Compton, Michael T; Kelley, Mary E; Pope, Alicia; Smith, Kelly; Broussard, Beth; Reed, Thomas A; DiPolito, June A; Druss, Benjamin G; Li, Charles; Lott Haynes, Nora
Repeated hospitalizations and arrests or incarcerations diminish the ability of individuals with serious mental illnesses to pursue recovery. Community mental health systems need new models to address recidivism as well as service fragmentation, lack of engagement by local stakeholders, and poor communication between mental health providers and the police. This study examined the initial effects on institutional recidivism and measures of recovery among persons enrolled in Opening Doors to Recovery, an intensive, team-based community support program for persons with mental illness and a history of inpatient psychiatric recidivism. A randomized controlled trial of the model is underway. The number of hospitalizations, days hospitalized, and arrests (all from state administrative sources) in the year before enrollment and during the first 12 months of enrollment in the program were compared. Longitudinal trajectories of recovery-using three self-report and five clinician-rated measures-were examined. Analyses accounted for baseline symptom severity and intensity of involvement in the program. One hundred participants were enrolled, and 72 were included in the analyses. Hospitalizations decreased, from 1.9±1.6 to .6±.9 (precovery measures, and trajectories of improvement were apparent across the entire follow-up period. Opening Doors to Recovery holds promise as a new service approach for reducing hospital recidivism and promoting recovery in community mental health systems and is deserving of further controlled testing.
Boduszek, Daniel; McLaughlin, Chris; Hyland, Philip
Background: Previous research suggests that those who enter prison with a low level of criminal attitudes, tend to acquire more deviant attitudes during their sentence due to persistent contact with criminal others, and moreover, presence of criminal personality may be sufficient to develop criminal attitudes.\\ud Aim: To determine which of the independent variables: age, education level, marital status, number of children, location, recidivism, association with criminal friends, and personali...
This study explored the relationships among selected attitudinal and personality characteristics, attitudes toward environmental problems, and environmental knowledge and behavioral commitment of two diverse samples: 85 users of a recycling center and 60 conservative church members. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine the best…
Makosky, Vivian Parker; Roeding, Ginna M.
Although parental effects on the personality development of children have been well examined, fathers' influence and effects on older children have received little attention. To investigate fathers' involvement in the attitude and personality development of college women, 333 women, ages 18 to 23, completed a three-part questionnaire gathering…
Kurpis, Lada V.
Fostering cultural intelligence development in undergraduate business students should be one of the goals of diversity education in undergraduate business programs due to the demands of the increasingly global workplace of today. A number of personality-based (e.g., self-monitoring personality trait), attitudinal (e.g., preference for jobs…
Jones, Allan P.
This study is designed to assess the benefits of LSD use as well as to examine personality, value, and attitudinal variables in order to characterize users and non users. The main assessment tool used was the in-depth interview. Subjects were 31 male and 8 female users and a non user group matched for education and age. The user was characterized…
Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di
This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.
Becker, Daniel F; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M
We examined correlates of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality pathology--with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, eating disorder psychopathology, and associated psychologic factors--in patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Three hundred forty-seven treatment-seeking patients who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), research criteria for BED were reliably assessed with semistructured interviews to evaluate DSM-IV Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and behavioral and attitudinal features of eating disorder psychopathology. Fifteen percent of subjects had avoidant personality disorder features, 12% had obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features, 8% had features of both disorders, and 66% had features of neither. These groups differed significantly in the frequencies of depressive and anxiety disorders, as well as on measures of psychologic functioning (negative/depressive affect and self-esteem) and eating disorder attitudes (shape and weight concerns). There were no group differences on measures of eating behaviors. The avoidant and obsessive-compulsive groups had more psychiatric comorbidity than the group without these personality features but less than the combined group. The group without these features scored significantly lower than all other groups on negative/depressive affect and significantly higher than the avoidant and combined groups on self-esteem. The combined group had the greatest severity on shape and weight concerns. Avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality features are common in patients with BED. Among BED patients, these forms of personality psychopathology--separately and in combination--are associated with clinically meaningful diagnostic, psychologic, and attitudinal differences. These findings have implications for the psychopathologic relationship between BED and personality psychopathology and may also have implications for assessment and treatment. Copyright
Medina García, Pedro M; Baños Rivera, Rosa M
Attempts to predict prison recidivism based on the personality have not been very successful. This study aims to provide data on recidivism prediction based on the scores on a personality questionnaire. For this purpose, a predictive model combining the actuarial procedure with a posteriori probability was developed, consisting of the probabilistic calculation of the effective verification of the event once it has already occurred. Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional (CPS; Fernández, Seisdedos, & Mielgo, 1998) was applied to 978 male inmates classified as recidivists or non-recidivists. High predictive power was achieved, with the area under the curve (AUC) of 0.85 (p <.001; Se = 0.012; 95% CI [0.826, 0.873]. The answers to the CPS items made it possible to properly discriminate 77.3% of the participants. These data indicate the important role of the personality as a key factor in understanding delinquency and predicting recidivism.
Damholdt, Malene F; Nørskov, Marco; Yamazaki, Ryuji; Hakli, Raul; Hansen, Catharina Vesterager; Vestergaard, Christina; Seibt, Johanna
Attitudes toward robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes toward robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three parameters: (i) the information provided about robot functionality, (ii) the number of encounters, (iii) personality type. Fourteen elderly residents at a rehabilitation center participated. Pre-encounter attitudes toward robots, anthropomorphic thinking, and personality were assessed. Thereafter the participants interacted with a tele-operated robot (Telenoid) during their lunch (c. 30 min.) for up to 3 days. Half of the participants were informed that the robot was tele-operated (IC) whilst the other half were naïve to its functioning (UC). Post-encounter assessments of attitudes toward robots and anthropomorphic thinking were undertaken to assess change. Attitudes toward robots were assessed with a new generic 35-items questionnaire (attitudes toward social robots scale: ASOR-5), offering a differentiated conceptualization of the conditions for social interaction. There was no significant difference between the IC and UC groups in attitude change toward robots though trends were observed. Personality was correlated with some tendencies for attitude changes; Extraversion correlated with positive attitude changes to intimate-personal relatedness with the robot (r = 0.619) and to psychological relatedness (r = 0.581) whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r = -0.582) with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes toward robots in elderly citizens. This may reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance reductions
Malene Flensborg Damholdt
Full Text Available Attitudes towards robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes towards robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three parameters: (i the information provided about robot functionality, (ii the number of encounters, (iii personality type. Fourteen elderly residents at a rehabilitation centre participated. Pre-encounter attitudes towards robots, anthropomorphic thinking, and personality were assessed. Thereafter the participants interacted with a tele-operated robot (Telenoid during their lunch (c. 30 min. for up to three days. Half of the participants were informed that the robot was tele-operated (IC whilst the other half were naïve to its functioning (UC. Post-encounter assessments of attitudes towards robots and anthropomorphic thinking were undertaken to assess change. Attitudes towards robots were assessed with a new generic 35-item questionnaire (Attitudes towards social robots scale: ASOR-5, offering a differentiated conceptualization of the conditions for social interaction.There was no significant difference between the IC and UC groups in attitude change towards robots though trends were observed. Personality was correlated with some tendencies for attitude changes; Extraversion correlated with positive attitude changes to intimate-personal relatedness with the robot (r=.619 and to psychological relatedness (r=.581 whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r=-.582 with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes towards robots in elderly citizens. This may reflect a cognitive congruence bias where the robot is experienced in congruence with initial attitudes, or it may support action-based explanations of cognitive dissonance
Pfeiler, Tamara M; Egloff, Boris
The vast amount of meat consumed in the Western world is critically discussed with regard to negative health consequences, environmental impact, and ethical concerns for animals, emphasizing the need to extend knowledge regarding the correlates of meat consumption in the general population. In the present article, we conducted two studies examining the associations between meat consumption and personality traits, political attitudes, and environmental attitudes in two large German representative samples (N total = 8,879, aged 18-96 years). Cross-sectional data on frequency of meat consumption, socio-demographics, personality traits, and political and environmental attitudes were collected via self-reports. In both studies, male sex, younger age, and lower educational attainment were significantly positively related to meat consumption. In Study 1, results of the partial correlations and the hierarchical regression analysis controlling for socio-demographics showed that the personality traits of openness and agreeableness, as well as conservative political and social views, explained unique variance in meat consumption. In Study 2, partial correlations and hierarchical regression analyses showed that openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were all uniquely negatively related to meat consumption. Moreover, these analyses documented that people scoring high in right-wing attitudes and low in pro-environmental attitudes reported more overall meat consumption. Taken together, these two studies provided evidence that socio-demographics, personality traits, and attitudes are indeed related to how much meat is consumed. Implications and future prospects for the study of individual differences in meat consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Chinese government has recently pledged to reduce its CO 2 emissions by 2030. Industrial use of energy, however, is just one source of greenhouse gas emissions. Chinese consumers' more affluent lifestyles also lead to increased consumption of energy, which can result in greenhouse gas emissions. Based on a survey of 516 Chinese consumers, the present investigation examined whether their attitudinal motivations and collective efficacy are related to their intentions to engage in personal actions that may help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Results show that the utilitarian motivation related to the effectiveness of personal actions to alleviate climate change, motivation to express their moral values, self-esteem maintenance motivation, and collective efficacy predicted their attitudes toward these personal actions. Collective efficacy was in turn predicted by future orientation, norms, and the utilitarian motivation. Finally, attitudes and collective efficacy were two major considerations that predicted behavioral intentions. Implications for programs to promote low-carbon actions and lifestyles among Chinese consumers are discussed.
Criminological aspects of criminal recidivism The topic of this thesis are the criminological aspects of criminal recidivism and goal is to present a complete outline of some of the basic ideas related to the concept of criminal recidivism and to introduce the reader to its selected criminological aspects. This thesis is divided into four chapters. The introductory chapter is focused on the concept of criminal recidivism itself, and similarly defines the various concepts with emphasis on the ...
Cavazza, Nicoletta; Serpe, Alessandra
Research on the role of organizational and psychosocial factors in influencing risk behaviors and the likelihood of injury at work showed that safety climate also has great impact on workers' behavior. However, the mechanisms through which this impact operates are still partially unclear. In order to explore the role that attitudinal ambivalence toward wearing PPE might play in mediating the impact of safety climate on safety norm violations, a questionnaire was administered to 345 Italian workers. Three dimensions of safety climate (i.e., company safety concern, senior managers' safety concern, supervisors' attitudes towards safety) were found to be positively associated with the individual ambivalence level, whereas the fourth one (i.e., work pressure) was negatively correlated with it. In turn, low levels of ambivalence were associated with a lower tendency to break the safety norms, even though the perception of a good safety climate also maintained a direct effect on unsafe behaviors. Designers of training program for the prevention of work related injuries must pay great attention to the psycho-social factors (such as the effects of the safety climate perception by employees on their attitudes and behaviors), and include specific contents into the prevention programs in order to improve workers compliance with safety norms.
Pedersen, Liselotte; Kunz, Camilla; Rasmussen, Kirsten
the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP). After a follow-up period of 5.7 years, recidivism outcomes were obtained from the Danish National Crime Register. Both psychopathy measures were related to a more severe and versatile criminal...
Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.
This study examined the influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism and compared findings with earlier studies of juvenile recidivism. Logistic regression analysis examined subsequent adulthood recidivism (through age 23 years) by disorder profile, adjusting for prior
Lovell, David; Johnson, L. Clark; Cain, Kevin C.
This study of recidivism among Washington supermax prisoners used a retrospective matched control design, matching supermax prisoners one-to-one with nonsupermax prisoners on mental illness status and up to eight recidivism predictors. Supermax prisoners committed new felonies at a higher rate than nonsupermax controls, but the difference was not…
Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.
The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…
Álvaro Machado Dias
Full Text Available Several studies report that incarcerated young offenders show a high rate of psychiatric disorders whereas associations between specific psychiatric disorders and recidivism remain unknown. The Brazilian legal system has created a unique opportunity for the study of this issue when consider young offenders not that guilty in spite of the severity of the crime, settling in three years the maximum period of incarceration. This study aims to determine the rate of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of incarcerated young offenders and evaluate the possible psychiatric connections of primary offenders and recidivism. A group of 898 incarcerated young offenders at Fundação Casa answered psychiatric interviews and was diagnosed according to the criteria of ICD-10. Statistic connections were analyzed using the tests of Pearson and Cramer. The cohort was comprised of 619 primaries and 267 recidivists. 'Psychoactive Substance Use' and 'Disorders of Adult Personality and Behavior' categories were related to recidivism, whereas 'Organic Mental Disorders', 'Mood Disorders', and 'Stress-related Disorders' were related to primary offenders. Discriminating disorders were the most likely to represent reactions to primary incarceration. In relation to associations that might represent predictors of crime, it became highly suggestive that substance abuse is the main cause of incarceration for the entire cohort.
Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Klusmann, Dietrich; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer
Forensic psychiatric reports on 166 sexual homicide perpetrators in Germany were retrospectively analyzed for criminal risk factors. Follow-up information about release and reconvictions from federal criminal records was available for 139 offenders; 90 (64.7%) had been released. The estimated recidivism rate (Kaplan-Meier analyses) for 20 years at risk was 23.1% for sexual and 18.3% for nonsexual violent reoffences. Three men (3.3%) were reconvicted for attempted or completed homicide. Only young age at the time of sexual homicide resulted in higher sexual recidivism, whereas increased nonsexual violent recidivism was related to previous sexual and nonsexual delinquency, psychopathic symptoms, and higher scores in risk assessment instruments. Increased recidivism with any violent reoffence was associated with age-related factors: young age at first sexual offence, at homicide, and at release and duration of detention. The impacts of the results for risk assessment, relapse prevention, and supervision are discussed.
Wartna, B.S.J.; Nijssen, L.T.J.
Measuring recidivism is an established method for examining the effects of penal interventions. Over the last decades the automation of police and judiciary data has opened up opportunities to do large-scale recidivism research. The WODC has made an inventory of the studies that are carried out in
Wierich, Ralf; Zielke, Stephan
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate how different design elements of retailer coupons increase the attitudinal loyalty towards retailers. Design/methodology/approach – Three design elements are manipulated in a 2x2x2 experimental design. Data is analysed using structural equation...... and the minimum purchase amount require at least some cognitive processing to have a loyalty impact. Research limitations/implications – Future studies can use the developed framework to test the impact of other design elements, promotion types or loyalty schemes. Practical implications – The results underline...... that personalization offers opportunities for increasing loyalty without the necessity of large investments. As these effects can occur without redemption, coupon promotions should not be evaluated based on redemption rates only. Originality/value – The study extends existing research by focusing on retailer coupons...
Phillips, Lindsay A.
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substance abuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substance abuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
Johnson, Kristin; Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn; Woolard, Jennifer
These data merge correctional histories with official state and courthouse information for a sample of teenage offenders, some of whom had been transferred to the adult system. Previous research indicated that transfer aggravates recidivism after the age of 18. The correctional data allow the examination of the relationship between sanctions and…
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic personality traits have been described as characteristics of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Furthermore, deficits in cognitive empathy and impairments in emotional decoding processes may at least partially explain conduct disorders and social dysfunction in general. However, previous research has not explored potential associations between empathy deficits and the aforementioned traits or whether they are reflected in recidivism in IPV perpetrators. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to explore associations between empathy deficits, antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic traits and the risk of recidivism in this population. The sample consisted of 144 IPV perpetrators (mean age = 41 years). High antisocial and borderline personality traits in this sample were associated with a high risk of recidivism, these relationships being moderated by poor empathy skills. Moreover, in IPV perpetrators with both antisocial and borderline personality traits, the risk of recidivism was higher than in those with only one of these traits. In contrast, narcissistic traits were unrelated to the risk of recidivism and impairments in empathy. The results of our study highlight the importance of empathy deficits and may help professionals to develop specific intervention programs focusing on improving empathy skills in antisocial and borderline IPV perpetrators.
House, Samuel J; Laan, Jacob M; Molden, Raymond K; Ritchie, James C; Stowe, Zachary N
Recidivism, repeated criminal behavior after conviction and correction of prior offenses, is a costly problem across the nation. However, the contribution of empathy in determining the risk of recidivism has received limited attention, although lack of empathy has been related to antisocial personality disorder in various studies. Studies linked testosterone to aggression, antisocial behavior, and criminality, and evidence support hormonal connections between empathy and aggression. Adult male prison inmates convicted of violent or nonviolent offenses were included in a cross-sectional study of empathy, antisocial behavior, salivary testosterone, and recidivism. Subjects underwent criminal history, Empathy Quotient, Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and salivary testosterone assays. Bivariate analyses indicated multiple correlations between variables. Multivariate modeling analyses found a significant relationship between self-reported conviction number and psychopathy scale score (p = 0.013). These preliminary results suggest avenues of investigation of factors contributing to recidivism risk. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available Aims: This study examines common factors associated with recidivism among state patients at a South African forensic psychiatric hospital. More specifically, demographic, clinical and criminological factors of a recidivist group are compared to a non-recidivist group with the intention of understanding to what extent these factors might determine the likelihood of re-offending. Method: A retrospective case file review of 293 inpatients and a random selection of 120 outpatients was conducted. For the purpose of the study, a patient was classified as a recidivist if an additional charge or act of violence was added to the file while the patient was on leave of absence in the community. Of the inpatients, only those who met the criteria for recidivism were included in the study. All 120 randomly selected outpatients were included. Demographic, clinical and criminological data were captured for all patients. Results: Eighty recidivists were compared with 100 non-recidivists. Using the × 2 and Fischer’s exact test, substance-use disorder, antisocial personality disorder, an index offence of assault and in-ward adverse events were found to be associated with recidivism (p < 0.05. Using logistic regression analysis, the odds of recidivism in a patient with an index offence of assault was 8.4 times of those who did not commit assault as an index offence (95.0% CI 1.6–43.1. The odds of recidivism for patients with cannabis use was 2.8 (95.0% CI 1.3–6.0 and for patients with in-ward adverse sexual behaviour was 17.2 (95.0% CI 2.0–150. Conclusion: Substance-use disorder and antisocial personality disorder are associated with higher risk for recidivism. This study also highlights that a less serious offence such as assault had a higher association with recidivism. Patients noted to display adverse sexual behaviour in the ward pose a potentially high risk for re-offence. Important criminal history factors and certain clinical factors could not
What psychological factors determine Ghanaian employee participation in development activities in organizations? Empirical research has failed to examine psychological factors influencing employee behavior in Ghanaian organizations. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), I examine attitudinal ...
Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn
Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of homicide recidivists among population studies of homicide offenders with schizophrenia. Methods Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies of homicide associated with schizophrenia conducted in defined populations and indexed in Medline, PsychINFO, or Embase between January 1960 and November 2013. Published data was supplemented with unpublished data about recidivism obtained by personal communication from the authors of published studies of homicide and schizophrenia. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate a pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide recidivists. Results Three studies reported that 4.3%, 4.5%, and 10.7% of homicide offenders with schizophrenia had committed an earlier homicide. Unpublished data were obtained from the authors of 11 studies of homicide in schizophrenia published in English between 1980 and 2013. The authors of 2 studies reported a single case of homicide recidivism and the authors of 9 studies reported no cases. The rates of homicide recidivism between studies were highly heterogeneous (I-square = 79). The pooled estimate of the proportion of homicide offenders with schizophrenia who had committed an earlier homicide was 2.3% (95% CI (Confidence Interval) 0.07% to 7.2%), a figure that was not reported in any individual study. The pooled proportion of homicide recidivists from published reports was more than ten times greater (8.6%, 95% CI 5.7%-12.9%) than the pooled proportion of homicide recidivists estimated from data provided by personal communication (0.06%, 95% CI 0.02% to 1.8%). Conclusions In most jurisdictions, homicide recidivism by people with schizophrenia is less common than published reports have suggested. The reasons for the variation in the rates of homicide recidivism between studies are unclear, although in most jurisdictions long-term secure treatment and supervision after release appears to be effective in
Emmanuel Orok Duke
Full Text Available A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is placed on interdependence. Religion being an expression of human culture is equally affected by this cultural revolution. The main objective of this paper is to examine how religious affiliation, among Christians, influences attitudes towards the application of psychological sciences to the assuagement of human suffering. The sociological theory of structural functionalism was deployed to explain attitudinal appraisal. Ethnographic methodology, through quantitative analysis of administered questionnaire, was also used. The study reveals that religious tenets largely shape attitudinal appraisal and redefine the borders of globalisation’s metanarratives.
María del Carmen Cano
Full Text Available Most of the literature on juvenile delinquency is aimed to the identification of the protective and risk factors of the antisocial and criminal behaviors. In this line, a study was carried out to assess whether the family setting, personal variables of the youngster and variables linked to the judicial measure execution mediate in recidivism. For this reason, all the closed judicial files of the young offenders from the Service of Juvenile Justice in Jaén (Spain have been analysed. The results showed that such family setting variables as broken homes, large families, low incomes, deprived neighborhoods, criminal records, drug abuse, children protection records and crime legitimacy are linked to recidivism. As for personal variables of the youngster, the findings illustrate that re-offenders are characterized by external attribution, deficits in social skills, deficits in self-control, violent behaviors and low tolerance to frustration. In relation to the judicial measure execution variables, data support that the non re-offenders are defined in contrast to re-offenders, by a high compliance with rules and timetables and with the established objectives, as well as a high family involvement during the judicial measure execution. The implications of the results for prevention of recidivism are discussed.
have a sufficiently similar meaning when applied to institutions such as the state as to individual persons? The paper presents the standard analyses and explains in what sense they are attitudinal and why the attitudinal component is necessary. It then presents the problem of institutional...... applicability that the attitudinal component brings about: the ascription of the requisite attitudes to institutions in general and the state in particular is problematic since institutions arguably cannot have attitudes of the required kind. This problem is distinguished from other problems, including...... the problem of making sense of political toleration raised by Glen Newey, and some possible responses to the problem are considered, including Peter Jones’ disaggregative response to Newey, all of which are found inadequate. The paper instead proposes that the analysis of institutional toleration and respect...
Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina
Numerous companies are accepting sustainability as an organizational peremptory. There is, however, little convergence on how organizations become sustainable. The previous study suggests that a paradigm shift is necessary to incorporate more sustainable ways of thinking, while others advocate that sustainability requires only moderate behavioural changes as in attitude. In addition, it is also suggesting that sustainability develops most effectively when a singular view of sustainability is applied throughout the company; others contend that differentiated views of sustainability emerge within the various subcultures of an organization. The aim of this paper is to analyse the aftermath of considering attitudinal parameter into the initial data, portraying the true nature of personality during the survey. The research presented was carried out with employees from various manufacturing companies with different branches of knowledge and attitude. Survey methodology was employed by building a questionnaire combining Likert-type items, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration and multiple-option items. The results allow identifying the knowledges and attitudes of the employees in Malaysia context, contributing relevant data in regard to future engagement relating to sustainability and attitudinal parameter.
Ritzky Karina M.R. Brahmana
Full Text Available Abstract. Virtual stores provide great efficiency in the retail value chain, and their existence has tremendously paved the way for electronic commerce. Understanding the intention of consumers to shop online in attitudinal perspective will provide important contribution to the area of e-commerce. This research proposes Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU, and Perceived Usefulness (PU as the factors that drive consumers’ intention. The results from our survey study of 310 online consumers in Indonesia indicate that TTF affects PEoU and PU significantly. Our hierarchical model also reports that PEoU is the mediating effect on the relationship between TTF and Intention. The resulting model explains a large portion of the factors that lead a user’s behavioural intention to use a virtual shop. Keywords : Attitudinal, Task Technology Fit, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Retail, Virtual Shopping Intention
Van Vugt, Eveline; Gibbs, John; Stams, Geert Jan; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan; van der Laan, Peter
A meta-analysis of 19 studies (N = 15,992 offenders) showed a significant inverse relation between more mature moral development and recidivism. Moderator analyses revealed a larger effect size for moral cognition (r = .20) than for moral emotion (r = .11). Effect sizes for production measures (r = .57) were much larger than for recognition measures (r = .16) and unstructured (clinical) judgment (r = .10). Larger effect sizes were found for female delinquents (r = .32) than for male delinquents (r = .21). Only small differences in effect sizes were found between juvenile delinquents (r = .10) and adult delinquents (r = .16). Finally, self-report measures of recidivism revealed much larger effect sizes (r = .32) than official reports of recidivism (r = .09). The discussion focuses on the theoretical and practical meaning of the magnitude of the effect size for the relation between moral development and recidivism.
objectives: causes, consequences, and prevention and control of recidivism in the Nigerian ... not only facing the Nigerian prison system but also the society at large. Abrifor et al. ..... Relational problems with peers, gender and delinquency.
Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen
The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....
Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
Objective: The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early…
Factores cognitivos y actitudinales implicados en sistemas de personalización y de tutoría virtual en programas de e-learning aplicados a la enseñanza de la psicología Cognitive and attitudinal factors implied in personalized systems and virtual tutorial in e-learning programs applied to teaching psychology
Full Text Available El trabajo trata sobre los resultados de un relevamiento de las dimensiones cognitiva y actitudinal en programas de e-learning implementados a través de sistemas de personalización y tutoría virtual. En una plataforma de e-learning, un sistema de personalización posibilita la administración flexible de contenidos conforme a características de los educandos. El núcleo básico del estudio radica en evaluar el nivel de eficacia de un sistema de tutoría virtual sobre el aprendizaje significativo y las actitudes, en el contexto de programas de e-learning aplicados a psicología. Se realizó un abordaje empírico con una muestra de 200 estudiantes de psicología extraída aleatoriamente, quienes realizaron actividades de e-learning bajo dos condiciones experimentales: a implementadas sobre plataformas con tutoría online y b implementadas sobre plataformas de e-learning sin dicha tutoría. Posteriormente, se administraron cuestionarios semiestructurados para indagar el impacto cognitivo y actitudinal de la experiencia. Los resultados revelan una incidencia significativa del sistema de tutoría virtual sobre las variables bajo estudio.This work is about the results of cognitive and attitudinal dimensions´ survey from an e-learning program implemented through personalized systems and virtual tutorial. In an e-learning platform, a personalized system makes possible a flexible administration of contents according to students' characteristics. The aim of the study was to determine the level of effectiveness of the virtual tutoring system on significant learning and attitudes, in the context of e-learning programs applied to psychology. An empirical study with a random sample of 200 university students was made. The subjects made activities of e-learning under two experimental conditions: a implemented on platforms with a virtual tutorial online and, b implemented on platforms of e-learning without this tutorial. Semi-structured questionnaires were
Batool, Zahara; Carsten, Oliver
Deviant driving behaviors are considered as the main cause of Road Traffic Accidents in Pakistan. This research is founded on the premise that driving behaviors are mediated by attitudinal and motivational factors. It advocates that rather than simply aggregating drivers' responses or a-priori classification of them based on their personal characteristics, adoption of segmentation technique is more useful to look at multiple factors provoking aberrant driving behavior in combination and not just in isolation. For this, the study generated an Attitudinal Questionnaire, inspired by the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB: Ajzen, 1991), and extended violation-scale of modified Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ: Lawton et al., 1997). Attitudinal and behavioral items are first factor analyzed. Then, cluster analysis is performed on extracted attitudinal factors which classified sample driving population into four relatively homogenous and distinct groups of drivers. The results demonstrated the explanatory utility of the market segmentation approach to systematically relate the interaction between attitudes, behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics of drivers. It is concluded that the approach is successful in distinguishing safe drivers from unsafe driver and therefore, can legitimately form the basis of road safety interventions. Finally, the findings are used to recommend targeted information-based road safety solutions with a focus on the diverse characteristics of each of the identified segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yousaf, O.; Gobet, F.
We explored the emotional and attitudinal consequences of personal attitude-behavior discrepancies using a religious version of the hypocrisy paradigm. We induced cognitive dissonance in participants (n = 206) by making them feel hypocritical for advocating certain religious behaviors that they had not recently engaged in to their own satisfaction. In Experiment 1, this resulted in higher levels of self-reported guilt and shame compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 further showed th...
Asscher, Jessica J.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Yousfi, Sarah
A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator…
Goel, D S; Kumari, Renu; Saldanha, D; Kaushik, A; Gupta, Lalit
A questionnaire designed to assess attitudinal profile was mailed to nursing officers in five representative military hospitals. 158 (77.83%) of 203 addressees responded. Cluster analysis indicated higher level of commitment in nursing officers with over 16 years service as compared to those with less than 5 years. Self-image and job-satisfaction, however tended to be eroded with increasing length of service which was also associated with a more authoritarian attitude, relatively less materialistic outlook and (paradoxically) greater negative attitude towards authority figures. Marriage and having children did not influence any parameter. The feeling of sexual harassment increased with seniority in service, as also a perceived erosion in the authority of the principal matron. Relatively junior nursing officers appeared dissatisfied with "too much paper work" and a felt deterioration in working environment as well as the image of Military Nursing Service.
Vrieze, Scott I.; Grove, William M.
All states have statutes in place to civilly commit individuals at high risk for violence. The authors address difficulties in assessing such risk but use as an example the task of predicting sexual violence recidivism; the principles espoused here generalize to predicting all violence. As part of the commitment process, mental health…
van Vugt, E.; Gibbs, J.; Stams, G.J.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.; van der Laan, P.
A meta-analysis of 19 studies (N = 15,992 offenders) showed a significant inverse relation between more mature moral development and recidivism. Moderator analyses revealed a larger effect size for moral cognition (r = .20) than for moral emotion (r = .11). Effect sizes for production measures (r =
Costopoulos, Julie S; Plewinski, Amy M; Monaghan, Patricia L; Edkins, Vanessa A
Community re-entry from custody programmes facilitate access to community resources, such as cash assistance and food stamps, with the aim of reducing criminal recidivism. Evidence that these programmes achieve is mainly from longer-term prisoners rather than short-term jail inmates. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that facilitating access to community resources while still in jail would reduce re-arrest rates among former jail inmates in the USA. Community resources offered to the jail inmates participating in this study included Medicaid, food stamps and cash assistance. Participants who opted to sign up for these social services were matched with non-applicants based on date of release (n = 101). Each participant's criminal history was coded prior to release from the jail and at three months, six months and one year after release. Contrary to our original hypotheses, recidivism was not significantly reduced in the applicant group. People released after facilitated access to community assistance had an increase in drug offence severity at six months after release. Recidivism also differed by age and race. The substance offences in the applicant group suggested that cash benefits provided the released offender with the means to sustain their substance misuse. Treatment for substance misuse should be incorporated with other resources in order to reduce recidivism effectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
John R. Gallagher
Full Text Available This study evaluated a drug court located in a metropolitan area of Indiana (United States, focusing specifically on identifying variables that predicted recidivism among drug court participants and comparing criminal recidivism patterns among drug court and probation participants. Drug court participants were most likely to recidivate if they were younger, had a violation within the first 30 days of the program, had a previous criminal record, and were terminated unsuccessfully from the program. Furthermore, drug court participants were less likely to recidivate than probationers who had similar offense and demographic characteristics. Implications for drug court practice, policy advocacy, and future research are discussed.
Askgaard, Gro; Hallas, Jesper; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Molander, Anna Camilla; Madsen, Kenneth Grønkjær; Pottegård, Anton
Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide are recommended as first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal. These drugs are known for their abuse liability and might increase alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. Phenobarbital could be an alternative treatment option, possibly with the drawback of a more pronounced acute toxicity. We evaluated if phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide decreased the risk of subsequent use of benzodiazepines, alcohol recidivism and mortality. The study was a register-based cohort study of patients admitted for alcohol withdrawal 1998-2013 and treated with either phenobarbital or chlordiazepoxide. Patients were followed for one year. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for benzodiazepine use, alcohol recidivism and mortality associated with alcohol withdrawal treatment, while adjusting for confounders. A total of 1063 patients treated with chlordiazepoxide and 1365 patients treated with phenobarbital were included. After one year, the outcome rates per 100 person-years in the phenobarbital versus the chlordiazepoxide cohort were 9.20 vs. 5.13 for use of benzodiazepine, 37.9 vs. 37.9 for alcohol recidivism and 29 vs. 59 for mortality. Comparing phenobarbital to chlordiazepoxide treated, the HR of subsequent use of benzodiazepines was 1.56 (95%CI 1.05-2.30). Similarly, the HR for alcohol recidivism was 0.99 (95%CI 0.84-1.16). Lastly, the HR for 30-days and 1 year mortality was 0.25 (95%CI 0.08-0.78) and 0.51 (95%CI 0.31-0.86). There was no decreased risk of subsequent benzodiazepine use or alcohol recidivism in patients treated with phenobarbital compared to chlordiazepoxide. Phenobarbital treatment was associated with decreased mortality, which might be confounded by somatic comorbidity among patients receiving chlordiazepoxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shoham, Efrat; Yehosha-Stern, Shirley; Efodi, Rotem
Toward the end of 2006, a pilot program was launched in Israel wherein licensed-released prisoners were put under electronic monitoring (EM). In addition to EM, the pilot program, operated by the Prisoners' Rehabilitation Authority, provides programs of occupational supervision and personal therapy and is designed to allow for early release of those prisoners who, without increased supervision, would have been found unsuitable for early release. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the EM program among licensed-released prisoners in Israel might bring about lessened recidivism. For that matter, rates of arrests and incarceration were examined during a follow-up period of up to 4 years, among the entirety of licensed-released prisoners participating in the EM program between the years 2007 and 2009 (n = 155). To compare recidivism rates, a control group was assembled from among the entirety of released prisoners who were found unsuitable for early release in judicial conditions, and had therefore served the full term of their incarceration, to be released between the years 2005 and 2006 (a period of time during which an EM program was not yet operated among licensed-released prisoners in Israel). Study findings clearly show that while among the control group, 42% of released prisoners were re-incarcerated, at the end of a 4-year follow-up period, only 15% among the study group had returned to prison. These findings can be explained by combining the Social Control theory and the Self-Control theory which consider the period of time under EM program and the occupational and familial integration tools for reducing criminal connections and enhancing pro-social behavior. © The Author(s) 2014.
Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom
The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…
Grunwald, Heidi E.; Lockwood, Brian; Harris, Philip W.; Mennis, Jeremy
This study examined the effects of neighborhood context on juvenile recidivism to determine if neighborhoods influence the likelihood of reoffending. Although a large body of literature exists regarding the impact of environmental factors on delinquency, very little is known about the effects of these factors on juvenile recidivism. The sample…
Proctor, Steven L; Hoffmann, Norman G; Allison, Steve
The present study sought to evaluate the influence of interactive journaling on criminal recidivism and identify significant predictors of recidivism among a sample of 183 male inmates incarcerated in a local jail facility randomly assigned to either an interactive journaling condition or a control group. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for substance dependence, had their current offense indicate substance involvement, and had a minimum of one previous arrest in the prior 12 months. The recidivism rate (51%), in terms of subsequent bookings within a 12-month period, for the journaling group was significantly lower than the recidivism rate (66%) for the control group, χ(2)(1, 183) = 4.13, p journaling vs. placebo), and employment status. Interactive journaling appears to show promise as a brief treatment intervention strategy for substance dependence in local jail settings and may have the potential for reducing recidivism.
Full Text Available Brands can be helpful in strengthening a person’s identity. Hence, consumers use brands as instruments for reflecting their personal image and individual goals. The self-concept as a vital component of emotional aspects, boosts attitudinal loyalty towards a brand. The luxury fashion market of India offers great opportunities to marketers. India's luxury market is projected to reach $14.72 billion by 2015 from an estimated $8.21 billion in 2014.The present study aims to examine the empirical relationship of self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty in the context of female consumer-luxury fashion brand relationships. A single cross sectional survey of 240 female customers of five global brands, including Zara, Armani, Guess, Versace and Calvin Klein, from the State of Punjab (India was conducted. Regression and Z-Test were used to analyze the data. The self-concept positively enhances female consumers’ attitudinal brand loyalty. The perceived influence of self-concept and attitudinal brand loyalty is high in luxury fashion purchase. Therefore, the process of shaping a marketing strategy should include different dimensions of self-concept, namely, enhancement, contribution, admiration and extension. Furthermore, a marketing strategy needs to strengthen brand superiority, brand performance and brand synchronization to win attitudinal loyalty in luxury fashion industry.
Watson, Sunnie Lee
This case study examines the design and facilitation of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) that focused on attitudinal learning about the topic of animal behaviour and welfare. Findings showed that a team of instructors worked together collaboratively towards realising learning goals and found the experience rewarding. While learners had mixed…
Hall, Matthew; Farkas, George
We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to estimate the effects of cognitive skills (measured by the Armed Forces Qualification Test) and attitudinal/behavioral traits (a latent factor based on self-reported self-esteem, locus of control, educational aspirations and educational expectations) on career wage…
Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university workers to resolving conflict through mediation. ... df =253, P>0.05). It is therefore recommended that university workers should be adequately trained in the procedures of using mediation so as to build their capacity in resolving conflict at home and workplace.
The study investigated the attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of female extension agents in Edo State, Nigeria. A random sample of 35 female extension agents was selected for the study. Findings reveal that the majority of the respondents (57.1%) were in the age group of 31 – 40 years and ...
Traxler, Adrienne; Brewe, Eric
We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students' social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.
... the incarceration retrospective negative impacts on individuals and exconvicts lives in the free society. Suggestions were made towards ensuring sanitized prison socio cultural environment and that restorative justice approach should be practiced in Nigeria. Key Words: prison culture attitudinal effect convicts and society ...
Conflict ( Prosocial Behavior ) Cognitive Processes - Shared Team Mental Models, Transactive Memory Action Processes - Team Coordination...information sharing behaviors after the experiment unfolded. To explore this further, an independent sample t -test was conducted, where the difference in...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1944 Behavioral , Attitudinal, and Cultural Factors
Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.
The effect of demographic variables (sex, age, education level, occupational status, size of household, homeownership, dependency on the noise source, and use of the noise source) and two attitudinal variables (noise sensitivity and fear of the noise source) on noise annoyance is investigated. It is
Full Text Available We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students from statistically underrepresented ethnic groups have gains that are comparable to those of men and students from well-represented ethnic groups on this attitudinal measure, and that this result holds even when interaction effects of gender and ethnicity are included. We conclude with suggestions for future work in UMI courses and for attitudinal equity investigations generally. We encourage researchers to expand their scope beyond simple performance gaps when considering equity concerns, and to avoid relying on a single measure to evaluate student success. Finally, we conjecture that students’ social and academic networks are one means by which attitudinal and efficacy beliefs about the course are propagated.
Goshin, Lorie S; Byrne, Mary W; Henninger, Alana M
To analyze 3-year recidivism after release from a prison nursery, a secure unit that allows imprisoned women to care for their infants. Descriptive study of 139 women who co-resided with their infants between 2001 and 2007 in a New York State prison nursery. Administrative criminal justice data were analyzed along with prospective study data on demographic, mental health, and prison nursery policy-related factors. Results reflect a sample of young women of color with histories of clinically significant depressive symptoms and substance dependence, who were convicted of nonviolent crimes and had multiple prior arrests. Three years after release 86.3% remained in the community. Only 4% of women returned to prison for new crimes. Survival modeling indicated that women who had previously violated parole had a significantly shorter mean return to prison time than those who were in the nursery for a new crime. Women released from a prison nursery have a low likelihood of recidivism. Innovative interventions are needed to address incarceration's public health effects. Nurses can partner with criminal justice organizations to develop, implement, and evaluate programs to ensure the health needs of criminal justice involved people and their families are met. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Salem, Leila; Nicholls, Tonia L; Caulet, Malijai
To examine criminal recidivism rates of a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada's 3 most populous provinces, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. Public concern about the dangerousness of people found NCRMD has been fed by media attention on high-profile cases. However, little research is available on the rate of reoffending among people found NCRMD across Canadian provinces. Using data from the National Trajectory Project, this study examined 1800 men and women in British Columbia (n = 222), Ontario (n = 484), and Quebec (n = 1094) who were found NCRMD between May 2000 and April 2005 and followed until December 2008. Recidivism was relatively low after 3 years (17%). There were interprovincial differences after controlling for number of prior criminal offences, diagnosis, seriousness of the index offence, and supervision by the review boards. British Columbia (10%) and Ontario (9%) were similar, whereas Quebec had almost twice the recidivism (22%). People who had committed severe violent index offences were less likely to reoffend than those who had committed less severe offences. People from the sample were less likely to reoffend when under the purview of review boards, across all 3 provinces. The results of this study, along with other research on processing differences, suggest systemic differences in the trajectories and outcomes of persons found NCRMD need to be better understood to guide national policies and practices.
DeJong, J; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M
The present study is a follow-up of a sample of 348 men convicted of manslaughter, attempted manslaughter, or arson who were released from incarceration. Multiple factors assessed at the time of incarceration, including demographic, behavioral, family history, and biochemical variables, and psychiatric diagnoses were used in an attempt to discriminate between those who became recidivists during the follow-up period and those who did not. Violent recidivism was most strongly associated (sensitivity of 90%) with impulsivity of the original crime in killers and attempted killers; for arsonists, having made a suicide attempt was the strongest predictor (68% sensitivity). For predictive purposes, both single factor associations and multiple entries into discriminant analysis produced too many false-positives, i.e., the high rate of false designation as recidivist remained a problem.
Ter Beek, Ellis; Spruit, Anouk; Kuiper, Chris H Z; van der Rijken, Rachel E A; Hendriks, Jan; Stams, Geert Jan J M
The current study investigated the effect on recidivism of treatment aimed at juveniles who have sexually offended. It also assessed the potential moderating effect of type of recidivism, and several treatment, participant and study characteristics. In total, 14 published and unpublished primary studies, making use of a comparison group and reporting on official recidivism rates, were included in a multilevel meta-analysis. This resulted in the use of 77 effect sizes, and 1726 participants. A three-level meta-analytic model was used to calculate the combined effect sizes (Cohens d) and to perform moderator analyses. Study quality was assessed with the EPHPP Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A moderate effect size was found (d = 0.37), indicating that the treatment groups achieved an estimated relative reduction in recidivism of 20.5% as compared to comparison groups. However, after controlling for publication bias, a significant treatment effect was no longer found. Type of recidivism did not moderate the effect of treatment, indicating that treatment groups were equally effective for all types of recidivism. Also, no moderating effects of participant or treatment characteristics were found. Regarding study characteristics, a shorter follow up time showed a trend for larger effect sizes, and the effect size calculation based on proportions yielded larger effect sizes than calculation via mean frequency of offending. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.
Walters, Glenn D
Moderator and mediator relationships linking variables from three different theoretical traditions-race (subcultural theory), education (life-course theory), and criminal thinking (social learning theory)-and recidivism were examined in 1,101 released male federal prison inmates. Preliminary regression analyses indicated that racial status (White, Black, Hispanic) moderated the relationship between criminal thinking, as measured by the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and recidivism. Further analysis, however, revealed that it was not racial status, per se, that moderated the relationship between the PICTS and recidivism, but educational attainment. Whereas the PICTS was largely effective in predicting recidivism in inmates with 12 or more years of education, it was largely ineffective in predicting recidivism in inmates with fewer than 12 years of education. When education and the GCT score were compared as possible mediators of the race-recidivism relationship only the GCT successfully mediated this relationship. Sensitivity testing showed that the GCT mediating effect was moderately robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption on which causal mediation analysis rests. Moderator and mediator analyses are potentially important avenues through which theoretical constructs can be integrated and assessment strategies devised.
Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.
Linn, Braden K; Nochajski, Thomas; Wieczorek, William
Driving under the influence remains a pervasive problem. Approximately 30% of those arrested for impaired driving offenses each year are repeat offenders, suggesting that current rehabilitative efforts are not sufficiently effective for reducing driving while intoxicated (DWI) recidivism. Aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency have been noted in the population of impaired drivers, but study of these variables on recidivism has been limited. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of aggression, negative affect, substance use problems, and childhood delinquency on DWI recidivism among first time offenders. In 1992, 6436 individuals in impaired driver programs in New York State were surveyed. A total of 3511 individuals provided names so that state driver abstracts could be reviewed in the future. A total of 2043 matches were found and 1770 remained after excluding those with previous DWI convictions. Driver records were reviewed in 2010 and 2012, providing between 18 and 20 years of follow-up. During the follow-up period, 16.5% of individuals were arrested for an impaired driving offense. Multivariate analysis suggested that recidivism was a function of several problems, including: alcohol problem severity, aggression, negative affect, drug problem severity, criminal history, and childhood delinquency. Impaired driving programs should assess for childhood delinquency, aggressive tendencies, and negative affect as these constructs, along with substance use, are evident among impaired drivers who recidivate. Interventions addressing aggression and negative affect may ultimately prove useful in reducing recidivism.
Yousaf, Omar; Gobet, Fernand
We explored the emotional and attitudinal consequences of personal attitude-behavior discrepancies using a religious version of the hypocrisy paradigm. We induced cognitive dissonance in participants (n = 206) by making them feel hypocritical for advocating certain religious behaviors that they had not recently engaged in to their own satisfaction. In Experiment 1, this resulted in higher levels of self-reported guilt and shame compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 further showed that a religious self-affirmation task eliminated the guilt and shame. In Experiment 3, participants boosted their religious attitudes as a result of dissonance, and both religious and non-religious self-affirmation tasks eliminated this effect. The findings provide evidence that dissonance induced through religious hypocrisy can result in guilt and shame as well as an attitude bolstering effect, as opposed to the attitude reconciliation effect that is prevalent in previous dissonance research.
The basic issue addressed in this research can be formulated as follows: how can peoples reactions to high risk energy technologies be described, analysed and compared. In this study the technologies for electricity generation of nuclear power and coal were chosen for comparison. The thesis gives a general introduction and considers: 1. policy issues involved in the introduction and implementation of large scale technologies. 2. the current electricity supply situation with particular emphasis on the contribution of nuclear power and coal. 3. recent research which has contributed to the formulation of energy policy decisions. The attitudinal framework adopted in this study is discussed in relation to other approaches for the analysis of risk perception, classification of risks and personal and collective decisions about risk taking. (Auth.)
Damholdt, Malene Flensborg; Nørskov, Marco; Yamazaki, Ryuji
Attitudes toward robots influence the tendency to accept or reject robotic devices. Thus it is important to investigate whether and how attitudes toward robots can change. In this pilot study we investigate attitudinal changes in elderly citizens toward a tele-operated robot in relation to three...... relatedness (r = 0.581) whilst Neuroticism correlated negatively (r = -0.582) with mental relatedness with the robot. The results tentatively suggest that neither information about functionality nor direct repeated encounters are pivotal in changing attitudes toward robots in elderly citizens. This may...
Livingstone, Nuala; Macdonald, Geraldine; Carr, Nicola
Restorative justice is "a process whereby parties with a stake in a specific offence resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future" (Marshall 2003). Despite the increasing use of restorative justice programmes as an alternative to court proceedings, no systematic review has been undertaken of the available evidence on the effectiveness of these programmes with young offenders. Recidivism in young offenders is a particularly worrying problem, as recent surveys have indicated the frequency of re-offences for young offenders has ranged from 40.2% in 2000 to 37.8% in 2007 (Ministry of Justice 2009) To evaluate the effects of restorative justice conferencing programmes for reducing recidivism in young offenders. We searched the following databases up to May 2012: CENTRAL, 2012 Issue 5, MEDLINE (1978 to current), Bibliography of Nordic Criminology (1999 to current), Index to Theses (1716 to current), PsycINFO (1887 to current), Social Sciences Citation Index (1970 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), Social Care Online (1985 to current), Restorative Justice Online (1975 to current), Scopus (1823 to current), Science Direct (1823 to current), LILACS (1982 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Restorative Justice Online (4 May 2012), WorldCat (9 May 2012), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 May 2012) and ICTRP (19 May 2012). ASSIA, National Criminal Justice Reference Service and Social Services Abstracts were searched up to May 2011. Relevant bibliographies, conference programmes and journals were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of restorative justice conferencing versus management as usual, in young offenders. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included trials and extracted the data. Where necessary, original investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Four trials including a total of 1447 young offenders were included in the review. Results
Greenberg, Sharon R Rabinowitz; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M
Exhibitionists have traditionally been regarded as nuisance offenders. However, empirical studies show that some offenders can be highly recidivistic and can escalate to incidents of Hands-on sexual assault. The objective of this study was to investigate predictors of recidivism in exhibitionists and clarify the differences between Hands-on and Hands-off sexual recidivists. The hundred and twenty-one exhibitionists were assessed at a university teaching hospital between 1983 and 1996. Archival data came from medical files and police files. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) was assessed retrospectively. Results indicated that over a mean follow-up period of 6.84 years, 11.7, 16.8, and 32.7% of exhibitionists were charged with or convicted of sexual, violent, or criminal offenses, respectively. Sexual reoffending recidivists were less educated, and had more prior sexual and criminal offenses. Violent, recidivists were also less educated, had lower Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) scores, higher PCL-R Totals, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Criminal recidivists were younger, less educated, had lower DSFI scores, higher PCL-R scores, higher Pedophile Indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Hands-on sexual recidivists demonstrated higher PCL-R ratings, higher Pedophile and Rape indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses than did Hands-off counterparts.
Introduction: Given that people rely heavily on their party affiliation to make their political decisions, an interesting dilemma occurs when people are exposed to counter-attitudinal information from the party they identify with. This paper examines how exposure to counter-attitudinal messages from the party an individual identifies with…
Munroe, Monekka L.
The problem is Florida is ranked as having the 10th largest incarceration rate in the United States, with a recidivism rate of almost 30%. Therefore, this researcher conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine any benefits to providing college courses to inmates, including the reduction of recidivism. To determine the…
Hickman, Laura J.; Suttorp, Marika J.
Previously deported aliens are a group about which numerous claims are made but very few facts are known. Using data on male deportable aliens released from a local jail, the study sought to test the ubiquitous claim that they pose a high risk of recidivism. Using multiple measures of recidivism and propensity score weighting to account for…
Full Text Available Customer Equity is true representative of relationship marketing. There are two major approach-es to measure Customer Equity: Transaction/sales based approach and Attitudinal Approach. This research is an effort to check customer equity of fast food restaurants of Pakistan by using attitudinal approach. Transactional customer equity is treated as criterion for attitudinal customer equity. Three drivers of Customer Equity are Value Equity, Brand equity and Relationship equity are taken as independent variables in this research. Convenient sampling technique was used and sample size was 393 respondents. The results show that attitudinal customer equity had strong association with transactional equity. Brand equity, value equity and relationship equity show positive associations with attitudinal customer equity.
Ryan, Joseph P; Williams, Abigail B; Courtney, Mark E
Victims of child abuse and neglect are at an increased risk of involvement with the juvenile justice and adult correctional systems. Yet, little is known about the continuation and trajectories of offending beyond initial contact with law enforcement. Neglect likely plays a critical role in continued offending as parental monitoring, parental rejection and family relationships are instrumental in explaining juvenile conduct problems. This study sought to determine whether neglect is associated with recidivism for moderate and high risk juvenile offenders in Washington State. Statewide risk assessments and administrative records for child welfare, juvenile justice, and adult corrections were analyzed. The sample was diverse (24 % female, 13 % African American, 8 % Hispanic, 5 % Native American) and included all moderate and high risk juvenile offenders screened by juvenile probation between 2004 and 2007 (n = 19,833). Official records from child protection were used to identify juvenile offenders with a history of child neglect and to identify juvenile offenders with an ongoing case of neglect. Event history models were developed to estimate the risk of subsequent offending. Adolescents with an ongoing case neglect were significantly more likely to continue offending as compared with youth with no official history of neglect. These findings remain even after controlling for a wide range of family, peer, academic, mental health, and substance abuse covariates. Interrupting trajectories of offending is a primary focus of juvenile justice. The findings of the current study indicate that ongoing dependency issues play a critical role in explaining the outcomes achieved for adolescents in juvenile justice settings. The implications for improved collaboration between child welfare and juvenile justice are discussed.
Lowder, Evan M; Desmarais, Sarah L; Baucom, Daniel J
Over the past decade, Mental Health Courts (MHCs) have spread rapidly across the U.S. These courts aim to reduce recidivism among adults with mental illnesses through diversion into community-based treatment. Extant research suggests that MHCs can be effective in reducing recidivism, but also demonstrates that effectiveness varies as a function of characteristics of the participants (e.g., criminal history) and the program (e.g., coercion). Less is known regarding the extent to which process-related factors (e.g., length of participation, time between referral and receipt of services) impact effectiveness. Prior research also is limited by a focus on recidivism during MHC as opposed to postexit. To address these knowledge gaps, we examined recidivism 1 year postexit for a group of MHC participants (n = 57) and offenders receiving treatment as usual (TAU; n = 40), total N = 97. We also investigated the influence of individual characteristics and process factors on changes in jail days 1 year preentry to 1 year postexit for MHC participants. Overall, results provide some evidence supporting the effectiveness of MHCs. MHC participants had significantly fewer jail days, but not charges or convictions, relative to TAU participants. Among MHC participants, graduation from the MHC, presence of co-occurring substance use, and longer length of MHC participation were associated with greater reductions in jail days. Other process factors were unrelated to reductions in recidivism. Findings suggest that MHCs may be particularly effective for high-risk participants and that time spent in a MHC has positive effects on recidivism, regardless of graduation status. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bani-Yaghoub, Majid; Fedoroff, J Paul; Curry, Susan; Amundsen, David E
For over half a century, various clinical and actuarial methods have been employed to assess the likelihood of violent recidivism. Yet there is a need for new methods that can improve the accuracy of recidivism predictions. This study proposes a new time series modeling approach that generates high levels of predictive accuracy over short and long periods of time. The proposed approach outperformed two widely used actuarial instruments (i.e., the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide). Furthermore, analysis of temporal risk variations based on specific time series models can add valuable information into risk assessment and management of violent offenders.
Kohn, P M; Annis, H M; Chan, D W
Thirty-four items concerning marijuana use were administered three times to a cohort of Canadian high school students between Grades 11 and 13, in 1977 (n = 439), 1978 (n = 419), and 1979 (n = 167). These items were designed to measure four distinct constructs: attitude, perceived peer approval or disapproval, concern about risks, and symbolic protest against conventional society. A cross-sectional factor analysis of the Grade 13 data supported the hypothesized factor structure, as had earlier work with college students. However, analogous analyses on the Grade 11 and Grade 12 data contradicted the hypothesized factor structure. Most notably, separate factors for positive and negative attitude appeared in the Grade 11 and 12 analyses. The data were interpreted primarily in terms of maturational changes, largely through elimination of alternative interpretations by internal analyses and previous findings. Implications were discussed for adolescent cognitive-attitudinal development, attitude theory, and analysis of panel data.
Full Text Available Poor mental health literacy and negative attitudes toward individuals with mental health disorders may impede optimal help-seeking for symptoms of mental ill-health. The present study examined the ability to recognize cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender, as well as individual psychological differences in attitudes toward persons with depression.In a representative British general population survey, the ability to correctly recognize vignettes of depression was assessed among 1,218 adults. Respondents also rated the vignettes along a number of attitudinal dimensions and completed measures of attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes.There were significant differences in the ability to correctly identify cases of depression as a function of respondent and target gender. Respondents were more likely to indicate that a male vignette did not suffer from a mental health disorder compared to a female vignette, and women were more likely than men to indicate that the male vignette suffered from a mental health disorder. Attitudes toward persons with depression were associated with attitudes toward seeking psychological help, psychiatric skepticism, and anti-scientific attitudes.Initiatives that consider the impact of gender stereotypes as well as individual differences may enhance mental health literacy, which in turn is associated with improved help-seeking behaviors for symptoms of mental ill-health.
Beth A. Lindsey
Full Text Available Recent publications have documented positive attitudinal shifts on the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS among students enrolled in courses with an explicit epistemological focus. We now report positive attitudinal shifts in classes using the Physics by Inquiry (PbI curriculum, which has only an implicit focus on student epistemologies and nature of science issues. These positive shifts have occurred in several different implementations of the curriculum, across multiple institutions and multiple semesters. In many classes, students experienced significant attitudinal shifts in the problem-solving categories of the CLASS, despite the conceptual focus of most PbI courses.
Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A
Accessibility is one of the most basic structural properties of an attitude and an important factor to consider in attitude strength. Despite its importance, relatively little work has examined the role of attitude accessibility in an inter-attitudinal context, particularly as it relates to the strength of related attitudes in the network. The present research examines accessibility as a property of one attitude (toward an abstract goal or end-state, that is, a value) that might influence the strength of a different but related attitude (toward a social policy conceptually related to the value). In Study 1, a highly accessible evaluative component of a value increased resistance to change of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Similarly, a manipulation of value accessibility (Studies 2 and 3) led to increased resistance of attitudes and behavioral intentions toward a social policy related to that value. Implications for the role of accessibility in inter-attitudinal strength are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Afari, Sarah Aba; Osei, Mavis; Adu-Agyem, Joe
Recidivism is on the increase as ex-convicts who are expected by the society to be reformed in prison and reintegrated to lead meaningful lives, only return to crime shortly after their release and find themselves back into prison in spite of the harsh punishment and counselling services received while incarcerated. The study aimed to identify the…
Keren Cuervo Gómez
Full Text Available Risk assessment in juvenile recidivism allows understanding the specific factors that drives the juvenile to the commission of offences. Most of these juveniles will have a punctual relation with the justice system and only a small percentage will persist in this type of conducts. However, it seems that society perceives these juveniles as high risk offenders with high rates of recidivism. Hence, with the aim to clarify this topic, the objective of this paper is to explore the general risk of recidivism and the areas with higher risk, examining the risk of recidivism in a follow up period. Participants in this research were juveniles with a criminal record in the Juvenile Court of Castellón (N = 210. The Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI was administered to the juveniles along the follow up period of two years. Results show a majoritary profile of low risk juveniles, and a punctual relation with justice, rejecting the belief of dangerousness on juvenile offenders. On the contrary, juvenile recidivists with long criminal trajectories are in fact characterized by a high risk that would increase throughout the follow up period.
Sung, Hung-En; Belenko, Steven
A subset of criminal offenders diverted from prison to treatment return to crime after successful completion of treatment. Identifying correlates of recidivism among treatment completers will improve our ability to help treated offenders to better capitalize on their treatment experiences. Data from 156 mandated clients of long-term residential…
Belenko, Steven; Foltz, Carol; Lang, Michelle A.; Sung, Hung-En
Recent interest in increasing access to substance abuse treatment for drug-involved offenders has been spurred by concerns over expanding prison and jail populations, high recidivism rates for drug-involved offenders, and the close link between illegal drug use and criminal activity. Chronic untreated drug and alcohol abuse is likely to result in…
Theurer, Gregory; Lovell, David
An intensive case management treatment program for mentally ill offenders (MIOs) is outlined, and subsequent recidivism of participants is evaluated. Features of the program and its development are discussed. Sixty-four (64) participants released from state prison between 1998 and 2003 were matched with a group of MIOs released earlier on eight…
Lutze, Faith E.; Bell, Cortney A.
A number of studies have tested the effectiveness of boot camp prisons in reducing recidivism and results indicate that they have not been as successful as originally anticipated. While no two programs are comparable in terms of programming and treatment, most programs utilize a hypermasculine paramilitary prison structure to deter, punish, and…
Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.
The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…
Walters, Glenn D.; Wilson, Nick J.; Glover, Anthony J. J.
In two previous studies on general and violent recidivism (Walters & Heilbrun, 2010; Walters, Knight, Grann, & Dahle, 2008), the summed composite antisocial facet of the Psychopathy Checklist displayed incremental validity relative to the other 3 facets (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle), whereas the other 3 facets generally failed to…
Cogburn, Helen E.
In 1988, a study was conducted by the J. F. Ingram State Technical College (ISTC) to determine recidivism rates for incarcerated individuals who earned a diploma and/or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate at ISTC during the years 1976 through 1986. The identification numbers of 2,844 students who had completed programs at ISTC were…
Wibbelink, C.J.M.; Hoeve, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Oort, F.J.
To investigate the association between mental disorders and recidivism in juveniles, a three-level meta-analysis of 20 manuscripts (17 independent studies, N = 5737 juveniles) was conducted. The study focused on internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and comorbid disorders (combinations
van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van der Laan, P.H.; Breuk, R.; Jongman, E.; Doreleijers, T.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment characteristics on recidivism in a forensic youth-psychiatric outpatient clinic. The treatment offered comprised functional family therapy (FFT), individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or CBT in combination with parent training.
Fowler, Drew R; Cantos, Arthur L; Miller, Steven A
The present study investigated the predictive utility of self-reported domestic violence perpetrators' exposure to violence in their family of origin and patterns related to this exposure through the use of longitudinal analyses on a sample of 228 men on probation in Lake County, Illinois. Differences in typology, recidivism, recidivism frequency, and violent behavior survival patterns in men with a history of domestic violence perpetration and with varying levels of family of origin violence exposure were examined. Findings suggest that those who witnessed interparental violence (either alone, or in combination with experiencing violence) were most likely to be classified as Generally Violent offenders (e.g., perpetrators who direct violence toward their family and others), compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. In addition, results also indicate that men who experienced both witnessing interparental violence and receiving physical abuse in childhood were more likely to recidivate more frequently compared to those who did not report experiencing or witnessing violence. No significant findings for typology and recidivism were noted. Clinical and policy/practice implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro
Although alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is regarded as a common indication for liver transplantation (LT), debatable issues exist on the requirement for preceding alcoholic abstinence, appropriate indication criteria, predictive factors for alcoholic recidivism, and outcomes following living-donor LT. In most institutions, an abstinence period of six months before LT has been adopted as a mandatory selection criterion. Data indicating that pre-transplant abstinence is an associated predictive factor for alcoholic recidivism supports the reasoning behind this. However, conclusive evidence about the benefit of adopting an abstinence period is yet to be established. On the other hand, a limited number of reports available on living-donor LT experiences for ALD patients suggest that organ donations from relatives have no suppressive effect on alcoholic recidivism. Prevention of alcoholic recidivism has proved to be the most important treatment after LT based on the resultant inferior long-term outcome of patients. Further evaluations are still needed to establish strategies before and after LT for ALD.
International Journal of Development and Management Review ... This development has challenged the practicality and feasibility of rehabilitation programmes in Nigerian prisons. ... Although the paper is basically a literature review, it supported and contributed to the body of existing knowledge on recidivism in Nigeria.
Hildebrand, M.; de Ruiter, C.; de Vogel, V.
This study examined the role of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991) and sexual deviance scores in predicting recidivism in a sample of 94 convicted rapists involuntarily admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital between 1975 and 1996. The predictive utility of
Jurisdictions in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia now have laws that enable preventive detention of post-sentence sex offenders based on an assessment of the offender's likely recidivism. Measures of recidivism, or risk assessments, rely on the criminal justice process to produce the "pool" of sex offenders studied. This article argues that recidivism research needs to be placed in the context of attrition studies that document the disproportionate and patterned attrition of sexual offenses and sexual offenders from the criminal justice process. Understanding the common biases that affect criminal prosecution of sex offenses would improve sexual violence prevention policies.
Dickinson, Heather O; Colver, Allan; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy
To develop an instrument to represent the availability of needed environmental features (EFs) in the physical, social and attitudinal environment of home, school and community for children with cerebral palsy....
van der Molen, Thys; Fletcher, Monica; Price, David
Asthma is a highly heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical phenotypes, and treatment may be tailored accordingly. However, factors beyond purely clinical traits, such as patient attitudes and behaviors, can also have a marked impact on treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to further analyze data from the REcognise Asthma and LInk to Symptoms and Experience (REALISE) Europe survey, to identify distinct patient groups sharing common attitudes toward asthma and its management. Factor analysis of respondent data (N = 7,930) from the REALISE Europe survey consolidated the 34 attitudinal variables provided by the study population into a set of 8 summary factors. Cluster analyses were used to identify patient clusters that showed similar attitudes and behaviors toward each of the 8 summary factors. Five distinct patient clusters were identified and named according to the key characteristics comprising that cluster: "Confident and self-managing," "Confident and accepting of their asthma," "Confident but dependent on others," "Concerned but confident in their health care professional (HCP)," and "Not confident in themselves or their HCP." Clusters showed clear variability in attributes such as degree of confidence in managing their asthma, use of reliever and preventer medication, and level of asthma control. The 5 patient clusters identified in this analysis displayed distinctly different personal attitudes that would require different approaches in the consultation room certainly for asthma but probably also for other chronic diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dreibelbis, Robert; Jenkins, Marion; Chase, Rachel P; Torondel, Belen; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas; Freeman, Matthew C
Over 1 billion people still practice open defecation. Low uptake and use of new sanitation technologies in a number of settings has underscored our current limited understanding of the complex attitudinal factors that influence a household's decision to adopt and use new sanitation technologies. Mokken scaling techniques were applied to series of population-based surveys in Odisha, India between September 2011 and October 2013 (sample sizes 120, 500, 2200). Surveys contained simple, agree/disagree statements about attitudes toward sanitation use and sanitation technologies. Analysis produced two scales-a 10-question General Scale, reflecting attitudes toward defecation and norms regarding latrine use for all respondents, and a 6-question Experiential Scale, reflecting personal experiences with and perceived convenience of sanitation technologies targeted at respondents with a latrine. Among all respondents, a one-point change in the General Scale was associated with a 5-percentage point change in the marginal probability of having access to a functioning latrine. Among respondents with a functional latrine at home, a one-point increase in the General and Experiential Scales were associated with a 4- and 8-percentage point decrease in the probability of engaging in any open defecation in the last 7 days, respectively.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...
Michael M. Hull
Full Text Available In this paper, we show data from the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey that suggests that Georgetown physics majors become increasingly expert in their attitudes towards physics learning and knowing after taking a course that combines two reformed curricula, Matter and Interactions (M&I and Tutorials in Introductory Physics (TIPs. This occurs even though the two curricula do not send a consistent epistemological message to students. We analyze interview video data of two of these students to illustrate examples of this growth. We examine video data of one of these students in a tutorial session to describe a possible mechanism that may have contributed to the growth. Finally, we compare this qualitative video data with quantitative data from the newly developed Perceptions of Physics Classes survey and discuss aggregate responses to this survey in considering the ways in which other students developed more expertlike attitudes in this course. We conclude that the attitudinal growth observed cannot be explained simply “as the result of” either M&I or of TIPs but rather find the most plausible explanation to be that the growth is an emergent phenomena produced by M&I and TIPs working together in concert with other factors.
Corapçioğlu, Aytül; Erdoğan, Sarper
The purpose of this study is to determine demographical characteristics leading to crime recidivism and define anger levels and anger expression manners for those who re-commit crime. All the literate inmates in Izmit Closed Penitentiary were included in this cross-sectional study. The prisoners were asked to respond to State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Their socio-demographic data were collected and a questionnaire was given to them to determine their state of imprisonment, sentence, nature of the crime in which they were involved, their criminal history, their relationship with inmates and prison staff and substance and alcohol use. Of the 438 prisoners, 302 (68.9%) responded to the questionnaires. Crime recidivism among the study cohort was observed to be 37.4%. Mean trait anger, anger out and anger in scores were significantly higher in prisoners with criminal recidivism in comparison with those who did not have prior criminal records. However, mean anger control scores for prisoners with or without criminal recidivism were similar. Unemployment, education level completed at secondary school or below, having committed a crime under the influence of alcohol or narcotics, having been involved in prison fights, having resisted police officers, caused damage in their vicinity when angry and violent crimes were all found to be possible causes of criminal recidivism. Educational level completed at secondary school or below, getting into fights with other prisoners, unemployment and resisting police officers were determined to be the strongest indicators to predict criminal recidivism when all variables were considered according to a logistic regression model. It can be proposed that those who have problems with officials or hostile towards others constitute a risk group for criminal recidivism. If prisoners with criminal recidivism can be helped to identify and control their anger, their risk of committing a new crime can be minimised.
Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan
Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice
Full Text Available Tobacco is a major preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality. Health professionals are uniquely positioned to provide targeted interventions and should be empowered to provide cessation counselling that influence patient smoking. A cross-sectional national survey was administered to all third year students in four disciplines at the University of Malta. The Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire was distributed to collect standardised demographic, smoking prevalence, behavioural, and attitudinal data. 81.9% completed the questionnaire (n = 173/211. A positive significant association between tobacco smoke exposure at home and current smoking status was identified. Non-smokers regarded anti-tobacco policies more favourably than smokers, being more likely to agree with banning of tobacco sales to adolescents (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.5–5.3; p ≤ 0.001; and with a smoking ban in all public places (OR 8.9; 95% CI: 6.1–13.1; p ≤ 0.001. Non-smokers favoured a role for health professionals in promoting smoking cessation (OR 5.1; 95% CI: 3.1–8.5; p ≤ 0.001. Knowledge of antidepressants as tools for smoking cessation was also associated with a perceived role for skilled health professionals in cessation counselling (OR 4.9; 95% CI: 1.8–13.3; p = 0.002. Smoking negatively influences beliefs and attitudes of students toward tobacco control. There is a need to adopt a standard undergraduate curriculum containing comprehensive tobacco prevention and cessation training to improve their effectiveness as role models.
Najmi, Sadia; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Chen, Diyu; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
: The Personal Attitude Scale (PAS; Hooley, 2000) is a method that is under development for identifying individuals high in Expressed Emotion based on personality traits of inflexibility, intolerance, and norm-forming. In the current study, the goal was to measure the association between this maternal attitudinal inflexibility, early hostile or disrupted mother-infant interactions, and hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child. In a prospective longitudinal study of 76 low-income mothers and their infants, it was predicted that maternal PAS scores, assessed at child age 20, would be related to difficulties in early observed mother-infant interaction and to hostile-aggressive behavioral difficulties in the child. Results indicated that maternal difficulties in interacting with the infant in the laboratory were associated with maternal PAS scores assessed 20 years later. Hostile-aggressive behavior problems in the child at age five were also predictive of PAS scores of mothers. However, contrary to prediction, these behavior problems did not mediate the association between mother-infant interaction difficulties and maternal PAS scores, indicating that the child's hostile-aggressive behavior problems did not produce the link between quality of early interaction and later maternal attitudinal inflexibility. The current results validate the PAS against observable mother-child interactions and child hostile-aggressive behavior problems and indicate the importance of future work investigating the maternal attitudes that are associated with, and may potentially precede, parent-infant interactive difficulties. These findings regarding the inflexible attitudes of mothers whose interactions with their infants are also disrupted have important clinical implications. First, once the stability of the PAS has been established, this measure may offer a valuable screening tool for the prenatal identification of parents at risk for difficult interactions with their children
Papp, Jordan; Campbell, Christina; Onifade, Eyitayo; Anderson, Valerie; Davidson, William; Foster, Dawn
Understanding the criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs of juvenile drug offenders is important because of the myriad negative outcomes that befall juveniles that are involved in drugs. A widely used juvenile risk assessment tool, the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) was utilized to explore criminogenic risk factors and treatment needs to predict recidivism. Demographic differences between drug and nondrug offenders were also examined. Results ...
Lachman, M; Brzek, A; Mellan, J; Hampl, R; Starka, L; Motlik, K
The case of recidivous sexual offender with genetically caused mental retardation and primary hypogonadism (Klinefelter's syndrome with karyotype 48, XXXY) is described. He was examined after sadistic abuse of a boy aged 13 that he had committed 19 years after performed testicular pulpectomy. Plasmatic level of testosterone was found 4x higher than mean level in men after orchidectomy. Histological examination of residual scrotal tissues proved that the source of androgens were hyperplastic nodules of extratesticular Leydig cells.
C. J. de Gara
Full Text Available Abstract. Weight recidivism in bariatric surgery failure is multifactorial. It ranges from inappropriate patient selection for primary surgery to technical/anatomic issues related to the original surgery. Most bariatric surgeons and centers focus on primary bariatric surgery while weight recidivism and its complications are very much secondary concerns. Methods. We report on our initial experience having established a dedicated weight recidivism and revisional bariatric surgery clinic. A single surgeon, dedicated nursing, dieticians, and psychologist developed care maps, goals of care, nonsurgical candidate rules, and discharge planning strategies. Results. A single year audit (2012 of clinical activity revealed 137 patients, with a mean age 49 ± 10.1 years (6 years older on average than in our primary clinic, 75% of whom were women with BMI 47 ± 11.5. Over three quarters had undergone a vertical band gastroplasty while 15% had had a laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Only 27% of those attending clinic required further surgery. As for primary surgery, the role of the obesity expert clinical psychologist was a key component to achieving successful revision outcomes. Conclusion. With an exponential rise in obesity and a concomitant major increase in bariatric surgery, an inevitable increase in revisional surgery is becoming a reality. Anticipating this increase in activity, Alberta Health Services, Alberta, Canada, has established a unique and dedicated clinic whose early results are promising.
Collins, Susan E; Lonczak, Heather S; Clifasefi, Seema L
Drug users and dealers frequently cycle through the criminal justice system in what is sometimes referred to as a "revolving door." Arrest, incarceration and prosecution have not deterred this recidivism. Seattle's Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program was established to divert these individuals to case management and supportive services instead of jail and prosecution. A nonrandomized controlled evaluation was conducted to examine LEAD effects on criminal recidivism (i.e., arrests, criminal charges). The sample included 318 people suspected of low-level drug and prostitution activity in downtown Seattle: 203 received LEAD, and 115 experienced the system-as-usual control condition. Analyses were conducted using logistic generalized estimating equation models over both the shorter term (i.e., six months prior and subsequent to evaluation entry) and longer term (i.e., two years prior to the LEAD start date through July 2014). Compared to controls, LEAD participants had 60% lower odds of arrest during the six months subsequent to evaluation entry; and both a 58% lower odds of arrest and 39% lower odds of being charged with a felony over the longer term. These statistically significant differences in arrests and felony charges for LEAD versus control participants indicated positive effects of the LEAD program on recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mulder, Eva; Brand, Eddy; Bullens, Ruud; Van Marle, Hjalmar
There has been a lot of research on risk factors for recidivism among juvenile offenders, in general, and on individual risk factors, but less focus on subgroups of serious juvenile offenders and prediction of recidivism within these. To find an optimal classification of risk items and to test the predictive value of the resultant factors with respect to severity of recidivism among serious juvenile offenders. Seventy static and dynamic risk factors in 1154 juvenile offenders were registered with the Juvenile Forensic Profile. Recidivism data were collected on 728 of these offenders with a time at risk of at least 2 years. After factor analysis, independent sample t-tests were used to indicate differences between recidivists and non-recidivists. Logistic multiple linear regression analyses were used to test the potential predictive value of the factors for violent or serious recidivism. A nine-factor solution best accounted for the data. The factors were: antisocial behaviour during treatment, sexual problems, family problems, axis-1 psychopathology, offence characteristics, conscience and empathy, intellectual and social capacities, social network, and substance abuse. Regression analysis showed that the factors antisocial behaviour during treatment, family problems and axis-1 psychopathology were associated with seriousness of recidivism. The significance of family problems and antisocial behaviour during treatments suggest that specific attention to these factors may be important in reducing recidivism. The fact that antisocial behaviour during treatment consists mainly of dynamic risk factors is hopeful as these can be influenced by treatment. Consideration of young offenders by subgroup rather than as a homogenous population is likely to yield the best information about risk of serious re-offending and the management of that risk.
Full Text Available The article explores the occurrence and frequency of use of attitudinal judgement in British advertisement texts. Judgement, as one of the main attitudinal categories in the discourse-semantic appraisal model (Martin and White 2005, is concerned with the evaluation of human character and behaviour. The article focuses on the judgement categories of capability and propriety, as the research described concludes that they are the most frequently occurring of the judgement categories. Some typical instances encoding capability and propriety are discussed in terms of explicit and implicit manifestation. The article demonstrates that capability and propriety often participate in attitudinal double-coding due to the brevity of advertising texts and the creativity of advertising language. Capability and propriety are strongly socially motivated: they impose values upon the potential consumer, and hence upon society, and through them create social roles for the participants in the advertising interaction.
Quinton, Melanie C
This paper uses a case study to examine attitudinal barriers to employment and underemployment. We follow the career path of PR, a woman with multiple physical impairments, as she seeks financial independence through several employment strategies. In these, she faced attitudinal barriers and employment situations without opportunity for advancement. Eventually, PR opens her own business, turning to an alternative loan program to acquire the funds necessary to purchase a ready-made vehicle that matches her needs for accessible transportation. Use of this vehicle to provide delivery services for her business has more than doubled her income.
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Watson, William R.; Janakiraman, Shamila; Richardson, Jennifer
This case study examined a team of instructors' use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance in a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) on Animal Behaviour and Welfare (ABW), designed to facilitate attitudinal learning. The study reviewed a team of six instructors' use of social presence and teaching presence by applying the…
Chuan Huat Ong
Full Text Available Brand trust is a powerful asset for Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs to retain good relationships with their loyal customers, to ensure their long term survival. However, SME managers first need to understand the consequences of the two unique emotional and rational components of trust on attitudinal and behavioral loyalty, because both loyalty dimensions have unique consequences for a brand’s performance. Hence, this study aims to answer two research issues: (1 Do brand intentions and brand reliability influence both attitudinal loyalty and behavioral loyalty? (2 Which component of trust explains attitudinal and behavioral loyalty more? Data were obtained from 210 customers through the use of an intercept survey method on successful SME brands in the restaurant industry. The findings revealed that emotional and rational trust influenced both attitudinal and behavioral loyalty. Despite that, customers have a higher tendency to exhibit attitudinal and behavioral loyalty when a brand can be relied upon to deliver on its promises.
Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.
Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R
In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Abstract Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisoc...
Technology engages and increases academic achievement for K-5 students, but teachers face attitudinal, social/cultural, and pedagogical barriers when they integrate technology for student learning. Although some teachers overcome these barriers, it remains unclear how they do so. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to analyze…
Nyenje, Aida; Nkata, James
This paper establishes the extent to which attitudinal variables affect the education reforms and subsequently the quality of primary education in Uganda. The paper is based on the views of a wide spectrum of different education stakeholders including: policy analysts, Members of Parliament (MPs), education officers, Headteachers, teaching staff,…
Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn
Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Kim, Woori
This study examines learner enrolment purposes, perceptions on instructional activities and their relationship to learning gains in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. Using an author-developed survey, learners reported their perceptions on instructional activities and learning gains within the…
Shriner, Michael; Schlee, Bethanne; Hamil, Melissa; Libler, Rebecca
As part of an on-going project designed to impact teacher quality at the pre-service, induction, and professional development levels, this paper summarizes the parametric results of a series of four different workshops conducted in the summer of 2007. In an effort to glean a better understanding of their knowledge, attitudinal, perceptual, and…
Aline Sarturi Ponte
Full Text Available The present study addresses a discussion on attitudinal accessibility, which is a very important resource to assist disabled people in exercising their citizenship. The study aims to develop a reflection on how people with disabilities and without disabilities perceive, face and/or understand attitudinal barriers. It is a qualitative research by means of focus group interventions. Two groups were organized for data collection: one consisted of people with disabilities and the other of those without disabilities. The groups were organized at the beginning of the school semester of 2012. Information was collected from a script with questions. For better presentation of the group discussions, three categories were created: one for the group of disabled people and two for the group of non-disabled people. During the study, it was possible to observe that architectural barriers are the major problem faced by people with disabilities, attitudinal barriers are not visible as physical barriers, most often, they are unconscious and difficult to be recognized by those who practice them. It is considered that ignorance is the basis for the advancement of attitudinal barriers, and the occupational therapist is the professional who, in addition to working on the strengths and skills of disabled people, will also stimulate social integration, respecting the subjectivity of each individual and the context in which they are inserted.
Crnić Katarina B.
Full Text Available Introduction: Opiate dependence is a serious, chronic and recurrent psychiatric disorder, whose prevalence reach epidemic proportions. This also contributes to a significant increase in mortality, associated with overdose with opiates, as well as the rise in other health and social problems of the society. The methods and availability of treatment do not correspond to increased treatment needs, and treatment success is limited by the characteristics of the disorder, or numerous risk factors, which contribute to a high percentage of recidivism. Good clinical practice guidelines have defined treatment recommendations that include high and low-demanding programs. The personalized and integrative approaches are emphasized. Case report: The patient aged 41 years, intravenous-use opiate addict from his adolescences, with numerous psychological, health and social complications of addiction, is a participant in institutional treatment, following a court order as a measure of obligatory treatment, due to criminal offenses related to addiction. The history of the disease refers to numerous unsuccessful attempts to heal and short-term abstinence in the past, mainly in penal institutions. The patient meets all the criteria defined by the guidelines for inclusion in the buprenorphine maintenance program started in the year 2013. During the four-year treatment, the doses of the drug were adapted as needed; two heroin relapses and many in-risk situations for relapse were registered. The treatment continued with close monitoring of the patient's condition and, with appropriate psychosocial interventions, contribute to keeping the patient in treatment and preventing the development of new complications of addiction, as well an improving the quality of his life. Discussion: Pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence relies on agents belonging to groups of antagonists, agonists and partial agonists of opiate receptors. The earlier programs with abstinence as a
Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; McCoy, M; Greenberg, D M; Curry, S; Larose, M R
One hundred ninety-two convicted extrafamilial child molesters were followed for an average of 7.8 years after their conviction. The percentage of men who had committed a sexual, a violent, or any criminal offense by the 12th year was 15.1, 20.3, and 41.6, respectively. The sexual recidivists, compared with the nonrecidivists; demonstrated more problems with alcohol and showed greater sexual arousal to assaultive stimuli involving children than to mutually consenting stimuli with children. The violent recidivists, compared with the nonrecidivists, were more likely to have a history of violence in the families in which they were raised and were rated significantly more psychopathic on the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R). They also showed more sexual arousal to stimuli depicting mutually consenting sexual interactions with children than to adult stimuli. In terms of any criminal recidivism, recidivists were younger, had completed fewer years of school, and were raised in psychologically more harmful family environments compared with nonrecidivists. They also reported that, before 16 years of age, they were more likely to have been physically abused and were more likely to have been removed from their homes compared to those that did not recidivate. In addition, recidivists demonstrated more general hostility on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and were rated significantly more psychopathic on the PCL-R. The phallometric assessments revealed, that the criminal recidivists, compared to the nonrecidivists, showed more sexual arousal to stimuli depicting coercive sexual activity with children than consenting sexual activities with children. In addition, they showed more sexual arousal to scenes depicting adult rape then adult mutually consenting sex. Finally, the recidivists also had more charges or convictions for violence and any criminal acts. The small number of significant differences between recidivists and nonrecidivists in the sexual and violent
Franklin, Glen A; Pucci, Pamela S; Arbabi, Saman; Brandt, Mary-Margaret; Wahl, Wendy L; Taheri, Paul A
In 1999, we developed the multidisciplinary Trauma Burn Outreach Prevention Program (TBOPP), which focuses on the medical and societal consequences of firesetting behavior. The basis for this program development was a 17% increase in pediatric burn admissions. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of this trauma burn center prevention program from a financial, clinical, and recidivism perspective. Juveniles (ages 4-17 years) were enrolled into our 1-day program on the basis of referrals from the county court system, fire departments, schools, and parents. The program's interactive content focuses on the medical, financial, legal, and societal impact of firesetting behavior, with emphasis on individual accountability and responsibility. The court system and fire departments tracked all episodes of firesetting behavior within their respective communities. Arson is defined as behavior with the intent to produce damage, whereas firesetting is defined as having no ill intent. The recidivism rate was determined using fire department and court follow-up records. Follow-up was from 8 months to 2.5 years. A random control group that did not receive TBOPP education (noTBOPP group) with identical entry criteria was used for comparison. Institutional review board approval was obtained. There were 132 juveniles in the TBOPP group (66 arsonists and 66 firesetters) and 102 juveniles in the noTBOPP group (33 arsonists and 66 firesetters). Fifty-nine TBOPP participants had a medical history of behavioral disorders. Property damage for arson averaged $4,040, with additional court costs of $1,135 per incident. Family environment was an independent predictor for risk of repeat offense. The odds ratio for risk of repeat offense in foster care was 17.9 (p < 0.05) as compared with two-parent homes. The recidivism rate was 1 of 32 (<1%) for the TBOPP group and 37 of 102 (36%) for the noTBOPP group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.02; p < 0.001). When compared with the noTBOPP group
Dibbets, Pauline; Adolphs, Laura; Close, Ingeborg; Herings, Anke; Kiggen, Maiken; Kinneging, Maaike; Loffler, Leonie; Nijssen, Yonne; Schulte-Ostermann, Michel; van Schaaik, Patrick
Abstract: Problem statement: Research has shown that both positive and negative information can alter a neutral attitude towards an unknown person, with negative information having, in general, a larger impact. Though this positive-negative asymmetry has received considerable attention, it has, to
Lehmann, Robert J B; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Hanson, R Karl; Dahle, Klaus-Peter
The aim of the current study was to enhance the assessment and predictive accuracy of risk assessments for sexual offenders by utilizing detailed crime scene analysis (CSA). CSA was conducted on a sample of 247 male acquaintance rapists from Berlin (Germany) using a nonmetric, multidimensional scaling (MDS) Behavioral Thematic Analysis (BTA) approach. The age of the offenders at the time of the index offense ranged from 14 to 64 years (M = 32.3; SD = 11.4). The BTA procedure revealed three behavioral themes of hostility, criminality, and pseudo-intimacy, consistent with previous CSA research on stranger rape. The construct validity of the three themes was demonstrated through correlational analyses with known sexual offending measures and criminal histories. The themes of hostility and pseudo-intimacy were significant predictors of sexual recidivism. In addition, the pseudo-intimacy theme led to a significant increase in the incremental validity of the Static-99 actuarial risk assessment instrument for the prediction of sexual recidivism. The results indicate the potential utility and validity of crime scene behaviors in the applied risk assessment of sexual offenders. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M
Hormonal factors are important in multifactorial theories of sexual offending. The relationship between hormones and aggression in nonhumans is well established, but the putative effect in humans is more complex, and the direction of the effect is usually unclear. In this study, a large sample (N = 771) of adult male sex offenders was assessed between 1982 and 1996. Gonadotrophic (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and androgen hormone (total and free testosterone; T) levels were assessed at Time 1, along with indicators of sex drive and hostility. Individuals were observed up to 20 years in the community, with an average time at risk of 10.9 years (SD 4.6). Gonadotrophic hormones correlated positively with self-reported hostility and were better predictors of recidivism than was T (area under the curve (AUC), 0.58-0.63). Self-reported hostility emerged as a partial mediator of this relationship between gonadotrophic hormones and recidivism. These results point to a potentially new area of investigation for hormones and sexual aggression.
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Zahnd, Elaine
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss how case management can decrease recidivism for people with serious mental illness (SMI) because people with SMI are at high risk for incarceration and recidivism. Design/methodology/approach Examples of successful case management models for formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI found through a secondary analysis of qualitative data and an analysis of the literature are presented. Findings Currently, no international, national, or statewide guidelines exist to ensure that formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI receive case management upon community reentry despite evidence that such services can prevent further criminal justice involvement. Recommendations include establishment of and evaluation of best practices for case management. In addition, the authors recommend additional funding for case management with the goal of greatly increasing the number of individuals with SMI leaving the criminal justice system in their ability to access adequate case management. Originality/value Providing effective case management tailored to the needs of formerly incarcerated people with SMI improves their quality of life and reduces their involvement in the criminal justice system with clear positive outcomes for public safety and public health.
Full Text Available Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use.Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE analysis was used.We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95 was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention.The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism.
Cordovilla-Guardia, Sergio; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F; Portillo-Santamaría, Mónica; Rico-Martín, Sergio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo
Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used. We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41-0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention. The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism.
Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique; Vilar-López, Raquel; Navas, Juan F.; Portillo-Santamaría, Mónica; Rico-Martín, Sergio; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo
Objective Estimate the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing trauma recidivism in hospitalized trauma patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use. Methods Dynamic cohort study based on registry data from 1818 patients included in a screening and brief intervention program for alcohol and illicit drug use for hospitalized trauma patients. Three subcohorts emerged from the data analysis: patients who screened negative, those who screened positive and were offered brief intervention, and those who screened positive and were not offered brief intervention. Follow-up lasted from 10 to 52 months. Trauma-free survival, adjusted hazard rate ratios (aHRR) and adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) were calculated, and complier average causal effect (CACE) analysis was used. Results We found a higher cumulative risk of trauma recidivism in the subcohort who screened positive. In this subcohort, an aHRR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41–0.95) was obtained for the group offered brief intervention compared to the group not offered intervention. CACE analysis yielded an estimated 52% reduction in trauma recidivism associated with the brief intervention. Conclusion The brief intervention offered during hospitalization in trauma patients positive for alcohol and/or illicit drug use can halve the incidence of trauma recidivism. PMID:28813444
Dodson, Kimberly D.; Cabage, Leann N.; Klenowski, Paul M.
Faith-based organizations administer many of the prison-based programs aimed at reducing recidivism. Many of these organizations also manage treatment programs for substance abusers, at-risk juveniles, and ex-offenders. Much of the research on religiosity and delinquency indicates that the two are inversely related. Therefore, it seems plausible…
Loza, Wagdy; Loza-Fanous, Amel; Heseltine, Karen
Two studies were conducted to investigate the vulnerability of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) to deception and self-presentation biases. The SAQ is a self-report measure used to predict recidivism and guide institutional and program assignments. In the first study, comparisons were made between 429 volunteer offenders who completed the SAQ…
Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.
Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…
Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T
Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
van der Put, C.E.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Moonen, X.M.H.
Background Juvenile offenders with intellectual disability (ID) have been largely ignored in the literature of risk assessment, while they are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, and ID is a risk factor for juvenile delinquency and recidivism. The aim of this study was to examine whether
Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Gerstle, Melissa; Maclean, Peggy C.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious forensic and clinical problem throughout the United States. Research aimed at defining and differentiating subgroups of IPV offenders using standardized personality instruments may eventually help with matching treatments to specific individuals to reduce recidivism. The current study used a convenience…
Bernard Nassiuma; Jamin Masasabi; Denyse Snelder; Anne Nangulu
This study was anchored on a postpositivism paradigm and the Theory of perceived attributes and individual innovativeness, regarding the multiple serial mediations of attitudinal and behavioral competencies in the relationship between the entrepreneurs’ experience and firm innovativeness. To test the hypothesized relationship a cross-sectional design and qualitative approach were employed. The study drew on a sample of 698 Micro and Small-scale entrepreneurs in Western Kenya. Questionnaires ...
Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad
The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand
Castrup, W.; Schlueter, B.; Wedell, J.; Banzhaf, G.
On a patient collective of 19 with recurrent rectal carcinomas following previous resection and one patient with tumor recidivation after local excision of a villiferous adenoma, the demonstration of the different intra and extraluminal tumor infiltration paths by means of CAT scanning is investigated. After thorough cleaning of the intestine and additional application of a contrast enema using a watery contrast medium it is even possible to demonstrate tumor stenoses or a circumscribed thickening of the intestinal wall. With the majority of patients the tumor extends mainly outside the region of the anastomosis in the perirectal area. Early diagnosis of such perirectal infiltration therefore is decisive for the further treatment. As the possibilities of X-ray investigations of the colon and endoscopy for judging the extraluminal growth are limited, CAT scanning is an essential method in tumor aftercare.
Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Wildeman, Christopher
Objectives: Use a unique dataset to pair probation and parole officers and their clients in Denmark in 2002-2009 to identify causal effects of these officers on labor market outcomes and recidivism. Methods: To identify these effects, we rely on data from all probationers and parolees in Copenhagen......, where a rotational assignment process randomizes clients to officers. We apply OLS models to test whether the inclusion of probation and parole officer fixed effects improves model fit, and we show the impact of officer fixed effects by generating predicted values for one individual, varying only...... the officer. Results: The first stage of the analysis shows that the assignment of a probation or parole officer is indeed random in Copenhagen—at least in regards to the vast majority of background characteristics—suggesting that we are able to identify causal effects of probationer and parolee assignment...
Budd, Kristen M; Mancini, Christina
In the United States, electronic monitoring (EM) and global positioning systems (GPS) are new applications that are used to extensively monitor and track convicted sex offenders. What is unclear though are public perceptions of this strategy. This research examines public perceptions of a national sample of Americans on the use of GPS/EM with convicted sex offenders as a method to reduce their sexual recidivism. Using a multinomial regression model, we analyze the effects of sex offender myths and parental status on public perceptions that sex offender GPS/EM is very effective in reducing sexual recidivism. Findings suggest that public perceptions of effectiveness are partially driven by myths and also that parents are unsure of this strategy. The analysis contributes to the growing body of knowledge on public perceptions of GPS/EM to manage sex offenders in communities. Implications of the study and areas for future research are discussed in light of the findings.
Burraston, Bert O; Cherrington, David J; Bahr, Stephen J
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive training and cell phone intervention on the recidivism of 70 juvenile offenders. Median days to rearrest were 106 for the control group, 191 for the class-only group, and 278 for the class plus cell phone group. Using rearrest as the survival criterion, the survival ratios of the class-only and class plus cell phone groups were 2.64 and 2.94 times longer than the control group, respectively. After controlling for gender, prior arrests, and risk score, the Poisson regression indicated that the class-only and class plus cell phone groups were 51% lower in total arrests than the control group. These results suggest that cognitive training supplemented with a cell phone coach is an effective and cost-efficient intervention for reducing recidivism.
Giallo, Rebecca; Dunning, Melissa; Gent, Angela
To (a) identify attitudinal barriers to help-seeking for mental health difficulties among fathers of young children; (b) explore the relationships between perceived barriers to help-seeking and mental health difficulties (i.e. depressive, anxiety, stress symptoms); (c) identify socio-demographic factors associated with barriers to help-seeking; and (d) identify fathers' preferences for mental health support. One in 10 Australian fathers experience mental health difficulties in the early parenting period. Low rates of help-seeking and under-utilisation of health care services are key issues for the provision of mental health support to fathers at this important life stage. The sample consisted of 154 fathers of young children (aged 0-8 years) participating in an Australian online survey on parent wellbeing and parenting. The Barriers to Help-Seeking Scale assessed fathers' attitudinal barriers to help-seeking for mental health support. Socio-demographic factors related to fathers' employment, education, and family composition were assessed. The most common attitudinal barriers to help-seeking were: (a) the need for control and self-reliance in managing one's own problems, (b) a tendency to downplay or minimise problems, and (c) a sense of resignation that nothing will help. A range of demographic (i.e. age, educational attainment) factors were associated with these barriers. The most common preferences for support were internet-based information resources, followed by support provided by general practitioners and maternal child health nurses. These findings have important implications for health promotion, health services and clinical approaches to promoting the health and wellbeing of fathers.
Recker, W.W.; Stevens, R.F.
Market-segmentation techniques are used to capture effects of opportunity and availability constraints on urban residents' choice of mode for trips for major grocery shopping and for visiting friends and acquaintances. Attitudinal multinomial logit choice models are estimated for each market segment. Explanatory variables are individual's beliefs about attributes of four modal alternatives: bus, car, taxi and walking. Factor analysis is employed to identify latent dimensions of perception of the modal alternatives and to eliminate problems of multicollinearity in model estimation.
Sapp, S.G.; Harrod, W.J.; Zhao, L.J.
The effects of eleven social demographic and attitudinal variables on four measures of acceptance of food irradiation were evaluated in a laboratory experiment. Subjects were presented with balanced information on food irradiation and allowed to discuss the process to simulate the effects of word-of-mouth on acceptance. Trust in government and industry was found to be the most important predictor of all four dependent variables, including participation on a taste panel for irradiated chicken meat. Implications of the findings for consumer education are presented
Lee, Jieun; Lee, Mira; Choi, In Hyok
This study explores motivations for playing games on social network sites as well as attitudinal and behavioral outcomes of those motivations. A total of 324 college students in the United States participated in an online survey. Found were the six motivations for playing social network games (SNG): social interaction, self-presentation, fantasy/role playing, passing time/escapism, entertainment, and challenge/competition. Further, the findings demonstrated that different types of motivations influenced attitudes toward playing SNG and intentions to engage in different social network gaming activities differentially.
Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W
In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Rezansoff, Stefanie N; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Clark, Elenore; Somers, Julian M
The majority of Drug Treatment Court (DTC) research has examined the impact of DTCs on criminal recidivism. Comparatively little research has addressed the association between DTC participation and engagement with community-based health and social services. The present study investigated changes in participant involvement with outpatient healthcare and income assistance within a DTC cohort. We hypothesized that involvement with community-based (outpatient) health and social services would increase post-DTC participation, and that service levels would be higher among program graduates and offenders with histories of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. Participants were 631 offenders at the DTC in Vancouver, Canada (DTCV). Administrative data representing hospital, outpatient medical care, and income assistance were examined one-year pre/post program to assess differences over time. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate the association between changes in service use and program involvement. We also examined the relationship between level of service use and offender characteristics. Members of the cohort were disproportionately Aboriginal (33 %), had been sentenced 2.7 times in the 2 years preceding their index offence, and 50 % had been diagnosed with a non substance-related mental disorder in the five years preceding the index offence. The mean number of outpatient services post DTCV was 51, and the mean amount of social assistance paid was $5,897. Outpatient service use increased following exposure to DTCV (Adjusted Rate Ratio (ARR) = 1.45) and was significantly higher among women (ARR = 1.47), program graduation (ARR = 1.23), and those previously diagnosed with concurrent substance use and mental disorders (ARR = 4.92). Overall, hospital admissions did not increase post-program, although rates were significantly higher among women (ARR = 1.76) and those with concurrent disorders (ARR = 2.71). Income
Dickinson, Heather O; Colver, Allan
To develop an instrument to represent the availability of needed environmental features (EFs) in the physical, social and attitudinal environment of home, school and community for children with cerebral palsy. Following a literature review and qualitative studies, the European Child Environment Questionnaire (ECEQ) was developed to capture whether EFs needed by children with cerebral palsy were available to them: 24, 24 and 12 items related to the physical, social and attitudinal environments, respectively. The ECEQ was administered to parents of 818 children with cerebral palsy aged 8-12 years, in seven European countries. A domain structure was developed using factor analysis. Parents responded to 98% of items. Seven items were omitted from statistical models as the EFs they referred to were available to most children who needed them; two items were omitted as they did not fit well into plausible domains. The final domains, based on 51 items, were: Transport, Physical - home, Physical - community, Physical - school, Social support - home, Social support - community, Attitudes - family and friends, Attitudes - teachers and therapists, Attitudes - classmates. ECEQ was acceptable to parents and can be used to assess both the access children with cerebral palsy have to the EFs that they need and how available individual EFs are.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and eating-related attitudes from the standpoint of self and friends. Of participants who cared about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (fewer fruits and vegetables and more sugary beverages per day) than those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating. Conversely, among participants who did not care about healthy eating, those who perceived that their friends cared about healthy eating had lower well-being and less-healthy eating behaviors (more snacks per day) than those who perceived that their friends did not care about healthy eating. In accord with balance theory, young adults who perceived inconsistent eating attitudes between themselves and their friends had lower psychological well-being and generally less-healthy eating behaviors than people who perceived consistent eating attitudes. PMID:24587589
Zometa, Carlos S; Dedrick, Robert; Knox, Michael D; Westhoff, Wayne; Siri, Rodrigo Simán; Debaldo, Ann
An instrument developed in the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and four attitudinal dimensions (Peer Pressure, Abstinence, Drug Use, and Threat of HIV Infection) and an instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. (1999) to measure abstinence and condom use were translated, cross-culturally adapted, and validated for use with Spanish-speaking high school students in El Salvador. A back-translation of the English version was cross-culturally adapted using two different review panels and pilot-tested with Salvadorian students. An expert panel established content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis provided support for construct validity. Results indicated that the methodology was successful in cross-culturally adapting the instrument developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the instrument developed by Basen-Engquist et al. The psychometric properties of the knowledge section were acceptable and there was partial support for the four-factor attitudinal model underlying the CDC instrument and the two-factor model underlying the Basen-Engquist et al. instrument. Additional studies with Spanish-speaking populations (either in the United States or Latin America) are needed to evaluate the generalizability of the present results.
Berenji, Bijan; Chou, Tom; D'Orsogna, Maria R.
Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of “carrot and stick” intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications. PMID:24454884
Khachatryan, Norair; Heide, Kathleen M; Hummel, Erich V
Although juvenile homicide has been a matter of concern in the United States since the 1980s, prior research has not addressed long-term recidivism patterns for convicted juvenile murderers. Furthermore, a prominent juvenile homicide typology had not previously been tested with U.S. offenders. The present study examined whether juvenile offenders who killed or attempted to kill during the commission of a crime differed from those who killed due to some type of conflict on pre-incarceration, incarceration, and post-incarceration variables. These offenders were sentenced to adult prison in the early 1980s. Follow-up data spanned 30 years. The results indicated that approximately 88% of released offenders have been rearrested. Analyses of pre-incarceration variables revealed that crime-oriented offenders were significantly more likely to commit the homicide offense using accomplices than conflict-oriented offenders, and the latter were significantly more likely to use a firearm during the homicide incident. The circumstances of the homicide, however, were not significantly related to any other pre-incarceration variables, release from prison, number of post-release arrests, and number of post-release violent offenses. The implications of the findings, their comparability to previous follow-up research on this typology, and avenues for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Motivated by recent efforts by the criminal justice system to treat and rehabilitate nonviolent offenders rather than focusing solely on their punishment, we introduce an evolutionary game theoretic model to study the effects of "carrot and stick" intervention programs on criminal recidivism. We use stochastic simulations to study the evolution of a population where individuals may commit crimes depending on their past history, surrounding environment and, in the case of recidivists, on any counseling, educational or training programs available to them after being punished for their previous crimes. These sociological factors are embodied by effective parameters that determine the decision making probabilities. Players may decide to permanently reform or continue engaging in criminal activity, eventually reaching a state where they are considered incorrigible. Depending on parameter choices, the outcome of the game is a society with a majority of virtuous, rehabilitated citizens or incorrigibles. Since total resources may be limited, we constrain the combined punishment and rehabilitation costs per crime to be fixed, so that increasing one effort will necessarily decrease the other. We find that the most successful strategy in reducing crime is to optimally allocate resources so that after being punished, criminals experience impactful intervention programs, especially during the first stages of their return to society. Excessively harsh or lenient punishments are less effective. We also develop a system of coupled ordinary differential equations with memory effects to give a qualitative description of our simulated societal dynamics. We discuss our findings and sociological implications.
Watson, Sunnie Lee; Loizzo, Jamie; Watson, William R.; Mueller, Chad; Lim, Jieun; Ertmer, Peggy A.
This exploratory case study describes the design and facilitation of a massive open online course (MOOC) for attitudinal change regarding human trafficking. It examines the course from the learners', instructor's, and instructional designer's perspectives. Two interviews with the instructor and instructional designer were conducted, and data from…
Cheon, Jongpil; Chung, Sungwon; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin
A serious game, which is designed for learning purposes rather than recreational purposes, has been applied for digital game-based Learning. This study investigated the effects of graphic organizers in a serious game, "The Transistor", on learning outcomes and attitudinal perceptions. A total of 99 participants were randomly assigned to…
Ketelaar, Paul; Janssen, Loes; Vergeer, Maurice; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Crutzen, Rik; van 't Riet, Jonathan
This study investigates which factors predict whether consumers will pass on viral advertising communications to their friends on a social network site. A conceptual framework consisting of three attitudinal and three social predictors of forwarding online content was tested using three real-life
Ketelaar, P.E.; Janssen, L.; Vergeer, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Crutzen, R.; van 't Riet, J.
This study investigates which factors predict whether consumers will pass on viral advertising communications to their friends on a social network site. A conceptual framework consisting of three attitudinal and three social predictors of forwarding online content was tested using three real-life
Ketelaar, P.E.; Janssen, L.; Vergeer, M.R.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Riet, J.P. van 't
This study investigates which factors predict whether consumers will pass on viral advertising communications to their friends on a social network site. A conceptual framework consisting of three attitudinal and three social predictors of forwarding online content was tested using three real-life
Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of socializing experiences on the political attitudes of youngsters. More specifically, our goal is to evaluate the impact of the Youth Parliament program on youngsters’ confidence levels in the Minas Gerais State Assembly (MGSA. The analysis focuses on the cognitive foundations of attitudes and results show a substantial increase in confidence levels in MGSA, an increase associated with the acquisition of information on the institution. It is asserted that the increase in confidence in MGSA represents and attitudinal “gain”. The study design involves quasi-experimental research on a non-random sample. We conducted two rounds of interviews in 2008, prior and subsequent to the program, with 335 participants (167 in the treatment group; and 168 in the control group.
Дж Р Мартин
Full Text Available This paper explores some aspects of the problem of categorizing attitudinal relations in English, as part of a description of evaluation informed by systemic functional linguistics (SFL - appraisal. It reviews paradigmatic and syntagmatic orientations to lexis within this tradition, and the development of typological and topological representations of systemic relations. Corpus based argumentation is considered in relation to work on evaluation by Bednarek 2008; and proposals for continuing the study of lexis are suggested, focusing on resources for negotiating sadness and negative reactions to behavior (e.g. embarrassed , ashamed and the affordances of topological representation. The paper highlights the possibilities and challenges involved in continuing the study of lexis in descriptions using SFL as their informing theory.
Full Text Available Problem Statement: The status, value, and importance of a language is often measured by the attitudes toward that language. Learning a second or foreign language and attaining proficiency in it is closely related to the attitudes of learners toward the language. A few studies have investigated language attitudes of Turkish students toward the English language in Turkey. However, the same issue has not been explored among Turkish students learning and using the English language in a country where English is spoken as the first language.Purpose: This exploratory study investigated the attitudes of Turkish students toward learning and using English language as they lived and pursued their university degrees in a northeastern city in the United States. The study examined students’ attitudinal dispositions toward English based on sociolinguistic and sociocultural considerations.Methods: The study included 8 student participants (4 male and 4 female who were born in Turkey and spoke Turkish as their native language. They were all enrolled in a state university studying different programs in Engineering Sciences and Social Sciences. Data were collected conducting in-depth interviews with students over a two-month period. Participants were interviewed twice individually, and 16 interviews were conducted in total. Each interview took 50 to 60 minutes and was transcribed by the researcher. Data analysis included (1 intensive (rereadings of interview transcripts and identifying attitudinal themes and patterns in the data through emergent coding; and (2 making qualitative connections among themes and patterns through identifying their consistency by applying axial coding. Coded dataset was then descriptively interpreted in its entirety.Findings: Participants displayed mostly positive dispositions toward learning and using the English language; however, their attitudinal patterns varied with regards to sociolinguistic and sociocultural considerations
Murray, Christopher; Wren, Carol T
This study examined cognitive, academic, and attitudinal predictors of college grade point average (GPA) among college students with learning disabilities (LD). The study population included 84 youth who attended a large private university in the midwestern United States. Measures of cognitive and academic functioning, along with a self-report measure of study habits and study attitudes, were used to predict college GPA. The results indicated that Full Scale IQ and one factor on the self-reported study habits scale accounted for a significant amount of variance in students' college GPA. These findings suggest that variables other than traditional cognitive and academic skills are important for determining the performance of youth with LD during college. The implications of these findings for future research efforts and practice are discussed.
Full Text Available Attitudinal barriers towards analgesic use among primary care patients with chronic pain and substance use disorders (SUDs are not well understood. We evaluated the prevalence of moderate to significant attitudinal barriers to analgesic use among 597 primary care patients with chronic pain and current analgesic use with 3 subscales from the Barriers Questionaire II: concern about side effects, fear of addiction, and worry about reporting pain to physicians. Concern about side effects was a greater barrier for those with opioid use disorders (OUDs and non-opioid SUDs than for those with no SUD (OR (95% CI: 2.30 (1.44–3.68, P<0.001 and 1.64 (1.02–2.65, P=0.041, resp.. Fear of addiction was a greater barrier for those with OUDs as compared to those with non-opioid SUDs (OR (95% CI: 2.12 (1.04–4.30, P=0.038 and no SUD (OR (95% CI: 2.69 (1.44–5.03, P=0.002. Conversely, participants with non-opioid SUDs reported lower levels of worry about reporting pain to physicians than those with no SUD (OR (95% CI: 0.43 (0.24–0.76, P=0.004. Participants with OUDs reported higher levels of worry about reporting pain than those with non-opioid SUDs (OR (95% CI: 1.91 (1.01–3.60, P=0.045. Concerns about side effects and fear of addiction can be barriers to analgesic use, moreso for people with SUDs and OUDs.
Kim, Eun Young; Park, Jiung; Kim, Bongseog
Childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with delinquency and the repeated crime. Specific types of childhood maltreatment have been found to have differential effects on recidivism in juvenile offenders, but studies of adult probationers have not been performed. This study investigated the relationship between having a history of childhood maltreatment and mental-health problems and the independent contribution of specific types of maltreatment and mental-health problems to the criminal recidivism of adult probationers. This study included 183 adult probationers (107 males and 76 females) with a mean age of 40.1 (SD = 11.8) years. Type of childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which consists of five subscales (emotional neglect and abuse, physical neglect and abuse, and sexual abuse). Additionally, we used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview to assess participants for the presence of psychiatric disorders and assessed levels of emotional dysregulation and resilience. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether the types of childhood maltreatment were independently associated with repeated crime, after adjusting for demographic factors and mental-health problems. The overall prevalence of mental illness in the childhood maltreatment group was significantly higher than in the no childhood maltreatment group (56.1 % vs. 38.2 %, p = 0.017). The maltreated group had a higher rate of major depressive disorder, a higher level of emotional dysregulation, and a lower level of resilience than the group that was not maltreated. Recidivism was uniquely associated with physical neglect (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR], 2.862; 95 % Confidence Interval [95 % CI], 1.213-6.752) and the presence of at least one psychiatric disorder (AOR, 3.791; 95 % CI, 1.703-8.443). Childhood maltreatment deserves further attention in adult probationers because it is potentially associated with higher
Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."
Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Lai, Elaine; Stoll, Michael A; Ponce, Ninez
Objective This study sought to examine the impact of two Teen Courts operating in Los Angeles County, a juvenile justice system diversion program in which youth are judged by their peers and given restorative sentences to complete during a period of supervision. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to compare youth who participated in Teen Court (n=112) to youth who participated in another diversion program administered by the Probation Department (the 654 Contract program) (n=194). Administrative data were abstracted from Probation records for all youth who participated in these programs between January 1, 2012 and June 20, 2014. Logistic and survival models were used to examine differences in recidivism - measured as whether the minor had any subsequent arrest or arrests for which the charge was filed. Results Comparison group participants had higher rates of recidivism than Teen Court participants, after controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and risk level. While the magnitude of the program effects were fairly consistent across model specifications (odd ratios comparing Teen Court [referent] to school-based 654 Contract ranging from 1.95 to 3.07, hazard ratios ranging from 1.62 to 2.27), differences were not statistically significant in all scenarios. Conclusions While this study provides modest support for the positive impact of Teen Court, additional research is needed to better understand how juvenile diversion programs can improve youth outcomes. PMID:27547171
Bouchard, Jessica; Wong, Jennifer S
Juvenile delinquency has been on the decline for a number of years, yet, juvenile courts continue to assess more than 1 million cases per year. Involvement with the juvenile justice system has been linked to a number of risk factors and consequences that may impact positive youth development; however, evidence-based correctional programs that divert juvenile offenders away from formal processing are limited. Teen Court is a specialized diversion intervention that offers an alternative to traditional court processing for juvenile offenders. Despite the rapid expansion of Teen Courts, there is little comprehensive and systematic evidence available to justify this expansion. This meta-analytic study examines the effects of Teen Court on the recidivism of juvenile offenders. The literature search resulted in the selection of 14 studies, which contributed 18 unique effect sizes with a total sample of 2125 treatment group and 979 comparison group youth. The findings suggest that Teen Court is no more effective at reducing recidivism than (a) formal processing or (b) other diversion programs. Implications of formal and informal court processing for low-risk, first-time young offenders are discussed. The authors draw on the Risk-Need-Responsivity model to provide recommendations for policies and practices.
Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
van der Put, C.E.
Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample
Susan Klinker Lockwood
Full Text Available Previous studies rarely examined racial disparities in post-release employment and recidivism. Finding a job is an immediate challenge to all released ex-prisoners, and often more difficult for African American ex-prisoners who typically return to economically-depressed neighborhoods upon release from prison. The present researchers conducted a 5-year (2005-2009 follow-up study in an attempt to understand racial disparities in post-release employment and recidivism among 6,394 released ex-prisoners (2,531 Caucasian and 3,863 African American, while controlling for the ex-prisoner’s level of education. Results of this study showed that African American ex-prisoners had a higher unemployment rate and recidivism rate than Caucasian ex-prisoners. This study also revealed that released ex-prisoners, if employed, would likely be under-employed and experience difficulties in sustaining employment, regardless of the ex-prisoner’s ethnicity. Most importantly, post-release employment and level of education were the two most influential predictors to recidivism among ex-prisoners, regardless of ethnicity.
Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake
The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…
Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, Washington, DC.
Mental health advocates have been distressed for years about the disproportionate number of people with psychiatric disabilities who are arrested or held in jail or prison. Equally disturbing is the endless cycle of recidivism that results when people with psychiatric disabilities are released with their needs unmet. The Council of State…
Colver, Allan; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Dickinson, Heather O
To evaluate how participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) varied with their environment. Home visits to children. Administration of Assessment of Life Habits and European Child Environment Questionnaires. Structural equation modeling of putative associations between specific domains of participation and environment, while allowing for severity of child's impairments and pain. European regions with population-based registries of children with CP. Children (n=1174) aged 8 to 12 years were randomly selected from 8 population-based registries of children with CP in 6 European countries. Of these, 743 (63%) agreed to participate; 1 further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. Thus, there were 818 children in the study. Not applicable. Participation in life situations. For the hypothesized associations, the models confirmed that higher participation was associated with better availability of environmental items. Higher participation in daily activities-mealtimes, health hygiene, personal care, and home life-was significantly associated with a better physical environment at home (Ptransport and physical environment in the community. Participation in social roles (responsibilities, relationships, recreation) was associated with attitudes of classmates and social support at home. School participation was associated with attitudes of teachers and therapists. Environment explained between 14% and 52% of the variation in participation. The findings confirmed the social model of disability. The physical, social, and attitudinal environment of disabled children influences their participation in everyday activities and social roles. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.
This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40…
Full Text Available Introduction: Based on research on the framing effect and research on the treatment of immigration, the processes of reception and impact of news about crime are analyzed. Method: We conducted two experimental investigations in which participants were exposed to a news story and later filled in a questionnaire with self-report scales. Two independent variables were manipulated: the mention of protagonists’ national/ geographic origin in the news story and the involvement with the topic. Results: The study indicates that when the involvement with the news story is low, the presence of information about the nationality of the protagonist exerted an indirect effect through attitudinal impact. However, when involvement is high, the indirect effect is explained by the activation of trains of thought which influence the formation and/or reinforcement of negative beliefs about immigration. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a dual model of news framing effects and reinforce the recommendations made by some organisations about not reporting the nationality of the protagonists of a criminal act in news programmes.
Full Text Available The present research seeks to determine: (a Iranian EFL learners’ application of suggestion semantic formulae ;(b their attitude of appropriateness in terms of confidence in the employment of appropriate supportive moves; (c, their (impolite mannerism with respect to the selected strategies; and (d the relationship between attitude of appropriateness and mannerism of (impoliteness. An Oxford Quick placement Test (OQPT was administered among 60 Iranian EFL learners to check their language proficiency level and to satisfy the assumption of homogeneity among the learners. These participants along with 10 American native speakers then underwent a suggestion DCT. The questionnaire included questions addressing interlocutors’ with higher, lower or equal power status and intimate or strange social distance. The DCT also involved attitudinal appropriateness scale and (impoliteness mannerism likert scale to examine the learners’ degree of confidence and mannerism. Besides similarities and differences in the application of suggestion semantic formulae between the Iranian learners and American speakers, the results revealed variations in the two groups’ performances for appropriateness and (impoliteness. The results also indicated a positive relationship between the attitude and mannerism scales.
D'Alessandro, A M; Peltier, J W; Dahl, A J
This study investigates how college students can be social support catalysts for organ donation and how social, cognitive and attitudinal dimensions impact organ donor registration. A total of 317 people participated in the exploratory portion of the project and a total of 1800 responses were obtained from an online survey to members of a national student organization. The findings show that perceptions of the benefits of organ donation and altruistic motives had the greatest impact on the support for organ donation while respondents' knowledge about how to register to be an organ donor was the dominant dimension for donor registration status. Social-based communications had the next greatest impact for both support and donor registration. Based on the findings, an 18-month social media campaign was launched with the student organization that had 20 421 website visitors, 4473 Facebook members, 1189 YouTube video submissions with 164 000 views, motivated 19 623 people to go to a state's organ donor registration page, and had 9000 documented organ donor registrations. Within the student organization, organ donor registration increased by 28%. On the basis of these project results, Donate Life America and other sponsors have provided funding for two additional years. ©Copyright 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
Lee, Mina; Whitehill King, Karen; Reid, Leonard N
Using a model developed from the research literature, the authors compared consumers' attitudinal and behavioral responses to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DCTA) and over-the-counter nonprescription drug advertising (OTCA) of drugs. Adults 18 years of age and older who had taken any prescription drugs in the past 6 months completed online survey questionnaires. Variables measured included demographics (age, gender, race, education, and income), health-related characteristics (health status, prescription and over-the-counter drug use, health consciousness, and involvement with prescription or over-the-counter drugs), perceived amount of attention and exposure to DTCA and OTCA, attitudinal outcomes (skepticism toward DTCA/OTCA and attitude toward DTCA/OTCA), and behavioral outcomes triggered by DTCA and OTCA. The findings indicate that exposure to drug advertising is one of the most significant predictors of attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. Some audience factors such as health status, involvement with drugs, health consciousness, drug use, income, and age also were differentially associated with consumer responses to drug advertising.
Duncan, Lauren E; Peterson, Bill E; Zurbriggen, Eileen L
This special issue of Journal of Personality brings together 10 original articles addressing the intersection of personality and politics. Articles build on classic traditions in political psychology by presenting both idiographic and nomothetic work on the motivational, cognitive, ideological, attitudinal, and identity correlates of many different aspects of political behavior. This work is used to understand political activism and leadership as well as everyday political behavior. We hope this collection of articles will inspire our readers to explore new investigations in personality and political psychology. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
DeLuca, Joseph S; Vaccaro, John; Rudnik, Amalia; Graham, Nicole; Giannicchi, Anna; Yanos, Philip T
Stigma toward general criminal offenders has been found to be particularly salient among community members who identify as politically conservative; however, less is known about how political identification relates to stigma toward sex offenders. This is a particularly important area of inquiry, given that criminal jurisprudence and politics legitimatize stigmatizing labels attributed to sex offenders through laws and policies that apply specifically to this group. A nonrandom sample ( N = 518) of participants living in the United States was recruited for this survey study. Findings indicated that a specific aspect of conservative political ideology-right-wing authoritarianism (RWA)-significantly predicts negative attitudes and intended social distancing behavior toward sex offenders, even when controlling for other important predictors, such as education and prior contact. RWA was found to be the strongest predictor of negative attitudes and estimations of sex offender recidivism, and also significantly predicted intended social distancing behavior. Implications for addressing stigma toward sex offenders are discussed.
Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkinson, Kathryn; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I; Parkes, Jackie; Thyen, Ute
The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities requires states 'to ensure to persons with disabilities access, on an equal basis with others, to the physical environment, transportation, information and communications.' We explored whether this convention was respected for disabled children in Europe. One thousand one-hundred and seventy-four children aged 8-12 years were randomly selected from population-based registers of children with cerebral palsy in eight European regions. 743 children joined the study; one further region recruited 75 children from multiple sources. Researchers visited these 818 children and administered the European Child Environment Questionnaire, which records parents' perceptions of availability of the physical, social and attitudinal environment needed in home, school and community. Multilevel, multivariable regression related child access on these domains to their impairments and socio-demographic characteristics. Children with more impaired walking ability had less access to the physical environment, transport and social support they needed than other children. They also experienced less favourable attitudes from family and friends. However, attitudes of teachers and therapists were similar for children with all levels of impairment. The access of children, across all impairment severities, to their needed environment showed significant variation between regions (p ≤ 0.0001), some regions consistently providing better access on most or all domains. European states need to substantially improve environmental access for disabled children in order to meet their obligations under UN Conventions. In some regions, many environmental factors should and realistically could be changed. Legislation and regulation should be directed to making this happen. Local environmental planners and health and social service providers should listen carefully to parents to address mismatches between policy intentions and parental
Maloney, Rebecca Scudari
One way to determine if all students can learn through the use of computers is to introduce a lesson taught completely via computers and compare the results with those gained when the same lesson is taught in a traditional manner. This study attempted to determine if a virtual fetal pig dissection can be used as a viable alternative for an actual dissection for females enrolled in high school biology classes by comparing the knowledge acquisition and attitudinal change between the experimental (virtual dissection) and control (actual dissection) groups. Two hundred and twenty-four students enrolled in biology classes in a suburban all-girl parochial high school participated in this study. Female students in an all-girl high school were chosen because research shows differences in science competency and computer usage between the genders that may mask the performance of females on computer-based tasks in a science laboratory exercise. Students who completed the virtual dissection scored significantly higher on practical test and objective tests that were used to measure knowledge acquisition. Attitudinal change was measured by examining the students' attitudes toward dissections, computer usage in the classroom, and toward biology both before and after the dissections using pre and post surveys. Significant results in positive gain scores were found in the virtual dissection group's attitude toward dissections, and their negative gain score toward virtual dissections. Attitudinal changes toward computers and biology were not significant. A purposefully selected sample of the students were interviewed, in addition to gathering a sample of the students' daily dissection journals, as data highlighting their thoughts and feelings about their dissection experience. Further research is suggested to determine if a virtual laboratory experience can be a substitute for actual dissections, or may serve as an enhancement to an actual dissection.
Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Miller, Audrey K; Wagner, Maverick M; Hunt, Amy N
Extant research has established numerous demographic, personal-history, attitudinal, and ideological correlates of sexual prejudice, also known as homophobia. The present study investigated whether Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality domains, particularly Openness, and FFM facets, particularly Openness to Values, contribute independent and incremental variance to the prediction of sexual prejudice beyond these established correlates. Participants were 117 college students who completed a comprehensive FFM measure, measures of sexual prejudice, and a demographics, personal-history, and attitudes-and-ideologies questionnaire. Results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that, whereas Openness domain score predicted only marginal incremental variance in sexual prejudice, Openness facet scores (particularly Openness to Values) predicted independent and substantial incremental variance beyond numerous other zero-order correlates of sexual prejudice. The importance of integrating FFM personality variables, especially facet-level variables, into conceptualizations of sexual prejudice is highlighted. Study strengths and weaknesses are discussed as are potential implications for prejudice-reduction interventions.
Howard, Rick; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor
Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early-onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co-morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Fifty-three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Patients with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity took significantly less time to re-offend compared with those without such co-morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re-offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term 'psychopath'. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of 'psychopathy'. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol-related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co
This study investigated the interactive effects of attitudinal ambivalence and health message framing on persuading people to eat less junk food. Within the heuristic-systematic model of information processing, an attitudinal ambivalence (ambivalent or univalent toward eating junk food) by health message framing (advantage- or disadvantage-framed appeals) between-subjects experiment was conducted to explore a cognitive resource-matching effect and the underlying mediation processes. Ambivalent individuals reported a higher level of cognitive elaboration than univalent individuals did. The disadvantage frame engendered more extensive cognitive elaboration than the advantage frame did. Ambivalent individuals were more persuaded by the disadvantage frame and, for them, cognitive elaboration mediated the persuasion process via the systematic route. Univalent individuals were equally persuaded by the advantage frame and the disadvantage frame and, for them, neither the perceived frame valence nor cognitive elaboration mediated persuasion. Discussion of the null results among the univalent group leads to a response-reinforcement explanation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Szyjka, Sebastian P.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which six cognitive and attitudinal variables predicted pre-service elementary teachers' performance on line graphing. Predictors included Illinois teacher education basic skills sub-component scores in reading comprehension and mathematics, logical thinking performance scores, as well as measures of attitudes toward science, mathematics and graphing. This study also determined the strength of the relationship between each prospective predictor variable and the line graphing performance variable, as well as the extent to which measures of attitude towards science, mathematics and graphing mediated relationships between scores on mathematics, reading, logical thinking and line graphing. Ninety-four pre-service elementary education teachers enrolled in two different elementary science methods courses during the spring 2009 semester at Southern Illinois University Carbondale participated in this study. Each subject completed five different instruments designed to assess science, mathematics and graphing attitudes as well as logical thinking and graphing ability. Sixty subjects provided copies of primary basic skills score reports that listed subset scores for both reading comprehension and mathematics. The remaining scores were supplied by a faculty member who had access to a database from which the scores were drawn. Seven subjects, whose scores could not be found, were eliminated from final data analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted in order to establish validity and reliability of the Questionnaire of Attitude Toward Line Graphs in Science (QALGS) instrument. CFA tested the statistical hypothesis that the five main factor structures within the Questionnaire of Attitude Toward Statistical Graphs (QASG) would be maintained in the revised QALGS. Stepwise Regression Analysis with backward elimination was conducted in order to generate a parsimonious and precise predictive model. This
Francisco Jiménez Bautista
Full Text Available Resumen: En este artículo pretendemos verificar la pregunta que Michel Foucault señaló dentro del sistema penal y particularmente en el sistema de prisiones (en nuestro caso el de España, ver si los individuos que han pasado por el sistema penal permanecen marcados hasta el fin de sus días. De forma que están colocados en una situación tal que ya no se les devuelve del lugar de donde habían venido, es decir, no se le devuelve al lugar del proletariado. Igualmente, es significativo que los valores de la crisis económica incrementan el número de reincidencias y violencia estructural hacia las presas, mujeres víctimas de las crisis de globalización.Abstract: This article aims to verify Michel Foucault pointed question in the penal system and particularly in the prison system (in our case of Spain, see if people who have gone through the criminal justice system remain marked until the end of their days. So, they are placed in a position where returns are no longer the place where they came from, namely, not returned to the place of the proletariat. Alike, it is significant that the values of the economic crisis increase the number of criminal recidivism and structural violence toward prisoners, women victims of the crisis of globalization.
Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.
This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…
Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin
This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design…
Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin
This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by
Ran, Weina; Yamamoto, Masahiro
This study investigates the role of attitudinal ambivalence in moderating the effects of junk food advertisements on behavioral intentions by tapping different facets of this construct-felt ambivalence, potential ambivalence, and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Results based on an online survey of college students indicate that attention to junk food advertisements has an indirect positive effect on intentions to eat junk food through its positive effect on attitudes toward junk food. A moderated mediation model reveals that this indirect effect of junk food advertisements is weakened as respondents' levels of felt ambivalence increase. This moderating role is not observed for the measures of potential ambivalence and affective-cognitive ambivalence. Implications are discussed for health interventions.
Wilton Silva dos Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the educational environment and the development of professional attitudes enhance the quality of health care delivery. Despite the importance of diversity for equity and accessibility to health care, its repercussions for students’ attitudinal learning have not been adequately evaluated. Purpose: Evaluate the influence of academic sociodemographic diversity and curricular organization in the development of professional attitudes in different phases of the undergraduate medical curriculum. Method: In 2012, the attitudinal performance of 310 socioeconomically diverse medical students was evaluated by the administration of a five-point professional attitudes scale. The participants were at different points in their education at a Brazilian public school of medicine in Brasília, Federal District. The scale comprised 6 factors: communication, ethics, professional excellence, self-assessment, beliefs, social determinants; and a general factor called medical professionalism and was validated for the purpose of this research. The reliability coefficients (aCronbach ranged from 0.65 to 0.87, according to different scale dimensions. Student diversity was analyzed according to differences in gender, age, religious affiliation, system of student selection and socioeconomic background. Results: The authors observed a decline in the mean attitude scores during the clinical phase compared to the preclinical phase of the curriculum. Female students displayed more positive attitudes than male students, and the students who declared a religious affiliation recorded higher attitude scores compared to those who declared themselves atheist, agnostic or non-religious. There was no correlation between family income or the system of student selection and the students’ attitude scores. The students who had attended public schools expressed a greater interest in working in the public health system
Auerbach, Stephen M.; And Others
Investigated the effects of an intensive group experience with a "profeminist" format on sex-role related attitudes and personality trait and state measures. No overall changes were obtained across testing periods on self-report measures of sex-role attitude, sex-role identity, or authoritarianism. Only self-reports of trait anxiety showed a…
Crooks, Valorie A; Cameron, Keri; Chouinard, Vera; Johnston, Rory; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria
Medical tourism is the term that describes patients' international travel with the intention of seeking medical treatment. Some medical tourists go abroad for orthopaedic surgeries, including hip and knee resurfacing and replacement. In this article we examine the findings of interviews with Canadian medical tourists who went abroad for such surgeries to determine what is distinctive about their attitudes when compared to existing qualitative research findings about patients' decision-making in and experiences of these same procedures in their home countries. Fourteen Canadian medical tourists participated in semi-structured phone interviews, all of whom had gone abroad for hip or knee surgery to treat osteoarthritis. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, which involved comparing emerging findings to those in the existing qualitative literature on hip and knee surgery. Three distinctive attitudinal characteristics among participants were identified when interview themes were compared to findings in the existing qualitative research on hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis. These attitudinal characteristics were that the medical tourists we spoke with were: (1) comfortable health-related decision-makers; (2) unwavering in their views about procedure necessity and urgency; and (3) firm in their desires to maintain active lives. Compared to other patients reported on in the existing qualitative hip and knee surgery literature, medical tourists are less likely to question their need for surgery and are particularly active in their pursuit of surgical intervention. They are also comfortable with taking control of health-related decisions. Future research is needed to identify motivators behind patients' pursuit of care abroad, determine if the attitudinal characteristics identified here hold true for other patient groups, and ascertain the impact of these attitudinal characteristics on surgical outcomes. Arthritis care providers can use the attitudinal
Crooks Valorie A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical tourism is the term that describes patients’ international travel with the intention of seeking medical treatment. Some medical tourists go abroad for orthopaedic surgeries, including hip and knee resurfacing and replacement. In this article we examine the findings of interviews with Canadian medical tourists who went abroad for such surgeries to determine what is distinctive about their attitudes when compared to existing qualitative research findings about patients’ decision-making in and experiences of these same procedures in their home countries. Methods Fourteen Canadian medical tourists participated in semi-structured phone interviews, all of whom had gone abroad for hip or knee surgery to treat osteoarthritis. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed, which involved comparing emerging findings to those in the existing qualitative literature on hip and knee surgery. Results Three distinctive attitudinal characteristics among participants were identified when interview themes were compared to findings in the existing qualitative research on hip and knee surgery in osteoarthritis. These attitudinal characteristics were that the medical tourists we spoke with were: (1 comfortable health-related decision-makers; (2 unwavering in their views about procedure necessity and urgency; and (3 firm in their desires to maintain active lives. Conclusions Compared to other patients reported on in the existing qualitative hip and knee surgery literature, medical tourists are less likely to question their need for surgery and are particularly active in their pursuit of surgical intervention. They are also comfortable with taking control of health-related decisions. Future research is needed to identify motivators behind patients’ pursuit of care abroad, determine if the attitudinal characteristics identified here hold true for other patient groups, and ascertain the impact of these attitudinal characteristics on
van der Put, Claudia E
Estimating the risk for recidivism is important for many areas of the criminal justice system. In the present study, the Youth Actuarial Risk Assessment Tool (Y-ARAT) was developed for juvenile offenders based solely on police records, with the aim to estimate the risk of general recidivism among large groups of juvenile offenders by police officers without clinical expertise. On the basis of the Y-ARAT, juvenile offenders are classified into five risk groups based on (combinations of) 10 variables including different types of incidents in which the juvenile was a suspect, total number of incidents in which the juvenile was a suspect, total number of other incidents, total number of incidents in which co-occupants at the youth's address were suspects, gender, and age at first incident. The Y-ARAT was developed on a sample of 2,501 juvenile offenders and validated on another sample of 2,499 juvenile offenders, showing moderate predictive accuracy (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve = .73), with little variation between the construction and validation sample. The predictive accuracy of the Y-ARAT was considered sufficient to justify its use as a screening instrument for the police. © The Author(s) 2013.
Hurtz, Gregory M; Williams, Kevin J
This study investigated factors influencing ongoing participation in employee development activities. A multiple-indicator structural equation model building on the theory of planned behavior and prior employee development literature was tested with a survey across 4 organizations on 2 occasions. The model uses reactions to past participation and past supportiveness of the social and organizational environment as indirect antecedents of participation, filtered through their impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward future participation. Learning goal orientation also influenced attitudes toward participation. Whereas personal control over participation and higher levels of voluntariness were negatively related to participation, intentions to participate and availability of opportunities arose as strong predictors of higher participation rates. Many significant hypothesized paths were found, and 85% of the variance in participation was explained by the model variables. Increasing employee awareness of opportunities and managing positive attitudes toward those opportunities are recommended as key factors for increasing participation rates. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Cheatham, Lauren; Tormala, Zakary L
When and why do people advocate on behalf of their attitudes? Past research suggests that attitude certainty is one important determinant. The current research seeks to provide more nuanced insight into this relationship by (a) exploring the unique roles of attitude clarity and attitude correctness, and (b) mapping clarity and correctness onto different forms of advocacy (sharing intentions and persuasion intentions). Across four studies, we find that correctness but not clarity plays an important role in promoting persuasion intentions, whereas both correctness and clarity help shape sharing intentions. Thus, this research unpacks the certainty-advocacy relation and helps identify experimental manipulations that uniquely drive persuasion and sharing intentions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Distinctiveness and Influence of Subjective Norms, Personal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and Societal Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Behavioral Intent: A Case of Two Behaviors Critical to Organ Donation
Park, Hee Sun; Smith, Sandi W.
The effects of the attitudinal, normative, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) components of the theory of planned behavior and personal- and societal-level descriptive and injunctive norms were investigated with regard to their impact on the intent to enroll on a state organ-donor registry and the intent to engage in family discussion about…
Ricardo Pereira Sepini
Full Text Available This investigation involved quality teaching of issues the Nature of Science and Technology (NS&T related to the validation of knowledge and how it works in today's world. The goal was to show the possibility to teach and assess issues and innovative ways of understanding the NS&T from a didactic intervention performed in the classroom with the help of a Teaching Learning Sequence (TLS. The study design was a experimental intervention, which gathers pretest - didactic intervention - posttest steps, with an experimental group and a control group. Research subjects were students of High-School in a city located in the southern state of Minas Gerais. Among the results there is a significant improvement from pretest to posttest in the experimental group, and a modest improvement in the control group. The contributions of this research also includes the TLS itself and the assessment instruments, and its functionality that makes them transferable to teaching science. We conclude that through the activity designed, conducted and evaluated in the classroom students achieved an improvement in attitudinal conceptions of NS&T
Uttam Kumar Roy
Full Text Available This paper discusses a program of attitudinal orientation courses provided for functionaries of a large municipal corporation in India. Almost 450 Assistant Managers from the Kolkata Municipal Corporation took part in the training, which was held at the Administrative Training Institute (ATI of the Government of West Bengal, India. Under the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, Indian Municipalities/Corporations (Urban Local Bodies are empowered and entrusted to perform planning, development and governance for the city/ town and to provide services to the citizens. The change in outlook towards the local government reflected in the Act has highlighted the need for greater awareness and a better attitude amongst municipal staff as well as elected representatives towards service delivery. Good governance can be achieved through the overall performance of officials of an organization, provided they possess the necessary knowledge, skills, attitudes and competencies. For historical reasons, knowledge, skills and attitudes amongst officials of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs in India have been traditionally of a low standard. Willingness to perform better in the role of municipal service delivery is not common. Therein lies the need for training for improvement in service delivery, especially for organizations like large municipal corporations and municipalities.
Full Text Available This article deals with the ideology represented by newspaper editorials. It is from the idea that every language use is never neutral and not ideology-free. Language is used to convey meanings in a broad sense. There are meanings related to the opinions through the language as resources of evaluation. Editorial is one practice of language use full of opinions towards a certain issue on people or things. Sydney Morning Herald and Herald Sun are used as both Australian newspaper posit themselves as the high-rank newspaper in terms of circulation and online accessed. This article tries to uncover the ideologies represented by both newspaper editorials concerning death penalty of Bali Nine executed in Indonesia. Attitudinal perspective proposed by Martin and White (2005 in term of affect, judgement, and appreciation of language appraisal is used to explore ideology in the newspaper. From appraisal analysis, it is found that Indonesia dominantly appraised in negative There is no positive appreciation for Indonesia in both newspaper editorials. judgement while Australia is portrayed in positive view for the issue of death penalty in Indonesia.
Ziegler, Rene; Schlett, Christian; Aydinli, Arzu
The present research examined when happy individuals' processing of a counterattitudinal message is guided by mood-congruent expectancies versus hedonic considerations. Recipients in positive, neutral, or negative mood read a strong or weak counterattitudinal message which either contained a threat to attitudinal freedom or did not contain such a threat. As expected, a freedom-threatening counterattitudinal message was more mood threatening than a counterattitudinal message not threatening freedom. Furthermore, as predicted by the mood-congruent expectancies approach, people in positive mood processed a nonthreatening counterattitudinal message more thoroughly than people in negative mood. Message processing in neutral mood lay in between. In contrast, as predicted by the hedonic-contingency view, a threatening counterattitudinal message was processed less thoroughly in positive mood than in neutral mood. In negative mood, processing of a threatening counterattitudinal message was as low as in positive mood. These findings suggest that message processing is determined by mood congruency unless hedonic considerations override expectancy-based processing inclinations.
Prima Gusti Yanti
Full Text Available The attitudinal lexeme on the domain of kesenangan in Indonesia language has not shown such clear meaning relationship, for both the common and diagnostic meaning of the lexemes. Those lexemes have such circular definitions, confusing upon their use. This study is conducted using a qualitative research approach employing content analysis technique. The aim of this study is to find out lexical relation and semantic meaning in attitudinal lexeme in the domain of kesenangan (joy in Indonesian language. Data is collected from seven Indonesian dictionaries, two magazines, five newspapers, and six literary works. All data is analyzed using a component analysis in the semantic theory. The research findings show that fourteen (14 lexemes (senang, nikmat, enak, puas, asyik, sukacita, ria, bangga, lega, bahagia, gembira, girang, riang, and ceria of attitudinal lexemes are related with the domain of kesenangan. The result shows that hyponymy and synonymy lexical relations occur in the domain of kesenangan. Synonymy relation consists of near-synonymy and propositional synonymy. In this case, absolute synonymy is not found.
Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C
Although social cognition deficits have been associated with schizophrenia, social trait judgments - or first impressions - have rarely been studied. These first impressions, formed immediately after looking at a person's face, have significant social consequences. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects rated 30 neutral faces on 10 positive or negative traits: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. Compared to controls, patients gave higher ratings for positive traits as well as for negative traits. Patients also demonstrated more ambivalence in their ratings. Patients who were exhibiting paranoid symptoms assigned higher intensity ratings for positive social traits than non-paranoid patients. Social trait ratings were negatively correlated with everyday problem solving skills in patients. Although patients appeared to form impressions of others in a manner similar to controls, they tended to assign higher scores for both positive and negative traits. This may help explain the social deficits observed in schizophrenia: first impressions of higher degree are harder to correct, and ambivalent attitudes may impair the motivation to interact with others. Consistent with research on paranoia and self-esteem, actively-paranoid patients' positive social traits judgments were of higher intensity than non-paranoid patients'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Rengers, Brooke; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn
Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females ( P negative-parent rules concerning milk ( P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively ( P = 0.05). Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.
Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhatr, Rulia; Nasrin, Shamima; Adamu, Ibrahim Mohammed
Socio-demographic factors play a significant role in increasing the individual's climate change awareness and in setting a favorable individual attitude towards its mitigation. To better understand how the adversative effects of climate change can be mitigated, this study attempts to investigate the impact of socio-demographic factors on the mitigating actions of the individuals (MAOI) on climate change. Qualitative data were collected from a face-to-face survey of 360 respondents in the Kuala Lumpur region of Malaysia through a close-ended questionnaire. Analysis was conducted on the mediating effects of attitudinal variables through the path model by using the SEM. Findings indicate that the socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity can greatly influence the individual's awareness, attitude, risk perception, and knowledge of climate change issues. The results drawn from this study also revealed that the attitudinal factors act as a mediating effect between the socio-demographic factors and the MAOI, thereby, indicating that both the socio-demographic factors and the attitudinal factors have significant effects on the MAOI towards climate change. The outcome of this study can help policy makers and other private organizations to decide on the appropriate actions to take in managing climate change effects. These actions which encompass improving basic climate change education and making the public more aware of the local dimensions of climate change are important for harnessing public engagement and support that can also stimulate climate change awareness and promote mitigating actions to n protect the environment from the impact of climate change.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350 near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors.
Mohr, Philip; Wilson, Carlene; Dunn, Kirsten; Brindal, Emily; Wittert, Gary
To identify key predictors of fast-food consumption from a range of demographic, attitudinal, personality and lifestyle variables. We analysed data from a nationwide survey (n = 20 527) conducted in Australia by Nielsen Media Research. Items assessing frequency of fast-food consumption at (1) eat in and (2) take away were regressed onto 12 demographic, seven media consumption, and 23 psychological and lifestyle variables, the latter derived from factor analysis of responses to 107 attitudinal and behavioural items. Stepwise multiple regression analyses explained 29.6% of the variance for frequency of take-away and 9.6% of the variance for frequency of eat-in consumption of fast foods. Predictors of more frequent consumption of fast food at take away (and, to a lesser extent, eat in) included lower age - especially under 45 years, relative indifference to health consequences of behaviour, greater household income, more exposure to advertising, greater receptiveness to advertising, lesser allocation of time for eating, and greater allocation of time to home entertainment. There were no effects for occupational status or education level. The effects for age suggest that fast-food take-away consumption is associated with a general cultural shift in eating practices; individual differences in attitudinal and lifestyle characteristics constitute additional, cumulative, predictive factors. The role of advertising and the reasons for the lesser explanatory value of the eat-in models are important targets for further research.
Noroozi, Omid; Mulder, Martin
This study aims to investigate the impacts of a digital learning module with guided peer feedback on students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change in the field of biotechnology and molecular life sciences. The extent to which the use of this module is appreciated by students is studied as well. A pre-test, post-test design was used with 203 students who were randomly assigned to groups of three. They were asked to work on the digital module with the aim of exploring various perspectives, and the "pros and cons" on the topic of "Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)." The results suggest that the module can be used to foster students' domain-specific knowledge gain and their attitudinal change. Furthermore, the module was evaluated positively in terms of students' motivation and satisfaction with the learning experiences. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(1):31-39, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Unruh, Deanne K.; Gau, Jeff M.; Waintrup, Miriam G.
Juvenile offenders are costly to our society in terms of the monetary and social expenditures from the legal system, victims' person costs, and incarceration. The re-entry and community reintegration outcomes for formerly incarcerated youth with a disabling condition are bleak compared to peers without disabilities. In this study, we examined the…
Pallotti, Francesca; Tubaro, Paola; Casilli, Antonio A.; Valente, Thomas W.
Published online on 6 July 2017; International audience; Body image issues associated with eating disorders involve attitudinal and perceptual components: individuals’ dissatisfaction with body shape or weight, and inability to assess body size correctly. While prior research has mainly explored social pressures produced by the media, fashion, and advertising industries, this paper focuses on the effects of personal networks on body image, particularly in the context of internet communities. ...
George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha
A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA), Personal Success--each participant's rating of congruence between stated goals and progress toward those goals--and Total Success--a measure that weighted GPA and Personal Success equally. The greatest predictors of GPA were time-management skills, intelligence, time spent studying, computer ownership, less time spent in passive leisure, and a healthy diet. Predictors of Personal Success scores were clearly defined goals, overall health, personal spirituality, and time-management skills. Predictors of Total Success scores were clearly defined goals, time-management skills, less time spent in passive leisure, healthy diet, waking up early, computer ownership, and less time spent sleeping. Results suggest alternatives to traditional predictors of academic success.
Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs) scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits. PMID:28163407
Nugroho J. Setiadi
Full Text Available The study aims to identify Creativity-relevant Personal Characteristics among creative workers in Indonesia’s creative industry. Identification of the constituent elements of the nature of the changes needs to be measured. Researchers have advocated replacing creativity-relevant personal characteristics based on the five-factor model to investigate how individual differences stimulate creativity. This study presents data supporting reliability (internal consistency and validity (criterion and construct of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is based on the content validity involving art and design experts. The 220 creative workers from several creative industry firms in Indonesia participated as samples in this research. Results of a factor analysis indicated a five factor solution of creative characteristics and behavior. Discussion of findings and the most important ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles for stimulating creativity are presented.
Perceptions of Recidivism Among Incarcerated Youth: The Relationship Between Exposure to Childhood Trauma, Mental Health Status, and the Protective Effect of Mental Health Services in Juvenile Justice Settings
Jamie R. Yoder
Full Text Available Research suggests that youth involved the juvenile justice system have trauma histories that are two times higher than the general youth population. Juvenile justice-involved youth also have high rates of mental health symptoms. Fewer studies have examined how trauma links to mental health symptoms among youth offenders, and even less research focuses on how mental health status and service delivery can impact their perceived likelihood for success. This study examines the effects of mental health screening and service delivery on perceived future criminal justice interactions— arrest and incarceration—among adjudicated youth (n=7,073 housed in correctional facilities. Secondary data were used to examine trauma histories, mental health needs, and mental health screening and service delivery. Significant relationships between traumatic events and mental health problems were found, along with relationships between mental health problems and mental health screening and service delivery. Most interestingly, results pointed to the strong inverse relationship between mental health service delivery and youth’s perceived likelihood for recidivism. These findings show the promise of juvenile justice systems appropriately responding to the mental health concerns of youth.
Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M; Rielage, Jennifer Klosterman
Significant rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration have been identified among men with military backgrounds. Research indicates posttraumatic stress symptoms place military men at increased risk for IPV perpetration, but may be negatively associated with IPV among nonmilitary samples. However, no previous studies have directly compared court-referred IPV offenders with and without military experience, which may have clinical implications if posttraumatic stress symptoms are differentially associated with IPV perpetration across these two samples. Twenty court-referred IPV offenders with military background were demographically matched with 40 court-referred IPV offenders without military background. As anticipated, self- and partner-report of physically assaultive acts and injurious acts during baseline assessment showed significantly greater physical assault and injury perpetrated by offenders with military background. However, 1-year follow-up data on convictions indicated a significantly lower rate of recidivism among offenders with military background than among nonmilitary offenders. As hypothesized, symptoms of posttraumatic stress at intake showed a significant positive correlation with IPV perpetration among offenders with military background; however, this relationship showed a negative correlation among offenders without military background. Clinical implications are discussed including treatment avenues, such as Veterans Courts and other incarceration diversion programs, which may be particularly appropriate for offenders with military backgrounds.
Brocklehurst, Paul R
The aim of this paper is to introduce the reader to personal construct psychology as a theory to help understand the process of change in facilitative and mentoring relationships. Continuing professional development is critical if practitioners are to keep up to date with new ideas, techniques, and materials. However, is it important not only to consider what is learnt, it is also important to understand the how of learning in order to develop an approach that leads to lifelong learning. Mentoring, coaching, and appraisal are all facilitative processes that aim to encourage professionals to engage with their own development. This leads to differing degrees of both behavioural and attitudinal change. As a result, it is useful to have a theory that can help an individual to understand these changes and to identify any difficulties that are associated with them. Personal construct psychology has long been recognised as a potential framework for personal development. It has been used extensively in a broad range of domains, including clinical and educational psychology, management, and psychotherapy. Personal construct psychology is a useful theory for understanding the facilitative process because it enables the facilitator to form a conceptual framework to comprehend behavioural and attitudinal change. Its underlying philosophical approach also supports lifelong learning, given its emphasis on an enquiring mind and reflection, both of which are key to continuing professional development.
Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...
... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...
Comparative Study of Middle School Students' Attitudes towards Science: Rasch Analysis of Entire TIMSS 2011 Attitudinal Data for England, Singapore and the U.S.A. as Well as Psychometric Properties of Attitudes Scale
Oon, Pey Tee; Subramaniam, R.
We report here on a comparative study of middle school students' attitudes towards science involving three countries: England, Singapore and the U.S.A. Complete attitudinal data sets from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 2011 were used, thus giving a very large sample size (N = 20,246), compared to other studies in the…
Colver, Allan F; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkinson, Kathryn
for disabled children in Europe. Method. One thousand one-hundred and seventy-four children aged 8-12 years were randomly selected from population-based registers of children with cerebral palsy in eight European regions. 743 children joined the study; one further region recruited 75 children from multiple...... sources. Researchers visited these 818 children and administered the European Child Environment Questionnaire, which records parents' perceptions of availability of the physical, social and attitudinal environment needed in home, school and community. Multilevel, multivariable regression related child...... access on these domains to their impairments and socio-demographic characteristics. Results. Children with more impaired walking ability had less access to the physical environment, transport and social support they needed than other children. They also experienced less favourable attitudes from family...
Scale Attitude toward Indebtedness: factorial validity and attitudinal profiles in Chilean university students [Escala de Actitudes hacia el Endeudamiento: validez factorial y perfiles actitudinales en estudiantes universitarios chilenos
Marianela Denegri Coria
Full Text Available The number of university students who present an early indebtedness has increased in the last years, which represents a potential risk for his financial stability. This study examined validity factorial of the Scale of Attitudes toward the Indebtedness (Denegri et al., 1999 and determines the existence of profile attitudinal typology towards the indebtedness in a sample of 984 university Chilean students with ages between 18 and 25 years. The results indicate the presence of two independent factors named Hedonism and Aus- terity, from which four profiles of attitudes decided towards the indebtedness named: austere, diffuse, hedonistic and ambivalent those who might be to the base of his behaviors of acceptance or rejection of the indebtedness.
Full Text Available Purpose: HIV/AIDS is a major public health issue. Studies have shown that young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years accounts for more than 40% of new HIV infections. However, new infections could be prevented if the desired impact is made on young people through interventions such as effective peer education program to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the impact of peer education vis-a-vis attitudinal changes and practices on issues relating to HIV/AIDS among youths in North central Nigeria. Methods: This classical experimental study was carried out in three stages, that is: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages among students of Government High School, Ilorin between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The sample size was 80 students each for study and control groups. Proportional gender distribution was ensured in the selection and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through semi structured self administered pre and post evaluation questionnaire. Peer education training and forth night mentoring sessions was conducted for the study group. Impact of the intervention was assessed after eight weeks. Results: Analysis of the result shows that out of the sixteen questions asked on respondents‟ attitude, only four showed statistical significance between the study and control group before the intervention which shot up to eleven after intervention. Also, the frequency of those having bad practices regarding prevention of HIV/AIDS also reduced after intervention. This reduction was much more in many instances when compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study has revealed that peer education training among youth can go a long way in educating them on issues relating to HIV/AIDS prevention. It can also bring about attitudinal changes and better practices that may help in reducing incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in our
Climent i Martí, Jordi
Proyecto Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director: Cristina Ayala del Pino Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado he querido aproximar el concepto del Personal Branding y de marca personal como la herramienta para diferenciarse en el entorno profesional. Partiendo con la definición del concepto, su construcción, el panorama actual, compaginar empleo con marca personal y acabando con la visión personal de un gurú de la Marca Person...
Buzzetto-More, Nicole; Johnson, Robert; Elobaid, Muna
Empowered by and tethered to ubiquitous technologies, the current generation of youth yearns for opportunities to engage in self-expression and information sharing online with personal disclosure no longer governed by concepts of propriety and privacy. This raises issues about the unsafe online activities of teens and young adults. The following…
Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.
The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal
Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...
Young, Rachel; Willis, Erin; Cameron, Glen; Geana, Mugur
While much research focuses on adoption of electronic health-care records and other information technology among health-care providers, less research explores patient attitudes. This qualitative study examines barriers to adoption of home-based health information technology, particularly personal electronic health records, among older adults. We conducted in-depth interviews (30-90 min duration) with 35 American adults, aged 46-72 years, to determine their perceptions of and attitudes toward home-based health information technology. Analysis of interview data revealed that most barriers to adoption fell under four themes: technological discomfort, privacy or security concerns, lack of relative advantage, and perceived distance from the user representation. Based on our findings, systems to promote home-based health information technology should incorporate familiar computer applications, alleviate privacy and security concerns, and align with older adults' active and engaged self-image.
Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile
To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for
Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar
Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)
Mölbert, S C; Thaler, A; Mohler, B J; Streuber, S; Romero, J; Black, M J; Zipfel, S; Karnath, H-O; Giel, K E
Body image disturbance (BID) is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), but as yet distinctive features of BID are unknown. The present study aimed at disentangling perceptual and attitudinal components of BID in AN. We investigated n = 24 women with AN and n = 24 controls. Based on a three-dimensional (3D) body scan, we created realistic virtual 3D bodies (avatars) for each participant that were varied through a range of ±20% of the participants' weights. Avatars were presented in a virtual reality mirror scenario. Using different psychophysical tasks, participants identified and adjusted their actual and their desired body weight. To test for general perceptual biases in estimating body weight, a second experiment investigated perception of weight and shape matched avatars with another identity. Women with AN and controls underestimated their weight, with a trend that women with AN underestimated more. The average desired body of controls had normal weight while the average desired weight of women with AN corresponded to extreme AN (DSM-5). Correlation analyses revealed that desired body weight, but not accuracy of weight estimation, was associated with eating disorder symptoms. In the second experiment, both groups estimated accurately while the most attractive body was similar to Experiment 1. Our results contradict the widespread assumption that patients with AN overestimate their body weight due to visual distortions. Rather, they illustrate that BID might be driven by distorted attitudes with regard to the desired body. Clinical interventions should aim at helping patients with AN to change their desired weight.
Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia
In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and
Weible, Jennifer L.; Toomey Zimmerman, Heather
Although curiosity is considered an integral aspect of science learning, researchers have debated how to define, measure, and support its development in individuals. Prior measures of curiosity include questionnaire type scales (primarily for adults) and behavioral measures. To address the need to measure scientific curiosity, the Science Curiosity in Learning Environments (SCILE) scale was created and validated as a 12-item scale to measure scientific curiosity in youth. The scale was developed through (a) adapting the language of the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II [Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(6), 987-998] for youth and (b) crafting new items based on scientific practices drawn from U.S. science standards documents. We administered a preliminary set of 30 items to 663 youth ages 8-18 in the U.S.A. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model: stretching, embracing, and science practices. The findings indicate that the SCILE scale is a valid measure of youth's scientific curiosity for boys and girls as well as elementary, middle school, and high school learners.
Clerkin, Elise M; Fisher, Christopher R; Sherman, Jeffrey W; Teachman, Bethany A
This study explored the automatic and controlled processes that may influence performance on an implicit measure across cognitive-behavioral group therapy for panic disorder. The Quadruple Process model was applied to error scores from an Implicit Association Test evaluating associations between the concepts Me (vs. Not Me) + Calm (vs. Panicked) to evaluate four distinct processes: Association Activation, Detection, Guessing, and Overcoming Bias. Parameter estimates were calculated in the panic group (n = 28) across each treatment session where the IAT was administered, and at matched times when the IAT was completed in the healthy control group (n = 31). Association Activation for Me + Calm became stronger over treatment for participants in the panic group, demonstrating that it is possible to change automatically activated associations in memory (vs. simply overriding those associations) in a clinical sample via therapy. As well, the Guessing bias toward the calm category increased over treatment for participants in the panic group. This research evaluates key tenets about the role of automatic processing in cognitive models of anxiety, and emphasizes the viability of changing the actual activation of automatic associations in the context of treatment, versus only changing a person's ability to use reflective processing to overcome biased automatic processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nicole A. Buzzetto-More
Full Text Available Empowered by and tethered to ubiquitous technologies, the current generation of youth yearns for opportunities to engage in self-expression and information sharing online with personal disclosure no longer governed by concepts of propriety and privacy. This raises issues about the unsafe online activities of teens and young adults. The following paper presents the findings of a study examining the social networking activities of undergraduate students and also highlights a program to increase awareness of the dangers and safe practices when using and communicating, via social media. According to the survey results, young adults practice risky social networking site (SNS behaviors with most having experienced at least one negative consequence. Further, females were more likely than males to engage in oversharing as well as to have experienced negative consequences. Finally, results of a post-treatment survey found that a targeted program that includes flyers, posters, YouTube videos, handouts, and in-class information sessions conducted at a Mid-Atlantic Historically Black College or University (HBCU increased student awareness of the dangers of social media as well as positively influenced students to practice more prudent online behaviors.
Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike
and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....
Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per
BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...
Melikov, Arsen Krikor
microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfill the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...
van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.
Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is
Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Rizzo, L.Y.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.
Abstract Personalized medicine aims to individualize chemotherapeutic interventions on the basis of ex vivo and in vivo information on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. By noninvasively visualizing how well image-guided nanomedicines-that is, submicrometer-sized drug delivery systems
We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.
Henry, Kimberly L.; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.
This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year. PMID:23519434
Henry, Kimberly L; Shtivelband, Annette; Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D
This study explored an understudied promotive factor, a belief that alcohol use is inconsistent with personal autonomy, which may reduce adolescent intention to drink and subsequent alcohol use. Autonomy was examined as an attitudinal construct within the Theory of Reasoned Action. Longitudinal data from 2,493 seventh grade students nested in 40 schools were analyzed using a structural equation model. Autonomy was negatively correlated with intention to use alcohol and subsequent alcohol use at a later wave, and intention to use fully mediated the effect of autonomy on subsequent alcohol use. These results are consistent with the proposition that when personal autonomy is perceived as inconsistent with alcohol use among younger adolescents, students indicate a lower intention to use alcohol and use less alcohol during the following school year.
The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.
As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.
Pallotti, Francesca; Tubaro, Paola; Casilli, Antonio A; Valente, Thomas W
Body image issues associated with eating disorders involve attitudinal and perceptual components: individuals' dissatisfaction with body shape or weight, and inability to assess body size correctly. While prior research has mainly explored social pressures produced by the media, fashion, and advertising industries, this paper focuses on the effects of personal networks on body image, particularly in the context of internet communities. We use data collected on a sample of participants to websites on eating disorders, and map their personal networks. We specify and estimate a model for the joint distribution of attitudinal and perceptual components of body image as a function of network-related characteristics and attributional factors. Supported by information gathered through in-depth interviews, the empirical estimates provide evidence that personal networks can be conducive to positive body image development, and that the influence of personal networks varies significantly by body size. We situate our discussion in current debates about the effects of computer-mediated and face-to-face communication networks on eating disorders and related behaviors.
Goedecke Julia H
= 0.693, respectively. In this instance, black mother-daughter dyads chose significantly heavier silhouettes than the other ethnic groups. This implies that black mothers and daughters associate beauty, respect and happiness with a bigger body size. Conclusion Resemblances exist between pre-adolescent girls and their mothers on issues related to ideal and attitudinal body image. In this regard, South African researchers should consider the effects ethnicity and family status on body image of women when developing targeted interventions to prevent or manage obesity.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be
Foste, Elizabeth; Botero, Isabel C.
the importance of supervisor perceptions for the future of employees in the organization, this study uses principles of language expectancy theory (LET) to explore how message content (benefit organization vs. no benefit) and delivery style (aggressive vs. nonaggressive) in upward communication situations affect......One of the pitfalls of past research in upward influence communication is that messages are often categorized using more than one characteristic. This categorization has made it difficult to understand how different message characteristics affect supervisors’ perceptions about employees. Given...... perceptions of personal reputation and work competence. Participants, acting in the role of supervisors, read one of four scenarios and evaluated a new employee. Results suggest that delivery style and message content independently influence the supervisor’s willingness to grant a request as well as influence...
Sources of ionizing radiation have innumerable applications in the workplace. The potential exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with personal monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Module can only be provided by qualified experts
Rak, Eniko C; Spencer, Lauren
This study examined similarities and differences between persons with and without disabilities on volunteering, donations and group participation. A sample of 1548 individuals participated and 60% of the sample were persons with disabilities. Data for this research was drawn from a major statewide survey in a Midwestern state in the United States. Community participation was measured through involvement with civic, religious and other community-based groups, volunteering activities and donations. Logistic regression was pursued to test the effect of disability on community participation. Findings support different trends in participation between persons with and without disabilities. Individuals without disabilities are more likely to volunteer, donate money and participate in civic organisations (e.g. clubs) and other groups. Employment and household income have a significant contribution in explaining these differences. This study found significant differences in community participation between persons with disabilities and persons without disabilities. Regression analysis outcomes underscore the importance of employment and income in eliminating disparities in community involvement between persons with and without disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Policy change in rehabilitation agencies to fund supported volunteering services. Improve the representation of persons with disabilities in volunteering pursuits by making volunteering positions accessible to them (educate persons with disabilities to be more aware of these opportunities, provide reasonable accommodations at work sites, etc.). Educate stakeholders about the benefits of volunteering and being part of civic, and other community based groups in improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Identification of barriers for persons with disabilities in these pursuits (physical and attitudinal barriers, lack of resources). Identifying and utilising natural supports in the work site
Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Folke
A deeper understanding of the attitude-norm-behavior relationship in the environmental field can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic interaction over time between relevant attitudinal variables and specific behaviors of interest. This article is based on a panel survey with a random sample...... of about 1,500 Danes interviewed up to 3 times in 1998 to 2000, regarding their purchase of organic food products. The panel analysis reveals that the stronger are consumers' personal norms about buying organic food products and the less they perceive organic products as expensive, the greater...... the likelihood that they change their purchase patterns in favor of organic products. Furthermore, one can observe significant cross-lagged paths from past behavior to belief and norm variables....
Aslam, M.; Akhtar, A.; Kanwal, S.; Ali, T.; Zafar, M.I.
Fruit growers from three districts of the Punjab took part in this study whereas their knowledge, attitude, skill and practices were evaluated regarding the use of pesticides. The hygiene and sanitation practices of the respondents were also related with proper use of PPA during pesticide spray which needs attitudinal changes along with the provision of better facilities and infrastructure. Demographic features of the fruit growers were evaluated regarding their age, qualification, marital status, source of income, smoking habits, farming size, fruit production and pesticide spraying experience. The ordinal regression model determined the significant relation among the qualification, spraying experience and land holding size with their level of knowledge and skill of using personal protection accessories (PPA). It is recommended that pesticide safety education and better skill be given to pesticide sprayers for the appropriate use of PPA. (author)
Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings. A significantly higher proportion of published articles focusing on antisocial personality concern treatment when compared to articles on psychopathy. Currently, the proposal for antisocial personality disorder for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, suggests a major change in the criteria for this disorder. While the present definition focuses mainly on observable behaviours, the proposed revision stresses interpersonal and emotional aspects of the disorder drawing on the concept of psychopathy. The present commentary suggests that developments leading to improvement in the diagnosis of this type of disorder should, rather than focusing exclusively on elements such as dangerousness and risk assessment, point us to ways in which patients can be treated for their problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, dissocial personality disorder and sociopathy are constructs that have generally been used to predict recidivism and dangerousness, alongside being used to exclude patients from treatment services. However, 'antisocial personality disorder' has recently begun to emerge as a treatment diagnosis, a development reflected within cognitive behaviour therapy and mentalisation-based psychotherapy. Many of the behaviour characteristics of antisocial personality disorder are, at the same time, being targeted by interventions at criminal justice settings. A significantly higher proportion of published articles focusing on antisocial personality concern treatment when compared to articles on psychopathy. Currently, the proposal for antisocial personality disorder for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, suggests a major change in the criteria for this disorder. While the present definition focuses mainly on observable behaviours, the proposed revision stresses interpersonal and emotional aspects of the disorder drawing on the concept of psychopathy. The present commentary suggests that developments leading to improvement in the diagnosis of this type of disorder should, rather than focusing exclusively on elements such as dangerousness and risk assessment, point us to ways in which patients can be treated for their problems.
research findings on the determinants of attitudinal responses to cognitive ability and personality testing and produced valuable empirical findings on job applicants’ attitudes towards both test types when administered conjointly
Análise comparativa dos efeitos da base socioeconômica, dos tipos de crime e das condições de prisão na reincidência criminal Comparative analysis of the effects of socioeconomic status, crime type and prison conditions on criminal recidivism
Juan Mario Fandiño Mariño
Full Text Available O objetivo central do trabalho é identificar e mensurar o poder explicativo relativo das seguintes três dimensões causais hipotéticas da reincidência criminal: a variáveis biográficas ou socioeconômicas, a saber: estado civil, filhos, naturalidade, idade, religião, raça, instrução formal e nível de qualificação da ocupação; b tipo de delito, segundo os seguintes oito tipos simplificados: homicídios, lesões corporais, roubos, furtos, estelionatos, posse e uso de entorpecentes e estupros; e c condições de prisão, incluindo a disponibilidade e qualificação dos funcionários - tanto de segurança quanto administrativos -, trabalho prisional dos apenados, treinamento profissionalizante e instrução em geral, espaços disponíveis e superlotação, e programas de assistência social ao apenado. O trabalho resume e avalia a literatura internacional relativa à reincidência criminal, tanto em termos metodológicos quanto teóricos, e apresenta um panorama histórico recente da criminalidade no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, como pano de fundo da análise da reincidência propriamente dita. Utilizando dados longitudinais oficiais das prisões para os anos de 1989 a 1997, e o cadastro geral oficial de apenados do estado, uma série de regressões é calculada pelo método step-wise, relacionando as três dimensões em questão com a variável reincidência, dicotomizada. A dimensão biográfica explica 32% da reincidência, o tipo de crime explica outros 9%, e as condições de prisão explicam ainda 16%, sugerindo uma ampla influência da política prisional na redução da reincidência.This work is primarily aimed at identifying and measuring the relative explicatory ability of the following three hypothetical causal dimensions of criminal recidivism: a socioeconomic variables, namely: marital status, children, place of birth, age, religion, race, educational level and qualification level of the occupation; b type of offense
Black, Donald W; Gunter, Tracy; Loveless, Peggy; Allen, Jeff; Sieleni, Bruce
We determined the frequency of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in offenders. We examined demographic characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and quality of life in those with and without ASPD. We also looked at the subset with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A random sample of 320 newly incarcerated offenders was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). ASPD was present in 113 subjects (35.3%). There was no gender-based prevalence difference. Offenders with ASPD were younger, had a higher suicide risk, and had higher rates of mood, anxiety, substance use, psychotic, somatoform disorders, borderline personality disorder, and ADHD. Quality of life was worse, and their LSI-R scores were higher, indicating a greater risk for recidivism. A subanalysis showed that offenders with ASPD who also had ADHD had a higher suicide risk, higher rates of comorbid disorders, and worse mental health functioning. ASPD is relatively common among both male and female inmates and is associated with comorbid disorders, high suicide risk, and impaired quality of life. Those with comorbid ADHD were more impaired than those without ADHD. ASPD occurs frequently in prison populations and is nearly as common in women as in men. These study findings should contribute to discussions of appropriate and innovative treatment of ASPD in correctional settings.
I I Kvasova
Full Text Available Personality is a dialectical interconnection between the social and the individual realized via activity, socializing, responsibility towards others, communication. The sense of self-actualization of the personality takes shape in the framework of the given process manifesting itself in various cultural phenomena, especially in art which is to the most extent personalized.
I I Kvasova
Personality is a dialectical interconnection between the social and the individual realized via activity, socializing, responsibility towards others, communication. The sense of self-actualization of the personality takes shape in the framework of the given process manifesting itself in various cultural phenomena, especially in art which is to the most extent personalized.
Comparative study of middle school students' attitudes towards science: Rasch analysis of entire TIMSS 2011 attitudinal data for England, Singapore and the U.S.A. as well as psychometric properties of attitudes scale
Pey Tee, Oon; Subramaniam, R.
We report here on a comparative study of middle school students' attitudes towards science involving three countries: England, Singapore and the U.S.A. Complete attitudinal data sets from TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) 2011 were used, thus giving a very large sample size (N = 20,246), compared to other studies in the journal literature. The Rasch model was used to analyse the data, and the findings have shed some useful light on not only how the Western and Asian students responded on a comparative basis in the various scales related to attitudes but also on the validity, reliability, and unidimensionality of the attitudes instrument used in TIMSS 2011. There may be a need for TIMSS test developers to consider doing away with negatively phrased items in the attitudes instrument and phrasing these positively as the Rasch framework shows that response bias is associated with these statements.
Full Text Available In Uruguay, there are no studies that keep a record of the state of health of persons deprived of their liberty (PDL when entering the prison system. We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study in a population of 1959 persons of male sex that entered the Diagnosis and Referral of Prosecuted Persons Center (CDDPP, for its Spanish acronym in the period comprising 1 January and 30 June 2016. The objective was to characterize said population according to the following variables: age, communicable diseases and prophylactic measures, substance abuse, homelessness, recidivism, chronic diseases and vaccination schedule. The methodology applied consisted of the analysis of data gathered by the health team of the CDDPP when PDL entered said institution. The studied population is mainly young: more than 90 % are younger than 45 years old. Homelessness accounts for 11.8 % and 34 % reentered the penitentiary system. Chronic carriers represent 9.6 % of said population and 63.3 % are smokers. The cases of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and tuberculosis (BK represent 1.32 %; 1.53 % and 0.66 % respectively; 65 % of PDL suffer from substance abuse (pasta base de cocaína -cocaine paste-, marijuana, cocaine, alcohol and others. Conclusions: there exist deficiencies in DPL´s heath when entering the penitentiary system. The healthcare system has the opportunity to act, improve and respect the right to health of this vulnerable population. Improving the health of this population would also benefit general population.
Fraser, Barry J.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.
The research reported in this article makes two distinctive contributions to the field of classroom environment research. First, because existing instruments are unsuitable for science laboratory classes, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was developed and validated. Second, a new Personal form of the SLEI (involving a student's perceptions of his or her own role within the class) was developed and validated in conjunction with the conventional Class form (involving a student's perceptions of the class as a whole), and its usefulness was investigated. The instrument was cross-nationally fieldtested with 5,447 students in 269 senior high school and university classes in six countries, and cross-validated with 1,594 senior high school students in 92 classes in Australia. Each SLEI scale exhibited satisfactory internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and factorial validity, and differentiated between the perceptions of students in different classes. A variety of applications with the new instrument furnished evidence about its usefulness and revealed that science laboratory classes are dominated by closed-ended activities; mean scores obtained on the Class form were consistently somewhat more favorable than on the corresponding Personal form; females generally held more favorable perceptions than males, but these differences were somewhat larger for the Personal form than the Class form; associations existed between attitudinal outcomes and laboratory environment dimensions; and the Class and Personal forms of the SLEI each accounted for unique variance in student outcomes which was independent of that accounted for by the other form.
Brigham, John C.; Severy, Lawrence J.
Measures of racial attitude, conceptual style, commitment to candidate and electoral process, social-political evaluation, and voting intentions, were administered to white college students (N=320) before the 1972 Presidential election. Prediction of behavioral intentions becomes more powerful as attitudinal measures are made more directly…
Dickens, Geoffrey L; Lamont, Emma; Stirling, Fiona J
There is increasing interest in the use of commercial movies in nursing education, or "cinenurducation". There is a need for educational interventions which target mental health nurses' attitudes towards people with borderline personality disorder. To investigate and evaluate the experience and effects of attendance at a screening of the movie Ida's Diary, a first-person account of living with borderline personality disorder. Mixed methods design comprising a within-subjects AB longitudinal survey, and a qualitative analysis of participant-generated data and researcher field notes from a World Café discussion group. One university in Scotland. N = 66 undergraduate and postgraduate mental health nursing and counselling students. Participants completed measures of cognitive and emotional attitudes towards, and knowledge about, people with borderline personality disorder before and after one of two film screenings. We conducted a World Café discussion group after the second screening. Resulting data were subject to a qualitative thematic analysis. Quantitative analysis revealed a five-factor cognitive and a single-factor emotional attitude structure. Cognitive-attitudinal items related to treatment deservingness and value of mixed treatment approaches improved across iterations. Total knowledge score did not change, but one item about borderline personality disorder as a precursor to schizophrenia received considerably more incorrect endorsement post-screening. Qualitative analysis revealed five themes: Facilitation and inhibition of learning; promotion but not satiation of appetite for knowledge; challenging existing understanding; prompting creativity and anxiety; and initiating thinking about the bigger picture. Participants found the film thought provoking; it increased their appetite for knowledge. Findings suggest that screening should be delivered in conjunction with more didactic information about borderline personality disorder. Copyright © 2018
From the comparison of the various aspects of advertising and personal selling, it can be seen that personal selling is a more effective and powerful communication tool than advertising, but advertising is more time and cost efficient than personal selling. Thus advertising and personal selling are tools at the disposal of a marketer and subjects to a firm’s overall objectives.
Everyone has a personal brand. To ensure success at work you need to manage your personal brand which is made up of your tangible and intangible attributes. This paper reviews the literature around personal branding, looks at some of the attributes and discusses ways you can reflect and begin to build your personal brand in a higher education…
Platonov, A A
Results of studies with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in 3 groups of arc welders with various degrees of manganese poisoning (22 symptom-free, 23 with functional disturbances, 55 with organic symptoms) and 50 controls were discussed. There was a close relation between the severity of the poisoning and quantitative and qualitative personality changes. Personality tests are considered a useful addition to the clinical diagnosis of chronic manganese poisoning.
Cornetta, Kenneth; Brown, Candy Gunther
The current description of personalized medicine by the National Institutes of Health is "the science of individualized prevention and therapy." Although physicians are beginning to see the promise of genetic medicine coming to fruition, the rapid pace of sequencing technology, informatics, and computer science predict a revolution in the ability to care for patients in the near future. The enthusiasm expressed by researchers is well founded, but the expectations voiced by the public do not center on advancing technology. Rather, patients are asking for personalized care: a holistic approach that considers physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. This perspective considers psychological, religious, and ethical challenges that may arise as the precision of preventive medicine improves. Psychological studies already highlight the barriers to single gene testing and suggest significant barriers to the predictive testing envisioned by personalized medicine. Certain religious groups will likely mount opposition if they believe personalized medicine encourages embryo selection. If the technology prompts cost-containment discussions, those concerned about the sanctity of life may raise ethical objections. Consequently, the availability of new scientific developments does not guarantee advances in treatment because patients may prove unwilling to receive and act on personalized genetic information. This perspective highlights current efforts to incorporate personalized medicine and personalized care into the medical curriculum, genetic counseling, and other aspects of clinical practice. Because these efforts are generally independent, the authors offer recommendations for physicians and educators so that personalized medicine can be implemented in a manner that meets patient expectations for personalized care.
Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G
Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
John Locke claims both that ‘person’ is a forensic term and that personal identity consists in sameness of consciousness. The aim of my dissertation is to explain and critically assess how Locke links his moral and legal account of personhood to his account of personal identity in terms of sameness of consciousness. My interpretation of Locke’s account of persons and personal identity is embedded in Locke’s sortal-dependent account of identity. Locke’s sortal-dependent ac...
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten
Understanding motives for offending is important for the development and delivery of effective interventions. To explore associations between variables with motivational implications and the offence committed in the past year rated by people with antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder as putting them and their status at most risk. Participants were 127 outpatients from a sample recruited for a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an intervention for adults attending substance abuse treatment clinics in 13 municipalities in Denmark. Motives for offending were assessed on one occasion, using the Offending Motivation Questionnaire, aggression was assessed using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and substance-related problems, including mental state difficulties, were assessed using the Substance Use Risk Profile. Attributing offending to provocation, excitement or financial gain differed substantially by type of offence, whereas attribution of offending to compliance did not. Personality scale scores were associated with attributing offences to provocation, excitement or compliance but not with financial gain. Motives for offending among substance users with antisocial personality disorder must be understood both in light of the type of offence and personality traits. Offending behaviour prevention strategies that draw on these distinctions, run in parallel to treatment for substance use, could improve reduction in recidivism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD show pathological personality traits in three of the five domains (APA 2013. In addition to diagnostic criteria for BPD, described by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, the dimensional model of personality disorder, based on five-factor model of personality, seems to gain interest as it promisses to eliminate problems associated with poor-fit, co-morbidity and unclear diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to identify the personality traits by people who are already diagnosed with BPD using the DSM-5 categorical criteria. Based on the theoretical concepts and existing research findings as well as increased interest in the dimensional personality theory, we assume that people diagnosed with BPD will show high levels of pathology on three trait domains: negative affectivity, disinhibition and antagonism. This study was conducted in Germany in psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 was used. The findings supported the assumptions that people with BPD show some degree of anxiousness, emotional lability, hostility, impulsivity, risk taking and separation anxiety. The study also found that traits such as distractibility, withdrawal and submissiveness were also present in this participant group. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants it has provided contribution to the already existing knowledge and understanding in regards to common personality treats for people diagnosed with BPD.
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências apontam que adolescentes infratores graves (autores de homicídio, estupro e latrocínio possuem personalidade psicopática e risco aumentado de reincidência criminal, mas não apresentam maior prevalência de história de abuso na infância do que outros adolescentes infratores. OBJETIVO: Comparar a psicopatia, a reincidência criminal e a história de maus-tratos entre adolescentes infratores versus a vida e outros adolescentes infratores. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, controlado, utilizando a escala Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R para avaliação de psicopatia em uma amostra de adolescentes cumprindo medida socioeducativa em decorrência da prática de ato infracional. RESULTADOS: Os adolescentes que cometeram crimes contra a vida apresentaram prevalência de psicopatia maior do que outros adolescentes infratores - RP = 2,86 (IC95% 1,49-5,47. A reincidência criminal foi mais prevalente entre os adolescentes que possuíam psicopatia e história de crimes contra a vida - RP = 2,96 (IC95% 1,32-6,60. O estudo não conseguiu demonstrar prevalência significativa de história de abuso na infância entre os adolescentes com psicopatia em comparação ao grupo-controle - RP = 0,88 (IC95% 0,66-1,15. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem prevalência aumentada de personalidade psicopática e reincidência criminal entre os adolescentes autores de crimes contra a vida quando comparados a outros adolescentes infratores.BACKGROUND: Evidences point out that the young offenders involved with major crimes (such as homicide, rape and violent robbery have psychopathic personality, with greater risk of recidivism but do not have a higher prevalence of childhood abuse history compared to other young delinquents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychopathy, criminal recidivism. However, incidence of childhood abuse is similar to other young delinquents groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, controlled, using the Hare's Psychopathy
... of Personal Stories Peers Celebrating Art Peers Celebrating Music Be Vocal Support Locator DBSA In-Person Support ... With this tool, you can track key health trends related to the following: Overall mood Mood disorder ...
Hopwood, CJ; Bleidorn, W
© 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology. Lievens asserted that personality researchers should (a) use multiple methods, in contrast to traditional over-reliance on self-report and (b) move past highly general and context-free assessments to more careful consideration of the situations within which personality predictions are made. These points are with reference to personnel selection settings using the broader framework of Trait Activation Theory. Like most personality research...
Almlund, Mathilde; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim
This paper explores the power of personality traits both as predictors and as causes of academic and economic success, health, and criminal activity. Measured personality is interpreted as a construct derived from an economic model of preferences, constraints, and information. Evidence is reviewed about the "situational specificity" of personality traits and preferences. An extreme version of the situationist view claims that there are no stable personality traits or preference parameters tha...
Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Chamberlain, Samuel
, which has further catalyzed a debate over the contribution of personality traits (rather than just personality disorders) to the manifestation and maintenance of psychiatric conditions such as Gambling Disorder. This selective review considers relationships between gambling and personality traits....... The possible existence of distinct subtypes of Gambling Disorder, defined via personality traits, is highlighted, along with consideration of whether objective neurocognitive markers could serve as proxy markers of ‘personality’ more amenable to scientific dissection rather than relying on questionnaire...
Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. ...
Harris, Charles M.
Bases for individual acceptance and cultural integration of gays and lesbians were investigated by assessing qualities of personality among four participant groups: Heterosexual females, heterosexual males, homosexual females, and homosexual males. Personality was operationally defined as personal qualities and characteristics associated with…
Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.
Conventional research strategies typically emphasize behavior-determining tendencies so strongly that the person as a whole is ignored. Research strategies for studying whole persons focus on symbolic structures, formulate specific questions in advance, study persons one at a time, use individualized measures, and regard participants as expert…
Background: The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in "Bookmarks" and "Favourites". Argument: It is suggested that personal information collections are…
Oh, Seong Joon; Benenson, Rodrigo; Fritz, Mario; Schiele, Bernt
Recognising persons in everyday photos presents major challenges (occluded faces, different clothing, locations, etc.) for machine vision. We propose a convnet based person recognition system on which we provide an in-depth analysis of informativeness of different body cues, impact of training data, and the common failure modes of the system. In addition, we discuss the limitations of existing benchmarks and propose more challenging ones. Our method is simple and is built on open source and o...
Freestone, Mark; Howard, Rick; Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone
This study tested the hypothesis that syndromal adult antisocial behaviour (AABS) co-morbid with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a syndrome that emerges from severe conduct disorder (CD) in childhood and adolescence and is strongly associated, in adulthood, with both violence and substance dependence. In a sample of 8 580 community-resident adults screened for the presence of personality disorders, the following predictions arising from this hypothesis were tested: first, that those with AABS co-morbid with BPD would, in comparison with those showing AABS or BPD only, show a high level of antisocial outcomes, including violence; second, that adjusting for co-morbid alcohol dependence would attenuate group differences in many of the antisocial outcomes, and violence in particular; and third, that the AABS/BPD group would show both a high prevalence and a high severity of CD, and that adjusting for co-morbid CD would attenuate any association found between AABS/BPD co-morbidity and violence. Results confirmed these predictions, suggesting that AABS/BPD co-morbidity mediates the relationship between childhood CD and a predisposition to adult violence. The triad of AABS/BPD co-morbidity, alcohol dependence and severe CD is likely associated with the risk of criminal recidivism in offenders with personality disorder following release into the community. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom
Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.
Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand
Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...
A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.
Nielsen, Julie Hassing
and openness positively correlate with positive EU attitudes, while people scoring high on neuroticism tend to support the EU less. Furthermore, I find that personality moderates different EU frames. Individuals with certain personality traits are more influenced by framing effects than others, while positive......Attitudes towards EU integration are widely studied, yet we know only little about the role of personality for EU attitudes. Utilizing a framing experiment encompassing positive and negative frames of EU integration, this article reports on how personality influences attitudes towards EU...... integration, and how personal predispositions moderate framing effects, impacting EU attitude formation. The study relies on Danish and Swedish data (N = 1808). I test both the direct impact of personality on EU attitudes and personality's moderating impact on framing effects. I find that extraversion...
Full Text Available Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. Elaboration. Examination of the literature of information needs and information seeking behaviour leads to the formulation of five propositions that elaborate the concept of personal, anticipated information need. These propositions draw upon concepts such as uncertainty, predictability, sensitivity and the valuation of information sources. Conclusion. An individual's understanding of personal, anticipated information need and how this understanding guides the acquisition and management of personal information will determine the effectiveness of that collection.
Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.
In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657
McGlashan, Thomas H; Grilo, Carlos M; Sanislow, Charles A; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Morey, Leslie C; Gunderson, John G; Skodol, Andrew E; Shea, M Tracie; Zanarini, Mary C; Bender, Donna; Stout, Robert L; Yen, Shirley; Pagano, Maria
This study tracked the individual criteria of four DSM-IV personality disorders-borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders-and how they change over 2 years. This clinical sample of patients with personality disorders was derived from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study and included all participants with borderline, schizotypal, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder for whom complete 24-month blind follow-up assessments were obtained (N=474). The authors identified and rank-ordered criteria for each of the four personality disorders by their variation in prevalence and changeability (remission) over time. The most prevalent and least changeable criteria over 2 years were paranoid ideation and unusual experiences for schizotypal personality disorder, affective instability and anger for borderline personality disorder, feeling inadequate and feeling socially inept for avoidant personality disorder, and rigidity and problems delegating for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. The least prevalent and most changeable criteria were odd behavior and constricted affect for schizotypal personality disorder, self-injury and behaviors defending against abandonment for borderline personality disorder, avoiding jobs that are interpersonal and avoiding potentially embarrassing situations for avoidant personality disorder, and miserly behaviors and strict moral behaviors for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These patterns highlight that within personality disorders the relatively fixed criteria are more trait-like and attitudinal, whereas the relatively intermittent criteria are more behavioral and reactive. These patterns suggest that personality disorders are hybrids of traits and symptomatic behaviors and that the interaction of these elements over time helps determine diagnostic stability. These patterns may also inform criterion selection for DSM-V.
Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.
Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.
Full Text Available Personalized medicine as a novel field of medicine refers to the prescription of specific therapeutics procedure for an individual. This approach has established based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information and data. The terms precision and personalized medicines are sometimes applied interchangeably. However, there has been a shift from “personalized medicine” towards “precision medicine”. Although personalized medicine emerged from pharmacogenetics, nowadays it covers many fields of healthcare. Accordingly, regenerative medicine and cellular therapy as the new fields of medicine use cell-based products in order to develop personalized treatments. Different sources of stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been considered in targeted therapies which could give many advantages. iPSCs as the novel and individual pluripotent stem cells have been introduced as the appropriate candidates for personalized cell therapies. Cellular therapies can provide a personalized approach. Because of person-to-person and population differences in the result of stem cell therapy, individualized cellular therapy must be adjusted according to the patient specific profile, in order to achieve best therapeutic results and outcomes. Several factors should be considered to achieve personalized stem cells therapy such as, recipient factors, donor factors, and the overall body environment in which the stem cells could be active and functional. In addition to these factors, the source of stem cells must be carefully chosen based on functional and physical criteria that lead to optimal outcomes.
Roberts, Brent W.
In this essay I consider the future of personality development in light of the past effects of Personality and Assessment on the field of personality in general and personality development in particular. The essay is organized around 1) the effect of Mischel's book on the foundational theories informing personality development; 2) definitions of personality traits; 3) an alternative model of personality traits, described as the sociogenomic model of personality traits, that can bridge the div...
The objective of the research is to investigate what constitutes the entrepreneurial personality in terms of innate and learned personality characteristics and how these relate to environmental impact and leadership. The thesis argues that an entrepreneurial personality is a combination of traits......-driven conceptualization, data were collected from 55 active entrepreneurs’ primarily located in Nupark, Holstebro, in Denmark. The selected population of entrepreneurs completed a 2-hour standardised and validated personality test measuring 36 personality traits, a leadership preference test with 27 leadership roles...... is described according to the empirical findings. Furthermore, the research finds that the set of personality traits necessary for an entrepreneur consists of Autonomy, Exploration Drive, Preparedness for Change, and Self-preservation Instinct. In conclusion, to answer the research question regarding...
Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger
The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The paper presents some grounds for the working out of insights developed by Roy Harris and the fellow integrationalists, including the person-centered focus of Otto Jespersen when dealing with future communication studies. Whenever we are speaking of ‘something verbal’, immediately we are opening...... of ‘language’ evaporates, and we are left solely with persons and their understandings, actions and expressions to be investigated by us professionals, collaborating with the persons under scrutiny....
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.
Olarte, Silvia W
In this paper personal disclosure is defined as a conscious verbal presentation to the patient by the therapist of a personal vignette accompanied by the appropriate dynamic formulation and resolution of a given personal area of conflict. It is conceptualized within theoretical formulations which consider the therapeutic relationship a dyad, where the reality of the patient and the reality of the therapist influence each other, providing the matrix through which the resolution of the patient's past life experiences takes place in the context of this new interpersonal experience. It is specifically differentiated from a boundary violation, because the personal disclosure is brought to the patient's interactional awareness not for gratification of the therapist's sexual or narcissistic needs, but to provoke a response in the patient's conceptualization of a phenomenon being presented in the session and to actively influence the intersubjective field. Within the conceptual framework developed in this paper, personal disclosure reaffirms the patient's current self-discovery and provides for a different formative experience. Personal disclosure is not to be used by the therapist as a vehicle to resolve personal conflicts or as source of personal gratification. When used within the context developed in this paper, personal disclosure enhances both the patient's therapeutic process and the therapist's ever-evolving growth.
Petrosini, Laura; Cutuli, Debora; Picerni, Eleonora; Laricchiuta, Daniela
Personality traits are multidimensional traits comprising cognitive, emotional, and behavioral characteristics, and a wide array of cerebral structures mediate individual variability. Differences in personality traits covary with brain morphometry in specific brain regions. A cerebellar role in emotional and affective processing and on personality characteristics has been suggested. In a large sample of healthy subjects of both sexes and differently aged, the macro- and micro-structural variations of the cerebellum were correlated with the scores obtained in the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) by Cloninger. Cerebellar volumes were associated positively with Novelty Seeking scores and negatively with Harm Avoidance scores. Given the cerebellar contribution in personality traits and emotional processing, we investigated the cerebellar involvement even in alexithymia, construct of personality characterized by impairment in cognitive, emotional, and affective processing. Interestingly, the subjects with high alexithymic traits had larger volumes in the bilateral Crus 1. The cerebellar substrate for some personality dimensions extends the relationship between personality and brain areas to a structure up to now thought to be involved mainly in motor and cognitive functions, much less in emotional processes and even less in personality individual differences. The enlarged volumes of Crus 1 in novelty seekers and alexithymics support the tendency to action featuring both personality constructs. In fact, Novelty Seeking and alexithymia are rooted in behavior and inescapably have a strong action component, resulting in stronger responses in the structures more focused on action and embodiment, as the cerebellum is.
Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel
Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention. Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention. Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....
McCrae, R.R.; Terracciano, A.; Leibovich, N.B.; Schmidt, V.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Neubauer, A.; De Fruyt, F.; Munyae, M.; Flores-Mendoza, C.; Dahourou, D.; Ayearst, L. E.; Trobst, K.K.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Bratko, D.; Marušic´, I.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Mortensen, L.K.; Jensen, H.H.; Allik, J.; Realo, A.; Sineshaw, T.; Rolland, J-P.; Petot, J.M.; Camart, N.; Angleitner, A.; Ostendorf, F.; Yik, M.; Jónsson, F. H.; Pramila, V.S.; Halim, M. S.; Jaya, A.; Shahriar Shahidi, S.; Barbaranelli, C.; Shimonaka, Y.; Gakuin, B.; Nakazato, K.; Abdel Khalek, A. M.; Alansari, B. M.; Khoury, B.; Mastor, K.A.; Falzon, R.; Lauri, M.A.; Borg Cunen, M.A.; Scicluna Calleja, S.; Diaz-Loving, R.; Ghayur, M. A.; Fischer, R.; Oluyinka Ojedokun, A.; Prentice, G.; McRorie, M.; Wang, L.; Reátegui, N.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; del Pilar, G.E.H.; Sekowski, A.; Klinkosz, W.; Pedroso de Lima, M.; Porrata, J.; Martin, T.A.; Ficková, E.; Adamovová, L.; Rus, V.R.; Podobnik, N.; Zupancic, A.; Ahn, H.; Ahn, Ch.; Avia, M. D.; Sánchez-Bernardos, M.L.; Ruch, W.; Rossier, J.; Chittcharat, N.; Gülgöz, S.; Nansubuga, F.; Smith, P.B.; Matsumoto, D.; Diener, E.; Beer, A.; Humrichouse, J.; Budzinski, L.; Oishi, S.; Knežević, G.; Djuric Jocic, D.
Roč. 89, č. 3 (2005), s. 407-425 ISSN 0022-3514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/01/1507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : personality * five-factor model * cross - cultural * culture-level analyses * culture profiles Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 4.211, year: 2005
Janzen, B. L.; And Others
Examined relationship between bulimic symptomatology as measured by scores on Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R) and personality characteristics based on Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised in nonclinical sample of 166 female college students. Obtained relationship between Neuroticism, Addictiveness and scores on BULIT-R. (Author/NB)
Spil, Antonius A.M.; Klein, Richard
Despite several personal health record (PHR) product offerings from major technology sector players over the past years, the notion of tracking and maintaining one׳s personal health information electronically has failed to takeoff among consumers. Accordingly, we explore factors potentially shaping
Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus
The Personal Inquiry Manager (PIM) is an integration approach based on a mobile application, based on Android, to support the IBL process and gives users mobile access to their inquiries. Moreover it facilitates a more self-directed approach as it enables to set up their own personal inquiries. The
Djang, Philipp A.
Describes a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Approach for the selection of personal computers that combines the capabilities of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Integer Goal Programing. An example of how decision makers can use this approach to determine what kind of personal computers and how many of each type to purchase is given. (nine…
The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis
Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude
To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....
This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant
Pappas, Marjorie L.
Virtual libraries are becoming more and more common. Most states have a virtual library. A growing number of public libraries have a virtual presence on the Web. Virtual libraries are a growing addition to school library media collections. The next logical step would be personal virtual libraries. A personal virtual library (PVL) is a collection…
The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality
Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M
Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....
De Raad, B.; Doddema-Winsemius, M
In this study we investigate the usefulness of the instinct-conception for personality trait-research. Of particular interest is the effectiveness-connotation of instincts for personality conceptualizations. In its kind, the study forms an indirect test of the so-called psycholexical approach and
Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper
Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...
Deixis is one of the important topics in pragmatics.Deixis can be classified into different types, but this paper only focuses on person deixis.Through the detail analysis of the usage of it we come to the conclusion that in order to understand utterances better we need to make clear the complexity of person deixis.
K. Nahit Ozmenler
Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed
Juan Fernando Sellés
Full Text Available In this work we distinguish between freedom in the human manifestations (intelligence, will,actions and personal freedom in the personal intimacy. This second is beyond the freedom reached bythe classic and modern thought, since it takes root in the personnel act of being. Because of it, it is not possible to characterize this freedom like the classic description as ‘domain over the own acts’, becauseit is a description of ‘categorial’ order; neither like present day ‘autonomy’ or ‘independence’, becausethe existence of one person alone is impossible, since ‘person’ means relation, personal free openingto other persons, description of the ‘transcendental’ order and, therefore, to the margin of limits.
Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...
Full Text Available To provide users with more suitable and personalized service, personalization is widely used in various fields. Current e-Learning systems search for learning resources using information search technology, based on the keywords that selected or inputted by the user. Due to lack of semantic analysis for keywords and exploring the user contexts, the system cannot provide a good learning experiment. In this paper, we defined the concept and characteristic of the personalized learning service, and proposed a semantic learning service personalized framework. Moreover, we made full use of semantic technology, using ontologies to represent the learning contents and user profile, mining and utilizing the friendship and membership of the social relationship to construct the user social relationship profile, and improved the collaboration filtering algorithm to recommend personalized learning resources for users. The results of the empirical evaluation show that the approach is effectiveness in augmenting recommendation.
Pushpa S Pudakalkatti
Full Text Available Personalized medicine is a branch of medicine that proposes customization of healthcare in which decisions and treatment are tailored according to individual patient needs. The field of personalized medicine relies on genetic information, proteomic information and clinical patient characteristics to individualize treatment. With advances in genetics, proteomics, pharmacogenetics and knowledgeable patient population, the opportunity exists to deliver never before levels of personalized care. Although general dentists may consider personalized medicine a concept for the future, the reality is that its direct application to everyday dentistry is closer than one might think. Use of personalized medicine in dentistry, especially in periodontology is progressing rapidly, and dentist should consider this approach while treating patients. Google and PubMed search was done to select articles for present review. Total 17 articles were used to compile information.
George, Daniel R; Stuckey, Heather L; Whitehead, Megan M
The creative arts can integrate humanistic experiences into geriatric education. This experiential learning case study evaluated whether medical student participation in TimeSlips, a creative storytelling program with persons affected by dementia, would improve attitudes towards this patient population. Twenty-two fourth-year medical students participated in TimeSlips for one month. The authors analyzed pre- and post-program scores of items, sub-domains for comfort and knowledge, and overall scale from the Dementia Attitudes Scale using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests to evaluate mean change in students' self-reported attitudes towards persons with dementia. A case study approach using student reflective writing and focus group data was used to explain quantitative results. Twelve of the 20 items, the two sub-domains, and the overall Dementia Attitudes Scale showed significant improvement post-intervention. Qualitative analysis identified four themes that added insight to quantitative results: (a) expressions of fear and discomfort felt before storytelling, (b) comfort experienced during storytelling, (c) creativity and openness achieved through storytelling, and (d) humanistic perspectives developed during storytelling can influence future patient care. This study provides preliminary evidence that participation in a creative storytelling program improves medical student attitudes towards persons with dementia, and suggests mechanisms for why attitudinal changes occurred.
Moore, Kelly E; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression, in the relation between BPD symptom severity and CJ involvement among 118 patients in residential substance abuse treatment (76% male; 62% African-American). Participants completed measures of BPD symptom severity, CJ contact, diversity of CJ charges, emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, physical aggression, and covariates (substance use severity and antisocial personality disorder symptoms). BPD symptom severity was associated with CJ contact through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors, and with diversity of CJ charges through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression; however, the indirect relations to diversity of CJ charges became non-significant when covariates were included. Results highlight the important role of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors in criminal behaviors among individuals with BPD symptoms, as well as the potential clinical utility of targeting this mechanism to prevent CJ involvement and/or recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi
Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.
Triandis, Harry C; Suh, Eunkook M
Ecologies shape cultures; cultures influence the development of personalities. There are both universal and culture-specific aspects of variation in personality. Some culture-specific aspects correspond to cultural syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism, and collectivism. A large body of literature suggests that the Big Five personality factors emerge in various cultures. However, caution is required in arguing for such universality, because most studies have not included emic (culture-specific) traits and have not studied samples that are extremely different in culture from Western samples.
Hilbig, Benjamin E; Glöckner, Andreas; Zettler, Ingo
Concerning the dispositional determinants of prosocial behavior and cooperation, work based on the classic 5 personality factors, and especially Agreeableness, has turned out somewhat inconsistent. A clearer picture has emerged from consideration of the HEXACO model of personality-though supported......-Humility (and certain aspects of five-factor Agreeableness) account for prosocial behavior-thus explaining previous inconsistencies and providing a more nuanced understanding of the links between basic personality and prosocial or cooperative behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)....
Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R
as controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3......Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...... dysfunction in the epilepsy group, the mere presence of a chronic disorder with potential social stigmatization influences personality....
One hundred people who were accused either of murder (70 persons) or of attempted murder (30 persons) in Queensland were personally examined by the writer. The methods, motives, and ways of prevention of homicide are discussed. A considerable preportion of murderers in this series were either mentally ill or severely emotionally disturbed at the time the crime was committed, and at least one in 10 of these murders could have been prevented. It is recommended that the treatment and assessment of potentially violent psychotic patients should be undertaken more carefully, and that the antipsychiatrist campaigns for the freedom of the individual should be tempered with a consideration for public safety.
Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S
Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.
Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.
Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.
Department of Veterans Affairs — Common Web Service for VONAPP. Retrieves, creates, updates and deletes a veteranÆs VNP_PERSON record in the Corporate database for a claim selected in the GUI by the...
Full Text Available Three workshop sessions on personal professional development were held during the Third IUPAP Women in Physics Conference. These were designed to teach participants about planning for career success, "survival skills," negotiation, and ways...
... of personal protective equipment A safety program for new employees is a necessary part of any orientation program An on-going safety program should be used to motivate employees to continue to use...
easily developed. A device that does not plug ... them and this is what we will study in this article and the ones to follow. Personal computers .... General, Control Data, Texas Instruments and Cray Research attempted downsizing their popular ...
Full Text Available Learning in terms of personality growth is a life-long process, just as personality growth itself is a life-long process. Kalin presents a number of psychological theories and their impact on moral development - which is an integral part of personality growth. The paper further treats the formation and changing of beliefs, and the role of education in the two processes. Great emphasis is put on cognitive theories; Kalin explains those formulated by L. Kohlberg and J. Rest. In discussing the process of shaping and changing one's views, special emphasis is put on the environment, or rather the social group an individual belongs to, and on the influence of personality traits and experience. The paper juxtaposes the influence - strengths and weaknesses - of the psychology of persuasion and education on forming and changing one's views, taken into consideration that views consist of cognitive, emotive and conative dimensions.
Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.
diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... in "omics"; 2. Additional training for the current personnel focused on the new methodologies; 3. Incorporation in the Laboratory of new competencies in data interpretation and counselling; 4. Improving cooperation and collaboration between professionals of different disciplines to integrate information...
Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.
The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.
Aida M. Aylamazyan
Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.
Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Geise, Aaron C; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W
The present research investigated the longitudinal relations between personality traits and narratives. Specifically, the authors examined how individual differences in 170 college students' narratives of personality change (a) were predicted by personality traits at the beginning of college, (b) related to actual changes and perceived changes in personality traits during college, and (c) related to changes in emotional health during college. Individual differences in narratives of personality trait change told in the 4th year of college fell into 2 dimensions: affective processing, characterized by positive emotions, and exploratory processing, characterized by meaning making and causal processing. Conscientious, open, and extraverted freshmen told exploratory stories of change as seniors. Emotionally healthy freshmen told stories of change that were high in positive affect. Both positive affective and exploratory stories corresponded to change in emotional stability and conscientiousness during college above and beyond the effects of perceived changes in these traits. In addition, both positive affective and exploratory narratives corresponded to increases in emotional health during college independent of the effects of changes in personality traits. These findings improve our understanding of how individuals conceptualize their changing identity over time.
Durao, Frederico Araujo; Dolog, Peter; Jahn, Karsten
This is report surveys KIWI related work in the personalization domain. It discusses various approaches from adaptive hypermedia, user modelling, and semantic web which deal with personalization. It gives some suggestions on potential personalization strategies which can exploit knowledge...
Marcela Rodica LUCA
The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.
Lieshout , Marc ,
Part 1: Invited Keynote Papers; International audience; This chapter discusses the value of personal data from two complementary perspectives: the value of personal data for firms and the value of personal data for individuals. The chapter starts with a short introduction into the rise of personal data markets – markets basically driven by the economic exploitation of personal data. Then the chapter discusses how firms asses the value of personal data. This can be done from different angles, ...
Background: Recently, not only the medical school curriculum but also medical students' attitude towards cadaver-based learning of anatomy has changed. This investigation is therefore designed to analyse students' attitudes towards human cadaveric dissection before and after exposure to dissection. Methods: A ...
Prof Alex C Asigbo
catalyst to human development and positive change; if the process .... (SAP) of the 1990s, to the third wave of democratic rule beginning in 1999, that introduced .... empowerment revolves around the utilization of resources and strategies to ...
Singh, T; Natu, M V
Attitudes of 40 interns towards rational drug use (RDU) were assessed, using a standardized Likert type scale. The assessment was repeated after 4 months to evaluate the effect of usual working conditions of the hospital. After this period, the attitudes had slided towards negative side (p attitudes of test group returned towards positive side (p attitudes.
A key consequence of globalisation is the integrative approach to reality whereby emphasis is ... between psychology and religion has revolutionised the field of psychology of religion ..... paranormal or abnormal. In this wise, one is able to ...
Full Text Available Procrastination as putting off until tomorrow what one had intended to do today is well-known tendency in everyday life. In an attempt to understand the character of procrastination in different life-domains, a large body of research has been accumulated over the last decades. This article was aimed to evaluate a specific decisional procrastination of school-to-work transition (SWT that is treated as maturity postponement. Two studies are reported examining SWT procrastination defined as career indecision among Polish students graduating universities. In Study 1 (N=366, attitudinal and identity statuses were analyzed as correlates of career procrastination. A path analysis conducted for the model, which was aimed to explain the influence of career self-efficacy and occupational commitment on career indecision (dependent variable, revealed its very good fitness (RMSEA=.000. Those two independent variables explain 10% of career indecision variance. Stepwise multiple regression analyses conducted to ascertain relationship of five identity statuses (Brzezińska, Piotrowski, 2010 to procrastination measure (career indecision showed that Commitment Making and Ruminative Exploration are strongest predictor variables. In study 2 (N=157, the stepwise multiple regression analyses conducted to ascertain the independent relationship of each of Big Five personality factor revealed that Neuroticism and Extraversion accounts of the most of explained variance of school-to-work transition procrastination.
Rolando Juan Soliz Estrada
Full Text Available Reconciling personal skills with the demands of a globalized and competitive market has become a pre-requisite for professionals aspiring for success in their careers. The quest for personal fulfillment has encouraged people to search for tools which develop their talents and balance their efforts, in order to achieve a better, happier and healthier life. As an option, planning, which historically was restricted to being an organizational tool, today has also come to be used by individuals who desire personal success. In this way, the objective of this article is to develop a model of Personal Strategic Planning which takes into account the various operation areas and human performance. The proposed model is divided into: Individual Planning, Professional Planning, Family Planning, Personal Business Planning and Political Participation, Social and Religious/Spiritual Planning and their respective fields. In order to analyse and validate the model, exploratory research of a qualitative nature was used through primary and secondary data sources. From the results obtained by the model, it is possible to consider their importance to future research, once the studied areas can be developed in subsequent works.
One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.
Full Text Available Flexible personality transforms both cultural environment and itself. Post-modern personality is both contemplative and active. On one hand, it is subject to inner imagination of a creative act, and on the other hand, to creation of a tangible product What is more, flexible personality is also autonomous, mature, healthy and well balanced, as well as stable and responsive to the demand for change. Due to ever quicker changes, flexible personality is a must. And it is a task. The impact of professional work of adults on the education of children, however, is being conditioned by the exrigid family and rigid enterprises or institutions in which adults are employed. Nevertheless, flexible educational style is not repressive, as it used to be, nor permissive and totally concentrated on the child. It is a choice between the two qualities. The educators' style is dependent on their attitude towards life (play and self-education and not only towards work. Nowadays, flexibility is a way towards quality management of social and personal changes.
on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...
The profession of the psychotherapist is very demanding and his or her personality, constituting one of the effective factors of the treatment, affects the entire psychotherapeutic process. The psychotherapist's desired personality traits include inner stability and high degree of self-knowledge leading to an understanding and accepting of his or her own self. The other useful personality traits--the therapist's openness for the patient as well as his or her unconditional acceptance, empathy and authenticity--create an optimal and safe therapeutical setting enabling the patient to communicate freely and sincerely. All these traits must be expressed simultaneously, otherwise they could be destructive. They are underscored by the therapist's ethical conduct towards the patient. Ignoring these moral principals anulls any positive influence of the above traits. The conclusion makes mention of Kant's categorical imperative.
Full Text Available The main idea of this study is to demonstrate that leadership is increasingly becoming an important and current global phenomenon known as personal branding. Leadership is of utmost importance for each human activity, and even for the entire progress of humanity which has always moved forward thanks to people and, naturally, great endeavors of great people. Leadership is what makes the world go round. Although a personal branding investigated in terms of defining, describing various practices and the growing importance of the use of these techniques, there is still a gap in the scientific literature regarding how technology advancement in the business to take advantage of the positioning of the individual in the global market. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper provide new insights into the personal branding that will be useful for the academic community and provide conclusions for its practical application in entrepreneurship.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work is to prove the relation between the personality traits and computer addicting. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2008 among the students of High School of Information Technology in Katowice. Material and methods: Research methods: Scale of Emotional Intelligens at Work, Social Competences Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Kimberly S. Young Test, Questionnaire to Assess the Level of Crises of Values, Directivity Scale and a questionnaire of 23 questions prepared for the research purposes. Results: 12.70% of the examined population met the criteria for computer addiction. In the own view, 76.34% considered themselves addicted to this medium. Conclusions: Personality traits such as emotional intelligence at work, inclination to authoritative behaviors as well as the value system may have influence on the addicting to a computer. No such relation was proven with reference to self – efficacy and anxious personality.
Hart, Daniel; Atkins, Robert; Fegley, Suzanne
Applied a person-centered approach to childhood personality development in 28 diverse samples of 3- to 6-year-olds studied over 6 years. Identified resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality types. Found that the undercontrolled personality type related to intellectual decline over 6 years. The number of family risks predicted…
The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…
Zhong, Baoliang; Xiang, Yutao; Cao, Xiaolan; Li, Yan; Zhu, Junhong; Chiu, Helen F K
Studies from Western countries consistently report very high rates of comorbid Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) among individuals with heroin addiction, but the reported proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin addiction who have co-morbid ASPD varies widely, possibly because Chinese clinicians do not consider personality issues when treating substance abuse problems. Conduct a meta-analysis of studies that assessed the proportion of Chinese individuals with heroin dependence who have comorbid ASPD. We searched for relevant studies in both Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Taiwan Electronic Periodical Services) and western databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycInfo). Two authors independently retrieved the literature, identified studies that met pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data used in the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using StatsDirect 3.0 and R software. The search yielded 15 eligible studies with a total of 3692 individuals with heroin dependence. Only 2 of the studies were rated as high-quality studies. All studies were conducted in rehabilitation centers or hospitals. The pooled lifetime prevalence of ASPD in these subjects was 30% (95%CI: 23%-38%), but the heterogeneity of results across studies was great (I(2) =95%, ptreatment for heroin dependence, but we estimate that about one-third of them meet criteria for ASPD. Further work is needed to increase clinicians' awareness of this issue; to compare the pathogenesis, treatment responsiveness and recidivism of those with and without ASPD; and to develop and test targeted interventions for this difficult-to-treat subgroup of individuals with heroin dependence.
Blume, Peter Erik
The article considers how data protection rules in Directive 95/46 EC and in national law apply to data processing carried out by an embassy. Three situations are discussed: processing inside and from the embassy, processing in the recieving country on behalf of an embassy, and transference...... of personal data from the embassy to the home country. Although an embassy may represent an unsafe area for the personal integrity of citizens, this topic has not been considered in data protection law and for this reason there are no references ind the article....
van Beusekom, W.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Heijden, M.; Janssen, J.H.; Spaak, E.
Until a decade ago, computers were only used by experts, for professional purposes solely. Nowadays, the personal computer (PC) is standard equipment in most western housekeepings and is used to gather information, play games, communicate, etc. In parallel, users' expectations increase and,
Drago, Idilio; Bocchi, Enrico; Mellia, Marco; Slatman, Herman; Pras, Aiko
Personal cloud storage services are data-intensive applications already producing a significant share of Internet traffic. Several solutions offered by different companies attract more and more people. However, little is known about each service capabilities, architecture and - most of all -
Distinktionen mellem person og rolle forslås som grundlag for et præcist og anlytisk anvendeligt begreb om performativitet. Begrebet tager sigte på at beskrive enkeltindividers og gruppers kommunikation med henblik på hvordan kommunikation etableres. Performativitet gør det muligt at iagttage den...
Vliert, van de Evert
No plant, animal or human is impervious to the problems posed by bitter winters and scorching summers. Two large studies suggest that many Chinese and US inhabitants have adapted their personality to the temperatures at the place where they grew up.
Furman, Wyndol; Lanthier, Richard P.
This study examined the role personality variables play in sibling relationships. It proposed that the characteristics of sibling relationships are influenced by: family constellation variables such as birth order, gender, and age spacing; parent-child relationships including quality of relationship and parent management of siblings; and the…
Yonezawa, Susan; McClure, Larry; Jones, Makeba
Thoughtful educators personalize schools--greeting students by name, offering extra academic help, checking in about serious family problems. Some go further, such as setting up specialized clubs or internships with local businesses. Such acts benefit students, helping them feel connected to school and helping teachers and other staff respond to…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Know Your Personal Computer 5. The CPU Base Instruction Set and Assembly Language Programming. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal ... Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...
Silles, Mary A.
Economists are only beginning to understand the relationship between personality traits and economic outcomes. This paper examines the influence of childhood social maladjustment on cognitive development, labor market earnings and career progression using longitudinal data drawn from the National Child Development Study. Net of differences in…
Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M
The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...
Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R
Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served...
Khvoshnyanskaya, I.R.; Vdovichenko, V.G.; Lozbin, A.Yu.
KATEP-AE Radiation Laboratory is the first organization in Kazakhstan officially licensed by the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee to provide individual dosimetry services. The Laboratory was established according to the international standards. Nowadays it is the largest company providing personal dosimetry services in the Republic of Kazakhstan. (author)
This paper introduces the concept of personalized physiological medicine that is specifically directed at the needs of the critically ill patient. This differs from the conventional view of personalized medicine, characterized by biomarkers and gene profiling, instead focusing on time-variant changes in the pathophysiology and regulation of various organ systems and their cellular and subcellular constituents. I propose that personalized physiological medicine is composed of four pillars relevant to the critically ill patient. Pillar 1 is defined by the frailty and fitness of the patient and their physiological reserve to cope with the stress of critical illness and therapy. Pillar 2 involves monitoring of the key physiological variables of the different organ systems and their response to disease and therapy. Pillar 3 concerns the evaluation of the success of resuscitation by assessment of the hemodynamic coherence between the systemic and microcirculation and parenchyma of the organ systems. Finally, pillar 4 is defined by the integration of the physiological and clinical data into a time-learning adaptive model of the patient to provide feedback about the function of organ systems and to guide and assess the response to disease and therapy. I discuss each pillar and describe the challenges to research and development that will allow the realization of personalized physiological medicine to be practiced at the bedside for critically ill patients.
An entire series could be dedicated to the topic of ethics in personalized medicine. Due to the advancements in NGS and genetic testing, personalized medicine is no longer something that will occur in the future, the reality is upon us now. Sequencing an individual's genome can have a substantial impact on the patient's treatment and overall quality of life. However, this can open "Pandora's box" especially if an individual does not want to know the information obtained. In addition, will insurance companies require genetic testing in order to pay for a targeted treatment? If the patient refuses to have the genetic testing, will they have to pay for their treatment out of pocket? In the human interest story presented, the researcher and his team discovered over activity of the FTL3 protein through RNA sequencing which resulted in rapid proliferation of his leukemic cells. He identified a drug marketed for advanced kidney cancer which was a FTL3 inhibitor. However, his insurance company refused to pay for the drug because it was not a known treatment for his condition of ALL. He incurred numerous out of pocket expenses in order to go into remission. Was it unethical for the insurance company to not pay for a treatment that ultimately worked but was not marketed or FDA cleared for his type of leukemia? There are so many questions and concerns when personalized medicine is implemented. Only time will tell the effects next generation sequencing and its role in personalized medicine will have in the future.
Larsen, Brian; Jonassen, Anders Bruun; Høgelund, Jan
Regeringens Arbejdsmarkedskommission kommmer medio 2009 med forslag til, hvordan den samlede arbejdsindsats varigt kan øges gennem reformer på arbejdsmarkedet. En måde det kan ske på, er ved at begrænse antallet af personer, der står uden for arbejdsmarkedet som følge af helbredsproblemer. Rappor...
De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, E.A.L.; Verbeke, Lize; Specht, J.
This chapter reviews the state of knowledge concerning personality development and psychopathology, as well as their mutual influence. Although these separate constructs are currently well documented, the research area concerning their interconnection is complex and is in need of more sophisticated
... of a mood disorder—not borderline personality disorder Self-harming behavior, such as cutting Recurring thoughts of suicidal ... symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors. Read more on NIMH’s Psychotherapies health topic ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Know Your Personal Computer - You and Your PC. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 14-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Know Your Personal Computer High-Level Operating Systems. Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 11-17. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).
The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…
Андрей Борисович Шалимов
Full Text Available Purpose: Our scientific purpose is creation of practical model of person’s representation in social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Classmates. As user of social networks, person is made conditional not only upon its own identity, but also upon the information about himself, which he is ready to share with his friends in contact list. Goal-setting and practical activities for their achievement mean that you should apply force, it can completely eliminates systemic factors, the system of power relations, which overwhelms human being in social networks.Methodology: The reconstruction of the model of human in the popularity of social networksResults: There is descripton of practical model of person's representation in social networks, it includes the management of own identity and the audience (the list of contacts. When person manages own identity, he answers the question, «Whom I can dare to be?». Person perceives himself in social networks' being, he understands himself and his place in the world, he identifies.Managing the way in social media means that you answer the question «What I want to tell?». Person in social media looks at events in the field of culture, economy, politics, social relations through the prism of his own attitudes, he forms and formulates his own agenda and he is going to tell about himself through them.Practical implications: Everyday people’s life, practical activities, including marketing in social networks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-51
Ouwersloot Hans; Tudorica Anamaria
Brand Personality is one of the core dimensions of brand equity. Brand personality refers to the emotional side of a brand image. It is created by all experiences of consumers with a brand, but advertising plays a dominant role in personality creation. In this paper we explore the mechanism that builds brand personality with the help of advertising. We integrate advertising models with the theory of brand personality. Our integrated framework leads to a number of propositions that set an agen...
John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.
John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.
Botvin, G J
The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide
Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J
Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal
Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.
In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors
Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.
Full Text Available Justinek tries to answer the question whether or not motorists have specific personality features which predispose them for safe and well-mannered driving. A good driver should have sensory abilities which enable psycho-motor coordiation of a vehicle, intellectual and cognitive features that are important for solving problems in new, unknown situations, and emotional and motivational trails defining a driver's maturity. Justmek advocates the belief that in training future drivers greater attention should be paid to developing these features which are vital for safe driving and appropriate behaviour of drivers in traffic. He also suggests certain learning methods leading to development of the above mentioned personality traits. Justinek introduces the notion of the 'philosophy of driving' as an essential educational category in training future drivers.
Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin
85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.
Kroncke, Brett M; Vanoye, Carlos G; Meiler, Jens; George, Alfred L; Sanders, Charles R
Whole human genome sequencing of individuals is becoming rapid and inexpensive, enabling new strategies for using personal genome information to help diagnose, treat, and even prevent human disorders for which genetic variations are causative or are known to be risk factors. Many of the exploding number of newly discovered genetic variations alter the structure, function, dynamics, stability, and/or interactions of specific proteins and RNA molecules. Accordingly, there are a host of opportunities for biochemists and biophysicists to participate in (1) developing tools to allow accurate and sometimes medically actionable assessment of the potential pathogenicity of individual variations and (2) establishing the mechanistic linkage between pathogenic variations and their physiological consequences, providing a rational basis for treatment or preventive care. In this review, we provide an overview of these opportunities and their associated challenges in light of the current status of genomic science and personalized medicine, the latter often termed precision medicine.
Whole human genome sequencing of individuals is becoming rapid and inexpensive, enabling new strategies for using personal genome information to help diagnose, treat, and even prevent human disorders for which genetic variations are causative or are known to be risk factors. Many of the exploding number of newly discovered genetic variations alter the structure, function, dynamics, stability, and/or interactions of specific proteins and RNA molecules. Accordingly, there are a host of opportunities for biochemists and biophysicists to participate in (1) developing tools to allow accurate and sometimes medically actionable assessment of the potential pathogenicity of individual variations and (2) establishing the mechanistic linkage between pathogenic variations and their physiological consequences, providing a rational basis for treatment or preventive care. In this review, we provide an overview of these opportunities and their associated challenges in light of the current status of genomic science and personalized medicine, the latter often termed precision medicine. PMID:25856502
Marshall, T.O.; Bartlett, D.T.; Burgess, P.H.; Cranston, C.S.; Higginbottom, D.J.; Sutton, K.W.
Personal dosimetry services approved by their national authorities for category A workers, invariably use passive dosemeters incorporating photographic film or thermoluminescent detectors. However, the performance characteristics of electronic dosemeters has improved substantially over the past decade to such an extent that in the opening lecture of the Solid State Dosimetry Conference at Oxford in 1986 the development of an electronic 'smart card' based on a silicon detector was briefly discussed. This idea has been taken up and at least one development programme is in progress aimed at the production of an electronic dosemeter suitable for use as a legal device. The more important performance requirements of personal dosemeters for this purpose are discussed and the earlier electronic dosemeter designs and the latest devices under development to meet this specification are compared. (author)
This paper uses the social theory of Erving Goffman in order to argue that confidentiality should be understood in relation to the mundane social skills by which individuals present and respect specific self-images of themselves and others during social interaction. The breaching of confidentiality is analysed in terms of one person's capacity to embarrass another, and so to expose that person as incompetent. Respecting confidentiality may at once serve to protect the vulnerable from an unjust society, and yet also protect the guilty from just accusation. Ethical reasoning about confidentiality must therefore recognize the dangers of prejudice and violence inherent in decisions to breach or to respect confidentiality. Case studies are used to illustrate the efficacy of this account, culminating with analyses of three examples from the UKCC document Confidentiality.
Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between chemical dependency and personalitystructure in a Brazilian sample. Participants were college students (n=35 and patients of a drug recovery center (n= 48. Two personality scales based on the Big-5 Model were used to measure Extraversion and Agreeableness. A semi-structured interview was used to identify events in the patients' life histories that might support specific classifications. Participants' scores were also compared to Brazilian normative samples. The results showed significant differences between clinical and non-clinical groups in Agreeableness, but not in Extraversion. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using scales and interview aspects for predicting group membership. The model showed 92.1% general predictive power. Results pointed to the advantage of using both interview and objective techniques to assess individuals with antisocial personality symptoms.
Groshong, Lisa; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Hipp, J Aaron; Besenyi, Gina M
Public parks hold promise for promoting population-level PA, but studies show a significant portion of park use is sedentary. Past research has documented the effectiveness of message-based strategies for influencing diverse behaviors in park settings and for increasing PA in nonpark contexts. Therefore, to inform message-based interventions (eg, point-ofdecision prompts) to increase park-based PA, the purpose of this study was to elicit insights about key attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency that affect park use and park-based PA in low-income urban neighborhoods. This study used 6 focus groups with youth and adults (n = 41) from low-income urban areas in Kansas City, MO, to examine perceptions of key attitudinal outcomes and motivations, perceived norms, key referents, and personal agency facilitators and constraints that affect park use and park-based PA. Participant attitudes reflected the importance of parks for mental and physical health, with social interaction and solitude cited as key motivations. Of 10 themes regarding perceived norms, influential others reflected participants' ethnic makeup but little consensus emerged among groups. Social and safety themes were cited as both facilitators and constraints, along with park offerings and setting. Information about attitudes, perceived norms, and personal agency can increase understanding of theoretically derived factors that influence park-based PA and help park and health professionals create communication strategies to promote PA.
Prasad, R.; Skouby, Knud Erik
The applications of PN will be realised under many scenarios where users can have access to their personal network all the time. This network will enable the user to share critical information, play games, control their home remotely, etc. All this will be achieved with seamless interworking...... and handover between networks and user devices. This paper presents an array of use case scenarios that validates the ubiquitous usage of PN....
Full Text Available The schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a lack of interest in close relationships, both in the family and in other interpersonal relationships, including intimate/sexual interactions, a superiority of introverted activities, emotional coldness, estrangement and flattened affect (DSM-5. This video lecture is devoted to the review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. In addition, the lecture examines clinical cases and an example of managing such patients.
Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio
Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)
Imrie, Peter; Bednar, Peter
Abstract This report discusses ways in which new technology could be harnessed to create an intelligent Virtual Personal Assistant (VPA) with a focus on user-based information. It will look at examples of intelligent programs with natural language processing that are currently available, with different categories of support, and examine the potential usefulness of one specific piece of software as a VPA. This engages the ability to communicate socially through natural language processing, hol...
The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation
Lee, Seong U; Cho, Cheol Ho; Ko, Il Du
This book contains four studies of CAD on personal computers. The first thing is computer graphics in computer-aided design by Seong U Lee. The second thing is graphics primer and programming with Fortran by Seong U Lee. The third thing is application of Auto cad by Il Do Ko. The last thing is application of CAD in building construction design by Cheol Ho Cho.
Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for
Diego Carlo D'agostino
Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.
Koen, Nadia; Du Preez, Ilse; Loots, Du Toit
Current clinical practice strongly relies on the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases using methods determined and averaged for the specific diseased cohort/population. Although this approach complies positively with most patients, misdiagnosis, treatment failure, relapse, and adverse drug effects are common occurrences in many individuals, which subsequently hamper the control and eradication of a number of diseases. These incidences can be explained by individual variation in the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of a patient. Various "omics" approaches have investigated the influence of these factors on a molecular level, with the intention of developing personalized approaches to disease diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics, the newest addition to the "omics" domain and the closest to the observed phenotype, reflects changes occurring at all molecular levels, as well as influences resulting from other internal and external factors. By comparing the metabolite profiles of two or more disease phenotypes, metabolomics can be applied to identify biomarkers related to the perturbation being investigated. These biomarkers can, in turn, be used to develop personalized prognostic, diagnostic, and treatment approaches, and can also be applied to the monitoring of disease progression, treatment efficacy, predisposition to drug-related side effects, and potential relapse. In this review, we discuss the contributions that metabolomics has made, and can potentially still make, towards the field of personalized medicine. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and more than 1.5 million new cases and more than 0.5 million deaths were reported during 2010 in the United States alone. Following completion of the sequencing of the human genome, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the human epigenome, proteome, and metabolome; a better understanding of pharmacogenomics has been developed, and the potential for customizing health care for the individual has grown tremendously. Recently, personalized medicine has mainly involved the systematic use of genetic or other information about an individual patient to select or optimize that patient’s preventative and therapeutic care. Molecular profiling in healthy and cancer patient samples may allow for a greater degree of personalized medicine than is currently available. Information about a patient’s proteinaceous, genetic, and metabolic profile could be used to tailor medical care to that individual’s needs. A key attribute of this medical model is the development of companion diagnostics, whereby molecular assays that measure levels of proteins, genes, or specific mutations are used to provide a specific therapy for an individual’s condition by stratifying disease status, selecting the proper medication, and tailoring dosages to that patient’s specific needs. Additionally, such methods can be used to assess a patient’s risk factors for a number of conditions and to tailor individual preventative treatments. Recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives of personalized medicine in cancer are discussed.
This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series that has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, radiation protection officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have responsibility for ensuring the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide training, instruction and information for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Personal protective equipment (PPE) includes clothing or other special equipment that is issued to individual workers to provide protection against actual or potential exposure to ionizing radiations. It is used to protect each worker against the prevailing risk of external or internal exposure in circumstances in which it is not reasonably practicable to provide complete protection by means of engineering controls or administrative methods. Adequate personal protection depends on PPE being correctly selected, fitted and maintained. Appropriate training for the users and arrangements to monitor usage are also necessary to ensure that PPE provides the intended degree of protection effectively. This Manual explains the principal types of PPE, including protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Examples of working procedures are also described to indicate how PPE should be used within a safe system of work. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of a more comprehensive training programme or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Some of the RPE described in this Manual should be used under the guidance of a qualified expert
Maslowska, E.; Smit, E.G.; van den Putte, B.
Personalized communication has become a very popular marketing strategy, but the research on its effectiveness is still limited. This study examined the effectiveness of personalized digital newsletters in terms of increased attention, evaluation, attitude, and intention. Participants (N = 124) were
Koerting, Johanna; Pukrop, Ralf; Klein, Philipp; Ritter, Kathrin; Knowles, Mark; Banzhaf, Anke; Gentschow, Laura; Vater, Aline; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael; Roepke, Stefan
This pilot study was a comparison of dimensional models assessing personality traits and personality pathology in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD and adults diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a nonclinical control sample of healthy adults. Personality traits were assessed using the NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R) and dimensional personality pathology with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ). Adults with ADHD and BPD produced higher Emotional Dysregulation/Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior scores than controls. For the Extraversion/Inhibitedness scale, adults with BPD produced significantly lower scores than adults with ADHD and controls. On the Conscientiousness/Compulsivity domains, Conscientiousness scores were lower for both disorders, whereas low Compulsivity values were specific to adult ADHD. Our results suggest that patients with adult ADHD and BPD have distinguishable profiles of personality traits and personality pathology. © The Author(s) 2012.
Anderson, Marc H.
Personality affects a wide variety of issues in organizational behavior, human resource management, and strategic management. Instructors teaching personality often have students take personality tests and then give them their scores. This passive approach to giving test feedback suffers from several weaknesses dealing with distinct perceptual…
This issue in the "Connect" series is a field report that discusses how a student's personal competencies--cognitive, metacognitive, motivational, and social/emotional--propel learning and other forms of goal attainment. These personal competencies are personal to the individual in their shape, size, and effect, but they are enhanced by…
* Corresponding author: University of Windesheim, Zwolle, The Netherlands Email: email@example.com Submitted for publication: 3rd November 2017 Accepted for publication: 12th March 2018 Published: 16th May 2018 https://doi.org/10.19043/ipdj.81.011 Abstract Context: This critical reflection is about the positive effects for educational and research settings of participation in a two-day programme entitled ‘Using participatory action research and appreciative inquiry to research healthcare practice’. Aims: To reflect on the journey of positive developments in research and education that started with participation in this programme. Using Caring Conversations (Dewar, 2011 as a reflective framework of questions, this article discusses the journey in order to encourage others to consider the approach of appreciative inquiry to bring to life the concept of co-creation in research and education. Conclusions and implications for practice: Participation in this programme has led to the implementation of a variety of actions in educational and research settings. Central to all these actions is an appreciative approach to co-creation as a counterpart to today’s prevailing problem-based viewpoint. A possible factor behind these developments was the power of vulnerability experienced during the programme, a shared process of transformational learning. Implications for practice: This critical reflection: Provides an invitation to shift from a problem-based focus to a positive revolution Provides an appreciative reflective story about the power of vulnerability as an inspiration for others to move out of their comfort zone and seek to discover their own exceptionality Supports a shift from a facilitator-led to a co-creation approach in doing research and teaching with older adults Keywords: Emotional touchpoints, appreciative inquiry, Caring Conversations, practice development, co-creation, transformational learning theory IDEAS AND INFLUENCES Person-centred healthcare research: a personal influence Hazel M. Chapman
Full Text Available This commentary assesses the contribution made by the person-centred healthcare research of McCormack et al (2017 to research methodology and our ability to evaluate an organisation’s claims to be person-centred. It discusses the importance of person-centred ethical approaches within rigorous research methodologies.
Mullins-Sweatt, S.N.; Smit, V.; Verheul, R.; Oldham, J.; Widiger, T.A.
Objective: To obtain the opinions and preferences of practising clinicians about the clinical utility of personality scales included within 8 alternative dimensional models of personality disorder for inclusion within an official diagnostic nomenclature. Method: Psychiatrists (n = 226) and
Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.
Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the
Lay persons usually understand that the personality has consistency and causality. They also have the knowledge of what contents the personality consists of. Research of "theories of mind," which focuses on the developmental processes of the naive understanding of mind, suggests three stages : (a) alignment of actions (imitation) fosters the foundation of social cognition in young children (i.e., understanding that the mind causes behaviors, grasping the identity of a person, and discovering ...
Nunomiya, Tomoya; Yamauchi, Hideshi; Shibata, Tetsuo
Fuji Electric advanced the development of the conventional alarm personal dosemeter (APD) by adopting JIS Z 4312 (2002), which reflects IEC61526 (1998), and by improving the radiation performance characteristics, electromagnetic performance characteristics and mechanical performance characteristics of the APD (acquiring a CE marking). This new dosemeter will target overseas market in the future. The APD is a suitable dosemeter for detecting and monitoring radiation exposure to personnel working in the controlled areas of nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power stations. The APD product line includes 'gamma ray', 'gamma ray + beta ray' and 'gamma ray + neutron' models. (author)
Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero
Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.
The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.
Best, G; Brazil, R; Fry, M; Joyce, L; Owens, J; Pashley, S
The government is likely to move from a centralised corporatist form of governance to a more collaborative approach. This will require chief executives to rely on a style of leadership which derives more from personal influence than positional forms of power. It may be time to discuss the future of politically appointed chairs and whether the chief executive should be the sole local leader. The government's commitment to delegating power to regional tiers is likely to have a major impact on the nature of leadership in the NHS.
—constitutes one of the main areas of interest, dividing cultures into either contact or low-contact cultures. Examples of proxetics—human spatial behavior studied in terms of universal spacing patterns and cultural similarities—are presented. Finally, future directions for the study of PS in the digital age...... functions. The integrity zone has no fixed size but varies according to variables such as age, gender, personality, relation, and culture. The key theoretical traditions and models are presented and the field's methodological techniques and measurements are discussed. Proxemics—cultural differences...
between textual elements, visual and other elements; the types of information given; the way it addresses users; and to what degree and in what forms interactive potentials for dialogue are constructed. The ways in which the relation between the official, political person, the representative of the nation...... the political leaders are linked to national symbols and national cultural identity. The last part of the article discusses the empirical data on the rising importance of political websites for the general population. Keywords Internet Political websites Democracy Political communication Interactivity...
The education system is increasingly being managed with the help of competence goals that are so clear-cut that we are hindering the students from making decisions and working things out for themselves. Therefore, they are not adequately prepared for the society of the future. Although we do...... not know what the future will bring, we do know that they must continue to learn and be creative. Professor Katrin Hjort, therefore, is fighting for an education system that stimulates students’ personal development, which is also crucial for their motivation....
Antonijević, Smiljana; Stern Cahoy, Ellysa
This paper presents findings of a Mellon Foundation–funded study conducted at Penn State University at University Park during Fall 2012 that explored scholars’ information practices across disciplines encompassing the sciences, humanities, and social sciences. Drawing on results of the Web......-based survey and ethnographic interviews, we present findings related to academics’ practices in discovering, storing, citing, and archiving information, as well as their views on the role of library in the digital age. The paper harvests a comparative multidisciplinary perspective of our study, identifying...... principles and technical architecture that support digital scholarship and facilitate the development of literacies for faculty personal information management....
Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Charlton, John P.; Jagger, Richard
"First-Person Shooter computer games are designed to be immersive experiences yet the phenomenon of immersion is little understood. This article surveys theories of immersion in virtual worlds and examines FPS game elements that might contribute to the state. The roles of attention and positive...... feedback in facilitating player immersion in FPS games is explored. In particular, the role of selective attention is highlighted before the article finishes with a discussion on the design of immersion in FPS games using the principles presented here."...
Full Text Available This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder. The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.
Miner, Craig A.; Bates, Paul E.
Describes a person-centered planning approach for involving students with disabilities and their families in the transition planning process. Components of person-centered planning are discussed, including development of a personal profile, identification of future lifestyle preferences, action steps and responsible parties, and necessary changes…
Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas
Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit
Marcela Rodica LUCA
Full Text Available The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.
Saugstrup, Dan; Henten, Anders
The aim of the paper is to examine the issue of business modeling in relation to personal networks, PNs. The paper builds on research performed on business models in the EU 1ST MAGNET1 project (My personal Adaptive Global NET). The paper presents the Personal Network concept and briefly reports...
This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder. The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.
Hopwood, Christopher J.; Thomas, Katherine M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.
Two issues pertinent to the DSM-5 proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the six proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders. PMID:22250660
Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.
A brief but valid self-report measure to screen for personality disorders (PDs) would be a valuable tool in making decisions about further assessment and in planning optimal treatments. In psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples, we compared the validity of three screening measures: the PD scales from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, a self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen, and the self-directedness scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Despite their different theoretical origins, the screeners were highly correlated in a range from .71 to .77. As a result, the use of multiple screeners was not a significant improvement over any individual screener, and no single screener stood out as clearly superior to the others. Each performed modestly in predicting the presence of any PD diagnosis in both the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric groups. Performance was best when predicting a more severe PD diagnosis in the psychiatric sample. The results also highlight the potential value of multiple assessments when relying on self-reports. PMID:17492920
Unlock Your Personalization is based on a unique and novel technique, C5, which can improve your quality of life. C5 offers five basic key parameters for strengthening your body and mind: “Concentration”, “Calmness”, “Confidence”, “Contentment” and “Creativity”, to which the book gives a detailed...... introduction. The book presents life’s five stages, namely “Innocence”, “Intelligence”, “Innovativeness”, “Involvement”, and “Infinity”. Life is short, and its limits are given. Living should bring happiness and pleasure, but most people have to cope with enormous problems stemming from heavy workloads, stress...... of life through unlocking your personalization. The C5 concept looks on creativity as the foundation on which to build a successful life with no stress or tension, allowing you to enjoy nights of deep, peaceful sleep. This is what a good quality of life is really all about. Practicing C5 is the simplest...
Li, A S
The personal experiences at the Beijing Fourth World Conference on Women and the Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) Forum were described by a Chinese American veterinarian. The author became aware that women were primarily the persons living in poverty in the world. Business and government appeared more concerned with economic growth. As a consequence, developed countries with 20% of world population consume 80% of the world's resources. The privilege of money secures a position of power in the world, power to buy up the resources of the world. This process is unsustainable and inequitable. Women are viewed as key players in shifting the balance in favor of a higher quality of life. The NGO workshops on Women in Livestock Development (WILD) was run by women veterinarians, who worked at the local level with women in poor areas. WILD operates out of offices in Arkansas in the USA. WILD women work in Sichuan, China, among the Han and Tibetans in increasing family income through heifer and livestock production. Conference participants from WILD programs talked about their experiences with increased income and loans to other women. The World Women's Veterinary Association members, who attended the conference, visited a small animal clinic in Beijing run by the Agriculture Ministry, and Beijing Agricultural University and its Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Demonstrations were given of small animal acupuncture. The author found the conference to be a success and found that press reports misrepresented the energy generated by the meeting.
Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick
This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to analyze personal branding development from personal brand identity, personal brand positioning, and personal brand assessment. The object of this research was Diana Rikasari's blog “Hot Chocolate and Mint”. She is one of prominent influence and fashion blogger from Indonesia. The research used the qualitative method with data collection by virtual observation from June until August 2016. Rikasari’s personal branding showed on her blog was the fashionably smart woman who had entrepreneurship competence. This research finds out that Diana Rikasari success to make her personal identity by her blog profile and blog posting. Her positioning is clear as Indonesian modern woman. The personal brand assessment can be seen through the achievements and feedbacks on her blog post, both positive or negative.
Greven, Inez M; Downing, Paul E; Ramsey, Richard
Neuroscience research has examined separately how we detect human agents on the basis of their face and body (person perception) and how we reason about their thoughts, traits or intentions (person knowledge). Neuroanatomically distinct networks have been associated with person perception and person knowledge, but it remains unknown how multiple features of a person (e.g. thin and kind) are linked to form a holistic identity representation. In this fMRI experiment, we investigated the hypothesis that when encountering another person specialised person perception circuits would be functionally coupled with circuits involved in person knowledge. In a factorial design, we paired bodies or names with trait-based or neutral statements, and independent localiser scans identified body-selective and mentalising networks. When observing a body paired with a trait-implying statement, functional connectivity analyses demonstrated that body-selective patches in bilateral fusiform gyri were functionally coupled with nodes of the mentalising network. We demonstrate that when forming a representation of a person circuits for representing another person's physical appearance are linked to circuits that are engaged when reasoning about trait-based character. These data support the view that a 'who' system for social cognition involves communication between perceptual and inferential mechanisms when forming a representation of another's identity. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.
Duišin, Dragana; Batinić, Borjanka; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Vujović, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta
Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome.
Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.
Rodwell, John; Gulyas, Andre
To explore affective and attitudinal outcomes of aspects of the psychological contract, organizational justice and negative affectivity in nursing. Job satisfaction, mental health and commitment to organizations and the nursing profession is important for nurse retention. The psychological contract and organizational justice are related constructs that have been linked to these outcomes, as has the characteristic of negative affectivity. Rarely have the relationships between these concepts and outcomes been examined. Cross-sectional data were collected during November, 2007. Survey data collected on Registered Nurses and midwives from a large metropolitan hospital in Australia (n = 193, after removing missing cases and outliers) were analysed using structural equation modelling. The model used self-report measures of psychological contract obligations, fulfilment and breach, organizational justice and negative affectivity as predictors of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, career commitment and psychological distress. Goodness-of-fit statistics confirmed a well-fitting model. The model explained 49%, 29%, 60% and 47% of the variance in psychological distress, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and career commitment respectively. Findings support the influence of the psychological contract, fairness and individual differences on outcomes important to nurse retention. Keeping promises is more important than making promises that cannot be kept. The results support a discrepancy mechanism underlying fulfilment and breach. The impact of breach suggests that nurses take breach personally, whereas fulfilment may represent a global evaluation of discrepancies. Ultimately, fulfilling, rather than making promises, keeps nurses happy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...
Angelo, Peter [Oak Ridge, TN; Younkin, James [Oak Ridge, TN; DeMint, Paul [Kingston, TN
A personal annunciation device (PAD) providing, in an area of interest, compensatory annunciation of the presence of an abnormal condition in a hazardous area and accountability of the user of the PAD. Compensatory annunciation supplements primary annunciation provided by an emergency notification system (ENS). A detection system detects an abnormal condition, and a wireless transmission system transmits a wireless transmission to the PAD. The PAD has a housing enclosing the components of the PAD including a communication module for receiving the wireless transmission, a power supply, processor, memory, annunciation system, and RFID module. The RFID module has an RFID receiver that listens for an RFID transmission from an RFID reader disposed in a portal of an area of interest. The PAD identifies the transmission and changes its operating state based on the transmission. The RFID readers recognize, record, and transmit the state of the PAD to a base station providing accountability of the wearer.
Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
An apparatus for personal health maintenance has a sensor attached at least indirectly to a carrier member in turn attachable to a user or subject and configured for measurement of at least one physiological parameter of the user. A reservoir contains a preselected composition. An electronic processor is operatively connected to the sensor for receiving a signal therefrom encoding a measurement of the physiological parameter, the processor being configured for determining a divergence of the physiological parameter from a predetermined magnitude, the processor being operatively connected to a dispensing mechanism for ejecting, from the reservoir, an amount of the composition to be administered to the user to reduce divergence of the physiological parameter from the predetermined magnitude. The dispensing mechanism includes an expandable polymer composite layer with gas-filled micro-bubbles or microspheres expandable by operation of a heating element.
Manuel García Serrano
Full Text Available ¿Cómo debe orientarse una teoría que desee explicar la subjetividad básica de nuestra conciencia teniendo en cuenta nuestra supeditación a la vida social y al mundo natural? El trabajo que sigue analiza diferentes facetas de la constitución narrativa de la identidad personal defendiendo una nueva versión de la idea de unidad sintética de la apercepción. Las tesis en él avanzadas se distancian así en un punto capital de la crítica hermenéutica al subjetivismo de la filosofía kantiana, al tiempo que adoptan y desarrollan algunos aspectos de dicha crítica.
The paper addresses the complex interplay between patients, healthcare professionals, and technology in relation to the treatment of chronic patients. It reflects on an ongoing interdisciplinary action research project striving to design and implement IT support for communication and collaboration...... in the distributed heterogeneous network of chronic patients and the healthcare professionals that take care of them. An interactive personal health record (PHR) has been designed as part of the project. As such it is part of a trend to find ways to include patients in their own care process. This has been motivated...... by expected health benefits for the patients as well as promises to lead to reduced costs for a burdened healthcare system....
Full Text Available The relation between person and epistemicity has been a topic of investigation throughout the humanities, including linguistics, but has mostly been focused on how conceptualisations of these two notions overlap, or diverge. This paper reviews some of these conceptualisations, but also adds a finergrained picture of how they intersect in the world’s languages. Purported categories such as egophoric marking and lesser known expressions such as non-selected arguments (i.e. "ethical datives" are compared to evidentials and modals from a synchronic and diachronic perspective in order to explain how the roles of the speech-act participants as specific arguments relate to their respective function as epistemic authorities. The aim of the paper is to introduce separate contributions relating to such systems as they are found in various parts of the world.
Full Text Available Le photographe américain Elliott Erwitt expose à la MEP une sélection de ses travaux intitulée « Personal Best » ou « le meilleur de ses photographies personnelles ».Si les cartels ne précisent ni le format ni le type de tirages, l’exposition réunit un ensemble éclectique de photographies exclusivement noir et blanc (à l’exception de la dernière image représentant la cérémonie d’investiture du président Barack Obama en janvier 2009. Cette rétrospective oscille entre différents genres photogr...
Full Text Available Generally, integrity is associated with leadership, especially in the organization or company. Integrity in leadership becomes a growing concern in business and organizations. The aim of this study was to find out the connection that could be shaped between personal integrity and the skill of leadership especially in the performance of work. This study used a library research, a literature study that done by using the available resources and relevant literature, related to the topic being discussed by the author. Books or journal articles related to topics were used as background reading to understand well about the problems of integrity and leadership, especially in the organization or company. This study finds out that the leader integrity is related to follower work role performance and that this effect is fully mediated through follower affective organizational commitment.
Daniel B. Garrie
Full Text Available Spyware presents a threat of privacy infringement to unassuming internet users irrespective of their country of citizenship. European legislation attempts to protect end-users from unethical processing of their personal data. Spyware technologies, however, skirts these laws and often break them in their entirety. Outlawing the spyware and strengthening the legal consent requirement to mine data are statutory solutions that can prevent spyware users from skirting the law. An internationally standardized technology education system for the judiciaries in Europe and the U.S. can help ensure that when spyware users do break the law, they cannot hide by escaping from one nation to another without being held accountable. Transnational improvements are necessary to remedy the global spyware epidemic.
da Luz, Tiara Santos; Borja, Ana Lúcia Vieira de Freitas
Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%), auricular fullness (30.5%) and humming (27.5), being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p = 0,000) and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.
Tiara Santos da Luz1
Full Text Available Introduction: Practical and portable the personal stereos if had become almost indispensable accessories in the day the day. Studies disclose that the portable players of music can cause auditory damages in the long run for who hear music in high volume for a drawn out time. Objective: to verify the prevalence of auditory symptoms in users of amplified players and to know its habits of use. Method: Observational prospective study of transversal cut carried through in three institutions of education of the city of Salvador BA, being two of public net and one of the private net. 400 students had answered to the questionnaire, of both the sex, between 14 and 30 years that had related the habit to use personal stereos. Results: The symptoms most prevalent had been hyperacusis (43.5%, auricular fullness (30.5% and humming (27.5, being that the humming is the symptom most present in the population youngest. How much to the daily habits: 62.3% frequent use, 57% in raised intensities, 34% in drawn out periods. An inverse relation between exposition time was verified and the band of age (p=0,000 and direct with the prevalence of the humming. Conclusion: Although to admit to have knowledge on the damages that the exposition the sound of high intensity can cause the hearing, the daily habits of the young evidence the inadequate use of the portable stereos characterized by long periods of exposition, raised intensities, frequent use and preference for the insertion phones. The high prevalence of symptoms after the use suggests a bigger risk for the hearing of these young.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment.
Leibler, Jessica H.; Nguyen, Daniel D.; Le?n, Casey; Gaeta, Jessie M.; Perez, Debora
Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. While the obstacles to personal hygiene associated with homelessness may increase risk of infectious disease, hygiene-related behaviors among people experiencing homelessness has received limited attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study of individuals experiencing homelessness in Boston,...
Ekinci, Yuksel; Hosany, Sameer
In an increasingly competitive tourism market place, destination marketers face the challenge of attracting tourists through destination branding and destination personality building practices. As places become substitutable, destination personality, defined as the set of human characteristics associated with a destination, is seen as a viable metaphor for crafting a destination’s unique identity. At the conceptual level, the importance of destination personality has been widely acknowledged,...
Full Text Available Background The United Nations (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a milestone in the recognition of the human rights of persons with disabilities, including the right to health and rehabilitation. South Africa has signed and ratified the CRPD but still has a long way to go in reforming policies and systems in order to be in compliance with the convention. This paper seeks to fill a gap in the literature by exploring what the barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD are, as identified by representatives of the disability community. Methods This investigation used a qualitative, exploratory methodology. 10 semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of representatives of disabled persons organizations (DPOs, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, and service providers in South Africa were conducted. Participants were drawn from urban, peri-urban, and rural settings in order to reflect diverse perspectives within South Africa. Data was analysed using a multi-stage coding process to establish the main categories and relationships between them. Results Six main categories of barriers to the implementation of the health and rehabilitation articles of the CRPD were identified. Attitude barriers including stigma and negative assumptions about persons with disabilities were seen as an underlying cause and influence on all of the other categories; which included political, financial, health systems, physical, and communication barriers. Conclusion The findings of this study have important implications for strategies and actions to implement the CRPD. Given the centrality of attitudinal barriers, greater sensitization around the area of disability is needed. Furthermore, disability should be better integrated and mainstreamed into more general initiatives to develop the health system and improve the lives of persons living in poverty in South Africa.
Åke V. Ström
Full Text Available Usually, Nordic heathenism is thought of as a fairy-tale or as an impersonal, collective event. Sacrifice (blót and ethics appear to be the main facts. Was there anything at all like piety, and could it, in this case, be spoken of as personal? The inhabitant of the North stands out as a more collectively thinking person, attached to dynasty, housecarls and family. However, there are a couple of examples in the texts of a "personal faith" and an interest in "the individual or his soul or destiny". It is quite clear, that the collective and impersonal traits in old Norse religion were far more prominent than in the religious currents of today, but there was in Nordic paganism a personal piety, too. It appeared not only in personal opinion and personal means of expression, but also in daily life as well. The single peasant, Viking, fisherman, artisan, housewife, was in his or her everyday work totally dependent on the blessing of the gods and on protection from the attacks of the demons. He who succeeded enjoyed this personal success because of personal sacrifices, personal fortune and personal blessing.
Leonid Z. Levit
Full Text Available Person-oriented conception of happiness (POCH worked out by the author of the article is based on the ideas of systemic approach. The model also serves as valuable personality theory integrating essential elements of the conceptions of Z. Freud, C. Jung, A. Maslow, C. Rogers, and some other scientists. We show how to solve some problems of modern psychology within POCH, and outline perspectives of further investigations. For the first time in world psychology, such concepts as “Egoism” and “Personal Uniqueness” are represented as multilevel systems. Their productive interaction at the higher levels helps a person achieve full-fledged, happy life.
Larsen, Ida Unmack; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Jensen, Tua
Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Vulnerability or resilience to psychiatric symptoms may be associated with personality traits. This exploratory study, aimed to investigate personality traits in a large cohort of HD carriers and at risk gene......-expansion negative individuals (HD non-carriers), exploring whether carrying the HD gene or growing up in an HD family influences personality traits. Forty-seven HD carriers, Thirty-nine HD non-carriers, and 121 healthy controls answered the Danish version of the revised NEO personality inventory. Comparisons...... symptoms. Our findings suggest that, there is no direct effect of the HD gene on personality traits, but that personality assessment may be relevant to use when identifying individuals from HD families who are vulnerable to develop psychiatric symptoms....
Hart, Nick; Haugli, Hans-C.; Poskett, Peter; Smith, K.
Inmarsat has been providing near global mobile satellite communications since 1982 and Inmarsat terminals are currently being used in more than 130 countries. The terminals have been reduced in size and cost over the years and new technology has enabled the recent introduction of briefcase sized personal telephony terminals (Inmarsat-M). This trend continues and we are likely to see Inmarsat handheld terminals by the end of the decade. These terminals are called Inmarsat-P and this paper focuses on the various elements required to support a high quality service to handheld terminals. The main system elements are: the handheld terminals; the space segment with the associated orbits; and the gateways to terrestrial networks. It is both likely and desirable that personal handheld satellite communications will be offered by more than one system provider and this competition will ensure strong emphasis on service quality and cost of ownership. The handheld terminals also have to be attractive to a large number of potential users, and this means that the terminals must be small enough to fit in a pocket. Battery lifetime is another important consideration, and this coupled with radiation safety requirements limits the maximum radiated EIRP. The terminal G/T is mainly constrained by the gain of the omnidirectional antenna and the noise figure of the RF front end (including input losses). Inmarsat has examined, with the support of industry, a number of Geosynchronous (GSO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite options for the provision of a handheld mobile satellite service. This paper describes the key satellite and orbit parameters and tradeoffs which affect the overall quality of service and the space segment costing. The paper also stresses not only the importance of using and sharing the available mobile frequency band allocations efficiently, but also the key considerations affecting the choice of feeder link bands. The design of the gateways
Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...
Correia Carlos João
Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.
Sanchez Hidalgo, M.; Galan Montenegro, P.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Hernandez Rodriguez, R.; Jimenez Nartin, A.; Cano Sanchez, J. J.
One question often raised by the hospital personnel dosimetry is the high incidence in the no monthly turnover of dosimeters, which is currently a high number of administrative dose assignments. The high number of workers with personal dosimetry and in many cases, the dispersion of workplaces makes it impossible to personalized management. To make a more direct and personal, and transmit information quickly and with guaranteed reception, has developed and implemented a system of personalized dosimetric information through messaging Short Message Service (SMS) and access to the history of dosimetric dosimetric and management through web space Service Hospital Radio physics.
This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...
Richard A. Hughes
Full Text Available The author portrays Russian philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev as a pioneer in Eastern Orthodox theology with his ideas of freedom and personality. After his deportation from the Soviet Union in 1922, Berdyaev expounded persona-lism in opposition to Western individualism and Marxist collecti-vism. Personality exists in the image and likeness of God, and it culminates in deification. He drew upon the Sobornost’ tradition of Russia and interpreted personality as a communion of love in contrast to reflective self-consciousness of the Augustinian tradition of Western theology.
Le Meur, Jean-Yves
Looking for "library" in the usual search engines of the World Wide Web gives: "Infoseek found 3,593,126 pages containing the word library" and it nicely proposes: "Search only within these 3,59 3,126 pages ?" "Yahoo! Found 1299 categories and 8669 sites for library" "LycOs: 1-10 von 512354 relevanten Ergebnissen" "AltaVista: About 14830527 documents match your query" and at the botto m: "Word count: library: 15466897" ! Excite: Top 10 matches and it does not say how many can be browsed... "Library" on the World Wide Web is really popular. At least fiveteen million pages ar e supposed to contain this word. Half of them may have disappeared by now but one more hit will be added once the search robots will have indexed this document ! The notion of Personal Library i s a modest attempt, in a small environment like a library, to give poor users lost in cyber-libraries the opportunity to keep their own private little shelves - virtually. In this paper, we will l ook at the usual functionalities of library systems...
DALLAS, DAVID C.; SANCTUARY, MEGAN R.; QU, YUNYAO; KHAJAVI, SHABNAM HAGHIGHAT; VAN ZANDT, ALEXANDRIA E.; DYANDRA, MELISSA; FRESE, STEVEN A.; BARILE, DANIELA; GERMAN, J. BRUCE
Proteins are not equally digestible—their proteolytic susceptibility varies by their source and processing method. Incomplete digestion increases colonic microbial protein fermentation (putrefaction), which produces toxic metabolites that can induce inflammation in vitro and have been associated with inflammation in vivo. Individual humans differ in protein digestive capacity based on phenotypes, particularly disease states. To avoid putrefaction-induced intestinal inflammation, protein sources and processing methods must be tailored to the consumer’s digestive capacity. This review explores how food processing techniques alter protein digestibility and examines how physiological conditions alter digestive capacity. Possible solutions to improving digestive function or matching low digestive capacity with more digestible protein sources are explored. Beyond the ileal digestibility measurements of protein digestibility, less invasive, quicker and cheaper techniques for monitoring the extent of protein digestion and fermentation are needed to personalize protein nourishment. Biomarkers of protein digestive capacity and efficiency can be identified with the toolsets of peptidomics, metabolomics, microbial sequencing and multiplexed protein analysis of fecal and urine samples. By monitoring individual protein digestive function, the protein component of diets can be tailored via protein source and processing selection to match individual needs to minimize colonic putrefaction and, thus, optimize gut health. PMID:26713355
Barthe, J.; Lahaye, T.; Moiseev, T.; Portal, G.
The control and management of neutron doses, received by workers in nuclear power or research facilities, requires a knowledge of cumulated dose equivalent or dose equivalent rate in real time. Individual dosemeters so far developed for this purpose are scarce and not very satisfactory. Passive dosemeters such as TLD systems based on the albedo effect, nuclear emulsions or solid track detectors, do not give sufficiently accurate measurements. Furthermore, the increase in the quality factor and the more restrictive new ICRP recommendations diminish the maximum admissible threshold making currently used systems obsolete. Other than bubble dosemeter systems, based on thermodynamic effects of a superheated gel, no simple electronic device is available at the present time. The development of diode based dosimetric gamma badges, having a size similar to that of credit cards, has stimulated us to design and develop a personal neutron dosemeter based on a double diode system. The results obtained are very encouraging and practical models should become available in the near future. (author)
The study set to investigate personal factors and personality characteristics as Predictors of customers satisfaction with health care services. The study utilized Ex-Post Facto design. A total number of 100 participants took part in the study which were made up of 57 (57%) males and 48 (48%) females, with a mean age of ...
Sutin, Angelina R; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Terracciano, Antonio
Personality traits have been associated with chronic disease. Less is known about the longitudinal relation between personality and disease and whether chronic disease is associated with changes in personality. Method. Participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,008) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and a standard medical interview at regularly scheduled visits; the Charlson Comorbidity Index, a weighted sum of 19 serious diseases, was derived from this interview. Using data from 6,685 visits, we tested whether personality increased risk of disease and whether disease was associated with personality change. Measured concurrently, neuroticism and conscientiousness were associated with greater disease burden. The impulsiveness facet of neuroticism was the strongest predictor of developing disease across the follow-up period: For every standard deviation increase in impulsiveness, there was a 26% increased risk of developing disease and a 36% increased risk of getting more ill. Personality traits changed only modestly with disease: As participants developed chronic illnesses, they became more conservative (decreased openness). Discussion. This research indicates that personality traits confer risk for disease, in part, through health-risk behaviors. These traits, however, were relatively resistant to the effect of serious disease.
Alphen, S.P. van; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.
BACKGROUND: Although it is generally agreed that personality disorders are an important topic in old-age psychiatry, DSM-5 has paid relatively little attention to older persons affected with this severe mental disorder. AIM: To look closely and carefully at several aspects of the way in which DSM-5
Chen, Chih-Han; Karvela, Maria; Sohbati, Mohammadreza; Shinawatra, Thaksin; Toumazou, Christofer
The rise of personalized diets is due to the emergence of nutrigenetics and genetic tests services. However, the recommendation system is far from mature to provide personalized food suggestion to consumers for daily usage. The main barrier of connecting genetic information to personalized diets is the complexity of data and the scalability of the applied systems. Aiming to cross such barriers and provide direct applications, a personalized expert recommendation system for optimized nutrition is introduced in this paper, which performs direct to consumer personalized grocery product filtering and recommendation. Deep learning neural network model is applied to achieve automatic product categorization. The ability of scaling with unknown new data is achieved through the generalized representation of word embedding. Furthermore, the categorized products are filtered with a model based on individual genetic data with associated phenotypic information and a case study with databases from three different sources is carried out to confirm the system.
Parks-Leduc, Laura; Feldman, Gilad; Bardi, Anat
Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…
Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter
The human element is often found to be the weakest link in the information security chain. The Personal Information Security Assistant project aims to address this by improving the privacy and security awareness of end-users and by aligning the user's personal IT environment to the user's security
Kinser, Amber E.
This performance text examines complexities of personal and maternal identity in family life. Speaking in first, second, and third person voices, the author offers autoethnographic accounts of the tensions between separateness and connectedness, normative and subjective motherhood, and novice and seasoned perspectives. The piece functions as a…
Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…
Thomas, Lisa Carlucci
In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.
Barbara Dębska; Agnieszka Kubacka
The article presents methods of acquiring and gathering data about users of internet portals, with particular emphasis on educational portals. Definitions, aims and tasks related to the process of personalization of e-learning portals are thoroughly discussed. So are knowledge acquisition techniques applied in personalization, especially artificial intelligence methods.
Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the personality disorders except antisocial. Dependent traits were associated with higher femininity and lower masculinity. Antisocial traits were associated with masculinity. Both men and women who typically behaved consistent with their gender had more narcissistic and histrionic features, whereas participants who typically behaved unlike their gender had more features of the Cluster A personality disorders. PMID:12489312
Delhalle, Sylvie; Bode, Sebastian F N; Balling, Rudi; Ollert, Markus; He, Feng Q
Big data generation and computational processing will enable medicine to evolve from a "one-size-fits-all" approach to precise patient stratification and treatment. Significant achievements using "Omics" data have been made especially in personalized oncology. However, immune cells relative to tumor cells show a much higher degree of complexity in heterogeneity, dynamics, memory-capability, plasticity and "social" interactions. There is still a long way ahead on translating our capability to identify potentially targetable personalized biomarkers into effective personalized therapy in immune-centralized diseases. Here, we discuss the recent advances and successful applications in "Omics" data utilization and network analysis on patients' samples of clinical trials and studies, as well as the major challenges and strategies towards personalized stratification and treatment for infectious or non-communicable inflammatory diseases such as autoimmune diseases or allergies. We provide a roadmap and highlight experimental, clinical, computational analysis, data management, ethical and regulatory issues to accelerate the implementation of personalized immunology.
Ahadi, Stephan A; Puente-Díaz, Rogelio
Two studies investigated relationships between traditional indicators of acculturation, cultural distance, acculturation strategies, and basic dimensions of personality as they pertain to psychological adjustment among Hispanic students. Although personality characteristics have been shown to be important determinants of psychological well-being, acculturation research has put less emphasis on the role of personality in the well-being of immigrants. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that basic dimensions of personality such as extraversion and neuroticism were strongly related to psychological adjustment. Acculturation strategies did not mediate the effect of personality variables, but cultural resistance made a small, independent contribution to the explanation of some aspects of negative psychological adjustment. The implications of the results were discussed.
Full Text Available Using technology people introduce themselves into a brand, a community could accept them without any complicated process. Librarians as supporting the development of libraries in an institution that requires a personal branding good on him, it is to change the public image of a librarian. Using theoretical approach this study dealts with a response to Personal branding of Librarian. This study argues that the presence of the Personal branding will defnitely have a big impact on the Library. A library that has a good image in the world will certainly be able to develop the programs to increase the support of its librarian Personal branding. So that the realization of Personal branding, this institution will supports a good image.
Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN
In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.
Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo
The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Benham, L.; O'Malley, R.; Todd, A. M.; Fassett, D.; Waitkus, B.
Parallels exist between American environmental practice and those of our criminal justice system. Common among these are "throw-away" approaches, often yielding more complex problems then those attempted to solve. Personal change can be expressed via deepening sense of context and purpose, extending beyond concerns for self. Incarceration often exacerbates a thirst for new meaning-making, highly relevant to both criminal and ecological rehabilitation. Primary field data was gathered from incarcerated men, with a focus on the Insight Garden Program in San Quentin State Prison. A mixed method was used, with open-ended qualitative interviews and three established multiple-choice survey instruments: an environmental literacy quiz; a Locus of Control test (a psychological survey measuring one's sense of self-agency); and the "Six Americas" survey instrument, which stratifies responses of climate change opinion. Two control groups in the same unit were included in the study: inmates taking other programs but not gardening, and inmates in no programming at all. This research explores patterns in the ways people come to terms with personal moral obligation, as well as how restorative ecological engagement may be transformational for humans in personal crisis. Participants described prison programming in general as contributing profoundly to personal transformation. Beyond that, programming with a strong ecological focus offered vocational, intellectual, emotional and even spiritual change, which in turn has been shown to aid in reducing recidivism rates. Given a sample size of 58 participants total, the 174 surveys conducted were not primarily intended to achieve statistical significances but augment the overall perspective, for individuals, or for groups. Some correlations of significance were observed, however, between control groups, survey data, and with general US population data. Most intriguing, analysis of the qualitative interview data yielded patterns of
Cortellese, Fabio; Nalin, Marco; Morandi, Angelica; Sanna, Alberto; Grasso, Floriana
In this paper we present two different approaches to personality diagnosis, for the provision of innovative personalized services, as used in a case study where diabetic patients were supported in the improvement of physical activity in their daily life. The first approach presented relies on a static clustering of the population, with a specific motivation strategy designed for each cluster. The second approach relies on a dynamic population clustering, making use of recommendation systems and algorithms, like Collaborative Filtering. We discuss pro and cons of each approach and a possible combination of the two, as the most promising solution for this and other personalization services in eHealth.
Berghuis, H.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Verheul, R.
The distinction between general personality dysfunctioning (GPD) and specific personality traits (SPT) is an important focus of attention in the proposed revisions of the DSM-5. The present study explores the distinction between GPD and SPT using the self-report questionnaires General Assessment of
O ensino de conteúdos atitudinais na formação inicial do enfermeiro La enseñanza de los contenidos actitudinales en la formación de enfermeras The teaching of attitudinal content in higher education of nursing
principal dificultad es la evaluación de los contenidos actitudinales. Trabajar las actitudes como los objetivos de aprendizaje y crear las herramientas adecuadas es el objetivo a considerar en el nuevo currículo.Qualitative research, exploratory and descriptive, had the aim to investigate teaching of the attitudinal content on training of nurses by professors in a public school of nursing. It was held at the Escola de Enfermagem da USP, with nine teachers in nursing baccalaureate and members of Grupo de Apoio Pedagógico. After approval of the project, data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using content analysis. For want of insertion of the attitudinal contents in the courses programs, they are worked by the individual teacher's initiative that uses different strategies in the classroom or on the practice field. In the process of teaching teachers found possibilities and limitations related to the institution, teachers and students. The major difficulty is the assessment of attitudinal content. Work attitudes as learning objectives and build the right tools is the goal to be considered in the new curriculum.
Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M
Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality.
Kathleen A Corrigall
Full Text Available Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1 and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2. We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1 individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2 personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3 future correlational studies of links between music training and nonmusical ability should account for individual differences in personality.