one step process without an input of external hydrogen, mostly propylene, butenes and aromatics and char are formed. The product yield depends on manifold process parameters. The use of acid catalysts (zeolites like MFI) shows the highest amount of the desired products. Hydrogen rich lignites with a molar H/C ratio of > 1 are to be favoured. Due to primary cracking and secondary reactions the ratio between catalyst and lignite, temperature and residence time are the most important parameter to control the product distribution. Experiments at 500 C in a discontinuous rotary kiln reactor show yields up to 32 wt-% of hydrocarbons per lignite (maf - moisture and ash free) and 43 wt-% char, which can be gasified. Particularly, the yields of propylene and butenes as main products can be enhanced four times to about 8 wt-% by the use of catalysts while the tar yield decreases. In order to develop this innovative process catalyst systems fixed on beads were developed for an easy separation and regeneration of the used catalyst from the formed char. (orig.)

  15. Neyveli lignite - a status overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-14

    The lignite mines of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation in Tamil Nadu in India are described: characteristics of the deposit; choice of mining method (surface mining); groundwater control; storm water control; overburden removal; mining equipment (bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyors and spreaders); generation of electric power; production of fertilizer; production of lignite briquettes and tar products. A second mine and thermal power plant are planned.

  16. Hydrologic modeling of reclaimed strip mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, K.B.; Stoertz, M.W.; Turney, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical groundwater flow model (MODFLOW) of a surface coal mine in southeast Ohio was calibrated under steady state conditions to match measured heads by varying hydraulic conductivity (K) and recharge (R). Sensitivity studies indicated that K was not largely dependent on the poorly quantified underclay elevation or on the lake boundary condition. The baseflow recharge was determined to be between 8 and 60 mm/yr (1 to 6% of annual rainfall) and K between 0.004 and 0.01 cm/s for the spoil aquifer

  17. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  18. The North Dakota lignite partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    The State of North Dakota and the Lignite Energy Council have formed a government/industry partnership to promote the use of North Dakota lignite. The partnership provides funding and management for the Lignite Research, Development and Marketing Program. The program funds activities which preserve and enhance jobs and lignite production; ensure economic growth, stability and opportunity; and maintain a stable and competitive tax base. Funding is provided for activities in three areas: marketing feasibility studies, small research projects, and demonstration projects. Funding is derived from the state coal severance tax. Approximately $3,000,000 annually is appropriated from coal severance revenues for program activities. North Dakota is the ninth largest coal producing state, with lignite as the only rank of coal found in the state. Energy is the second largest economic sector in North Dakota, and it currently comprises over 12% of the state's total economic base. This paper reviews the North Dakota lignite industry and describes studies and projects which have received funding from the program

  19. Reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.; Wald, J.D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Uraniferous lignite deposits were mined from 1955 to 1967 by surface mining techniques. Overburden was stripped, and the lignite was burned to concentrate the uranium in its ash. Uranium salts in the overburden gave exposure levels of as much as 500 microroentgens/hour; water in mine pits had U concentrations from 12 to 19,000 micrograms/liter. Reclamation involved replacing the spoils into the source pit, the most contaminated spoils being placed above the water table, capping the pit with clay then topsoil containing lesser concentrations of radioactive elements, and finally planting with prairie grass. Resulting concentrations of radionuclides are given. The land is expected to remain as prairie for wildlife use, but it is safe enough for domestic animals as well. 3 figures

  20. Evaluation of lignite tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossedin, A

    1946-01-01

    Tar from the low-temperature (450/sup 0/) carbonization of lignite from Bouches-du-Rhone was hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst based on MoS/sub 2/ with a 3:1 H:N mixture. Processing (at 470/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) for maximum production of gasoline yielded 86 wt % of a product of boiling 55 to 186/sup 0/ and motor octane number 75. An alternative is to hydrogenate with a view to producing solvents and lubricants. For this purpose the tar was separated by distillation (at 20 millimeters, cutting at 220/sup 0/) into two fractions of equal volume. On hydrogenation (at 300/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) the light part yields a gasoline H/sub 2/O-soluble cut, a highly aromatic solvent fraction, a heavier cut (280/sup 0/ to 320/sup 0/) suitable as a plasticizer, and a phenol fraction. The heavier part of the tar is hydrogenated (at 380/sup 0/ and 400 atmospheres) to give spindle oil and lubricating oil of medium eta (11.2 centistokes at 98.2/sup 0/), moderate eta index (64), good pour point (-7/sup 0/), and good oxidizing characteristics. The overall yield of products from the two portions is 86.9% (gasoline and solvent 32, light phenols 9.7, spindle oil 14.2, medium lubricating oil 25.7, wax, 5.3%).

  1. Recovery of uranium from lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium in raw lignite is associated with the organic matter and is readily soluble in acid (and carbonate) solutions. However, beneficiation techniques were not successful for concentrating the uranium or removing part of the reagent-consuming materials. Once the lignite was heated, the uranium became much less soluble in both acid and carbonate solutions, and complete removal of carbon was required to convert it back to a soluble form. Proper burning improves acid-leaching efficiency; that is, it reduces the reagent consumption and concentrates the uranium, thereby reducing plant size for comparable uranium throughput, and it eliminates organic fouling of leach liquors. Restrictions are necessary during burning to prevent the uranium from becoming refractory. The most encouraging results were obtained by flash-burning lignite at 1200 to 1300 0 C and utilizing the released SO 2 to supplement the acid requirement. The major acid consumers were aluminum and iron

  2. Overview of Neyveli lignite complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The growth and development of the Neyveli lignite complex in Tamil Nadu, India are discussed. A second lignite mine is being developed together with a second thermal power station and erection of transmission lines between Neyveli-Salem and Neyveli-Red Hills is under way. The contribution of power to Tamil Nadu has grown into an extremely valuable asset; exports have risen by 71% in the four years leading up to 1984 and company turn-over has increased 164% over the same period. Performance during 1983-84 is analysed in terms of production figures, productivity and capacity utilisation.

  3. Expansion of Neyveli lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes activities at Neyveli lignite mines in the Tamil Nadu region of India. The equipment used, in mining and materials handling is described. Problems encountered in the conveyor transport system are described, and the solutions finally adopted are presented.

  4. Macedonian lignite - upgrading and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musich, Mark A.; Young, Brian C.

    1997-01-01

    Macedonian lignites have a high moisture content, low heating value, and are friable, generating fines and dust. Macedonia has an urgent need to use indigenous solid fuel resources for domestic and industrial heating as well as metallurgical applications. The goal of this project was to evaluate the potential for beneficiating Macedonian lignite and producing high-quality briquettes for metallurgical use as well as domestic/industrial heating. Laboratory studies have shown that treating the Macedonian lignite fines by two physical processes-cleaning and carbonization-followed by pelletizing. can generate acceptable lump fuels for heating applications. Carbonizing the float-sink-cleaned lignite to reduce the volatile matter content and pelletizing the resultant char with starch produced strong pellets, which could be used as a home-heating fuel, the char having a heat content of 13,400 Btu/lb (31.2 MJ/Kg). However, additional work is required at the pilot scale to determine optimum briquetting conditions and production costs. (Author)

  5. Raptor use of revegetated coal strip mine spoils in interior Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Raptors associated with reclaimed coal strip mine spoils on the Usibelli Coal Mine in southcentral Alaska were observed in 1981 and 1982. Of the 10 raptor species identified on the mine, 6 (red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, Northern harrier, American kestrel, hawk owl, and short-eared owl) were observed hunting on the reclaimed areas

  6. Lignite mining in India - technology highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-01-01

    Figures for lignite production and its role in the Indian energy scene are presented. Lignite mining at Neyveli is described in detail, including: advance preparation of the overburden strata; modifications to bucket wheel excavators; tackling the sticky surface clays; ground water management; storm water control; tackling higher overburden-to-lignite ratios; materials handling; communications within the mine; the development of indigenous mining equipment; and ecology and environmental control.

  7. Treatment of lignite tars, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-08-07

    A process is described for treating tars such as lignite tar, shale tar, or peat tar, and similar tars, characterized by the fact that the tar is rectified to about 240/sup 0/C and the residue brought to a temperature above 50/sup 0/C after diluting with a product of the type of gasoline or ligroin at about 30/sup 0/C and treated with selective solvents preferably low-boiling phenols and eventually with water.

  8. THE COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGNITE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Cao Xinyu; Cen Kefa

    2000-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of lignite blends were studied with a thermogravimetric analyzer (t.g.a.), at constant heating rate.The characteristic temperatures were determined from the burning profiles.It was found that the characteristic times of combustion reaction moved forward, the ignition temperature dropped and the burnout efficiency slightly changed when blending lignites.The characteristic parameters of blends could not be predicted as a linear function of the average values of the individual lignites.when blending with less reactive coal, the ignition and burnout characteristics of lignite turned worse.

  9. Lignite boost for North. [Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerkin, H.

    1986-01-01

    Reserves of lignite, estimated at around 500 million tonnes, have been discovered on the shores of Lough Neagh, Northern Ireland. The Government has granted a mining licence and planning permission to Burnett and Hallamshire Holdings to start work on the deposit. It is proposed to mine the lignite using opencast methods. Much of this deposit will be consumed in a purpose-built mine mouth power station with further reserves being dried in the approved processing plant to produce a range of industrial and domestic fuels. Carbonising the lignite may eliminate pollution. However, large scale investment will be required before Ireland's economy can switch to lignite.

  10. Distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, V.; Ragupathy, S.; Parthipan, B.; Rani, D.B.R.; Mahadevan, A.

    1991-12-31

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorhizzal (VAM) status was assessed for coal, lignite and calcite mine spoils. The three study sites were: The Kothagudem coal field in the south central region where waste materials are piled 1 to 2 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from plants growing on the waste. Neyveli, on the southeastern coast, is a lignite coal mine where the spoil is piled 70 to 100 m high on the soil surface. Samples were collected from recently revegetated mine spoil and from 25 year old revegetated sites. The calcite mine at Thazhaiyuthu in the south where the spoil is piled up 2 to 3 m on the soil surface. Samples were collected from 4 to 7 year old reclaimed sites. The wastes generally supported different plant species. The level of VAM infection of plants was markedly different in each mine spoil, with the maximum infection in the coal and calcite spoils, and the least in the lignite spoil. There was more infection in the 25 year old lignite spoil than in the newly revegetated spoil. There were different VAM species in each spoil, and no one species was present in all of the samples. The authors conclude that one of the factors leading to the differences between spoils is the amount of topsoil contained in the spoil (least in the lignite spoils which are very deep). The other is age of the spoils. Unfortunately the authors concluded that the best approach is to enrich the spoils with VAM rather than salvaging and replacing topsoil

  11. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  12. French pollution and German lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that the German energy transition is based on a complete shutting down of nuclear power stations to replace them by renewable energy sources on the one hand, and by coal (lignite, i.e. the dirtiest coal) and gas on the other hand to compensate the intermittency of the former ones, this article notices that pollution peaks occurred in France when an eastern of north-eastern wind was blowing, and not in case of western wind. The author then wanders whether this pollution comes from Germany, and more particularly from the releases of lignite-fuelled power stations. Then, the author comments the high level of pollution associated with coal extraction and exploitation in Germany, causing thousands of deaths and resulting in lung diseases or cancers, myocardial infractions. The author then makes a parallel between, on the one hand, the ignorance of this German pollution and, on the other hand, evacuation measures around Fukushima for a radioactivity which the author considers as less dangerous in terms of life expectancy

  13. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  14. Production of rubbly culm coke from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Kohleverarbeitung; Kurtz, R [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Frechen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Verkokung und Chemie

    1977-08-01

    The article deals with the coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth, and describes the coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from lignite.

  15. Expansion of the Neyveli lignite mine, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasturi, T S [Neyveli Lignite Corp. Ltd., Tamil Nadu (India); Streck, W [Gold (O.) G.m.b.H. und Co. K.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    After giving a picture of the difficult winning conditions at the Neyveli open-cast lignite mine, the author states the reasons for the expansions of the open-cast mine and describes the necessary measures and machinery.

  16. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  17. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  18. Characterisation of lignite as an industrial adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying Qi; Andrew F.A. Hoadley; Alan L. Chaffee; Gil Garnier [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2011-04-15

    An alternative use of the abundant and inexpensive lignite (also known as brown coal) as an industrial adsorbent has been characterised. The adsorptive properties of two Victorian lignite without any pre-treatment were investigated using the cationic methylene blue dye as a model compound in aqueous solutions. Two commercial activated carbon products were also studied for comparison. The adsorption equilibrium of the four adsorbents was better described by the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacities of the two untreated lignite adsorbents, Loy Yang and Yallourn, calculated using Langmuir isotherms were 286 and 370 mg/g, respectively, higher than a coconut shell-based activated carbon (167 mg/g), but lower than a coal-based activated carbon (435 mg/g). Surface area results suggested that larger micropores and mesopores were important for achieving good methylene blue adsorption by the activated carbons. However, FTIR and cation exchange capacity analyses revealed that, for the lignite, chemical interactions between lignite surface functional groups and methylene blue molecules occurred, thereby augmenting its adsorption capacity. 63 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Lignite As Contributory Factor to Regional Development of Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Kordas

    2006-01-01

    Lignite (brown coal) is Greece's most important energy mineral raw material. Lignite exploitation has made a highly significant contribution to the development of energy sector of Greece on past 50 years, and will, according to estimations, continue to supply energy for another 40 years. Greece is very rich in Lignite resources. The two main basins - from where Lignite is extracted by opencast mining - are a) in Western Macedonia (northen Greece) where is generated the 70% of the whole electr...

  20. Technology and use of lignite. Proceedings of the tenth biennial lignite symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kube, W. R.; Gronhovd, G. H. [comps.

    1979-01-01

    The symposium on the technology and use of lignite was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the University of North Dakota, and held at Grand Forks, North Dakota, May 30-31, 1979. Twenty-one papers from the proceedings of this tenth biennial lignite symposium have been entered into EDB and ERA and three also into EAPA. The papers discuss lignite deposits in the USA, mining plans, gasification and in-situ gasification, and combustion in fossil-fuel power plants. (LTN)

  1. Low-temperature carbonization plant for lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiotsuki, Y

    1949-01-01

    The design and operational data of a low-temperature carbonization plant for Japanese lignite are described. The retort had a vertical cylinder with a capacity of about 10 tons per day. By continuous operation, in which a part of the gas produced was circulated and burned in the lignite zone, about 40 percent semicoke and 3 to 4 percent tar were obtained. From the tar the following products were separated: Low-temperature carbonization cresol, 18.3; motor fuel, 1.00; solvent, 9.97; cresol for medical uses, 11.85; and creosote oil, 32 percent.

  2. Combustion of uraniferous lignites in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, G.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a description of the continuous fluid bed combustion pilot plant unit, installed in the Junta de Energia Nuclear facilities, is presented. Besides, this paper deals with some of the studies carried out in the pilot plant aimed at the recovery of uranium from lignites, high in sulfur and ashes, coming from Calaf basin (Barcelona). These studies include the recovery of the heating value of these lignites and the reduction of environmental effect of SO 2 . Based on these studies an application exercise is presented. 9 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. Reclaiming Accountability in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Carney, Molly Cummings; Keefe, Elizabeth Stringer; Burton, Stephani; Chang, Wen-Chia; Fernández, M. Beatriz; Miller, Andrew F.; Sánchez, Juan Gabriel; Baker, Megina

    2018-01-01

    Teacher accountability has been a major strategy for "fixing" education for the last 2 decades. In this book, Cochran-Smith and her research team argue that it is time for teacher educators to reclaim accountability by adopting a new approach that features intelligent professional responsibility, challenges the structures and processes…

  4. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  5. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  6. Rapid restoration after lignite mining in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The 30th anniversary of the commencement of large scale lignite production by opencast mining in Hungary was celebrated in 1987. A process of rapid technical and biological reclamation without the use of humus has now been developed. The costs involved are only 5-10% of those of conventional methods and reclamation cycle is four years compared to ten years for conventional methods.

  7. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  8. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  9. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussios, E.; Koikouzas, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 10 9 t) and Greece (4.0 x 10 9 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  10. Sustainable Mining Land Use for Lignite Based Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Michal; Krysa, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    This research aims to discuss complex lignite based energy projects economic viability and its impact on sustainable land use with respect to project risk and uncertainty, economics, optimisation (e.g. Lerchs and Grossmann) and importance of lignite as fuel that may be expressed in situ as deposit of energy. Sensitivity analysis and simulation consist of estimated variable land acquisition costs, geostatistics, 3D deposit block modelling, electricity price considered as project product price, power station efficiency and power station lignite processing unit cost, CO2 allowance costs, mining unit cost and also lignite availability treated as lignite reserves kriging estimation error. Investigated parameters have nonlinear influence on results so that economically viable amount of lignite in optimal pit varies having also nonlinear impact on land area required for mining operation.

  11. Production of heavy greases from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-03-18

    A process is described for the extraction of heavy greases and wagon greases and their equivalents, by separation from bitumins, resins, and waxes contained in lignite, peat, bituminous shale, fossil wax, paraffin, etc., characterized by the fact that for the extraction are used solvents of high boiling point, such as mineral oils, grease oils, tar oils, and other equivalents, which are not eliminated and at the same time constitute a part of the product obtained.

  12. Radioactivity of Yatagan lignites and their ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, F.; Mustafaev, I.; Aliyev, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of harmful factor of Environmental impact of coal combustion is radiation pollution of Environment. The natural radioisotopes - uranium, thorium and potassium and products of their radioactive destruction contains of radionuclides. These radionuclides in composition of fly ash are thrown to atmosphere from coal combustion furnaces. The concentration of radioisotopes in composition of coals changes in the wide ranges: from 3 up to 520 Becquerel per kilogram (Bq/kg) for Uranium-238 and from 3 up to 320 Bq/kg for thorium-232. The radioactive pollution degree of environment depends on radioisotopes content of initial fuels. In this connection at the estimation of outlook and exploitation of coal mines it is necessary to determine of radioisotopes concentration in coals. That is why investigation of radioisotopes concentration of Turkish lignites has great importance. In this work the radionuclide content of Yatagan lignites and their ash, taken from Gekova thermal Electro station have been studied. The total radiation background generated by these samples was investigated by using of dosimeters 8P-5, CRP-88H, PYB-OIP. Radionuclides content of samples was determined in the Institute of Geology Azerbaijan national Academy of Sciences by using of highly sensitivity gamma-spectrometer CAPU-2, designed by Special Constructor Buro G eophysika . The plant allows to determine the radioisotopes content of solid and liquid samples with highly reliability. It has been established that in sample of lignite uranium content (on the radium equivalent) is 68 Bq/kg, potassium-149 Bq/kg and thorium is absent. The total radioactivity of lignite sample is 79,7 Bq/kg. In the ash sample uranium content is 266 Bq/kg, potassium-188 Bq/kg, and total activity reach to 300 Bq/kg. The possibility of application of purification erection for radionuclides from smoke gases of coal combustion is discussed

  13. Stoichiometric calculations of combustion of Lakhra lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Ali, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Lakhra coal field is largest productive coal field of Pakistan. About 1.5 millions tonne of this coal is, annually, mined and transported daily to various parts of the country in 500 trucks each of 10 tonnes of coal. The major consumers of this coal are brick kilns located in Sindh and Punjab. It is available at Rs. 500/- per tonne at mine head. A number of attempts were made for the production of power (electricity) by foreign companies. Feasibility studies were undertaken but no one set up power plant. It may be due to inferior quality of coal as it is lignitic in nature with high ash and sulfur contents. This coal is also, very sensitive to spontaneous combustion. Spontaneous combustion is the auto-ignition of coal at ambient conditions. Hence there are storage problems. In spite of these drawbacks, a 3(50) Mega Watt (3 units of each 50 mega watt power generation capacity) power plant, based on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal technology (AFBC), was setup in early nineties. The performance of this plant remained poor. The main reasons might be poor quality of coal and limestone. Limestone is used with high sulfur Lakhra lignite, in fluidized bed combustor, to arrest sulfur of the coal, fixing sulfur as calcium sulfate to minimize hazardous emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). Spontaneous combustion of Lakhra lignite is responsible for each fire of coal and conveyor belt etc. (author)

  14. Solubilization of Australian lignites by fungi and other microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catcheside, D.E.A.; Mallett, K.J. (Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)

    Lignites (brown coals) from the Latrobe Valley in Victoria are solubilized by {ital Coriolus versicolor}, {ital Phanerochaete chrysosporium}, and five other species known to be active on Leonardite and various acid-treated North America lignites. Run-of-mine coal from Morwell and Loy Yang is refractory but is soluble after pretreatment with acid. A weathered deposit at Loy Yang, like Leonardite, is susceptible to biosolubilization without pretreatment. The white rot fungi {ital Ganoderma applanatum}, {ital Perenniporia tephropora} ({ital Fomes lividus}), {ital Pleurotus ostreatus}, {ital Pycnoporus cinnabarinus}, {ital Rigidoporus ulmarius}, and {ital Xylaria hypoxylon} were found to be capable of solubilizing lignite. In contrast, brown rot fungi were weakly active or inactive under the same test conditions. Lignite-degrading fungi, actinomycetes, and other bacteria, including some active on untreated run-of-mine coal, were isolated from natural lignite exposures and mining sites. 15 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a$1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community

  16. Future of lignite resources: a life cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingsong; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xueliang; Zheng, Xiaoning; Zuo, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Lignite is a low-quality energy source which accounts for 13 % of China's coal reserves. It is imperative to improve the quality of lignite for large-scale utilization. To further explore and analyze the influence of various key processes on the environment and economic costs, a lignite drying and compression technology is evaluated using an integrated approach of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs. Results showed that lignite mining, direct air emissions, and electricity consumption have most significant impacts on the environment. An integrated evaluation of life cycle assessment and life cycle costs showed that the most significant contributor to the environmental impacts and economic costs was the lignite mining process. The impact of transportation and wastewater treatment process on the environment and economic costs was small enough to be ignored. Critical factors were identified for reducing the environmental and economic impacts of lignite drying and compression technology. These findings provide useful inputs for both industrial practice and policy making for exploitation, processing, and utilization of lignite resources.

  17. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  18. Biosolubilization of raw and gamma irradiated lignite by trichoderma asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugoro, I.; Astuti, D.I.; Aditiawati, P.; Sasongko, D.

    2012-01-01

    Biosolubilization is a promising technology for converting solid coal to liquid oil by addition of microorganism. Aim of this research is to compare between gamma irradiated lignite (10 kGy) with raw lignite in biosolubilization by selected fungi Trichoderma asperellum. Treatments were A (MSS + gamma irradiated lignite 5% + T. asperellum) and B (MSS + raw lignite 5% + T. asperellum) with sub-merged culture. There were two parameters observed i.e. biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and metal analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The highest biosolubilization will be analyzed by FTIR and GCMS. The results showed that biosolubilization of raw lignite (B) was higher than sterilized lignite (A) based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm . The metal of lignite was decreased after incubation. FTIR analysis showed that both of treatment had similar spectra on biosolubilization products. GCMS analysis showed that both of treatment had different number of hydrocarbon, i.e. C 6 - C 35 (A) and C 10 - C 35 (B) and dominated by aromatic acids, aliphatic and phenylethers. Both of treatment product had the potency as oil substituted but its recommended to deoxygenate for higher quality. (author)

  19. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  20. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploration of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by the opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, spreaders and high-speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  1. Lignite mining in India - thirty years of rich experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, G L

    1984-11-01

    Exploitation of the huge deposits of lignite at Neyveli in Tamil Nadu commenced in 1961 by opencast method by deploying continuously operating machinery such as bucket-wheel excavators, headers and high speed belt conveyor systems. Adoption of this mining technology to suit the peculiar site conditions at Neyveli has led to many modifications in the equipment and has enriched the experience of the Neyveli Lignite Corporation. This has also made it possible for NLC to formulate schemes for exploration and exploitation of lignite deposits occurring elsewhere in the country.

  2. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F.; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignites irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000 degrees temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy doses to the normal conditions. Then differential thermal analysis was carried out both in original and the samples irradiated. Argon gas was used to make inert medium in the camera. T=200-8500 degrees temperature was selected. At the experiment done from 1000-1300 degrees temperatures too great endothermic reaction pick was begun to form by being observed thermal changings. At 3000-4200 degrees temperature exothermic reaction picks and at 7000 degrees parallel exothermic reaction picks were observed. Initial endothermic and exothermic reaction picks in five lignite samples were observed like a sharp curve. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated form exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weigh loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It has shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by

  3. Adsorption of an anionic dispersant on lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, R.; Kucukbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering Faculty

    2001-12-01

    Since coal is not a homogeneous substance but a mixture of carbonaceous materials and mineral matter, it has a variety of surface properties. Therefore, it is not easy to control the properties of coal suspensions by simply adjusting variables, such as pH and/or electrolyte. A chemical agent needs to be added to control the properties of the coal suspensions. The adsorption behavior of an anionic dispersant in the presence of a wetting agent using some Turkish lignite samples was investigated. The effects of dispersant concentration, temperature and pH on the dispersant adsorption were studied systematically, and the experimental results are presented. Pellupur B69 as a dispersant, commercial mixture of formaldehyde condensate sodium salt of naphthalene sulphonic acid, and Texapon N{sub 2}5 as a wetting agent, a sodium lauryl ether sulfate, have been used.

  4. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    As of September 28, 2001, all the major project tasks have been completed. A presentation was given to the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) and the North Dakota Division of Community Services (DCS). In general, the feasibility study has resulted in the following conclusions: (1) Municipal wood resources are sufficient to support cofiring at the NDSP. (2) Steps have been taken to address all potential fuel-handling issues with the feed system design, and the design is cost-effective. (3) Fireside issues of cofiring municipal wood with coal are not of significant concern. In general, the addition of wood will improve the baseline performance of lignite coal. (4) The energy production strategy must include cogeneration using steam turbines. (5) Environmental permitting issues are small and do not affect economics. (6) The base-case economic scenario provides for a 15-year payback of a 20-year municipal bond and does not include the broader community benefits that can be realized

  5. Differential-thermal analysis of irradiated lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chichek, F; Eyubova, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this theme our purpose is to explain thermo-differential analysis of lignite's irradiated. During experiment Caraman Ermenek (washed), Caraman Ermenek (crude), Nevshehir (crude), Slopi (crude), Trakya Harman (washed) lignite coals were used. Five of five kinds of coal samples with 3mm and 1 gr of each sample were obtained. Then they were filled into the Tubes after having dried total 25 samples with 1 gr at 1000C temperature for one hour. Air in the tubes was pumped out and closed. Coal samples in vacuum medium were irradiated by gamma rays of Co-60 at 5.5 kGy, 19.2 kGy, 65.7 kGy, 169.6 kGy, 411.2 kGy, doses to the normal conditions. At the end coal irradiated samples were compared with original coal samples. At the result of experiment it was revealed that in comparison with original coal samples coal samples irradiated from exothermic and endothermic curves at very reaction pick and temperature intervals of these pick were large. Besides loss of weight was observed to begin at low temperatures in samples irradiated and especially momentary weight loss at some heats in the rang of known temperatures was observed in the coal Slopi contain in bitumen. Because of heat the weight loss in the non irradiated samples forms parabolic curve and because of heat the weight loss in the samples irradiated forms stepped curves. It was shown that the coal irradiated can be easily departed by heat because of the chemical structure in comparison the original one.

  6. Microstructure and properties of lignite tar and pitch. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, H

    1954-01-01

    Photomicrographs reveal the presence of crystalline wax which affects the working properties in lignite tars and pitch. The crystals are large needles after slow cooling and small after rapid cooling. The crystals are paraffinic in character. All samples were nonhomogeneous. Thus the properties of lignite tar and pitch are varied by the source of the lignite and history of the specimen, neither softening point nor dropping point seems to satisfactorily characterize these tars. The samples exhibit thixotropic behavior characteristic of a structural viscosity and show hysteresis loops on varying the working rate. The variations have hindered use of lignite tars and pitches except where solubility in a solvent such as coal tar oil can be used to advantage.

  7. Role of Neyveli lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    For more than two decades, about 35% of the energy demand of Tamil Nadu, a region of southern India, has been provided by Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC). NLC was founded as a company by the Indian government in 1956 and it comprises a lignite mine, a thermal power station, a briquetting and carbonisation plant; a fertilizer plant, a process steam plant, and a clay washing plant. The extent of the Neyveli lignite field, the production capacity of the three mines, and the linkage and utilisation of lignite are all considered. Future perspective plans beyond the seventh five year plan are reviewed. The use of coke and fertilizer by the chemical industries is outlined, and ecology and environmental control are discussed.

  8. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  9. Role of Neyveli Lignite in the energy map of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasaraghavan, S

    1984-08-01

    The Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), a government undertaking, has played an important role in power generation in the southern region of India by contributing about 35% of the energy consumed in Tamil Nadu for over two decades. Performance at the Neyveli Thermal Power Station demonstrates that it is more advantageous to make additions to thermal generating capacity at Neyvili using lignite. Exploration and development of the mines can support this expansion and make the southern region a nucleus for industrial development. 2 tables.

  10. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  11. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  12. Refrigeration Playbook. Heat Reclaim; Optimizing Heat Rejection and Refrigeration Heat Reclaim for Supermarket Energy Conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Chuck [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Nelson, Eric [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Armer, James [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Johnson, Tim [CTA Architects Engineers, Boise, ID (United States); Hirsch, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doebber, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this playbook and accompanying spreadsheets is to generalize the detailed CBP analysis and to put tools in the hands of experienced refrigeration designers to evaluate multiple applications of refrigeration waste heat reclaim across the United States. Supermarkets with large portfolios of similar buildings can use these tools to assess the impact of large-scale implementation of heat reclaim systems. In addition, the playbook provides best practices for implementing heat reclaim systems to achieve the best long-term performance possible. It includes guidance on operations and maintenance as well as measurement and verification.

  13. Natural radioactivity releases from lignite power plants in Southwestern Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Guer, F.; Cam, F.; Candan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Mugla basin is one of the most productive lignite basins in Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Mining activities started in 1979 and total reserves were estimated during exploration at 767.5 million tonnes. Total mean annual lignite production of the Mugla basin is estimated at about 10 million tonnes per year. Most of the lignite production supplies three thermal power plants (Yatagan 630 MW, Yenikoey 420 MW, Kemerkoey 630 MW) with a total capacity of 1680 MW. It is well known that the lignite contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides arising from the uranium and thorium series as well as from 4 0K. Lignite burning is, therefore, one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. The investigation reported here deals with the determination of the 2 26Ra, 2 32Th and 4 0K concentrations in the lignite feeding 3 thermal power plants in Mugla region and in the product ash. Samples of lignite feeding the power plants and fly and bottom ashes produced in the same power plants were collected over a period of 1 year and therefore systematic sampling allowed for the determination of mean representative values for the natural radioactivity content of above materials and also estimation of the radioactivity releases to the environment. Furthermore, grid soil sampling within 10-15 km around the power plants allowed for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides. Dosimetric calculations from terrestrial gamma radiation for the population living around the power plants were performed based on the guidance of UNSCEAR 2000 report

  14. Selective coal mining of intercalated lignite deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, R [Kolubara-Projekt, Lazarevac (Yugoslavia)

    1991-01-01

    Describes selective coal mining in the Tamnava-Istocno Polje coal surface coal mine (Yugoslavia), designed for an annual coal production of 11.4 Mt. Until 1991, this mine exploited one thick lignite seam, without spoil intercalations, using a bucket wheel excavator-conveyor-spreader system both for coal mining and removal of overburden. In the future, several spoil intercalations of up to 1.0 m and thicker will appear with a total volume of 22 million m{sup 3}. These intercalations have to be selectively excavated in order to guarantee the calorific value of coal for the Nikola Tesla power plant. Computer calculations were carried out to determine the decrease in excavator coal production due to selective mining of spoil strata. Calculations found that the annual surface mine capacity will be lower by at most 9%, depending on thickness of spoil intercalations. The useful operation time of excavators will be reduced by 98 hours per year. The planned annual coal production will nevertheless be fulfilled. 3 refs.

  15. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse.

  16. An overview of reclaimed water reuse in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lili; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Xiaoning; Chen, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    China is facing severe water problems including scarcity and pollution which are now becoming key factors restricting developments. Creating an alternative water resource and reducing effluent discharges, water reuse has been recognized as an integral part of water and wastewater management scheme in China. The government has launched nationwide efforts to optimize the benefits of utilizing reclaimed water. This article reviewed the water reuse activities in China, including: (1) application history and current status; (2) potentials of reclaimed water reuse; (3) laws, policies and regulations governing reclaimed water reuse; (4) risks associated with reclaimed water reuse; (5) issues in reclaimed water reuse. Reclaimed water in Beijing and Tianjin were given as examples. Suggestions for improving the efficiencies of reusing urban wastewater were advanced. Being the largest user of reclaimed wastewater in the world, China's experience can benefit the development of water reuse in other regions.

  17. Bacterial community composition in reclaimed and unreclaimed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was conducted to compare the microbial community structures between contaminated and reclaimed mine tailings of Dexing copper mine, Jiangxi province, China. Sample T1 was obtained from tailings site, where reclamation of phytostabilization has been conducted for 20 years successfully whereas, the ...

  18. Use of INAA for investigation of emission of elements in combustion of Polish lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Loska, L.; Pohorecki, W.; Wagner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied for the determination of trace elements content in samples of Polish lignite and its ash. Pairs of results, for lignite and ash, and respective ash contents were used for calculation of the percentage of element remaining in ash after the lignite combustion. (author)

  19. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  20. The thar lignite project in the Sindh province, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, L. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mining Dept., Koeln (Germany); Dittrich, W. [RWE Power International, RE GmbH, Mechanical and Electrical Dept., Koeln (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    A prospective area of the known lignite deposit located in the Thar region was investigated with regard to the future development of an opencast mine. For this purpose, a bankable feasibility study was prepared that evaluates all relevant facts and additional exploration activities. The study includes among others: Geological report; Opencast mine planning; Equipment and infrastructure planning; Assessment of staff requirements; Conceptual design of the power station; Anticipation of environmental aspects; Bankable costing for lignite mining and power generation. In conclusion, the development of an opencast mine and the construction of a 1000 MW power station are feasible in technical and economic terms. For the mine, the shovel/truck method was proposed since it offers cost advantages. For the power station, a closed cooling circuit and pre-drying of the lignite was recommended due to water shortage in the Thar desert. The resulting prices for power generation are usual market costs in Pakistan. (orig.)

  1. Prairie revegetation of a strip mine in Illinois: fifteen years after establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, E.A.; Anderson, R.C.; Rodgers, C.S. [Illinois State University, Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1996-12-01

    The long-term success of prairie planting on a former strip mine in northeastern Illinois was investigated. The site was reclaimed and planted with prairie species in the 1970s. Total biomass increased over time, largely as a result of an increase in biomass of non-prairie species. Biomass of prairie species remained unchanged because of an increase in Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) offsetting decreases in Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass).

  2. Transformation of heavy metals in lignite during supercritical water gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guifang; Yang, Xinfei; Chen, Shouyan; Dong, Yong; Cui, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Xiqiang; Ma, Chunyuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The transformations of heavy metals during lignite SCWG were investigated. • The risks of heavy metals in lignite and residues after SCWG were evaluated. • The effects of experimental conditions on corrosion during SCWG were studied. - Abstract: Transformation characteristics of heavy metals during lignite supercritical water gasification (SCWG) were studied. A sequential extraction procedure (modified Tessier method) was used to selectively extract different fractions of Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Heavy metals transformed into more stable fractions after SCWG. For Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn, SCWG reduced the bioavailability and the risks posed by heavy metals in lignite. Under the experimental conditions, the conversion rates for Pb and Cd were 16.0%–25.2% and 16.3%–23.4%, respectively, whereas those for Mn, Cu, and Zn were much lower. Solid products enriched with Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were obtained after SCWG; the contents of these metals varied slightly in the liquid products under different experimental conditions. Excess Cr and Ni that did not originate from lignite were found in the residues, owing to reactor corrosion during lignite SCWG. Higher temperatures alleviated corrosion, whereas higher pressures and equivalence ratios (ER) had the opposite effect. None of the heavy metals were detected in the gas phase under the experimental conditions used in the present study. The correlation between the distributions of heavy metals and the experimental conditions were also studied. The transformation pathways of Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn during SCWG were deduced according to the experimental results.

  3. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION METHODS IN LIGNITE POWER PLANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos J. Christopher; Sakiltzis Christos; Rovas C. Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    The green house effect is a very pressing issue of our times due to the big impact it will have in the future of life in our planet. The temperature increase of the earth which is the major impact of the greenhouse effect may change forever the climate and the way of life in many countries. It may lead to the reduction of agricultural production and at the end to famine, in several nations. The minimization of CO2 emissions and the introduction of new energy sources is the only solution to the catastrophe that is coming if inaction prevails. The objective of this work is to analyze the methods of the CO2 removal from the flue gases of power plants that use solid fuels. It is especially fit to the Greek conditions where the main fuel used is lignite. Three methods have been examined and compared thermodynamically. These are: (a) Removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream by absorption, (b) The combustion of lignite with pure oxygen and (c) The gasification of lignite. The lignite used in the analysis is the Greek lignite, produced at the Western Macedonia mines. The power plant, before carbon sequestration, has an efficiency of 39%, producing 330MW of electric power. After sequestration, the CO2 is compressed to pressures between 80-110 atm, before its final disposal. In the first method, the sequestration of CO2 is done utilizing a catalyst. The operation requires electricity and high thermal load which is received from low pressure steam extracted from the turbines. Additionally, electricity is required for the compression of the CO2 to 100 bars. This leads to a lower efficiency of the power plant by by 13%. In the second method, the lignite combustion is done with pure O2 produced at an air separation unit. The flue gasses are made up of CO2 and water vapor. This method requires electricity for carbon dioxide compression and the Air Separation unit, thus, the power plant efficiency is lowered by 26%. In the lignite gasification method, the products are a mixture of

  4. The Evaluation Of Waste Plastic Burned With Lignite And Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    DURANAY, Neslihan; YILGIN, Melek

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the combustion behavior of pellets prepared from binary and triple blends of waste plastic, biomass and lignite was investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system. Market bags as plastic waste and the furniture factory waste powder as a source of biomass and Bingöl Karlıova coal as a lignite were used. The effect of process temperature and the plastic mixing ratio on the combustion behavior of pellets was studied. Combustion data obtained from varied bed temperature...

  5. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  6. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  7. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  8. Degradation/solubilization of Chinese lignite by Penicillium sp. P6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.L.; Yang, J.S.; Wang, F.Q.; Chen, W.X. [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of Agro-Microbial Resource and Application, Ministry of Agrio, College of Biological Science

    2006-01-15

    Penicillium sp. P6, isolated from coal mine soil at the Qiantong colliery Liaoning Province, Northeast China, can degrade Chinese lignite in 36 h on a plate colony and in 48 h using a 4-day cultured cell-free filtrate. Results of elemental analysis and IR spectrometry indicated that solubilized products exhibited some alterations in comparison to the original lignite. The amount of fulvic acid extracted from the biodegraded lignite was high, and the molecular distribution of the humic acids from biodegraded lignite changed distinctively in comparison to which extracted from the control lignite, possibly due to the depolymerization associated with fungal biodegradation.

  9. Lignite mining and electricity generation in Poland: The current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widera, Marek; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Ptak, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    This opinion paper presents the current state and future scenarios of Polish lignite mining. For many years, over 1/3 of domestic electricity, that is about 53–55 TWh, has been generated by lignite-fired power plants. Currently, with 63–66 million tons of extraction, Poland is the fourth lignite producer worldwide and the second in the European Union. There are three possible scenarios for the development of lignite mining in Poland by 2050. Unfortunately, despite the huge lignite resources, amounting to more than 23.5 billion tons, and great potential of the mining industry, the future of Polish lignite mining does not look optimistic from the economic point of view. This is associated with social and environmental problems, including the European Union's climate and energy policy. However, this may change in the event of a global economic crisis and unstable geopolitical conditions. Therefore, a new energy doctrine for Poland at least by 2050 is urgently needed. - Highlights: •Poland is one of the leaders in lignite production in the European Union. •Energy policy in Poland assumes a key role of lignite in energy mix. •Almost one-third of Polish electricity is currently generated from lignite. •For Polish lignite mining exist pessimistic, realistic and optimistic scenarios. •Extraction of lignite in Poland will gradually decrease in the coming decades.

  10. Determination of ash-forming elements in lignite coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, C.; Werner, G.; Vogt, J.; Just, G.

    1990-01-01

    The most important methods are discussed suitable for the determination of ash-forming elements in coal. In this connection questions of the concentrations of elements in lignites, of the sample preparation, and of the selection of methods for the determination of ash-forming elements are addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different analysis techniques are shown using concrete examples. (author)

  11. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light

  12. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  13. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  14. Trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming of lignite and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Anthony P. Roskilly [Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research

    2009-10-15

    A technical investigation of an innovative trigeneration integrated with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) of lignite and biomass is carried out using the ECLIPSE process simulator. The system includes an internal combustion engine, an AER gasifier, a waste heat recovery and storage unit and an absorption refrigerator. The whole system is operated in the following sequence: The AER gasifier is used to generate hydrogen using lignite and biomass; the hydrogen generated is used to run the engine which drives a generator to produce electricity. Additionally, the heat recovery unit collects waste heat from the engine and is used to supply hot water and space heating. Furthermore, the waste heat is used to operate the absorption refrigerator. The electricity, heat and cooling can be used to meet the energy requirements for the households in a village, a resident building or a commercial building, or a supermarket. Within the study, the effects of lignite mixed with three different types of biomass (straw, willow and switch grass) on the system performance are investigated and the results are compared. The results show that it is feasible to use an AER system to reform the low quality fuels lignite and biomass to generate a cleaner fuel - hydrogen to replace fossil fuels (diesel or natural gas) and to fuel an engine based trigeneration system; the system works with high efficiencies and with a potential of carbon capture from the sorbent-regeneration process that would benefit the environment. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Radon measurements concerning engineering-geological problems in lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinicke, J

    1986-07-01

    Radon measurements have been carried out by the aid of solid-state track detectors at the highwall of a lignite mine in order to forecast the eventual course of a landslide. The measured radon distributions and their changes as a function of time indicated that the slope was geodynamically active, but it was not possible to forecast the rate of sliding.

  16. About the use and treatment of reclaimed wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Galvin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Demand of water in our actual society is increasing each day. Taking into account the irregular climatic situation experienced in a lot of zones of Spain, it is necessary to use all the available resources. Among the conventional resources of sweet waters (surface and underground), we must pay attention to the desalted waters and to the reclaimed wastewater. In this way, the practical use of reclaimed wastewater must be supported in three basic items: normative about reusing of reclaimed wastewater, that of treated wastewater and effluents discarded to natural environment and finally, treatment processes to reclaim wastewater. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  18. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  19. Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouridis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO 2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change

  20. Organic petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical features of the Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits, NW Macedonia, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Ave. 357-359, GR-15231 Halandri, Athens (Greece); Kalaitzidis, Stavros P. [Geological Services, BHP Billiton Mitsubishi Alliance, Central Queensland Office, Peak Downs Mine, Moranbah, QLD 4744 (Australia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-09-01

    The Achlada and Mavropigi lignite deposits in northern Greece provide the main coal source for the next generation of Greek power plants. A comparative characterization of these two lignite deposits is presented, covering the coal rank and the features of the maceral components, based on detailed coal petrography, and the mineralogical and geochemical features of the coals and their ashes, based on XRF and XRD analyses. The data are used to interpret the palaeoenvironments of the lignite beds, as well as factors that may affect their burnout behavior. Both deposits have a lignite C rank. The Mavropigi lignite is mainly a matrix lignite lithotype, whereas the Achlada deposit consists both of matrix and xylite-rich lithotypes. The Achlada lignite was formed in a fluviatile environment, mainly in the abandoned channels of a meandering river system during flooding periods; hence it is enriched in inorganic matter, with ash values > 30 wt.%. The Mavropigi lignite formed in a reed-marsh environment under limno-telmatic conditions, and displays ash values < 30 wt.%. The inorganic matter of the two deposits is different in composition due to the contrasting environments, and these differences should be taken into account in optimizing their utilization for power production. A preliminary assessment indicates that the Achlada lignite may have more favorable slagging and fouling properties than the Mavropigi lignite, although experimental studies are required for more solid conclusions to be reached. (author)

  1. Influence of chemical structure on carbon isotope composition of lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Lee, Insung; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Mungunchimeg, Batsaikhan

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, a number of studies on carbon isotopes in terrestrial organic matter (OM) have been carried out and used to determine changes in paleoatmospheric δ13C value as well as assisting in paleoclimate analysis. Coal is abundant terrestrial OM. However, application of its δ13C value is very limited, because the understanding of changes in isotopic composition during coalification is relatively insufficient. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the chemical structure on the carbon isotope composition of lignite. Generally, lignite has more complex chemical structures than other higher rank coal because of the existence of various types of oxygen-containing functional groups that are eliminated at higher rank level. A total of sixteen Lower Cretaceous lignite samples from Baganuur mine (Mongolia) were studied by ultimate, stable carbon isotope and solid-state 13C CP/MAS NMR analyses. The carbon contents of the samples increase with increase in depth, whereas oxygen content decreases continuously. This is undoubtedly due to normal coalification process and also consistent with solid state NMR results. The δ13C values of the samples range from -23.54‰ to -21.34‰ and are enriched in 13C towards the lowermost samples. Based on the deconvolution of the NMR spectra, the ratios between carbons bonded to oxygen (60-90 ppm and 135-220 ppm) over carbons bonded to carbon and hydrogen (0-50 ppm and 90-135 ppm) were calculated for the samples. These correlate well with δ13C values (R2 0.88). The results indicate that the δ13C values of lignite are controlled by two mechanisms: (i) depletion in 13C as a result of loss of isotopically heavy oxygen-bounded carbons and (ii) enrichment in 13C caused by a loss of isotopically light methane from aliphatic and aromatic carbons. At the rank of lignite, coal is enriched in 13C because the amount of isotopically heavy CO2 and CO, released from coal as a result of changes in the chemical

  2. Bio-solubilization of Chinese lignite II: extra-cellular protein analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiu-xiang; Pan, Lan-ying; Shi, Kai-yi; Chen-hui; Yin, Su-dong; Luo, Zhen-fu [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-05-15

    A white rot fungus strain, Trichoderma sp. AH, was isolated from rotten wood in Fushun and used to study the mechanism of lignite bio-solubilization. The results showed that nitric acid pretreated Fushun lignite was solubilized by T. sp. AH and that extracellular proteins from T. sp. AH were correlated with the lignite bio-solubilization results. In the presence of Fushun lignite the extracellular protein concentration from T. sp. AH was 4.5 g/L while the concentration was 3 g/L in the absence of Fushun lignite. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the extracelular proteins detected at least four new protein bands after the T. sp. AH had solubilized the lignite. Enzyme color reactions showed that extracelular proteins from T. sp. AH mainly consisted of phenol-oxidases, but that lignin decomposition enzymes such as laccase, peroxidase and manganese peroxidases were not present. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion testing of North Dakota lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goblirsch, G; Vander Molen, R H; Wilson, K; Hajicek, D

    1980-05-01

    The sulfur retention by the inherent alkali, and added limestone sorbent, perform about the same and are reasonably predictable within a range of about +-10% retention by application of alkali to sulfur ratio. Temperature has a substantial effect on the retention of sulfur by the inherent alkali or limestone. The temperature effect is not yet fully understood but it appears to be different for different coals and operational conditions. The emission of SO/sub 2/ from the fluid bed burning the Beulah lignite sample used for these tests can be controlled to meet or better the current emission standards. The injection of limestone to an alkali-to-sulfur molar ratio of 1.5 to 1, should lower the SO/sub 2/ emissions below the current requirement of 0.6 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu to 0.4 lb SO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu, a safe 33% below the standard. Agglomeration of bed material, and consequent loss of fluidization quality can be a problem when burning high sodium lignite in a silica bed. There appears, however, to be several ways of controlling the problem including the injection of calcium compounds, and careful control of operating conditions. The heat transfer coefficients measured in the CPC and GFETC tests are comparable to data obtained by other researchers, and agree reasonably well with empirical conditions. The NO/sub x/ emissions measured in all of the tests on Beulah lignite are below the current New Source Performance Standard of 0.5 lb NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu input. Combustion efficiencies for the Beulah lignite are generally quite high when ash recycle is being used. Efficiencies in the range of 98% to 99%+ have been measured in all tests using this fuel.

  4. Australian opencast-lignite mine Yallourn; Der australische Braunkohlentagebau Yallourn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koscierski, Marcin; Goerlich, Michael [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I

    2009-01-15

    This article is about the open pit lignite mine Yallourn, located 150 km southeast of Melbourne (Figure 1). It focuses on the history, the geology and the environment. Furthermore, it describes the new mining method using large carry dozers. The open pit and the power plant are owned by TruEnergy (part of the CLP Group) and the mining activities are carried out in an Alliance with Roche Thiess Linfox (RTL). (orig.)

  5. Sorption of heavy metals on lignite impregnated with chitosan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelcová, Martina; Mizera, Jiří; Machovič, V.; Borecká, Lenka; Přibyl, Oldřich; Krausová, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2013), s. 105-110 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : lignite * chitosan * heavy metals * sorption Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/index_en.php?page=acta_detail_doi&id=19

  6. Radiation doses of inhaled ash from the lignite power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boshevski, Tome; Pop-Jordanov, Jordan; Chaushevski, Anton

    1997-01-01

    The coal-fired thermal power plants in Macedonia use lignite obtained by surface mining. The lignite contains traces of thorium-232, uranium-238 and uranium-235, which are long-lived natural radioactive isotopes. After lignite combustion, the concentration of these isotopes in the ash is increased. Due to the long life of fossil materials, the decay products are basically grouped in three radioactive chains that are in a semi-steady state, resulting in equal activity of all isotopes from the chain. Among the members of each chain there are α and β emitters followed by γ quanta emitters. The energies of the α and β particles are important for determining the effective dose. The γ quanta provide information about the chain activity and isotope types. Gamma-spectroscopy studies of the ash samples from the power plants in the City of Bitola in Macedonia have confirmed the presence of several radioactive decay products from the uranium and thorium radioactive chains. Using measurements of the radioactivity of the ash in the Bitola region, the total dose from ash inhalation for the population in the Bitola region was calculated and presented in this paper. Also, analysis of the procedure for determining the maximum allowable dose from radioactive contamination of the environment, is described in this paper. (Original)

  7. The catalytic cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolysis char on tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Z.; Huibin, H.; Xiangling, S.; Zhenhua, M.; Lei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different pyrolysis conditions for tar catalytic cracking will be analyzed according to the lignite pyrolysis char as catalyst on pyrolytic tar in this paper. The pyrolysis char what is the by-product of the cracking of coal has an abundant of pore structure and it has good catalytic activity. On this basis, making the modified catalyst when the pyrolysis char is activation and loads Fe by impregnation method. The cracking mechanism of lignite pyrolytic tar is explored by applying gas chromatograph to analyze splitting products of tar. The experimental results showed that: (1) The effect of tar cracking as the pyrolysis temperature, the heating rate, the volatilization of pyrolysis char and particle size increasing is better and better. The effect of the catalytic and cracking of lignite pyrolysis char in tar is best when the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature, the volatiles of pyrolysis char, particle size is in specific conditions.(2) The activation of pyrolysis char can improve the catalytic effect of pyrolysis char on the tar cracking. But it reduces the effect of the tar cracking when the pyrolysis char is activation loading Fe. (author)

  8. NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian lignite Kolubara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are widely accepted tool for estimation of various pollutants emissions in USA and EU. Validity of emission factors is strongly related to experimental data on which they are based. This paper is a result of an effort to establish reliable NOx and SO2 emission factors for Serbian coals. The results of NOx and SO2 emissions estimations based on USA and EU emission factors from thermal power plants Nikola Tesla Obrenovac A and B utilizing the Serbian lignite Kolubara are compared with experimental data obtained during almost one decade (2000-2008 of emissions measurements. Experimental data are provided from regular annual emissions measurement along with operational parameters of the boiler and coal (lignite Kolubara ultimate and proximate analysis. Significant deviations of estimated from experimental data were observed for NOx, while the results for SO2 were satisfactory. Afterwards, the estimated and experimental data were plotted and linear regression between them established. Single parameter optimization was performed targeting the ideal slope of the regression line. Results of this optimization provided original NOx and SO2 emission factors for Kolubara lignite.

  9. Biotechnological lignite conversion - a large-scale concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich-Walber, M.; Meyrahn, H.; Felgener, G.W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany). Fuel Technology and Lab. Dept.

    1997-12-31

    Concerning the research on biotechnological lignite upgrading, Rheinbraun`s overall objective is the large-scale production of liquid and gaseous products for the energy and chemical/refinery sectors. The presentation outlines Rheinbraun`s technical concept for electricity production on the basis of biotechnologically solubilized lignite. A first rough cost estimate based on the assumptions described in the paper in detail and compared with the latest power plant generation shows the general cost efficiency of this technology despite the additional costs in respect of coal solubilization. The main reasons are low-cost process techniques for coal conversion on the one hand and cost reductions mainly in power plant technology (more efficient combustion processes and simplified gas clean-up) but also in coal transport (easy fuel handling) on the other hand. Moreover, it is hoped that an extended range of products will make it possible to widen the fields of lignite application. The presentation also points out that there is still a huge gap between this scenario and reality by limited microbiological knowledge. To close this gap Rheinbraun started a research project supported by the North-Rhine Westphalian government in 1995. Several leading biotechnological companies and institutes in Germany and the United States are involved in the project. The latest results of the current project will be presented in the paper. This includes fundamental research activities in the field of microbial coal conversion as well as investigations into bioreactor design and product treatment (dewatering, deashing and desulphurization). (orig.)

  10. Thermal dewatering of lignite: Phase III - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J; Kybett, B D

    1981-01-01

    Phase III of this project extended the investigation of thermal dewatering on several lignite and peat samples at the temperature range up to 400 degrees C and investigated variables such as retention time, increased rates of heating and cooling, extent of trace element removal, effect of particle size and effect of dewatering under heavy and light oils. Lignites from three areas of Canada (Estevan and Coronach, Saskatchewan, and Onakawana, Ontario) and one peat sample (Garrick, Saskatchewan) were thermally dewatered. The equilibrium moisture values obtained for the dewatered products were as low as, or lower than those obtained in Phases I and II of this project (350 degrees C). However, the measured moisture contents of the thermally dewatered Saskatchewan lignites were somewhat higher than those measured in Phases I and II. The equilibrium moisture values and the moisture contents decreased with increasing temperature. An optimum balance between extent of dewatering and resulting steam pressures is obtained for a dewatering temperature between 300 and 350 degrees C. At these temperatures, residence times in the order of 15 minutes are required. (35 refs.)

  11. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.

    2009-01-01

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 deg. C at a heating rate of 40 deg. C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management.

  12. Effect of biomass on burnouts of Turkish lignites during co-firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Dept., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Co-firing of some low quality Turkish lignites with woody shells of sunflower seed was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis method. For this purpose, Yozgat-Sorgun, Erzurum-Askale, Tuncbilek, Gediz, and Afsin-Elbistan lignites were selected, and burnouts of these lignites were compared with those of their blends. Biomass was blended as much as 10 and 20 wt.% of the lignites, and heating was performed up to 900 C at a heating rate of 40 C/min under dry air flow of 40 mL/min. This study revealed that the same biomass species may have different influences on the burnout yields of the lignites. Burnouts of Erzurum-Askale lignite increased at any temperature with the increasing ratio of biomass in the blend, whereas burnout yields of other lignites decreased to some extent. Nevertheless, the blends of Turkish lignites with sunflower seed shell did not behave in very different way, and it can be concluded that they are compatible in terms of burnouts for co-combustion in a combustion system. Although the presence of biomass in the lignite blends caused to some decreases in the final burnouts, the carbon dioxide neutral nature of biomass should be taken into account, and co-combustion is preferable for waste-to-energy-management. (author)

  13. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  14. Perspectives of the German lignite industry 2014; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartung, Matthias; Milojcic, George [DEBRIV, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The decision to phase out nuclear energy and gradually realign the electricity system towards more renewables in the future required some extensive changes to electricity generation transmission. One of the issues to be considered is what role lignite can play in the transformation of the electricity system and what application is offered to Germany and its regions. However, lignite has some stable factors and their development is fairly predictable. Domestic lignite is one such example. Beyond its familiar attributes, 'secure, competitive and economically important for the regions', 'flexibility' is a key word that indicates a new dimension for the German lignite industry.

  15. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  16. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  17. Terrestrial salamander abundance on reclaimed mountaintop removal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Mountaintop removal mining, a large-scale disturbance affecting vegetation, soil structure, and topography, converts landscapes from mature forests to extensive grassland and shrubland habitats. We sampled salamanders using drift-fence arrays and coverboard transects on and near mountaintop removal mines in southern West Virginia, USA, during 2000–2002. We compared terrestrial salamander relative abundance and species richness of un-mined, intact forest with habitats on reclaimed mountaintop removal mines (reclaimed grassland, reclaimed shrubland, and fragmented forest). Salamanders within forests increased in relative abundance with increasing distance from reclaimed mine edge. Reclaimed grassland and shrubland habitats had lower relative abundance and species richness than forests. Characteristics of reclaimed habitats that likely contributed to lower salamander abundance included poor soils (dry, compacted, little organic matter, high rock content), reduced vertical structure of vegetation and little tree cover, and low litter and woody debris cover. Past research has shown that salamander populations reduced by clearcutting may rebound in 15–24 years. Time since disturbance was 7–28 years in reclaimed habitats on our study areas and salamander populations had not reached levels found in adjacent mature forests.

  18. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  19. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  20. Genetic relationship of organic bases of the quinoline and isoquinoline series from lignite semicoking tars with the initial biological material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Podshibyakin, S.I.; Domogatskii, V.V.; Shvykin, A.Y.; Shavyrina, O.A.; Chilachava, K.B. [Leo Tolstoy State Pedagog University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    The genetic relationship of quinoline and isoquinoline compounds present in semicoking tars of Kimovsk lignites (near-Moscow fields) with the initial vegetable material is discussed. Transformation pathways of the native compounds in the course of lignite formation are suggested.

  1. Distribution and correlation of the natural radionuclides in a coal mine of the West Macedonia Lignite Center (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikritzis, L I; Fotakis, M; Tzimkas, N; Kolovos, N; Tsikritzi, R

    2008-02-01

    The distribution and correlation of six natural nuclides in the West Macedonia Lignite Center, Northern Greece were studied. Fifty-five samples of lignite, aged from 1.8 to 5 million years, and corresponding steriles, beds of marls, clays and sands alternating with the lignite, were collected perpendicular to the mine benches and measured spectroscopically. The mean concentrations of (238)U and (226)Ra in lignites were found to be higher than that in steriles since these nuclides are associated with the organic material of lignite, whereas (238)U/(226)Ra equilibrium was not observed in either lignites or steriles. Finally, the ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra in lignites was approximately double of that in steriles, confirming the affinity of the (238)U series with the coal matrix in contrast to the (232)Th series. No correlation was found between radionuclide concentrations and the depth of the sample, nor with the ash content of lignite.

  2. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  3. Biodegradation of photo-oxidized lignite and characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Liu, Xiangrong; Yue, Zilin; Zhang, Yaowen

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradation of photo-oxidized Inner Mongolia lignite by pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied and the degradation percentage reached 56.27%, while the corresponding degradation percentage of the strain degrading raw Inner Mongolia lignite is only 23.16%. The degradation products were characterized. Proximate and ultimate analyses show that the higher oxygen content increased by photo-oxidation pretreatment maybe promoted the degradation process. Ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV) analysis of the liquid product reveals that it contains unsaturated structures and aromatic rings are the main structure units. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicates that the main components of the ethyl acetate extracts are low molecular weight organic compounds, such as ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, esters and alcohols. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) analysis of raw lignite, photo-oxidized lignite and residual lignite demonstrates that the absorption peaks of functional groups in residual lignite disappeared or weakened obviously. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis manifests that small holes appear in photo-oxidized lignite surface, which may be promote the degradation process and this is only from the physical morphology aspects, so it can be inferred from the tests and analyses results that the more important reason of the high degradation percentage is mostly that the photo-oxidation pretreatment changes the chemical structures of lignite.

  4. Solid substrate fermentation of lignite by the coal-solubilizing mould, Trichoderma atroviride, in a new type of bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Trichoderma atroviride CBS 349 is able to solubilize lignite. The mould was cultured under non-sterile conditions in a new type of bioreactor for solid substrate fermentation. German lignite (lithotype A, Bergheim) was used as complex solid substrate. Over 40 days 140 g of 1.5 kg lignite held in a 25 1-bioreactor was solubilized by the fungus.

  5. Sedimentologic and palynologic significance of finding tertiary lignites in an ancient rift zone lake (Chingla, Ethiopia). Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedamawit, Y.; Bonnefille, R.; Faure, H.; Taieb, M.

    1984-01-01

    Oligocene-Pleistocene deposits at Chingla apparently lie atop Miocene basalts. The upper cross-section shows numerous lignite interlayers. This paper discusses mineral composition of lignites and enclosing rock. Palynologic analysis of the lignite cross-sections determined 23 layers.

  6. Characterization of dust samples from a coal strip mine using a resuspension chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Civiš

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A metallic cylindrical resuspension chamber (V = 0.437 m3, S = 0.35 m2, S/V = 8.38 was constructed to disperse samples of soil and various kinds of dust. The chamber allows on-line determination of number/mass size distribution of aerosol particles formed by dispersion and subsequent sampling of size-segregated particles on filter media. The samples tested were lignite, power plant flue ash and overburden soil from the Nastup coal strip mine in Northern Bohemia. About 20 mg of the individual samples were pneumatically dispersed by 0.5 liter of pressurized air inside the chamber under defined temperature and humidity conditions. Then the dynamics of aerosol size distributions was recorded using an aerodynamic particle sizer with a frequency of 5 seconds. The lignite and flue ash contributed most to the mass of atmospheric aerosol particles smaller than 10/2.5 micrometer – PM10/ PM2.5. The re-suspended mass of the samples varied between 0.001% for overburden soil and 0.32% for mine road soil. The aerosolized lignite and flue ash samples, sampled by a Harvard Impactor and a Personal Cascade Impactor Sampler, revealed that the ash contained higher amounts of fine particles than the lignite and subsequent chemical analyses, carried out using SEM-EDX, reveals that the PM2.5 fraction formed by dispersion of the ash samples had the highest content of sulphur, and PM10 was dominated by Si. PM10 was closest to mullite, while the PM2.5 fraction contained sulphides, pyrites, pyrrhotites and polytypes of sulphide. The PM1 fraction was dominated by quartz glass. The fractions of sizes 2.5–1 μm and 0.5–0.25 μm were dominated by Si and S, respectively.

  7. Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CRG proposes to continue efforts from the 2016 NASA SBIR Phase I topic H5.04 Reclaimable Thermally Reversible Polymers for AM Feedstock. In Phase II, CRG will refine...

  8. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  9. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  10. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest

  11. Cost Analysis of NEDU’s Helium Reclaimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    T ITLE (and Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED COST ANALYSIS OF NEDU’S HELIUM RECLAIMER . Survey 6 . PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMSER 7...telephone conversation). 5. Charles T. Horngren , "Introduction tu Management Accounting " Fourth Edition. 3 . .4m mmnssmmlm~ • FIGURE 1 PRESENT, FUTURE AND...FEET COST OF PERIODIC MAINTENANCE OF HELIUM ELECTRIiC COST COST OF TOTAL RECLAIMED POWER NEW COST PRESENT WORTH YEAR N PER YEAR ( S /1000 FT

  12. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  13. Treatment of products from petroleum, shale, coal, lignite, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevanoff, V

    1952-06-20

    An improved process is described for treating with sodium plumbite all the products derived from crude petroleum, bituminous shale, coal, lignite, peat, etc., such as gasoline, solvents, lamp oil, gas oil, fuels, etc; the process being essentially characterized by the fact that it consists first in washing the product to be refined with a soda wash; submitting it to a treatment with sodium plumbite, without addition of sulfur, then to eliminate the sulfur plumbite compounds resulting in the treated product, using either redistillation to eliminate products remaining in the residue or filtration over an absorbing material such as active carbon, decolorizing earths.

  14. EFFECT OF MICROWAVE DRYING ON THE GRINDABILITY OF LIGNITE COAL

    OpenAIRE

    Güngören, Can; Özkan, Şafak Gökhan; Hacıfazlıoğlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the representative lignite coal samples supplied from Kastamonu-Tosya region were dried in a conventional drying oven and a microwave oven, and then they were ground by a laboratory rod mill. The particle size analyses of the ground samples at various grinding times (10, 20, 30, and 60 minutes) were carried out, and the results were compared. As a result, the d80 particle sizes of the samples, dried in the conventional drying oven, were determined as 350, 183, 180, and 100 µm a...

  15. Refining of raw materials, lignite present economic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, G.

    1985-06-01

    East Germany seeks an economic intensification program that involves refining raw materials to a higher level. Lignite briquetting prior to liquefaction and gasification illustrates both the theoretical and practical aspects of that goal and also introduces questions of secure supplies. The author describes the special labor processes, use of technology, recycling of waste materials, and other new problems that the approach entails as the refined raw materials become new materials or energy sources. Economics based on the value of the refined product and the cost of the materials determine the degree of refinement. The concept also involves the relationship of producer and user as profits increase.

  16. Quantitative spectrographic determination of traces of germanium in lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.; Roca, M.

    1972-01-01

    A burning technique in a d.c. arc at 10 amp has been employed. The standards have been prepared from a natural lignite with a low germanium content. In order to enhance sensitivity, AgCl, K 2 SO 4 , CuF 2 , Sb 2 S 3 and Bi 2 S 3 have been tested as sweeping materials. Using 2% CuF 2 a detection limit of 1 ppm germanium is attainable. Bi, Cu, Sb and Sn have been studied as internal standards: the former leads to the, highest precision (1 6%. Results show good agreement with those obtained by the addition method. (Author) 6 refs

  17. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  18. The structure and pyrolysis product distribution of lignite from different sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Dexiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon structure of three lignites was measured by solid "1"3C NMR. • Effect of carbon structure on pyrolysis product distribution was studied. • Tar yield is influenced by aliphatic carbon and oxygen functional group. • C1–C4 content of pyrolysis gas is related to CH_2/CH_3 ratio. - Abstract: Low-temperature pyrolysis is an economically efficient method for lignite to obtain coal tar and improve its combustion calorific value. The research on the distribution of pyrolysis product (especially coal tar yield) plays an important role in energy application and economic development in the now and future. Pyrolysis test was carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K for 15 min. The structure of the lignite was measured by solid "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal analysis was analyzed by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that the pyrolysis product distribution is related to the breakage of branch structures of aromatic ring in lignites from different sedimentary environment. The gas yield and composition are related to the decomposition of carbonyl group and the breakage of aliphatic carbon. The tar yield derived from lignite pyrolysis follows the order: Xianfeng lignite (XF, 13.67 wt.%) > Xiaolongtan lignite (XLT, 7.97 wt.%) > Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%), which is mainly influenced by the aliphatic carbon contents, the CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the oxygen functional groups in lignite. The pyrolysis water yield depends on the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. IM has the highest content of oxygen-linked carbon so that the pyrolysis water yield derived from IM is the highest (9.20 wt.%), and is far more than that from the other two lignites.

  19. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  20. Lignite pre-treatment and its effect on bio-stimulative properties of respective lignite humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlckova, Z.; Grasset, L.; Antosova, B.; Pekar, M.; Kucerik, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Humic acids originating from South-Moravian lignite were subjected to a comparative study with the aim to assess the alteration of their physico-chemical properties after various lignite pre-treatments. Physical modification was achieved with two organic acids, such as acetic acid and citric acid and chemical modification by nitric acid and hydrogene peroxide in various concentrations. Elemental analysis, solid-state NMR, GC-MS analysis of polyols and size exclusion chromatography were carried out for chemical-physical characterization of obtained humic acids. Their biological effect, in form of potassium and ammonium humates, was tested on maize (Zea mays) seedlings. In these tests, potassium humates achieved far better overall results than ammonium humates. Results were inter-correlated in order to appraise the influence of humic acids physical and chemical properties on biological activity. Surprisingly, fractions with the lowest molecular size (0-35 kDa) showed no correlation with bioactivity results (Pearson coefficient from 0.05 to -0.4). On the contrary, middle-sized fractions (35-175 kDa) showed highly significant positive correlation (Pearson coefficient up to 0.92) and the highest molecular-size-fractions (275-350 kDa) showed negative correlation (Pearson coefficient up to -0.75). These findings were identical for both potassium and ammonium humates. No connection was found between bioactivity of humates and polyols content which was remarkably high; it reached 150 mg per g of humic acids in the most extreme case of 5% hydrogene peroxide pre-treatment. In the final analysis, the preparation mode bore pivotal responsibility for the control of humic acids biological effect and showed the best results for potassium humates obtained from lignite pre-treated by acetic acid and by 2% hydrogen peroxide.

  1. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  2. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  3. Exergy Analysis of Operating Lignite Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murugesan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy assessment must be made through the energy quantity as well as the quality. But the usual energy analysisevaluates the energy generally on its quantity only. However, the exergy analysis assesses the energy on quantity as well asthe quality. The aim of the exergy analysis is to identify the magnitudes and the locations of real energy losses, in order toimprove the existing systems, processes or components. The present paper deals with an exergy analysis performed on anoperating 50MWe unit of lignite fired steam power plant at Thermal Power Station-I, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited,Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India. The exergy losses occurred in the various subsystems of the plant and their components havebeen calculated using the mass, energy and exergy balance equations. The distribution of the exergy losses in several plantcomponents during the real time plant running conditions has been assessed to locate the process irreversibility. The Firstlaw efficiency (energy efficiency and the Second law efficiency (exergy efficiency of the plant have also been calculated.The comparison between the energy losses and the exergy losses of the individual components of the plant shows that themaximum energy losses of 39% occur in the condenser, whereas the maximum exergy losses of 42.73% occur in the combustor.The real losses of energy which has a scope for the improvement are given as maximum exergy losses that occurredin the combustor.

  4. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  5. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthiphong Tara

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the Aplan’s formula. The approximate work indices were determined by running a batch dry-grinding testusing a laboratory ball mill. Finally, the work indices obtained from both methods were compared. It was found that allsamples could be ranked as lignite B, using the heating value as criteria, if the content of mineral matter is neglected. Similarly,all samples can be classified as lignite with the Hargrove grindability indices ranging from about 40 to 50. However, there isa significant difference in the work indices derived from Hardgrove and simplified Bond grindability tests. This may be due todifference in variability of lignite properties and the test procedures. To obtain more accurate values of the lignite workindex, the time-consuming Bond procedure should be performed with a number of corrections for different milling conditions.With Hardgrove grindability indices and the work indices calculated from Aplan’s formula, capacity of the roller-racepulverizer and grindability of the Mae Moh lignite should be investigated in detail further.

  6. Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne group) and Jackson group lignite deposits of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Robert W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The lignite deposits within the upper Eocene Yegua Formation (Claiborne Group) and the overlying Jackson Group are among the coal resources that were not quantitatively assessed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) program in the Gulf Coastal Plain coal province. In the past, these lignite-bearing stratigraphic units often have been evaluated together because of their geographic and stratigraphic proximity (Fisher, 1963; Kaiser, 1974; Kaiser et al., 1980; Jackson and Garner, 1982; Kaiser, 1996) (Figures 1, 2). The term “Yegua-Jackson trend“ is used informally herein for the lignite-bearing outcrops of these Late Eocene deposits in Texas. Lignite beds in the Yegua-Jackson trend generally are higher both in ash yield and sulfur content than those of the underlying Wilcox Group (Figure 2). Recent studies (Senkayi et al., 1987; Ruppert et al., 1994; Warwick et al., 1996, 1997) have shown that some lignite beds within the Yegua-Jackson trend contain partings of volcanic ash and host elevated levels of trace elements that have been identified as potentially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the United States Clean Air Amendments of 1990. Lignite beds within the Yegua Formation are thin (less than or equal to 6 ft) and laterally discontinuous in comparison with most Wilcox Group deposits (Ayers, 1989a); in contrast, the Jackson Group lignite beds range up to 12 ft in total thickness and are relatively continuous laterally, extending nearly 32 mi along strike.

  7. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  8. Investigation of pre-drying lignite in an existing Greek power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agraniotis Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of lignite pre-drying technologies in next generation of lignite power plants by utilizing low pressure steam as a drying medium instead of hot recirculated flue gas - combined with thermal utilization of the vaporized coal moisture - is expected to bring efficiency increase of 2-4 percentage points in future lignite power plants compared with today’s state of the art. The pre-drying concept is of particular importance in Greek boilers firing lignite with a high water and ash content. The combustion of Greek predried lignite has been investigated experimentally and via numerical simulations in our previous research. This study focuses on the potential integration of a lignite pre-drying system in an existing Greek power plant with dry lignite co-firing thermal share of up to 30%. The radiative and convective heat fluxes to the boiler and the overall boiler heat balance is calculated for reference and dry lignite co-firing conditions by an in-house calculation code. The overall plant’s thermal cycle is then simulated using commercial thermal cycle calculation software. The net plant efficiency is in this way determined for reference and dry coal co-firing conditions. According to the simulation results the integration of a pre-drying system and the implementation of dry lignite co-firing may bring an efficiency increase of about 1.5 percentage points in existing Greek boilers. It is therefore considered as an important measure towards improving plant efficiency and reducing specific CO2 emissions in existing plants.

  9. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of lignite and calcified lignite from mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Mirijam; Markič, Miloš; Vrabec, Marko; Jaćimović, Radojko; Kanduč, Tjaša

    2014-05-01

    Lignite (organic rich) and calcified lignite (inorganic rich) samples from excavation field -50c mining area Pesje, Velenje Basin, Slovenia were investigated. During geological and structural mapping lignite and calcified lignite samples were systematically taken for determination of their petrological, geochemical and isotopic characteristics. Lignite is composed of fine detritical gelified matrix. At least five different types of calcified lignite were recognized forming laminations, calcifications after wood, petrified wood and complete replacements of lignite with carbonate. All measured parameters so far indicate geochemical processes during sedimentation of the Velenej Basin. After macroscopic description samples were split to organic and inorganic component (Ward, 1984) and powdered in an agate mortar for geochemical and isotopic analyses. Major and trace elements (As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Th, U, Zn) in these samples were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using k-0 standardization method (Jaćimović et al, 2002). The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined using a Europa 20-20 continuous flow IRMS ANCA-SL preparation module. A 1 mg amount of a sample was weighed in a tin capsule for carbon and 10 mg for nitrogen analysis. Samples for carbon analyses were pretreated with 1 M HCl to remove carbonates. Carbonate samples from carbonate-rich strata and calcified xylite were first roasted at 450 deg C (Krantz et al., 1987). Three miligrams of carbonate sample was transformed into CO2 by reaction with anhydrous H3PO4 at 55 deg C under vacuum (McCrea, 1950) and measured with GV 2003 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Measured isotopic composition of oxygen as VPDB values was recalculated to the VSMOW reference standard to enable the comparison with data from other coal basins. SEM/EDXS of carbonate rich sediments was performed with JEOL JSM 5800 electron microanalyzer scanning electron microscope

  10. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  11. Sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrifical agent in oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudchadker, M.V.; Weiss, W.J.

    1978-02-07

    A process is described for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs by secondary recovery methods. The process involves injecting via an injection well into the reservoir an aqueous solution of sulfomethylated lignite salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process is conducted by first injecting the lignite salt into the formation through the injection well and following it with either a polymer or a surfactant solution, which also may contain the lignite salt. The polymer or surfactant would then be followed by a drive fluid, such as water, to push the chemicals and oil to the production well. (18 claims)

  12. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  13. Innovative approach to ash radioactivitiy and health impacts of lignite power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosevski, T.; Pop-Jordanova, N. [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje (Macedonia)

    1998-12-31

    In Macedonia nearly 90% of the present electricity production utilizes domestic low-calorie lignite, and this is likely to continue for the next few decades. Local and global environmental impacts of fossil fuel utilization are considered. Some innovative extensions to standard methodologies of environmental risk assessment and management are considered. They involve ash radioactivity and psychosomatic health impacts from lignite power plants. Two extensions are proposed: one comprising complete radioactive chains when determining committed effective dose from lignite ash; the other by including the psychosomatic diseases, such as peptic ulcer and arterial hypertension, due to chronic stress induced by power plants during normal operation. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktur, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lowerrank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  15. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktar, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lower-rank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash yield and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy. 38 references.

  16. Foreseen development of mining of lignite; Przewidywany rozwoj gornictwa wegla brunatnego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland). Dept. of Geo-engineering, Mining and Geology

    2004-07-01

    The future of activity in Poland's lignite sector will be determined by the demand for this fuel, which will in turn result from mining possibilities and economic competitiveness of the fuel in relation to other sources of electrical energy. The paper discusses all these factors and presents a framework programme for the development of Poland's lignite sector until 2040 (in detail) and further ahead to 2075, called the 'Agreement of manufacturers of lignite'. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Sinha, Tushar; Bowling, Laura C.; Schoups, Gerrit H.W.; Wallender, Wesley W.; Campana, Michael E.; Cherkauer, Keith A.; Fuller, Pam L.; Graf, William L.; Hopmans, Jan W.; Kominoski, John S.; Taylor, Carissa; Trimble, Stanley W.; Webb, Robert H.; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing human appropriation of freshwater resources presents a tangible limit to the sustainability of cities, agriculture, and ecosystems in the western United States. Marc Reisner tackles this theme in his 1986 classic Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. Reisner's analysis paints a portrait of region-wide hydrologic dysfunction in the western United States, suggesting that the storage capacity of reservoirs will be impaired by sediment infilling, croplands will be rendered infertile by salt, and water scarcity will pit growing desert cities against agribusiness in the face of dwindling water resources. Here we evaluate these claims using the best available data and scientific tools. Our analysis provides strong scientific support for many of Reisner's claims, except the notion that reservoir storage is imminently threatened by sediment. More broadly, we estimate that the equivalent of nearly 76% of streamflow in the Cadillac Desert region is currently appropriated by humans, and this figure could rise to nearly 86% under a doubling of the region's population. Thus, Reisner's incisive journalism led him to the same conclusions as those rendered by copious data, modern scientific tools, and the application of a more genuine scientific method. We close with a prospectus for reclaiming freshwater sustainability in the Cadillac Desert, including a suite of recommendations for reducing region-wide human appropriation of streamflow to a target level of 60%.

  18. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were

  19. Enzyme activities in reclaimed coal mine spoils and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P R; Aldon, E F; Lindemann, W C

    1987-11-01

    The segregation and stockpiling of topsoil material may reduce enzymatic activities that may hinder normal nutrient cycling processes in reclaimed minelands. The effects of topsoiling and reclamation age on dehydrogenase, nitrogenase, phosphatase, arylsulphatase, amylase, cellulase, invertase and urease activities were evaluated on three reclaimed non-top-soiled and five reclaimed topsoiled areas and compared with an indisturbed reference soil. Three months after topsoiling and revegetation, activities of the enzymes in the reclaimed areas, with the exception of dehydrogenase, were statistically equal to activities of the undisturbed soil. Most enzymes, including dehydrogenase, peaked in the next 1 or 2 years after reclamation with topsoiling and declined thereafter. A 4-year-old topsoiled site (revegetated in 1978) was statistically similar to the undisturbed soil. Amylase activity, however, was significantly lower after the fourth year compared to the undisturbed soil. The non-topsoiled areas, even after 6, 7 and 8 years, appeared to have lower enzyme activities than the younger topsoiled areas or the undisturbed soil. This trend was supported by the finding that the 4-year-old topsoiled site was more enzymatically similar to the undisturbed soil than was the 8-year-old non-topsoiled site (revegetated in 1974). The low enzyme acitivities found in the non-topsoiled areas may be a result of their adverse chemical and physical properties, as well as the low diversity of microorganisms. These studies demonstrate the value of topsoil use for early establishment of soil processes in reclaimed areas. 3 figs., 19 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Weiping Chen; Yanying Bai; Weiling Zhang; Sidan Lyu; Wentao Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their a...

  1. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Sparte Tagebaue

    2012-09-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mini ng in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equ ally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in powe r generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  2. Sustainable lignite mining and utilization. Developments in the Rhenish lignite-mining area; Nachhaltige Braunkohlegewinnung und -nutzung. Entwicklung im Rheinischen Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, Dieter [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Opencast Mines Div.

    2012-03-15

    Lignite is an essential module in the Rhenish mining area's economic power. Mining in a densely populated region like the Rhineland calls for keeping an eye equally on people, the environment and industry now and in the future. By considering all concerns and ensuring transparency in our approach to people, we have succeeded in obtaining public acceptance also for large-scale projects in an environment that is not always easy in Germany. RWE Power plans to use lignite in power generation and in upgrading operations for many decades to come, so that the company is systematically implementing the power-plant renewal programme with is planning for BoAplus as highly efficient next-generation lignite-based power plants. Research on CO{sub 2} utilization, flexibilization, energy storage and alternative uses of lignite are as much features of RWE Power's future-proof alignment in the Rhenish mining area as are further innovations in the opencast mines. Core aspects here include further automation in the deployment of main mine equipment, closely dovetailed with innovations in other operating units. Parallel restructuring of the operating units and the Lignite Approvals area are underpinning these measures. Innovations and their translation into technical progress will ensure the success of a measured energy turnaround both in Germany and throughout Europe. However, this requires dependable political conditions, so that an engineering spirit can go on being transformed into entrepreneurial action. (orig.)

  3. Bucket wheel excavator performances at Neyveli lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaraswamy, S; Mozumdar, B K

    1987-03-01

    Bucket-wheel excavators have been in use at the Neyveli Lignite Mine in the State of Tamil Nadu, India, since the early nineteen-sixties. The mining environment has been particularly harsh for BWE application. The adverse influencing factors are the hardness of the over-burden formation, high abrasivity of rock and artesian ground water conditions. In this paper, the performances of the BWEs at Neyveli have been statistically analysed to determine the effects of physico-mechanical properties of overburden, blasting and rainfall on machine productivity, availability, wear-and-tear of bucket teeth, power consumption, production efficiency and cost of mining. An empirical relationship between the production efficiency, defined as the ratio of actual production rate to the theoretical one, and the bench height and width, height of slices, specific cutting resistance of the overburden material and its clay content, consumption of explosives, and conveyor length has been established.

  4. PFBC development for lignite-fired CC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Meier, H.J.; Smuda, J.V.; Stuhlmueller, F. [VEAG Vereinigte Energiewerke AG (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    A power station design based on pressurised combustion in a circulating fluid-bed is used to illustrate the principle, layout and potential of a lignite-fired combined power station. The fundamental reasons for concentrating on the circulating pressurised fluid-bed consist in its improved emission values, the possibility of separating heat source and heat sink, and better operating performance (part-load). This design has been developed as part of a feasibility study supported by the Federal Ministry for Research and Tehcnology. The paper describes the design of the power plant components. Combustion trials carried out at the pilot plant in Friedrichsfield are reported and the cost-effectiveness of the innovatory design discussed. 10 figs.

  5. Reclaim/recycle of Pt/C catalysts for PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jishi; He, Xiangming; Tian, Jianhua; Wan, Chunrong; Jiang, Changyin

    2007-01-01

    Platinum was reclaimed from Pt/C catalysts of the PEMFC by drying the degraded Pt/C catalysts at 80 o C for 3 h, followed by sintering at 600 o C for 6 h, dissolution by aqua fortis, purification with hydrochloric acid, reduction and filtration, successively. Pt/C catalysts were prepared again from the reclaimed Pt by two proposed processes, e.g., pH value control process and mass control process. The fuel cell with recycled catalysts presented a power density of over 0.18 W cm -2 . The reclaiming of Pt/C catalysts is a potential way for recycling Pt for PEMFC, reducing the cost of PEMFC

  6. Remining to reclaim abandoned mined lands: Virginia's initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Lambert, B.

    1998-01-01

    Abandoned Mined Lands (AML) are lands that were mined prior to implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) in 1977, but were inadequately reclaimed. Re-mining of AML is being conducted on a routine basis by coal-mining operations in eastern states such as Virginia. Re-mining is a potentially important means of reclaiming AML. However, under current policies, re-mining operations often fail to permit and reclaim priority 1, 2, and 3 AML, especially those areas which present the most severe environmental problems. This paper describes policy issues which affect the potential for AML reclamation by re-mining operations in mountainous mining areas, such as Virginia; efforts underway in Virginia which seek to resolve those issues; and progress achieved to date under that initiative

  7. The program of reclaim negotiable emission licensing: situation and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleille, S.

    2004-01-01

    RECLAIM is an innovative and ambitious program of emission trading that concerns the nitrogen oxides emitted by stationary sources in the Basin of Los Angeles ( United States). It began in 1994 and suffered from various weaknesses. Faced with the Californian energy crisis during the summer of 2000, it could not overcome it. Some power plants have been ejected from the market and are now regulated by a traditional command-and-control approach. The analysis of the RECLAIM program and a comparison with similar markets enable us to point out the weaknesses that led to RECLAIM partial failure and to give some insight into the future evolution of the other emission trading markets. (author)

  8. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  9. The lignite industry and regional development. Interactions exemplified by the Rhenish mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, Lars; Voigt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Even in times of globalised markets, the German lignite industry retains its local and regional roots. Viewed against this background, the relationship between lignite industry and regional actors, and the interactions between the two play a major role in the perspectives for this branch of Germany's energy sector. Today, the links between the lignite industry and regional bodies are those of a partnership at eye-level. This type of relationship between the industry and regional actors has led to new forms and methods of cooperation at various levels. This is particularly evident in the efforts to re-shape the regional structure, develop the structure of townships and strengthen the economic structure with lignite playing an important role and new partners which are gaining in importance. (orig.)

  10. Environmental Assessment for Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project, Coal Creek Station, Great River Energy, Underwood, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-01-16

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess the environmental impacts of the commercial application of lignite fuel enhancement. The proposed demonstration project would be implemented at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station near Underwood, North Dakota. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology to increase the heating value of lignite and other high-moisture coals by reducing the moisture in the fuels. Waste heat that would normally be sent to the cooling towers would be used to drive off a percentage of the moisture contained within the lignite. Application of this technology would be expected to boost power-generating efficiencies, provide economic cost savings for lignite and sub-bituminous power plants, and reduce air emissions. The proposed project would be constructed on a previously disturbed site within the Coal Creek Station and no negative impacts would occur in any environmental resource area.

  11. Illinois reclaimed soil productivity: Restoration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smout, G.

    1998-01-01

    Consolidation Coal Co. (Consol) has nearly 8,000 acres of high capability and prime farmland reclamation responsibility in Illinois. It has been involved in research in the area of restored soil productivity since 1976 with the University of Illinois and Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. Consol maintains an intensive program to demonstrate and test deep tillage equipment. The research and in-house demonstrations identified soil physical strength (compaction) as the main limiting factor to restoring a soil's productive capacity. There are two primary ways to address this issue, prevention and amelioration. The former was not an option for Consol because many acres were already reclaimed and the company had a major scraper fleet. Along with other operators in Illinois, Consol started an aggressive search for equipment and techniques that could loosen compacted soils. In 1987 Consol was the first to use the D.M.I.-Super Tiger deep soil plow, originally developed and manufactured by D.M.I., Inc. of Goodfield, Illinois. This plow is composed of a single parabolic, static shank with a 44-inch wide sweep weighing 1,200 pounds. It is capable of plowing 48 inches deep while leaving the top soil in place. A Caterpillar D9L tractor with 460 horsepower is used to pull the plow. In 1990 the decision was made to commit to this equipment as the best technology currently available. In 1994 Consol received a patent waiver from D.M.I. to build its own plow. The Consol built plow has been in use since the summer of 1995. To date, Consol has plowed over 3,900 acres with a D.M.I. plow

  12. Report on the survey of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.J.; Prochaska, D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.

    1986-03-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in October 1983 as part of the proposed reclamation plan of abandoned uraniferous lignite mines in southwestern North Dakota. The survey was made to determine the extent of contamination caused by mining operations in the 1960's. Radiation measurements were made and soil samples were taken at approximately 300 locations around six mine sites comprising eleven lignite mine pits. Toxic element analysis was also done on 50 of the soil samples

  13. Steam gasification of Bulmer coal in the presence of lignite ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.; Furimsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Steam gasification of blends prepared from Balmer coal and the ash from combustion of Onakawana lignite was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The blends were prepared by co-slurrying followed by drying. In the presence of 20 wt% ash the gasification rate doubled at 830 and 930 C. Direct blending of coal and lignite resulted in an overall increase in carbon conversion at 830 C but had no effect at 930 C. 5 refs.

  14. Characteristics of Mae Moh lignite: Hardgrove grindability index and approximate work index

    OpenAIRE

    Wutthiphong Tara; Chairoj Rattanakawin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to preliminarily study the Mae Moh lignite grindability tests emphasizing onHardgrove grindability and approximate work index determination respectively. Firstly, the lignite samples were collected,prepared and analyzed for calorific value, total sulfur content, and proximate analysis. After that the Hardgrove grindabilitytest using ball-race test mill was performed. Knowing the Hardgrove indices, the Bond work indices of some samples wereestimated using the A...

  15. The reduction of sulfate ions in Musashino woody lignite and in acetone-furfural resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, T.

    1986-01-01

    By adding a barium chloride solution to sulfur-containing woody lignite kept in water for two years, it has been confirmed that large quantities of sulfate ions are adsorbed by the lignite. Furthermore, spectroscopic measurements have confirmed the reduction of sulfate ions in an acetone-furfural resin prepared with residual sulfuric acid. These experimental results suggest the possibility of reducing sulfate ions in coal in the absence of sulfate bacteria. 2 refs.

  16. Soil restoration under pasture after lignite mining - management effects on soil biochemical properties and their relationships with herbage yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.J.; Speir, T.W.; Cowling, J.C.; Feltham, C.W. (DSIR, Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of soil biochemical properties under grazed, grass-clover pasture after simulated lignite mining was studied over a 5-year period in a mesic Typic Dystrochrept soil at Waimumu, Southland, New Zealand. Restoration procedures involved four replacement treatments, after A,B and C horizon materials had been separately removed, from all except the control, and stockpiled for 2-3 weeks. Replacement treatment markedly influenced the recovery of herbage production and soil organic C and total N contents, N mineralization, microbial biomass (as indicated by mineral-N flush) and invertase and sulphatase activities. The effectiveness of replacement treatments decreased in the order: 1. control (no stripping or replacement). 2. A,B and C horizon materials replaced in the same order. 3. A,B and C horizon materials each mixed with an equal amount of siltstone overburden and replaced in order, 4. A and B horizon materials mixed before replacing over C horizon materials. Ripping increased herbage production, net N mineralization and microbial biomass. Fertilizer N also stimulated herbage production but depressed clover growth. Increases in soil invertase and, to a lesser extent, sulphatase activity were closely related to changes in herbage production. Microbial biomass increased more rapidly than soil organic C in early stages in the trial. Rates of net N mineralization suggest that N availability would have limited pasture growth.

  17. Test results on reuse of reclaimed shower water - A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Sauer, Richard; Reysa, Richard P.; Linton, Arthur T.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to evaluate a microgravity whole body shower and waste water recovery system design for possible use on the Space Station. Several water recovery methods were tested, including phase change distillation, a thermoelectric hollow fiber membrane evaporation subsystem, and a reverse osmosis dynamic membrane system. Consideration is given to the test hardware, the types of soaps evaluated, the human response to showering with reclaimed water, chemical treatment for microbial control, the procedures for providing hygienic water, and the quality of water produced by the systems. All three of the waste water recovery systems tested successfully produced reclaimed water for reuse.

  18. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a FBC model for co-firing of hazelnut shell with lignite against experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulah, Gorkem [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Performance of a comprehensive system model extended for modelling of co-firing of lignite and biomass was assessed by applying it to METU 0.3 MW{sub t} Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor co-firing lignite with hazelnut shell and validating its predictions against on-line temperature and concentration measurements of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2} and NO along the same test rig fired with lignite only, lignite with limestone addition and lignite with biomass and limestone addition. The system model accounts for hydrodynamics; volatiles release and combustion, char combustion, particle size distribution for lignite and biomass; entrainment; elutriation; sulfur retention and NO formation and reduction, and is based on conservation equations for energy and chemical species. Special attention was paid to different devolatilization characteristics of lignite and biomass. A volatiles release model based on a particle movement model and a devolatilization kinetic model were incorporated into the system model separately for both fuels. Kinetic parameters for devolatilization were determined via thermogravimetric analysis. Predicted and measured temperatures and concentrations of gaseous species along the combustor were found to be in good agreement. Introduction of biomass to lignite was found to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions but did not affect NO emissions significantly. The system model proposed in this study proves to be a useful tool in qualitatively and quantitatively simulating the processes taking place in a bubbling fluidized bed combustor burning lignite with biomass. (author)

  20. A study relating to the conceptual design and cost estimates of the Saskatchewan Power Corporation lignite beneficiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granatstein, D L; Champagne, P J; Szladow, A J

    1982-06-01

    The purpose is to provide technology for upgrading lignite to a cleaner fuel that is capable of improving utility plant operation and is more acceptable to the non-utility sector. Beneficiated lignite can provide a middle alternative between low-grade and high-grade fuels. The results for phase IV include a conceptual design for a lignite beneficiation plant and a marketing study for the product. The beneficiated lignite is cheaper to transport, easier to handle, cleaner, allows better plant operation with higher availability, reduced slagging and fouling, reduced sulphur, and lower operating and maintenance costs. 8 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. 30 CFR 879.15 - Disposition of reclaimed land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of reclaimed land. 879.15 Section 879.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879...

  2. Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reclaiming urban youth identity through language in Kenya: the case of Koch FM radio. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... a new constitution that has expanded the democratic space and created broader awareness of ...

  3. The biological costs of not reclaiming bentonite mine spoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1982-01-01

    Bentonite clay has been mined in the northern Great Plains for more than 80 years. Until the late 1960's, mine spoil materials were left in steep piles and no effort was made to restore biological productivity to these disturbed sites. As a result, unreclaimed spoils are barren and eroded. The biological costs of not reclaiming these spoils are examined in this...

  4. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances...

  5. reClaiming Space & Dialogue in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalilak, Colleen A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper critiques current trends in adult education against a backdrop of practice that was once testimony to an educational model that extended beyond formal learning and a business and industry agenda. Adult educators are called upon to reclaim an identity as leaders, in support of a shift in perspective and practice, more aligned to…

  6. Leidos Reclaims Defelice Cup at Annual Golf Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Leidos Biomedical Research reclaimed the Defelice Cup trophy from NCI at the eighth annual Ronald H. Defelice golf tournament, held October 14. The final score was 15–7, with Leidos Biomed tying the series 4 to 4. Fourteen players on each team battled it out at Rattlewood golf course in Mount Airy, Md.

  7. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  8. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  9. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasani, F.; Shala, F.; Xhixha, G.; Xhixha, M.K.; Hodolli, G.; Kadiri, S.; Bylyku, E.; Cfarku, F.

    2014-01-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg −1 , 9 ± 1 Bq kg −1 and 9 ± 3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. - Highlights: • NORMs in lignite combustion residues from CFPPs are studied. • Th/U indicates either low U uptake from host rocks and/or high leaching from peat. • The concentration factor of NORMs in fly and bottom ash samples are 3–5 times. • No 226 Ra enrichment is observed in fly ash while a depletion in bottom ash. • The reuse of fly ash in cement industry poses no significant radiological issue

  10. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  11. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Sulfurisation of lipids in a marine-influenced lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandison, C.M.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.; Boreham, C.J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Compelling evidence is presented for the process of lipid sulfurisation in humic coal-forming environments. The production of reduced inorganic sulfides by sulfate-reducing bacteria during a marine transgression, which occurred during early diagenesis, enabled the selective sequestration of functionalised lipids in the polar and asphaltene fractions from the Eocene, marine-influenced Heartbreak Ridge lignite deposit in southeast Western Australia. Nickel boride desulfurisation experiments conducted on these fractions released small but significant quantities of sulfur-bound hydrocarbons. These comprised mostly higher plant triterpanes, C-29 steranes and extended 17beta(H),21beta(H)-hopanes, linked by one sulfur atom at, or close to, functionalised sites in the original natural product precursors. These sulfurised lipids come from the same carbon sources as the free hydrocarbon lipids, except for the sulfurised extended hopanoids, which may be partially derived from a different bacterial source. These results indicate that the selectivity and nature of steroid and hopanoid vulcanisation in coal-forming mires is similar to that observed in other sedimentary environments. However, the diversity of higher plant triterpanes that can be sulfurised in marine transgressed coals is greater than that reported in immature terrestrial coals. This preservation mechanism explains the formation of the structurally related biomarkers in more mature sulfur-rich humic coals.

  13. Computer simulations of discharges from a lignite power plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukouliou, V.; Horyna, J.; Perez-Sanchez, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes work carried out within the IAEA EMRAS program NORM working group to test the predictions of three computer models against measured radionuclide concentrations resulting from discharges from a lignite power plant complex. This complex consists of two power plants with a total of five discharge stacks, situated approximately 2-5 kilometres from a city of approximately 10,000 inhabitants. Monthly measurements of mean wind speed and direction, dust loading, and 238 U activities in fallout samples, as well as mean annual values of 232 Th activity in the nearest city sampling sites were available for the study. The models used in the study were Pc-CREAM (a detailed impact assessment model), and COMPLY and CROM (screening models). In applying the models to this scenario it was noted that the meteorological data provided was not ideal for testing, and that a number of assumptions had to be made, particularly for the simpler models. However, taking the gaps and uncertainties in the data into account, the model predictions from PC-CREAM were generally in good agreement with the measured data, and the results from different models were also generally consistent with each other. However, the COMPLY predictions were generally lower than those from PC-CREAM. This is of concern, as the aim of a screening model (COMPLY) is to provide conservative estimates of contaminant concentrations. Further investigation of this problem is required. The general implications of the results for further model development are discussed. (author)

  14. Product analysis of catalytic multi-stage hydropyrolysis of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Li; Na Wang; Baoqing Li [Chinese Academy of Science, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2003-03-01

    A lignite added with 0.2% MoS{sub 2} as catalyst was pyrolyzed under H{sub 2} using multi-stage heating method (MHyPy) which means holding a suitable time near the peak temperature. The product distribution and detailed analysis of products were performed. The results show that the tar yield increased to 63.9% during MHyPy compared with that of 51.8% in traditional hydropyrolysis (HyPy), while the gas yield decreased to a half. This suggests the effective utilization of hydrogen during MHyPy. The light aromatics in the tar from MHyPy increased remarkably 42, 37.8 and 115.4% for BTX, PCX and naphthalenes, respectively. Biphenyls were also observed in the tar from MHyPy, which indicated the effective hydrogenation occurs during catalytic MHyPy. The rich pore structure of the char from MHyPy hints its high reactivity in the subsequent conversion process such as gasification and combustion. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Growth response of microorganisms to different molecular fractions of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Dugan, P.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our research is primarily concerned with isolating and characterizing microbes which are able to dissimilate coal and convert it to other useful chemicals. This quarter, general growth responses of microorganisms cultivated in the presence of different molecular weight fractions of lignite coal were examined. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental samples from a variety of ecological niches were used as inocula. Growth of the microorganisms in these samples on the following types of media was tested: COAL medium, containing alkali-solubilized whole coal; THFI medium, containing the alkali-solubilized, tetrahydrofuran-insoluble, macromolecular portion of whole coal; THFS medium, containing the THF-soluble, low molecular weight portion of whole coal; and CON medium, void of any coal constituent. Overall results indicated that the presence of the THF-soluble, low molecular weight coal fraction enhanced the growth yield and the variety of aerobic microorganisms compared to the other coal fractions or the control medium. Conversely, anaerobic microbes grew best on media which contained the macromolecular fraction. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Oxidative desulfurization of Cayirhan lignites by permanganate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guru, M.; Tuzun, F.N.; Murathan, A.S.; Asan, A.; Kiyak, T. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Unless important developments record new and renewable energy sources, the role of fossil fuels as an energy resource goes on. It is possible to detect sulfur, heavy metals, and tracer elements such as arsenic and selenium by decreasing calorific value of coals. Sulfur oxides, which are the main pollutants in atmosphere, are irritative to humans and plants, and erosion occurs on buildings. Although there are high lignite reservoirs, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this research, it is aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfur form in the ash by oxidizing it with permanganate solution. During this research, the effect of two different parameters of potassium permanganate concentration, processing time, and mean particle size were investigated at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The conversion of combustible sulfur to non-combustible sulfur form was achieved optimally with 0.14 M potassium permanganate solution, 0.1 mm mean particle size at 16 h of treatment time, and the combustible sulfur amount was decreased by 46.37% compared to undoped conditions.

  17. The development of the Ptolemais lignite deposit, present situation and future perspective of the electrical energy market (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavourides, Kostas

    1997-01-01

    PPC is by far the major producer of solid fuels in Greece. Currently the known exploitable reserves of solid fuels, are 4,0 billions tones of lignite and 4 billion cubic meters of peat. Mining of Lignite in Greece started in 1951 at the Aliveri underground mine and was continued at the open cast mines at Ptolemais (1955) and Megalopolis (1919). For more than 45 years. PPC has successfully exploited the Greece Lignite deposit for the production of electricity in order to satisfy the demand in Greece. Today PPC produces 60 million tons of lignite and handles approximately 275 million cubic meters of masses (overburden, lignite and interculated) per year. Lignite is the main energy resource in Greece and its combustion provides 75-80% of the electrical energy consumed in Greece.The Lignite Center of Ptolemais - Amyndeon (LCP-A) operated by the Greece PPC is located in northern Greece, about 110 km west of the city of Thessaloniki. The lignite deposits under exploitation cover an area. of 120 km 2 including 4000 Mt of proven geological reserves and 2700 Mt of exploitable lignite under current economic and technological criteria. Today LCP-A manages six active mines which in 1997 have a rate of handling 245 mil cubic meter of material and producing approx. 48 mil for of lignite. The continuous mining method which employs BWES, conveyors and strackers is the principal mining method used in all the lignite mines at the Ptolemais-Amyndeon Lignite Center. The implementation of selective mining procedures as well as discontinuous and /or combined mining methods differentiates the mining technology at the LCP-A from the respective technology applied in Germany lignite mines. The quality properties suggest that the lignite deposits in Greece are among the world's worst quality deposits exploited for energy production, where approximately 2 kg of lignite are consumed per I kWh of generated power. The main advantages of PPC'S coal orientated development program are the following

  18. Effects of lignite application on ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from cattle pens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jianlei, E-mail: su@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Bai, Mei [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Shen, Jianlin [Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125 (China); Griffith, David W.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Denmead, Owen T. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Hill, Julian [Ternes Agricultural Consulting Pty Ltd, Upwey, VIC 3158 (Australia); Lam, Shu Kee; Mosier, Arvin R. [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2016-09-15

    Beef cattle feedlots are a major source of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) emissions from livestock industries. We investigated the effects of lignite surface applications on NH{sub 3} and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot pens. Two rates of lignite, 3 and 6 kg m{sup −2}, were tested in the treatment pen. No lignite was applied in the control pen. Twenty-four Black Angus steers were fed identical commercial rations in each pen. We measured NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O concentrations continuously from 4th Sep to 13th Nov 2014 using Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) NH{sub 3} analysers and a closed-path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyser (CP-FTIR) in conjunction with the integrated horizontal flux method to calculate NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}O fluxes. During the feeding period, 16 and 26% of the excreted nitrogen (N) (240 g N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}) was lost via NH{sub 3} volatilization from the control pen, while lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization to 12 and 18% of the excreted N, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Compared to the control pen, lignite application decreased NH{sub 3} emissions by approximately 30%. Nitrous oxide emissions from the cattle pens were small, 0.10 and 0.14 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1} (< 0.1% of excreted N) for the control pen, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. Lignite application increased direct N{sub 2}O emissions by 40 and 57%, to 0.14 and 0.22 g N{sub 2}O-N head{sup −1} day{sup −1}, for Phase 1 and Phase 2, respectively. The increase in N{sub 2}O emissions resulting from lignite application was counteracted by the lower indirect N{sub 2}O emission due to decreased NH{sub 3} volatilization. Using 1% as a default emission factor of deposited NH{sub 3} for indirect N{sub 2}O emissions, the application of lignite decreased total N{sub 2}O emissions. - Graphical abstract: Lignite application substantially decreased NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle feedlots and increased

  19. Changes of chemical properties of humic acids from crude and fungal transformed lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LianHua Dong; Quan Yuan; HongLi Yuan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China). College of Biological Science

    2006-12-15

    The development of biological processes for fossil energy utilization has received increasing attention in recent years. There are abundance of lignite resources in China and the lignite, a low-grade coal, can be transformed by a Penicillium sp. After fungal transformation, the contents of humic acid and water-soluble humic material increased from 38.6% to 55.1%, and from less than 4.0% to 28.2%, respectively. The differences in chemical properties of crude lignite humic acid (aHA), fungal transformed lignite humic acid (bHA) and water-soluble humic material from fungal transformed lignite (WS) were studied. Elemental analysis and size exclusion chromatography showed that the N content of bHA increased by 47.36% compared with aHA, and the molecular mass of bHA was smaller than aHA. And the WS with the smallest molecular mass contained most content of N. The {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR spectra of aHA and bHA showed that aHA contained more aromatic structure than bHA. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. A lignite-geothermal hybrid power and hydrogen production plant for green cities and sustainable buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkis, B. [Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-02-15

    Turkey is rich in both geothermal energy and lignite reserves, which in many cases, are co-located. This condition makes it feasible to utilize both lignite and geothermal energy in a hybrid form for combined power heat, and cold generation, which may lead to optimally energy and exergy efficient, environmentally benign, and economically sound applications. This paper presents a novel concept of hybrid lignite-geothermal plant for a district energy system and hydrogen production facility in Aydin with special emphasis on high performance, green buildings and green districts. In this concept, lignite is first introduced to a partially fluidized-bed gasifier and then to a fluidized-bed gas cleaning unit, which produces synthetic gas and finally hydrogen. The by-products, namely char and ash are used in a fluidized-bed combustor to produce power. Waste heat from all these steps are utilized in a district heating system along with heat received from geothermal production wells after power is generated there. H{sub 2}S gas obtained from the separator system is coupled with hydrogen production process at the lignite plant. Absorption cooling systems and thermal storage tanks complement the hybrid system for the tri-generation district energy system. On the demand side, the new, green OSTIM OSB administration building in Ankara is exemplified for greener, low-exergy buildings that will compound the environmental benefits.

  1. Wettability modification of Wender lignite by adsorption of dodecyl poly ethoxylated surfactants with different degree of ethoxylation: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Bao; Xia, Yangchao; Liu, Shengyu

    2017-09-01

    Lignite is an important and useful fossil fuel in the world and the strong hydrophilicity of it limits its applications. Surfactant adsorption on lignite is an effective way to make it hydrophobic. In this work, aiming to examine the effect of the degree of ethoxylation on the adsorption behavior of dodecyl poly ethoxylated surfactants on lignite and the wettability modification of modified lignite by surfactant adsorption, different combined systems formed by surfactants, water and a model surface of Wender lignite have been studied using molecular dynamics simulation. The adsorption configurations vary with the degree of ethoxylation. At the same adsorption amounts, increasing the degree of ethoxylation can make the adsorption layer more compactness and bring stronger adsorption strength. The results of binding energy and its components show that the adsorption of alkyl polyoxyethylene ethers surfactant on lignite is physically adsorbed rather than electrostatically or chemisorbed. Meanwhile, van der Waals interaction plays a dominant role in the adsorption. The addition of surfactant could reduce the possibility of the interaction between water and lignite. Compared to the original lignite, the interaction between them is weakened after surfactant adsorption in water/surfactant/lignite system, thus strengthening the hydrophobicity of lignite. Similar to the adsorption strength, hydrophobicity of modified lignite increases with the increase of the degree of ethoxylation. The lignite surface properties are changed due to surfactant adsorption by analyzing the compositions of interaction energy and the change of hydrogen bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The German lignite industry. Historical development, resources, technology, economic structures and environmental impact. Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    Lignite has a key role to play in the transformation of the energy system due to its specific structural features in terms of industry, company history, policy, economics, the environment and regional structures. Understanding these structural features of the German lignite industry is an important requirement for classifying the significance of the lignite industry up to now and for the redesigning of this industrial sector. From these environmental, economic and regulatory structural characteristics, which are interwoven in a variety of ways, the incentives arise for the mining and power plant operators to react to energy price signals or energy policy steering. The aim of this research study is to define these structural features, to compile comprehensively the basic data and information that is not always transparently available, to understand the interactions, to enable the navigation of issues that are partly very complex, and to classify into the long-term developments that are especially important for political and social processes. In 2016 approx. 12 percent of German primary energy consumption was met using lignite. At the same time, lignite has the highest carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the fossil fuels; it currently accounts for approx. 19 percent of Germany's total greenhouse gas emissions as well as approx. 46 percent of the total CO2 emissions of the electricity sector. As a result of the mining of lignite and its conversion into electricity, substantial adverse impacts beyond the entry of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere arise for other environmental media. These impacts include half of Germany's mercury emissions, approx. a third of its sulfur dioxide emissions and approx. a tenth of its nitrogen oxide emissions. Lignite mining in open-cast mines takes up a substantial amount of landscape and soil and requires huge interventions in the water balance. Relatively high costs arise for the recultivation and rehabilitation of the open

  3. Influence of the Reclaim from the Cordis Technology on the Core Sand Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the mechanical reclamation of spent moulding sands from the Cordis technology are presented in the paper. The quality assessment of the obtained reclaim and the influence of the reclaim fraction in a matrix on the core sand strength is given. The reclaim quality assessment was performed on the basis of the determination of losses on ignition, Na2O content on reclaim grains and pH values. The reclaim constituted 100%, 75% and 50% of the core sand matrix, for which the bending strength was determined. The matrix reclamation treatment was performed in the experimental rotor reclaimer RD-6. Spent sands were applied in as-delivered condition and after the heating to a temperature of 140 °C. Shaped samples for strength tests were made by shooting and hardening of sands in the warmbox technology.

  4. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  5. Acid leaching of coal: to produce clean fuels from Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seferinoglu, Meryem [Mineral Research and Exploration Directorate (Turkey)], email: meryem_seferinoglu66@yahoo.com; Duzenli, Derya [Ankara Central Laboratory (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing concerns about the environment, energy producers and governments are looking at developing clean energy sources. However, Turkey has limited clean energy resources and is using low grade coal which has high sulphur content as an alternative energy source. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of generating clean fuel from Edirne Lignite and to get a better understanding of chemical mechanisms involved in coal leaching with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solutions. Leaching was conducted on Edirne Lignite with HF solution at ambient temperature and the effects of parameters such as reaction time and concentration of acid solutions on the process were evaluated. The optimum conditions were found and it was shown that ash levels can be reduced from 28.9% to 10.5% and the calorific value increased by 500kcal/kg with the HF leaching method. This study demonstrated that the production of clean fuel from high sulphur lignite is possible.

  6. Thermogravimetric investigation of the co-combustion between the pyrolysis oil distillation residue and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2016-10-01

    Co-combustion of lignite with distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil was investigated by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The addition of distillation residue improved the reactivity and combustion efficiency of lignite, such as increasing the weight loss rate at peak temperature and decreasing the burnout temperature and the total burnout. With increasing distillation residue content in the blended fuels, the synergistic interactions between distillation residue and lignite firstly increased and then decreased during co-combustion stage. Results of XRF, FTIR, (13)C NMR and SEM analysis indicated that chemical structure, mineral components and morphology of samples have great influence on the synergistic interactions. The combustion mechanisms and kinetic parameters were calculated by the Coats Redfern model, suggesting that the lowest apparent activation energy (120.19kJ/mol) for the blended fuels was obtained by blending 60wt.% distillation residue during main co-combustion stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  8. Influence of geological variations on lignite drying kinetics in superheated steam atmosphere for Belchatow deposit located in the central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciazko Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignite-fired coal power plants suffer from a significant heat loss due to the high moisture content in this energy carrier. Water removal from fuel is an indispensable treatment for improving the combustion process, which will foster the efficient utilization of lignite. Superheated steam fluidized bed drying is expected for this purpose in a power generation sector. Understanding drying kinetics of lignite will greatly reinforce design process of a dryer. Physical features as well as the drying behaviour may be divergent among the lignite originated from different depths and positions in a certain mine. To reveal and clarify the influence of the geological features, the drying characteristics of several grades of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland were investigated. The attempts to clarify the influence of the divergent properties of the investigated samples on the drying kinetics in superheated steam were presented in this paper.

  9. Recycling of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Portland Cement Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Al-Oraimi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP is the result of removing old asphalt pavement material. RAP consists of high quality well-graded aggregate coated with asphalt cement. The removal of asphalt concrete is done for reconstruction purposes, resurfacing, or to obtain access to buried utilities. The disposal of RAP represents a large loss of valuable source of high quality aggregate. This research investigates the properties of concrete utilizing recycled reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP. Two control mixes with normal aggregate were designed with water cement ratios of 0.45 and 0.5. The control mixes resulted in compressive strengths of 50 and 33 MPa after 28 days of curing. The coarse fraction of RAP was used to replace the coarse aggregate with 25, 50, 75, and 100% for both mixtures. In addition to the control mix (0%, the mixes containing RAP were evaluated for slump, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity. Durability was evaluated using surface absorption test.

  10. Approach to the health-risk management on municipal reclaimed water reused in landscape water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Li, J.; Liu, W.

    2008-12-01

    Water pollution and water heavily shortage are both main environmental conflicts in China. Reclaimed water reuse is an important approach to lessen water pollution and solve the water shortage crisis in the city. The heath risk of reclaimed water has become the focus of the public. It is impending to evaluate the health risk of reclaimed water with risk assessment technique. Considering the ways of the reclaimed water reused, it is studied that health risk produced by toxic pollutants and pathogenic microbes in the processes of reclaimed water reused in landscape water system. The pathogenic microbes monitoring techniques in wastewater and reclaimed water are discussed and the hygienic indicators, risk assessment methods, concentration limitations of pathogenic microbes for various reclaimed water uses are studied. The principle of health risk assessment is used to research the exposure level and the health risk of concerned people in a wastewater reuse project where the reclaimed water is applied for green area irrigation in a public park in Beijing. The exposure assessment method and model of various reclaimed water uses are built combining with Beijing reclaimed water project. Firstly the daily ingesting dose and lifetime average daily dose(LADD) of exposure people are provided via field work and monitoring analysis, which could be used in health risk assessment as quantitative reference. The result shows that the main risk comes from the pathology pollutants, the toxic pollutants, the eutrophication pollutants, pathogenic microbes and the secondary pollutants when municipal wastewater is reclaimed for landscape water. The major water quality limited should include pathogenic microbes, toxic pollutants, and heavy metals. Keywords: municipal wastewater, reclaimed water, landscape water, health risk

  11. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA

  12. Quantifying topographic differences between premining and reclaimed landscapes at a large surface coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlander, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Premining and reclaimed landscapes on 2,300 acres were compared quantitatively at a surface coal mine in western North Dakota. Weighted average slopes were determined by calculating acres in each slope class (0% to 3%, 3% to 6%, 6% to 9%, 9% to 15%, and > 15%) and dividing by the total number of acres. Weighted average slopes were 3.8% and 3.0% for all premining and reclaimed lands respectively. Weighted average slopes were 2.7% and 2.1% for premining and reclaimed croplands respectively. Reclaimed native rangeland slopes are 5.5% compared to 7.0% premining. The acreage of native rangeland with >9% slopes decreased more than 50% during reclamation. For all mined lands there is 25% more reclaimed land with 0% to 3% slopes and 25% less reclaimed land with >6% slopes than before mining. Topographic changes caused by surface mining and reclamation enhance soil conservation, moisture retention, and agricultural productivity. A cross-sectional profile had 26.8 and 15.5 premining and reclaimed land up-down gradient changes per mile respectively, indicating reclaimed land is less diverse than it was prior to mining. Slope class map units average 3.5 and 4.4 acres respectively on premining and reclaimed lands, further indicating reduced diversity. Landscape improvements conflict with regulatory diversity requirements to determine reclamation success

  13. Perceptions of Different Stakeholders on Reclaimed Water Reuse: The Case of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Public involvement is critical to the successful implementation of reclaimed water reuse programs. Based on the participatory research method, we studied the attitudes of the stakeholders who are involved in reclaimed water reuse in Beijing, China. Results showed that the general public’s knowledge on water resources was poor, while their awareness on reclaimed water reuse was high. The general public showed a strong acceptance of non-contact and non-potable reclaimed water reuse, but their acceptance of the three major water reuse types of river water supplement, park water supplement, and agriculture irrigation was not high. The beneficial use of reclaimed water was admired by water resource managers, industrial sectors, and researchers, and these stakeholders strongly supported the advancement of reclaimed water reuse. However, some of the stakeholders showed concerns about the potential risks from reclaimed wastewater reuse. Among them, risks from waste water treatment facilities were the biggest concern. Stakeholders’ perception of reclaimed water was influenced by their social-economic attributes. This study will enrich the current survey findings on public perception of reclaimed water reuse, particularly in developing countries.

  14. REMOVAL OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID FROM THE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS USING NATURAL AND ACTIVATED LIGNITE COALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜLENSOY

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available In these studies, a typical lignite coal found near Istanbul (Yeniköy and its activated products were used to adsorb TCA from aqueous solutions. Particle sizes of coal samples and the concentrations of TCA solutions were chosen as parameters against the fixed amount of adsorbent. The maximum efficiency has been obtained for the coal having (-120 + 150 mesh size fraction activated by heating. As a result, it was shown that these kinds of lignite coals could be used as a good adsorbent. In addition, it was also proved that both the removal and recovery of TCA from some waste waters would easily be possible.

  15. Production of metallurgical cokes from some Turkish lignites using sulphite liquor binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanik, J.; Saglam, M.; Yuksel, M. (Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    Soma and Tuncbilek lignites were briquetted at 80{degree}C under 0-100 MPa, using varying amounts of sulphite liquor binders. The briquettes were then carbonized at 950{degree}C, and the resulting formed cokes were examined. The effects of the type and concentration of binders, and of the briquetting pressure, on the strength and porosity of the formcokes were investigated. As a result of these experiments, optimal briquetting conditions were established. It was also stated that formcokes made from both Turkish lignite samples under optimal briquetting conditions could be used for metallurgical purposes, particularly in non-ferrous metallurgy. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Fractal morphology in lignite coal: a small angle x-ray scattering investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitra, R.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Chandrasekaran, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering technique has been used to study the pore morphology in lignite coal from Neyveli lignite mine (Tamilnadu, India). The sample were collected from three different locations of the same mine. SAXS profiles from all the three samples show almost identical functionality, irrespective of the locations from where the samples were collected. SAXS experiment using two different wavelengths also exhibit same functionality indicating the absence of multiple scattering. The analysis indicates the surface fractal nature of the pore morphology. The surface fractal dimension is calculated to be 2.58. (author)

  17. Aquifers in coastal reclaimed lands - real world assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bironne, A.; Vonhögen-Peeters, L.; Lee, W. K.; Babovic, V. M.; Vermeulen, P.; van Baaren, E.; Karaoulis, M.; Blanchais, F.; Nguyen, M.; Pauw, P.; Doornenbal, P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change and population growth are significant concerns in coastal regions around the world, where more than 30% of the world's population reside. The numbers continue to rise as coastal areas are increasingly urbanized. Urbanization creates land shortages along the coasts, which has spurred coastal reclamation activities as a viable solution. In this study, we focus on these reclamation areas; reclaimed areas in Singapore, and in the Netherlands, and investigate the potential of these reclaimed bodies as artificial aquifers that could attenuate water shortage problems in addition to their original purpose. We compare how the reclamation methods determine the hydrogeological characteristics of these manmade aquifers. We highlight similarities in freshwater lens development in the artificial shallow aquifers under natural recharge under diverse conditions, i.e. tropical and temperate zones, using numerical models. The characteristics and responses of these aquifers with dynamic freshwater-saltwater interface are contrasted against naturally occurring coastal aquifers where equilibrium was disturbed by anthropogenic activities. Finally, we assess the risks associated with subsidence and saltwater intrusion, combining measurements and numerical models, in case these aquifers are planned for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) or Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategies. Relative performances of some ASR schemes are simulated and compared in the reclaimed lands.

  18. Reclaimed mineland curve number response to temporal distribution of rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, R.C.; Agouridis, C.T.; Vingralek, P.T.; Fogle, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    The curve number (CN) method is a common technique to estimate runoff volume, and it is widely used in coal mining operations such as those in the Appalachian region of Kentucky. However, very little CN data are available for watersheds disturbed by surface mining and then reclaimed using traditional techniques. Furthermore, as the CN method does not readily account for variations in infiltration rates due to varying rainfall distributions, the selection of a single CN value to encompass all temporal rainfall distributions could lead engineers to substantially under- or over-size water detention structures used in mining operations or other land uses such as development. Using rainfall and runoff data from a surface coal mine located in the Cumberland Plateau of eastern Kentucky, CNs were computed for conventionally reclaimed lands. The effects of temporal rainfall distributions on CNs was also examined by classifying storms as intense, steady, multi-interval intense, or multi-interval steady. Results indicate that CNs for such reclaimed lands ranged from 62 to 94 with a mean value of 85. Temporal rainfall distributions were also shown to significantly affect CN values with intense storms having significantly higher CNs than multi-interval storms. These results indicate that a period of recovery is present between rainfall bursts of a multi-interval storm that allows depressional storage and infiltration rates to rebound. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association.

  19. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  20. Germany's lignite industry in 2011; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Koeln (Germany); Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    From 2010 to 2011, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up 4.2% from 169.4 mill. t to 176.5 mill. t. This output is equivalent to a net calorific value of 54.4 mill. tce; of the total output, 157.4 mill. t, or some 90% was used in utility power plants for public supply. That was 3.6% more than in the previous year; 15.5 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 2.6 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 24.9% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2011. In 2011, lignite had an 11.7% share in primary-energy consumption, giving it slot four in Germany's energy-consumption balance after mineral oil (34.0%), natural gas (20.4%) and hard coal (12.6%). Renewable resources cover 10.9, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.8% and other energy sources for 1.6%. With output of 54.4 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38,5% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 141.3 mill. tce. The contributions made by the other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2011 were as follows: 12.3 mill. tce hard coal, 13.1 mill. tce gas, 3.9 mill tce mineral oil, 49.5 mill. tce renewables, and 8.1 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity that Germany produced in 2011, 24,9% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2011, followed by renewables with 19.9% hard coal with 18.6%, nuclear energy with 17.6% and gas with 13.7%. Other energy sources made a 5.3% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply was shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 3.7% from 168.7 mill. t in 2010 to 175 mill. t in 2011. In the entire period from 1990 to 2011, a

  1. Germany's lignite industry in 2012; Die deutsche Braunkohlenindustrie im Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maassen, Uwe [Bundesverband Braunkohle, Statistik der Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Koeln (Germany); Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE Aktiengesellschaft, Essen (Germany). CEA-W Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft

    2013-05-15

    From 2011 to 2012, Germany's domestic lignite output edged up to 5.1% from 176.5 mill. t to 185.4 mill. t. This figure is equivalent to a net calorific value of 57.2 mill. tce. Of the total output, 166.3 mill. t, or some 90%, was used in utility power plants for the public supply, i.e. 5.7% more than in the previous year. In addition, 15.1 mill. t was input in the factories of the lignite-mining industry to make solid products, while 3.0 mill. t was used to generate electricity in mine-mouth power plants. Other sales of raw lignite and changes in stocks accounted for 1.0 mill. t. Lignite made a 25.7% contribution toward Germany's total power generation in 2012. In 2012, lignite had a 12.1% share in primary-energy consumption balance after mineral oil (33.1%), natural gas (21.6%) and hard coal (12.2%). Renewable resources cover 11.6%, while nuclear energy accounts for 8.0% and other energy sources for 1.4%. With output of 57.2 mill. tce, lignite held a share of 38.4% in Germany's primary-energy production of some 149 mill. tce in 2012. The contributions made by other energy carriers to primary-energy production in 2012 were as follows: 11.1 mill. tce hard coal, 13.3 mill. tce gas, 3.8 mill. tce mineral oil, 54.0 mill. tce renewables, and 9.5 mill. tce other energy sources. Of the total electricity amount that Germany produced in 2012, 25.7% was accounted for by lignite. This means that lignite led the ranking of the most important input energies for electricity generation in 2012, followed by renewables with 22.1%, hard coal with 19.1%, nuclear energy with 16.1% and gas with 11.3%. Other energy sources made a 5.7% contribution to total gross power generation. The most important ratios for the contributions made by the various lignite-mining areas to Germany's energy supply are shown. CO{sub 2} emissions from lignite rose 5.1% from 173.9 mill. t in 2011 to 182.8 mill. t in 2012. In the total period from 1990 to 2012, a decline of 159.4 mill. t, or

  2. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  3. Dry re-forming of methane to synthesis gas over lignite semicokes catalyst at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbo Guo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dry re-forming of methane has been carried out in a high temperature–pressure reactor at different pressures, using Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst. The results show that CH4 and CO2 conversions are decreased as the reaction pressure increased, but both of them kept basically stable when the reaction pressure is between 0.3 and 1 MPa. The comparison shows that the effects of the temperature and the flow of reactant gas on dry re-forming of methane are consistent with between high pressure and atmospheric pressure. The ratio of CO/H2 decreased as the ratio of CH4/CO2 increased, yet the value of CO/H2 is always more than 1 at different pressures. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst is characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET, and the analysis results reveled that the physical specific adsorption peak of CO2 at 2350 cm−1 is strengthened significantly at different pressures, the micropore area and volume of Hongce lignite semicokes reduced form 40.2 m2  g−1 and 0.019 cm3  g−1 to 34.9 m2  g−1 and 0.017 cm3  g−1, respectively. Hongce lignite semicokes catalyst exhibited better activity and stability within 0.3–1 MPa range.

  4. Elemental characterization of lignite from Afsin-Elbistan in Turkey by k(0)-NAA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubešová, Marie; Orucoglu, E.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Erenturk, S.; Krausová, Ivana; Kučera, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 308, č. 3 (2016), s. 1055-1062 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Lignite * Afsin * Elbistan * neutron activation analysis * k(0) standardization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  5. Process for treating bituminous coal, lignite, peat, and shale, and products obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabelitz, E J

    1951-06-27

    A process is described comprising leaching bituminous coal, lignite, peat, or shale by immersing said material in ethylene dichloride for a period of time sufficient to remove the ethylene dichloride-soluble constituents, separating the treated material from the ethylene dichloride solution and recovering from the solution the soluble constituents of the material dissolved in the solution. Soluble constituents include oils and waxes.

  6. Co-gasification of a lignite/waste-tyre in a moving bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bučko, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 10 (2009), s. 1202-1206 ISSN 0378-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/07/1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : co-gasification * waste-tyre * lignite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.321, year: 2009

  7. A modern thermal power station operating on high-moisture lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.R. Kotler; D.V. Sosin [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The boilers developed by the power machinery construction company Alstom for two power-generating units, the Maritsa East-II and Maritsa East-II, operating on high-moisture lignite from the Maritsa East field in Bulgaria are described.

  8. Sustainable development of lignite production on open cast mines in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darko Danicic; Slobodan Mitrovic; Vladimir Pavlovic; Sava Kovacev [Kolubara Metal, Vreoci (Serbia)

    2009-09-15

    Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m{sup 3} of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  10. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of conditioned foamed asphalt mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) Test for samples prepared with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Samples were conditioned in water at 25°C for 24 hours prior to testing. Results show that recycled aggregate from reclaimed asphalt pavement performs as well as virgin aggregate.

  11. Rethink, Reimagine, Reinvent: The Reggio Emilia Approach to Incorporating Reclaimed Materials in Children's Artworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela; Spearman, Mindy

    2009-01-01

    Introducing reclaimed materials into the art classroom provides students with unique opportunities to connect ordinary, discarded objects with unique, personal artistic creations. In an effort to better understand this connection, this article explores existing pedagogical precedents that support the role of the inclusion of reclaimed materials in…

  12. NR based curred latex material reclaimed with 2,2'-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulphide in truck tyre tread compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is observed that reclamation of natural rubber latex based rubber using 2,2'-dibenzamidodiphenyldisulphide as reclaiming agent is an optional methodology for recycling of waste latex rubber (WLR). For progressive replacement of virgin natural rubber by the reclaim, two alternatives curing system

  13. [Assessment of ecological environment benefits of reclaimed water reuse in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Peng; Chen, Wei-Ping

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid development of the social economy and the sustained growth of population, China is facing increasingly serious water problems, and reclaimed water utilization has become an effective measure to solve water shortage problem and to control further deterioration of the ecological environment. Reclaimed water utilization can not only save a lot of fresh water, but also reduce the environmental impact of wastewater discharge, and thus has great ecological environmental benefits, including resource, environmental and human health benefits and so on. This study used the opportunity cost method to construct an evaluation system for ecological environmental benefits of reclaimed water utilization, and Beijing was taken as an example to conduct an estimation of ecological environmental benefits of reclaimed water utilization. Research results indicated that the reclaimed water utilization in Beijing had considerable environmental benefits for ¥ 1.2 billion in 2010, in which replacement of fresh water accounted for the largest share. The benefits of environmental improvement and groundwater recharge were large, while the other benefits were small or negative. The ecological environment benefits of reclaimed water utilization in Beijing was about 1.8 times that of its direct economic benefits, showing that reclaimed water utilization was in accordance with sustainable development. Related methods and results will provide scientific basis to promote the development of reclaimed water utilization in our country.

  14. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  15. Geophysical mapping of contaminant leachate around a reclaimed open dumpsite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.O. Raji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM, 2D Electrical Resistivity Profiling (2D ERP and Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES methods of geophysics were deployed to map the extent of leachate contamination in near-surface rocks around a popular reclaimed dumpsite in north central Nigeria. Two years after abandon and waste excavation; the dumpsite was converted to a residential area with over 80 houses under construction. Prior to waste dumping operation, clay-seal was installed at 2 m depth around the dumpsite to prevent leachate from the waste material flowing to the adjoining area. Results from VLF, 2D ERP, and VES show presence of leachate contamination in rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite. Leachate has spread laterally up to a distance of about 1 km on the northern and southern parts of the dumpsite centre, and up to a depth of about 20 m. Compared to the results of similar survey in an area outside the dumpsite, leachate infiltration raised the conductivity signature of the rocks around the dumpsite by about 200%: from 7% to 22%. Both VLF-EM and 2D ERP show the presence of approximate north – south oriented structures/fracture characterised by high conductivity. VES results show the presence of four – five geo-electric layers. Important conclusions from the study are that (i leachate is still present in the rocks and soil of the reclaimed dumpsite two years after the abandonment and excavation of the waste materials, and (ii the clay seal installed around the dumpsite could not prevent leachate migration to the adjoining areas.

  16. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  17. Soil properties evolution after irrigation with reclaimed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Miguel, A.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Lillo, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many arid and semi-arid countries are forced to look for new and alternative water sources. The availability of suitable quality water for agriculture in these regions often is threatened. In this context of water scarcity, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could represent a feasible solution. Through rigorous planning and management, irrigation with reclaimed water presents some advantages such as saving freshwater, reducing wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies and decreasing the amount of added fertilizers due to the extra supply of nutrients by reclaimed water. The current study, which involves wastewater reuse in agriculture, has been carried out in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevile, Spain). Here, two survey parcels equally designed have been cultivated with Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergetic plant and a non-interfering food security crop. The only difference between the two parcels lies on the irrigation water quality: one is irrigated with groundwater and another one with reclaimed water. The main aim of this study focuses on analysing the outstanding differences in soil properties derived from irrigation with two water qualities, due to their implications for plant growth. To control and monitor the soil variables, soil samples were collected before and after irrigation in the two parcels. pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), kjeldahl nitrogen, organic matter content and nutrients (boron, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using the R package. To evaluate the variance ANOVA test was used and to obtain the relations between water quality and soil parameters, Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. According to other authors, a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and some exchangeable cations were expected. To date and after

  18. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  19. State and performance of on-stream ash content determination in lignite and black coal using 2-energy transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuemmel, H.W.; Koerner, G.; Leonhardt, J.

    1986-01-01

    The total r.m.s. ash error of the 2-energy transmission on-stream ash gauges KRAS-2 (CIIRR, GDR) and SIROASH (Australia) are 4 weight percentage for raw lignite and 0.5 weight percentage for black coal, respectively. A detailed error analysis shows that this difference is due to the high water content and to strong variations in the ash composition of raw lignite. Both gauges show essentially the same radiometric performance. (author)

  20. Petrographic Composition of Lignite from the Lake Somerville Spillway (East-central Texas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelec, Sandra; Bielowicz, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    In the presented paper, the macroscopic and microscopic composition of lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway has been examined. The study area is the upper part of the Manning Formation, located north-west of Somerville in the central-eastern part of Texas. There are three exposures: NE, SW and MC (Main Central) with visible parts of late-Eocene lignite seams belonging to the Jackson Group. The Manning section is divided into four marine dominated parasequences (P1 through P4). Lignite samples outlining the P1 parasequence from the MC and NE outcrops and the argillate sample from the lower part of the P2 parasequence, NE outcrop. Macroscopic characterization was carried out based on lithological classifications of humic coal. On this basis, it has been shown that the main lithotype occurring in the deposit is detritic (matrix) coal with a high share of mineral matter. The maceral composition of coal was determined according to the ICCP guidelines. The macerals from liptinite group were determined under fluorescent light. The maceral group content analysis was performed with use of 500-600 equally spaced points on the surface of the polished sections. It has been found that the examined coal is dominated by macerals from the huminite group, with a share ranging from 20.8 to 65.3% volume, including atrinite (9.8-22.8% volume, 17.5% volume on average). In the examined coal, macerals from the inertinite group (10.1 to 44.8%), especially semifusinite (max. 13.9%), fusinite (max. 9.3%) and funginite (max. 6.3 %) are of particularly large share. In the liptinite group, particular attention was paid to the content of alginite (max. 4.5%) and bituminite (max. 1.3 %), which indicate the paralic sedimentation environment of the examined coal. Additionally, the variability of macerals and maceral groups within the exposures and levels of the P1 parasequence was examined. The last step was to compare lignite from Lake Somerville Spillway with other lignites belonging to the

  1. Potentials and limitations of spatial and demographic development in Kosovo-Metohija lignite basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial research carried out for the purpose of elaborating the Spatial Plan for Kosovo-Metohija Lignite Basin indicated the need to address numerous conflicts and opposing interests in the area concerned. This required the Plan to focus on harmonizing the economic, social and spatial aspects of developing a mining-energy-industrial system (hereinafter MEIS and its surroundings, devising the new ways for the protection of local population interests and use of novel approaches in dealing with the environmental consequences of lignite exploitation and processing. The area wherein Kosovo-Metohija lignite deposits are found is replete with diverse conflicting interests, including insufficient and uneven development, extremely large overall and especially agrarian population density (among the highest in Europe, unemployment and a sizable portion of the grey economy, low level and quality of services of public interest, ethnic conflicts and polarization, etc. The environmental effects of MEIS activities in a situation of this kind were revealed by the early stages of research in all segments of economic, social and spatial development, along with a high degree of environmental degradation. The main conflict in the Plan area is the one between mining and agriculture, i.e. open pit lignite mining and high-fertility soil covering lignite deposits. The conflict is additionally aggravated by the remarkable density of agricultural population on this territory and high selling prices of the land. Therefore, a substantial part of the Plan’s propositions was related to the conditions of settlement and infrastructure relocation, population resettlement and measures to relieve the tensions and prevent the outbreak of potential conflicts in implementing the Plan. The Spatial Plan is conceived as a complex and comprehensive document defining the framework, basic principles, starting points and measures tackling the numerous development conflicts, spatial

  2. Perfect sound insulation property of reclaimed waste tire rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Harjana, Yahya, Iwan; Kristiani, Restu; Muqowi, Eki; Mazlan, Saiful Amri

    2016-03-01

    This article reports an experimental investigation of sound insulation and absorption performance of a materials made of reclaimed ground tire rubber which is known as un-recyclable thermoset. The bulk waste tire is processed using single step recycling methods namely high-pressure high-temperature sintering (HPHTS). The bulk waste tire is simply placed into a mold and then a pressure load of 3 tons and a heating temperature of 200°C are applied to the mold. The HPHTS conducted for an hour and then it is cooled in room temperature. The resulted product is then evaluated the acoustical properties namely sound transmission loss (STL) and sound absorption coefficient using B&K Tube Kit Type 4206-T based on ISO 10534-2, ASTM E1050 and ASTM E2611. The sound absorption coefficient is found about 0.04 until 0.08 while STL value ranges between 50 to 60 dB. The sound absorption values are found to be very low (<0.1), while the average STL is higher than other elastomeric matrix found in previous work. The reclaimed tire rubber through HPHTS technique gives good soundproof characteristic.

  3. Reclaimed wastewater quality enhancement by oxygen injection during transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, L E; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Sevilla, J; Marrero, M C; Hernández, A

    2011-01-01

    In-sewer treatments have been studied in sewer systems, but few have been carried out on reclaimed wastewater systems. A study of oxygen injection has been performed in a completely filled gravity pipe, 0.6 m in diameter and 62 km long, in cast iron with concrete inside coating, which is part of the reclaimed wastewater reuse scheme of Tenerife (Spain). A high pressure oxygen injection system was installed at 16.0 km from pipe inlet and a constant dosage of 30 mg/L O(2) has been injected during six months, under three different operational modes (low COD, 63 mg/L; high COD, 91 mg/L; and partially nitrified water). Oxygen has been consumed in nitrification and organic matter reduction. Generally, nitrification is clearly favored instead of the organic matter oxidation. Nitrification occurs, in general, with nitrite accumulation due to the presence of free ammonia above 1 mg/L. Denitrification is in all cases incomplete due to a limitation of easily biodegradable organic matter content, inhibiting the appearance of anaerobic conditions and sulfide generation. A notable reduction of organic matter parameters is achieved (TSS below 10 mg/L), which is significantly higher than that observed under the ordinary transport conditions without oxygen. This leads to a final cost reduction, and the oxygen injection system helps water reuse managers to maintain a final good water quality in the case of a treatment plant malfunction.

  4. Integrated identification and control for nanosatellites reclaiming failed satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Nan; Luo, Jianjun; Ma, Weihua; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    Using nanosatellites to reclaim a failed satellite needs nanosatellites to attach to its surface to take over its attitude control function. This is challenging, since parameters including the inertia matrix of the combined spacecraft and the relative attitude information of attached nanosatellites with respect to the given body-fixed frame of the failed satellite are all unknown after the attachment. Besides, if the total control capacity needs to be increased during the reclaiming process by new nanosatellites, real-time parameters updating will be necessary. For these reasons, an integrated identification and control method is proposed in this paper, which enables the real-time parameters identification and attitude takeover control to be conducted concurrently. Identification of the inertia matrix of the combined spacecraft and the relative attitude information of attached nanosatellites are both considered. To guarantee sufficient excitation for the identification of the inertia matrix, a modified identification equation is established by filtering out sample points leading to ill-conditioned identification, and the identification performance of the inertia matrix is improved. Based on the real-time estimated inertia matrix, an attitude takeover controller is designed, the stability of the controller is analysed using Lyapunov method. The commanded control torques are allocated to each nanosatellite while the control saturation constraint being satisfied using the Quadratic Programming (QP) method. Numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed integrated identification and control method.

  5. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  6. Fates and roles of alkali and alkaline earth metal species during the pyrolysis and gasification of a Victorian lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mody, D.; Wu, H.; Li, C. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    The transformation of alkali and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) species in a Victorian lignite during the pyrolysis and subsequent gasification in CO{sub 2} was studied in a novel quartz fluidised-bed reactor. Lignite samples prepared by physically adding NaCl and ion-exchanging Na{sup +} and Ca{sup ++} into the lignite were used to investigate the effects of chemical forms and valency of the AAEM species in the substrate lignite on their transformation during pyrolysis and gasification. Carboxyl-bound Na was found to be less volatile than Na present as NaCl, but more volatile than carboxyl-bound Ca during pyrolysis at temperatures between 400 and 900{sup o}C. However, the carboxyl-bound Na was volatilised to a much greater extent than the carboxyl-bound Ca in the same lignite during pyrolysis. It was seen that the loading of NaCl into the lignite did not significantly affect the char reactivity in the fluidised-bed reactor at 900{sup o}C.

  7. A comparative study of nitrogen conversion during pyrolysis of coconut fiber, its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the conversion of fuel-N to HCN and NH3 was investigated during rapid pyrolysis of raw biomass (coconut fiber), its corresponding biochar and their blends with lignite within a temperature range of 600-900°C. The results showed that the raw biomass and the biochar showed totally different nitrogen partitioning between NH3 and HCN. HCN was the dominant nitrogen pollutant from pyrolysis of raw biomass, while for the biochar pyrolysis the yield of NH3 was slightly higher than that of HCN. Synergistic interactions occurred within both raw biomass/lignite and biochar/lignite blends, especially for the biochar/lignite blend, and resulted in reduced yields of HCN and NH3, decreased the total nitrogen percentage retained in the char and promoted harmless N2 formation. These findings suggest that biochar/lignite co-firing for energy production may have the enhanced benefit of reduced emissions of nitrogen pollutants than raw biomass/lignite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  9. Solubilization of low-rank coal by Trichoderma atroviride: Evidence for the involvement of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes by using C-14-labelled lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holker, U.; Schmiers, H.; Grosse, S.; Winkelhofer, M.; Polsakiewicz, M.; Ludwig, S.; Dohse, J.; Hofer, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany). Inst. of Botany

    2002-04-01

    The deuteromycete Trichoderma atroviride is able to solubilize lignite in dependence on a given carbon source for growth. When cultivated on media containing glutamate, this mold excreted a set of different enzymes with hydrolytic activity. Addition of lignite to the growth media induced the synthesis of extracellular lignite-specific esterase activity but no evidence has been provided for its direct involvement in the process of lignite solubilization. Hence, the basic capability of T. atroviride enzymes to degrade a variety of ester and ether bonds at the surface or within the bulky lignite structure was tested using coal following its direct labelling with C-14-alkyl iodide. The participation of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in lignite degradation was assessed by measuring the release of C-14 radioactivity from selectively alkylated carboxylic and phenolic OH groups. T. atroviride cleaved both carboxylic esters using esterases and the phenolic ether bonds by using oxidative enzymes, most likely laccases.

  10. Social Acceptance for Reclaimed Water Use: A Case Study in Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Ravishankar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main source of water to the peri-urban areas of Bengaluru is groundwater. Access to groundwater is through tankers, private borewells, Bruhat Bengaluru MahanagaraPalike (Urban Local Body borewells, and public stand posts. All modes other than tankers provide water to the community free of charge. Reclaimed water from sewage treatment plants (STPs is in use by industries and some gated communities and multistoried apartments for toilet flushing and landscaping. For individual households in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru, it could be an additional water source replacing expensive water supply through tankers; reducing demand for groundwater (a finite resource; improving the sanitation system by providing drainage systems and preventing groundwater contamination from black and grey water. Consequently, this research paper investigates the willingness of residents in peri-urban areas of Bengaluru to use reclaimed water for non-potable end uses. To investigate residents’ willingness and key motivations for the use of reclaimed water, a survey of residents in the peri-urban ward of Bellandur was conducted. In this region, the sewerage board had prepared a media advertisement to create awareness of—and to sell—reclaimed water to other users, including local residents. This advertisement was shown to respondents, asking if they were willing to accept and buy the reclaimed water at 15 Indian Rupees (INR per kiloliter. Sixty-seven percent of residents who were household owners were willing to buy reclaimed water, 20% were concerned about hygiene, and 33% of respondents lacked trust in the public agency with respect to water quality standards. The study concludes that public awareness from key stakeholders is essential for the reuse of reclaimed water. It also recommends stringent regulation by levying fees for groundwater extraction in addition to making reclaimed water readily available and supplied free of charge to the consumers. In addition

  11. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  12. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  13. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  14. Production of fuels out of lignite and lignocelluloses; Herstellung von Brennstoffen aus Braunkohle und Lignozellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Schroeder, H.W.; Trommer, D. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The acceptance towards solid fuels will increase again if its ease of use is improved, the production costs remain low for extended periods of time, and high thermal efficiencies as well as low pollutant emissions are achieved. These demands can only be met by optimal fuel processing and the use of modern fuel engineering which applies, if possible, continuous and controlled fuel and air feed technology. Two fuels are introduced which are produced out of lignite and lignocelluloses by compaction or by balling granulation. Considering the improvement of combustion properties, remarkable synergy effects occur due to this raw material combination. Lignocelluloses act as an ignition auxillary. Lignite functions as a binding agent, increases the fuels' fire resistance, and guarantees a long, sustained combustion with an excellent combustion rate. (orig.)

  15. Volatiles and char combustion rates of demineralised lignite and wood blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, Melek; Pehlivan, Dursun

    2009-01-01

    Today, much interest is given to the utilisation of materials of plant origin as substitutions of fossil fuels in meeting energy needs to reduce the level of atmospheric pollutant emissions and global warming threat, and emphasis has been placed on the co-combustion of coal and biomass. In this study, volatiles and char combustion behaviour of the fuel pellets composed from demineralised lignite and poplar wood sawdust, were investigated in a cylindrical wire mesh basket placed in a preheated tube furnace. The results have shown that ignition times of the pellets decreased with the burning temperature and shortened further due to demineralisation of lignite. Volatiles combustion rates of the samples did not correlate well with combustion times. However, they can be correlated with their respective proximate volatile matter contents. Char burnout times decreased with increasing combustion rates and correlated well with the respective proximate fixed carbon contents of the samples. Deviations were more considerable in the case of rate data. (author)

  16. Briquetting of Tuncbilek lignite fines by using ammonium nitrohumate as a binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, M.; Ozbayoglu, G. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

    2004-03-01

    Results of experiments on the briquetting of Tuncbilek lignite fines using ammonium nitrohumate (anh), a low calorific value, young lignite-derived humic acid salt solution, are reported. The particulate material was blended with ammonium nitrohumate serving as the binder. In the briquetting tests, the effects of moisture content, pressure, binder content, nitrogen content and heat treatment were investigated. Durable briquettes, in terms of mechanical strength and water resistance, were produced with a 7% binder content at 10.5% moisture, following pressing at 1280 kg/cm{sup 2} and drying at 165{sup o}C for 1 h. The briqueues produced with ammonium nitrohumate had better combustion properties than run-of-mine samples; the contribution of the binder to smoke and sulphur emissions was very low and fine dust particles were negligible.

  17. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  18. Paleoenvironmental implications from biomarker and stable isotope investigations on the Pliocene Velenje lignite seam (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, A.; Sachsenhofer, R.F.; Markic, M.; Gratzer, R.; Lucke, A.; Puttmann, W. [Montan University of Leoben, Leoben (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    A Pliocene lignite seam up to 160 m thick occurs in the Velenje basin (Slovenia). The seam originated in a topogenous mire and evolved within a non-marine, transgressive setting. Differences in soluble organic matter yield and hydrocarbon content of borehole samples from the lignite are related to differences in the composition of free lipids of microbial origin and/or hydrocarbons derived from the biogeochemical degradation of plant tissue. Variations of the redox conditions within the mire are reflected by pristane/phytane ratios. The abundance of terpenoid biomarkers indicates the predominance of gymnosperms over angiosperms, which is consistent with palynomorphic spectra dominated by pollen of the Sequoia-Taxodium-Metasequoia plant community rather than by angiosperms. Evidence is also provided that the content of land plant derived biomarkers and the preservation of plant tissue is controlled by the input of resin-rich, decay-resistant conifers.

  19. Physico-chemistry of adsorption of copper, nickel and cobalt on lignite from ammoniacal solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper deals with a process developed for lignite adsorption that can be used to prevent the hard scale formation during distillation of NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, recover Cu, Ni and Cr from dilute solutions, Cu and NH/sub 3/ from waste effluent containing SO/sub 4/ radicals, separate Cu (NH/sub 3/)/sub 4//sup +2/ and AsO/sub 4//sup -3/ from ammonial solutions and recover Cu, Ni and Co from ore pulps. In additions to the study of the adsorptions of M, NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/ on lignite with caustic soda) was also investigated. Changes of the functional groups of humic acid its salt, before and after the adsorption, were examined by infrared adsorption analysis. (author)

  20. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  1. Effect of mineral oxides on slag formation tendency of Mae Moh lignites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuwat Luxsanayotin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Slagging is one of major ash deposition problems experienced in the boilers of coal–fired power plants especially theplants that use lignite, like Mae Moh lignites. The occurrence of slag is a complex phenomenon depending on several factorssuch as ash properties, furnace operating conditions, and coal properties. The main objective of this work is to study theeffect of mineral components in Mae Moh lignite on ash fusion temperatures (AFTs, which is commonly used as a keyindicator for slag formation tendency under pulverized combustion conditions. Two Mae Moh lignites from the coal seamsplanned to be used in the future were selected for the study to represent low CaO and high CaO lignite. The two lignites,namely K1 and K3, have 3.6 and 40.4 wt% CaO in ash, respectively. The AFT characterization shows that their initial deformationtemperatures (ITs were almost identical and considered as low for the typical flue gas temperature in the radiationsection of Mae Moh boilers, i.e. 1050-1100°C. These observed similar ITs were rather unexpected, especially for K1 consideringits sufficiently low base to acid (B/A ratios. The X-ray diffraction analyses evidently show the presence of illite, pyriteand anhydrite in K1, which explains the observed lower IT of the sample. Anhydrite, which is known to lower the ITs, is alsothe most abundant mineral in K3. Washing the lignite samples with HCl can significantly reduce CaO, MgO, and SO3 contentin the ash but not Fe2O3 as it is present in the form of pyrite. The addition of Al2O3, SiO2 and Fe2O3 can help increase AFTs ofthe studied samples. The Al2O3 addition gives the strongest effect on increasing AFTs, especially for the sample with lowAl2O3 content. When the CaO is added to the low CaO samples, the fluxing effect will initially occur. However, when the CaOcontent is higher than a critical value (i.e. CaO > 38%, the effect of its high melting point will dominate hence the AFTsincreased. Ternary phase diagrams

  2. Combustion of producer gas from gasification of south Sumatera lignite coal using CFD simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidian Fajri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of gasses from lignite coal gasification is one of alternative fuel for the boiler or gas turbine. The prediction of temperature distribution inside the burner is important for the application and optimization of the producer gas. This research aims to provide the information about the influence of excess air on the temperature distribution and combustion product in the non-premixed burner. The process was carried out using producer gas from lignite coal gasification of BA 59 was produced by the updraft gasifier which is located on Energy Conversion Laboratory Mechanical Engineering Department Universitas Sriwijaya. The excess air used in the combustion process were respectively 10%, 30% and 50%. CFD Simulations was performed in this work using two-dimensional model of the burner. The result of the simulation showed an increase of excess air, a reduction in the gas burner temperature and the composition of gas (carbon dioxide, nitric oxide and water vapor.

  3. Possibilities of utilizing the Hungarian reserves of lignite in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faur, G

    1978-01-01

    The Upper Pannonian lignite reserves subjected to study are suited to opencast mining with respect to their depth and thickness. All of them are characterized by occurrence in multiple beds, the thickness of which however is different per area. The dirt between the strata consists mostly of sand, to a lesser degree of clay or of materials between the former. Continuously operating dredges can be used for working, the types depending on the thickness of the overburden and the technology to be applied. Deep wells with submerged pumps may be employed for drainage. High-capacity mining districts can be operated at the areas subjected to study, new districts must however be opened up to increase the productive capacity beyond a certain limit. Establishment of a significant power station capacity is made possible by the explored lignite reserves. (In Hungarian)

  4. Securing the future of the Lusatian lignite mining; Zukunftssicherung im Lausitzer Revier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klocek, Gert [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Bergbauplanung; Ketzmer, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany). Grunddaten und Bergtechnik

    2014-11-01

    In the course of securing the future of the Lusatian lignite mining, the company has initiated several measures and activities. Thus with large-scale projects such as relocating the operating and surface facilities of the Welzow-Sued opencast mine uninterrupted long-term mining advance is ensured. The company's lignite-fired power plants with their project ''FlexGen'', to further increased flexibility, enhances their position to master of the challenges of ''Energiewende''. The political and societal framework for this complex development is in line with the climate and energy programmes or strategies of the Free State of Saxony and the federal state of Brandenburg.

  5. Lusatian lignite. Decisions for the future; Lausitzer Braunkohle. Entscheidungen fuer die Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehnert, Detlev [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Cottbus (Germany); Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany); Ketzmer, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    During the past months a number of important decisions regarding the future of the Lusatian lignite mining areas have been made or launched. In the focus is the concept of the long-term opencast mine and power plant development. Essential part of the concept is the strategy for meeting future challenges of climate change policy. CCS is the key for it. It is expected, that the CCS technology will be commercially available after 2020. Another important aspect is among others the use of the priority areas of the Welzow-Sued and Nochten opencast mined. The corresponding long-term lignite mining planning procedures were opened in autumn 2007. The plans of the company contain clear and reliable statements regarding the long-term opencast mine development until 2050. However, all decisions the company makes are focussing on putting people and their needs first. Solutions for mining related questions and requirements are jointly developed with the people of the region. Communities in direct neighbourhood to opencast mines are safely protected against immissions by structural and organisational measures. The principles of socially responsible resettlements set the framework of constructive and trustful co-acting of the people concerned and the company very early. The future post-mining landscape offers alternative utilization forms providing employment for many people. Economic development of the region is an important aspect of the company's activities. Under the headline ''Energy region Lusatia'', representatives of Vattenfall, different educational institutions, authorities and the politics have joined forces to formulate a strategic target for the future development of Lusatia. Sustainable development of lignite-based power generation to meet future climate change policy, development of energy industrial know-how and the use of other fuels are important issues. The results are visible. Lignite takes a solid place in the German Energy mix - it

  6. Effect of various experimental parameters on the swelling and supercritical extraction properties of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacimehmetoglu, S.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2007-07-01

    The original lignite sample, the samples swollen in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetone, ethylenediamine (EDA), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH), the samples impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} as catalyst and the samples both swollen in the solvents and impregnated by ZnCl{sub 2} were subjected to the supercritical toluene extraction and the effects of temperature, pressure, pre-swelling procedure, hydrogen donor solvent (tetralin), and catalyst on the extract yields were investigated.

  7. Catalytic effect of lignite ash on steam gasification of oil sand coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Palmer, A.

    1986-06-16

    Steam gasification of Suncor and Syncrude cokes was carried out in the presence of ash obtained after burning Onakawana lignite. Catalytic effects of the ash were evident at 930 C whereas at 830 C little effect was observed. These observations were attributed to the combined actions of Ca- and Fe-containing species in the ash, in which the former neutralized the sulfur in the cokes to prevent poisoning of Fe oxides. 5 tabs., 5 figs., 15 refs.

  8. Catalytic effect of mineral matter of high ash Onakawana lignite on steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1986-04-01

    Reactivities of untreated and acid washed Onakawana lignite during steam gasification were compared in a thermobalance reactor. The acid treatment resulted in removal of Ca, Mg, Ba and Sr from mineral matter. This was accompanied by a marked decrease in the rates of H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/ formation. The decrease of gasification rate was attributed to the decrease in concentration of gasification sites during the acid treatment.

  9. Experiments and stochastic simulations of lignite coal during pyrolysis and gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor. ► The objective is to understand mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis. ► Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis were conducted using Gillespie algorithm. ► First order, single step mechanism failed to fit cumulative yield of hydrogen. ► Evolution of hydrogen via pyrolysis of gaseous hydrocarbon following bridges scission. -- Abstract: Lignite pyrolysis and gasification has been conducted in a semi batch reactor at reactor temperatures of 800–950 °C in 50 °C intervals. CO 2 has been used as the gasifying agent for gasification experiments. The objective of this investigation is to understand the mechanism of syngas evolution during pyrolysis and to unravel the effect of CO 2 on pyrolysis mechanism. Stochastic simulations of lignite pyrolysis have been conducted using Gillespie algorithm. Two reaction mechanisms have been used in the simulations; first order, single step mechanism and the FLASHCHAIN mechanism. The first order single step mechanism was successful in fitting cumulative yield of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and other hydrocarbons (C n H m ). The first order, single step failed to fit the cumulative yield of hydrogen, which suggests a more complex mechanism for hydrogen evolution. Evolution of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , C n H m and H 2 flow rates has been monitored. The only effect of CO 2 on pyrolysis mechanism is promotion of reverse water gas shift reaction for the experiments described here. Methane evolution extended for slightly longer time than other hydrocarbons and hydrogen evolution extended for a slightly longer time than methane. This indicated the evolution of hydrogen via further pyrolysis of aliphatic hydrocarbon. It is also suggested that this step occurs in series after aliphatic hydrocarbons evolution by bridges scission.

  10. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  11. Spring Barley Yield Parameters after Lignite, Sodium Humate and Nitrogen Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kováčik Peter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23, increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

  12. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential

  13. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  14. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  15. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  16. An overview of underground coal gasification and its applicability for Turkish lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekpak, E.; Yoncaci, S.; Kilic, M.G. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Coal is expected to maintain its significance as an energy source for a longer time period than oil and natural gas. Environmental concerns have led to the development of clean coal technologies, such as coal gasification. Coal gasification can be used at either at surface or in underground coal gasification (UCG). UCG has several advantages over surface gasification and conventional mining such as rank low calorific value coals. Coal gasification also has the potential to contribute to the energy supply of a country. Most Turkish coals are lignite and UCG may enable diversification of energy sources of Turkey and may help decrease external dependency on energy. This paper presented a study that matched a UCG technique to the most appropriate (Afsin Elbistan) lignite reserve in Turkey. Two UCG techniques were presented, including the linked vertical well method, and the directional drilling-controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) method. The properties of coal seams and coal properties were also outlined. It was concluded that Cobanbey is the most preferable sector in the Elbistan Lignite Reserve for a pilot study, and that the linked vertical well method could be considered as a candidate method. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Synergetic use of lignite fly ash and metallurgical converter slag in geopolymer concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Mucsi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The application and utilization of the industrial wastes and by-products in the construction industry is a key issue from an environmental and economic point of view. The increased use of lignite has substantially increased the available quantities of lignite fired power plant fly ash, which can be mainly classified as class C fly ash. The utilization of such raw material however has some difficulties. In the present paper lignite fired power station fly ash and metallurgical converter slag were used for the production of geopolymer concrete. The fly ash was used as a geopolymer based binder material, and a converter slag as aggregate, thus created a geopolymer concrete which contains mainly industrial wastes. As preliminary test experimental series were carried out using andesite as aggregate. The optimal aggregate/binder ratio was determined. The effect of the amount of alkaline activator solution in the binder, the aggregate type on the geopolymer concretes’ compressive strength and density was investigated. Furthermore, the physical properties - freeze-thaw resistance and particle size distribution - of the applied aggregates were measured as well. As a result of the experiments it was found that physical properties of the andesite and converter slag aggregate was close. Therefore andesite can be replaced by converter slag in the concrete mixture. Additionally, geopolymer concrete with nearly 20 MPa compressive strength was produced from class C fly ash and converter slag.

  18. Synthetic fuel production using Texas lignite and a very high temperature reactor for process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.A.; Klein, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Two approaches for synthetic fuel production from coal are studied using Texas lignite as the feedstock. First, the gasification and liquefaction of coal are accomplished using Lurgi gasifiers and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A 50 000 barrel/day facility, consuming 13.7 million tonne/yr (15.1 million ton/yr) of lignite, is considered. Second, a nuclear-assisted coal conversion approach is studied using a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor with a modified Lurgi gasifier and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The nuclear-assisted approach resulted in a 35% reduction in coal consumption. In addition, process steam consumption was reduced by one-half and the oxygen plants were eliminated in the nuclear assisted process. Both approaches resulted in a synthetic oil price higher than the March 1980 imported price of $29.65 per barrel: $36.15 for the lignite-only process and $35.16 for the nuclear-assisted process. No tax advantage was assumed for either process and the utility financing method was used for both economic calculations

  19. NEW DATA ON THE LOWER PLEISTOCENE (GELASIAN LIGNITE BEDS OF CASTEL SAN PIETRO (RIETI, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PANDOLFI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A multiproxy study of the lignite-bearing lacustrine sequence cropping out at Castel San Pietro (CSP (Rieti, central Italy provides new insights on the paleoenvironmental evolution of an extensional basin, located on the Tyrrhenian side of the Apennine range. The CSP fossiliferous levels reflect deposition in a stable lacustrine environment. Mammal remains collected from this locality during the past centuries include Stephanorhinus etruscus, Anancus arvernensis and the beaver Castor fiber. The co-existence of the Etruscan rhinoceros and the mastodont suggests a middle Villafranchian age (Montopoli or Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit for the lignite beds of CSP. New paleoflora findings are in agreement with an attribution to the Piacenzian or Gelasian age for these deposits whilst the presence of the ostracod Qinghaicypris cf. Q. riojensis suggests a time interval from Zanclean to Gelasian (between ~4.5 and ~1.8 Ma. Accordingly, the lignite beds of CSP most likely were deposited during the Gelasian (from ca. 2.5 to 1.8 Ma; from Montopoli to Coste San Giacomo FUs or possibly to Olivola FU in forested area and warm and humid conditions.

  20. Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetakis, Michael; Roumpos, Christos; Alevizos, George; Vamvuka, Despina

    2011-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  1. Using cement, lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste for solidification of chromium electroplating treatment sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantawin, C.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to use baghouse filter waste as a binder mixed with cement and lignite fly ash to solidify sludge from chromium electroplating wastewater treatment. To save cost of solidification, reducing cement in binder and increasing sludge in the cube were focused on. Minimum percent cement in binder of 20 for solidification of chromium sludge was found when controlling lignite fly ash to baghouse filter waste at the ratio of 30:70, sludge to binder ratio of 0.5, water to mixer ratio of 0.3 and curing time of 7 days. Increase of sludge to binder ratio from 0.5 to 0.75 and 1 resulted in increase in the minimum percent cement in binder up to 30 percent in both ratios. With the minimum percent cement in binder, the calculated cement to sludge ratios for samples with sludge to binder ratios of 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were 0.4, 0.4 and 0.3 respectively. Leaching chromium and compressive strength of the samples with these ratios could achieve the solidified waste standard by the Ministry of Industry. For solidification of chromium sludge at sludge to binder ratio of 1, the lowest cost binder ratio of cement to lignite fly ash and baghouse filter waste in this study was 30:21:49. The cost of binder in this ratio was 718 baht per ton dry sludge.

  2. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  3. Combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass and their blends with lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toptas, Asli; Yildirim, Yeliz; Duman, Gozde; Yanik, Jale

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the combustion behavior of different kinds of torrefied biomass (lignocellulosic and animal wastes) and their blends with lignite was investigated via non-isothermal thermogravimetric method under air atmosphere. For comparison, combustion characteristics of raw biomasses were also determined. Torrefaction process improved the reactivity of char combustion step of biomasses. Characteristic combustion parameters for blends showed non-additivity behavior. It was found that the mixture of torrefied biomasses and lignite at a ratio of 1:1 had a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Although no interactions were observed between the lignite and torrefied biomass at initial step of combustion, a certain degree of interaction between the components occurred at char combustion step. Kinetic parameters of combustion were calculated by using the Coats Redfern model. Overall, this study showed that poultry litters can be used as a substitute fuel in coal/biomass co-firing systems by blending with lignocellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reprint of: Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetakis, Michael; Roumpos, Christos; Alevizos, George; Vamvuka, Despina

    2012-01-01

    The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece. - Highlights: ► Quality and reserves uncertainty affects considerably the production scheduling. ► Stochastic optimization is greatly accelerated by incorporating Taylor's rule. ► Decisions can be made considering different risk level attitudes.

  5. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  6. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  7. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  8. The reclaiming of online media by civil society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Neumayer, Christina

    as the oxymoron of radical activists on the left using capitalist media platforms and how this influences their political identity. Therefore, there is a need to understand the cyber-material impact of online media on collective action initiated by civil society as well as the relationship between ideological......In light of the financial crisis and harsher migration policies, actions initiated by radical civil society groups are on the rise. This project argues that in this time it is important to understand the reclaiming of online media by civil society. To reach this understanding we will explore how...... activists of the radical left have mobilized protests and solidarity actions through online media. We have chosen to locate our study in Sweden and Greece. Greece has found itself in the eye of the global financial storm whereas Sweden is coming out of the recession more favorably. In general...

  9. Theorizing Critical Placemaking as a Tool for Reclaiming Public Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolis, Erin E

    2017-03-01

    As economic inequality and segregation continue to grow in the U.S., psychology has an important role to play in exploring and promoting processes that can disrupt social injustice. This paper identifies the privatization of public space as a social problem that contributes to the entrenchment of social, economic, and racial inequality, and advances "critical placemaking" as a tool for reclaiming public space for public use. Drawing from key concepts in environmental psychology, narrative psychology, and community psychology, the proposed framework seeks to theorize the processes by which placemaking may contribute to transforming community narratives and building more inclusive, participatory, and democratic communities. Policy implications and future directions for empirical work are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  10. Reclaiming native forest ecosystems in the oilsands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, S.

    1997-01-01

    Suncor Energy's land reclamation objectives were reviewed. The general objective is to construct waste dumps and tailings impoundment structures in such a way that they can be transformed into stable landforms with maintenance-free, self-sustaining ecosystems that have at least the same capability to support life as they had during their pre-disturbed condition. In the case of Suncor's current and proposed oilsands mining, this means returning the land to upland forest for the most part. Some of the reclaimed land will become wetlands with some open water areas. Current reclamation and tree planting methods result in a diverse herbaceous cover developing within a year of soil amendment application. These vegetative communities are capable of providing erosion protection, as well as serving as a source of food and cover for wildlife, and generally meeting the reclamation goal of maintenance-free, self-sustaining ecosystems

  11. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  12. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and

  13. Perspectives of the non-energetic use of lignite in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D.; Sailer, B. [RWE Power AG, Essen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    RWE Power AG as integral part of RWE Generation SE has been active in the development and commercialization of coal gasification routes for many years. RWE Generation SE is one of Europe's leading electricity producers and combines the expertise of the power plant specialists Essent (NL), RWE npower (UK) and RWE Power (D). A globally increasing freight traffic and accompanying fuel demand is anticipated in the future. This higher demand will probably result in an increase in crude oil price in the course of the next years. There will also be a disproportionately high increase in fuel prices additionally to the increase in the crude oil price due to an increasing treatment effort within refineries. Therefore the substitution of crude oil becomes more and more attractive in view of economical perspectives and security of supply. Crude oil is not only to be substituted as feedstock for fuels but also for the chemical industry. Coal has been and will be the most important feedstock for this. Especially its gasification enables various routes. In Germany there is also an interesting perspective for Coal-to-Liquids and Coal-to-Gas or CtL/CtG as the non-energetic use of coal is abbreviated. Lignite is available regardless of any market impacts and currently faces a change in its use for power generation due to the increasing use of renewable energies. Hence lignite is an attractive feedstock for CtL/CtG in Germany. The construction of a commercial size CtL/CtG plant means a billion Euro investment. So a reliable economic evaluation is inevitable. Today all CtL/CtG routes miss commercial competitiveness to the conventional production by some ten percents. In case the current upward price trend of crude oil continues CtL/CtG might become viable in the near future. The production of synthetic fuels appears most attractive in view of a substantial market potential. The further commercialization of gasification routes in Germany requires R and D activities especially

  14. Influence of the Reclaim Addition on Properties of Moulding Sands with the Geopol Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drożyński D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the influence of the reclaim additions on the properties of moulding sands with the GEOPOL geopolymer binder developed by the SAND TEAM Company were presented. Two brands of hardeners were applied in the tested compositions, the first one was developed by the SAND TEAM Company, marked SA72 and the new hardener offered by the KRATOS Company, marked KR72. The main purpose of investigations was to determine the influence of reclaim fractions and the applied hardener on the basic moulding sands properties, such as: bending and tensile strength, permeability and grindability. The unfavourable influence of the reclaim additions into moulding sands on the tested properties as well as an increased hardening rate, were found. Moulding sands, in which the hardener KR72 of the KRATOS Company was used, were less sensitive to the reclaim additions

  15. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavement, phase II : field demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) as : aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. An initial phase of research demonstrated that concretes with up to 50 percent : o...

  16. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This research effort was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed : asphalt pavement (RAP) as aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. This research demonstrated : that concretes with up to 50 percent of the fi...

  17. Enabling In-Theater Processes for Indigenous, Recycled, and Reclaimed Material Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    plastic , chemicals, food, cloth , oil, grease, biological materials, animal and agricultural waste, and sludge. It is expected that one of these...ARL-TR-7560 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Enabling In-Theater Processes for Indigenous, Recycled , and Reclaimed Material...ARL-TR-7560 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Enabling In-Theater Processes for Indigenous, Recycled , and Reclaimed Material

  18. Porous ceramic membrane with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface for reclaiming oil from oily water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Changhong; Xu, Youqian; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A porous ceramic tube with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface was fabricated by sol-gel and then surface modification with polyurethane-polydimethysiloxane, and an oil-water separator based on the porous ceramic tube was erected to characterize superhydrophobic and superoleophilic surface's separation efficiency and velocity when being used to reclaim oil from oily water and complex oily water containing clay particle. The separator is fit for reclaiming oil from oily water.

  19. A Remote Sensing Approach to Environmental Monitoring in a Reclaimed Mine Area

    OpenAIRE

    Rajchandar Padmanaban; Avit K. Bhowmik; Pedro Cabral

    2017-01-01

    Padmanaban, R., Bhowmik, A. K., & Cabral, P. (2017). A Remote Sensing Approach to Environmental Monitoring in a Reclaimed Mine Area. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 6(12), 1-14. [401]. DOI: 10.3390/ijgi6120401 Mining for resources extraction may lead to geological and associated environmental changes due to ground movements, collision with mining cavities, and deformation of aquifers. Geological changes may continue in a reclaimed mine area, and the deformed aquifers may en...

  20. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  1. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  2. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  3. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  4. Geomorphic evaluation of erosional stability at reclaimed surface mines in northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The report identifies geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic conditions that are associated with erosion of reclaimed surface-mined lands in northwestern Colorado. The report also presents methods for determining the appropriate values of geomorphic variables that can be manipulated during reclamation to increase erosional stability. A section on geomorphic principles associated with erosion of reclaimed land surfaces is designed for use as a primer by mine personnel and reclamation planners. The areas of interest in the study were those that were reclaimed under jurisdiction of current (1988) SMCRA reclamation regulations, yet were still affected by relatively rapid erosion rates several years after reclamation activities were completed. Geomorphic, pedologic, vegetation, and hydrologic data were collected onsite and from topographic maps. Data from reclaimed areas undergoing accelerated erosion were compared with data from reclaimed areas undergoing minimal erosion to identify conditions that controlled erosion on reclaimed surface-mined lands and to identify some postmining equilibrium landform characteristics. These data also were used to develop threshold relations

  5. Influence of Reclamation Process on the Ecological Quality of Reclaim Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereń M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, there were presented results of research on influence of reclamation process on the ecological quality of reclaim sand with furan resin used in nonferrous foundry. The quality of reclaimed sand is mainly define by two group of chemical substances from elution of reclaimed sand: Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC and Total Dissolves Solids (TDS. Reclaimed sand used in test was prepared in experimental thermal reclaimer and mechanical vibration reclaimer REGMAS installed in Faculty of Foundry Engineering at University Of Science and Technology in Krakow. The reference point is molding sand shaking out and crumble in jaw crusher. Test of elution was made in accredited laboratory in Center For Research and Environmental Control in Katowice up to the standard with Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC - PN-EN 1484:1999; Total Dissolves Solids (TDS - PN-EN 15216:2010. The standard for elution test is PN-EN 12457- 4:2006. Except that we were made loss of ignition test, to check how many resin was rest on sand grains.

  6. Soil organic carbon of an intensively reclaimed region in China: Current status and carbon sequestration potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunfei; Zhan, Yu; Wang, Fei; Ma, Wanzhu; Ren, Zhouqiao; Chen, Xiaojia; Qin, Fangjin; Long, Wenli; Zhu, Zhenling; Lv, Xiaonan

    2016-09-15

    Land reclamation has been highly intensive in China, resulting in a large amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss to the atmosphere. Evaluating the factors which drive SOC dynamics and carbon sequestration potential in reclaimed land is critical for improving soil fertility and mitigating global warming. This study aims to determine the current status and factors important to the SOC density in a typical reclaimed land located in Eastern China, where land reclamation has been undergoing for centuries. A total of 4746 topsoil samples were collected from 2007 to 2010. The SOC density of the reclaimed land (3.18±0.05kgCm(-2); mean±standard error) is significantly lower than that of the adjacent non-reclaimed land (5.71±0.04kgCm(-2)) (pcarbon sequestration potential of the reclaimed lands may achieve a maximum of 5.80±1.81kgCO2m(-2) (mean±SD) when dryland is converted to flooded land with vegetable-rice cropping system and soil pH of ~5.9. Note that in some scenarios the methane emission substantially offsets the carbon sequestration potential, especially for continuous rice cropping system. With the optimal setting for carbon sequestration, it is estimated that the dryland reclaimed in the last 50years in China is able to sequester 0.12milliontons CO2 equivalent per year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  8. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  9. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  10. Reactivity of chars prepared from the pyrolysis of a Victorian lignite under a wide range of conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Mody, D.; Li, C.; Hayashi, J.; Chiba, T. [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A Loy Yang lignite sample was pyrolysed under a wide range of experimental conditions using a wire-mesh reactor, a fluidised-bed reactor, a drop-tube reformer and a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The reactivity of these char samples in CO{sub 2} and air was measured in the TGA as well as in the fluidised-bed reactor. A sample prepared by the physical impregnation of NaCl into the lignite was also used in order to investigate the effect of NaCl in the lignite on the reactivity of the resulting char. Our experimental results indicate that, due to the volatilisation of a substantial fraction of Na in the lignite substrate during pyrolysis, the true catalytic activity of the Na in the lignite substrate should be evaluated by measuring the sodium content in the char after pyrolysis. The char reactivity measured in situ in the fluidised-bed reactor was compared with that of the same char measured separately in the TGA after re-heating the char sample to the same temperature as that in the fluidised-bed. It was found that the re-heating of the char in the TGA reduced the char reactivity.

  11. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); Gibbs, Shawn G. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Claye, Emma [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); He, Xin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); Sapkota, Amy R., E-mail: ars@umd.edu [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  12. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Claye, Emma; He, Xin; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  13. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  14. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  15. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE < 0.01) but was lower for older nests occurring later in the season (0.08, SE = 0.13). Brood resource selection was not influenced by macrohabitat or microhabitat variables we measured, but broods on managed units selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza

  17. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  18. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  19. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  20. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  1. Numerical analysis of single and multiple particles of Belchatow lignite dried in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Marcin; Sciazko, Anna; Komatsu, Yosuke; Akiyama, Taro; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    Low production costs have contributed to the important role of lignite in the energy mixes of numerous countries worldwide. High moisture content, though, diminishes the applicability of lignite in power generation. Superheated steam drying is a prospective method of raising the calorific value of this fuel. This study describes the numerical model of superheated steam drying of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland in two aspects: single and multi-particle. The experimental investigation preceded the numerical analysis and provided the necessary data for the preparation and verification of the model. Spheres of 2.5 to 30 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110 to 170 °C. The drying kinetics were described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. Basic coal properties, such as density or specific heat, as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in the particular stages of the process laid the foundations for the model construction. The model illustrated the drying behavior of a single particle in the entire range of steam temperature as well as the sample diameter. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of coal batches containing particles of various sizes were conducted to reflect the operating conditions of the dryer. They were followed by deliberation on the calorific value improvement achieved by drying, in terms of coal ingredients, power plant efficiency and dryer input composition. The initial period of drying was found crucial for upgrading the quality of coal. The accuracy of the model is capable of further improvement regarding the process parameters.

  2. [Health risk induced by estrogens during unplanned indirect potable reuse of reclaimed water from domestic wastewater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qian-Yuan; Shao, Yi-Ru; Wang, Chao; Sun, Yan; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2014-03-01

    The estrogenic endocrine disruptors in reclaimed water from domestic wastewater may induce health risks to human being, when reclaimed water is used for augmentation of drinking water unplannedly and indirectly. This study investigated changes in concentrations of estrone, estradiol, 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol in reclaimed water during the reuse of reclaimed water for augmentation to water source such as lakes and reservoir via river. Thereafter, health risk induced by estrogens during the resue of reclaimed water was evaluated. The concentration of estrogen in secondary effluent ranged 0.1-100 ng x L(-1). The highest concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol reached up to 1-10 microg x L(-1). During the indirect reuse of reclaimed water as potable water, the dilution and degradation in river and lake, and the removal by drinking water treatment process could change the concentrations of estrogen. The non-carcinogenic risks of estrone, estradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol and octylphenol were lower than 1. When the hydraulic retention time of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in lakes and reservoir was higher than 30 days, the non-carcinogenic risk of EE2 was lower than 1 in most cases. When the hydraulic retention time of EE2 in lakes and reservoir was less than 30 days and the percentages of reclaimed water in drinking water were higher than 50%, the non-carcinogenic risk induced by EE2 was higher than 1 in 20%-50% samples. This indicated that the risks of EE2 should be concerned.

  3. Golf Course Irrigation with Reclaimed Water in the Mediterranean: A Risk Management Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Salgot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversy regarding the amount of water consumed or saved as a result of human activity is currently paramount in water-scarce areas. In recent decades, golf—a land and water consuming activity—has been implanted in several areas of the Mediterranean basin, where the scarcity of water resources is well-known. As a result, the use of conventional water resources for golf course irrigation is increasingly contested and its replacement by reclaimed water has become essential. This paper examines the wide range of issues involved in its use on golf courses, including hazards—due to the presence of microorganisms and pollutants—and the corresponding risks that can appear. The resulting biological, chemical and physical water quality concerns are analyzed. Legal aspects related to the use of reclaimed water are also discussed and good reuse practices are suggested, including a detailed examination of risk assessment procedures and tools through observation or chemical, physical and microbiological analysis. The HACCP system—which focuses on quality determination in water samples from relevant control points—is described in detail, as it is generally accepted as one of the most scientific ways to detect health problems on a golf course. The paper concludes that, given the increasing availability of treated and reclaimed water and the water needs of golf courses, the future development of the sport in areas without surplus water resources—such as the Mediterranean basin—will predictably depend upon the use of reclaimed water. In recent years, risk assessment or analysis has emerged as an essential tool to guarantee the application of reclaimed water at an acceptable risk level. There certainly have been considerable advances and improvements in the tools that guarantee the safe use of reclaimed water, although current methods available require simplification for their practical application. Nevertheless, protocols applied at present

  4. Device for determining element contents of lignite mass flows by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeldner, R.; Maul, E.; Rose, W.; Wagner, D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple device is presented, apt for continuous operation, to determine the element contents of bulk goods of flowable materials with a suitable granularity, in particular of lignite mass flows to assess the coal quality. Several kilograms of samples can be reproducibly dosed and homogeneously activated by a device consisting of a shielding container with activation chamber and radiation source, a measuring unit with detectors, and a source container, and characterized by a blade wheel in the activation chamber which causes the dosing and homogeneous activation of the sample

  5. Modernisation of a lignite-fired steam generator. Reduction of NO{sub x} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegeskotte, Ralf; Thierbach, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Bernhard [Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Di Ferdinando, Quinto [ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 AD, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-01

    ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 is a lignite-fired power plant with an electrical total output of 4 x 227 MW. The four steam generators of Russian design have a steam capacity up to 730 t/h each and were commissioned between 1978 and 1981. According to EU requirements, the NO{sub x} emissions have to be reduced reliably by 2015. The consortium Steinmueller Engineering GmbH Gummersbach and Siemens EOOD, Sofia, successfully redesigned the furnace of boiler 4. (orig.)

  6. Adsorption study of mercury on lignite in the presence of different anions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Robles

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effect of different anions such as chloride, nitrate, and sulphate on the mercury adsorption onto lignite, which was a model material for the humus-containing organics in soil, and can be considered as a natural sorbent in the remediation of contaminated sites. Since the complex formation can significantly influence the mercury sorption, besides chloride, the effects of other complex-forming agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and thiocyanate were also tested. Various batch type and dynamic experiments were performed and four sorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to evaluate the sorption data.

  7. REMOVAL OF Cr(VI FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION BY ACTIVATED COAL FROM LIGNITE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated coal produced from Ağaçlı Lignite coal was used to remove Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. The adsorption of Cr(VI was studied as a function of initial concentration, time, pH, adsorbent concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were found to fit to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Lagergren equation was used to calculate the adsorption rate. The amount of Cr(VI adsorbed was increased with decreasing pH and decreased with increasing temperature.

  8. Organic petrology, mineralogy and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, Maritza-West basin, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, Irena [Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Sofia University ' ' St. Kliment Ohridski' ' , 1000, Sofia (Bulgaria); Zdravkov, Alexander [Department of Economic Geology, University of Mining and Geology ' ' St. Ivan Rilski' ' , 1700, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide additional information about the properties and depositional environment of the Kipra lignite seam, which was deposited during the regressive stage of development of the Maritza-West basin. Petrographical and mineralogical data, along with ash yields and sulphur contents of 24 samples from a seam profile, have been used to study the vertical variation of the depositional settings during peat accumulation and subsequent coalification. The Kipra lignite is characterized by high ash yields and sulphur contents. It formed in a rheotrophic, low-lying mire with alkaline pH value. Vegetation with low preservation potential dominated within the palaeomire. During peat formation, frequent changes of the water level controlled the depositional environment. During the deposition of units 1 and 2, high water energy caused the transportation of high amounts of inorganic material into the mire, resulting in the formation of weakly gelified mineral-rich lignite. The organic matter from units 3 and 4 is characterized by enhanced gelification, which probably reflects the decreasing energy of the system. Good positive correlation between sulphur contents and the GI values was established in units 4, indicating that the gelification of the tissues was probably mainly controlled by the bacterial activity. In contrast, the gelification of the samples from unit 3 of the Kipra seam was probably governed by the redox conditions. The organic matter deposited under relatively wet conditions, in which the thermal and oxidative destruction of the tissues, was limited. A variety of major, minor and accessory minerals are present in Maritza-West lignite. The mineral composition is dominated mainly by pyrite, gypsum and calcite, and to a lesser extent limonite, quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, chlorite and plagioclase. Jarosite, hematite, halloysite, mica, K-feldspar, aragonite, siderite, and dolomite were also determined in very low

  9. Process of transforming into light oils heavy oils from carbonization of lignites, coals, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1926-12-20

    A process is described for transforming into light oils the heavy oils coming from the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, and shales, and heavy oils from original minerals and vegetables, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid or liquid substances conveniently chosen, with a veiw to effect distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature, the solids or liquid substances favoring the formation of light products under the influence of heat, being preferably added to the oil before admitting it to the retort and heating, so that the light oils are obtained from the heavy oils in a single operation.

  10. Diagnostic measurements on the great machines conditions of lignite surface mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helebrant, F.; Jurman, J.; Fries, J. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis of loading and service dependability of a rail-mounted excavator used in surface lignite mining is described. Wheel power vibrations in electric motor bearings and electric motor input bearings to the gearbox were measured in situ, in horizontal, vertical, and axial directions. The data were analyzed using a mathematical relationship. The results are presented in a loading diagram that shows the deterioration and the acceptable lower bound of machine conditions over time. Work is continuing. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of various lignites treated by mechanical thermal expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janine Hulston; Alan L. Chaffee; Christian Bergins; Karl Strauss [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). School of Chemistry and CRC for Clean Power from Lignite

    2005-12-01

    This study investigates how the Mechanical Thermal Expression (MTE) process affects the physico-chemical properties of low rank lignites sourced from Australia, Greece, and Germany. The MTE process was effective in reducing the moisture content of all three coals and resulted in significant Na reductions in both the Australian and German coals. However, the organic composition of the coals investigated remained relatively unaffected. Upon oven drying, all wet MTE products underwent significant shrinkage, the degree of which was dependent upon the temperature and pressure used during the MTE process. Upon rehydration, the oven-dried MTE products underwent significant swelling, which is most likely related to the chemical composition of the coals.

  12. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  13. Natural radioisotopes in lignite of the Ptolemais region (Greece) and in their ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simopoulos, S.E.; Angelopoulos, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of lignite, fly ash and bottom ash of a power plant, located in the Ptolemais region, were examined by gamma spectroscopy and their concentrations in Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 have been determined. These samples were prepared from samples taken daily for a period of one month. The brown coal samples are taken from the front of the brown coal field supplying one of the units. They show a flutuation of the concentrations of the same radionuclides in the brown coal seams and in the intermediate layers. Further samples taken from 3 small private mines of the Ptolemais region were also examined. (author)

  14. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  15. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  16. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  17. Carbonate and lignite cycles in the Ptolemais Basin: Orbital control and suborbital variability (Late Neogene, northern Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M. E.; Tougiannidis, N.; Ricken, W.; Rolf, C.; Kleineder, M.; Bertram, N.; Antoniadis, P.

    2009-04-01

    We recently commenced a project to investigate deep drillings as well as outcrops in the Ptolemais Basin, northern Greece, for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimate change. Specific attention is paid to mining sites Achlada, Vevi, Vegora, Amynteon, North Field, South Field, and Lava. The sediment archive comprises Upper Miocene to Quaternary continental lake deposits (up to 800 m thick) with an extended Lower Pliocene section. The Upper Miocene sections are composed of diatomaceous mud and gray marls. Pliocene lake sediments commence with the Kyrio member (lignite/grey marl), followed by the Theodoxus member (beige marl/lignite), and the Notio member (marl with intercalated sand /lignite). The limnic deposits show striking rhythmic bedding of (mostly) carbonates and lignites, reflecting orbital-induced humidity and temperature changes in this small NW-SE elongated continental basin. First, we retrieved chronometric information by determining magnetic polarity changes on three sites as independent stratigraphic ground-truth in combination with palynological evidence and published data. Then we conducted a number of high-resolution (1 - 6 cm increment), non-destructive measurements to obtain paleoclimate proxies: photospectrometry (colors L, a, b), magnetic susceptibility, and natural gamma. Accordingly, we achieved a multi-proxy insight into paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental evolution at unprecedented temporal resolution (up to a few decades!) over long time series and at a number of key sites. Using the newly-developed ESALab software, we conducted spectral and evolutionary spectral analysis to evaluate the cyclo-stratigraphic development. As for orbital variability, spectral power is concentrated on precession, hemi-precession, and eccentricity, with only minor impact of orbital tilt. We used this information to increase the temporal resolution of our age models by tuning as many precession (insolation) maxima as possible to carbonate minima (lignite maxima

  18. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  19. A simple and proven technology for reclaiming acidic mine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Chris; Mack, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    The cost of water treatment is now more than ever a major consideration for maintaining an environmentally and economically sustainable mining operation. As an industry, we often have to consider water sources that are highly impure and difficult to treat. We are also discovering the value of our waste waters in this regard and using new and improved methods and technology to reclaim and reuse water. In many instances, the water or waste water to be treated is highly acidic and saturated in sparingly soluble salts. Conventional systems used to liberate this type of water typically involve high doses of lime with large volumes of waste sludge produced, and are comparatively complex to operate, to pretreat the water in order to reduce scaling tendency on the reverse osmosis stage. However, if the water is considered valuable for reuse, then why not avoid difficult and cumbersome pretreatment processes and treat the water at low pH to keep the sparingly soluble salts, metals and other dissolved species in solution. This paper describes a patented technology that uses and successfully proves this concept as a cost effective option for certain situations. Results from a treatability study on an Australian groundwater are discussed, along with an economic comparison to a conventional method and discussion on full-scale potential.

  20. EMISSION AND TRENDS IN RECLAIMING WASTE HEAT IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  1. Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Malin; Strömvall, A M

    2004-03-01

    Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum-based bitumen. Semi-volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC/MS screen-test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of semi-volatile compounds, approximately 400 microg l(-1), were measured in field samples from the scarified stockpile. Naphthalene, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most dominant of the identified semi-volatiles. The occurrence of these compounds in urban groundwater, also indicate high emission rates and persistent structures of the compounds, making them potentially hazardous. Car exhausts, rubber tires and the asphalt material itself are all probable emission sources, determined from the organic contaminants released from the stockpiles. The major leaching mechanism indicated was dissolution of organic contaminants from the surface of the asphalt gravels. In the laboratory column test, the release of high-molecular weight and more toxic PAH was higher in the leachates after two years than at the commencement of storage. The concentrations of semi-volatiles in leachates, were also several times lower than those from the field stockpile. These results demonstrate the need to follow up laboratory column test with real field measurements.

  2. What can offer us reclaimed landscape surrounding future lake Medard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrajnohova-Gillarova, H.; Kazmierski, T.; Martis, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Pecharova, E. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); South-Bohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Soon after closing down a mine, the landscape that had been systematically disturbed by mining, should start to serve people from neighbouring towns and villages. This study characterized the Medard site located in the western part of the Czech Republic. The future Lake Medard includes the area of the former Medard-Libik Mine. Medard was an opencast brown coal mine, where mining finished in 2000 and reclamation plans involve its flooding until the year 2013. Forestry reclamation was also in progress. This paper presented a survey that was designed to help determine what the reclaimed landscape surrounding the future Lake Medard could offer. The paper provided background information on Medard Lake and outlined the methodology and results of the study. The methodology involved use of recent orthophotomaps, a study of the future lake Medard and data from the field survey. The study examined the long-term impacts on the social and environmental situation in the area. It was concluded that, once the reclamations are finished, there should be natural trails with information and educational infrastructure so that visitors to the area can learn about the places of interest. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  4. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  5. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  6. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  7. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  8. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  9. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  10. Design and verification of bituminous mixtures with the increased content of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bańkowski, Wojciech; Król, Jan; Gałązka, Karol; Liphardt, Adam; Horodecka, Renata

    2018-05-01

    Recycling of bituminous pavements is an issue increasingly being discussed in Poland. The analysis of domestic and foreign experience indicates a need to develop this technology in our country, in particular the hot feeding and production technologies. Various steps are being taken in this direction, including research projects. One of them is the InnGA project entitled: “Reclaimed asphalt pavement: Innovative technology of bituminous mixtures using material from reclaimed asphalt pavement”. The paper presents the results of research involving the design of bituminous mixtures in accordance with the required properties and in excess of the content of reclaimed asphalt permitted by the technical guidelines. It presents selected bituminous mixtures with the content of RAP of up to 50% and the results of tests from verification of industrial production of those mixtures. The article discusses the details of the design process of mixtures with a high content of reclaimed asphalt, the carried out production tests and discusses the results of tests under the verification of industrial production. Testing included basic tests according to the Polish technical requirements of WT- 2 and the extended functional testing. The conducted tests and analyses helped to determine the usefulness of the developed bituminous mixtures for use in experimental sections and confirmed the possibility of using an increased amount of reclaimed asphalt up to 50% in mixtures intended for construction of national roads.

  11. Assessment of the Possibility of Using Reclaimed Materials for Making Cores by the Blowing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative results of investigations of the possibility of using the reclaimed materials after the mechanical, thermal or mechanical-thermal reclamation for making cores by means of the blowing method in the alkaline CO2 technology, are presented in the paper. Three kinds of spent sands: with furfuryl resin, bentonite and alkaline phenolic resin, obtained from the foundry, were subjected to three kinds of reclamation: mechanical, thermal and combined mechanical-thermal, applying for this aim adequate experimental devices. The obtained reclaims were assessed with regard to the degree of the matrix liberation from the determined binding material. Reclaims of moulding sands with binders of the form of resin were assessed with regard to ignition loss values and pH reaction, while reclaims of moulding sands with bentonite with regard to the residual clay content and pH value. In all cases the results of the performed sieve analyses were estimated and the average characteristic diameter dl was determined. The reclaimed matrix was applied as a full substitute of the fresh high-silica sand in typical procedures of preparing core sands used for making shaped samples for bending strength investigations, Rgu.

  12. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  13. Long-term reclaimed water application effects on phosphorus leaching potential in rapid infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Daniel R; Silveira, Maria L; O'Connor, George A; Wise, William R

    2011-09-01

    Rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) are effective tools for wastewater treatment and groundwater recharge, but continuous application of wastewater can increase soil P concentrations and subsequently impact groundwater quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of reclaimed water infiltration rate and "age" of RIBs on soil P concentrations at various depths, and (2) estimate the degree (percentage) of sorption equilibrium reached between effluent P and soil attained during reclaimed water application to different RIBs. The study was conducted in four contrasting cells of a RIB system with up to a 25 year history of secondary wastewater application. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 300 cm depth at 30 cm intervals and analyzed for water extractable phosphorus (WEP) and oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe concentrations. Water extractable P and P saturation ratio (PSR) values were generally greater in the cells receiving reclaimed water compared to control soils, suggesting that reclaimed water P application can increase soil P concentrations and the risk of P movement to greater depths. Differences between treatment and control samples were more evident in cells with longer histories of reclaimed water application due to greater P loading. Data also indicated considerable spatial variability in WEP concentrations and PSR values, especially within cells from RIBs characterized by fast infiltration rates. This occurs because wastewater-P flows through surface soils much faster than the minimum time required for sorption equilibrium to occur. Studies should be conducted to investigate soil P saturation at deeper depths to assess possible groundwater contamination.

  14. Secondary succession of nematodes in power plant ash dumps reclaimed by covering with turf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmowska, E.; Ilieva-Makulec, K. [Polish Academy of Science, Lomianki (Poland)

    2006-11-15

    An analysis of successive changes in nematode assemblages in reclaimed waste area offers information about the sensitivity of species or groups of nematodes to specific conditions and ability to colonise new habitats. The study was carried in ash dumps being a by-product of the combustion of hard coal and reclaimed by covering with mineral turf (light loam warp soil) or organic turf (alder peat). In the first 3 years of reclamation diversity of nematodes was low, especially in, the dump covered with mineral turf - Shannon diversity index below 3. Later on the value of Shannon index increased and did not differ from those recorded for meadows in Poland. In the ash dump, reclaimed for a longer time period (8-11 years), the contribution of K strategist species was higher than in the dumps reclaimed for a shorter time period (2-5 years). At the earlier stages of succession bacterivores Acrobeloides, and two fungivores Aphelenchoides and Aphelenchus, predominated. In the ash dump reclaimed longer the dominance of these three genera decreased and some plant feeders achieved high contribution ({gt} 30%). The composition of nematode communities depended. significantly on the period of reclamation, but did not depend either on the soil moisture and pH or on season.

  15. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  16. EBM Irradiation Modification of Palm Oil Biomass Filled Reclaimed Rubber-Mechanical Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairu Ibrahim; Ratnam, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this project, a study was done to evaluate the mechanical properties of reclaimed rubber filled with palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) as fillers. The purpose of filler is to help improve the properties of reclaim rubber and the addition of filler is fixed at 10 parts. Palm oil EFB was obtained from Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and prepared at different size. Various samples were prepared with various sizes of filler blended with reclaim rubber using Haake Hot Mixer. The compounds were then compression-moulded at 120 degree Celsius using an electrically heated hydraulic press for their cure times. Dumbbell-shaped tensile and test specimens for hardness and impact test were punched out from the compression-moulded slabs along the mill grain direction. From the test result, it was found that the addition of fillers able to increase the mechanical properties of reclaim rubber and the smaller size of fillers added produced higher tensile properties. The study shows that the palm oil EFB suitable to be used as filler in reclaim rubber. (author)

  17. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modis, K.

    2010-01-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Grass and forb species for revegetation of mixed soil-lignite overburden in East Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skousen, J.G.; Call, C.A. (West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Plant and Soil Sciences)

    Ten grasses and seven forbs were seeded into mixed soil-lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas and monitored for establishment and growth over a 3-year period without fertilization. Buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), green sprangletop (Leptochloa dubia), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and kleingrass (P. coloratum) developed monotypic stands with sufficent density, aerial cover, and aboveground biomass to stabilize the mixed soil-lignite overburden surface by the end of the first growing season. Plant mortality eliminated buffelgrass and green sprangletop stands by the end of the third growing season. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) developed a satisfactory stand by the end of the third growing season, while Oldworld bluestem (Bothriochloa X Dicanthium), yellow bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) established at a slower rate. Cover and biomass measurements from an adjacent, unfertilized stand of Coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were compared with those of seeded grasses throughout the study. Partidge pea (Cassia fasciculata) established rapidly and had the greatest cover and biomass of all seeded forbs by the end of the first growing season. Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata), Illinois bundleflower (Desmanthus illinoensis), and western indigo (Indigofera miniata) developed adequate stands for surface stabilization by the end of the third growing season, while faseanil indigo (Indigofera suffruticosa), virgata lespedeza (Lespedeza virgata), and awnless bushsunflower (Simsia calva) showed slower establishment. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in a Greek lignite basin, using geostatistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modis, K. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    An issue of significant interest in the mining industry in Greece is the occurrence of chemical pollutants in ground water. Ammonium, nitrites and nitrates concentrations have been monitored through an extensive sampling network in the Ptolemais lignite opencast mining area in Greece. Due to intensive mining efforts in the area, the surface topology is continuously altered, affecting the life span of the water boreholes and resulting in messy spatiotemporal distribution of data. This paper discussed the spatiotemporal mapping of ground water pollution in the Ptolemais lignite basin, using geostatistics. More specifically, the spatiotemporal distribution of ground water contamination was examined by the application of the bayesian maximum entropy theory which allows merging spatial and temporal estimations in a single model. The paper provided a description of the site and discussed the materials and methods, including samples and statistics; variography; and spatiotemporal mapping. It was concluded that in the case of the Ptolemais mining area, results revealed an underlying average yearly variation pattern of pollutant concentrations. Inspection of the produced spatiotemporal maps demonstrated a continuous increase in the risk of ammonium contamination, while risk for the other two pollutants appeared in hot spots. 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. Lignite and hard coal: Energy suppliers for world needs until the year 2100 - An outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielemann, Thomas; Schmidt, Sandro; Peter Gerling, J.

    2007-01-01

    For three years, international hard coal prices have been at rather expensive levels. Some argue that these higher prices might indicate the threat of a physical scarcity of fossil fuels - similar to the situation with oil and gas. This is not true. The supply situations with lignite and hard coal appear to be largely not critical. Adjusted to the rise in global coal consumption, which is expected until 2100, nature by and large can meet the world's coal demand. This is shown for lignite in this article and it is illustrated for hard coal here, differentiated in space and time for a world divided into eight regions and viewed for the years 2005, 2020, 2030, 2050, and 2100. The only area of potential concern is Asia (especially China). But today's and coming eager efforts in China to convert coal resources into reserves will most likely deliver the coal needed for the Chinese market. Up to the year 2100, and from a geoscientific point of view, there will be no bottleneck in coal supplies on this planet. (author)

  1. Valorization of lignite combustion residues and ferroalumina in the production of aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, I M; Stivanakis, V E; Angelopoulos, G N; Papamantellos, D C

    2010-02-15

    The present research study investigates the synergy of industrial solid by-products from lignite combustion (fly ash and bottom ash) and aluminum production (ferroalumina) in the production of lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering. Bottom ash (BA) is used as the principal raw material in mixtures while ferroalumina (FAL) is added in lower percentages (5-30 wt%). BA carbon content is used as the fuel of sintering process in high temperatures, around 1250 degrees C, and gas generation is responsible for porous structure formation. Physical properties such as porosity, water absorption and bulk density, of sintering products are measured. Increase of FAL percentage in sintering mixtures results in decrease of porosity from 61% to 35% and of water absorption from 61% to 21% and in increase of bulk density from 1.02 g/cm(3) to 1.80 g/cm(3) of the produced aggregates. Aggregates produced by FAL addition up to 20 wt% are characterized as LWA. Aggregates formed are used in the production of concrete specimens. Compressive strength of concrete increases by increasing FAL addition in aggregates from 5 wt% to 15 wt% (highest strength value), while decrease by increasing FAL addition from 20 wt% to 30 wt%. FAL addition in lignite ashes sintering mixtures (up to 15 wt%) is considered as an important parameter for enhancing aggregates strength.

  2. Lignite air-steam gasification in the fluidized bed of iron-containing slag catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Shchipko, M.L.; Golovin, Yu. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The influence of fluidized bed of iron-containing slag particles on air-steam gasification of powdered Kansk-Achinsk lignite in entrained flow was studied in pilot installation with productivity about 60 kg per hour. Slag of Martin process and boiler slag were used as catalytic active materials until their complete mechanical attrition. Two following methods of catalytic gasification of lignite were compared: the partial gasification in stationary fluidized bed of slag particles with degree of fuel conversion 40-70% and complete gasification in circulating bed of slag particles. In the first case only the most reactive part of fuel is gasified with the simultaneously formation of porous carbon residue with good sorption ability. It was found the catalytic fluidized bed improves heat transfer from combustion to reduction zone of gas-generator and increases the rate of fuel conversion at the temperature range 900-1000{degrees}C. At these temperatures the degree of conversion is depended considerably on the duration time of fuel particles in the catalytic fluidized bed. The influence of catalytic fluidized bed height and velocity of reaction mixture on the temperature profiles in the gas-generator was studied. The optimal relationship was found between the fluidized bed height and velocity of flow which makes possible to produce the gas with higher calorific value at maximum degree of fuel conversion.

  3. Structural degradation of Thar lignite using MW1 fungal isolate: optimization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Rizwan; Ghauri, Muhammad A.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Orem, William H.; SanFilipo, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological degradation of low-rank coals, particularly degradation mediated by fungi, can play an important role in helping us to utilize neglected lignite resources for both fuel and non-fuel applications. Fungal degradation of low-rank coals has already been investigated for the extraction of soil-conditioning agents and the substrates, which could be subjected to subsequent processing for the generation of alternative fuel options, like methane. However, to achieve an efficient degradation process, the fungal isolates must originate from an appropriate coal environment and the degradation process must be optimized. With this in mind, a representative sample from the Thar coalfield (the largest lignite resource of Pakistan) was treated with a fungal strain, MW1, which was previously isolated from a drilled core coal sample. The treatment caused the liberation of organic fractions from the structural matrix of coal. Fungal degradation was optimized, and it showed significant release of organics, with 0.1% glucose concentration and 1% coal loading ratio after an incubation time of 7 days. Analytical investigations revealed the release of complex organic moieties, pertaining to polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and it also helped in predicting structural units present within structure of coal. Such isolates, with enhanced degradation capabilities, can definitely help in exploiting the chemical-feedstock-status of coal.

  4. The effect of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners: a diachronic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichletidis, L; Tsiotsios, I; Chloros, D; Daskalopoulou, E; Ziomas, I; Michailidis, K; Kottakis, I; Konstantinidis, T H; Palladas, P

    2004-01-01

    It is not known whether working in surface lignite mines can cause x-ray lesions or disorders of respiratory function. The aim of the study was to investigate the diachronic impact of environmental pollution on the respiratory system of lignite miners at mines in Eordea, Greece. Cases of 199 workers (Group A) residing permanently in the Eordea valley and 151 (Group B) living outside the Eordea valley were studied during Phase I and then re-examined after three years (Phase II). These cases were compared to those of 71 office workers living in Eordea valley (Group C) and to 96 living in Grevena, a region without pollution (Group D). The study included the completion of the MRC questionnaire for the detection of respiratory diseases, pulmonary function tests, measurement of diffusion capacity, otorhinolaryngologic examination, rhinomanonetry as well as chest and paranasal cavity X-rays. Chronic bronchitis was reported by 26.8%, 24.8%, 17.9% and 10.6% respectively of the subjects of groups A, B, C and D according to the answers of the questionnaire (pmines under conditions of excessive pollution by airborne contaminants have a high prevalence of atrophic rhinitis and, in addition to other standard examinations, should undergo rhinomanometry testing and X-ray imaging of the paranasal cavities.

  5. Land movement monitoring at the Mavropigi lignite mine using spaceborne D-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Eirini; Tripolitsiotis, Achilleas; Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Mertikas, Stelios; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Schilizzi, Pavlos

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines. The study area is the "Mavropigi" lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently 100-120m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. Within the mine, ground geodetic monitoring has revealed an average rate of movement amounting to 10-20mm/day at the southeast slopes. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using 19 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ALOS satellite, has been applied to monitor progression of land movement caused my mining within the greater area of "Mavropigi" region. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks. The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost (large areas).

  6. Effect of using of reclaimed asphalt and/or lower temperature asphalt on the availability of the road network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, C.; Wayman, M.; Mollenhauer, K.; McNally, C.; Tabakovic, A.; Varveri, A.; Cassidy, S.; Shahmohammadi, R.; Taylor, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reclaimed asphalt, secondary component materials and/or additives and lower temperature asphalt are being increasingly used in order to improve the sustainability of asphalt production. The use of reclaimed asphalt reduces the need for virgin materials whilst lower temperature asphalts

  7. Influence of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on properties of different asphalts for a wearing course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komačka, J.; Remišová, E.; Liu, G.; Leegwater, G.; Nielsen, E.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was performed to study the effect of reclaimed asphalt with polymer modified bitumen on the properties describing asphalt performance. Three types of asphalts used for wearing courses in Europe (SMA 11, AC 11 and PA 8) were investigated. Five combinations of reclaimed

  8. THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

  9. Penelitian pengaruh penambahan karet reclaim terhadap sifat- sifat kuat tarik, kemuluran dan volume terkikis kompon karet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno Prayitno

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Reprocessed of wastevulcanized rubber products, known as reclaim rubber, is used as a filler in rubber soles. Uncorrect usage of reclaim rubber in rubber sole manufacturing can decrease the product performance such as as tensile streangth, elongation break and abrasion resistance. In this experiment, by comparison of 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 parts of reclaim rubber to the 100 part of natural rubber (RSS sow that tensile strength decreased to 174.138, 160.118, 140.574, 134.092, and 449,60, 437.20, 426.00, 403.80 and 396.60% nrespectively, whereas abrasion resistance decreased to 0,2491, 0,4781, 0,5267, 0.7909, and mm3 / kgm respectively.

  10. Co-liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 2 - Effect of Biomass Type, Waste to Lignite Ratio and Solid to Liquid Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hüseyin; Koyunoglu, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    Most coal hydrogenation processes require a large quantity of hydrogen. In general, a coal derived liquid such as anthracene oil was used as a hydrogen donor solvent. Tetralin, partially hydrogenated pyrene, phenantrene and coal-derived solvents, which contain hydroaromatic compounds, are efficient solvents to donate hydrogen. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. This must be hydrogenated during or before the process and recycled. To reduce the cost of hydrogen donor vehicles instead of liquids recycled from the liquefaction process or several biomass types, industrial by products, liquid fractions derived from oil sands bitumen were successfully used to solubilize a coal from the past. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. However, when hydrogen is supplied from the hydroaromatic structures present in the solvent, the activity of coal minerals is too low to rehydrogenate the solvent in-situ. Nevertheless, a decrease of using oxygen, in addition to enhanced usage of the hydrogen supply by using various waste materials might lead to a decrease of the cost of the liquefaction procedure. So instead of using tetralin another feeding material such as biomass is becoming another solution improving hydrogen donor substances. Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions, early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Alternatively, to understand the hydrogen transfer from biomass to coal, in this study, Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure, tea

  11. Use of lignite in the production of sponge iron and processing of waste oxides in rotary kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichberger, H; Schnabel, W; Serbent, H

    1978-11-01

    Based on a study of the situation of fossil energy reserves, processes are described in which non-coking coals, in particular lignite, are used for reduction in the rotary kiln, i.e. for sponge iron production and for zinc volatilization from waste oxides).

  12. Comparative palynology of clastics and lignites from the Manning Formation, Jackson Group, Upper Eocene, Grimes County, TX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennett, J.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The 3500 lignite seam at the Gibbons Creek Mine in Grimes County, TX was sampled for pollen and spores at 10 cm intervals. The majority of samples are dominated (to 60%) by Momipites from the Juglandaceae (walnut family), as is typical of Jackson Group sediments. Other palynomorph taxa vary systematically, with a peak of pollen of the freshwater tree Nyssa (blackgum) and associated Rboipites angustus (to 17%) occurring at the base. Higher in the seam, increase (to 55%) of Cupuliferoipollenites (a chestnut-like grain) and Cyrillaceae-pollenites? ventosus (to 7%) percentages may indicate a higher salinity environment. A Chrysophyllum (satin leaf) peak (to 25%) near the top of the seam suggests relatively shallow fresh-water conditions. Core samples from an interval above the lignites represent a transgressive-regressive cycle in inner shelf clastics. These samples were taken at 40 cm or greater intervals and reveal the regional pollen flora. Although minor changes occur, palynomorph spectra are for the most part homogenous. The dominant grain is again Momipites coryloides, but in general percentages are lower (to 35%). Cupuliferoipollenites (to 17%), Chrysophyllum (to 5%), and Rhoipites angustus (to 3%) are not less important, but do not peak as they do in the lignite spectra. Palm leaf megafossils; in one sample suggest a clastic wetland; in this sample palm pollen (mostly Arecipites, representing the modern saw palmetto) reaches 73%. Another sample contains high (26%) percentages of the fern spore Lygodiumsporites adriennis. High percentages of these two taxa do not occur in the lignite samples.

  13. Low temperature coal depolymerization-liquefaction: conversion of a North Dakota lignite to a light hydrocarbon oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabtai, J.; Yuan Zhang (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Fuels Engineering)

    1989-10-01

    A new low temperature method of coal liquefaction is described which includes intercalation of the coal with FeCl{sub 3}, depolymerization under supercritical conditions, and hydroprocessing of the depolymerized product. Results indicate a high yield conversion of lignites to light hydrocarbon oils. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Co-processing of lignite-plastic mixtures into liquid distillate fractions in the presence of iron catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Baryshnikov, S.V.; Doroginskaya, A.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials Sibirian Branch

    1997-12-31

    Some features of co-processing of Kansk-Achinsk lignite with plastics into hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of activated iron-containing minerals (hematite, magnetite, pyrrhotite) were investigated under various operating parameters. The following catalytic processes were studied: pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere, hydropyrolysis and water-steam cracking. (orig.)

  15. Research of lignite oxidation kinetic parameters modified by CuSO4 and NaNO3 initiation additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larionov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study and subsequent analytical assessment of activation energy change in lignite oxidation process with addition of NaNO3 and CuSO4 mineral salts were conducted. The results showed that injection of catalytic additives leads to reduction of coal activation energy and reaction initial temperature.

  16. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  17. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen-rich gas as a product of two-stage co-gasification of lignite/waste mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Pavel; Bičáková, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 21 (2014), s. 10987-10995 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : co-gasification * waste plastics * lignite * hydrogen-rich gas Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014 http://authors.elsevier.com/sd/article/S0360319914014025

  19. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  1. 'Religion' and 'body': reclaiming the missing links of Western education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Ergas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper depicts Western education as being led by a scientific ethos of objectivity. Such an ethos lends itself clearly to a disengagement from ‘religion’ as representing the realm of so-called ‘unscientific knowledge’ and speculation on the one hand, and to a disengagement from the ‘body’ as the locus of sentiment and idiosyncrasy on the other. It is argued, that Western education thus promotes a secular mind-oriented ideology, weeding out the spiritual realm on the one hand, and the emotional-physical realm on the other. It is claimed that education can only take place once it becomes an exploratory path which poses the question ‘who am I?’ at its core. The exploration of such a question will forever be a depleted one as long as it is deprived of ‘religion’ and the ‘body’ as possible research paths. This paper is thus an orientation call for the field of curriculum development serving as a foundation for the ‘holistic education’ discourse developed in recent years. ‘Well-being’ is claimed to be the goal of education. Following this it is showed why this goal cannot be achieved given Western education’s rational (‘body-less’ – secular (‘religion-less’ epistemology. There is thus a need for an attempt to reconceptualize education, which can be made by means of reclaiming the ‘body’ and ‘religion’ as Western education’s missing links, reintegrating them into its proper epistemological/ontological basis. Our inherent dualistic conceptualization of reality (education included should be dealt with, as it constitutes an obstacle to the reconceptualization of education.

  2. Clarification of leachate from reclaimed ground by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Teruko; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Sawai, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    To decompose organic matters such as humic acid and fulvous acid in the leachate from reclaimed ground, an electron beam irradiation technique was examined because of availability of higher dose rate than a 60 Co γ-ray source. This paper describes results of the above-mentioned preliminary examination. Test water was collected from No.15 dumping site at the Tokyo Bay. Irradiation sample was prepared by filtration with a filter and decarbonation with sulfuric acid. Fulvous acid solution by eliminating humic acid was also served for the examination. Electron beam irradiation of the sample solution was made with a Van de Graaf accelerator by 1.5 MeV, 140 Gy/sec of irradiation condition and with a dynamitron by 2.0 MeV, 25 kGy/pass of the condition. It was clarified that oxygen bubbling velocity during the irradiation did not affect much for the decrease rate of total organic matters (TOC) within 0.5 to 3.0 1/min of an experimental condition. As for radiation doses and TOC decrease, TOC was decreased much for lower dose rate irradiation (Van de Graaf accelerator), lower initial TOC concentration, or addition of hydrogen peroxide. For the combined treatment of radiation and flocculation to aim at irradiation dose decrease, fulvous acid solution was served for the test. Lower dose irradiation with a 60 Co source showed better TOC elimination and it was concluded that combination with flocculation was effective for the dose reduction. It was also found experimentally that TOC decrease behavior by the both radiation source was different due to temperature effect and further study should be made for the development of the practical electron beam irradiation technique. (Takagi, S.)

  3. The Scream of the Butterfly: on Reclaiming the Feminine Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Daly, Bernice

    My thesis is that the Feminine Divine has re-entered our age as a primary image for human spiritual growth. Her central energies are immanence, interconnection, mutuality, and interdependence. Emerging from the ancient Goddess tradition, She is reflected anew in contemporary thought in multiple ways. I have explored Her re-emergence in spirituality, psychology, cross-cultural studies, ecofeminism and the new physics. I have focused my research on the experiences of women because women are the original and natural bearers of feminine energies. In the area of spirituality, She expresses Herself through women's reclaiming their sacred image in the women's spirituality movement. Further insights are gained from diverse indigenous cultures which honor the spirit-world in their everyday lives. Ritual, as the enactment of our beliefs, values and world-view, becomes powerful personal and communal expressions of Her re-emergence. From a psychological perspective, I have studied current theories of "Self-in-Relation" and Integrative Psychology. "Self-in-Relation" stresses personal development from within the context of relational growth, both within oneself and with others. Integrative Psychology articulates a body-oriented reconception of feminine and masculine energies. Ecofeminism expresses the confluence of women and nature as intrinsic to meeting environmental demands. Recognizing that treating 'mother' and 'earth' as inexhaustible resources is no longer possible, an ecofeminist position asserts that our assumptions about both women and nature be re -examined. The new physics reconstructs our perception of the universe through quantum physics and chaos theories. These perspectives view the universe as an alive, integrated whole; all aspects, including ourselves, inter-relate with all other aspects. These areas of research demonstrate the emergence of relatedness and interdependence as expressions of a new consciousness which honors the feminine Divine.

  4. ESTABLISHMENT AND EVALUATION OF SWITCHGRASS ON RECLAIMED MINE SOIL [English

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, David; Shankle, Brandon; Oswalt, Ernest; Duckworth, Jeremy; Sanborn, Judd; Buell, Rebecca; Roberson, Bill

    2010-06-30

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a native warm season perennial grass that has productive potential of up to 20 Mg ha-1 of biomass and it persists for decades when harvested once per year. Switchgrass provides excellent ground cover and soil stabilization once established and contributes to soil sequestration of new carbon. Slow establishment on newly reclaimed soil, however, provides for significant erosive opportunities thereby requiring initial soil stabilization with a cover crop. Several planting options were evaluated on two topsoil substitute soils. The planting options included: 1) an existing stand of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) that was killed with glyphosate followed by disking in red oxidized topsoil substitute and prime farmland topsoil respread in 2007, 2) red oxidized topsoil substitute was seeded directly with switchgrass, 3) browntop millet (Panicum ramosum) was established with switchgrass, 4) or switchgrass was established in senescing browntop millet or wheat without tillage. Switchgrass was successfully established into a bermudagrass sod that had been killed with herbicides and disked as well as into a senescing stand of browntop millet or wheat. Significant soil erosion occurred on the disked area in 2008 leading to considerable repair work followed by planting wheat. Disked areas that did not erode had an excellent stand of switchgrass with 23.3 plants m-2 in November, 2008. Eroded areas replanted in April, 2009 into senescing wheat had 46 plants m-2 by July, 2009. The area planted directly into newly respread soil in May, 2009 was eroded severely by a 75 mm thunderstorm and was repaired, disked and replanted to switchgrass and browntop millet. Switchgrass seeded with browntop millet had a sparse switchgrass stand and was replanted to switchgrass in August, 2009. Rainfall volumes from August, 2009 to October, 2009 totaled 750 mm, but new erosion damage in areas successfully planted to switchgrass has been minimal.

  5. Petrology, palynology and organic geochemistry of Eocene lignite of Matanomadh, Kutch Basin, western India: Implications to depositional environment and hydrocarbon source potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mathews, Runcie P.; Saraswati, Pratul K.; Banerjee, Santanu [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (India); Singh, Bhagwan D.; Tripathi, Suryakant M.; Singh, Alpana [Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow (India); Mann, Ulrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Institut fuer chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere

    2011-01-01

    Petrological, palynological and organic-geochemical investigations were undertaken to determine the source vegetation, depositional conditions and hydrocarbon source potential of Eocene Matanomadh lignites from Kutch Basin, western India. The maceral study reveals that studied lignites are rich in huminite (av. 63%) with sub-ordinate amount of liptinite (av. 19%) and low inertinite (av. 3%), along with low to moderately high associated mineral matters (av. 15%). The overall petrographic composition points to a lagoonal condition for the formation of these lignites. The mean huminite reflectance values (R{sub r}: 0.28-0.34%, av. 0.31%) as well as low Rock-Eval T{sub max} (av. 417 C) values for the seams, suggest brown coal or lignitic stage/rank for the studied lignites. The palynological assemblages, dominated by tropical angiospermic pollen, suggest prevalence of warm humid tropical climate during the deposition of these lignites. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of lignites ranges between 26 and 58 wt.%, whereas the TOC content of the associated carbonaceous shales is around 4 wt.%. The Hydrogen Index (HI) ranging from 23 to 452 mg HC/g TOC indicates that the lignite sequence has the potential to produce mixed oil and gaseous hydrocarbons on maturation. The major pyrolysis products of lignites, derived from Curie point pyrolysis-GC-MS, are straight chain aliphatics, phenols and cadalene-based C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. The exclusive occurrence of C{sub 15} bicyclic sesquiterpenoids suggests that these compounds are derived from dammar resin of angiosperm plants, belonging to family Dipterocarpaceae. (author)

  6. LARGE-SCALE MECURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY TESTING FOR LIGNITE-FIRED UTILITIES-OXIDATION SYSTEMS FOR WET FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2004-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a consortium-based effort directed toward resolving the mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. Specifically, the EERC team--the EERC, EPRI, URS, ADA-ES, Babcock & Wilcox, the North Dakota Industrial Commission, SaskPower, and the Mercury Task Force, which includes Basin Electric Power Cooperative, Otter Tail Power Company, Great River Energy, Texas Utilities (TXU), Montana-Dakota Utilities Co., Minnkota Power Cooperative, BNI Coal Ltd., Dakota Westmoreland Corporation, and the North American Coal Company--has undertaken a project to significantly and cost-effectively oxidize elemental mercury in lignite combustion gases, followed by capture in a wet scrubber. This approach will be applicable to virtually every lignite utility in the United States and Canada and potentially impact subbituminous utilities. The oxidation process is proven at the pilot-scale and in short-term full-scale tests. Additional optimization is continuing on oxidation technologies, and this project focuses on longer-term full-scale testing. The lignite industry has been proactive in advancing the understanding of and identifying control options for Hg in lignite combustion flue gases. Approximately 1 year ago, the EERC and EPRI began a series of Hg-related discussions with the Mercury Task Force as well as utilities firing Texas and Saskatchewan lignites. This project is one of three being undertaken by the consortium to perform large-scale Hg control technology testing to address the specific needs and challenges to be met in controlling Hg from lignite-fired power plants. This project involves Hg oxidation upstream of a system equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The team involved in conducting the technical aspects of the project includes the EERC, Babcock & Wilcox, URS, and ADA-ES. The host sites include Minnkota Power Cooperative Milton R. Young

  7. Perspectives on the German lignite industry in 2012. Stability through diversity; Perspektiven der deutschen Braunkohlenindustrie 2012. Stabilitaet durch Vielfalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertz, Johannes F. [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany); Milojcic, George [Bundesverband Braunkohle (DEBRIV), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    The formula - stability through diversity - stands for a promising approach to energy policy. Germany will be phasing out nuclear energy by 2022 and giving a big push to renewables as a substitute. That changes the electricity mix. In this setting, lignite becomes more valuable as base load energy. Any look at the history of technology shows that, in the competition to find good solutions, experience proves that diversity is generated, and that means stability. In the energy sector, no one solution will determine the future, but many different technologies will co-exist in a pattern that is increasingly networked and integrated. The background here is a combination of nature circumstances, the wishes of consumers and, of course, the technical potential and availability of raw materials. There is no sign that coal, which is so abundantly available and competitive worldwide, will be excluded from the energy mix any time soon. The figures prove the contrary. The dynamism of world coal consumption speaks an unequivocal language. Germany, with its lignite, has a valuable natural resource which will be available for a long time to come. Germany's energy-policy aim should be to make use of the strengths of domestic lignite, strengths like security of supply and affordability, while working on minimising CO{sub 2} emissions, in particular through increases in efficiency and, in the long run, through CCS. Indispensable for this are the underlying production conditions. At the start, I had a word of thanks for our many partners for their good cooperation. We go on relying on your support. Specifically, we hope that the lignite industry, like other sectors will go on being appreciated for the benefits that it brings, and that no additional burdens are envisaged that might impair its competitiveness. It is our task in the lignite industry to further develop the potential of lignite with our wealth of ideas and fact-driven work. The good of today thus make a better

  8. Radiological characteristic of an area reclaimed by means of an ash-gravel power plant wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, A.; Biernacka, M.; Kusyk, M.; Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Florowska, K.

    2002-01-01

    A sand excavation after extraction of gravel and sand was filled with an ash-gravel mix. The mix was covered with shielding layers of clay and soil and grass was cultivated on it. Investigations of radiological characteristic such as: gamma radiation dose rate, radon concentration in soil air and radionuclide concentration in the ground were carried out in the both areas reclaimed one and in the vicinity of it. Radon exhalation coefficients were determined for uncovered ash-gravel mix layer, the shielding soil layer and for the ground in the vicinity. Analysis of the results revealed that the reclaimed area can be used for building development. (author)

  9. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  10. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the track inclination in a single

  11. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Beginning more than 30 years ago, opencast lignite mining in the "Bełchatów" area is an important source of accompanying minerals. Lignite mining in the "Bełchatów" mine yields, on average, more than 35 million tonnes per annum and requires removing more than 110 million cubic meters of overburden. Therefore the mine outside of the main mineral exploitation of lignite, leads to a large-scale economy of accompanying minerals. Part of the minerals are present in the overburden and are ...

  12. Preparation and combustion of Yugoslavian lignite-water fuel, Task 7.35. Topical report, July 1991--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, C.M.; DeWall, R.A.; Ljubicic, B.R.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    Yugoslavia`s interest in lignite-water fuel (LWF) stems from its involvement in an unusual power project at Kovin in northern Serbia. In the early 1980s, Electric Power of Serbia (EPS) proposed constructing a 600-MW power plant that would be fueled by lignite found in deposits along and under the Danube River. Trial underwater mining at Kovin proved that the dredging operation is feasible. The dredging method produces a coal slurry containing 85% to 90% water. Plans included draining the water from the coal, drying it, and then burning it in the pulverized coal plant. In looking for alternative ways to utilize the ``wet coal`` in a more efficient and economical way, a consortium of Yugoslavian companies agreed to assess the conversion of dredged lignite into a LWF using hot-water-drying (HWD) technology. HWD is a high-temperature, nonevaporative drying technique carried out under high pressure in water that permanently alters the structure of low-rank coals. Changes effected by the drying process include irreversible removal of moisture, micropore sealing by tar, and enhancement of heating value by removal of oxygen, thus, enhancement of the slurry ability of the coal with water. Physical cleaning results indicated a 51 wt % reduction in ash content with a 76 wt % yield for the lignite. In addition, physical cleaning produced a cleaned slurry that had a higher attainable solids loading than a raw uncleaned coal slurry. Combustion studies were then performed on the raw and physically cleaned samples with the resulting indicating that both samples were very reactive, making them excellent candidates for HWD. Bench-scale results showed that HWD increased energy densities of the two raw lignite samples by approximately 63% and 81%. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was conducted to evaluate the HWD and pipeline transport of Kovin LWF to domestic and export European markets. Results are described.

  13. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and depositional environment of a lignite-bearing succession at Surkha Mine, Cambay Basin, north-western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Priyanka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports palynology and palynofacies studies of lignite-bearing sediments exposed in an opencast mine succession at Surkha, Bhavnagar District, in the coastal region of Gujarat, India. The study examined the relationships between the palynoflora, sedimentary organic matter and environment at the time of deposition of lignite and associated sediments. Based on dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, the sedimentary succession is dated as early Eocene (Ypresian. Palynofacies studies helped reveal the palaeoenvironmental fluctuations. The dominance of angiosperm pollen grains, freshwater algae, microthyraceous fungi and a large share of land debris in the lower part of the succession suggests a freshwater swamp environment of deposition for the basal lignite facies. Two cenozones - Matanomadiasulcites maximus and Lakiapollis ovatus - were identified in the lower lignite facies, determined from the dominance of these pollen grains in the palynological assemblages. The presence of angiosperm pollen grains and pteridophyte spores in the carbonaceous shale horizon above the lignite facies indicates a change in the depositional regime from freshwater swamp to lagoonal. This was identified as the Arecipites wodehousei cenozone due to its numerical abundance in the assemblage. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance and diversity, and microforaminiferal test linings along with well-sorted terrestrial debris in the mudstone in the upper part of the succession suggest a more open marine estuarine type of depositional environment. The Homotryblium complex along with Cordospheridium fibrospinosum, Kenleyia sp., and Thalassiphora pelagica dinoflagellate cysts are the main representatives of this zone, determined as the Homotryblium tenuispinosum cenozone. The changing depositional settings (freshwater swamp-lagoonal-estuarine along the vertical succession indicate a marine transgression in this region. Results from palynological studies of early Palaeogene

  14. Local community opinions regarding the socio-environmental aspects of lignite surface mining: Experiences from central Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badera, Jarosław; Kocoń, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    Surface lignite mining covers large areas and usually generates social conflicts which pose one of several energy security threats to certain states. Therefore, defining the social conditions determines the success of a mining project. Two communes were chosen for a public opinion study: Kleszczów, where the Bełchatów mine is located, and Złoczew, where a lignite deposit will soon be developed. The analysis shows, as opposed to other areas in Poland that have been projected for development, that both local communities are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. In both cases, awareness about the profits was stronger than anxiety about the investment's negative effects. However, most inhabitants could not assess the mining company's diligence concerning its responsibility for mining damages as well as the diligence of external experts assessing the environmental impacts of excavation. Most respondents also could not assess if the legal regulations of public participation in the decision process were sufficient, but the negative opinions outweighed the positive ones. From the perspective of the energy policy, dialogue-type social communication is needed for every case of a new energy-mining project. Research on local public opinion should be the first step to opening up a social debate. - Highlights: • Lignite mining can generate social conflicts, which may threaten energy security. • Examined communes are characterised by a high level of acceptance for lignite mining. • Inhabitants cannot assess if the legal regulations of mining activity are sufficient. • From the perspective of the energy policy, broader social communication is needed. • Research on the public opinion should be the first step to open up a social debate

  15. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  16. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  17. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  18. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  19. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  20. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  1. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  2. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  3. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  4. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  6. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  7. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  8. Cleaning of flue gases from lignite-fired power plants by electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, T.

    1998-01-01

    An essential part of the electricity production in Bulgaria depends on the combustion of lignite with high humidity and high sulphur content. As a result of burning, toxic gases as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrous oxides (NO x ) are emitted in the atmosphere. Both S0 2 and NO x in flue gases could be removed simultaneously by the Electron Beam (EB) process. Beforehand cleaned from fly ash, the flue gas is cooled by injection of water and ammonia is added. By irradiation with high energy electrons, S0 2 and NO x are converted into aerosols of ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate. The byproduct is collected by an electrostatic precipitator and is used for the production of fertilisers

  9. Use of abandoned coal/lignite open pits for waste disposal in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicki, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    The use of abandoned coal/lignite pits as disposal sites for solid waste appears to be a reasonable approach to a difficult problem, especially if they are located close to the waste source. However, a potential for groundwater and soil pollution exists. This issue was discussed by a Group of Experts on Opencast Mining of the UN Economic Commission for Europe because most of the sites are operated by mining companies. This paper contains the major topics of discussion including the significance of the problem, legal aspects, characteristics of the open pits, waste intended for disposal, investigations required to obtain a disposal permit, disposal techniques, protection measures, monitoring environmental impacts, and research trends. A few countries are used as examples

  10. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO 2 , Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system

  11. A comparison of improved power plant technologies on lignite with (PFBC) and (IGCC) cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Ilija

    1997-01-01

    Technologies and process diagrams descriptions for PFBC (Pressurised Fluidized Bed Combustion) and IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) are presented as for improved cycles with modern clean coal technologies, the most popular currently. A special attention is paid to the possibilities for Macedonian lignites use on the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles. The comparison of the above mention technologies has been done particularly on the desulfurization, NO x reduction, ash elimination and its use in the building and construction industries. A comparison between the power plants with PFBC and IGCC cycles is made by the following criteria: cycle efficiency, desulfurization and nitrogen oxides reduction, power plant complexity and their cost, as well as plant reliability. (Author)

  12. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  13. Hydropyrolysis of a Turkish lignite (Tuncbilek) and effect of temperature and pressure on product distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canel, M.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2005-08-01

    The hydropyrolysis of a Turkish lignite (Tuncbilek) in a swept fixed bed reactor connected with a thermo-balance was performed at a heating rate of 3 C/min up to 950 C under 0.5MPa, 1MPa and 10MPa hydrogen pressures. The formation rates of gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon oxides, water and tar were determined. The difference between the weight loss due to tar formation of the non-condensable total and the weight loss of the sample recorded continuously with the thermo-balance showed the corresponding curve of tar formation rate as a function of temperature. It was shown that the total conversion and the formation rate of the products during hydropyrolysis could be influenced by varying the pressure. On the other hand, the volatile matter evolved during pyrolysis was substantially increased in the presence of hydrogen and especially when elevated hydrogen pressure was used.

  14. Environmental policy instruments towards lignite-fired power plants in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    A proposition is made that Turkey considers a pilot emission trading system for SO{sub 2}, Nox and/or PM emissions from its coal and lignite fired power plant in the efforts to comply with the EU Integrated Pollution Prevention Control (IPPC), the Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and the National Emissions Ceiling (NEC) Directives. Model calculations indicate that this could yield substantial cost savings compared to a traditional command and control approach. However, requirements in the IPPC Directive would be a major obstacle against emissions trading. The Turkish emission permitting system needs a major overhaul, including improving monitoring and enforcement practices to comply with the directives and to be able to implement and operate an emission trading system.

  15. Advanced control - technologies for suppressing harmful emission in lignitic coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Hai, S.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The production of sufficient amount of indigenous energy is a prerequisite for the prosperity of a nation. Pakistan's energy demand far exceeds its indigenous supplies. A cursory look at the energy situation in Pakistan reveals that there is an urgent need for the development of its energy resources. In this regard, coal can play a key role if its problems of high-sulfur and high ash can be rectified through the adoption adaptation of advanced technologies, like (I) clean coal technologies, and (II) control technologies. A review on clean coal technologies for utilization of lignitic coals has already been published and the present article describes the effect of harmful emissions from the combustion of high sulfur coals, like the ones found in Pakistan and their control through advanced control technologies, to make a significant contribution in the total energy economics of Pakistan. (author)

  16. 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Adam [1366 Technologies, Bedford, MA (United States)

    2016-02-16

    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process. The research conducted during Project Silicon led to the first industrial scaling of 1366’s Direct Wafer™ process – an innovative, US-friendly (efficient, low-labor content) manufacturing process that destroys the main cost barrier limiting silicon PV cost-reductions: the 35-year-old grand challenge of making quality wafers (40% of the cost of modules) without the cost and waste of sawing. The SunPath program made it possible for 1366 Technologies to build its demonstration factory, a key and critical step in the Company’s evolution. The demonstration factory allowed 1366 to build every step of the process flow at production size, eliminating potential risk and ensuring the success of the Company’s subsequent scaling for a 1 GW factory to be constructed in Western New York in 2016 and 2017. Moreover, the commercial viability of the Direct Wafer process and its resulting wafers were established as 1366 formed key strategic partnerships, gained entry into the $8B/year multi-Si wafer market, and installed modules featuring Direct Wafer products – the veritable proving grounds for the technology. The program also contributed to the development of three Generation 3 Direct Wafer furnaces. These furnaces are the platform for copying intelligently and preparing our supply chain – large-scale expansion will not require a bigger machine but more machines. SunPath filled the

  17. The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2011-07-15

    Experiments have been conducted with Huolinhe (HLH), Xiaolongtan (XLT), and Ethiopian (ET) lignites to investigate the effects of washing with water, acid-leaching, and floatation on their ash fusion temperatures (AFTs). The results show that the AFTs of XLT and ET are elevated by washing with water and floatation, but the AFT of HLH is decreased. The AFTs of all three lignites are increased markedly by acid leaching. A decrease in the total basic composition in ash increases its AFT, and vice versa. Changes in the mineral contents of the coals after treatment contribute to the variations in their AFTs. After washing with water, the lower AFT of HLH is brought about by the increases in the amounts of cordierite and anhydrite, whereas the higher AFT of XLT is caused by the decreases in the amounts of anhydrite and calcite. For the floatation treatment, the decrease of AFT for HLH is due to the reduction in the amount of kaolinite, but the elevation of AFT for XLT or ET is caused by the decrease in the amount of pyrite and the reductions in the amounts of gypsum and xanthoxenite, respectively. For the acid-leaching treatment, a decrease in the amount of pyrite and an increase in the amount of kaolinite result in increases in AFTs for HLH and XLT. Increases in the amounts of kaolinite and cristobalite in FET (ET after floatation), WET (ET after washing with water), and AET (ET after acid-leaching) lead to corresponding increases in the AFTs. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Depositional environment of the San Miguel lignite deposit in Atascosa and McMullen Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowan, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit was carried out in order to understand newly discovered characteristics of the deposit. The environment of deposition of the overburden and underburden was evaluated through an interpretation of three continuous cores. Four coal cores and a highwall section were carefully described to determine the depositional environmental of the coal seams and partings. These studies were supplemented by the construction of seam and parting isopachs, and the analysis of the distribution of sulfur isotopes, sulfur, forms, and total sulfur within the coal. The sedimentary package is composed of a basal prograding barrier that beach, dune, and back-barrier sands. This unit correlates with a downdip sand that was also interpreted as a prograding barrier by other authors. The barrier is overlain by a series of slit and clay deposits of lagoonal, tidal flat, and tidal channel origin. These deposits are capped by restricted lagoon sediments composed of green, calcareous clays that occasionally contain shell layers. The restricted lagoon deposits formed when the barrier closed the lagoon off from the sea. Peat forming freshwater swamps eventually became established behind the barrier and on top of the restricted lagoon sediments. The parting isopachs reveal a reticulate morphology similar to the mangrove swamps located lateral to the modern Niger River Delta. The partings represent vegetated tidal flat deposits that formed during periodic invasions by the sea that killed the swamp and inundated the peat with sulfate rich water. The lignite interval is capped by open lagoon and tidal flat sediments.

  19. Utilization of lignite power generation residues for the production of lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Iason M; Stivanakis, Victor E

    2009-04-15

    A novel process is proposed for the utilization of lignite combustion solid residues in the production of inflammable lightweight aggregates (LWA). The process consists of two stages, pelletization and sintering, and carbon contained in BA was used as the process fuel. The main residues bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) from Megalopolis power plant were characterized, mixed in different proportions and treated through pelletization and sintering process. Sintering benefits from combustion of BA carbon content and the product is a hardened porous cake. The energy required for achievement of high temperatures, in the range of 1250 degrees C, was offered by carbon combustion and CO(2) evolution is responsible for porous structure formation. Selected physical properties of sintered material relevant to use as lightweight aggregates were determined, including bulk density, porosity and water absorption. Bulk density varies from 0.83 to 0.91 g/cm(3), porosity varies from 60% to 64% and water absorption varies from 66% to 80%. LWA formed is used for the production of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Thermal conductivity coefficient varies from 0.25 to 0.37 W/mK (lower than maximum limit 0.43 W/mK) and compressive strength varies from 19 to 23 MPa (higher than minimum limit 17 MPa). The results indicate that sintering of lignite combustion residues is an efficient method of utilization of carbon containing BA and production of LWA for structural and insulating purposes. Carbon content of BA is a key factor in LWA production. Finally, this research work comprises the first proposed application for utilization of BA in Greece.

  20. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  1. Enabling Expeditionary Battlefield Manufacturing Using Recycled, Reclaimed, and/or Indigenous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    our operating bases. Indigenous materials include not only the organic and inorganic materials naturally occurring in the area, but could also...include recycled and reclaimed materials from the operating bases (metals, polymers, etc.) as well as battlefield scrap. This idea could potentially reduce

  2. Return on Investment in College Education. The Guardians Initiative: Reclaiming the Public Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Return on Investment in College Education" is the second publication in a series of informational briefings developed as part of The Guardians Initiative: Reclaiming the Public Trust, an effort to educate and engage trustees as advocates on key issues in higher education. What is the return on investment (ROI) in college education?…

  3. Selenium geochemistry in reclaimed phosphate mine soils and its relationship with plant bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims Selenium contamination and accumulation in vegetation have resulted in Se toxicity in livestock and wildlife in reclaimed phosphate mine soils in Southeastern Idaho. Methods Plant and soil samples were collected from five study sites near phosphate mines. Soil physiochemical pr...

  4. 30 CFR 77.211 - Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and reclaiming operations; general. 77.211 Section 77.211 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.211 Draw-off tunnels; stockpiling and...

  5. Raise of efficiency of flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water from reclaimed land by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Yamazaki, Masao; Sawai, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    When rain falls on the coastal reclaimed land filled with home garbage in Tokyo, a large quantity of water containing much organic contaminant flows out. It is difficult to treat this water exuding from reclaimed land by conventional method. Because the water with low BOD which is difficult to treat by biological process flows out for long period after the stabilization of reclaimed land. When the water is treated by flocculation and precipitation, the substances with high molecular weight are easily removed, but the rate of removal of fulvic acid with low molecular weight, which accounts for more than 60% of the composition of the water, is very poor. Therefore, it was examined to change the fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation, and to improve the efficiency of the flocculation-precipitation treatment of exuding water. Exuding water was sampled in Tokyo Bay No.15 reclaimed land, and it was separated into humic acid and fulvic acid. The Co-60 gamma ray of 5 kCi was irradiated to the samples. The experimental method and the results are reported. The change of fulvic acid to high molecular weight by irradiation was most efficient at pH 2.2. More than 90% of organic contaminants was able to be removed. (Kako, I.)

  6. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  7. Nitrogen and Organics Removal during Riverbank Filtration along a Reclaimed Water Restored River in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyan Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Reclaimed water has been widely used to restore rivers and lakes in water scarce areas as well as in Beijing municipality, China. However, refilling the rivers with reclaimed water may result in groundwater pollution. A three-year field monitoring program was conducted to assess the effect of a riverbank filtration (RBF system on the removal of nitrogen and organics from the Qingyang River of Beijing, which is replenished with reclaimed water. Water samples from the river, sediment, and groundwater were collected for NO3-N, NH4-N, and chemical oxygen demand (COD was measured. The results indicate that about 85% of NO3-N was removed from the riverbed sediments. Approximate 92% of NH4-N was removed during the infiltration of water from river to aquifer. On average, 54% of COD was removed by RBF. The attenuation of NO3-N through RBF to the groundwater varied among seasons and was strongly related to water temperature. On the other hand, no obvious temporal variability was identified in the removal of COD. These results suggest that the RBF system is an effective barrier against NO3-N, NH4-N and COD in the Qingyang River, as well as those rivers with similar geological and climatic conditions refilled with reclaimed water.

  8. How partial nitrification could improve reclaimed wastewater transport in long pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, S; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Gómez, L E; Elmaleh, S; Aguiar, E

    2001-01-01

    Reclaimed wastewater transport is studied in a concrete-lined cast iron pipe, where a nitrification-denitrification process occurs. The pipe is part of the Reuse System of Reclaimed Wastewater of South Tenerife (Spain), 0.6 m in diameter and 61 km long. In order to improve wastewater quality, at 10 km from the inlet there is injection of fresh water saturated in dissolved oxygen (DO), after which a fast nitrification process usually appears (less than two hours of space time). The amount of oxidized nitrogen compounds produced varies between 0.8 and 4.4 mg/l NOx(-)-N. When DO has disappeared, a denitrification process begins. The removal of nitrite is complete at the end of the pipe, whereas the nitrate does not disappear completely, leaving a concentration of about 0.4-0.5 mg/l. For a COD/NOx(-)-N ratio higher than 5, a first order nitrification rate in NOx(-)-N has resulted, with the constant k20 = 0.079 h-1, for a NOx(-)-N concentration range of 0.8-4.4 mg/l. Finally the following temperature dependency for the first order denitrification rate constant has been found: k = k20 x 1 x 15T-20. Although nitrogen could be used as nutrient in the agricultural reuse, its removal from reclaimed wastewater could be useful in order to diminish the chlorine needs for reclaimed wastewater disinfection.

  9. Development of canopy cover and woody vegetation biomass on reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; Dvorščík, P.; Vávrová, A.; Doušová, O.; Kadochová, Štěpánka; Matějíček, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, November (2015), s. 233-239 ISSN 0925-8574 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1288 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aerial photographs * reclaimed sites * succession * tree biomass * woody vegetation cover Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.740, year: 2015

  10. Pathway for high-quality reclaim by thermal treatment of sulfur-vulcanized SBR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    De-vulcanization of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) is a challenge, as the broken polymer chains tend to re-arrange. This influences the properties of the reclaimed and re-vulcanized rubber, and reduces the quality of the recycled material. Within this study, the breakdown of sulfur-cured SBR in a

  11. Profile constructing and elevation design of soil reclaimed by hydraulic dredge pump in mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longqian, C.; Aiqin, S.; Tianjian, Z. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China). School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics; Mei, L. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu (China)

    2007-07-01

    Underground coal mining is the main method of coal mining in China. The hydraulic dredge pump reclamation method is the basic method used for repairing hydraulic erosion. This paper reviewed land reclamation by hydraulic dredge pump in the Yi'an coal mine of Xuzhou mining area in the east of China, and analyzed the constructing theory of soil profiling. It examined factors such as the height of the ground-water table; the thickness of plough horizon; the length of crops root and the state of soil erosion; and the methods of profile construction and elevation design of soil reclaimed by hydraulic dredge pump. A relevant mathematical model was also developed. The paper discussed the general situation of the study site as well as the basic theory of profile constructing and the profile constructing method. The paper also discussed the elevation design of the reclaimed land. It was concluded that the practice has proved that the methods can make the reclaimed soil keep a similar characteristics to that of original cropped soil, and meet the requirements for elevation of reclaimed land. 8 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Durability of European Asphalt Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt and Warm-Mix Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Avgerinopoulos, S.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the moisture susceptibility of European asphalt mixtures (SMA) containing reclaimed asphalt (RA) and warm mix (WMA) additives. Test sections of a typical SMA mixture have been laid, from which cylindrical samples were cored and utilized for laboratory testing. Four variants

  13. The Mineral Character and Geomechanical Properties of the Transitional Rocks from the Mesozoic-Neogene Contact Zone in the Bełchatów Lignite Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pękala

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: Against the background of a number of published papers on the rocks accompanying lignite seams there is a lack of the "Bełchatów" mineralogical-petrographic studies of the transitional sediments in the Mesozoic-Neogene contact zone in the "Bełchatów" lignite deposit taking into account the aspect of raw materials. This paper has been produced to fill the void in this area.

  14. Microbial quality of reclaimed water for urban reuses: Probabilistic risk-based investigation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-01-15

    Although Canada has abundant freshwater resources, many cities still experience seasonal water shortage. Supply-side and demand-side management is a core strategy to address this water shortage. Under this strategy, reclaimed water, which the Canadian public is willing to use for non-potable purposes, is an option. However, no universal guidelines exist for reclaimed water use. Despite the federal government's long-term goal to develop guidelines for many water reuse applications, guidelines have only been prescribed for reclaimed water use in toilet and urinal flushing in Canada. At the provincial level, British Columbia (BC) has promulgated guidelines for wide applications of reclaimed water but only at broad class levels. This research has investigated and proposed probabilistic risk-based recommended values for microbial quality of reclaimed water in various non-potable urban reuses. The health risk was estimated by using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were used in the analysis to include variability and uncertainty in input data. The proposed recommended values are based on the indicator organism E. coli. The required treatment levels for reuse were also estimated. In addition, the recommended values were successfully applied to three wastewater treatment effluents in the Okanagan Valley, BC, Canada. The health risks associated with other bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella spp.), virus (adenovirus, norovirus, and rotavirus), and protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp.), were also estimated. The estimated risks indicate the effectiveness of the E. coli-based water quality recommended values. Sensitivity analysis shows the pathogenic E. coli ratio and morbidity are the most sensitive input parameters for all water reuses. The proposed recommended values could be further improved by using national or regional data on water exposures, disease burden per case, and the susceptibility

  15. Effects of reclaimed water matrix on fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgen, L K; Zheng, W

    2016-08-01

    Reclaimed water is increasingly used to supplement water resources. However, reclaimed water has a complex matrix, which includes emerging chemical contaminants, that is introduced to the soil when this water is used for irrigation. The effects of microbial activity, dissolved matter, nutrients, and particulate matter in reclaimed water on half-life of 11 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in soil were investigated with 7 treatment waters, namely swine lagoon effluent (either unaltered, sterilized, or filtered and sterilized) and nanopure water (either unaltered or with added nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium). The extractable residues of the parent PPCPs were measured over 35 d. Lagoon microbial activity was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) related to increased half-life of 4 PPCPs (carbamazepine, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, sulfamethoxazole) by 14-74%, and to decreased half-life of 3 others (caffeine, gemfibrozil, naproxen) by 13-25%. The presence of lagoon dissolved matter was significantly correlated with a 20-110% increase in half-life for 6 PPCPs (caffeine, estrone, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, triclocarban). However, lagoon particulate matter was significantly correlated with 9-52% decrease in half-life for these same compounds, as well as trimethoprim. The levels of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium in the lagoon effluent were not significantly related to half-life for most PPCPs, except caffeine. Overall, specific components of reclaimed water matrix had different effects on the soil half-lives of PPCPs, suggesting that the composition of reclaimed water needs to be considered when evaluating PPCP fate after land application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen in reclaimed sandy loam soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, A.F.; Stahl, P.D.; Ingram, L.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Minimal research has been conducted on aggregate, C, and N in coarse-textured soils used to reclaim surface coal mine lands. Furthermore, little is known about the contribution different plant communities make to the recovery of aggregation in these soils. Two chronosequences of semiarid reclaimed sites with sandy loam soils were sampled under shrub- and grass-dominated communities. Aggregation, aggregate fractions, and associated C and N were measured. No definitive trends of increasing macroaggregates between sites were observed undershrubs; however, macro- and microaggregation was greater in the 16-yr-old (0.20 and 0.23 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) than in the 5-yr-old soils (0.02 and 0.08 kg aggregate kg{sup -1} soil, respectively) under grasses. Although C and N concentrations were drastically reduced (50-75%) with mining activity between the <1-yr-old and native soils, aggregate C and N concentrations tinder shrubs and grasses were similar to each other and to the native soils in the 5-yr-old site. Sods under grass in the 16-yr-old site had lower available and aggregate-occluded C and N concentrations than the 5-yr-old site, while C and N concentrations did not change between 5- and 16-yr-old soils under shrubs. Conversely, aggregate C and N pool sizes under shrubs and grasses both increased with site age to conditions similar to those observed in the native soil. Reclaimed shrub site soils had consistently higher C concentrations in the older reclaimed sites (10 and 16 yr old) than the soils under grasses, indicating greater accumulation and retention of C and N in organic material under shrub than grass communities in semiarid reclaimed sites.

  17. Decision support toolkit for integrated analysis and design of reclaimed water infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Criddle, Craig S; Geza, Mengistu; Cath, Tzahi Y; Freyberg, David L

    2018-05-01

    Planning of water reuse systems is a complex endeavor. We have developed a software toolkit, IRIPT (Integrated Urban Reclaimed Water Infrastructure Planning Toolkit) that facilitates planning and design of reclaimed water infrastructure for both centralized and hybrid configurations that incorporate satellite treatment plants (STPs). The toolkit includes a Pipeline Designer (PRODOT) that optimizes routing and sizing of pipelines for wastewater capture and reclaimed water distribution, a Selector (SelWTP) that assembles and optimizes wastewater treatment trains, and a Calculator (CalcBenefit) that estimates fees, revenues, and subsidies of alternative designs. For hybrid configurations, a Locator (LocSTP) optimizes siting of STPs and associated wastewater diversions by identifying manhole locations where the flowrates are sufficient to ensure that wastewater extracted and treated at an adjacent STP can generate the revenue needed to pay for treatment and delivery to customers. Practical local constraints are also applied to screen and identify STP locations. Once suitable sites are selected, System Integrator (ToolIntegrator) identifies a set of centralized and hybrid configurations that: (1) maximize reclaimed water supply, (2) maximize reclaimed water supply while also ensuring a financial benefit for the system, and (3) maximize the net financial benefit for the system. The resulting configurations are then evaluated by an Analyst (SANNA) that uses monetary and non-monetary criteria, with weights assigned to appropriate metrics by a decision-maker, to identify a preferred configuration. To illustrate the structure, assumptions, and use of IRIPT, we apply it to a case study for the city of Golden, CO. The criteria weightings provided by a local decision-maker lead to a preference for a centralized configuration in this case. The Golden case study demonstrates that IRIPT can efficiently analyze centralized and hybrid water reuse configurations and rank them

  18. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to determine Cr(VI) in water resources by anodic stripping voltammetry using SPE-. AuNPs modified electrode .... surface area about 4 fold). 3.2 Optimization of Parameters ..... in water samples. The above system offers a.

  19. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  20. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  1. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  2. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  3. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  4. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  5. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  6. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  7. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  8. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  9. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  10. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  11. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  14. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueke, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  15. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K.; Kawamoto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueke, Tayfun [Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ., Mugla (Turkey). Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering

    2013-11-15

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  17. Re-evaluation of the age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont, USA) based on plant megafossils. [USA - Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffney, B.H. (University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    The Brandon Lignite of west-central Vermont contains the northernmost megafossil flora of Cenozoic angiosperms, and one of the most diverse Cenozoic pollen floras in northeastern North America. While the floristic composition clearly indicates deposition of the Brandon sediments in the warmer parts of the Cenozoic, previous attempts at a more precise stratigraphic placement have been inconclusive, ranging from Cretaceous to Miocene. Re-evaluation of existing and new fruit, seed and wood data from the Brandon flora in the context of other floras in the Northern Hemisphere leads to the conservative conclusion that the deposit could range from earliest Oligocene to Early Miocene. Several lines of potentially weak evidence favor an Early Miocene age, in agreement with recent biostratigraphic data from the associated pollen flora. It is concluded that the Brandon Lignite is Early Miocene.

  18. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on survival and growth of perennial grasses in lignite overburden in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Call, C.A.; Davies, F.T.

    1988-12-01

    Seedlings of sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), and kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) were inoculated with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi (Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora margarita) in a containerized system and transplanted into lignite overburden in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas, U.S.A. After three growing seasons without cultural inputs, plants inoculated with VAM fungi had greater survival percentages, basal diameters, and above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Inoculated plants had higher levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in above-ground biomass than noninoculated plants. Root colonization percentages of inoculated plants remained fairly stable while noninoculated plants showed low levels of colonization over the 3-year study period. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae enhanced the survival and growth of the 3 grass species by making effective use of limited resources in the lignite overburden. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Aspects of combustion behaviour of coals from some New Zealand lignite-coal regions determined by thermogravimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfell, K.E.; Beamish, B.B.; Rodgers, K.A. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Geology

    1997-08-25

    The papers describes how thermogravimetric analysis of five Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic New Zealand lignites demonstrate that their combustion behaviour is distinct from that of subbituminous coals and may be characterised by peak temperature of 377-416{degree}C, maximum rate of combustion of 25-31 wt% min{sup -1}, and temperature of char burnout 421-497{degree}C. These parameters reflect variation in thermal behaviour associated with both the organic and inorganic constituents of the coal. The information obtained is additional to that provided by proximate analysis; the latter is insufficient to predict the combustion behaviour of the coals relative to one another. A post-combustion thermal event is seen among the lignites as in other low-rank coals combusting below 600{degree}C, which appears to be related to the organic sulphur content of the coal.

  20. Lignite and tin ores exploration in southern part of Thailand by using nuclear track-etch detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chittrakarn, T.; Boonnummar, R.; Pongsuwan, T.; Nuannin, P.; Kaew-On, C.

    1993-01-01

    Both lignite and tin mines in Southern of Thailand are associated with uranium ore. In lignite exploration, Bangpudum Lignite Mine at Krabi Province was chosen for this studied because we know the exact location and deposition of coal seam by using other geophysical technique and also confirm by borehole. The size 1x2 cm 2 of cellulose nitrate CN-85 films were used, each film was stuck at the inner bottom of a softdrink cup. Each cup was put up side down at the bottom of a borehole about 75 cm depth from the earth surface and laid about 10 m apart. All the cups were put in the hole along the line in order to cover about 280 metre in the cross sectional direction long of the known coal seam. After one month, all the film detectors were collected and etched with 6.25N NaOH at 60 o C about 25 minutes long in order to enlarge the latent alpha registration tracks. These alpha particles were emitted from radon gas (Rn-222) which was generated from uranium associated with lignite ore. The registration track density per area of each CN-85 film was studied by optical microscope at 400x magnifications. We found that the track densities of the films have high correlation with the depth of the known coal seam while high and low track densities will correspond to the shallow and deep coal seam respectively. Also, track density was significantly higher than background. A similar manner of experiment was designed for tin ore exploration at Ronpibul district, Nakorn Si Thammarat province. The result is in progress and will present at the conference. (Author)

  1. A realistic EU vision of a lignite-based energy system in transition: Case study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batas-Bjelić Ilija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Contracting Parties to the Treaty establishing the Energy Community of the South East Europe, currently in energy transition, have electricity production dominantly based on lignite which contrasts their new reality. Planning approach to designing a new feasible energy policy is presented in this paper. This novel approach in using EnergyPLAN tool stems from analysis of market operation of lignite thermal power plants on hourly basis, and quantification of the feasibility of the energy policy and its alignment with EU vision, and is presented in few scenarios. It was found out that the Serbian energy system is highly sensitive to the electricity market and CO2 tax increase, because the marginal costs for lignite generation will increase to more than 50€/MWh. Shifting in the merit order will be observed even at lower CO2 tax levels, because of the intensity of the emission of the electricity sector (calculated to be higher than 700gCO2/kWhel, according to current energy policy. Based on the increased use of renewable energy sources and more efficient energy conversion technologies, socio-economic and energy policy feasibility would be increased, while long-term marginal costs would be improved by 2€/MWh and emission intensity by 258 gCO2/kWhel, compared to the current energy policy. These contributions, shown in the Serbian case, are of general importance for other lignite dominated Contracting Parties to Treaty establishing the Energy Community. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 42009

  2. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  3. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Field Control and Performance of Asphalt Mixtures Containing Greater than 25 Percent Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement : Draft Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) and other highway agencies are interested in utilization of higher percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in asphalt mixtures. There are a number of research studies at both state and national...

  5. The Structure of Reclaiming Warehouse of Minerals at Open-Cut Mines with the Use Combined Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonnikov, D. A.; Kovshov, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    In the article performed an analysis of ore reclaiming and overloading point characteristics at modern opencast mines. Ore reclaiming represents the most effective way of stability support of power-intensive and expensive technological dressing process, and, consequently, of maintenance of the optimal production and set-up parameters of extraction and quality of finished product. The paper proposed the construction of the warehouse describing the technology of its creation. Equipment used for the warehouse described in detail. All stages of development and operation was shown. Advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical shovel excavator and hydraulic excavator “backdigger” as a reloading and reclaiming equipment was compared. Ore reclaiming and overloading point construction at cyclical and continuous method of mining using a hydraulic excavator “backdigger” was proposed.

  6. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: a Turkish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykiri-Acma, H; Yaman, S

    2008-11-01

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA up to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (Rmax), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (T(R-max)), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, Rmax, and T(R-max), were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  7. Employment benefits of electricity generation. A comparative assessment of lignite and natural gas power plants in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourkolias, C.; Damigos, D.; Diakoulaki, D.; Mirasgedis, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims at developing an integrated approach for estimating the employment benefits associated with power-generation technologies. The proposed approach exploits the input-output methodology for estimating the direct, indirect and induced employment effects associated with the energy project in question, as well as two different valuation techniques, namely the 'opportunity cost of labour' approach and the 'public expenditures' approach, for expressing these effects in monetary terms. This framework has been implemented to estimate the employment benefits resulting from the development of a lignite-fired and a natural gas-fired power plant in Greece, taking into account all the stages of the corresponding fuel cycles that are undertaken domestically. The results of the analysis clearly show that lignite-fired electricity generation results in significant employment benefits amounting to 2.9-3.5 EUR/MWh in the basic scenario. On the other hand, the employment benefits associated with the examined natural gas unit were estimated at 0.4-0.6 EUR/MWh in the basic scenario. It is also worth mentioning that the significant environmental externalities of the lignite-fired electricity in Greece that have been presented in a number of studies can only be partially compensated by the estimated employment benefits. (author)

  8. Evaluation of naturally occurring pigments of the North Bohemian lignite mining area; Bewertung von mineralischen Pigmentvorkommen des nordboehmischen Braunkohlenbeckens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buntenbach, Stephan [TriMin Consulting - Mineral Processing, Ammerthal (Germany); Botula, Jiri [VSB-Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Mineral Processing Dept.; Leonhardt, Hana

    2010-11-15

    The research project ''Mineral Processing Methods for the Preparation of Naturally Occurring Pigments from Overburden of the Lignite Mines and from Shallow Clay Deposits of the North Bohemian Lignite Basin'', funded by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt DBU, was conducted as a collaboration between the AKW Apparate+Verfahren GmbH, Hirschau with the Technical University of Ostrava. Geological, mineralogical and mineral processing studies for the development of a suitable beneficiation method were carried out to investigate the possibilities of the industrial usage of beneficiated pigments of these deposits. It should be demonstrated, that the significant reserves of mineral pigments in the shallow deposits and also in the overburden of the lignite mines can be utilized ecologically and economically. Based on the results of geological prospecting work already carried out, the deposit Horenec was selected as the most important pigment deposits for the production of bolus and ochre earth. The newly carried out geological, mineralogical and chemical studies formed the basis for the following mineral processing test work and the test work for the usage of beneficiated products as colouring paint for plastic, fabric and other materials. (orig.)

  9. Speciation of selected trace and major elements in lignite Used in "Nikola Tesla A" power plant (Obrenovac, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEKSANDAR POPOVIC

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four samples of milled lignite used in the “Nikola Tesla A” power plant, located in Obrenovac near Belgrade, were subjected to a five-step sequential extraction, comprising of the following phases: distilled water, 1 M ammonium acetate, 0.2 M ammonium oxalate / 0.2 M oxalic acid, acidic solution of H2O2 and a 6 M solution of HCl. The concentrations of the different elements obtained in the extractions were statistically analysed. The majority of the examined elements were found to be most probably associated with inorganic fractions of lignite, only aluminum, silicon, chromium and arsenic have a larger extractable organic/sulfide fraction than an extractable inorganic fraction. Alumosilicates of magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, lead, copper and chromium, silicates of potassium (scavengers of lead and nickel, mixed aluminates of iron and magnesium (carriers of arsenic, zinc, copper and chromium and compounds of iron that do not contain aluminum and magnesium (scavengers of manganese were dissolved in the fifth phase of the sequential extraction. Copper is a substrate of alumosilicates of potassium and magnesium, while zinc and chromium are substrates of compounds of iron leached in the third phase of the sequential extraction. Interphase correlation revealed that the adsorbed and ion-exchangeable fractions of most of the examined elements do not exhibit preferential binding to the components of the inorganic matrix of lignite ash.

  10. Effect of co-combustion on the burnout of lignite/biomass blends: A Turkish case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykirl-Acma, H.; Yaman, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-15

    Co-combustion of Turkish Elbistan lignite and woody shells of hazelnut was performed in a TGA tip to 1173 K with a heating rate of 20 K/min. SEM images of each fuel revealed the differences in their physical appearances. Hazelnut shell was blended with lignite in the range of 2-20 wt% to observe the co-combustion properties. Maximum burning rates (R{sub max}), temperatures of the maximum burning rates (TR{sub max}), and the final burnout values of the parent samples and the blends were compared. The results were interpreted considering lignite properties and the major biomass ingredients such as cellulosics, hemicellulosics, and lignin. Deviations between the theoretical and experimental burnout values were evaluated at various temperatures. Burnout characteristics of the blends up to 10 wt% were concluded to have a synergistic effect so the addition of hazelnut shell up to 8 wt% provided higher burnouts than the expected theoretical ones, whereas addition of as much as 10 wt% led to a decrease in the burnout. However, the additive effects were more favorable for the blend having a biomass content of 20 wt%. Apparent activation energy, R{sub max} and TR{sub max}, were found to follow the additive behavior for the blend samples.

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd 3 ) [121,100 cubic meters (m 3 )] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat

  12. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  13. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any

  14. Sustainability of Water Reclamation: Long-Term Recharge with Reclaimed Wastewater Does Not Enhance Antibiotic Resistance in Sediment Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR in environmental bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Though scientific studies have reported high levels of AR in soils irrigated with wastewater, these works often fail to address the soil resistome, or the natural occurrence of AR. This study compared AR patterns in sediment Enterococcus isolated from water storage basins containing either reclaimed water or groundwater in central Arizona. Resistance to 16 antibiotics was quantified in isolates to a depth of 30 cm. Results reveal high levels of resistance to certain antibiotics, including lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin, exists in sediments regardless of the water source (groundwater, reclaimed water, and higher AR was not detectable in reclaimed water sediments. Furthermore, multiple-antibiotic-resistance (MAR was substantially reduced in isolates from reclaimed water sediments, compared to freshwater sediment isolates. Comparing the development of AR in sediment bacteria at these two sites will increase awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of using reclaimed water for irrigation of municipal areas, and illustrates the necessity for control sites in studies examining AR development in environmental microbiota.

  15. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-01-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon

  16. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Lignite-derived products (LDPs), including humic acids and organo-mineral soil conditioners, are being marketed in many parts of the world. They are promoted as plant growth stimulants, additives that improve plant nutrient uptake as well as providing humic materials to improve soil structure and combat soil degradation. There are mixed views regarding the efficacy of these products and there is a lack of scientific studies that verify the efficacy of these products in the field. Anecdotally, agricultural producers become repeat users of the products when they see economic benefits, such as increases in crop yields, while others abandon repeat use when no benefits were seen. In this paper, we present results from a literature meta-analysis1 and a number of field studies that examine the potential for LDPs to improve soil fertility and plant growth. Our findings suggest that complex interactions between LDPs, soil types, environmental conditions and plant species mean that a 'one-size fits all' product or solution is unlikely; and that changes to soil characteristics brought about by LDPs are more apparent over longer time periods than a single cropping season. Most of these studies have not been undertaken in full field trial conditions, where the crop has been grown to harvest. Limited studies in small plots or glass-house conditions often report early benefits. It is not known if these benefits persist. Moreover, the actual composition of these additives may vary significantly and is rarely specified in full. In a study of our own, a small plot experiment evaluated the effect of a single application of a commercial potassium humate product from Victorian lignite on ryegrass and lucerne grown in a sandy, nutrient deficient, low organic matter soil. Treatment resulted in increased shoot growth (up to 33%) of ryegrass during the pasture establishment phase. Root growth was also improved with a 47% increase at 0-10 cm depth and 122% increase at 10-30 cm depth

  17. Extraction of organic materials from red water by metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Fangfang [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lv, Fengzhu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon was investigated as adsorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent for the extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of different metals on the extraction were investigated and discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many loading factors of Cu{sup 2+} were found having great influences on the extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction performances and mechanism of TNT red water on Cu/LAC were investigated. - Abstract: Extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by lignite activated carbon (LAC) impregnated with Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} was investigated. The affinity to organic materials in red water was found to follow the order: Cu/LAC > Sn/LAC > Ag/LAC > Ba/LAC > Fe/LAC > Ca/LAC, which was explained by the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Cu{sup 2+} showed the best performance and several parameters were further studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified effective loading of Cu{sup 2+} on the LAC surface. The water quality before and after treated by Cu/LAC was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy and other analyses. The extraction performances and mechanism of organic materials on Cu/LAC were investigated through static methods. The experimental results showed that Cu/LAC possessed stronger extraction ability for the sulfonated nitrotoluenes than the non-sulfonated nitrotoluenes, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. In addition, the leaching out of Cu{sup 2+} from Cu/LAC was found much lower in the 100 times diluted red water (0.074%) than in the raw water (10.201%). Column adsorptions with more concentrated red water were also studied. Finally, Cu/LAC was observed to possess excellent

  18. Aquatic balance in Vegoritis Lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, D.; Grigorakou, E.; Koumantakis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Vegoritis Lake, which is located at Vegoritis closed Basin in West Macedonia, Greece, is the biggest lake in Greece. In 1994 the area of the lake was 35 Km2 with maximum depth 42 m at the northwestern part of the lake. It is the final receiving body of the surface runoff of the hydrological basin. Moreover, it is the surficial appearance of an enormous and not well-known karstic aquifer. Being a closed hydrological basin any interference in surface or groundwater conditions in every part of its area affects the level of the lake. The level of the lake in 1900 was 525 masl, in 1942 was 542 masl reaching the higher level of 543 masl in 1956. The increase of the level of the lake was due to the drainage of Ptolemais (Sarigiol) swamp through Soulou drain ditches that transfer the water in the lake. Since then, a continuous drawdown took place with small periods of rising of water level. Today, the level of the lake is declined in a smaller rate having reached the level of 510 masl. Water coming from the lake has been used in the past, and in some cases still does, for agricultural, industrial and domestic use, for hydropower generation and for the cooling system of power plants. Moreover, P.P.C. (Public Power Corporation of Greece) develops an intense activity in the area with the exploitation of the lignite deposits of the basin and power generation in several Power Plants. Few years ago significant quantities from Vegoritis Lake were used for hydro power of Agras Power Plant. With the elaboration of the existent data (water level measurements, recharge, discharge) the connection between the lowering of the surface of the lake and the subtracted quantities through the Arnissa Tunel the first years of its use, is obvious. The last twenty years the condition has change. Outflow through the Arnissa Tunnel for hydropower has stopped. The continued lowering of the level of the lake is caused, mainly, by overexploitation due to the intense increase of the irrigating land

  19. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  20. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  1. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  2. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  3. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  4. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  5. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  6. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, N., E-mail: natsuki@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Niiyama, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohnishi, H. [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tran, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-Y. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm{sup 2}/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm{sup 2} strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition. - Highlights: • Find a way to achieve a good time resolution with a large strip RPC. • 2.5 cm narrow strips have better resolutions than 5.0 cm ones. • The 0.5 mm narrow strip interval shows flat time resolutions between strips. • FEEs directly connected to strips make the signal reflection at the strip edge small. • A time resolution of 50 ps was achieved with 2.5 cm×100 cm strips.

  7. Moving strip technique of electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Wakasa, Hiroyuki; Oguri, Nobuhiro; Kitayama, Takuichi; Nakagiri, Yoshitada; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1984-12-01

    The fieldsize in electron beam therapy is determined by the cone size. In case of skin metastasis of a malignant tumor and so on, which need a large field size and whose area is much larger than the size of the cone, a large field size is usually produced by dividing the portals. However, the dose distribution at the border of the field becomes unequal, and hot and cold dose areas are produced according to the distance between portals. We tried the strip field technique in a large field along the long axis of the body in order to flatten the dose of the border employing the moving strip used for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian cancer. We set the film in Mix-DP and used the strip field technique with 2.5cm steps. We discussed the relationship between the interval (distance between portals) and the flattening of the dose within the field. Skin movement due to breathing and influences on the flattening of the dose were considered. The proper flatness was obtained at depths of 0,1,2, and 3cm by setting the interval at 0.5cm. When skin movement was produced by breathing in +-1.5mm, the proper flaness was obtained also at a 0.5-cm interval. It seems that smoothing is increased by breathing. An ''electron beam moving strip'' with a 2.5-cm step and 0.5-cm interval was clinically effective in the treatment of patients with skin metastasis of colon cancer. (author).

  8. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  9. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  10. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  11. Water extraction from high moisture lignite by means of efficient integration of waste heat and water recovery technologies with flue gas pre-drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xiaoqu; Yan, Junjie; Karellas, Sotirios; Liu, Ming; Kakaras, Emmanuel; Xiao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-saving potential of FPLPS in different cold-ends and lignite types is evaluated. • Water-saving of FPLPS is realized through recovery of water extracted from lignite. • Integrations of low pressure economizer and spray tower with FPLPS are proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic performances of different schemes are investigated. - Abstract: The flue gas pre-dried lignite-fired power system (FPLPS) integrates the fan mill flue gas dryer with an open pulverizing system and yields an increase of the boiler efficiency. Particularly, the dryer exhaust gas contains a large amount of vapor removed from high moisture lignite, which exhibits great potential for waste heat and water recovery. Two available options are considered to realize the extraction of water from lignite: the low pressure economizer (LPE) for water-cooled units and the spray tower (SPT) integrated with heat pump for air-cooled units. This paper aims at evaluating the energy saving and water recovery potentials of the FPLPS integrated with both schemes. Results showed that the plant efficiency improvement of the FPLPS at base case varied from 1.14% to 1.47% depending on the moisture content of raw lignite. The water recovery ratio and plant efficiency improvement in the optimal LPE scheme were 39.4% and 0.20%, respectively. In contrast, 83.3% of water recover ratio and 110.6 MW_t_h heat supply were achieved in the SPT system. Both schemes were economically feasible with discounted payback periods of around 3 years. Moreover, parametric analysis was conducted to examine the economic viability of both schemes with different lignite types and market factors.

  12. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  13. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  14. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  15. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  16. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  17. The effects of nutrient enrichment on oil sands reclaimed wetlands : a field microcosm study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, G.

    2010-01-01

    Bitumen extraction processes generate large amounts of processed materials containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthenic acids (NA), and additional salts. The use of processed materials in reclaimed wetlands and lakes has an impact on aquatic faunal and floral colonization. This study investigated the effects on nutrient enrichment on reclaimed wetlands containing processed materials. Chlorophyll a and total biomass analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the influence of nutrient addition on primary production. The nutrients were added to microcosms with differing levels of fertility for 3 different water types with varying NA concentrations in 3 different reclamation substrates. Results of the study showed different levels of growth depending on both the water and substrate type. Combined planktonic and periphytic growth was highest in water with high levels of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon.

  18. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  19. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... aspects for reclaiming public space. The PhotoSwapper application is presented as an example of a system designed to integrate pervasive technology in a public setting. The system is strongly inspired by the activities at a traditional market place. Based on the design of the application we discuss four...

  20. Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Reclaimed Water Reuse Projects in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yupeng; Guo, Erhui; Zhai, Yuanzheng; Chang, Andrew C; Qiao, Qi; Kang, Peng

    2018-01-01

      To illustrate the benefits of water reuse project, the process-based life cycle analysis (LCA) could be combined with input-output LCA to evaluate the water reuse project. Energy is the only evaluation parameter used in this study. Life cycle assessment of all energy inputs (LCEA) is completed mainly by the life cycle inventory (LCI), taking into account the full life cycle including the construction, the operation, and the demolition phase of the project. Assessment of benefit from water reuse during the life cycle should focus on wastewater discharge reduction and water-saving benefits. The results of LCEA of Beijing water reuse project built in 2014 in a comprehensive way shows that the benefits obtained from the reclaimed water reuse far exceed the life cycle energy consumption. In this paper, the authors apply the LCEA model to estimate the benefits of reclaimed water reuse projects quantitatively.