WorldWideScience

Sample records for rechargeable organic electrolyte

  1. All-Organic Rechargeable Battery with Reversibility Supported by "Water-in-Salt" Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoli; Yu, Hongchuan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Bao, Junwei Lucas; Truhlar, Donald G; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2017-02-21

    Rechargeable batteries with organic electrodes are preferred to those with transition-metal-containing electrodes for their environmental friendliness, and resource availability, but all such batteries reported to date are based on organic electrolytes, which raise concerns of safety and performance. Here an aqueous-electrolyte all-organic rechargeable battery is reported, with a maximum operating voltage of 2.1 V, in which polytriphenylamine (PTPAn) and 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NTCDA)-derived polyimide (PNTCDA) serve as cathode and anode material, respectively. A key feature of the design is use of a "water-in-salt" electrolyte to bind "free" water; this impedes the side reaction of water oxidation, thereby enabling excellent reversibility in aqueous solution. The battery can deliver a maximum energy density of 52.8 Wh kg -1 , which is close to most of the all-organic batteries with organic electrolytes. The battery exhibits a supercapacitor-like high power of 32 000 W kg -1 and a long cycle life (700 cycles with capacity retention of 85 %), due to the kinetics not being limited by ion diffusion at either electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Room temperature rechargeable polymer electrolyte batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States); Abraham, K.M. [EIC Labs., Inc., Norwood, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)- and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-based Li{sup +}-conductive thin-film electrolytes have been found to be suitable in rechargeable Li and Li-ion cells. Li/Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub y} and carbon/LiNiO{sub 2} cells fabricated with these electrolytes have demonstrated rate capabilities greater than the C-rate and more than 375 full depth cycles. Two-cell carbon/LiNiO{sub 2} bipolar batteries could be discharged at pulse currents as high as 50 mA/cm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  3. Alkaline solid polymer electrolytes and their application to rechargeable batteries; Electrolytes solides polymeres alcalins application aux generateurs electrochimiques rechargeables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinot, S

    1996-03-15

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on polyoxyethylene (POE), KOH and water is investigated in view of its use in rechargeable batteries. After a short review on rechargeable batteries, the preparation of various electrolyte compositions is described. Their characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and microscopy confirm a multi-phasic structure. Conductivity measurements give values up to 10 sup -3 S cm sup -1 at room temperature. Their use in cells with nickel as negative electrode and cadmium or zinc as positive electrode has been tested; cycling possibility has been shown to be satisfactory. (C.B.) 113 refs.

  4. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chemical properties of various organic electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. Pt. 1.. Characterization of passivating layer formed on graphite in alkyl carbonate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoichiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Yonei, Ayako; Yokoto, Kiyomi [Tsukuba Research Center, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The characteristics and reaction mechanisms of the passivating film formed on the surface of graphite were investigated in ethylene carbonate-diethyl carbonate solutions containing LiClO{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6} and LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}. The electron consumption resulting on the irreversible capacity of graphite was almost equivalent to that used in the one-electron reduction of Li{sup +} found in the film. The electrochemical reactions in the first discharge process may be divided into the following steps: (i) `initial film formation step` from 1.4 to 0.55 V; (ii) `main film formation step` from 0.55 to 0.2 V, and (iii) `lithium intercalation step from 0.2 to 0.0 V. Most of the passivating film is formed together with the lithium intercalation reaction at step (ii). The passivating film formed at this step contained a significant amount of organic film such as EtOCO{sub 2}Li, (CH{sub 2}OCO{sub 2}Li){sub 2}, etc. Through the consecutive formation of passivating film at steps (i) and (ii), lithium intercalation into graphite proceeds smoothly without further decomposition of organic electrolyte. (orig.)

  7. A rechargeable Na–CO 2 /O 2 battery enabled by stable nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shaomao

    2014-09-10

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We report on rechargeable batteries that use metallic sodium as the anode, a mixture of CO2 and O2 as the active material in the cathode, and an organic-inorganic hybrid liquid as electrolyte. The batteries are attractive among energy storage technologies because they provide a mechanism for simultaneously capturing CO2 emissions while generating electrical energy. Through in and ex situ chemical analysis of the cathode we show that NaHCO3 is the principal discharge product, and that its relative instability permits cell recharging. By means of differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) based on 12C and 13C we further show that addition of as little as 10% of 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide ionic liquid tethered to SiO2 nanoparticles extends the high-voltage stability of the electrolyte by at least 1 V, allowing recharge of the Na-CO2/O2 cells. This journal is

  8. Electrochemical behavior of lithium imide/cyclic ether electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro

    1999-11-01

    To develop organic electrolytes for 4 V lithium metal rechargeable batteries, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} electrolytes with five-, six-, and seven-membered cyclic ether solvents were characterized. Among these examined electrolytes, LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/tetrahydropyran (THP) electrolyte was found to possess the most advantages, such as high cycling efficiency, good oxidation stability, and high boiling point. Furthermore, lithium cycling efficiency and conductivity were improved by mixing 50% ethylene carbonate (EC) in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}/THP electrolyte. By using LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} solute as an alternative to LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} in EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte, corrosion of the aluminum current collector was inhibited and therefore, excellent cycling performance of a Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} coin cell was realized. It was also found that lithium cycling efficiency increased with decreasing deposition current density or increasing dissolution current density. Especially at deposition/dissolution current densities of 0.2/0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}, the observed lithium cycling efficiency in 1 mol/dm{sup 3} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/EC + THP (1:1) electrolyte was above 99%. Thermal tests further disclosed that this mixed electrolyte has good thermal stability even in the presence of lithium metal or cathode materials.

  9. High voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries having a non-aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E.; Hwang, Jaehee

    2016-03-22

    A rechargable magnesium battery having an non-aqueous electrolyte is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  10. Non-aqueous electrolyte for high voltage rechargeable magnesium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Lane, George Hamilton; Jilek, Robert E; Hwang, Jaehee

    2015-02-10

    An electrolyte for use in electrochemical cells is provided. The properties of the electrolyte include high conductivity, high Coulombic efficiency, and an electrochemical window that can exceed 3.5 V vs. Mg/Mg.sup.+2. The use of the electrolyte promotes the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of Mg without the use of any Grignard reagents, other organometallic materials, tetraphenyl borate, or tetrachloroaluminate derived anions. Other Mg-containing electrolyte systems that are expected to be suitable for use in secondary batteries are also described.

  11. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  12. Organic electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yanliang; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Chemistry College, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2012-07-15

    Organic compounds offer new possibilities for high energy/power density, cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and functional rechargeable lithium batteries. For a long time, they have not constituted an important class of electrode materials, partly because of the large success and rapid development of inorganic intercalation compounds. In recent years, however, exciting progress has been made, bringing organic electrodes to the attention of the energy storage community. Herein thirty years' research efforts in the field of organic compounds for rechargeable lithium batteries are summarized. The working principles, development history, and design strategies of these materials, including organosulfur compounds, organic free radical compounds, organic carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, non-conjugated redox polymers, and layered organic compounds are presented. The cell performances of these materials are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of the area, and straightforwardly revealing the advantages/disadvantages of each class of materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Thermally stable electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.; Koch, V. R.

    1989-09-01

    During the second year of research under NASA SBIR Contract NAS7-967, Covalent Associates and NASA contract monitors at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory agreed to perform an evaluation of the three best electrolytes developed during Phase 2. Due to the extensive period of time required to collect meaningful cycling data, we realized the study would extend well beyond the original formal end of the Phase 2 program (August 31, 1988). The substitution of this effort in lieu of an earlier proposed 20-cell final deliverable is formally documented in Modification No. 1 of Contract NAS7-967 as task 7. This Addendum contains the results of the cycling studies performed at Covalent Associates. In addition, sealed ampoules of each of these three electrolytes were delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Electrochemical Power Group. Their concurrent evaluation in a different test vehicle has also been recently concluded and their results are also summarized herein.

  14. Complex hydrides as room-temperature solid electrolytes for rechargeable batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, P. E. de; Blanchard, D.; Matsuo, M.

    2016-01-01

    A central goal in current battery research is to increase the safety and energy density of Li-ion batteries. Electrolytes nowadays typically consist of lithium salts dissolved in organic solvents. Solid electrolytes could facilitate safer batteries with higher capacities, as they are compatible...... electrolytes, discussing in detail LiBH4, strategies towards for fast room-temperature ionic conductors, alternative compounds, and first explorations of implementation of these electrolytes in all-solid-state batteries....

  15. A high-voltage and non-corrosive ionic liquid electrolyte used in rechargeable aluminum battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huali; Gu, Sichen; Bai, Ying; Chen, Shi; Wu, Feng; Wu, Chuan

    2016-10-03

    As a promising post-lithium battery, rechargeable aluminum battery has the potential to achieve a three-electron reaction with fully use of metal aluminum. Alternative electrolytes are strongly needed for further development of rechargeable aluminum batteries, since typical AlCl3-contained imidazole-based ionic liquids are moisture sensitive, corrosive, and with low oxidation voltage. In this letter, a kind of non-corrosive and water-stable ionic liquid obtained by mixing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([BMIM]OTF) with the corresponding aluminum salt (Al(OTF)3) is studied. This ionic liquid electrolyte has a high oxidation voltage (3.25V vs Al3+/Al) and high ionic conductivity, and a good electrochemical performance is also achieved. A new strategy, which first use corrosive AlCl3-based electrolyte to construct a suitable passageway on the Al anode for Al3+, and then use non-corrosive Al(OTF)3-based electrolyte to get stable Al/electrolyte interface, is put forward.

  16. Enhanced Cycling Stability of Rechargeable Li-O2 Batteries Using High Concentration Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Wu; Yan, Pengfei; Sun, Xiuliang; Bowden, Mark E.; Read, Jeffrey; Qian, Jiangfeng; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2016-01-26

    The electrolyte stability against reactive reduced-oxygen species is crucial for the development of rechargeable Li-O2 batteries. In this work, we systematically investigated the effect of lithium salt concentration in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME)-based electrolytes on the cycling stability of Li-O2 batteries. Cells with high concentration electrolyte illustrate largely enhanced cycling stability under both the full discharge/charge (2.0-4.5 V vs. Li/Li+) and the capacity limited (at 1,000 mAh g-1) conditions. These cells also exhibit much less reaction-residual on the charged air electrode surface, and much less corrosion to the Li metal anode. The density functional theory calculations are conducted on the molecular orbital energies of the electrolyte components and the Gibbs activation barriers for superoxide radical anion to attack DME solvent and Li+-(DME)n solvates. In a highly concentrated electrolyte, all DME molecules have been coordinated with salt and the C-H bond scission of a DME molecule becomes more difficult. Therefore, the decomposition of highly concentrated electrolyte in a Li-O2 battery can be mitigated and both air-cathodes and Li-metal anodes exhibits much better reversibility. As a results, the cyclability of Li-O2 can be largely improved.

  17. Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges Posed by Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Fuminori, E-mail: fuminori.mizuno@tema.toyota.com; Singh, Nikhilendra; Arthur, Timothy S.; Fanson, Paul T. [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ramanathan, Mayandi [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Benmayza, Aadil; Prakash, Jai [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Guo, Jinghua [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Magnesium (Mg) battery technologies have attracted attention as a high energy-density storage system due to the following advantages: (1) potentially high energy-density derived from a divalent nature, (2) low-cost due to the use of an earth-abundant metal, and (3) intrinsic safety aspect attributed to non-dendritic growth of Mg. However, these notable advantages are downplayed by undesirable battery reactions and related phenomena. As a result, there are only a few working rechargeable Mg battery systems. One of the root causes for undesirable behavior is the sluggish diffusion of Mg{sup 2+} inside a host lattice. Another root cause is the interfacial reaction at the electrode/electrolyte boundary. For the cathode/electrolyte interface, Mg{sup 2+} in the electrolyte needs a solvation–desolvation process prior to diffusion inside the cathode. Apart from the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the cathode, the divalent nature of Mg should cause kinetically slower solvation–desolvation processes than that of Li-ion systems. This would result in a high charge-transfer resistance and a larger overpotential. On the contrary, for the anode/electrolyte interface, the Mg deposition and dissolution process depends on the electrolyte nature and its compatibility with Mg metal. Also, the Mg metal/electrolyte interface tends to change over time, and with operating conditions, suggesting the presence of interfacial phenomena on the Mg metal. Hence, the solvation–desolvation process of Mg has to be considered with a possible SEI. Here, we focus on the anode/electrolyte interface in a Mg battery, and discuss the next steps to improve the battery performance.

  18. Recent Progress in Organic Electrodes for Li and Na Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sechan; Kwon, Giyun; Ku, Kyojin; Yoon, Kyungho; Jung, Sung-Kyun; Lim, Hee-Dae; Kang, Kisuk

    2018-03-27

    Organic rechargeable batteries, which use organics as electrodes, are excellent candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because they offer design flexibility due to the rich chemistry of organics while being eco-friendly and potentially cost efficient. However, their widespread usage is limited by intrinsic problems such as poor electronic conductivity, easy dissolution into liquid electrolytes, and low volumetric energy density. New types of organic electrode materials with various redox centers or molecular structures have been developed over the past few decades. Moreover, research aimed at enhancing electrochemical properties via chemical tuning has been at the forefront of organic rechargeable batteries research in recent years, leading to significant progress in their performance. Here, an overview of the current developments of organic rechargeable batteries is presented, with a brief history of research in this field. Various strategies for improving organic electrode materials are discussed with respect to tuning intrinsic properties of organics using molecular modification and optimizing their properties at the electrode level. A comprehensive understanding of the progress in organic electrode materials is provided along with the fundamental science governing their performance in rechargeable batteries thus a guide is presented to the optimal design strategies to improve the electrochemical performance for next-generation battery systems. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A rechargeable Li-CO{sub 2} battery with a gel polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chao; Guo, Ziyang; Yang, Bingchang; Liu, Yao; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao [Dept. of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Lab. of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Inst. of New Energy, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Fudan Univ. (China)

    2017-07-24

    The utilization of CO{sub 2} in Li-CO{sub 2} batteries is attracting extensive attention. However, the poor rechargeability and low applied current density have remained the Achilles' heel of this energy device. The gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), which is composed of a polymer matrix filled with tetraglyme-based liquid electrolyte, was used to fabricate a rechargeable Li-CO{sub 2} battery with a carbon nanotube-based gas electrode. The discharge product of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} formed in the GPE-based Li-CO{sub 2} battery exhibits a particle-shaped morphology with poor crystallinity, which is different from the contiguous polymer-like and crystalline discharge product in conventional Li-CO{sub 2} battery using a liquid electrolyte. Accordingly, the GPE-based battery shows much improved electrochemical performance. The achieved cycle life (60 cycles) and rate capability (maximum applied current density of 500 mA g{sup -1}) are much higher than most of previous reports, which points a new way to develop high-performance Li-CO{sub 2} batteries. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Electrolyte additives for lithium metal anodes and rechargeable lithium metal batteries: progresses and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Eshetu, Gebrekidan Gebresilassie; Judez, Xabier; Li, Chunmei; Rodriguez-Martínez, Lide M; Armand, Michel

    2018-02-14

    Lithium metal (Li°) - based rechargeable batteries (LMBs), such as Li° anode vs. intercalation and/or conversion type cathode batteries, lithium-sulphur (Li-S), and lithium-oxygen (O2)/air (Li-O2/air) are becoming increasingly important for electrifying the modern transportation system, enabling sustainable mobility in the near future. Though some rechargeable LMBs batteries (e.g., Li°/LiFePO4 batteries from Bolloré Bluecar®, Li-S batteries from OXIS Energy and Sion Power) are already commercially viable in niche applications, their large-scale deployment is still hampered due to the existence of a number of formidable challenges, including lithium dendrite growth, electrolyte instability towards high voltage intercalation type cathode, poor electronic and ionic conductivities of sulphur (S8) and O2, as well as their corresponding reduction products (e.g., Li2S and Li2O), dissolution and shuttling of polysulphide (PS) intermediates etc. This ultimately results in short cycle life, low coulombic/energy efficiency, poor safety, and a high self-discharge rate. Among other mitigating strategies, the use of electrolyte additives is considered as one of the most economical, and effective approach for circumventing these dilemmas. Set out to offer an in-depth insight into the rapidly growing research on the account of electrolyte additives for rechargeable LMBs, this review presents an overview of the various functional additives, that are being applied in Li-anode/intercalation cathode-based, Li-S and Li-O2 batteries. This review is believed to assess the status quo of the research and thereby arouse new thoughts and opportunities, opening new avenues for the practical realization of these appealing devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cathodes and electrolytes for rechargeable magnesium batteries and methods of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumta, Prashant N.; Saha, Partha; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu

    2018-04-17

    The invention relates to Chevrel-phase materials and methods of preparing these materials utilizing a precursor approach. The Chevrel-phase materials are useful in assembling electrodes, e.g., cathodes, for use in electrochemical cells, such as rechargeable batteries. The Chevrel-phase materials have a general formula of Mo6Z8 and the precursors have a general formula of MxMo6Z8. The cathode containing the Chevrel-phase material in accordance with the invention can be combined with a magnesium-containing anode and an electrolyte.

  2. Cathodes and electrolytes for rechargeable magnesium batteries and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, Prashant N.; Saha, Partha; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu

    2018-04-17

    The invention relates to Chevrel-phase materials and methods of preparing these materials utilizing a precursor approach. The Chevrel-phase materials are useful in assembling electrodes, e.g., cathodes, for use in electrochemical cells, such as rechargeable batteries. The Chevrel-phase materials have a general formula of Mo6Z8 and the precursors have a general formula of MxMo6Z8. The cathode containing the Chevrel-phase material in accordance with the invention can be combined with a magnesium-containing anode and an electrolyte.

  3. Redox Species-Based Electrolytes for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2016-08-15

    Seeking high-capacity cathodes has become an intensive effort in lithium ion battery research; however, the low energy density still remains a major issue for sustainable handheld devices and vehicles. Herein, we present a new strategy of integrating a redox species-based electrolyte in batteries to boost their performance. Taking the olivine LiFePO4-based battery as an example, the incorporation of redox species (i.e., polysulfide of Li2S8) in the electrolyte results in much lower polarization and superior stability, where the dissociated Li+/Sx2– can significantly speed up the lithium diffusion. More importantly, the presence of the S82–/S2– redox reaction further contributes extra capacity, making a completely new LiFePO4/Li2Sx hybrid battery with a high energy density of 1124 Wh kgcathode–1 and a capacity of 442 mAh gcathode–1. The marriage of appropriate redox species in an electrolyte for a rechargeable battery is an efficient and scalable approach for obtaining higher energy density storage devices.

  4. An interface-reconstruction effect for rechargeable aluminum battery in ionic liquid electrolyte to enhance cycling performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al metal has been regarded as a promising anode for rechargeable batteries because of its natural abundance and high theoretical specific capacity. However, rechargeable aluminum batteries (RABs using Al metal as anode display poor cycling performances owing to interface problems between anode and electrolyte. The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI layer on the anode has been confirmed to be essential for improving cycling performances of rechargeable batteries. Therefore, we immerse the Al metal in ionic liquid electrolyte for some time before it is used as anode to remove the passive film and expose fresh Al to the electrolyte. Then the reactions of exposed Al, acid, oxygen and water in electrolyte are occurred to form an SEI layer in the cycle. Al/electrolyte/V2O5 full batteries with the thin, uniform and stable SEI layer on Al metal anode perform high discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE. This work illustrates that an SEI layer is formed on Al metal anode in the cycle using a simple and effective pretreatment process and results in superior cycling performances for RABs.

  5. Inhibition of anodic corrosion of aluminium cathode current collector on recharging in lithium imide electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianming; Yasukawa, Eiki; Mori, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Research Center, Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Pitting corrosion of aluminum as cathode current collector for lithium rechargeable batteries was found to take place at potential positive of 3.5 V in 1 mol dm {sup -3} LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} /EC + DME (1:1) electrolyte. The corrosion mechanism of aluminum in the presence of LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} was proposed, and three methods were deduced to inhibit the aluminum corrosion based on this mechanism. As a result, an additive of lithium salts based on perfluorinated inorganic anions, especially LiPF{sub 6}, was found to inhibit the aluminum corrosion to a certain extent by forming a protective film on aluminum surface. The oxidation stability of aluminum in LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} -containing electrolytes depended strongly on the solvent structure. The ether solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dimethoxyethane (DME) were effective in preventing aluminum corrosion due to their low dielectric constants. Furthermore, LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2} salt with a larger anion than that of LiN(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2} was evaluated and good oxidation stability of aluminum was obtained regardless of the kind of solvents. (Author)

  6. A Rechargeable Li-Air Fuel Cell Battery Based on Garnet Solid Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiyang; Zhao, Ning; Li, Yiqiu; Guo, Xiangxin; Feng, Xuefei; Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Zhi; Cui, Guanglei; Zheng, Hao; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong

    2017-01-24

    Non-aqueous Li-air batteries have been intensively studied in the past few years for their theoretically super-high energy density. However, they cannot operate properly in real air because they contain highly unstable and volatile electrolytes. Here, we report the fabrication of solid-state Li-air batteries using garnet (i.e., Li 6.4 La 3 Zr 1.4 Ta 0.6 O 12 , LLZTO) ceramic disks with high density and ionic conductivity as the electrolytes and composite cathodes consisting of garnet powder, Li salts (LiTFSI) and active carbon. These batteries run in real air based on the formation and decomposition at least partially of Li 2 CO 3 . Batteries with LiTFSI mixed with polyimide (PI:LiTFSI) as a binder show rechargeability at 200 °C with a specific capacity of 2184 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 . Replacement of PI:LiTFSI with LiTFSI dissolved in polypropylene carbonate (PPC:LiTFSI) reduces interfacial resistance, and the resulting batteries show a greatly increased discharge capacity of approximately 20300 mAh g -1 carbon and cycle 50 times while maintaining a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh g -1 carbon at 20 μA cm -2 and 80 °C. These results demonstrate that the use of LLZTO ceramic electrolytes enables operation of the Li-air battery in real air at medium temperatures, leading to a novel type of Li-air fuel cell battery for energy storage.

  7. Electrochemical characteristics of polyacetylene in organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, A.; Scrosati, B.

    1985-01-15

    The characteristics of the electrochemical doping process of polyacetylene have been investigated in lithium cells using lithium perchlorate in propylene carbonate as electrolytic solution. The kinetics of this process are controlled by the diffusion of the dopant species throughout the polymer. Therefore, polyacetylene samples with a highly porous, extended surface should be selected for the development of efficient, rechargeable lithium batteries. In line with this, we have considered foam-type polyacetylene electrodes which have a lower density than the 'classical' Shirakawa-type film electrodes. The electrochemical behaviour of the polyacetylene foam samples has been examined by cyclic voltametry response and constant current, charge-discharge cycles. The results are described in this work.

  8. A new rechargeable sodium battery utilizing reversible topotactic oxygen extraction/insertion of CaFeO(z) (2.5 ≤ z ≤ 3) in an organic electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Mitsuhiro; Harimoto, Ryuji; Ogasawara, Yoshiyuki; Kido, Ryota; Sugahara, Akira; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2014-01-08

    At present, significant research efforts are being devoted both to identifying means of upgrading existing batteries, including lithium ion types, and also to developing alternate technologies, such as sodium ion, metal-air, and lithium-sulfur batteries. In addition, new battery systems incorporating novel electrode reactions are being identified. One such system utilizes the reaction of electrolyte ions with oxygen atoms reversibly extracted and reinserted topotactically from cathode materials. Batteries based on this system allow the use of various anode materials, such as lithium and sodium, without the requirement to develop new cathode intercalation materials. In the present study, this concept is employed and a new battery based on a CaFeO3 cathode with a sodium anode is demonstrated.

  9. Organic Electrolytes for Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    CuS04*5H2O (cupric sulfate pentahydrate ) 249.68 BDH, A.R. CuS (Cupric sulfide) 95.61 , 99.Q % CH 2CI2 (dichlorornethane) 84.93 DTH, Organic Institute...3 melts. 3.5.2.3.1.1 Standard potential of copper couples in AICI3 :BuPyCI melts versus aluminum in 3 . 5.3.4.1 acidic 2:1 (molar) A1CI3BuPyCI melt...Hien, 99%. (CH 3 0) 2.S0 2 (dimcthyl sulfate ) 126.13 Fluka. C3 H-5 CIO (epic hloroh yd rine, 1 -chlor-2,3-epoxyproparte) 92.53 DTH, Organic Institute

  10. Trace organic chemicals contamination in ground water recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2008-06-01

    Population growth and unpredictable climate changes will pose high demands on water resources in the future. Even at present, surface water is certainly not enough to cope with the water requirement for agricultural, industrial, recreational and drinking purposes. In this context, the usage of ground water has become essential, therefore, their quality and quantity has to be carefully managed. Regarding quantity, artificial recharge can guarantee a sustainable level of ground water, whilst the strict quality control of the waters intended for recharge will minimize contamination of both the ground water and aquifer area. However, all water resources in the planet are threatened by multiple sources of contamination coming from the extended use of chemicals worldwide. In this respect, the environmental occurrence of organic micropollutants such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and their metabolites has experienced fast growing interest. In this paper an overview of the priority and emerging organic micropollutants in the different source waters used for artificial aquifer recharge purposes and in the recovered water is presented. Besides, some considerations regarding fate and removal of such compounds are also addressed.

  11. Environmental Screening of Electrode Materials for a Rechargeable Aluminum Battery with an AlCl3/EMIMCl Electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, rechargeable aluminum batteries have received much attention due to their low cost, easy operation, and high safety. As the research into rechargeable aluminum batteries with a room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte is relatively new, research efforts have focused on finding suitable electrode materials. An understanding of the environmental aspects of electrode materials is essential to make informed and conscious decisions in aluminum battery development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative environmental performance of electrode material candidates for rechargeable aluminum batteries with an AlCl3/EMIMCl (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride room-temperature ionic liquid electrolyte. To this end, we used a lifecycle environmental screening framework to evaluate 12 candidate electrode materials. We found that all of the studied materials are associated with one or more drawbacks and therefore do not represent a “silver bullet” for the aluminum battery. Even so, some materials appeared more promising than others did. We also found that aluminum battery technology is likely to face some of the same environmental challenges as Li-ion technology but also offers an opportunity to avoid others. The insights provided here can aid aluminum battery development in an environmentally sustainable direction.

  12. An Insoluble Benzoquinone-Based Organic Cathode for Use in Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Zhao, Qing; Li, Fujun; Chen, Jun

    2017-10-02

    Application of organic electrode materials in rechargeable batteries has attracted great interest because such materials contain abundant carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen elements. However, organic electrodes are highly soluble in organic electrolytes. An organic electrode of 2,3,5,6-tetraphthalimido-1,4-benzoquinone (TPB) is reported in which rigid groups coordinate to a molecular benzoquinone skeleton. The material is insoluble in aprotic electrolyte, and demonstrates a high capacity retention of 91.4 % (204 mA h g -1 ) over 100 cycles at 0.2 C. The extended π-conjugation of the material contributes to enhancement of the electrochemical performance (155 mA h g -1 at 10 C). Moreover, density functional theory calculations suggest that favorable synergistic reactions between multiple carbonyl groups and lithium ions can enhance the initial lithium ion intercalation potential. The described approach may provide a novel entry to next-generation organic electrode materials with relevance to lithium-ion batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Molecular Engineering with Organic Carbonyl Electrode Materials for Advanced Stationary and Redox Flow Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-12-01

    Organic carbonyl electrode materials that have the advantages of high capacity, low cost and being environmentally friendly, are regarded as powerful candidates for next-generation stationary and redox flow rechargeable batteries (RFBs). However, low carbonyl utilization, poor electronic conductivity and undesired dissolution in electrolyte are urgent issues to be solved. Here, we summarize a molecular engineering approach for tuning the capacity, working potential, concentration of active species, kinetics, and stability of stationary and redox flow batteries, which well resolves the problems of organic carbonyl electrode materials. As an example, in stationary batteries, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) with two carbonyls delivers a capacity of 257 mAh g -1 (2.27 V vs Li + /Li), while increasing the number of carbonyls to four with the formation of 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone results in a higher capacity of 317 mAh g -1 (2.60 V vs Li + /Li). In RFBs, AQ, which is less soluble in aqueous electrolyte, reaches 1 M by grafting -SO 3 H with the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonic acid, resulting in a power density exceeding 0.6 W cm -2 with long cycling life. Therefore, through regulating substituent groups, conjugated structures, Coulomb interactions, and the molecular weight, the electrochemical performance of carbonyl electrode materials can be rationally optimized. This review offers fundamental principles and insight into designing advanced carbonyl materials for the electrodes of next-generation rechargeable batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Enzymatically-Catalyzed Polymerization (ECP)- Derived Polymer Electrolyte for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chua, David

    1998-01-01

    Report developed under SBIR contract covers the syntheses and electrochemical characterizations of novel polymer electrolytes derived from compounds synthesized via enzyme-catalyzed polymerization(ECP) techniques...

  15. Progress in electrolytes for rechargeable Li-based batteries and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to almost unmatched volumetric energy density, Li-based batteries have dominated the portable electronic industry for the past 20 years. Not only will that continue, but they are also now powering plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and zero-emission vehicles. There is impressive progress in the exploration of electrode materials for lithium-based batteries because the electrodes (mainly the cathode are the limiting factors in terms of overall capacity inside a battery. However, more and more interests have been focused on the electrolytes, which determines the current (power density, the time stability, the reliability of a battery and the formation of solid electrolyte interface. This review will introduce five types of electrolytes for room temperature Li-based batteries including 1 non-aqueous electrolytes, 2 aqueous solutions, 3 ionic liquids, 4 polymer electrolytes, and 5 hybrid electrolytes. Besides, electrolytes beyond lithium-based systems such as sodium-, magnesium-, calcium-, zinc- and aluminum-based batteries will also be briefly discussed. Keywords: Electrolyte, Ionic liquid, Polymer, Hybrid, Battery

  16. Electrochemical properties of ether-based electrolytes for lithium/sulfur rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchasz, Céline; Leprêtre, Jean-Claude; Patoux, Sébastien; Alloin, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid electrolyte composition for lithium/sulfur secondary batteries. ► Carbonate-based electrolytes prove not to be compatible with the sulfur electrode. ► Poor electrochemical performances related to low polysulfide solubility. ► Increase in the discharge capacity using ether solvents with high solvating ability such as PEGDME. ► Evidence of DIOX polymerization during cycling. -- Abstract: The lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is a promising electrochemical system that has a high theoretical capacity of 1675 mAh g −1 . However, the system suffers from several drawbacks: poor active material conductivity, active material dissolution, and use of the highly reactive lithium metal electrode. In this study, we investigated the electrolyte effects on electrochemical performances of the Li/S cell, by acting on the solvent composition. As conventional carbonate-based electrolytes turned out to be unusable in Li/S cells, alternative ether solvents had to be considered. Different kinds of solvent structures were investigated by changing the ether/alkyl moieties ratio to vary the lithium polysulfide solubility. This allowed to point out the importance of the solvent solvation ability on the discharge capacity. As the end of discharge is linked to the positive electrode passivation, an electrolyte having high solvation ability reduces the polysulfide precipitation and delays the positive electrode passivation

  17. Light emission from organic single crystals operated by electrolyte doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keiichiro; Sakanoue, Tomo; Yomogida, Yohei; Hotta, Shu; Takenobu, Taishi

    2018-03-01

    Light-emitting devices based on electrolytes, such as light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) and electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), are solution-processable devices with a very simple structure. Therefore, it is necessary to apply this device structure into highly fluorescent organic materials for future printed applications. However, owing to compatibility problems between electrolytes and organic crystals, electrolyte-based single-crystal light-emitting devices have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we report on light-emitting devices based on organic single crystals and electrolytes. As the fluorescent materials, α,ω-bis(biphenylyl)terthiophene (BP3T) and 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) single crystals were selected. Using ionic liquids as electrolytes, we observed clear light emission from BP3T LECs and rubrene EDLTs.

  18. Enhanced performance of dicationic ionic liquid electrolytes by organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Song; Feng, Guang; Cummings Peter, T; Zhang, Pengfei; Fulvio Pasquale, F; Hillesheim Patrick, C; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The use of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) electrolytes in supercapacitors is impeded by the slow dynamics of DILs, whereas the addition of organic solvents into DIL electrolytes improves ion transport and then enhances the power density of supercapacitors. In this work, the influences of organic solvents on the conductivity of DILs and the electrical double layer (EDL) of DIL-based supercapacitors are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation. Two types of organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN) and propylene carbonate (PC), were used to explore the effects of different organic solvents on the EDL structure and capacitance of DIL/organic solvent-based supercapacitors. Firstly, it was found that the conductivity of DIL electrolytes was greatly enhanced in the presence of the organic solvent ACN. Secondly, a stronger adsorption of PC on graphite results in different EDL structures formed by DIL/ACN and DIL/PC electrolytes. The expulsion of co-ions from EDLs was observed in DIL/organic solvent electrolytes rather than neat DILs and this feature is more evident in DIL/PC. Furthermore, the bell-shaped differential capacitance–electric potential curve was not essentially changed by the presence of organic solvents. Comparing DIL/organic solvent electrolytes with neat DILs, the capacitance is slightly increased by organic solvents, which is in agreement with experimental observation. (paper)

  19. Application of polyacrylonitrile-based polymer electrolytes in rechargeable lithium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, K.S.; Dissanayake, M.A.K.L.; Skaarup, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based polymer electrolytes have obtained considerable attention due to their fascinating characteristics such as appreciable ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and mechanical stability. This study is based on the system PAN-ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbona...

  20. Cross-Linked Solid Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben youcef, Hicham; Garcia-Calvo, Oihane; Lago, Nerea; Devaraj, Shanmukaraj; Armand, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrated network Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) were fabricated by UV-induced cross-linking of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) within a poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) matrix (M v = 5 × 10 6 g mol −1 ), comprising lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt (LiTFSI), at a molar ratio of EO:Li ∼ 30:1. The influence of the DVB content on the final SPE properties was investigated in detail. An increase of DVB concentration resulted in self-standing polymer electrolytes. The DVB cross-linker incorporation was found to decrease the crystallinity of the PEO matrix from 34% to 23%, with a decrease in the melting temperature (T m ) of the membrane from 50 °C to 34 °C. Moreover, the influence of the DVB concentration on the ionic conductivity was determined for polymer electrolytes with 0, 10, 20 and 45% DVB from room temperature (RT) to 80 °C. The resulting SPEs showed a high electrochemical stability of 4.3 V as well as practical conductivity values exceeding 10 −4 S cm −1 at 70 °C. Cycling performance of these semi-interpenetrated SPE’s have been shown with a Li metal polymer battery and all solid -state Li sulphur battery.

  1. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.; Wing, A.D.; Alidina, M.; Drewes, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory

  2. Theoretical performance of hydrogen-bromine rechargeable SPE fuel cell. [Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-bromine fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.

  3. Crosslinkable fumed silica-based nanocomposite electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yangxing; Yerian, Jeffrey A.; Khan, Saad A.; Fedkiw, Peter S. [Department of Chemical & amp; Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States)

    2006-10-27

    Electrochemical and rheological properties are reported of composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) consisting of dual-functionalized fumed silica with methacrylate and octyl groups+low-molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGdm)+lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI, lithium imide)+butyl methacrylate (BMA). The role of butyl methacrylate, which aids in formation of a crosslinked network by tethering adjacent fumed silica particles, on rheology and electrochemistry is examined together with the effects of fumed silica surface group, fumed silica weight percent, salt concentration, and solvent molecular weight. Chemical crosslinking of the fumed silica with 20% BMA shows a substantial increase in the elastic modulus of the system and a transition from a liquid-like/flocculated state to an elastic network. In contrast, no change in lithium transference number and only a modest decrease (factor of 2) on conductivity of the CPE are observed, indicating that a crosslinked silica network has minimal effect on the mechanism of ionic transport. These trends suggest that the chemical crosslinks occur on a microscopic scale, as opposed to a molecular scale, between adjacent silica particles and therefore do not impede the segmental mobility of the PEGdm. The relative proportion of the methacrylate and octyl groups on the silica surface displays a nominal effect on both rheology and conductivity following crosslinking although the pre-cure rheology is a function of the surface groups. Chemical crosslinked nanocomposite polymer electrolytes offer significant higher elastic modulus and yield stress than the physical nanocomposite counterpart with a small/negligible penalty of transport properties. The crosslinked CPEs exhibit good interfacial stability with lithium metal at open circuit, however, they perform poorly in cycling of lithium-lithium cells. (author)

  4. The influence of bismuth oxide doping on the rechargeability of aqueous cells using MnO2 cathode and LiOH electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakshi, Manickam; Mitchell, David R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Bi-doped manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) has been prepared from γ-MnO 2 by physical admixture of bismuth oxide (Bi 2 O 3 ). The doping improved the cycling ability of the aqueous cell. These results are discussed and compared with the electrochemical behavior of bismuth-free MnO 2 . Batteries using the traditional potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte are non-rechargeable. However, with lithium hydroxide (LiOH) as an electrolyte, the cell becomes rechargeable. Furthermore, the incorporation of bismuth into MnO 2 in the LiOH cell was found to result in significantly longer cycle life, compared with cells using undoped MnO 2 . The Bi-doped cell exhibited a greater capacity after 100 discharge cycles, than the undoped cell after just 40 cycles. X-ray diffraction and the microscopic analysis suggest that the presence of Bi 3+ ions reduces the magnitude of structural changes occurring in MnO 2 during cycling. Comparison with additives assessed in our previous studies (titanium disulfide (TiS 2 ); titanium boride (TiB 2 )) shows that the best rechargeability behavior is obtained for the current Bi-doped MnO 2 . As the size of Bi 3+ ions (0.96 A) is much larger than Mn 3+ (0.73 A) or Mn 2+ (0.67 A) they have effectively prevented the formation of non-rechargeable products

  5. Synthesis and characterization of cathode, anode and electrolyte materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shoufeng

    BOB based electrolyte has a lower ionic conductivity than LiPF6, thus providing a poorer performance, while the capacity retention is improved. Further improvement of conductivity is still needed. Improved LiFePO4 cathode materials have been formed, the behavior of pure tin in the form of foil has been determined and will serve as the base case for future studies of tin based anodes, and the structure and electrochemical behavior of the new LIBOB electrolyte salt has been determined. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  6. Enhancing emerging organic compound degradation: applying chaotic flow to managed aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Fernandez-Garcia, Daniel; Drechsel, Johannes; Folch, Albert; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The coupling of Managed Aquifer Recharge with soil aquifer remediation treatment, by placing a reactive layer containing organic matter at the bottom of the infiltration pond, is a promising technology to improve the rate of degradation of EOCs. Its success is based on assuming that recharged water and groundwater get well mixed, which is not always true. It has been demonstrated that mixing can be enhanced by inducing chaotic advection through extraction-injection engineering. In this work we analyze how chaotic advection might enhance the spreading of redox conditions with the final aim of improving degradation of a mix of benzotriazoles: benzotriazole, 5-methyl-benzotriazole, and 5-chloro-benzotriazole. The first two compounds are better degraded under aerobic conditions whereas the third one under nitrate reducing conditions. We developed a reactive transport model that describes how a recharged water rich in organic matter mixes with groundwater, how this organic matter is oxidized by different electron acceptors, and how the benzotriazoles are degraded attending for the redox state. The model was tested in different scenarios of recharge, both in homogenous and in heterogenous media. It was found that chaotic flow increases the spreading of the plume of recharged water. Consequently, different redox conditions coexist at a given time within the area affected by recharge, facilitating the degradation of EOCs.

  7. New Insights of Graphite Anode Stability in Rechargeable Batteries: Li-Ion Coordination Structures Prevail over Solid Electrolyte Interphases

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2018-01-04

    Graphite anodes are not stable in most noncarbonate solvents (e.g., ether, sulfoxide, sulfone) upon Li ion intercalation, known as an urgent issue in present Li ions and next-generation Li–S and Li–O2 batteries for storage of Li ions within the anode for safety features. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is commonly believed to be decisive for stabilizing the graphite anode. However, here we find that the solvation structure of the Li ions, determined by the electrolyte composition including lithium salts, solvents, and additives, plays a more dominant role than SEI in graphite anode stability. The Li ion intercalation desired for battery operation competes with the undesired Li+–solvent co-insertion, leading to graphite exfoliation. The increase in organic lithium salt LiN(SO2CF3)2 concentration or, more effectively, the addition of LiNO3 lowers the interaction strength between Li+ and solvents, suppressing the graphite exfoliation caused by Li+–solvent co-insertion. Our findings refresh the knowledge of the well-known SEI for graphite stability in metal ion batteries and also provide new guidelines for electrolyte systems to achieve reliable and safe Li–S full batteries.

  8. Study on property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries; Lithium niji denchi no tame no keisha tokusei kobunshi denkaishitsu no sosei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokumi, Z; Kanemura, S; Inaba, M; Takehara, Z; Yao, K; Uchimoto, Y [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the fundamental experiments for creating property-gradient polymer electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries. The rechargeable lithium battery is composed of an anodic composite agent section with high ion conductivity, a separator equivalent section with high mechanical strength (high bridging degree), and a section surpressing the precipitation of metal lithium by contacting with it. The continuous property-gradient polymer electrolyte was tried to be synthesized by means of the plasma polymerization method. As a result, plasma polymerization electrolyte with high ion conductivity could be prepared from the liquid phase by using a monomer with low vapor pressure. Porous material simulating the anodic composite agent was impregnated by the monomer, which was plasma-polymerized. As a result, it was found that the bridging degree decreased from the surface towards the inside of the plasma-polymerized porous material. In addition, polymer was prepared using fluorine-base monomer. Thus, LiF thin film could be prepared through the reaction between the polymer and metal lithium. 3 figs.

  9. Semi-rechargeable Aluminum-Air Battery with a TiO2 Internal Layer with Plain Salt Water as an Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryohei

    2016-07-01

    To develop a semi-rechargeable aluminum-air battery, we attempted to insert various kinds of ceramic oxides between an aqueous NaCl electrolyte and an aluminum anode. From cyclic voltammetry experiments, we found that some of the ceramic oxide materials underwent an oxidation-reduction reaction, which indicates the occurrence of a faradaic electrochemical reaction. Using a TiO2 film as an internal layer, we successfully prepared an aluminum-air battery with secondary battery behavior. However, cell impedance increased as the charge/discharge reactions proceeded probably because of accumulation of byproducts in the cell components and the air cathode. Results of quantum calculations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest the possibility of developing an aluminum rechargeable battery using TiO2 as an internal layer.

  10. Electrochemical characterization of LiCoO2 as rechargeable electrode in aqueous LiNO3 electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo

    2011-06-01

    The development of lithium ion aqueous batteries is getting renewed interest due to their safety and low cost. We have demonstrated that the layer-structure LiCoO2 phase, the most commonly used electrode material in organic systems, can be successful delithiated and lithiated again in a water-based electrolyte at currents up to 2.70 A/g. The capacity is about 100 mAh/g at 0.135 A/g and can be tuned by cycling the electrode in different potential ranges. In fact, increasing the high cut-off voltage leads to higher specific capacity (up to 135 mAh/g) but the Coulomb efficiency is reduced (from 99.9% to 98.5%). The very good electrode kinetic is probably due to the high conductivity of the electrolyte solution (0.17 Scm- 1 at 25 °C) but this behavior is affected by the electrode load. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Removal of organic micropollutants in an artificial recharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Nödler, K.; Köck-Schulmeyer, M.; Hernandez, M.; Licha, T.; Ayora, C.; Carrera, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging contaminants including pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), personal care products (PCPs) and pesticides are increasingly being identified in the environment. Emerging pollutants and their transformation products show low concentration in the environment (ng/L), but the effects of the mixtures and lifelong exposure to humans are currently unknown. Many of these contaminants are removed under aerobic conditions in water treatment plants. However, several pharmaceuticals and metabolites present in wastewater are not eliminated by conventional treatment processes. Several lab studies, however, show that the behaviour of many of these micropollutants is affected by the dominant redox conditions. However, data from field experiments are limited and sometimes contradictory. Artificial recharge is a widespread technology to increase the groundwater resources. In this study we propose a design to enhance the natural remediation potential of the aquifer with the installation of a reactive layer at the bottom of the infiltration pond. This layer is a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. This layer is intended to provide an extra amount of DOC to the recharge water and to promote biodegradation by means of the development of different redox zones along the travel path through the unsaturated zone and within the aquifer. Moreover, compost, clay and iron oxide of the layer are assumed to increase sorption surfaces for neutral, cationic and anionic compounds, respectively. The infiltration system is sited in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (Barcelona, Spain). It consists of a decantation pond, receiving raw water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from treatment plant effluents), and an infiltration pond (5600 m2). The infiltration rate is around 1 m3/m2/day. The system is equipped with a network of piezometers, suction cups and tensiometers. Infiltration periods have been performed before and after the installation of the reactive layer

  12. Advances of aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Nurhaswani; Mohamad, Ahmad Azmin

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristic of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery has been widely investigated in efforts to design a green and safe technology that can provide a highly specific capacity, high efficiency and long life for high power applications such as the smart grid and electric vehicle. It is believed that the advantages of this battery will overcome the limitations of the rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic electrolytes that comprise safety and create high fabrication cost issues. This review focuses on the opportunities of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery compared to the conventional rechargeable lithium-ion battery with organic-based electrolytes. Previously reported studies are briefly summarised, together with the presentation of new findings based on the conductivity, morphology, electrochemical performance and cycling stability results. The factors that influence the electrochemical performance, the challenges and potential of the aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion battery are highlighted in order to understand and maintained the excellent battery performance.

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of quaternary ammonium electrolytes : Unexpected side reactions in organic electrochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri Nigjeh, Eslam; de Vries, Marcel; Bruins, Andries P.; Bischoff, Rainer; Permentier, Hjalmar P.

    Quaternary ammonium salts are among the most widely used electrolytes in organic electrochemistry, but there is little known about their unwanted side oxidation reactions. We have, therefore, studied the constant potential oxidation products of quaternary ammonium electrolytes using mass

  14. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbarao, S.; Koch, V.R.; Owens, B.B.; Smyrl, W.H.; (JPL, Pasadena, CA; Covalent Associates, Inc., Woburn, MA; Minnesota, University, Minneapolis)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  15. Symposium on Rechargeable Lithium Batteries, Hollywood, FL, Oct. 19-24, 1989, Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, S.; Koch, V. R.; Owens, B. B.; Smyrl, W. H.

    Recent advances in the technology and applications of rechargeable Li cells are discussed in reviews and reports. A general overview of the field is provided, and sections are devoted to organic electrolyte systems, polymeric electrolyte systems, inorganic electrolytes systems, and molten-salt electrolytes. Particular attention is given to electrolyte stabilization, the effects of organic additives on electrolyte performance, a cycle-life sensor, consumer-product applications, in situ measurements of gas evolution in Li secondary cells, ultrathin polymer cathodes, electrochemical growth of conducting polymers, and sealing Li/FeS(x) cells for a bipolar battery.

  16. Fabrication of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoriya, Sorachon

    This dissertation focuses on fabrication and improvement of morphological features of TiO2 nanotube arrays in the selected organic electrolytes including dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; see Chapter 4) and diethylene glycol (DEG; see Chapter 5). Using a polar dimethyl sulfoxide containing hydrofluoric acid, the vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays with well controlled morphologies, i.e. tube lengths ranging from few microns up to 101 microm, pore diameters from 100 nm to 150 nm, and wall thicknesses from 15 nm to 50 nm were achieved. Various anodization variables including fluoride ion concentration, voltage, anodization time, water content, and reuse of the anodized electrolyte could be manipulated under proper conditions to control the nanotube array morphology. Anodization current behaviors associated with evolution of nanotube length were analyzed in order to clarify and better understand the formation mechanism of nanotubes grown in the organic electrolytes. Typically observed for DMSO electrolyte, the behavior that anodization current density gradually decreases with time is a reflection of a constant growth rate of nanotube arrays. Large fluctuation of anodization current was significantly observed probably due to the large change in electrolyte properties during anodization, when anodizing in high conductivity electrolytes such as using high HF concentration and reusing the anodized electrolyte as a second time. It is believed that the electrolyte properties such as conductivity and polarity play important role in affecting ion solvation and interactions in the solution consequently determining the formation of oxide film. Fabrication of the TiO2 nanotube array films was extended to study in the more viscous diethylene glycol (DEG) electrolyte. The arrayed nanotubes achieved from DEG electrolytes containing either HF or NH4 F are fully separated, freely self-standing structure with open pores and a wide variation of tube-to-tube spacing ranging from

  17. Investigating the role for adaptation of the microbial community to transform trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether adaptation by pre-exposure to trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) was necessary for microbial transformation during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Two pairs of laboratory-scale soil columns, each

  18. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil

  19. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyungguen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR

  20. Application of several activity coefficient models to water-organic-electrolyte aerosols of atmospheric interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raatikainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, existing and modified activity coefficient models are examined in order to assess their capabilities to describe the properties of aqueous solution droplets relevant in the atmosphere. Five different water-organic-electrolyte activity coefficient models were first selected from the literature. Only one of these models included organics and electrolytes which are common in atmospheric aerosol particles. In the other models, organic species were solvents such as alcohols, and important atmospheric ions like NH4+ could be missing. The predictions of these models were compared to experimental activity and solubility data in aqueous single electrolyte solutions with 31 different electrolytes. Based on the deviations from experimental data and on the capabilities of the models, four predictive models were selected for fitting of new parameters for binary and ternary solutions of common atmospheric electrolytes and organics. New electrolytes (H+, NH4+, Na+, Cl-, NO3- and SO42- and organics (dicarboxylic and some hydroxy acids were added and some modifications were made to the models if it was found useful. All new and most of the existing parameters were fitted to experimental single electrolyte data as well as data for aqueous organics and aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for organic activities in binary solutions and for organic and electrolyte activities in aqueous organic-electrolyte solutions. This reduces model capabilities in predicting solubilities. After the parameters were fitted, deviations from measurement data were calculated for all fitted models, and for different data types. These deviations and the calculated property values were compared with those from other non-electrolyte and organic-electrolyte models found in the literature. Finally, hygroscopic growth factors were calculated for four 100 nm organic-electrolyte particles and these predictions were compared to

  1. New polymer lithium secondary batteries based on ORMOCER (R) electrolytes-inorganic-organic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popall, M.; Buestrich, R.; Semrau, G.

    2001-01-01

    Based on new plasticized inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes CM. Popall, M. Andrei, J. Kappel, J. Kron, K. Olma, B. Olsowski,'ORMOCERs as Inorganic-organic Electrolytes for New Solid State Lithium Batteries and Supercapacitors', Electrochim. Acta 43 (1998) 1155] new flexible foil-batteries...... electrolyte, typical for polymer electrolytes. Cycling tests (more than 900 cycles) proved that the unplasticized electrolyte can act as binder in composite cathodes of lithium secondary batteries [2]. Charge/discharge cycles of complete batteries like (Cu/active carbon/ORMOCER(R)/LiCoO2/Al) with an ORMOCER......(R) as separator electrolyte were measured. The voltage drop of these batteries is very similar to cells with standard liquid electrolytes and the efficiency is close to 100%. Cycling the batteries with a current density of 0.25 mA cm(-2) between the voltage limits of 3.1 and 4.1 V results in a charge...

  2. In-situ preparation of poly(ethylene oxide)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte with good nanofiller distribution for rechargeable solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Wang, Junye; Zhang, Zhihua; Wu, Linbin; Yao, Lili; Wei, Zhenyao; Deng, Yonghong; Xie, Dongjiu; Yao, Xiayin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2018-05-01

    Nano-sized fillers in a polymer matrix with good distribution can play a positive role in improving polymer electrolytes in the aspects of ionic conductivity, mechanical property and electrochemical performance of Li-ion cells. Herein, polyethylene oxide (PEO)/Li3PS4 hybrid polymer electrolyte is prepared via a new in-situ approach. The ionic conductivities of the novel hybrid electrolytes with variable proportions are measured, and the optimal electrolyte of PEO-2%vol Li3PS4 presents a considerable ionic conductivity of 8.01 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 60 °C and an electrochemical window up to 5.1 V. The tests of DSC and EDXS reveal that the Li3PS4 nanoparticles with better distribution, as active fillers scattering in the PEO, exhibit a positive effect on the transference of lithium ion and electrochemical interfacial stabilities. Finally, the assembled solid-state LiFePO4/Li battery presents a decent cycling performance (80.9% retention rate after 325 cycles at 60 °C) and excellent rate capacities with 153, 143, 139 and 127 mAh g-1 at the discharging rate of 0.1 C, 0.2 C, 0.5 C and 1 C at 60 °C. It is fully proved that it is an advanced strategy to preparing the new organic/inorganic hybrid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries applications.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Chiku

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1 at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Electrolyte Using Alkaline Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Chiku, Masanobu; Tomita, Shoji; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes were prepared by mixing hydrotalcite, cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and 6 M KOH solution. The organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogel electrolytes had high ionic conductivity (0.456–0.540 S cm−1) at 30 °C. Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hydrogel electrolytes was high enough to form a 2–3 mm thick freestanding membrane because of the reinforcement with hydrotalcite.

  5. The role of organic matter in the removal of emerging trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Williams, T; Hoppe-Jones, C; Drewes, J E

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the effect of different bulk organic carbon matrices on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Infiltration through porous media was simulated in biologically active column experiments under aerobic and anoxic recharge conditions. Wastewater effluent derived organic carbon types, differing in hydrophobicity and biodegradability (i. e., hydrophobic acids, hydrophilic carbon, organic colloids), were used as feed substrates in the column experiments. These carbon substrates while fed at the same concentration differed in their ability to support soil biomass growth during porous media infiltration. Removal of degradable TOrC (with the exception of diclofenac and propyphenazone) was equal or better under aerobic versus anoxic porous media infiltration conditions. During the initial phase of infiltration, the presence of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) enhanced the decay of degradable TOrC by promoting soil biomass growth, suggesting that BDOC served as a co-substrate in a co-metabolic transformation of these contaminants. However, unexpected high removal efficiencies were observed for all degradable TOrC in the presence of low BDOC concentrations under well adopted oligotrophic conditions. It is hypothesized that removal under these conditions is caused by a specialized microbial community growing on refractory carbon substrates such as hydrophobic acids. Findings of this study reveal that the concentration and character of bulk organic carbon present in effluents affect the degradation efficiency for TOrC during recharge operation. Specifically aerobic, oligotrophic microbiological soil environments present favorable conditions for the transformation of TOrC, including rather recalcitrant compounds such as chlorinated flame retardants. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries with electrode-solid electrolyte composite electrodes prepared by aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Wadaguchi, Masaki; Yoshida, Koki; Yamamoto, Yuta; Motoyama, Munekazu; Yamamoto, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Composite electrodes (∼9 μm in thickness) composed of 5V-class electrode of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNM) and high Li+ conductive crystalline-glass solid electrolyte (LATP, Ohara Inc.) were prepared at room temperature by aerosol deposition (AD) on platinum sheets. The resultant LNM-LATP composite electrodes were combined with LiPON and Li, and 5V-class bulk-type all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries (SSBs) were prepared. The crystallnity of the LNM in the LNM-LATP composite electrode was improved by annealing. Both thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy analysis and XRD analysis clarified that the side reactions between the LNM and the LATP occurred over 500 °C with oxygen release. From these results, annealing temperature of the LNM-LATP composite electrode system was optimized at 500 °C due to the improved crystallinity of the LNM with avoiding the side-reactions. The SSBs with the composite electrodes (9 μm in thickness, 40 vol% of the LNM) annealed at 500 °C delivered 100 mAh g-1 at 10 μA cm-2 at 100 °C. Degradation of the discharge capacity with the repetition of the charge-discharge reactions was observed, which will originate from large volume change of the LNM (∼6.5%) during the reactions.

  7. A multi-parametric approach assessing microbial viability and organic matter characteristics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Noh, Jin Hyung; Chae, So-Ryong; Choi, Jaewon; Lee, Yunho; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2015-08-15

    Soil column (SC) experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as microbial inhibitors; the microbial viability affecting the degradation of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and the characteristics of organic matter during managed aquifer recharge were specifically evaluated. Natural surface water samples treated with AgNPs (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg L(-1)) were continually fed into the soil columns for 2 years. The adverse impact of AgNPs on the cell membrane integrity and microbial enzymatic activity was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry and adenosine triphosphate analysis. The increase in AgNP concentration in the feed water (up to 10 mg L(-1)) resulted in a corresponding deterioration in the performance of the managed aquifer recharge (MAR), with respect to the removal of organic carbon, oxidation of nitrogenous compounds, and PhAC attenuation. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of feed water and treated water showed the favorable removal of protein-like substances compared to humic-like substances regardless of the AgNP concentrations; however, the extent of removed fractions decreased noticeably when the microbial viability was lowered via AgNP treatment. The biological oxidation of organic nitrogen was almost completely inhibited when 10 mg L(-1) AgNP was added during soil passage. The attenuation of bezafibrate, ketoprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, and gemfibrozil was strongly associated with the significant deterioration in biodegradation as a result of AgNP activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fire-extinguishing organic electrolytes for safe batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; Yamada, Yuki; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Watanabe, Eriko; Takada, Koji; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Yamada, Atsuo

    2018-01-01

    Severe safety concerns are impeding the large-scale employment of lithium/sodium batteries. Conventional electrolytes are highly flammable and volatile, which may cause catastrophic fires or explosions. Efforts to introduce flame-retardant solvents into the electrolytes have generally resulted in compromised battery performance because those solvents do not suitably passivate carbonaceous anodes. Here we report a salt-concentrated electrolyte design to resolve this dilemma via the spontaneous formation of a robust inorganic passivation film on the anode. We demonstrate that a concentrated electrolyte using a salt and a popular flame-retardant solvent (trimethyl phosphate), without any additives or soft binders, allows stable charge-discharge cycling of both hard-carbon and graphite anodes for more than 1,000 cycles (over one year) with negligible degradation; this performance is comparable or superior to that of conventional flammable carbonate electrolytes. The unusual passivation character of the concentrated electrolyte coupled with its fire-extinguishing property contributes to developing safe and long-lasting batteries, unlocking the limit toward development of much higher energy-density batteries.

  9. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water uses. This study investigated the effect of different dissolved organic carbon (DOC) composition in wastewater effluent on the fate of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) during ARR. Four biologically active columns were setup receiving synthetic wastewater effluent with varying DOC compositions. The difference in DOC composition triggered variations in the microbial community’s diversity and hence its ability to degrade TOrCs. It was found that the presence of protein-like DOC enhances the removal of DOC in comparison with the presence of humic-like DOC. On the other hand, the presence of humic-like DOC, which is more difficult to degrade, improved the removal of several degradable TOrCs. Other column experiments were also carried out to investigate the role of previous and continuous exposure to TOrCs in their removal. The use of soil pre-exposed to low concentrations of TOrCs and DOC provided better removal of both DOC and TOrCs. The findings of this study suggest that the presence of more humic-like DOC in the effluent enhances the biotransformation of TOrCs during ARR. In addition, long exposure to both DOC and TOrCs increases the degree of their removal over time

  10. The Role of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Preadaptation in the Biotransformation of Trace Organic Chemicals during Aquifer Recharge and Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Ouf, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR) is a low-cost and environmentally-friendly treatment technology which uses conventionally treated wastewater effluent for groundwater recharge and subsequent recovery for agricultural, industrial or drinking water

  11. Rechargeable quasi-solid state lithium battery with organic crystalline cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of metal-free low-cost high-capacity organic cathodes for lithium batteries has been a long-standing goal, but critical cyclability problems owing to dissolution of active materials into the electrolyte have been an inevitable obstacle. For practical utilisation of numerous cathode-active compounds proposed over the past decades, a novel battery construction strategy is required. We have designed a solid state cell that accommodates organic cathodic reactions in solid phase. The cell was successful at achieving high capacity exceeding 200 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. Further investigations confirmed that our strategy is effective for numerous other redox-active organic compounds. This implies hundreds of compounds dismissed before due to low cycleability would worth a re-visit under solid state design. PMID:22693655

  12. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2010-11-04

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for organic micropollutant (OMP) removal in drinking water treatment and wastewater reuse schemes. However, there is a need to develop assessment tools to help implement MAR as an effective barrier in attenuating different OMPs including pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors. In this study, guidelines were developed for different classes of organic micropollutants, in which removal efficiencies of these compounds are determined as a function of travel times and distances. Moreover, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) based model was proposed to predict the removals of organic micropollutants by MAR. The QSAR approach is especially useful for compounds with little information about their fate during soil passage. Such an assessment framework for organic micropollutant removal is useful for adapting MAR as a multi-objective (-contaminant) barrier and understanding different classes of compounds during soil passage and the determination of post treatment requirements for MAR. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  13. Improved chemical stability and cyclability in Li2S–P2S5–P2O5–ZnO composite electrolytes for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Hiromasa; Ohtomo, Takamasa; Hama, Sigenori; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical stability in air of Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 –P 2 O 5 –ZnO composite electrolytes was examined. • A partial substitution of P 2 O 5 for P 2 S 5 decreased the rate of H 2 S generation. • The addition of ZnO to the glasses reduced the amount of H 2 S. • All-solid-state lithium cells using the developed composite electrolytes exhibited good cyclability. -- Abstract: Sulfide glasses with high Li + ion conductivity are promising solid electrolytes for all-solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. This study specifically examined the chemical stability of Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 -based glass electrolytes in air. Partial substitution of P 2 O 5 for P 2 S 5 decreased the rate of H 2 S generation from glass exposed to air. The addition of ZnO to the Li 2 S–P 2 S 5 –P 2 O 5 glasses as a H 2 S absorbent reduced the H 2 S gas release. A composite electrolyte prepared from 90 mol% of 75Li 2 S⋅21P 2 S 5 ⋅4P 2 O 5 (mol%) glass and 10 mol% ZnO was applied to all-solid-state cells. The all-solid-state In/LiCoO 2 cell with the composite electrolyte showed good cyclability as a lithium secondary battery

  14. An all-organic rechargeable battery using bipolar polyparaphenylene as a redox-active cathode and anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L M; Lei, A W; Cao, Y L; Ai, X P; Yang, H X

    2013-01-21

    An all-organic rechargeable battery is realized by use of polyparaphenylene as both cathode- and anode-active material. This new battery can operate at a high voltage of 3.0 V with fairly high capacity, offering a renewable and cheaper alternative to conventional batteries.

  15. Electrochemical characterization of LiCoO2 as rechargeable electrode in aqueous LiNO3 electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Ruffo, Riccardo; La Mantia, Fabio; Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The development of lithium ion aqueous batteries is getting renewed interest due to their safety and low cost. We have demonstrated that the layer-structure LiCoO2 phase, the most commonly used electrode material in organic systems, can

  16. Organic solvents, electrolytes, and lithium ion cells with good low temperature performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Multi-component organic solvent systems, electrolytes and electrochemical cells characterized by good low temperature performance are provided. In one embodiment, an improved organic solvent system contains a ternary mixture of ethylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate and diethyl carbonate. In other embodiments, quaternary systems include a fourth component, i.e, an aliphatic ester, an asymmetric alkyl carbonate or a compound of the formula LiOX, where X is R, COOR, or COR, where R is alkyl or fluoroalkyl. Electrolytes based on such organic solvent systems are also provided and contain therein a lithium salt of high ionic mobility, such as LiPF.sub.6. Reversible electrochemical cells, particularly lithium ion cells, are constructed with the improved electrolytes, and preferably include a carbonaceous anode, an insertion type cathode, and an electrolyte interspersed therebetween.

  17. Removal kinetics of organic compounds and sum parameters under field conditions for managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Bernd; Massmann, Gudrun; Jekel, Martin; Heberer, Thomas; Dünnbier, Uwe; Orlikowski, Dagmar; Grützmacher, Gesche

    2011-10-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provides efficient removal for many organic compounds and sum parameters. However, observed in situ removal efficiencies tend to scatter and cannot be predicted easily. In this paper, a method is introduced which allows to identify and eliminate biased samples and to quantify simultaneously the impact of (i) redox conditions (ii) kinetics (iii) residual threshold values below which no removal occurs and (iv) field site specifics. It enables to rule out spurious correlations between these factors and therefore improves the predictive power. The method is applied to an extensive database from three MAR field sites which was compiled in the NASRI project (2002-2005, Berlin, Germany). Removal characteristics for 38 organic parameters are obtained, of which 9 are analysed independently in 2 different laboratories. Out of these parameters, mainly pharmaceutically active compounds (PhAC) but also sum parameters and industrial chemicals, four compounds are shown to be readily removable whereas six are persistent. All partly removable compounds show a redox dependency and most of them reveal either kinetic dependencies or residual threshold values, which are determined. Differing removal efficiencies at different field sites can usually be explained by characteristics (i) to (iii). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sodium-ion transfer at the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagane, Fumihiro; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Sodium-ion transfer through the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes was studied by AC impedance spectroscopy. Na{sub 3}Zr{sub 1.88}Y{sub 0.12}Si{sub 2}PO{sub 12} (NASICON) and Na-{beta}''-alumina were used as ceramic electrolytes, and propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 0.05 mol dm{sup -3} NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} were used as organic electrolytes. The semi-circle ascribed to interfacial charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) was observed. The activation energies for sodium-ion transfer at the interface between ceramic and organic electrolytes were evaluated by the temperature dependency of R{sub ct}. As a result, the activation energies depended on the ceramic electrolytes but not on the solvents. These results suggest that sodium-ion transfer from ceramic to organic electrolytes should be responsible for the activation energies, which is contrary to the case in a lithium-ion transfer system. Based on these results, the mechanism of interfacial sodium-ion transfer was discussed. (author)

  19. Charge Saturation and Intrinsic Doping in Electrolyte-Gated Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Timothy L; Gustafsson, Martin V; Schmidt, Elliot; Frisbie, C Daniel; Zhu, X-Y

    2015-12-03

    Electrolyte gating enables low voltage operation of organic thin film transistors, but little is known about the nature of the electrolyte/organic interface. Here we apply charge-modulation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, in conjunction with electrical measurements, on a model electrolyte gated organic semiconductor interface: single crystal rubrene/ion-gel. We provide spectroscopic signature for free-hole like carriers in the organic semiconductor and unambiguously show the presence of a high density of intrinsic doping of the free holes upon formation of the rubrene/ion-gel interface, without gate bias (Vg = 0 V). We explain this intrinsic doping as resulting from a thermodynamic driving force for the stabilization of free holes in the organic semiconductor by anions in the ion-gel. Spectroscopy also reveals the saturation of free-hole like carrier density at the rubrene/ion-gel interface at Vg < -0.5 V, which is commensurate with the negative transconductance seen in transistor measurements.

  20. Optimizing Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Systems for Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals (TOrCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a low-energy subsurface water treatment system with the potential of being an important component of sustainable water reuse schemes. Alongside common wastewater contaminants, MAR systems have been shown

  1. Framework for assessment of organic Micropollutant removals during managed Aquifer recharge and recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Amy, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) is a reliable and proven process, in which water quality can be improved by different physical, biological, and chemical reactions during soil passage. MAR can potentially be included in a multi

  2. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: lisha_csu@163.com [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. > Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. > D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. > The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO{sup 2+} ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  3. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sha; Huang Kelong; Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. → Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. → D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. → The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO 2+ ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  4. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries. Final report, 1 April 1990-31 March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    This final report for the project 'Organic Electrolytes for Sodium Batteries' contains a summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  5. A reactive barrier to enhance the removal of emerging organic compounds during artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    Valhondo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through infiltration basins (AR) improves water quality and in- creases groundwater resources, which make of it an appropriate technique for the renaturalization of waters affected directly or indirectly by wastewater effluents. Emerging organic compounds (EOCs), typically present in such waters, are mainly reduced during AR by sorption and biotrans- formation. We installed a reactive barrier in an infiltration basin (5000 m2) to enhance the removal of EOCs ...

  6. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  7. Fate of selected pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds during artificial aquifer recharge using surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; Díaz-Cruz, Silvia; Rosell, Mònica; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2010-05-01

    The artificial recharge of aquifers has become a valuable tool to increase water resources for drinking water production in many countries. In this work a total of 41 organic pollutants belonging to the classes of pesticides, estrogens, progestogens and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been monitored in the water from two artificial recharge plants located in Sweden and Denmark. The results from two sampling campaigns performed in each plant indicate good chemical status of the source water, as the contaminants detected were present at very low levels, far from those established in the legislation as maximum admissible concentrations (when existing) and far from those considered as a risk. Thus, of the 17 pesticides investigated, BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide), desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, terbuthylazine, diuron, metolachlor, and diazinon were the only compounds detected, and total pesticides levels were below 25ng L(-1), respectively. Estrone-3-sulfate was the only estrogen detected, at concentrations lower than 0.5ng L(-1). Progestogens were not found in any sample. Detected VOCs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and trichloroethylene) were below 0.04microg L(-1). The efficiency of elimination of these organic contaminants was poor as no significant decrease in their concentrations was observed through the recharge process.

  8. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs

  9. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC

  10. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  11. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.; Sharp, J. O.; Saikaly, Pascal; Ali, Shahjahan; Alidina, M.; Alarawi, M. S.; Keller, S.; Hoppe-Jones, C.; Drewes, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  12. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    KAUST Repository

    Regnery, J.

    2015-05-29

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e. redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e. less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR.

  13. Dissolved organic carbon influences microbial community composition and diversity in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Saikaly, Pascal E; Ali, Shahjahan; Alidina, Mazahirali; Alarawi, Mohammed S; Keller, Stephanie; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Drewes, Jörg E

    2012-10-01

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  14. Biotransformation of trace organic chemicals during groundwater recharge: How useful are first-order rate constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, J; Wing, A D; Alidina, M; Drewes, J E

    2015-08-01

    This study developed relationships between the attenuation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrC) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as a function of retention time, system characteristics, and operating conditions using controlled laboratory-scale soil column experiments simulating MAR. The results revealed that MAR performance in terms of TOrC attenuation is primarily determined by key environmental parameters (i.e., redox, primary substrate). Soil columns with suboxic and anoxic conditions performed poorly (i.e., less than 30% attenuation of moderately degradable TOrC) in comparison to oxic conditions (on average between 70-100% attenuation for the same compounds) within a residence time of three days. Given this dependency on redox conditions, it was investigated if key parameter-dependent rate constants are more suitable for contaminant transport modeling to properly capture the dynamic TOrC attenuation under field-scale conditions. Laboratory-derived first-order removal kinetics were determined for 19 TOrC under three different redox conditions and rate constants were applied to MAR field data. Our findings suggest that simplified first-order rate constants will most likely not provide any meaningful results if the target compounds exhibit redox dependent biotransformation behavior or if the intention is to exactly capture the decline in concentration over time and distance at field-scale MAR. However, if the intention is to calculate the percent removal after an extended time period and subsurface travel distance, simplified first-order rate constants seem to be sufficient to provide a first estimate on TOrC attenuation during MAR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  16. Performance of carbon-carbon supercapacitors based on organic, aqueous and ionic liquid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Andrzej; Olejniczak, Angelika; Galinski, Maciej; Stepniak, Izabela [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Piotrowo 3, PL-60 965 Poznan (Poland)

    2010-09-01

    Properties of capacitors working with the same carbon electrodes (activated carbon cloth) and three types of electrolytes: aqueous, organic and ionic liquids were compared. Capacitors filled with ionic liquids worked at a potential difference of 3.5 V, their solutions in AN and PC were charged up to the potential difference of 3 V, classical organic systems to 2.5 V and aqueous to 1 V. Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charging/discharging and impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize these capacitors. The highest specific energy was recorded for the device working with ionic liquids, while the highest power is characteristic for the device filled with aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Aqueous electrolytes led to energy density an order of magnitude lower in comparison to that characteristic of ionic liquids. (author)

  17. Polyanthraquinone-Based Organic Cathode for High-Performance Rechargeable Magnesium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Baofei [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Huang, Jinhua [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Feng, Zhenxing [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zeng, Li [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; He, Meinan [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Lu [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Vaughey, John T. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Bedzyk, Michael J. [Applied Physics Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston IL 60208 USA; Fenter, Paul [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Zhang, Zhengcheng [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Burrell, Anthony K. [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA; Liao, Chen [Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, Chemical Science and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont IL 60439 USA

    2016-05-09

    Two anthraquinone-based polymers aiming at improving the capacity and voltage of magnesium ion batteries, were synthesized and characterized. The excellent battery cycling performance was demonstrated with the electrolyte consisting of magnesium bis(hexamethyldisilazide) and magnesium chloride.

  18. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale; Coppedè , Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Romeo, Agostino; Gentile, Francesco T.; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Mosca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel

  19. Optimizing Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Systems for Removal of Trace Organic Chemicals (TOrCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-06-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a low-energy subsurface water treatment system with the potential of being an important component of sustainable water reuse schemes. Alongside common wastewater contaminants, MAR systems have been shown to attenuate a range of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). Despite several factors being possibly important for TOrC attenuation, many have not been investigated in depth. This research effort investigated three factors affecting attenuation of the moderately degradable TOrCs: primary substrate, adaptation of the microbial community to presence of TOrCs, and groundwater temperature. The overall goal was to optimize TOrC attenuation using different MAR configurations considering how these factors affect TOrC attenuation. The primary substrate composition and concentration significantly impacted attenuation of the moderately degradable TOrCs. Lower primary substrate concentrations and more refractory carbon generally resulted in better TOrC transformation, a more diverse microbial community in the infiltration zone and more diverse capabilities for TOrC degradation. The enzyme group cytochrome P450 may be important for TOrC transformation since its genes were more abundant under carbon-starving primary substrate conditions. Adaptation of the microbial community by pre-exposure to TOrCs was not required in order to degrade them. However, adaptation to the primary substrate was necessary for TOrC biotransformation due to its effect on the microbial community. Attenuation of most TOrCs was unaffected by changes in temperature. Some moderately degradable TOrCs, however, were better attenuated at higher temperatures likely due to increased microbial activity. Others were better degraded at lower temperatures likely due to favorable sorption conditions. In the context of applying MAR systems to potential water reuse schemes within Saudi Arabia, a reconnaissance study of TOrC occurrence in treated wastewater effluents was undertaken. Most of

  20. Photoelectrical stimulation of neuronal cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S.; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor–electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer...... consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor–electrolyte layer....... Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor–electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions....

  1. Supercapacitors based on two dimensional VO2 nanosheet electrodes in organic gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R.B.

    2016-10-16

    VO2 is a low band-gap semiconductor with relatively high conductivity among transition metal oxides, which makes it an interesting material for supercapacitor electrode applications. The performance of VO2 as supercapacitor electrode in organic electrolytes has never been reported before. Herein, two-dimensional nanosheets of VO2 are prepared by the simultaneous solution reduction and exfoliation from bulk V2O5 powder by hydrothermal method. A specific capacitance of 405 Fg−1 is achieved for VO2 based supercapacitor in an organic electrolyte, in three electrode configuration. The symmetric capacitor based on VO2 nanosheet electrodes and the liquid organic electrolyte exhibits an energy density of 46 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 1.4 kW kg−1 at a constant current density of 1 Ag−1. Furthermore, flexible solid-state supercapacitors are fabricated using same electrode material and Alumina-silica based gel electrolyte. The solid-state device delivers a specific capacitance of 145 Fg−1 and a device capacitance of 36 Fg−1 at a discharge current density of 1 Ag−1. Series combination of three solid state capacitors is capable of lighting up a red LED for more than 1 minute.

  2. Anodic behavior of stainless-steel substrate in organic electrolyte solutions containing different lithium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Egashira, Minato; Morita, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated anodic behavior of stainless-steel in organic electrolytes for advanced capacitor. • Anion of the electrolyte affected the anodic stability of the alloy. • Anodic passivation occurs in LiPF 6 solution but pitting or active dissolution proceeds in other electrolyte solutions. • Fluoride source in the solution contributes to forming a stable surface layer on the stainless steel. - Abstract: The anodic behavior of austenitic stainless-steel, SUS304, as a current collector of positive electrode in lithium-ion battery/capacitor has been investigated in organic electrolyte solutions based on a mixed alkyl carbonate solvent with different lithium salts. Stable passivation characteristics were observed for the stainless-steel in the LiPF 6 solution, but pitting corrosion or active dissolution proceeded in the solutions containing other anions, BF 4 - , (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - (TFSA - ) and ClO 4 - . The mass ratios of the dissolved metal species in the solutions of LiTFSA and LiClO 4 were equivalent to that of the alloy composition, which suggests that no preferential dissolution occurs during the anodic polarization in these electrolyte solutions. An HF component formed by decomposition of PF 6 - with the contaminate water will act as an F - source for the formation of a surface fluoride layer, that will contribute to the anodic stability of SUS304 in the LiPF 6 solution. The anodic corrosion in the LiTFSA solution was suppressed in part by mixing the PF 6 salt or adding HF in the electrolyte

  3. Estimation of biotransformation and sorption of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) during artificial recharge through a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, C.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Hidalgo, J. J.; Ayora, C.

    2016-12-01

    The reuse of lesser quality water such as effluents from wastewater treatment plants or effluent-receiving water bodies has been promoted due to the water shortages affecting many regions of the world. Artificial recharge through infiltration basins is known to improve several water quality parameters including the attenuation of emerging organic compounds (EOCs). Many of these contaminants exhibit redox dependent biotransformation because the redox state is one of the factors controlling microbial community development. Together with biotransformation, sorption also affects the behavior of EOCs in their passage through the soil. We studied EOCs attenuation in an infiltration system is located in Sant Vicenç dells Horts on the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain), where the local water agency has an artificial recharge pilot project . The Llobregat river water used for the artificial recharge is affected by treatment plant effluents which contain EOCs. A reactive barrier consisting of vegetable compost, clay, and iron oxide was installed in the bottom of the infiltration basin to enhance biotransformation and sorption of EOCs. The barrier releases dissolved organic carbon, which favors the development of a broad range of redox environments, and supplies neutral, cationic, and anionic surfaces to favor sorption of different types of contaminants. Results were excellent, but quantitative evaluation of the EOCs attenuation requires knowledge of the residence time distribution of infiltrated water. A tracer test was performed by adding tracers to the infiltration water and interpreting the breakthrough curves at diverse monitoring points with a 2D multilayer numerical model. The calibrated model quantify degradation, as a first order law, and sorption through a linear distribution coefficient for ten selected EOCs. Results indicate higher degradation rates and sorption coefficients in the reactive barrier than in the rest of the aquifer for nine and eight of the ten

  4. The Li-ion rechargeable battery: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, John B; Park, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-30

    Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid-solution range. The solid-solution range, which is reduced at higher current by the rate of transfer of the working ion across electrode/electrolyte interfaces and within a host, limits the amount of charge per electrode formula unit that can be transferred over the time Δt = Δt(I). Moreover, the difference between energies of the LUMO and the HOMO of the electrolyte, i.e., electrolyte window, determines the maximum voltage for a long shelf and cycle life. The maximum stable voltage with an aqueous electrolyte is 1.5 V; the Li-ion rechargeable battery uses an organic electrolyte with a larger window, which increase the density of stored energy for a given Δt. Anode or cathode electrochemical potentials outside the electrolyte window can increase V, but they require formation of a passivating surface layer that must be permeable to Li(+) and capable of adapting rapidly to the changing electrode surface area as the electrode changes volume during cycling. A passivating surface layer adds to the impedance of the

  5. Energy-density enhancement of carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors with redox couple in organic electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Byungwoo; Yoo, Young-Eun; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Woong

    2014-11-26

    We demonstrate for the first time that the incorporation of a redox-active molecule in an organic electrolyte can increase the cell voltage of a supercapacitor. The redox molecule also contributes to increasing the cell capacitance by a faradaic redox reaction, and therefore the energy density of the supercapacitor can be significantly increased. More specifically, the addition of redox-active decamethylferrocene in an organic electrolyte results in an approximately 27-fold increase in the energy density of carbon-nanotube-based supercapacitors. The resulting high energy density (36.8 Wh/kg) stems from the increased cell voltage (1.1 V→2.1 V) and cell capacitance (8.3 F/g→61.3 F/g) resulting from decamethylferrocene addition. We found that the voltage increase is associated with the potential of the redox species relative to the electrochemical stability window of the supporting electrolyte. These results will be useful in identifying new electrolytes for high-energy-density supercapacitors.

  6. Ion Transport in Organic Electrolyte Solution through the Pore Channels of Anodic Nanoporous Alumina Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutsuka, Tomokazu; Koyamada, Kohei; Maruyama, Shohei; Miyazaki, Kohei; Abe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion transport in organic electrolyte solution in macro- and meso-pores was focused. • Anodic nanoporous alumina membrane was used as a porous material. • The specific ion conductivities drastically decreased in macro- and meso-pores. - Abstract: For the development of high energy density lithium-ion batteries with the high rate performance, the enhancement of the ion transport in the electrolyte solutions impregnated in the porous electrodes is a key. To study the ion transport in porous electrodes, anodic nanoporous alumina (APA) self-standing membranes with macro- or meso-pores were used as model porous materials. These membranes had nearly spherical pore channels of discrete 20–68 nm in diameters. By using the geometric shape of the pores, we attempted to evaluate the specific ion conductivities of the organic electrolyte solution dissolving lithium salt simply. AC impedance spectroscopy measurement of a four-electrode cell with membranes showed one depressed semi-circle in the Nyquist plots and this semi-circle can be assigned as the ion transport resistance in the pores. The specific ion conductivities evaluated from the ion transport resistances and the geometric parameters showed very small values, even in the macro-pores, as compared with that of the bulk electrolyte solution.

  7. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  8. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  9. Characterization of organic precursors in DBP formation and AOC in urban surface water and their fate during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Won Mo; Lee, Seunghak; Choi, Jaewon; Maeng, Sung Kyu

    2017-10-15

    In this study, the organic components were identified that are mainly responsible for the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and for the biostability of urban surface water. The compositional distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was strongly associated with the potential for both DBP formation and bacterial growth. Further evaluation was carried out (1) to compare the potential for DBP formation upon chlorination of treated water, (2) to determine the biostability that might result from minimizing assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and (3) to use laboratory-scale soil-column experiments to compare the effects of removal of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) between managed aquifer recharge (MAR) hybrid systems (such as bank filtration followed by artificial recharge and recovery: ARR), and ozonation followed by ARR. Our fractionation and removal methods provided useful insights into the removal of problematic organic components using MAR hybrid systems. Pretreatment with a small amount of ozone (∼0.7 mg-O 3 mg-C -1 ) resulted in improved ARR performance, especially from removing organic acids from DOM, which substantially decreased the potential for DBP formation, while the robust removal of AOC was attributed to a significant decrease in non-acidic and more hydrophilic fractions during soil passage. Both pretreatments used in this study were effective in the removal of selected TOrCs, but carbamazepine was persistent during soil passage. The pretreatment, which used ozonation before ARR, significantly enhanced the removal of carbamazepine; therefore, ozonation followed by ARR is considered an effective way to enhance removal of persistent compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Variations of iron flux and organic carbon remineralization in a subterranean estuary caused by interannual variations in recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moutusi; Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    We determine the inter-annual variations in diagenetic reaction rates of sedimentary iron (Fe ) in an east Florida subterranean estuary and evaluate the connection between metal fluxes and recharge to the coastal aquifer. Over the three-year study period (from 2004 to 2007), the amount of Fe-oxides reduced at the study site decreased from 192 g/yr to 153 g/yr and associated organic carbon (OC) remineralization decreased from 48 g/yr to 38 g/yr. These reductions occurred although the Fe-oxide reduction rates remained constant around 1 mg/cm2/yr. These results suggest that changes in flow rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) related to changes in precipitation may be important to fluxes of the diagenetic reaction products. Rainfall at a weather station approximately 5 km from the field area decreased from 12.6 cm/month to 8.4 cm/month from 2004 to 2007. Monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from Thornthwaite’s method indicated potential evapotranspiration cycled from about 3 cm/month in the winter to about 15 cm/month in the summer so that net annual recharge to the aquifer decreased from 40 cm in 2004 to -10 cm in 2007. Simultaneously, with the decrease in recharge of groundwater, freshwater SGD decreased by around 20% and caused the originally 25 m wide freshwater seepage face to decrease in width by about 5 m. The smaller seepage face reduced the area under which Fe-oxides were undergoing reductive dissolution. Consequently, the observed decrease in Fe flux is controlled by hydrology of the subterranean estuary. These results point out the need to better understand linkages between temporal variations in diagenetic reactions and changes in flow within subterranean estuaries in order to accurately constrain their contribution to oceanic fluxes of solutes from subterranean estuaries.

  11. Variations of iron flux and organic carbon remineralization in a subterranean estuary caused by inter-annual variations in recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Moutusi; Martin, Jonathan B.; Cable, Jaye E.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2013-02-01

    We determine the inter-annual variations in diagenetic reaction rates of sedimentary iron (Fe) in an east Florida subterranean estuary and evaluate the connection between metal fluxes and recharge to the coastal aquifer. Over the three years study period (from 2004 to 2007), the amount of Fe-oxides reduced at the study site decreased from 192 to 153 g/yr and associated organic carbon (OC) remineralization decreased from 48 to 38 g/yr. These reductions occurred although the Fe-oxide reduction rates remained constant around 1 mg/cm2/yr. These results suggest that changes in flow rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) related to changes in precipitation may be important to fluxes of the diagenetic reaction products. Rainfall at a weather station approximately 5 km from the field area decreased from 12.6 to 8.4 cm/month from 2004 to 2007. Monthly potential evapotranspiration (PET) calculated from Thornthwaite's method indicated potential evapotranspiration cycled from about 3 cm/month in the winter to about 15 cm/month in the summer so that net annual recharge to the aquifer decreased from 40 cm in 2004 to -10 cm in 2007. Simultaneously with the decrease in recharge of groundwater, freshwater SGD decreased by around 20% and caused the originally 25 m wide freshwater seepage face to decrease in width by about 5 m. The smaller seepage face reduced the area under which Fe-oxides were undergoing reductive dissolution. Consequently, the observed decrease in Fe flux is controlled by hydrology of the subterranean estuary. These results point out the need to better understand linkages between temporal variations in diagenetic reactions and changes in flow within subterranean estuaries in order to accurately constrain their contribution to oceanic fluxes of solutes from subterranean estuaries.

  12. Electrochemical stability of organic electrolytes in supercapacitors: Spectroscopy and gas analysis of decomposition products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzweil, P.; Chwistek, M. [University of Applied Sciences, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring 23, D-92224 Amberg (Germany)

    2008-02-01

    The fundamental aging mechanisms in double-layer capacitors based on alkylammonium electrolytes in acetonitrile were clarified for the first time. After abusive testing at cell voltages above 4 V, ultracapacitors cast out a crystalline mass of residual electrolyte, organic acids, acetamide, aromatics, and polymer compounds. The mixture could be reproduced by electrolysis. The decomposition products of active carbon electrodes and electrolyte solution after a heat treatment at 70 C were identified by infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, liquid and headspace GC-MS, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The alkylammonium cation is destroyed by the elimination of ethene. The fluoroborate anion works as source of fluoride and hydrogenfluoride, and boric acid derivates. Acetonitrile forms acetamide, acetic and fluoroacetic acid, and derivates thereof. Due to the catalytic activity of the electrode, heterocyclic compounds are generated in the liquid phase. The etched aluminium support under the active carbon layer is locally destroyed by fluorination. Exploring novel electrolytes, ionic liquids were characterized by impedance spectroscopy. (author)

  13. Fabrication of WO3-based electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilopoulou, M; Aspiotis, G; Kostis, I; Argitis, P; Davazoglou, D

    2005-01-01

    New all solid-state electrochromic displays were fabricated by chemically vapor depositing and patterning a tungsten oxide film on SnO 2 :F covered glass substrates. Aluminum sheets were used as counter electrodes to form electrochromic displays using solid or gel-like organic electrolytes. These ionically conductive and electronically insulating electrolytes were based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(2-hydrohyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) into which phospho-tungstic acid was added at various concentrations. In some devices the electrolyte was formed by addition of photoacid generator into the polymeric matrix and exposure at deep UV light. It was found that displays exhibit an intense, reversible electrochromic effect with reflectivity varying by a factor of five between the uncolored to the colored state. The coloring voltage depends strongly on the polymeric matrix, the thickness of the electrolyte and post-apply baking conditions and is of the order of 6-9 V. The response time was found to be of the order of 500 ms; coloration and bleaching times were comparable

  14. Electric double layer capacitance on hierarchical porous carbons in an organic electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Moriguchi, Isamu; Kudo, Tetsuichi

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous carbons were prepared by using colloidal crystal as a template. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscope images revealed that the porous carbons exhibit hierarchical porous structures with meso/macropores and micropores. Electric double layer capacitor performance of the porous carbons was investigated in an organic electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate and dimethoxy ethane. The hierarchical porous carbons exhibited large specific dou...

  15. Detection beyond Debye's length with an electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Gerardo; De Tullio, Donato; Magliulo, Maria; Mallardi, Antonia; Intranuovo, Francesca; Mulla, Mohammad Yusuf; Favia, Pietro; Vikholm-Lundin, Inger; Torsi, Luisa

    2015-02-04

    Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors are successfully used as biosensors to detect binding events occurring at distances from the transistor electronic channel that are much larger than the Debye length in highly concentrated solutions. The sensing mechanism is mainly capacitive and is due to the formation of Donnan's equilibria within the protein layer, leading to an extra capacitance (CDON) in series to the gating system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Occurrence and fate of bulk organic matter and pharmaceutically active compounds in managed aquifer recharge: A review

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2011-05-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a natural water treatment process that induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust and sustainable technology. Detailed characteristics of bulk organic matter and the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during MAR processes such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (AR) were reviewed. Understanding the fate of bulk organic matter during BF and AR is an essential step in determining pre- and/or post-treatment requirements. Analysis of organic matter characteristics using a suite of analytical tools suggests that there is a preferential removal of non-humic substances during MAR. Different classes of PhACs were found to behave differently during BF and AR. Antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta blockers, and steroid hormones generally exhibited good removal efficiencies, especially for compounds having hydrophobic-neutral characteristics. However, anticonvulsants showed a persistent behavior during soil passage. There were also some redox-dependent PhACs. For example, X-ray contrast agents measured, as adsorbable organic iodine (AOI), and sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic) degraded more favorably under anoxic conditions compared to oxic conditions. Phenazone-type pharmaceuticals (NSAIDs) exhibited better removal under oxic conditions. The redox transition from oxic to anoxic conditions during soil passage can enhance the removal of PhACs that are sensitive to redox conditions. In general, BF and AR can be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for the removal of PhACs. © 2011.

  17. Occurrence and fate of bulk organic matter and pharmaceutically active compounds in managed aquifer recharge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; Amy, Gary L

    2011-05-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a natural water treatment process that induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust and sustainable technology. Detailed characteristics of bulk organic matter and the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during MAR processes such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (AR) were reviewed. Understanding the fate of bulk organic matter during BF and AR is an essential step in determining pre- and/or post-treatment requirements. Analysis of organic matter characteristics using a suite of analytical tools suggests that there is a preferential removal of non-humic substances during MAR. Different classes of PhACs were found to behave differently during BF and AR. Antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beta blockers, and steroid hormones generally exhibited good removal efficiencies, especially for compounds having hydrophobic-neutral characteristics. However, anticonvulsants showed a persistent behavior during soil passage. There were also some redox-dependent PhACs. For example, X-ray contrast agents measured, as adsorbable organic iodine (AOI), and sulfamethoxazole (an antibiotic) degraded more favorably under anoxic conditions compared to oxic conditions. Phenazone-type pharmaceuticals (NSAIDs) exhibited better removal under oxic conditions. The redox transition from oxic to anoxic conditions during soil passage can enhance the removal of PhACs that are sensitive to redox conditions. In general, BF and AR can be included in a multi-barrier treatment system for the removal of PhACs. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Organic micropollutant removal from wastewater effluent-impacted drinking water sources during bank filtration and artificial recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2010-07-01

    Natural treatment systems such as bank filtration (BF) and artificial recharge (via an infiltration basin) are a robust barrier for many organic micropollutants (OMPs) and may represent a low-cost alternative compared to advanced drinking water treatment systems. This study analyzes a comprehensive database of OMPs at BF and artificial recharge (AR) sites located near Lake Tegel in Berlin (Germany). The focus of the study was on the derivation of correlations between the removal efficiencies of OMPs and key factors influencing the performance of BF and AR. At the BF site, shallow monitoring wells located close to the Lake Tegel source exhibited oxic conditions followed by prolonged anoxic conditions in deep monitoring wells and a production well. At the AR site, oxic conditions prevailed from the recharge pond along monitoring wells to the production well. Long residence times of up to 4.5 months at the BF site reduced the temperature variation during soil passage between summer and winter. The temperature variations were greater at the AR site as a consequence of shorter residence times. Deep monitoring wells and the production well located at the BF site were under the influence of ambient groundwater and old bank filtrate (up to several years of age). Thus, it is important to account for mixing with native groundwater and other sources (e.g., old bank filtrate) when estimating the performance of BF with respect to removal of OMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate correlations between OMP removals and hydrogeochemical conditions with spatial and temporal parameters (e.g., well distance, residence time and depth) from both sites. Principal component-1 (PC1) embodied redox conditions (oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen), and principal component-2 (PC2) embodied degradation potential (e.g., total organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon) with the calcium carbonate dissolution potential (Ca2+ and HCO3 -) for the BF site

  19. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  20. The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable battery of Zn/Na0.44MnO2 based on hybrid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwen; Li, Yehua; Xiang, Yanhong; Liu, Zhixiong; He, Zeqiang; Wu, Xianming; Li, Youji; Xiong, Lizhi; Li, Chuanchang; Chen, Jian

    2016-12-01

    There is a broad application prospect for smart grid about aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery. In order to improve its electrochemical performance, a hybrid cationic aqueous-based rechargeable battery system based on the nanostructural Na0.44MnO2 and metallic zinc foil as the positive and negative electrodes respectively is built up. Nano rod-like Na0.44MnO2 is synthesized by sol-gel method followed by calcination at 850 °C for 9 h, and various characterization techniques including the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the as-prepared material. The cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and self-discharge measurements are performed at the same time. The results show that the battery delivers a very high initial discharge capacity of 186.2 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C-rate in the range of 0.5-2.0 V, and it exhibits a discharge capacity of 113.3 mAh g-1 at high current density of 4 C-rate, indicative of excellent rate capability.

  1. Radical Compatibility with Nonaqueous Electrolytes and Its Impact on an All-Organic Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoliang; Xu, Wu; Huang, Jinhua; Zhang, Lu; Walter, Eric; Lawrence, Chad; Vijayakumar, M; Henderson, Wesley A; Liu, Tianbiao; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Li, Bin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-07-20

    Nonaqueous redox flow batteries hold the promise of achieving higher energy density because of the broader voltage window than aqueous systems, but their current performance is limited by low redox material concentration, cell efficiency, cycling stability, and current density. We report a new nonaqueous all-organic flow battery based on high concentrations of redox materials, which shows significant, comprehensive improvement in flow battery performance. A mechanistic electron spin resonance study reveals that the choice of supporting electrolytes greatly affects the chemical stability of the charged radical species especially the negative side radical anion, which dominates the cycling stability of these flow cells. This finding not only increases our fundamental understanding of performance degradation in flow batteries using radical-based redox species, but also offers insights toward rational electrolyte optimization for improving the cycling stability of these flow batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Instability of Ionic Liquid-Based Electrolytes in Li−O2 Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Supti; Højberg, Jonathan; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising solvents for Li−air battery electrolytes. Here, several ILs have been investigated using differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) to investigate the electrochemical stability in a Li−O2 system, by means of quantitative determination...... of the rechargeability (OER/ORR), and thereby the Coulombic efficiency of discharge and charge. None of the IL-based electrolytes are found to behave as needed for a functional Li−O2 battery but perform better than commonly used organic solvents. Also the extent of rechargeability/reversibility has been found...

  3. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Shackleton, M.; Furness, A. J.; Bekele, E.; Pearce, J.; Linge, K. L.; Busetti, F.; Spadek, T.; Toze, S.

    2011-03-01

    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12 month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life NDMA and NMOR) did not degrade under either aerobic or anaerobic aquifer geochemical conditions (half life > 50 days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required.

  4. Behaviour and fate of nine recycled water trace organics during managed aquifer recharge in an aerobic aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Bekele, E; Pearce, J; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T; Toze, S

    2011-03-25

    The fate of nine trace organic compounds was evaluated during a 12month large-scale laboratory column experiment. The columns were packed with aquifer sediment and evaluated under natural aerobic and artificial anaerobic geochemical conditions, to assess the potential for natural attenuation of these compounds during aquifer passage associated with managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The nine trace organic compounds were bisphenol A (BPA), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR), carbamazepine, oxazepam, iohexol and iodipamide. In the low organic carbon content Spearwood sediment, all trace organics were non-retarded with retardation coefficients between 1.0 and 1.2, indicating that these compounds would travel at near groundwater velocities within the aquifer. The natural aerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for the rapid degradation for BPA, E2, iohexol (half life aquifer geochemical conditions (half life >50days). Field-based validation experiments with carbamazepine and oxazepam also showed no degradation. If persistent trace organics are present in recycled waters at concentrations in excess of their intended use, natural attenuation during aquifer passage alone may not result in extracted water meeting regulatory requirements. Additional pre treatment of the recycled water would therefore be required. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in mixed organic-inorganic electrolytes and their photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Yuekun [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhuang Huifang; Sun Lan [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen Zhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin Changjian [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: cjlin@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-11-01

    The formation of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films by electrochemical anodizing titanium foils was investigated in a developed organic-inorganic mixed electrolyte. It was found that the structure and morphology of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube layer were greatly dependent upon the electrolyte composition, anodizing potential and time. Under the optimized electrolyte composition and electrochemical conditions, a controllable, well-ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array layer could be fabricated in a short time. The diameters of the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} nanotubes could be adjusted from 20 to 150 nm, and the thickness could be adjusted from a few hundred nanometers to several micrometers. The photoresponse and the photocatalytic activity of the highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotube array films were also examined. The nanotube array film with a thickness of about 2.5 {mu}m had the highest incident photon to photocurrent conversion efficiency (IPCE) (34.3%) at the 350 nm wavelength, and had better charge transfer ability under UV light illumination. The photocatalytic experimental results indicated that the 450 deg. C annealing samples have the highest photodegradation efficiency for methyl orange pollutant.

  6. Simultaneous attenuation of pharmaceuticals, organic matter, and nutrients in wastewater effluent through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Huncheol; Yeo, Inseol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Park, Chul Hwi; Choi, Heechul

    2016-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to evaluate the removal of organic matter, nutrients, and pharmaceuticals and to identify the removal mechanisms of the target contaminants. The sands used in the experiments were obtained from the Youngsan River located in South Korea. Neutral and cationic pharmaceuticals (iopromide, estrone, and trimethoprim) were removed with efficiencies greater than 80% from different sand media during experiments, due to the effect of sorption between sand and pharmaceuticals. However, the anionic pharmaceuticals (sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac) were more effectively removed by natural sand, compared to baked sand. These observations were mainly attributed to biodegradation under natural conditions of surface organic matter and ATP concentrations. The removal of organic matter and nitrogen was also found to increase under biotic conditions. Therefore, it is indicated that biodegradation plays an important role and act as major mechanisms for the removal of organic matter, nutrients, and selected pharmaceuticals during sand passage and the managed aquifer recharge, which is an effective treatment method for removing target contaminants. However, the low removal efficiencies of pharmaceuticals (e.g., carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) require additional processes (e.g., AOPs, NF and RO membrane), a long residence time, and long travel distance for increasing the removal efficiencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fate of bulk and trace organics during a simulated aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone hybrid process

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min

    2013-11-01

    The attenuation of bulk organic matter and trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) was evaluated for various aquifer recharge and recovery (ARR)-ozone (O3) hybrid treatment process combinations using soil-batch reactor and bench-scale ozonation experiments as a proof of concept prior to pilot and/or field studies. In water reclamation and especially potable reuse, refractory bulk organic matter and TOrCs are of potential health concern in recycled waters. In this study, the role of biotransformation of bulk organic matter and TOrCs was investigated considering different simulated treatment combinations, including soil passage (ARR) alone, ARR after ozonation (O3-ARR), and ARR prior to ozonation (ARR-O3). During oxic (aerobic) ARR simulations, soluble microbial-like substances (e.g., higher molecular weight polysaccharides and proteins) were easily removed while (lower molecular weight) humic substances and aromatic organic matter were not efficiently removed. During ARR-ozone treatment simulations, removals of bulk organic matter and TOrCs were rapid and effective compared to ARR alone. A higher reduction of effluent-derived organic matter, including aromatic organic matter and humic substances, was observed in the ARR-O3 hybrid followed by the O3-ARR hybrid. An enhanced attenuation of recalcitrant TOrCs was observed while increasing the ozone dose slightly (O3: DOC=1). TOrC removal efficiency also increased during the post-ozone treatment combination (i.e., ARR-O3). In addition, the carcinogenic wastewater disinfection byproduct N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was eliminated below the method reporting limit (<5ngL-1) both during ARR treatment alone and the ARR-ozone hybrid. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Surface Properties of PAN-based Carbon Fibers Modified by Electrochemical Oxidization in Organic Electrolyte Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Bo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available PAN-based carbon fibers were modified by electrochemical oxidization using fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether phosphate (O3P, triethanolamine (TEOA and fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether ammonium phosphate (O3PNH4 as organic electrolyte respectively. Titration analysis, single fiber fracture strength measurement and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM were used to evaluate the content of acidic functional group on the surface, mechanical properties and surface morphology of carbon fiber. The optimum process of electrochemical treatment obtained is at 50℃ for 2min and O3PNH4 (5%, mass fraction as the electrolyte with current density of 2A/g. In addition, the surface properties of modified carbon fibers were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and single fiber contact angle test. The results show that the hydrophilic acidic functional groups on the surface of carbon fiber which can enhance the surface energy are increased by the electrochemical oxidation using O3PNH4 as electrolyte, almost without any weakening to the mechanical properties of carbon fiber.

  9. Photoelectrical Stimulation of Neuronal Cells by an Organic Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank; Parisi, Jürgen; Lützen, Arne; Dedek, Karin; Schiek, Manuela

    2016-08-23

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor-electrolyte layer is able to trigger a passive response of the neuronal cells under physiological conditions via a capacitive coupling mechanism. We study the dynamics of the capacitive transmembrane currents by patch-clamp recordings and compare them to the dynamics of the photocurrent signal and its spectral responsivity. Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions.

  10. Do pharmaceuticals, pathogens, and other organic waste water compounds persist when waste water is used for recharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Duran, Norma L.; Bouwer, Herman; Rice, Robert C.; Furlong, Edward T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Meyer, Michael T.; Barber, Larry B.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2004-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experiment was devised to determine if pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water compounds (OWCs), as well as pathogens, found in treated effluent could be transported through a 2.4 m soil column and, thus, potentially reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in arid or semiarid climates. Treated effluent was applied at the top of the 2.4 m long, 32.5 cm diameter soil column over 23 days, Samples of the column inflow were collected from the effluent storage tank at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment, and a sample of the soil column drainage at the base of the column (Bend) was collected at the end of the experiment. Samples were analyzed for 131 OWCs including veterinary and human antibiotics, other prescription and nonprescription drugs, widely used household and industrial chemicals, and steroids and reproductive hormones, as well as the pathogens Salmonella and Legionella. Analytical results for the two effluent samples taken at the beginning (Tbegin) and end (Tend) of the experiment indicate that the number of OWCs detected in the column inflow decreased by 25% (eight compounds) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by 46% while the effluent was in the storage tank during the 23-day experiment. After percolating through the soil column, an additional 18 compounds detected in Tend (67% of OWCs) were no longer detected in the effluent (Bend) and the total concentration of OWCs decreased by more than 70%. These compounds may have been subject to transformation (biotic and abiotic), adsorption, and (or) volatilization in the storage tank and during travel through the soil column. Eight compounds—carbamazapine; sulfamethoxazole; benzophenone; 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole; N,N-diethyltoluamide; tributylphosphate; tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; and cholesterol—were detected in all three samples indicating they have the potential to reach ground water under recharge conditions similar to those in

  11. Graphene-based supercapacitors in the parallel-plate electrode configuration: ionic liquids versus organic electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Youngseon; Kim, Hyung J; Jung, Younjoon

    2012-01-01

    Supercapacitors with two single-sheet graphene electrodes in the parallel plate geometry are studied via molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. Pure 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI+BF4-) and a 1.1 M solution of EMI+BF4- in acetonitrile are considered as prototypes of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and organic electrolytes. Electrolyte structure, charge density and associated electric potential are investigated by varying the charges and separation of the two electrodes. Multiple charge layers formed in the electrolytes in the vicinity of the electrodes are found to screen the electrode surface charge almost completely. As a result, the supercapacitors show nearly an ideal electric double layer behavior, i.e., the electric potential exhibits essentially a plateau behavior in the entire electrolyte region except for sharp changes in screening zones very close to the electrodes. Due to its small size and large charge separation, BF4- is considerably more efficient in shielding electrode charges than EMI+. In the case of the acetonitrile solution, acetonitrile also plays an important role by aligning its dipoles near the electrodes; however, the overall screening mainly arises from ions. Because of the disparity of shielding efficiency between cations and anions, the capacitance of the positively-charged anode is significantly larger than that of the negatively-charged cathode. Therefore, the total cell capacitance in the parallel plate configuration is primarily governed by the cathode. Ion conductivity obtained via the Green-Kubo (GK) method is found to be largely independent of the electrode surface charge. Interestingly, EMI+BF4- shows higher GK ion conductivity than the 1.1 M acetonitrile solution between two parallel plate electrodes.

  12. Behavior of nine selected emerging trace organic contaminants in an artificial recharge system supplemented with a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Carrera, Jesús; Ayora, Carlos; Barbieri, Manuela; Nödler, Karsten; Licha, Tobias; Huerta, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Artificial recharge improves several water quality parameters, but has only minor effects on recalcitrant pollutants. To improve the removal of these pollutants, we added a reactive barrier at the bottom of an infiltration basin. This barrier contained aquifer sand, vegetable compost, and clay and was covered with iron oxide dust. The goal of the compost was to sorb neutral compounds and release dissolved organic carbon. The release of dissolved organic carbon should generate a broad range of redox conditions to promote the transformation of emerging trace organic contaminants (EOCs). Iron oxides and clay increase the range of sorption site types. In the present study, we examined the effectiveness of this barrier by analyzing the fate of nine EOCs. Water quality was monitored before and after constructing the reactive barrier. Installation of the reactive barrier led to nitrate-, iron-, and manganese-reducing conditions in the unsaturated zone below the basin and within the first few meters of the saturated zone. Thus, the behavior of most EOCs changed after installing the reactive barrier. The reactive barrier enhanced the removal of some EOCs, either markedly (sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, benzoylecgonine) or slightly (trimethoprim) and decreased the removal rates of compounds that are easily degradable under aerobic conditions (ibuprofen, paracetamol). The barrier had no remarkable effect on 1H-benzotriazole and tolyltriazole.

  13. Toward protic ionic liquid and organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Usman Ali; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Pringle, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that can operate above 120 °C, without humidification, would be much more commercially viable. ► Protic ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals are showing increasing promise as anhydrous proton conductors in fuel cells. ► Here we review the recent progress in these two areas. - Abstract: There is increasing demand for the development of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes, most notably to allow the development of fuel cells that can operate at temperatures above 120 °C, without the need for constant and controlled humidification. The emerging field of protic ionic liquids (PILs) represents a promising new direction for this research and the development of these materials has made significant progress in recent years. In a related but as yet little-explored avenue, proton conducting organic ionic plastic crystals offer the potential advantage of providing a solid state matrix for anhydrous proton conductivity. Here we discuss the recent progress in these areas and identify the key challenges for future research.

  14. Influence of organic additives on electrochemical properties of the positive electrolyte for all-vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaojuan; Liu Suqin; Wang Nanfang; Peng Sui; He Zhangxin

    2012-01-01

    Inositol and phytic acid have been employed as organic additives of the positive electrolyte for all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) to improve its stability and electrochemical reversibility. Thermal stability of the V(V) electrolyte could be improved by both inositol and phytic acid additives. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV), steady polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) show that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte with additives is improved compared to the blank one. The diffusion coefficient of V(IV) species with inositol has been increased from 0.71–1.16 × 10 −6 to 3.11–5.15 × 10 −6 cm 2 s −1 and the exchange current density was raised from 2.8 × 10 −3 to 11.7 × 10 −3 A cm −2 . Moreover, electrochemical results suggest that the positive electrolytes with organic additives have better cycling stability. The VRFB employing positive electrolyte with inositol as additive exhibits excellent charge–discharge behavior with an average energy efficiency of 81.5% at a current density of 30 mA cm −2 . The UV–visible spectroscopy confirms that new substances in V(V) electrolyte are not formed with both inositol and phytic acid additives.

  15. Effects of electrolytic composition on the electric double-layer capacitance at smooth-surface carbon electrodes in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Tae; Egashira, Minato; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental research on the optimization of electrolyte composition in practical electrochemical capacitor device, double-layer capacitance at Glassy Carbon (GC) and Boron-doped Diamond (BDD), as typical smooth-surface carbon electrodes, has been studied as a function of the electrolyte composition in organic media. Specific capacitance (differential capacitance: F cm -2 ) determined by an AC impedance method, in which no contribution of mass-transport effects is included, corresponded well to integrated capacitance evaluated by conventional cyclic voltammetry. The specific capacitance at the GC electrode varied with polarized potential and showed clear PZC (potential of zero charge), while the potential dependence of the capacitance at BDD was very small. The effects of the solvent and the electrolytic salt on the capacitance behavior were common for both electrodes. That is, the sizes of the solvent molecule and the electrolytic ion (cation) strongly affected the capacitance at these smooth-surface carbon electrodes.

  16. Organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes based on polyether diamine, alkoxysilane, and trichlorotriazine: Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Diganta; Wu, Cheng-Gang; Fang, Jason; Tsai, Li-Duan; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-12-01

    A new type of highly conductive organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes has been synthesized by the reaction of poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol) bis(2-aminopropyl ether), 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine and alkoxysilane precursor 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, followed by doping of LiClO4. The 13C and 29Si solid-sate NMR results confirm the successful synthesis of the organic-inorganic hybrid structure. The solid hybrid electrolyte thus obtained exhibits a maximum ionic conductivity of 1.6 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 30 °C, which is the highest among the organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes. The hybrid electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.2 V. The prototype electrochromic device with such a solid hybrid electrolyte demonstrates a good coloration efficiency value of 183 cm2 C-1 with a cycle life over 200 cycles. For the lithium-ion battery test, the salt free solid hybrid membrane is swelled with a LiPF6-containing electrolyte solution to reach an acceptable ionic conductivity value of 6.5 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The battery cell carries an initial discharge capacity of 100 mAh g-1 at 0.2C-rate and a coulombic efficiency of about 95% up to 30 cycles without the sign of cell failure. The present organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes hold promise for applications in electrochromic devices and lithium ion batteries.

  17. Electrochemical behavior and stability of a commercial activated carbon in various organic electrolyte combinations containing Li-salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tong; Fuchs, Bettina; Secchiaroli, Marco; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Dsoke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    in half and full cells. Resistances, rate capabilities, the electrochemical stability window (ESW) and cycling abilities of activated carbon electrodes are compared in different electrolytes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling techniques. Among all electrolytes, 1 M LiPF 6 in PC displays the best performance with the widest ESW and an excellent cycling stability, retaining 75% of its initial capacitance after 20 000 cycles. However, due to its high viscosity, PC-based electrolytes show higher resistances in comparison to EC/DMC-based electrolytes. These results are the basis for further investigation on organic Li-salt containing electrolytes for the development of hybrid supercapacitor technology in which activated carbon and Li-insertion materials are combined together.

  18. Effect of temperature on removal of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Shewchuk, Justin Matthew; Drewes, Jorg

    2015-01-01

    chamber and operated at five different temperature set-points (30, 20, 10, 8 and 4. °C) covering the range of typical groundwater temperatures in cold, moderate and arid climate regions. Removal of bulk organic carbon both in the infiltration zone as well

  19. Enhanced Removal of Nutrients and Trace Organics from Urban Runoff with Novel Capture, Treatment, and Recharge Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, N.; Planes, M. T.; Lefevre, G.; Sedlak, D.; Luthy, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth, urban sprawl and impact of climate change are forcing water-stressed areas to rely on new local sources of water supply. Under this scenario, reclamation of stormwater runoff has emerged as a source for irrigation and replenishing drinking-water groundwater reservoirs. However, urban stormwater can be a significant source of pollutants, including nutrients and organic compounds. In order to overcome the stormwater treatment system limitations, this project has developed a pilot-scale column system for passive treatment of infiltrated water using low-cost, low-energy geomedia. The objective was to provide guidance on the design and operation of systems for controlling nutrient and trace organic contaminant releases to surface waters. The work comprised of replicate column studies in the field to test stormwater treatment modules with various media, such as woodchips and biochar, using urban runoff from a watershed in Sonoma, California. Woodchip bioreactors host an endemic population of microorganisms that can be harnessed to biologically degrade nitrate. The columns amended with biochar enhance removal of organic pollutants present in stormwater through physicochemical processes (i.e., adsorption onto biochar) and biodegradation in the column through increasing retention time. The field columns were conditioned with stormwater for eight months before being spiked weekly with 50 ppb of representative trace organics. The key finding was the successful field demonstration of a novel treatment system for both the removal of nitrate and trace organics. Nitrogen removal was successful in all columns for the thirteen month experiment due to the woodchips being an effective source of carbon for denitrifying microorganisms to convert nitrate to nitrogen gases. As for the trace organics experiments, the results highlight an overall attenuation of the studied trace organic compounds by the columns containing woodchip and biochar throughout the five

  20. Some laws governing the electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, N.A.; Avrutskaya, I.A.; Fioshin, M. Ya.; Khrizolitova, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The electrosynthesis of organic compounds with a solid polymetric electrolyte (SPE) makes it possible to carry out the process in the absence of a supporting electrolyte. This facilitates the recovery of the desired product, eliminates the inorganic waste products, and allows a small interelectrode distance, and the absence of the accumulation of gases lowers the voltage in the cell. Some laws governing syntheses of SPE were studied in the example cases of the electrochemical reduction of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy-piperidine, the reduction of triacetonamine oxime and triacetonamine azine to 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4- aminopiperidine and the oxidation of isobutanol to isobutyric acid. The electrolysis with an SPE was carried out under galvanostatic conditions in an electrolyzer of the filter-press type with forced circulation of the catholyte and anolyte. Low reaction rates are found to be characteristic of all the compounds investigated when the electrolysis is carried out with an SPE.

  1. Energize Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor by Introducing an Ambipolar Organic Redox Radical in Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Hu, Lintong; Zhang, Yue; Shi, Chao; Guo, Kai; Zhai, Tianyou; Li, Huiqiao

    2018-05-24

    Carbon based electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) generally exhibit high power and long life, but low energy density/capacitance. Pore/morphology optimization and pseudocapacitive materials modification of carbon materials have been used to improve electrode capacitance, but leading to the consumption of tap density, conductivity and stability. Introducing soluble redox mediators into electrolyte is a promising alternative to improve the capacitance of electrode. However, it is difficult to find one redox mediator that can provide additional capacitance for both positive and negative electrodes simultaneously. Here, an ambipolar organic radical, 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) is first introduced to the electrolyte, which can substantially contribute additional pseudocapacitance by oxidation at the positive electrode and reduction at the negative electrode simultaneously. The EDLC with TEMPO mediator delivers an energy density as high as 51 Wh kg-1, 2.4 times of the capacitor without TEMPO, and a long cycle stability over 4000 cycles. The achieved results potentially point a new way to improve the energy density of EDLCs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Improved, low cost inorganic-organic separators for rechargeable silver-zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Several flexible, low-cost inorganic-organic separators with performance characteristics and cycle life equal to, or better than, the Lewis Research Center Astropower separator were developed. These new separators can be made on continuous-production equipment at about one-fourth the cost of the Astropower separator produced the same way. In test cells, these new separators demonstrate cycle life improvement, acceptable operating characteristics, and uniform current density. The various separator formulas, test cell construction, and data analysis are described.

  3. Cogeneration of electricity and organic chemicals using a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.; Ma, Z.; Bueb, H.; Drillet, J.-F.; Hagen, J.; Schmidt, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several unsaturated organic alcohols (allyl alcohol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butin-1,4-diol, 2- buten-1,4-diol) and acids (maleic acid, acrylic acid, crotonic acid, acetylendicarboxylic acid) were used as oxidants together with hydrogen as fuel in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The standard free enthalpies (Δ R G θ ) of the overall fuel cell reactions H 2 /oxidant were calculated to be negative and the equilibrium voltages of such systems are in the range of U 00 = 0.4-0.6 V. In this way, the cogeneration of electric energy and desired hydrogenated products in a fuel cell reactor is apparent. Nafion[reg] 117, as polymer electrolyte, and commercial gas diffusion electrodes (ETEK) with carbon supported Pt were used in a PEFC reactor. The aqueous solutions of unsaturated alcohols and organic acids (c = 1-2 mol dm -3 ) were pumped under ambient pressure through the cathode compartment of the cell whereas hydrogen was fed into the cell at p 0.15 MPa. The open circuit voltages were measured to be in the range of 0.1-0.25 V. Current densities up to 50 mA cm -2 and maximum power densities of around 1 mW cm -2 has been achieved in the case of allyl alcohol, 2-butene-1,4-diol and acrylic acid. HPLC analysis indicates that the double or triple bond in unsaturated alcohols and organic acids is selectively hydrogenated. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of the alcohols and acids was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry at a smooth polycrystalline Pt electrode in H 2 SO 4 . Reduction reactions were observed at potentials of E < 200 mV versus RHE. It was found that the onset potential for electrochemical hydrogenation of the double and triple bond in the cyclic voltamogram correlates well with the fuel cell performances using these compounds as oxidants

  4. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  5. Effect of temperature on removal of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether changes in temperature experienced in MAR systems affect attenuation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). A set of laboratory-scale soil columns were placed in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber and operated at five different temperature set-points (30, 20, 10, 8 and 4. °C) covering the range of typical groundwater temperatures in cold, moderate and arid climate regions. Removal of bulk organic carbon both in the infiltration zone as well as during deeper infiltration was independent of temperature. Of the 22 TOrCs investigated, only six chemicals exhibited changes in attenuation as a function of temperature. Attenuation of four of the compounds (diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen and naproxen) decreased as the temperature was reduced from 30. °C to 4. °C, likely due to decreased microbial activity at lower temperatures. As the temperature was decreased, however, attenuation of oxybenzone and trimethoprim were noted to increase. This increased attenuation was likely due to more efficient sorption at lower temperatures, though possible changes in the microbial composition as the temperature decreased may also have contributed to this change. Changes in rate constants of attenuation (. ka) for the biotransformed TOrCs with temperature suggested the existence of a critical temperature at 10. °C for three of the four TOrCs, where significant changes to rates of attenuation occurred. Results from this study indicated that for most TOrCs, changes in temperature do not impact their attenuation. Thus, seasonal changes in temperature are not considered to be a major concern for attenuation of most TOrCs in MAR systems.

  6. Effect of temperature on removal of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Shewchuk, Justin; Drewes, Jörg E

    2015-03-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether changes in temperature experienced in MAR systems affect attenuation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). A set of laboratory-scale soil columns were placed in a temperature-controlled environmental chamber and operated at five different temperature set-points (30, 20, 10, 8 and 4°C) covering the range of typical groundwater temperatures in cold, moderate and arid climate regions. Removal of bulk organic carbon both in the infiltration zone as well as during deeper infiltration was independent of temperature. Of the 22 TOrCs investigated, only six chemicals exhibited changes in attenuation as a function of temperature. Attenuation of four of the compounds (diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ketoprofen and naproxen) decreased as the temperature was reduced from 30°C to 4°C, likely due to decreased microbial activity at lower temperatures. As the temperature was decreased, however, attenuation of oxybenzone and trimethoprim were noted to increase. This increased attenuation was likely due to more efficient sorption at lower temperatures, though possible changes in the microbial composition as the temperature decreased may also have contributed to this change. Changes in rate constants of attenuation (ka) for the biotransformed TOrCs with temperature suggested the existence of a critical temperature at 10°C for three of the four TOrCs, where significant changes to rates of attenuation occurred. Results from this study indicated that for most TOrCs, changes in temperature do not impact their attenuation. Thus, seasonal changes in temperature are not considered to be a major concern for attenuation of most TOrCs in MAR systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intercalated Water and Organic Molecules for Electrode Materials of Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Shin, Jaeho; Choi, Jang Wook

    2018-03-24

    The intrinsic limitations of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with regard to safety, cost, and the availability of raw materials have promoted research on so-called "post-LIBs". The recent intense research of post-LIBs provides an invaluable lesson that existing electrode materials used in LIBs may not perform as well in post-LIBs, calling for new material designs compliant with emerging batteries based on new chemistries. One promising approach in this direction is the development of materials with intercalated water or organic molecules, as these materials demonstrate superior electrochemical performance in emerging battery systems. The enlarged ionic channel dimensions and effective shielding of the electrostatic interaction between carrier ions and the lattice host are the origins of the observed electrochemical performance. Moreover, these intercalants serve as interlayer pillars to sustain the framework for prolonged cycles. Representative examples of such intercalated materials applied to batteries based on Li + , Na + , Mg 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions and supercapacitors are considered, along with their impact in materials research. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  10. Role of primary substrate composition and concentration on attenuation of trace organic chemicals in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Ouf, Mohamed; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the role of primary substrate composition and concentration on the attenuation of biodegradable emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems. Four sets of soil columns were established in the laboratory, each receiving synthetic feed solutions comprising different ratios and concentrations of peptone-yeast and humic acid as the primary substrate to investigate the effect on removal of six TOrCs (atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, primidone, and trimethoprim). Based on abiotic control experiments, adsorption was not identified as a significant attenuation mechanism for primidone, gemfibrozil and diclofenac. Caffeine, atenolol and trimethoprim displayed initial adsorptive losses, however, adsorption coefficients derived from batch tests confirmed that adsorption was limited and in the long-term experiment, biodegradation was the dominant attenuation process. Within a travel time of 16 h, caffeine - an easily degradable compound exhibited removal exceeding 75% regardless of composition or concentration of the primary substrate. Primidone - a poorly degradable compound, showed no removal in any column regardless of the nature of the primary substrate. The composition and concentration of the primary substrate, however, had an effect on attenuation of moderately degradable TOrCs, such as atenolol, gemfibrozil and diclofenac, with the primary substrate composition seeming to have a larger impact on TOrC attenuation than its concentration. When the primary substrate consisted mainly of refractory substrate (humic acid), higher removal of the moderately degradable TOrCs was observed. The microbial communities in the columns receiving more refractory carbon, were noted to be more diverse and hence likely able to express a wider range of enzymes, which were more suitable for TOrC transformation. The effect of the primary substrate on microbial community composition, diversity

  11. A redox-flow battery with an alloxazine-based organic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaixiang; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Beh, Eugene S.; Tong, Liuchuan; Chen, Qing; Valle, Alvaro; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Aziz, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.

    2016-09-01

    Redox-flow batteries (RFBs) can store large amounts of electrical energy from variable sources, such as solar and wind. Recently, redox-active organic molecules in aqueous RFBs have drawn substantial attention due to their rapid kinetics and low membrane crossover rates. Drawing inspiration from nature, here we report a high-performance aqueous RFB utilizing an organic redox compound, alloxazine, which is a tautomer of the isoalloxazine backbone of vitamin B2. It can be synthesized in high yield at room temperature by single-step coupling of inexpensive o-phenylenediamine derivatives and alloxan. The highly alkaline-soluble alloxazine 7/8-carboxylic acid produces a RFB exhibiting open-circuit voltage approaching 1.2 V and current efficiency and capacity retention exceeding 99.7% and 99.98% per cycle, respectively. Theoretical studies indicate that structural modification of alloxazine with electron-donating groups should allow further increases in battery voltage. As an aza-aromatic molecule that undergoes reversible redox cycling in aqueous electrolyte, alloxazine represents a class of radical-free redox-active organics for use in large-scale energy storage.

  12. Investigating the role for adaptation of the microbial community to transform trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Alidina, Mazahirali

    2014-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether adaptation by pre-exposure to trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) was necessary for microbial transformation during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Two pairs of laboratory-scale soil columns, each receiving a different primary substrate, were utilized to simulate the dominant bulk organic carbon present in MAR systems receiving wastewater effluent of varying quality and having undergone different degrees of pre-treatment, as well as organic carbon prevalent at different stages of subsurface travel. Each pair of columns consisted of duplicate set-ups receiving the same feed solution with only one pre-exposed to a suite of eight TOrCs for approximately ten months. Following the pre-exposure period, a spiking experiment was conducted in which the non-exposed columns also received the same suite of TOrCs. TOrC attenuation was quantified for the pre- and non-exposed columns of each pair during the spiking experiment. The microbial community structure and function of these systems were characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and metagenomics, respectively. Biotransformation rather than sorption was identified as the dominant removal mechanism for almost all the TOrCs (except triclocarban). Similar removal efficiencies were observed between pre-exposed and non-exposed columns for most TOrCs. No obvious differences in microbial community structure were revealed between pre- and non-exposed columns. Using metagenomics, biotransformation capacity potentials of the microbial community present were also similar between pre- and non-exposed columns of each pair. Overall, the pre-exposure of MAR systems to TOrCs at ng/L levels did not affect their attenuation and had no obvious influence on the resulting microbial community structure and function. Thus, other factors such as bioavailability of the primary substrate play a greater role regarding biotransformation of TOrCs. These results indicate that MAR systems adapted to a

  13. Investigating the role for adaptation of the microbial community to transform trace organic chemicals during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-06-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether adaptation by pre-exposure to trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) was necessary for microbial transformation during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Two pairs of laboratory-scale soil columns, each receiving a different primary substrate, were utilized to simulate the dominant bulk organic carbon present in MAR systems receiving wastewater effluent of varying quality and having undergone different degrees of pre-treatment, as well as organic carbon prevalent at different stages of subsurface travel. Each pair of columns consisted of duplicate set-ups receiving the same feed solution with only one pre-exposed to a suite of eight TOrCs for approximately ten months. Following the pre-exposure period, a spiking experiment was conducted in which the non-exposed columns also received the same suite of TOrCs. TOrC attenuation was quantified for the pre- and non-exposed columns of each pair during the spiking experiment. The microbial community structure and function of these systems were characterized by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene and metagenomics, respectively. Biotransformation rather than sorption was identified as the dominant removal mechanism for almost all the TOrCs (except triclocarban). Similar removal efficiencies were observed between pre-exposed and non-exposed columns for most TOrCs. No obvious differences in microbial community structure were revealed between pre- and non-exposed columns. Using metagenomics, biotransformation capacity potentials of the microbial community present were also similar between pre- and non-exposed columns of each pair. Overall, the pre-exposure of MAR systems to TOrCs at ng/L levels did not affect their attenuation and had no obvious influence on the resulting microbial community structure and function. Thus, other factors such as bioavailability of the primary substrate play a greater role regarding biotransformation of TOrCs. These results indicate that MAR systems adapted to a

  14. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Duran Retamal, Jose Ramon; Varadhan, Purushothaman; He, Jr-Hau; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  15. Hybrid electrolytes based on ionic liquids and amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles: Organization and electrochemical properties

    KAUST Repository

    Tchalala, Mohammed

    2017-05-06

    Ionic liquids (ILs) and ionic liquid-nanoparticle (IL-NP) hybrid electrolytes have garnered a lot of interest due to their unique properties that stimulate their use in various applications. Herein, we investigate the electrochemical and photo-physical properties of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on three imidazolium-based ionic liquids, i.e., 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([bmim] [SCN]), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([emim] [BF4]) and 1-buthyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim] [Ac]) that are covalently tethered to amorphous porous silicon nanoparticles (ap-Si NPs). We found that the addition of ap-Si NPs confer to the ILs a pronounced boost in the electrocatalytic activity, and in mixtures of ap-Si NPs and [bmim] [SCN], the room-temperature current transport is enhanced by more than 5 times compared to bare [bmim] [SCN]. A detailed structural investigation by transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that the ap-Si NPs were well dispersed, stabilized and highly aggregated in [bmim] [SCN], [emim] [BF4] and [bmim] [Ac] ILs, respectively. These observations correlate well with the enhanced current transport observed in ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] evidenced by electrochemical measurements. We interpreted these observations by the use of UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. We found that the ap-Si NPs/[bmim] [SCN] hybrid stands out due to its stability and optical transparency. This behavior is attributed to the iron(III) thiocyanate complexion as per the experimental findings. Furthermore, we found that the addition of NPs to [emim] [BF4] alters the equilibrium of the IL, which consequently improved the stability of the NPs through intermolecular interactions with the two ionic layers (anionic and cationic layers) of the IL. While in the case of [bmim] [Ac], the dispersion of ap-Si NPs was restrained because of the high viscosity of this IL.

  16. Performance of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Conductive Substrates as Supercapacitors Electrodes using Organic and Ionic liquid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Turner, Ben; Zhang, X. F.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2012-02-01

    In this work we will present the use of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNT) directly grown on inconel substrates via chemical vapor deposition, as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The performance of the MWNT EDLC electrodes were investigated using two electrolytes, an organic electrolyte, tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate (Et4NBF4 in PC), and a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to obtain values for the capacitance and internal resistance of these devices will be presented and compared.

  17. Occurrence and fate of bulk organic matter and pharmaceutically active compounds in managed aquifer recharge: A review

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Lekkerkerker-Teunissen, Karin; Amy, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is a natural water treatment process that induces surface water to flow in response to a hydraulic gradient through soil/sediment and into a vertical or horizontal well. It is a relatively cost-effective, robust

  18. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Ouf, Mohamed; Sharp, Jonathan O; Saikaly, Pascal; Drewes, Jörg E

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  1. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.; Das, S. K.; Archer, L. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a

  2. Solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  3. Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L. [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E. [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); González, Ignacio [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No 186, C.P 09340, México D.F (Mexico); Peñuela, Gustavo [Grupo de diagnóstico y control de la contaminación, Facultad de ingeniería, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Torres-Palma, Ricardo A., E-mail: rtorres@matematicas.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis, Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquía Udea, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Pathway and efficiency are linked to the current-electrode–electrolyte interaction. • Unlike BDD, IrO{sub 2} route was independent of current but dependent on the electrolyte. • IrO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} routes were via IrO{sub 3} and chlorine species, respectively. • BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems were favored at low and high currents, respectively. - Abstract: Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO{sub 2}) used as anode materials were tested with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode–electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If i < the limiting current density (i{sub lim}), CV is mainly degraded by ·OH radicals, whereas if i > i{sub lim}, generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO{sub 2} was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on IrO{sub 2} seems to occur via IrO{sub 3}; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO{sub 2}. Thus, the IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} and BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and IrO{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively.

  4. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  5. Electrochemical behavior of high performance on-chip porous carbon films for micro-supercapacitors applications in organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brousse, K.; Huang, P.; Pinaud, S.; Respaud, M.; Daffos, B.; Chaudret, B.; Lethien, C.; Taberna, P. L.; Simon, P.

    2016-10-01

    Carbide derived carbons (CDCs) are promising materials for preparing integrated micro-supercapacitors, as on-chip CDC films are prepared via a process fully compatible with current silicon-based device technology. These films show good adherence on the substrate and high capacitance thanks to their unique nanoporous structure which can be fine-tuned by adjusting the synthesis parameters during chlorination of the metallic carbide precursor. The carbon porosity is mostly related to the synthesis temperature whereas the thickness of the films depends on the chlorination duration. Increasing the pore size allows the adsorption of large solvated ions from organic electrolytes and leads to higher energy densities. Here, we investigated the electrochemical behavior and performance of on-chip TiC-CDC in ionic liquid solvent mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIBF4) diluted in either acetonitrile or propylene carbonate via cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Thin CDC films exhibited typical capacitive signature and achieved 169 F cm-3 in both electrolytes; 65% of the capacitance was still delivered at 1 V s-1. While increasing the thickness of the films, EMI+ transport limitation was observed in more viscous PC-based electrolyte. Nevertheless, the energy density reached 90 μW h cm-2 in 2M EMIBF4/ACN, confirming the interest of these CDC films for micro-supercapacitors applications.

  6. The effects of LiBOB additive for stable SEI formation of PP13TFSI-organic mixed electrolyte in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Zuo Pengjian; Cheng Xinqun; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LiBOB as the additive of SEI formation. → LiBOB containing mixed electrolyte shows well thermal stability and safety. → LiBOB improves the electrochemical performance of PP13TFSI-organic mixture. - Abstract: A safe electrolyte system is prepared from N-methyl-N-propylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PP13TFSI), organic electrolyte (1 mol L -1 LiPF 6 /EC-DEC) and lithium bis (oxalato) borate (LiBOB). The additive of LiBOB enhances the stability of interface between electrolyte and anode. The LiBOB-containing mixed electrolytes show non-flammability and good compatibility with active materials. The performance of anode for lithium ion battery is successfully improved by LiBOB-containing mixed electrolytes, which shows 200 mA h g -1 reversible capacities at 0.3 C rate. The ionic conductivity and the lithium ion transference number in LiBOB-containing mixed electrolytes system also suits to application for lithium ion battery.

  7. Insights into the effects of solvent properties in graphene based electric double-layer capacitors with organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Duan, Liangping; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-12-01

    Organic electrolytes are widely used in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this work, the microstructure of planar graphene-based EDLCs with different organic solvents are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that an increase of solvent polarity could weaken the accumulation of counter-ions nearby the electrode surface, due to the screen of electrode charges and relatively lower ionic desolvation. It thus suggests that solvents with low polarity could be preferable to yield high EDL capacitance. Meanwhile, the significant effects of the size and structure of solvent molecules are reflected by non-electrostatic molecule-electrode interactions, further influencing the adsorption of solvent molecules on electrode surface. Compared with dimethyl carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, and propylene carbonate, acetonitrile with relatively small-size and linear structure owns weak non-electrostatic interactions, which favors the easy re-orientation of solvent molecules. Moreover, the shift of solvent orientation in surface layer, from parallel orientation to perpendicular orientation relative to the electrode surface, deciphers the solvent twin-peak behavior near negative electrode. The as-obtained insights into the roles of solvent properties on the interplays among particles and electrodes elucidate the solvent influences on the microstructure and capacitive behavior of EDLCs using organic electrolytes.

  8. Removal of dissolved organic matter in municipal effluent with ozonation, slow sand filtration and nanofiltration as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linlin, Wu; Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In the paper the combination process of ozonation, slow sand filtration (SSF) and nanofiltration (NF) was investigated with respect to dissolved organic matter (DOM) removal as high quality pre-treatment option for artificial groundwater recharge. With the help of ozonation leading to breakdown of the large organic molecules, SSF preferentially removes soluble microbial by-product-like substances and DOM with molecular weight (MW) less than 1.0 kDa. NF, however, removes aromatic, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances efficiently and specially removes DOM with MW above 1.0 kDa. The residual DOM of the membrane permeate is dominated by small organics with MW 500 Da, which can be further reduced by the aquifer treatment, despite of the very low concentration. Consequently, the O(3)/SSF/NF system offers a complementary process in DOM removal. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) can be reduced from 6.5±1.1 to 0.7±0.3 mg L(-1) and from 267±24 to 52±6 μg L(-1), respectively. The very low DOC concentration of 0.6±0.2 mg L(-1) and THMFP of 44±4 μg L(-1) can be reached after the aquifer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquid electrolyte with organic additive and LiTFSI for high-safety lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Binbin; Li, Cuihua; Zhou, Junhui; Liu, Jianhong; Zhang, Qianling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New ionic liquid electrolytes composed by PYR 13 TFSI and EC/DMC-5%VC. • Mixed electrolyte for use in high-safety lithium-ion batteries. • LiTFSI concentration in IL electrolyte greatly affects the rate capability of the cell. • The optimal mixed electrolyte is ideal for applications at high temperature. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the physicochemical properties of mixed electrolytes based on an ionic liquid N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidiniumbis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PYR 13 TFSI), organic additives, and lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) for high safety lithium-ion batteries. The proposed optimal content of ionic liquid in the mixed electrolyte is 65 vol%, which results in non- flammability, high thermal stability, a wide electrochemical window of 4.8 V, low viscosity, low bulk resistance and the lowest interface resistance to lithium anode. The effects of the concentration of LiTFSI in the above electrolyte are critical to the rate performance of the LiFePO 4 -based battery. We have found the suitable LiTFSI concentration (0.3 M) for good capacity retention and rate capability

  10. Supercapacitive properties of hybrid films of manganese dioxide and polyaniline based on active carbon in organic electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wu-yuan; Wang, Wei; He, Ben-lin; Sun, Ming-liang; Yin, Yan-sheng [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Songling Road 238, Qingdao 266100, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report about supercapacitive performance of hybrid film of manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) and polyaniline (PANI) in an organic electrolyte (1.0 M LiClO{sub 4} in acetonitrile). In this work, a high surface area and conductivity of active carbon (AC) electrode is used as a substrate for PANI/MnO{sub 2} film electro-codeposition. The redox properties of the coated PANI/MnO{sub 2} thin film exhibit ideal capacitive behaviour in 1 M LiClO{sub 4}/AN. The specific capacitance (SC) of PANI/MnO{sub 2} hybrid film is as high as 1292 F g{sup -1} and maintains about 82% of the initial capacitance after 1500 cycles at a current density of 4.0 mA cm{sup -2}, and the coulombic efficiency ({eta}) is higher than 95%. An asymmetric capacitor has been developed with the PANI/MnO{sub 2}/AC positive and pure AC negative electrodes, which is able to deliver a specific energy as high as 61 Wh kg{sup -1} at a specific power of 172 W kg{sup -1} in the range of 0-2.0 V. These results indicate that the organic electrolyte is a promising candidate for PANI/MnO{sub 2} material application in supercapacitors. (author)

  11. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaprakash, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl3 in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V2O5 nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g-1 in the first cycle and 273 mAh g-1 after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  12. Effect of electrolyte temperature on the formation of self-organized anodic niobium oxide microcones in hot phosphate-glycerol electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Aoki, Y.; Habazaki, H.

    2011-07-01

    Nanoporous niobium oxide films with microcone-type surface morphology were formed by anodizing at 10 V in glycerol electrolyte containing 0.6 mol dm -3 K 2HPO 4 and 0.2 mol dm -3 K 3PO 4 in a temperature range of 428-453 K. The microcones appeared after prolonged anodizing, but the required time was largely reduced by increasing electrolyte temperature. The anodic oxide was initially amorphous at all temperatures, but crystalline oxide nucleated during anodizing. The anodic oxide microcones, which were crystalline, appeared on surface as a consequence of preferential chemical dissolution of initially formed amorphous oxide. The chemical dissolution of an initially formed amorphous layer was accelerated by increasing the electrolyte temperature, with negligible influence of the temperature on the morphology of microcones up to 448 K.

  13. Effect of electrolyte temperature on the formation of self-organized anodic niobium oxide microcones in hot phosphate-glycerol electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.; Aoki, Y. [Division of Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Habazaki, H., E-mail: habazaki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Nanoporous niobium oxide films with microcone-type surface morphology were formed by anodizing at 10 V in glycerol electrolyte containing 0.6 mol dm{sup -3} K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} and 0.2 mol dm{sup -3} K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in a temperature range of 428-453 K. The microcones appeared after prolonged anodizing, but the required time was largely reduced by increasing electrolyte temperature. The anodic oxide was initially amorphous at all temperatures, but crystalline oxide nucleated during anodizing. The anodic oxide microcones, which were crystalline, appeared on surface as a consequence of preferential chemical dissolution of initially formed amorphous oxide. The chemical dissolution of an initially formed amorphous layer was accelerated by increasing the electrolyte temperature, with negligible influence of the temperature on the morphology of microcones up to 448 K.

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of organic carbonate based electrolyte solutions at lithium metal oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, R; Novak, P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The oxidative decomposition of carbonate based electrolyte solutions at practical lithium metal oxide composite electrodes was studied by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry. For propylene carbonate (PC), CO{sub 2} evolution was detected at LiNiO{sub 2}, LiCoO{sub 2}, and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite electrodes. The starting point of gas evolution was 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} at LiNiO{sub 2}, whereas at LiCoO{sub 2} and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} evolution was only observed above 4.8 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In addition, various other volatile electrolyte decomposition products of PC were detected when using LiCoO{sub 2}, LiMn{sub 2}O4, and carbon black electrodes. In ethylene carbonate / dimethyl carbonate, CO{sub 2} evolution was only detected at LiNiO{sub 2} electrodes, again starting at about 4.2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  15. Electrochemical studies of ferrocene in a lithium ion conducting organic carbonate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoire, Cormac O.; Plichta, Edward; Hendrickson, Mary; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Abraham, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    We carried out a detailed study of the kinetics of oxidation of ferrocene (Fc) to ferrocenium ion (Fc + ) in the non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte composed of a solution of 1 M LiPF 6 in 1:1 EC:EMC solvent mixture. This study using cyclic (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry showed that the Fc 0 /Fc + redox couple is reversible in this highly concentrated electrolyte. The ferrocene and ferrocenium ion diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated from these results. In addition, the electron transfer rate constant (k 0 ) and the exchange current density for the oxidation of ferrocene were determined. A comparison of the kinetic data obtained from the two electrochemical techniques appears to show that the data from the RDE experiments are more reliable because they are collected under strict mass transport control. A Tafel slope of c.a. 79 mV/decade and a transfer coefficient α of 0.3 obtained from analysis of the RDE data for ferrocene oxidation suggest that the structure of the activated complex is closer to that of the oxidized specie due to strong interactions with the carbonate solvents. The experiments reported here are relevant to the study of redox reagents for the chemical overcharge protection of Li-ion batteries.

  16. Fate of nine recycled water trace organic contaminants and metal(loid)s during managed aquifer recharge into a anaerobic aquifer: Column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B M; Shackleton, M; Furness, A J; Pearce, J; Descourvieres, C; Linge, K L; Busetti, F; Spadek, T

    2010-03-01

    Water quality changes associated with the passage of aerobic reverse osmosis (RO) treated recycled water through a deep anaerobic pyritic aquifer system was evaluated in sediment-filled laboratory columns as part of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) strategy. The fate of nine recycled water trace organic compounds along with potential negative water quality changes such as the release of metal(loid)s were investigated in large-scale columns over a period of 12 months. The anaerobic geochemical conditions provided a suitable environment for denitrification, and rapid (half-life 100 days). High retardation coefficients (R) determined for many of the trace organics (R 13 to 67) would increase aquifer residence time and be beneficial for many of the slow degrading compounds. However, for the trace organics with low R values (1.1-2.6) and slow degradation rates (half-life > 100 days), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine and iohexol, substantial biodegradation during aquifer passage may not occur and additional investigations are required. Only minor transient increases in some metal(loid) concentrations were observed, as a result of either pyrite oxidation, mineral dissolution or pH induced metal desorption, followed by metal re-sorption downgradient in the oxygen depleted zone. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between structural properties and electrochemical characteristics of monolithic carbon xerogel-based electrochemical double-layer electrodes in aqueous and organic electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, Mario [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Institute of Radiology, University Clinic, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Lorrmann, Volker; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Wiener, Matthias [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Pflaum, Jens [Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Department of Experimental Physics VI, Julius-Maximilians-University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The impact of the micropore width, external surface area, and meso-/macropore size on the charging performance of electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes is systematically investigated. Nonactivated carbon xerogels are used as model electrodes in aqueous and organic electrolytes. Monolithic porous model carbons with different structural parameters are prepared using a resorcinol-formaldehyde-based sol-gel process and subsequent pyrolysis of the organic precursors. Electrochemical properties are characterized by utilizing them as EDLC half-cells operated in aqueous and organic electrolytes, respectively. Experimental data derived for organic electrolytes reveals that the respective ions cannot enter the micropores within the skeleton of the meso- and macroporous carbons. Therefore the total capacitance is limited by the external surface formed by the interface between the meso-/macropores and the microporous carbon particles forming the xerogel skeleton. In contrast, for aqueous electrolytes the total capacitance solely depends on the total surface area, including interfaces at the micropore scale. For both types of electrolytes the charging rate of the electrodes is systematically enhanced when increasing the diameter of the carbon xerogel particles from 10 to 75 nm and the meso-/macropore size from 10 to 121 nm. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  19. Combination of acid-resistor and -scavenger improves the SEI stability and cycling ability of tin–nickel battery anodes in LiPF6-containing electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Myeong-Ho; Nguyen, Cao Cuong; Hong, Sukhyun; Kwon, Yo Han; Woo, Sang-Wook; Kim, Je Young; Song, Seung-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Control of electrode–electrolyte interfacial reactivity and the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is a key technology for high performance rechargeable lithium batteries. Here we present the first report on a promising interfacial approach for Sn–Ni electrode that the use of acid-resisting and -scavenging fluorine-dopant on Sn combined with acid-scavenging trimethyl phosphite electrolyte additive to LiPF 6 -contiaing carbonate-based organic electrolyte improves the interfacial stability of Sn to acidic electrolyte species. As a result, a stable SEI layer consisting of a plenty of carbonate decomposition products forms and cycling ability significantly improves, in contrast to less efficient SEI formation and rapid performance fade for the electrodes without fluorine-dopant or trimethyl phosphite additive

  20. N-doped structures and surface functional groups of reduced graphene oxide and their effect on the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor with organic electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shin-Ming; Yang, Shin-Yi; Wang, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Hsiu-Ping; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Chang, Chien-Liang; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2015-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) has been synthesized using a simple, efficient method combining instant thermal exfoliation and covalent bond transformation from a melamine-graphene oxide mixture. The capacitive performance of N-rGO has been tested in both aqueous (0.5 M H2SO4) and organic (1 M tetraethyl-ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4) in propylene carbonate (PC)) electrolytes, which are compared with those obtained from thermal-reduced graphene oxide (T-rGO) and chemical-reduced graphene oxide (C-rGO). The contributions of scan-rate-independent (double-layer-like) and scan-rate-dependent (pseudo-capacitance-like) capacitance of all reduced graphene oxides in both aqueous and organic electrolytes were evaluated and compared. The results show that relatively rich oxygen-containing functional groups on C-rGO form significant ion-diffusion barrier, resulting in worse electrochemical responses in organic electrolyte. By contrast, the N-doped structures, large surface area, and lower density of oxygen-containing groups make N-rGO become a promising electrode material for organic electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). The capacitance rate-retention of N-rGO reaches 71.1% in 1 M TEABF4/PC electrolyte when the scan rate is elevated to 200 mVs-1, demonstrating that N-rGO improves the relatively low-power drawback of EDLCs in organic electrolytes. The specific energy and power of a symmetric N-rGO cell in the organic electrolyte reach 25 Wh kg-1 and 10 kW kg-1, respectively.

  1. Effect of electrode mass ratio on aging of activated carbon based supercapacitors utilizing organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cericola, D.; Kötz, R.; Wokaun, A.

    2011-03-01

    The accelerated degradation of carbon based supercapacitors utilizing 1 M Et4NBF4 in acetonitrile and in propylene carbonate as electrolyte is investigated for a constant cell voltage of 3.5 V as a function of the positive over total electrode mass ratio. The degradation rate of the supercapacitor using acetonitrile as a solvent can be decreased by increasing the mass of the positive electrode. With a mass ratio (positive electrode mass/total electrode mass) of 0.65 the degradation rate is minimum. For the capacitor utilizing propylene carbonate as a solvent a similar effect was observed. The degradation rate was smallest for a mass ratio above 0.5.

  2. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2014-03-26

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and further link these to the biotransformation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). Two pairs of soil-column setups were established in the laboratory receiving synthetic feed solutions composed of different peptone/humic acid ratios and concentrations. Higher BDOC concentration resulted in lower microbial community diversity and higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria. Decreasing the peptone/humic acid ratio resulted in higher diversity of the community and higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria. The metabolic capabilities of microbiome involved in xenobiotics biodegradation were significantly promoted under lower BDOC concentration and higher humic acid content. Cytochrome P450 genes were also more abundant under these primary substrate conditions. Lower peptone/humic acid ratios also promoted the attenuation of most TOrCs. These results suggest that the primary substrate characterized by a more refractory character could increase the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria, as well as associated cytochrome P450 genes, all of which should play important roles in the biotransformation of TOrCs in this natural treatment system. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-06-01

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and further link these to the biotransformation of emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs). Two pairs of soil-column setups were established in the laboratory receiving synthetic feed solutions composed of different peptone/humic acid ratios and concentrations. Higher BDOC concentration resulted in lower microbial community diversity and higher relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria. Decreasing the peptone/humic acid ratio resulted in higher diversity of the community and higher relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria. The metabolic capabilities of microbiome involved in xenobiotics biodegradation were significantly promoted under lower BDOC concentration and higher humic acid content. Cytochrome P450 genes were also more abundant under these primary substrate conditions. Lower peptone/humic acid ratios also promoted the attenuation of most TOrCs. These results suggest that the primary substrate characterized by a more refractory character could increase the relative abundances of Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria, as well as associated cytochrome P450 genes, all of which should play important roles in the biotransformation of TOrCs in this natural treatment system.

  4. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  5. Prediction of thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The description and prediction of the thermophysical and transport properties of ternary organic non-electrolyte systems including water by the polynomial equations are reviewed. Empirical equations of Radojković et al. (also known as Redlich-Kister, Kohler, Jacob-Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao-Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al. and Rastogi et al. are compared with experimental data of available papers appeared in well know international journals (Fluid Phase Equilibria, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, Journal of Solution Chemistry, Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Journal of Molecular Liquids, Thermochimica Acta, etc.. The applicability of empirical models to estimate excess molar volumes, VE, excess viscosities, ηE, excess free energies of activation of a viscous flow,

  6. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Yanga, Dennis A.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2013-01-01

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration

  7. The oxidation of organic additives in the positive vanadium electrolyte and its effect on the performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tam D.; Whitehead, Adam; Scherer, Günther G.; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe O.; Bhattarai, Arjun; Chandra, Ghimire P.; Xu, Zhichuan J.

    2016-12-01

    Despite many desirable properties, the vanadium redox flow battery is limited, in the maximum operation temperature that can be continuously endured, before precipitation begins in the positive electrolyte. Many additives have been proposed to improve the thermal stability of the charged positive electrolyte. However, we have found that the apparent stability, revealed in laboratory testing, is often simply an artifact of the test method and arises from the oxidation of the additive, with corresponding partial reduction of V(V) to V(IV). This does not improve the stability of the electrolyte in an operating system. Here, we examined the oxidation of some typical organic additives with carboxyl, alcohol, and multi-functional groups, in sulfuric acid solutions containing V(V). The UV-vis measurements and titration results showed that many compounds reduced the state-of-charge (SOC) of vanadium electrolyte, for example, by 27.8, 88.5, and 81.9% with the addition of 1%wt of EDTA disodium salt, pyrogallol, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The cell cycling also indicated the effect of organic additives on the cell performance, with significant reduction in the usable charge capacity. In addition, a standard screening method for thermally stable additives was introduced, to quickly screen suitable additives for the positive vanadium electrolyte.

  8. Comparison of carbon onions and carbon blacks as conductive additives for carbon supercapacitors in organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Weingarth, D.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates carbon onions (∼400 m2 g-1) as a conductive additive for supercapacitor electrodes of activated carbon and compares their performance with carbon black with high or low internal surface area. We provide a study of the electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior between 2.5 and 20 mass% addition of each of these three additives to activated carbon. Structural characterization shows that the density of the resulting film electrodes depends on the degree of agglomeration and the amount of additive. Addition of low surface area carbon black (∼80 m2 g-1) enhances the power handling of carbon electrodes but significantly lowers the specific capacitance even when adding small amounts of carbon black. A much lower decrease in specific capacitance is observed for carbon onions and the best values are seen for carbon black with a high surface area (∼1390 m2 g-1). The overall performance benefits from the addition of any of the studied additives only at either high scan rates and/or electrolytes with high ion mobility. Normalization to the volume shows a severe decrease in volumetric capacitance and only at high current densities nearing 10 A g-1 we can see an improvement of the electrode capacitance.

  9. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Ouf, Mohamed; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Saikaly, Pascal; Drewes, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment

  10. Highly stable bilayer of LiPON and B2O3 added Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4) solid electrolytes for non-aqueous rechargeable Li-O2 batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, Harsharaj S.; Kalubarme, Ramchandra S.; Jadhav, Arvind H.; Seo, Jeong Gil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • LiPON thin film deposited by RF-sputtering technique. • The effect of deposition temperature on ionic conductivity was investigated. • The LiPON/B-LAGP composite was successfully employed in Li-O 2 battery. • LiPON interlayer enhances stability of B-LAGP in contact with Li-metal. - Abstract: Lithium ion conducting membranes are barely studied, although they are essentially indispensable for building Li-air batteries composed of aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes for long-term operation. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) thin films were deposited by RF-sputtering technique on B 2 O 3 -added lithium aluminum germanium phosphate (B-LAGP). Compact thin amorphous LiPON layer could act as a protective interlayer for B-LAGP by separating it from Li metal electrode and mitigate the reaction between them. Large electrochemical stability window (0–5 V) of LiPON/B-LAGP solid electrolyte shows promising feasibility for applications in all lithium based batteries. The aprotic Li-O 2 cell with protected lithium electrode configuration employing LiPON/B-LAGP solid electrolyte has exhibited reasonable cycling stability with long-life of 52 cycles at a limited capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 .

  11. Dissolved organic matter removal during coal slag additive soil aquifer treatment for secondary effluent recharging: Contribution of aerobic biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liangliang; Li, Siliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Qin, Kena; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Kong, Xiangjuan; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-06-01

    Recycling wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent at low cost via the soil aquifer treatment (SAT), which has been considered as a renewable approach in regenerating potable and non-potable water, is welcome in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In this study, the effect of a coal slag additive on the bulk removal of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in WWTP effluent during SAT operation was explored via the matrix configurations of both coal slag layer and natural soil layer. Azide inhibition and XAD-resins fractionation experiments indicated that the appropriate configuration designing of an upper soil layer (25 cm) and a mixture of soil/coal slag underneath would enhance the removal efficiency of adsorption and anaerobic biodegradation to the same level as that of aerobic biodegradation (31.7% vs 32.2%), while it was only 29.4% compared with the aerobic biodegradation during traditional 50 cm soil column operation. The added coal slag would preferentially adsorb the hydrophobic DOM, and those adsorbed organics could be partially biodegraded by the biomass within the SAT systems. Compared with the relatively lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light adsorption at 254 nm (UV-254) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) removal rate of the original soil column (42.0%, 32.9%, and 28.0%, respectively), SSL2 and SSL4 columns would enhance the bulk removal efficiency to more than 60%. Moreover, a coal slag additive in the SAT columns could decline the aromatic components (fulvic-like organics and tryptophan-like proteins) significantly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis and Exploration of Ladder-Structured Large Aromatic Dianhydrides as Organic Cathodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Chen, Wangqiao; Wang, Zilong; Jie, Kenneth Choo Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qichun

    2017-04-18

    Compared to anode materials in Li-ion batteries, the research on cathode materials is far behind, and their capacities are much smaller. Thus, in order to address these issues, we believe that organic conjugated materials could be a solution. In this study, we synthesized two non-polymeric dianhydrides with large aromatic structures: NDA-4N (naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms) and PDA-4N (perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride with four nitrogen atoms). Their electrochemical properties have been investigated between 2.0 and 3.9 V (vs. Li + /Li). Benefiting from multi-electron reactions, NDA-4N and PDA-4N could reversibly achieve 79.7 % and 92.3 %, respectively, of their theoretical capacity. Further cycling reveals that the organic compound with a relatively larger aromatic building block could achieve a better stability, as an obvious 36.5 % improvement of the capacity retention was obtained when the backbone was switched from naphthalene to perylene. This study proposes an opportunity to attain promising small-molecule-based cathode materials through tailoring organic structures. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-12-30

    Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation's family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

  14. Supercapacitors based on two dimensional VO2 nanosheet electrodes in organic gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Nagaraju, Doddahalli H.; Beaujuge, Pierre; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    VO2 is a low band-gap semiconductor with relatively high conductivity among transition metal oxides, which makes it an interesting material for supercapacitor electrode applications. The performance of VO2 as supercapacitor electrode in organic

  15. Bulk solid state rechargeable lithium ion battery fabrication with Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 electrolyte and Cu0.1V2O5 cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Ying; McGinn, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, low-temperature route was developed to process bulk solid-state Li-ion batteries employing Al-doped Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte (thickness: ∼ 0.5 mm; 25 °C conductivity: ∼ 2 × 10 −4 S cm −1 ). A composite Cu 0.1 V 2 O 5 –based slurry was directly painted on Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 and dried at 120 °C to prepare the cathode film. The opposite side of the electrolyte was subsequently exposed to molten Li to form the anode. The discharge capacity of the solid state battery was 53 mAh g −1 (calculated based on the weight of active cathode material) at room temperature with 5 μA cm −2 discharging current. Severe capacity decay occurred after the initial discharging. A comparable liquid electrolyte battery was tested at room temperature for comparison and had a much slower decay rate. However, when the operating temperature of the solid state battery was increased to 50 °C, the cell performance significantly improved. At 50 °C, the battery exhibited 176 mAh g −1 initial discharging capacity at 5 μA cm −2 current density and 93 mAh g −1 initial capacity under a 10 μA cm −2 discharging current density. After 20 cycles, the capacity decayed to 68.6 mAh g −1 when cycled at a 10 μA cm −2 current density. Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the interface resistance of the battery at different temperatures. The results indicated that both the cathode and anode interface resistance were dramatically reduced at 50 °C. The decrease in interface resistances at elevated temperature is proposed as the main reason for the observed battery performance enhancement

  16. The effect of pH on the bioconcentration and toxicity of weak organic electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie

    to the bioconcentration of ionizing organic compounds showed that this fraction cannot safely be overlooked. The work presented in this thesis suggests that the standard test procedures used to test toxicity and bioconcentration are not sufficient to fully illuminate the ecotoxicity of ionizing organic compounds unless......Many of the compounds in use today have ionizing properties. Investigations have shown that around half of the compounds preregistered for REACH and over 70% of all pharmaceuticals are ionizing organic compounds. These compounds may pose a risk when they are released into the environment....... Ionization, however, complicates the environmental risk assessment of these compounds because the uptake processes of the neutral fraction differ from the processes of the ionized fraction. Acids are increasingly neutral at pH levels below the pKa while bases are increasingly neutral at pH levels above the p...

  17. High Lithium Transference Number Electrolytes via Creation of 3-Dimensional, Charged, Nanoporous Networks from Dense Functionalized Nanoparticle Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2013-03-26

    High lithium transference number, tLi+, electrolytes are desired for use in both lithium-ion and lithium metal rechargeable battery technologies. Historically, low tLi+ electrolytes have hindered device performance by allowing ion concentration gradients within the cell, leading to high internal resistances that ultimately limit cell lifetime, charging rates, and energy density. Herein, we report on the synthesis and electrochemical features of electrolytes based on nanoparticle salts designed to provide high tLi+. The salts are created by cofunctionalization of metal oxide nanoparticles with neutral organic ligands and tethered lithium salts. When dispersed in a conducting fluid such as tetraglyme, they spontaneously form a charged, nanoporous network of particles at moderate nanoparticle loadings. Modification of the tethered anion chemistry from -SO3 - to -SO3BF3 - is shown to enhance ionic conductivity of the electrolytes by facilitating ion pair dissociation. At a particle volume fraction of 0.15, the electrolyte exists as a self-supported, nanoporous gel with an optimum ionic conductivity of 10 -4 S/cm at room temperature. Galvanostatic polarization measurements on symmetric lithium metal cells containing the electrolyte show that the cell short circuit time, tSC, is inversely proportional to the square of the applied current density tSC ∼ J-2, consistent with previously predicted results for traditional polymer-in-salt electrolytes with low tLi+. Our findings suggest that electrolytes with tLi+ ≈ 1 and good ion-pair dissociation delay lithium dendrite nucleation and may lead to improved lithium plating in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Destruction of organic wastes by ammonium peroxydisulfate with electrolytic regeneration of the oxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, J.F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.

    1997-01-01

    Research is reported concerning a new aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes. This process uses acidified ammonium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at 80- to 100 degrees C. The oxidant may be efficiently regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by-product at Pt anodes, even in the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants expected to be entrained in the cycle. Integral rate constants were determined for the oxidation of 25 diverse organic compounds at low (50 ppm) concentrations through fixed-time experiments with excess oxidant and a Pt wire catalyst. For high initial concentrations, uncatalyzed mineralization rates were measured for waste surrogates including kerosene, triethylamine, ion exchange resin, oxalic acid, trinitrotoluene, and cellulose. A packed bed reactor was tested with ethylene glycol, with offgas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Rate data extrapolate to throughputs of approximately 200 kg/m 3 -day. The process may benefit the destruction of highly toxic or specialized industrial wastes as well as the organic fraction of mixed wastes

  19. Study of ageing mechanisms of organic electrolyte super-capacitors based on activated carbons; Recherche des causes du vieillissement de supercondensateurs a electrolyte organique a base de carbones actives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azais, Ph

    2003-11-15

    The energy which is stored in electrochemical capacitors is proportional to the square of voltage. Consequently, the most attractive super-capacitors are those which operate in organic electrolyte medium, with an electrolyte potential window which theoretically can easily reach more than 3 V. However, even using lower values of voltage, there is a remarkable fading of the electrochemical characteristics with operating time, that is mainly characterized by capacitance loss and resistance increase. On a commercial point of view, these capacitors must be improved in order to reach the expected criterion of long operating life. In the presented work, we will determine some reasons of super-capacitors ageing in organic electrolyte (1 M solution of Et{sub 4}N{sup +} BF{sub 4}{sup -} in acetonitrile) and we will propose a treatment of activated carbon which noticeably improves the performance. A prolonged charging of electrochemical capacitors at 2.5 V, so called floating, results in gases formation and to a noticeable mass uptake of the electrodes. XPS and NMR analysis performed on carefully washed electrodes demonstrated the existence of decomposition products from the electrolyte, which are trapped in the pores of the activated carbon. These products block the pores, limiting the ions access to the active surface that causes the decay of electrochemical performances. Electrolyte decomposition is especially very high when the electrodes are constituted of carbons with a rich surface functionality, i.e. surface oxygenated groups and free radicals. Therefore, activated carbons have been submitted to thermal treatment, both in nitrogen and hydrogen atmosphere, allowing the oxygenated surface functionality to be noticeably depressed. Super-capacitors built with the treated materials have been submitted to floating during more than 2000 hours. Extremely good electrochemical performance are preserved with the electrodes obtained from activated carbons treated under hydrogen

  20. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  1. Role of perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes in lithium metal batteries: Implication for suppressed Al current collector corrosion and the stability of Li metal/electrolytes interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lina; Liu, Jia; Armand, Michel; Mauger, Alain; Julien, Christian M.; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Liqun

    2018-03-01

    The development of safe and high performance lithium metal batteries represents a major technological challenge for this new century. Historically, intrinsic instabilities of conventional liquid organic electrolytes induced battery failures and safety issues that hinder the practical utilization of advanced rechargeable lithium metal batteries. Herein, we report a multifunctional perfluoropolyether-based liquid polymer electrolyte (PFPE-MC/LiTFSI), presenting a unique "anion-solvent" interaction. This interaction optimizes the interfacial chemistry of lithium metal batteries, which effectively inhibits the corrosion of aluminum current collectors, suppresses lithium dendrite growth, and also facilitates the formation of a thin and stable SEI layer on Li anode. Even at a high current density of 0.7 mA cm-2, the lithium dendrites do not form after 1360 h of continuous operation. The LiFePO4|PFPE-MC/LiTFSI|Li cell delivers a stable cycling performance with over 99.9% columbic efficiency either at ambient temperature or high temperature, which is significantly superior to those using traditional carbonate electrolytes. In addition, PFPE-MC/LiTFSI electrolyte also possesses eye-catching properties, such as being non-flammable, non-volatile, non-hygroscopic, and existing in the liquid state between -90 °C and 200 °C, which further ensures the high safety of the lithium metal batteries, making this electrolyte promising for the development of high energy lithium metal batteries.

  2. Organic layers at metal/electrolyte interfaces: molecular structure and reactivity of viologen monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Stephan; Pham, Duc T; Huemann, Sascha; Gentz, Knud; Zoerlein, Caroline; Wandelt, Klaus; Broekmann, Peter; Hunger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption of viologens (1,1'-disubstituted-4,4'-bipyridinium molecules) on a chloride-modified copper electrode has been studied using a combination of cyclic voltammetry (CV), in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and ex-situ photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Two prototypes of viologens could be identified with respect to their redox behavior upon adsorption, namely those which retain (non-reactive adsorption) and those which change their redox state (reactive adsorption) upon interaction with the chloride-modified copper surface at given potential. The first class of viologens represented by 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bipyridinium molecules (dibenzyl-viologens, abbreviated as DBV) can be adsorbed and stabilized on this electrode surface in their di-cationic state at potentials more positive than the reduction potential of the solution species. XPS N1s core level shifts verify that the adsorbed DBV molecules on the electrode are in their oxidized di-cationic state. Electrostatic attraction between the partially solvated viologen di-cations and the anionic chloride layer is discussed as the main driving force for the DBV stabilization on the electrode surface. Analysis of the N1s and O1s core level shifts points to a non-reactive DBV adsorption leaving the DBV ads 2+ solvation shell partly intact. The laterally ordered DBV ads 2+ monolayer turns out to be hydrophilic with at least four water molecules per viologen present within this cationic organic film. The analysis of the Cl2p core level reveals that no further chloride species are present at the surface besides those which are specifically adsorbed, i.e. which are in direct contact with the metallic copper surface underneath the organic layer. The reduction of these adsorbed DBV ads 2+ surface species takes place only in the same potential regime where the solvated DBV aq 2+ bulk solution species react and is accompanied by a pronounced structural change from the di-cationic 'cavitand'-structure to a

  3. Determination of Three-Dimensional Morphology and Inner Structure of Second-Phase Inclusions in Metals by Non-Aqueous Solution Electrolytic and Room Temperature Organic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Guo; Keming Fang; Hanjie Guo; Yiwa Luo; Shengchao Duan; Xiao Shi; Wensheng Yang

    2018-01-01

    The secondary-phase particles in metals, particularly those composed of non-metallic materials, are often detrimental to the mechanical properties of metals; thus, it is crucial to control inclusion formation and growth. One of the challenges is determining the three-dimensional morphology and inner structures of such inclusions. In this study, a non-aqueous solution electrolytic method and a room-temperature organic technique were developed based on the principle of electrochemistry to deter...

  4. Investigation of a nanoconfined, ceramic composite, solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasekara, Indumini; Poyner, Mark; Teeters, Dale

    2017-01-01

    The challenges for further development of lithium rechargeable batteries are finding electrolyte materials that are safe, have mechanical and thermal stability and have sufficiently high ionic conduction. Polymer electrolytes have many of these advantages, but suffer with low ionic conduction. This study involves the use of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes having nanochannels filled with polymer electrolyte to make composite solid electrolytes having ionic conductivity several orders of magnitude higher (10 −4 Ω ‐1 cm −1 ) than non-confined polymer. SEM, ac impedance spectroscopy, temperature dependence studies, XRD, ATR- FTIR and DSC studies were done in order to characterize and understand the behavior of nanoconfined polymer electrolytes. The composite polymer electrolyte was found to be more amorphous with polymer chains aligned in the direction of the nanochannels, which is felt to promote ion conduction. The electrolyte systems, confined in nanoporous membranes, can be used as electrolytes for the fabrication of a room temperature all solid state battery.

  5. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed

  6. Investigations of oxygen reduction reactions in non-aqueous electrolytes and the lithium-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Laoire, Cormac Micheal

    Unlocking the true energy capabilities of the lithium metal negative electrode in a lithium battery has until now been limited by the low capacity intercalation and conversion reactions at the positive electrodes. This is overcome by removing these electrodes and allowing lithium to react directly with oxygen in the atmosphere forming the Li-air battery. Chapter 2 discusses the intimate role of electrolyte, in particular the role of ion conducting salts on the mechanism and kinetics of oxygen reduction in non-aqueous electrolytes designed for such applications and in determining the reversibility of the electrode reactions. Such fundamental understanding of this high energy density battery is crucial to harnessing its full energy potential. The kinetics and mechanisms of O2 reduction in solutions of hexafluorophosphate salts of the general formula X+ PF6-, where, X = tetra butyl ammonium (TBA), K, Na and Li, in acetonitrile have been studied on glassy carbon electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating disk electrode (RDE) techniques. Our results show that cation choice strongly influences the reduction mechanism of O2. Electrochemical data supports the view that alkali metal oxides formed via electrochemical and chemical reactions passivate the electrode surface inhibiting the kinetics and reversibility of the processes. The O2 reduction mechanisms in the presence of the different cations have been supplemented by kinetic parameters determined from detailed analyses of the CV and RDE data. The organic solvent present in the Li+-conducting electrolyte has a major role on the reversibility of each of the O2 reduction products as found from the work discussed in the next chapter. A fundamental study of the influence of solvents on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in a variety of non-aqueous electrolytes was conducted in chapter 4. In this work special attention was paid to elucidate the mechanism of the oxygen electrode processes in the rechargeable Li

  7. Wireless rechargeable sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability

  8. Effect of KOH added to ethylene glycol electrolyte on the self-organization of anodic ZrO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Kian, Tan Wai; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2016-01-01

    ZrO 2 nanotube arrays were formed by anodizing zirconium sheet in ethylene glycol (EG) and EG added to it KOH (EG/KOH) electrolytes. The effect of KOH addition into EG electrolyte to the morphology of nanotubes and their crystallinity was investigated. It was observed that the tubes with diameter of ∼80 nm were formed in EG electrolyte with <0.1 vol % water, but the wall smoothness is rather poor. When KOH was added into EG, the wall smoothness of the nanotubes improve, but the diameter of tubes is smaller (∼40 nm). Despite smoother wall and small tube diameter, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) on the tubes made in EG/KOH is less compared to the tubes made in EG only. This could be due to the less tetragonal ZrO 2 presence in the tubes made in EG/KOH.

  9. Eco-friendly Energy Storage System: Seawater and Ionic Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kwang; Mueller, Franziska; Kim, Hyojin; Jeong, Sangsik; Park, Jeong-Sun; Passerini, Stefano; Kim, Youngsik

    2016-01-08

    As existing battery technologies struggle to meet the requirements for widespread use in the field of large-scale energy storage, novel concepts are urgently needed concerning batteries that have high energy densities, low costs, and high levels of safety. Here, a novel eco-friendly energy storage system (ESS) using seawater and an ionic liquid is proposed for the first time; this represents an intermediate system between a battery and a fuel cell, and is accordingly referred to as a hybrid rechargeable cell. Compared to conventional organic electrolytes, the ionic liquid electrolyte significantly enhances the cycle performance of the seawater hybrid rechargeable system, acting as a very stable interface layer between the Sn-C (Na storage) anode and the NASICON (Na3 Zr2 Si2 PO12) ceramic solid electrolyte, making this system extremely promising for cost-efficient and environmentally friendly large-scale energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbuena, Perla B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes

  11. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jilei Liu; Chaohe Xu; Zhen Chen; Shibing Ni; Ze Xiang Shen

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+) batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+) batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. B...

  12. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  13. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Das, Shyamal K.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes

  14. Role of solvents on the oxygen reduction and evolution of rechargeable Li-O2 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Maria; Arul, Anupriya; Zahoor, Awan; Moon, Kwang Uk; Oh, Mi Young; Stephan, A. Manuel; Nahm, Kee Suk

    2017-02-01

    The choice of electrolyte solvent is expected to play a key role in influencing the lithium-oxygen battery performance. The electrochemical performances of three electrolytes composed of lithium bis (trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) salt and different solvents namely, ethylene carbonate/propylene carbonate (EC/PC), tetra ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are investigated by assembling lithium oxygen cells. The electrolyte composition significantly varied the specific capacity of the battery. The choice of electrolyte also influences the overpotential, cycle life, and rechargeability of the battery. Electrochemical impedance spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry were utilized to determine the reversible reactions associated with the air cathode.

  15. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    that are currently available or under development for recharge monitoring. The material is written primarily for hydrogeologists. Uses of geophysical methods for improving recharge monitoring are explored through brief discussions and case studies. The intent is to indicate how geophysical methods can be used effectively in studying recharge processes and quantifying recharge. As such, the material constructs a framework for matching the strengths of individual geophysical methods with the manners in which they can be applied for hydrologic analyses. The appendix is organized in three sections. First, the key hydrologic parameters necessary to determine the rate, timing, and patterns of recharge are identified. Second, the basic operating principals of the relevant geophysical methods are discussed. Methods are grouped by the physical property that they measure directly. Each measured property is related to one or more of the key hydrologic properties for recharge monitoring. Third, the emerging conceptual framework for applying geophysics to recharge monitoring is presented. Examples of the application of selected geophysical methods to recharge monitoring are presented in nine case studies. These studies illustrate hydrogeophysical applications under a wide range of conditions and measurement scales, which vary from tenths of a meter to hundreds of meters. The case studies include practice-proven as well as emerging applications of geophysical methods to recharge monitoring.

  16. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... currently approved for installation in transport-category airplanes. Large, high-capacity, rechargeable... electrolytes. The electrolyte can serve as a source of fuel for an external fire if the cell container is..., are established to ensure the availability of electrical power from the batteries when needed...

  17. A Rechargeable Hydrogen Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christudas Dargily, Neethu; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Devendrachari, Mruthunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Gautam, Manu; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-04-27

    We utilize proton-coupled electron transfer in hydrogen storage molecules to unlock a rechargeable battery chemistry based on the cleanest chemical energy carrier molecule, hydrogen. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and spectroelectrochemical analyses evidence the participation of protons during charge-discharge chemistry and extended cycling. In an era of anthropogenic global climate change and paramount pollution, a battery concept based on a virtually nonpolluting energy carrier molecule demonstrates distinct progress in the sustainable energy landscape.

  18. Fast reactor recharging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemiev, L.N.; Kurilkin, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosure is made of a device for recharging a fast-neutron reactor, intended for the transfer of fuel assemblies and rods of the control and safety system, having profiled heads to be gripped on the outside. The device comprises storage drums whose compartments for rods of the control and safety system are identical to compartments for fuel assemblies. In order to store and transport rods of the control and safety system from the storage drums to the recharging mechanism provision is made for sleeve-type holders. When placed in such a holder, the dimensions of a rod of the control and safety system are equal to those of a fuel assembly. To join a holder to a rod of the control and safety system, on the open end of each holder there is mounted a collet, whereas on the surface of each rod of the control and safety system, close to its head, there is provided an encircling groove to interact with the collet. The grip of the recharging mechanism is provided with a stop interacting with the collet in order to open the latter and withdraw the safety and control system rod from its holder

  19. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  20. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Alleviating of Electrolyte Leakage and Flower Organ Damage in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza ALIREZAIE NOGHONDAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limiting factors in spread of apricot in Iran is late spring frost, which damages flower bud and decrease total yield of crop. It has been found that salicylic acid (SA plays a beneficial role during plant response to chilling and freezing stresses. To evaluate the effects of salicylic acid on alleviating of cold stress, the flower buds (FBs of Prunus armeniaca L. cv. ‘Shahroudi’ were sprayed at pink cluster stage with SA at 4 levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mM and were then exposed to artificial cold stress (4 h at -4°C or without cold stress (+ 25. Experimental attributes including electrolyte leakage of FBs and percentage of damage (PD of pistil, anthers and petals to temperature treatments were determined. The results showed that at -4°C the lowest and highest PD and EL of FBs were observed in application of 0.5 and 0 mM SA, respectively. The highest and lowest PD of flower organ and EL were obtained in application of 0 and 2 mM SA, respectively at +25°C. Based on the results of this experiment, SA alleviates the negative effect of cold stress on electrolyte leakage and flower organ damages in apricot cv. ‘Shahroudi’, depending on the concentrations of SA used.

  1. Rechargeable electronic textile battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Kok, M.M. de; Zhou, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple fabrication process that produces polymeric charge storage devices directly onto a textile surface. By using a coating of poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulphonic acid) (PEDOT) as a solid electrolytic layer deposited between two woven silver coated polyamide

  2. Lithium Organic Borate Salt and Sulfite Functional Electrolytes%有机硼酸锂盐及亚硫酸酯类功能电解质材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈人杰; 何舟影; 吴锋

    2011-01-01

    随着锂离子电池对高安全性、高容量、高功率等性能的技术需求,新型功能电解质材料的研究开发成为锂离子电池新材料领域研发工作的重点.本文对面向锂离子电池应用的功能电解质材料锂盐和添加剂的最新研究进展作了较为全面的阐述,其中重点介绍了本研究团队近年来在面向改善锂离子电池安全性能、提高其温度适应性、增强电解质与电极材料相容特性等方面研究开发的系列基于双草酸硼酸锂[LiBOB]及二氟草酸硼酸锂[LiODFB]等有机硼酸锂盐和亚硫酸酯类等添加剂的新型功能电解质材料,其表现出高的热稳定性和良好的电化学性能.而且,其中的有机硼酸锂盐和亚硫酸酯还可以作为SEI成膜材料进行应用,其在石墨电极表面可形成稳定的SEI膜,有利于改善电池的循环寿命、自放电、库仑效率和不可逆容量衰减.最后,本文探讨了当前存在的问题及未来的研究方向,并对其应用前景进行了展望.%With the rapid development of lithium ion batteries with higher energy density, higher power density and high security, the research of new functional electrolytes has attracted considerable attention in novel materials field for lithium ion batteries.In this paper, the recent research advances of key technologies on the application of lithium salts and additive functional electrolytes in lithium ion batteries are reviewed, especially on the results of our research team focusing on new functional electrolytes based on lithium organic borate salt, such as lithium bis(oxalato) borate [LiBOB]and lithium oxalyldifluoroborate [LiODFB], and sulfite additives for the purpose of improving security, temperature adaptability and the compatibility between electrolytes and electrodes of lithium ion batteries.These electrolytes exhibit high thermal stability and good electrochemical properties.Moreover, lithium organic borate salt and sulfite have been

  3. Triggering the Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistor output characteristics through gate functionalization using diazonium chemistry: Application to biodetection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T K; Nguyen, T N; Anquetin, G; Reisberg, S; Noël, V; Mattana, G; Touzeau, J; Barbault, F; Pham, M C; Piro, B

    2018-04-26

    We investigated an Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect transistor based on poly(N-alkyldiketopyrrolo-pyrrole dithienylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene) as organic semiconductor whose gate electrode was functionalized by electrografting a functional diazonium salt capable to bind an antibody specific to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), an herbicide well-known to be a soil and water pollutant. Molecular docking computations were performed to design the functional diazonium salt to rationalize the antibody capture on the gate surface. Sensing of 2,4-D was performed through a displacement immunoassay. The limit of detection was estimated at around 2.5 fM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Poly(Acrylic acid–Based Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Electrolytes Membrane for Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam-Wen Liew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes (NCPEMs based on poly(acrylic acid(PAA and titania (TiO2 are prepared by a solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of NCPEMs increases with the weight ratio of TiO2.The highest ionic conductivity of (8.36 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S·cm−1 is obtained with addition of 6 wt % of TiO2 at ambient temperature. The complexation between PAA, LiTFSI and TiO2 is discussed in Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR studies. Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs are fabricated using the filler-free polymer electrolyte or the most conducting NCPEM and carbon-based electrodes. The electrochemical performances of fabricated EDLCs are studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. EDLC comprising NCPEM shows the specific capacitance of 28.56 F·g−1 (or equivalent to 29.54 mF·cm−2 with excellent electrochemical stability.

  5. Ionic Borate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks: Lightweight Porous Materials for Lithium-Stable Solid State Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Hayden T; Harrison, Katharine Lee

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the first polyelectrolyte of intrinsic microporosity (PEIM) is described. The novel material was synthesized via reaction between the nitrile group in the polymer backbone and n-butyl lithium, effectively anchoring an imine anion to the porous framework while introducing a mobile lithium counterion. The PEIM was characterized by 13C, 1H, and 7Li NMR experiments, revealing quantitative conversion of the nitrile functionality to the anionic imine. Variable temperature 7Li NMR analysis of the dry PEIM and the electrolyteswollen PEIM revealed that lithium ion transport within the dry PEIM was largely due to interchain hopping of the Li+ ions, and that the mobility of polymer associated Li+ was reduced after swelling in electrolyte solution. Meanwhile, the swollen PEIM supported efficient transport of dissolved Li+ within the expanded pores. These results are discussed in the context of developing novel solid or solid-like lithium ion electrolytes using the new PEIM material.

  6. Enhanced performance of P(VDF-HFP)-based composite polymer electrolytes doped with organic-inorganic hybrid particles PMMA-ZrO2 for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Rui; Yuan, Zun; Miao, Chang; Yan, Xuemin; Jiang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To improve the ionic conductivity as well as enhance the mechanical strength of the gel polymer electrolyte, poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoroprolene) (P(VDF-HFP))-based composite polymer electrolyte (CPE) membranes doped with the organic-inorganic hybrid particles poly(methyl methacrylate) -ZrO2 (PMMA-ZrO2) are prepared by phase inversion method, in which PMMA is successfully grafted onto the surface of the homemade nano-ZrO2 particles via in situ polymerization confirmed by FT-IR. XRD and DSC patterns show adding PMMA-ZrO2 particles into P(VDF-HFP) can significantly decrease the crystallinity of the CPE membrane. The CPE membrane doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can not only present a homogeneous surface with abundant interconnected micro-pores, but maintain its initial shape after thermal exposure at 160 °C for 1 h, in which the ionic conductivity and lithium ion transference number at room temperature can reach to 3.59 × 10-3 S cm-1 and 0.41, respectively. The fitting results of the EIS plots indicate the doped PMMA-ZrO2 particles can significantly lower the interface resistance and promote lithium ions diffusion rate. The Li/CPE-sPZ/LiCoO2 and Li/CPE-sPZ/Graphite coin cells can deliver excellent rate and cycling performance. Those results suggest the P(VDF-HFP)-based CPE doped with 5 wt % PMMA-ZrO2 particles can become an exciting potential candidate as polymer electrolyte for the lithium ion battery.

  7. A Novel Inorganic Low Melting Electrolyte for Secondary-Aluminum-Nickel Sulfide Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, H.A.; Winbrush, S. von; Berg, Rolf W.

    1989-01-01

    ±10% from their combination expectations. The low melting electrolyte is employed in the rechargeable batterysystem Al/electrolyte/Ni3S2 at 100°C. The open-circuit voltage of this system is from 0.82 to 1.0V. Dendrite-free aluminumdeposits are obtained. The cycling behavior of the battery system...

  8. Manufacture and demonstration of organic photovoltaic-powered electrochromic displays using roll coating methods and printable electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Dam, Henrik Friis; Reynolds, John R.

    2012-01-01

    active material (ECP-Magenta) and poly(N-octadecyl-(propylene-1,3-dioxy)-3,4-pyrrole-2,5-diyl) as a minimally colored, charge balancing material (MCCP). Two electrolyte systems were compared to allow development of fully printable and laminated devices on flexible substrates. Devices of various sizes, up...... to 7 × 8 cm2, are demonstrated with pixelated devices containing pixel sizes of 4 × 4 mm2 or 13 × 13 mm2. The transmission contrast exhibited by the devices, when switched between the fully bleached and fully colored state, was 58% at a visible wavelength of 550 nm, and the devices exhibited switching...... times of photovoltaic devices (with or without the use of a lithium-polymer battery) to power the devices between the colored and bleached state, illustrating a self-powered ECD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Polym Sci Part B...

  9. The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of Lithium-sulfur cell containing various organic electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok; Jung, Yongju; Lim, Hong S.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of lithium-sulfur (Li/S) cell and the optimal composition of ternary electrolyte for the improved discharge performance of the cell have been investigated. The capacity value and capacity stability with cycle are dependent on the nature of solvent as well as the composition of mixed solvent. The change trend of discharge performance as a function of content of each solvent component is studied. Capacity value increases as the 1,3-dioxolane (DOX) content decreases. Average discharge voltage shows larger value when the 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) content is small. Finally, we have obtained the optimal solvent composition by using a statistical method

  10. Effects of Imide–Orthoborate Dual-Salt Mixtures in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes on the Stability of Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing [Energy and Environment; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environment; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular; Mei, Donghai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Qiuyan [Energy and Environment; Jiao, Shuhong [Energy and Environment; Liu, Ning [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China; Zhao, Wengao [Energy and Environment; School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy and Environment; Xu, Wu [Energy and Environment

    2018-01-09

    The effects of lithium imide and lithium orthoborate dual-salt electrolytes of different salt chemistries in carbonate solvents on the cycling stability of Li metal batteries were systematically and comparatively investigated. Two imide salts (LiTFSI and LiFSI) and two orthoborate salts (LiBOB and LiDFOB) were chosen for this study and compared with the conventional LiPF6 salt. The cycling stability of the Li metal cells with the electrolytes follows the order from good to poor as LiTFSI-LiBOB > LiTFSI-LiDFOB > LiPF6 > LiFSI-LiBOB > LiFSI-LiDFOB, indicating that LiTFSI behaves better than LiFSI and LiBOB over LiDFOB in these four dual-salt mixtures. The LiTFSI-LiBOB can effectively protect the Al substrate and form a more robust surface film on Li metal anode, while the LiFSI-LiBOB results in serious corrosion to the stainless steel cell case and a thicker and looser surface film on Li anode. Computational calculations indicate that the chemical and electrochemical stabilities also follow the order of LiTFSI-LiBOB > LiTFSI-LiDFOB > LiFSI-LiBOB > LiFSI-LiDFOB. The key findings of this work emphasize that the salt chemistry is critically important for enhancing the interfacial stability of Li metal anode and should be carefully manipulated in the development of high performance Li metal batteries.

  11. Power and Thermal Technologies for Air and Space. Delivery Order 0001: Single Ionic Conducting Solid-State Electrolyte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Allen

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of a lithium-ion conducting channel as a solid-state electrolyte for rechargeable lithium batteries through the use of thin films of dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc...

  12. PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cells/supercapacitors) to electro-chromic displays, smart windows and ... electrolytes and their usage in lithium ion rechargeable solid state batteries are well .... the experimental plot using the Arrhenius relationship σ = σ0exp(−Ea/kT) where ...

  13. Development of Sulfide Solid Electrolytes and Interface Formation Processes for Bulk-Type All-Solid-State Li and Na Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Akitoshi, E-mail: hayashi@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sakuda, Atsushi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Department of Energy and Environment, Research Institute of Electrochemical Energy, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs) are recognized as an ultimate goal of rechargeable batteries because of their high safety, versatile geometry, and good cycle life. Compared with thin-film batteries, increasing the reversible capacity of bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using electrode active material particles is difficult because contact areas at solid–solid interfaces between the electrode and electrolyte particles are limited. Sulfide SEs have several advantages of high conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and appropriate mechanical properties, such as formability, processability, and elastic modulus. Sulfide electrolyte with Li{sub 7}P{sub 3}S{sub 11} crystal has a high Li{sup +} ion conductivity of 1.7 × 10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 25°C. It is far beyond the Li{sup +} ion conductivity of conventional organic liquid electrolytes. The Na{sup +} ion conductivity of 7.4 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} is achieved for Na{sub 3.06}P{sub 0.94}Si{sub 0.06}S{sub 4} with cubic structure. Moreover, formation of favorable solid–solid interfaces between electrode and electrolyte is important for realizing solid-state batteries. Sulfide electrolytes have better formability than oxide electrolytes. Consequently, a dense electrolyte separator and closely attached interfaces with active material particles are achieved via “room-temperature sintering” of sulfides merely by cold pressing without heat treatment. Elastic moduli for sulfide electrolytes are smaller than that of oxide electrolytes, and Na{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} glass electrolytes have smaller Young’s modulus than Li{sub 2}S–P{sub 2}S{sub 5} electrolytes. Cross-sectional SEM observations for a positive electrode layer reveal that sulfide electrolyte coating on active material particles increases interface areas even with a minimum volume of electrolyte, indicating that the energy density of bulk-type solid-state batteries is enhanced. Both surface coating

  14. Issue and challenges facing rechargeable thin film lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Arun; Patil, Vaishali; Shin, Dong Wook; Choi, Ji-Won; Paik, Dong-Soo; Yoon, Seok-Jin

    2008-01-01

    New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible, lightweight design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based thin film rechargeable batteries highlight ongoing research strategies and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the discovery of nanomaterials as electrolytes and electrodes for lithium batteries also this article describes the possible evolution of lithium technology and evaluates the expected improvements, arising from new materials to cell technology. New active materials under investigation and electrode process improvements may allow an ultimate final energy density of more than 500 Wh/L and 200 Wh/kg, in the next 5-6 years, while maintaining sufficient power densities. A new rechargeable battery technology cannot be foreseen today that surpasses this. This report will provide key performance results for thin film batteries and highlight recent advances in their development

  15. Electrochemical performance of high specific capacity of lithium-ion cell LiV3O8//LiMn2O4 with LiNO3 aqueous solution electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingshu; Zheng Qingyang; Wang Fei; Dai Weimin; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this paper, the electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. → The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. → In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries. - Abstract: The electrochemical performance of aqueous rechargeable lithium battery (ARLB) with LiV 3 O 8 and LiMn 2 O 4 in saturated LiNO 3 electrolyte is studied. The results indicate that these two electrode materials are stable in the aqueous solution and no hydrogen or oxygen produced, moreover, intercalation/de-intercalation of lithium ions occurred within the range of electrochemical stability of water. The electrochemical performance tests show that the specific capacity of LiMn 2 O 4 using as the cathode of ARLB is similar to that of ordinary lithium-ion battery with organic electrolyte, which works much better than the formerly reported. In addition, the cell systems exhibit good cycling performance. Therefore, it has great potential comparing with other batteries such as lead acid batteries and alkaline manganese batteries.

  16. Novel Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Electrolyte to Enable LiFePO4 Quasi-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries Performed Highly around Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Rui; Gao, Rongtan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Mingjian; Xu, Junyi; Yang, Jinlong; Pan, Feng

    2016-11-16

    A novel type of organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolytes with high electrochemical performances around room temperature is formed by hybrid of nanofillers, Y-type oligomer, polyoxyethylene and Li-salt (PBA-Li), of which the T g and T m are significantly lowered by blended heterogeneous polyethers and embedded nanofillers with benefit of the dipole modification to achieve the high Li-ion migration due to more free-volume space. The quasi-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on the LiFePO 4 /15PBA-Li/Li-metal cells present remarkable reversible capacities (133 and 165 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 and 45 °C, respectively), good rate ability and stable cycle performance (141.9 mAh g -1 @0.2 C at 30 °C after 150 cycles).

  17. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  18. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratik Kar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs. Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron transfer step. This depends on the relative position of the sensitized organic dye in the metal oxide composite system. In the present work, we developed quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models to set up the quantitative relationship between the overall PCE and quantum chemical molecular descriptors. They were calculated from density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT methods as well as from DRAGON software. This allows for understanding the basic electron transfer mechanism along with the structural attributes of arylamine-organic dye sensitizers for the DSSCs explicit to cobalt electrolyte. The identified properties and structural fragments are particularly valuable for guiding time-saving synthetic efforts for development of efficient arylamine organic dyes with improved power conversion efficiency.

  19. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  20. Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dominica H. C.; Thelen, Jacob L.; Fu, Yanbao; Devaux, Didier; Pandya, Ashish A.; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Balsara, Nitash P.; DeSimone, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The flammability of conventional alkyl carbonate electrolytes hinders the integration of large-scale lithium-ion batteries in transportation and grid storage applications. In this study, we have prepared a unique nonflammable electrolyte composed of low molecular weight perfluoropolyethers and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt. These electrolytes exhibit thermal stability beyond 200 °C and a remarkably high transference number of at least 0.91 (more than double that of conventional electrolytes). Li/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 cells made with this electrolyte show good performance in galvanostatic cycling, confirming their potential as rechargeable lithium batteries with enhanced safety and longevity. PMID:24516123

  1. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  2. Investigation of low-cost oligoanthraquinones for alkaline, aqueous rechargeable batteries with cell potential up to 1.13 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Andersen, Anders Søndergaard; Wedege, Kristina; Henriksen, Martin Lahn; Hinge, Mogens; Bentien, Anders

    2018-03-01

    The transition to renewable energy sources has created need for stationary, low-cost electrical energy storage. A possible technology to address both cost and environmental concerns are batteries based on organic materials. The use of oligoanthraquinones as a replacement for metal hydrides or cadmium in nickel hydroxide rechargeable batteries is investigated in detail regarding polymer composition, electrochemical reversibility and electroactive species cost. Two different oligoanthraquinones are paired with a nickel hydroxide cathode and demonstrate cycling stability dependent on parameters such as supporting electrolyte strength, C-rate, and anode swelling. The energy efficiencies are up to 75% and the cell potential up to 1.13 V. Simple functionalization of the basic structure increases the cell potential by 100 mV.

  3. Progress in aqueous rechargeable batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a series of aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs were explored, investigated and demonstrated. Among them, aqueous rechargeable alkali-metal ion (Li+, Na+, K+ batteries, aqueous rechargeable-metal ion (Zn2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+ batteries and aqueous rechargeable hybrid batteries are standing out due to peculiar properties. In this review, we focus on the fundamental basics of these batteries, and discuss the scientific and/or technological achievements and challenges. By critically reviewing state-of-the-art technologies and the most promising results so far, we aim to analyze the benefits of ARBs and the critical issues to be addressed, and to promote better development of ARBs.

  4. Influence of the Ti microstructure on anodic self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers produced in ethylene glycol electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macak, J.M., E-mail: jan.macak@upce.cz [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 53002 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Jarosova, M. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the CAS, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Jäger, A. [Department of Structure analysis, Institute of Physics of the CAS, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, 16200 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sopha, H. [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, 53002 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Klementová, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the CAS, v.v.i., Husinec-Rez 1001, Rez 25068 (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The microstructure of Ti substrates investigated by EBSD. • Comparison of polished vs. unpolished substrates was carried out. • Grain orientation influences the uniformity of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • Tubes with different average diameter grow on grains with different orientation. • Grain size and boundaries influence the number of flaws in the tube layers. - Abstract: The relationship between the microstructure of Ti substrates and the anodic growth of self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers obtained upon their anodization in the ethylene glycol based electrolytes on these substrates is reported for the first time. Polished Ti sheets with mirror-like surface as well as unpolished Ti foils were considered in this work. Grains with a wide range of crystallographic orientations and sizes were revealed by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and correlated with nanotube growth on both types of substrates. A preferred grain orientation with [0 0 0 1] axis perpendicular to the surface was observed on all substrates. Surfaces of all substrates were anodized for 18 h in ethylene glycol electrolytes containing 88 mM NH{sub 4}F and 1.5% water and thoroughly inspected by SEM. By a precise comparison of Ti substrates before and after anodization, the uniformity of produced self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotube layers was evaluated in regard to the specific orientation of individual grains. Grains with [0 0 0 1] axis perpendicular to the surface turned out to be the most growth-promoting orientation on polished substrates. No orientation was found to be strictly growth-retarding, but sufficient anodization time (24 h) was needed to obtain uniform nanotube layers on all grains without remnant porous initial oxide. In contrast with polished Ti sheets, no specific orientation was found to significantly promote or retard the nanotube growth in the case of unpolished Ti foils. Finally, the difference between the average nanotube diameters of

  5. Novel cellulose reinforcement for polymer electrolyte membranes with outstanding mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Jijeesh R.; Chiappone, A.; Gerbaldi, C.; Ijeri, Vijaykumar S.; Zeno, E.; Bongiovanni, R.; Bodoardo, S.; Penazzi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► UV-cured methacrylic-based composite gel-polymer electrolyte membranes for rechargeable lithium batteries. ► Excellent mechanical stability by reinforcement with classical cellulose handsheets. ► Fast and environmentally friendly preparation process, green and low cost cellulose reinforcement. ► Good electrochemical behaviour, stable cyclability and long-term performances in real battery configuration. - Abstract: Methacrylic-based thermo-set gel-polymer electrolytes obtained by an easy and reliable free radical photo-polymerisation process demonstrate good behaviour in terms of ionic conductivity, interfacial stability with the Li-metal electrode and cyclability in lithium cells. Though the obtained membranes are flexible, self standing and easy to handle, there is room for improving mechanical strength. In this respect, a novel approach is adopted in this work, in which a cellulose hand-sheet (paper), specifically designed for the specific application, is used as a composite reinforcing agent. To enhance its compatibility with the polymer matrix, cellulose is modified by UV-grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate on it. Excellent mechanical properties are obtained and good overall electrochemical performances are maintained; highlighting that such specific approach would make these hybrid organic, green, cellulose-based composite polymer electrolyte systems a strong contender in the field of thin and flexible Li-based power sources.

  6. Predicting groundwater recharge for varying land cover and climate conditions - a global meta-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Chinchu; Western, Andrew W.; Wei, Yongping; Saft, Margarita

    2018-05-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of the important factors determining the groundwater development potential of an area. Even though recharge plays a key role in controlling groundwater system dynamics, much uncertainty remains regarding the relationships between groundwater recharge and its governing factors at a large scale. Therefore, this study aims to identify the most influential factors of groundwater recharge, and to develop an empirical model to estimate diffuse rainfall recharge at a global scale. Recharge estimates reported in the literature from various parts of the world (715 sites) were compiled and used in model building and testing exercises. Unlike conventional recharge estimates from water balance, this study used a multimodel inference approach and information theory to explain the relationship between groundwater recharge and influential factors, and to predict groundwater recharge at 0.5° resolution. The results show that meteorological factors (precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) and vegetation factors (land use and land cover) had the most predictive power for recharge. According to the model, long-term global average annual recharge (1981-2014) was 134 mm yr-1 with a prediction error ranging from -8 to 10 mm yr-1 for 97.2 % of cases. The recharge estimates presented in this study are unique and more reliable than the existing global groundwater recharge estimates because of the extensive validation carried out using both independent local estimates collated from the literature and national statistics from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In a water-scarce future driven by increased anthropogenic development, the results from this study will aid in making informed decisions about groundwater potential at a large scale.

  7. Olivine-type cathode for rechargeable batteries: Role of chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhasamy, Sathiyaraj; Singh, Pritam; Thurgate, Stephen; Ionescu, Mihail; Appadoo, Dominique; Minakshi, Manickam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Olivine powder was synthesized by sol–gel method using a range of chelating agents. ► Role of chelating agents in olivine cathode was investigated for battery application. ► Battery was fabricated with olivine cathode, Zn anode and aqueous electrolyte. ► Synergetic effect of additives (CA + TEA + PVP) led to improved storage capacity. - Abstract: Olivine (LiCo 1/3 Mn 1/3 Ni 1/3 PO 4 ) powders were synthesized at 550–600 °C for 6 h in air by a sol–gel method using multiple chelating agents and used as a cathode material for rechargeable batteries. Range of chelating agents like a weak organic acid (citric acid – CA), emulsifier (triethanolamine – TEA) and non-ionic surfactant (polyvinylpyrrolidone – PVP) in sol–gel wet chemical synthesis were used. The dependence of the physicochemical properties of the olivine powders such as particle size, morphology, structural bonding and crystallinity on the chelating agent was extensively investigated. Among the chelating agents used, unique cycling behavior (75 mAh/g after 25 cycles) is observed for the PVP assisted olivine. This is due to volumetric change in trapped organic layer for first few cycles. The trapped organic species in the electrode–electrolyte interface enhances the rate of lithium ion diffusion with better capacity retention. In contrast, CA and TEA showed a gradual capacity fade of 30 and 38 mAh/g respectively after multiple cycles. The combination of all the three mixed chelating agents showed an excellent electrochemical behavior of 100 mAh/g after multiple cycles and the synergistic effect of these agents are discussed.

  8. Role of biodegradation in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds with different bulk organic matter characteristics through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Amy, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration have been recognized as providing effective barriers in the multi-barrier approach for attenuation of organic micropollutants for safe drinking water supply. In this study, the role of biodegradation in the removal of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during soil passage was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the removal of 13 selected PhACs from different water sources with respect to different sources of biodegradable organic matter. Neutral PhACs (phenacetine, paracetamol, and caffeine) and acidic PhACs (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, bezafibrate, and naproxen) were removed with efficiencies greater than 88% from different organic matter water matrices during batch studies (hydraulic retention time (HRT): 60 days). Column experiments were then performed to differentiate between biodegradation and sorption with regard to the removal of selected PhACs. In column studies, removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs (e.g., analgesics) decreased under conditions of limited biodegradable carbon. The removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs were found to be less than 21% under abiotic conditions. These observations were attributed to sorption under abiotic conditions established by a biocide (20 mM sodium azide), which suppresses microbial activity/biodegradation. However, under biotic conditions, the removal efficiencies of these acidic PhACs were found to be greater than 59%. This is mainly attributed to biodegradation. Moreover, the average removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (polar) neutral PhACs (paracetamol, pentoxifylline, and caffeine) with low octanol/water partition coefficients (log K ow less than 1) were low (11%) under abiotic conditions. However, under biotic conditions, removal efficiencies of the neutral PhACs were greater than 98%. In contrast, carbamazepine persisted and was not easily removed under either biotic or abiotic conditions. This study indicates that biodegradation

  9. Role of biodegradation in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds with different bulk organic matter characteristics through managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2011-10-01

    Natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration have been recognized as providing effective barriers in the multi-barrier approach for attenuation of organic micropollutants for safe drinking water supply. In this study, the role of biodegradation in the removal of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during soil passage was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the removal of 13 selected PhACs from different water sources with respect to different sources of biodegradable organic matter. Neutral PhACs (phenacetine, paracetamol, and caffeine) and acidic PhACs (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, bezafibrate, and naproxen) were removed with efficiencies greater than 88% from different organic matter water matrices during batch studies (hydraulic retention time (HRT): 60 days). Column experiments were then performed to differentiate between biodegradation and sorption with regard to the removal of selected PhACs. In column studies, removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs (e.g., analgesics) decreased under conditions of limited biodegradable carbon. The removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs were found to be less than 21% under abiotic conditions. These observations were attributed to sorption under abiotic conditions established by a biocide (20 mM sodium azide), which suppresses microbial activity/biodegradation. However, under biotic conditions, the removal efficiencies of these acidic PhACs were found to be greater than 59%. This is mainly attributed to biodegradation. Moreover, the average removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (polar) neutral PhACs (paracetamol, pentoxifylline, and caffeine) with low octanol/water partition coefficients (log K ow less than 1) were low (11%) under abiotic conditions. However, under biotic conditions, removal efficiencies of the neutral PhACs were greater than 98%. In contrast, carbamazepine persisted and was not easily removed under either biotic or abiotic conditions. This study indicates that biodegradation

  10. Role of biodegradation in the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds with different bulk organic matter characteristics through managed aquifer recharge: batch and column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K; Abel, Chol D T; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Amy, Gary L

    2011-10-15

    Natural water treatment systems such as bank filtration have been recognized as providing effective barriers in the multi-barrier approach for attenuation of organic micropollutants for safe drinking water supply. In this study, the role of biodegradation in the removal of selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during soil passage was investigated. Batch studies were conducted to investigate the removal of 13 selected PhACs from different water sources with respect to different sources of biodegradable organic matter. Neutral PhACs (phenacetine, paracetamol, and caffeine) and acidic PhACs (ibuprofen, fenoprofen, bezafibrate, and naproxen) were removed with efficiencies greater than 88% from different organic matter water matrices during batch studies (hydraulic retention time (HRT): 60 days). Column experiments were then performed to differentiate between biodegradation and sorption with regard to the removal of selected PhACs. In column studies, removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs (e.g., analgesics) decreased under conditions of limited biodegradable carbon. The removal efficiencies of acidic PhACs were found to be less than 21% under abiotic conditions. These observations were attributed to sorption under abiotic conditions established by a biocide (20 mM sodium azide), which suppresses microbial activity/biodegradation. However, under biotic conditions, the removal efficiencies of these acidic PhACs were found to be greater than 59%. This is mainly attributed to biodegradation. Moreover, the average removal efficiencies of hydrophilic (polar) neutral PhACs (paracetamol, pentoxifylline, and caffeine) with low octanol/water partition coefficients (log Kow less than 1) were low (11%) under abiotic conditions. However, under biotic conditions, removal efficiencies of the neutral PhACs were greater than 98%. In contrast, carbamazepine persisted and was not easily removed under either biotic or abiotic conditions. This study indicates that biodegradation

  11. Preparation of activated carbon aerogel and its application to electrode material for electric double layer capacitor in organic electrolyte: Effect of activation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soon Hyung; Lee, Eunji; Kim, Myung-Soo; Jung, Ji Chul [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bum-Soo; Kim, Sang-Gil; Lee, Byung-Jun [Vitzrocell Co., Yesan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Carbon aerogel was chemically activated with KOH at various activation temperatures with the aim of improving the electrochemical performance of carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel electrode was determined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods using coin-type EDLC cell in organic electrolyte. Activation temperature played an important role in determining the electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel for EDLC electrode. Specific capacitance of activated carbon aerogel at a high current density (5 A/g) showed a volcano-shaped curve with respect to activation temperature. Excessively high activation temperature could have an adverse effect on the electrochemical properties of activated carbon aerogel due to the low electrical conductivity caused by a collapse of characteristic structure of carbon aerogel. Among the carbon samples, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C with a high surface area and a well-developed porous structure exhibited the highest specific capacitance. In addition, carbon aerogel activated at 800 .deg. C retained a considerable specific capacitance at a high current density even after 1000 cycles of charge/discharge. Therefore, it is concluded that carbon aerogel activated with KOH at 800 .deg. C can serve as an efficient electrode material for commercial EDLC with a high power density.

  12. 1D and 2D NMR Spectroscopy of Bonding Interactions within Stable and Phase-Separating Organic Electrolyte-Cellulose Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Matthew T; Farès, Christophe; Rinaldi, Roberto

    2017-09-11

    Organic electrolyte solutions (i.e. mixtures containing an ionic liquid and a polar, molecular co-solvent) are highly versatile solvents for cellulose. However, the underlying solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are not yet fully understood. Herein, mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, the co-solvent 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone, and cellulose are investigated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The use of a triply- 13 C-labelled ionic liquid enhances the signal-to-noise ratio for 13 C NMR spectroscopy, enabling changes in bonding interactions to be accurately pinpointed. Current observations reveal an additional degree of complexity regarding the distinct roles of cation, anion, and co-solvent toward maintaining cellulose solubility and phase stability. Unexpectedly, the interactions between the dialkylimidazolium ring C 2 -H substituent and cellulose become more pronounced at high temperatures, counteracted by a net weakening of acetate-cellulose interactions. Moreover, for mixtures that exhibit critical solution behavior, phase separation is accompanied by the apparent recombination of cation-anion pairs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  14. Effects of organic additives with oxygen- and nitrogen-containing functional groups on the negative electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jianlei; Liu, Suqin; He, Zhangxing; Han, Huiguo; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    DL-malic acid and L-aspartic acid are investigated as additives for the negative electrolyte of vanadium redox flow battery (VFRB) to improve its stability and electrochemical performance. The stability experiments indicate that the addition of L-aspartic acid into the 2 M V(III) electrolyte can stabilize the electrolyte by delaying its precipitation. The results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show that the V(III) electrolyte with both additives demonstrates enhanced electrochemical activity and reversibility. The introduction of DL-malic acid and L-aspartic acid can increase the diffusion coefficient of V(III) species and facilitate the charge transfer of V(III)/V(II) redox reaction. Between the two additives, the effect of L-aspartic acid is more remarkable. Moreover, the VFRB cell employing negative electrolyte with L-aspartic acid exhibits excellent cycling stability and achieves higher average energy efficiency (76.4%) compared to the pristine cell (73.8%). The comparison results with the cell employing L-aspartic acid pre-treated electrode confirm that L-aspartic acid in the electrolyte can modify the electrode by constantly providing oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups, leading to the enhancement of electrochemical performance

  15. Prediction of phase equilibrium for gas hydrate in the presence of organic inhibitors and electrolytes by using an explicit pressure-dependent Langmuir adsorption constant in the van der Waals–Platteeuw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Huai-Ying; Hsieh, Min-Kang; Chen, Yan-Ping; Chen, Po-Chun; Lin, Shiang-Tai; Chen, Li-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The hydrate phase is described by the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. • An explicit pressure-dependent Langmuir adsorption constant is used in our model. • Phase behavior of gas hydrates with organic inhibitors and electrolytes predicted. • Our model well predicts phase behavior of gas hydrates at high pressures. -- Abstract: A new approach is developed for the prediction of the melting curve of gas hydrate with single or multiple additives, including organic inhibitors and electrolytes. This is made possible by combining a predictive equation of state for the fluid phase, the Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera equation of state (PRSV EoS) combined with the COSMO-SAC activity coefficient model through the first order modified Huron–Vidal (MHV1) mixing rule, and a modified van der Waals–Platteeuw model for the hydrate phase. We have examined this method for the change of the melting condition of gas hydrate upon addition of single organic inhibitor, single electrolyte, and a mixture of organic and electrolyte. The absolute average relative deviation in temperature (AARD-T) for these three types of systems are 0.79% (695 data points, T from 230.2 K to 294.0 K, P from 0.10 MPa to 33.9 MPa), 0.16% (810 data points, T from 259.5 K to 299.1 K, P from 0.13 MPa to 71.56 MPa), and 1.56% (316 data points, T from 248.2 K to 292.9 K, P from 0.90 MPa to 73.28 MPa), respectively. We believe that the proposed model is useful for the exploitation of natural or synthetic gas hydrates with multiple additives

  16. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Moganty, Surya S.; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2

  17. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  18. Progress in Studies of Organic Electrolyte Solutions for Li Metal and Li-ion Secondary Batteries%锂及锂离子蓄电池有机电解液研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄全超; 刘文元; 武山; 陆兆达

    2002-01-01

      Organic electrolyte solution is the major component of Li metal and Li ion secondary batteries, and it has some important effect on the batteries’ performance, such as reversible capacity, cycle properties and safety. A review on the anode stability, cathode stability and safety of organic electrolyte solutions was presented. Emphasis was focused on the compatibility of organic electrolyte solutions with the anode and cathode.%  有机电解液是锂及锂离子蓄电池的重要组成部分,对电池许多性能如可逆容量、循环性能、安全性等有着重要的影响。本文从有机电解液的阴极稳定性、阳极稳定性以及安全性三个方面,综述当前这一领域的最新研究进展。重点论述了有机电解液与电池阴极和阳极相容性。

  19. Vesicle-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanish, I.; Singh, A. [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., S.W., Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lowy, D.A. [Nova Research, Inc., 1900 Elkin St., Alexandria, VA 22308 (United States); Hung, C.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2005-05-02

    Vesicle-based rechargeable batteries can be fabricated by mounting polymerized vesicles filled with ferrocyanide or ferricyanide to a conductive surface. The potential can be adjusted by changing the concentration ratio of hydroquinone and benzoquinone bound to the vesicle membranes. These batteries show promise as a means of supplying portable power for future autonomous nanosystems. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Chemical Passivation of Li(exp +)-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay; Lim, James

    2008-01-01

    Plates of a solid electrolyte that exhibits high conductivity for positive lithium ions can now be passivated to prevent them from reacting with metallic lithium. Such passivation could enable the construction and operation of high-performance, long-life lithium-based rechargeable electrochemical cells containing metallic lithium anodes. The advantage of this approach, in comparison with a possible alternative approach utilizing lithium-ion graphitic anodes, is that metallic lithium anodes could afford significantly greater energy-storage densities. A major impediment to the development of such cells has been the fact that the available solid electrolytes having the requisite high Li(exp +)-ion conductivity are too highly chemically reactive with metallic lithium to be useful, while those solid electrolytes that do not react excessively with metallic lithium have conductivities too low to be useful. The present passivation method exploits the best features of both extremes of the solid-electrolyte spectrum. The basic idea is to coat a higher-conductivity, higher-reactivity solid electrolyte with a lower-conductivity, lower-reactivity solid electrolyte. One can then safely deposit metallic lithium in contact with the lower-reactivity solid electrolyte without incurring the undesired chemical reactions. The thickness of the lower-reactivity electrolyte must be great enough to afford the desired passivation but not so great as to contribute excessively to the electrical resistance of the cell. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated in experiments on plates of a commercial high-performance solid Li(exp +)- conducting electrolyte. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) was the solid electrolyte used for passivation. LiPON-coated solid-electrolyte plates were found to support electrochemical plating and stripping of Li metal. The electrical resistance contributed by the LiPON layers were found to be small relative to overall cell impedances.

  1. Microbial Rechargeable Battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, Sam D.; Mol, Annemerel R.; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Heijne, Ter Annemiek; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems hold potential for both conversion of electricity into chemicals through microbial electrosynthesis (MES) and the provision of electrical power by oxidation of organics using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study provides a proof of concept for a microbial

  2. Determination of Three-Dimensional Morphology and Inner Structure of Second-Phase Inclusions in Metals by Non-Aqueous Solution Electrolytic and Room Temperature Organic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The secondary-phase particles in metals, particularly those composed of non-metallic materials, are often detrimental to the mechanical properties of metals; thus, it is crucial to control inclusion formation and growth. One of the challenges is determining the three-dimensional morphology and inner structures of such inclusions. In this study, a non-aqueous solution electrolytic method and a room-temperature organic technique were developed based on the principle of electrochemistry to determine the three-dimensional morphologies and inner structures of non-metallic inclusions in Al-killed steel, Si-killed steel, and ductile cast iron. The inclusions were first extracted without any damage to the inclusions, and then the collected inclusions were wrapped and cut through Cu ion deposition. The results revealed that the inclusions in Al-killed steel had an irregular morphology, that those in the Si-killed steel were mainly spherical, and that almost all the spheroidal graphite in the ductile cast iron featured a uniform globular morphology. In addition, nucleation was not observed in the inner structures of the inclusions in the Al-killed steel, while some dendritic or rod-like MnS phase precipitates appeared on the silicate inclusion surfaces, and some silicate-rich phases were detected in their inner matrix. For spheroidal graphite, rare-earth oxides (one particle or more were observed as nuclei in the center of almost every graphite particle. The formation and evolution of inclusions in these types of metals can be better understood by means of the two developed methods.

  3. Investigations on an advanced power system based on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and an organic Rankine cycle for heating and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Jannelli, Elio

    2015-01-01

    Energy systems based on fuel cells technology can have a strategic role in the range of small-size power generation for the sustainable energy development. In order to enhance their performance, it is possible to recover the “waste heat” from the fuel cells, for producing or thermal power (cogeneration systems) or further electric power by means of a bottoming power cycle (combined systems). In this work an advanced system based on the integration between a HT-PEMFC (high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) power unit and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) plant, has been proposed and analysed as suitable energy power plant for supplying electric and thermal energies to a stand-alone residential utility. The system can operate both as cogeneration system, in which the electric and thermal loads are satisfied by the HT-PEMFC power unit and as electric generation system, in which the low temperature heat recovered from the fuel cells is used as energy source in the ORC plant for increasing the electric power production. A numerical model, able to characterize the behavior and to predict the performance of the HT-PEMFC/ORC system under different working conditions, has been developed by using the AspenPlus™ code. - Highlights: • The advanced plant can operate both as CHP system and as electric generation system. • The performance prediction of the integrated system is carried out by numerical modeling. • ORC thermodynamic optimization is carried out by a sensitivity analysis. • Thermal coupling between the HT-PEMC system and the ORC plant is analyzed. • Results are very promising in the field of the distributed generation

  4. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  5. Ionic Liquid-Nanoparticle Hybrid Electrolytes and their Application in Secondary Lithium-Metal Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-07-12

    Ionic liquid-tethered nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes comprised of silica nanoparticles densely grafted with imidazolium-based ionic liquid chains are shown to retard lithium dendrite growth in rechargeable batteries with metallic lithium anodes. The electrolytes are demonstrated in full cell studies using both high-energy Li/MoS2 and high-power Li/TiO2 secondary batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Enabling rechargeable non-aqueous Mg-O2 battery operations with dual redox mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qi; Yao, Xiahui; Luo, Jingru; Zhang, Xizi; Hwang, Hajin; Wang, Dunwei

    2016-12-11

    Dual redox mediators (RMs) were introduced for Mg-O 2 batteries. 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ) facilitates the discharge with an overpotential reduction of 0.3 V. 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine cobalt(ii) (Co(ii)TPP) facilitates the recharge with an overpotential decrease of up to 0.3 V. Importantly, the two redox mediators are compatible in the same DMSO-based electrolyte.

  7. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Brian [Wheat Ridge, CO; Nguyen, Vinh [Wheat Ridge, CO

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  8. Part 2: Limiting apparent molar volume of organic and inorganic 1:1 electrolytes in (water + ethylammonium nitrate) mixtures at 298 K - Thermodynamic approach using Bahe-Varela pseudo-lattice theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouguerra, Sabbah; Bou Malham, Ibrahim; Letellier, Pierre; Mayaffre, Alain; Turmine, Mireille

    2008-01-01

    Values of partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of 9 inorganic and 4 organic 1:1 electrolytes have been determined in (water + ethylammonium nitrate) (EAN) binary at 298.15 K throughout the composition scale. Our theoretical analysis shows that the values of partial molar volumes at infinite dilution of a solute in a binary are linked to those of the partial molar volumes of the components of mixed solvent. This applies to mixtures of molecular solvents as well as (water + ionic liquid) media. The use of the 'pseudo-lattice theory' of Bahe recently supplemented Varela can be used for calculations and to obtain information about the interactions between 1:1 electrolytes as solutes at infinite dilution and their concentrated saline environment. We show that the 'pseudo-lattice theory' allows accurate description of the behaviours of symmetrical tetraalkylammoniums bromide between the infinitely dilute state and concentrations higher than 2 mol . L -1

  9. Electrochemical behavior of nanostructured MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite in aqueous electrolyte LiNO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujković Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrolytic solutions of contemporary Li-ion batteries are made exclusively with the organic solvents since anodic materials of these batteries have potentials with greater negativity than the potential of the water reduction, thus the organic electrolytes can withstand the voltages of 3-5 V that are characteristic for these batteries. Ever since it was discovered that some materials can electrochemically intercalate and deintercalate Li+ ions in aqueous solutions, numerous studies have been conducted with the aim of extending operational time of the aqueous Li-ion batteries. Manganese oxide has been studied as the electrode material in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with organic electrolytes. In this paper its electrochemical behavior as an anode material in aqueous electrolyte solutions was examined. MnO2 as a component of nanodispersed MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite was successfully synthesized hydrothermally. Electrochemical properties of this material were investigated in aqueous saturated LiNO3 solution by both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charging/discharging (LiMn2O4 as cathode material techniques. The obtained composite shows a relatively good initial discharge capacity of 96.5 mAh/g which, after 50th charging/discharging cycles, drops to the value of 57mAh/g. MnO2/C (Vulcan® composite, in combination with LiMn2O4 as a cathode material, shows better discharge capacity compared to other anodic materials used in aqueous Li-ion batteries according to certain studies that have been conducted. Its good reversibility and cyclability, and the fact that hydrothermal method is simple and effective, makes MnO2/C(Vulcan® composite a promising anodic material for aqueous Li-ion batteries.

  10. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-01-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  11. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  12. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  13. Nano-sized copper tungstate thin films as positive electrodes for rechargeable Li batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chilin; Fu Zhengwen

    2008-01-01

    Nano-sized CuWO 4 thin films have been fabricated by radio-frequency (R.F.) sputtering deposition, and are used as positive electrode with both LiClO 4 liquid electrolyte and LiPON solid electrolyte in rechargeable lithium batteries. An initial discharge capacity of 192 and 210 mAh/g is obtainable for CuWO 4 film electrode with and without coated LiPON in liquid electrolyte, respectively. An all-solid-state cell with Li/LiPON/CuWO 4 layers shows a high-volume rate capacity of 145 μAh/cm 2 μm in first discharge, and overcomes the unfavorable electrochemical degradation observed in liquid electrolyte system. A two-step reactive mechanism is investigated by both transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. Apart from the extrusion and injection of Cu 2+ /Cu 0 , additional capacity can be achieved by the reversible reactivity of (WO 4 ) 2- framework. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Li intercalation/deintercalation are estimated by cyclic voltammetry. Nano-CuWO 4 thin film is expected to be a promising positive electrode material for high-performance rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

  14. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  15. Novel Non-Carbonate Based Electrolytes for Silicon Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ye [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Yang, Johnny [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Cheng, Gang [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Carroll, Kyler [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Clemons, Owen [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States); Strand, Diedre [Wildcat Discovery Technologies, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Substantial improvement in the energy density of rechargeable lithium batteries is required to meet the future needs for electric and plug-in electric vehicles (EV and PHEV). Present day lithium ion battery technology is based on shuttling lithium between graphitic carbon and inorganic oxides. Non-graphitic anodes, such as silicon can provide significant improvements in energy density but are currently limited in cycle life due to reactivity with the electrolyte. Wildcat/3M proposes the development of non-carbonate electrolyte formulations tailored for silicon alloy anodes. Combining these electrolytes with 3M’s anode and an NMC cathode will enable up to a 20% increase in the volumetric cell energy density, while still meeting the PHEV/EV cell level cycle/calendar life goals.

  16. Ultrathin Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanosheets for High-Performance Supercapacitors and Redox Electrolyte Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaramulu, Kolleboyina; Dubal, Deepak P; Nagar, Bhawna; Ranc, Vaclav; Tomanec, Ondrej; Petr, Martin; Datta, Kasibhatta Kumara Ramanatha; Zboril, Radek; Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Fischer, Roland A

    2018-04-01

    The design of advanced high-energy-density supercapacitors requires the design of unique materials that combine hierarchical nanoporous structures with high surface area to facilitate ion transport and excellent electrolyte permeability. Here, shape-controlled 2D nanoporous carbon sheets (NPSs) with graphitic wall structure through the pyrolysis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are developed. As a proof-of-concept application, the obtained NPSs are used as the electrode material for a supercapacitor. The carbon-sheet-based symmetric cell shows an ultrahigh Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-area-normalized capacitance of 21.4 µF cm -2 (233 F g -1 ), exceeding other carbon-based supercapacitors. The addition of potassium iodide as redox-active species in a sulfuric acid (supporting electrolyte) leads to the ground-breaking enhancement in the energy density up to 90 Wh kg -1 , which is higher than commercial aqueous rechargeable batteries, maintaining its superior power density. Thus, the new material provides a double profits strategy such as battery-level energy and capacitor-level power density. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Statewide Groundwater Recharge Modeling in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Cadol, D.; Newton, B. T.; Phillips, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to understand the rate and distribution of groundwater recharge in New Mexico because it not only largely defines a limit for water availability in this semi-arid state, but also is the least understood aspect of the state's water budget. With the goal of estimating groundwater recharge statewide, we are developing the Evapotranspiration and Recharge Model (ETRM), which uses existing spatial datasets to model the daily soil water balance over the state at a resolution of 250 m cell. The input datasets includes PRISM precipitation data, MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), NRCS soils data, state geology data and reference ET estimates produced by Gridded Atmospheric Data downscalinG and Evapotranspiration Tools (GADGET). The current estimated recharge presents diffuse recharge only, not focused recharge as in channels or playas. Direct recharge measurements are challenging and rare, therefore we estimate diffuse recharge using a water balance approach. The ETRM simulated runoff amount was compared with USGS gauged discharge in four selected ephemeral channels: Mogollon Creek, Zuni River, the Rio Puerco above Bernardo, and the Rio Puerco above Arroyo Chico. Result showed that focused recharge is important, and basin characteristics can be linked with watershed hydrological response. As the sparse instruments in NM provide limited help in improving estimation of focused recharge by linking basin characteristics, the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, which is one of the most densely gauged and monitored semiarid rangeland watershed for hydrology research purpose, is now being modeled with ETRM. Higher spatial resolution of field data is expected to enable detailed comparison of model recharge results with measured transmission losses in ephemeral channels. The final ETRM product will establish an algorithm to estimate the groundwater recharge as a water budget component of the entire state of New Mexico. Reference ET estimated by GADGET

  18. Advances in electrode materials for Li-based rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui [China Academy of Space Technology (CAST), Beijing (China); Mao, Chengyu [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Jianlin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chen, Ruiyong [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology (KIST), Saarbrucken (Germany); Saarland Univ., Saarbrucken (Germany)

    2017-07-05

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries store energy as chemical energy in electrode materials during charge and can convert the chemical energy into electrical energy when needed. Tremendous attention has been paid to screen electroactive materials, to evaluate their structural integrity and cycling reversibility, and to improve the performance of electrode materials. This review discusses recent advances in performance enhancement of both anode and cathode through nanoengineering active materials and applying surface coatings, in order to effectively deal with the challenges such as large volume variation, instable interface, limited cyclability and rate capability. We also introduce and discuss briefly the diversity and new tendencies in finding alternative lithium storage materials, safe operation enabled in aqueous electrolytes, and configuring novel symmetric electrodes and lithium-based flow batteries.

  19. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  20. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) and His Forgotten Contributions to Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology in The Organism as a Whole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgambato, Francesco; Sgambato, Ester; De Santo, Natale Gaspare

    2016-02-01

    Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) was the founder of the Journal of General Physiology which he co-directed in association with W.J.V. Osterhout in the years 1918-1924. Having worked (1889-1891)at the Marine Zoological Station of Naples, newly founded by Anton Dohrn, he was imprinted for life. A strong investigator used to perform the experiments personally. Loeb was engaged lifelong in the explanation of life on physico-chemical basis. He touched various fields (being a creative scientist full of ideas), and centered on the exchanges of electrolytes, acids and bases between the body and sea water in fish. He identified two equations: {[K+]+[Na+]}: {[Ca++]+[Mg++]} (Loebs 1st equation) {[K+]+[Na+]}: {[H+]+[Ca++]+[Mg++]} (Loebs final equation) Even nowadays these equations may have applications in a wide list of electrolyte and acid-base disturbances. Unfortunately his heredity has been dissipated.

  1. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-08-15

    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards quantification of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes - development and validation of a liquid-liquid extraction GC-MS method for the determination of organic carbonates in cell culture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlau, Jenny; Weber, Till; Lürenbaum, Constantin; Bornhorst, Julia; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    A novel method based on liquid-liquid extraction with subsequent gas chromatography separation and mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) for the quantification of organic carbonates in cell culture materials is presented. Method parameters including the choice of extraction solvent, of extraction method and of extraction time were optimised and the method was validated. The setup allowed for determination within a linear range of more than two orders of magnitude. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.0002 and 0.002 mmol/L and the repeatability precisions were in the range of 1.5-12.9%. It could be shown that no matrix effects were present and recovery rates between 98 and 104% were achieved. The methodology was applied to cell culture models incubated with commercial lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes to gain more insight into the potential toxic effects of these compounds. The stability of the organic carbonates in cell culture medium after incubation was studied. In a porcine model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, it could be shown that a transfer of organic carbonates into the brain facing compartment took place. Graphical abstract Schematic setup for the investigation of toxicity of lithium ion battery electrolytes.

  3. Nanocarbon networks for advanced rechargeable lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sen; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-10-16

    network for alloy anodes, such as Si and Ge, to accelerate electron transport, alleviate volume change, and prevent the agglomeration of active nanoparticles. Finally, we describe the power of nanocarbon networks for the next generation rechargeable lithium batteries, including Li-S, Li-O(2), and Li-organic batteries, and provide insights into the design of ideal nanocarbon networks for these devices. In addition, we address the ways in which nanocarbon networks can expand the applications of rechargeable lithium batteries into the emerging fields of stationary energy storage and transportation.

  4. Management decision of optimal recharge water in groundwater artificial recharge conditions- A case study in an artificial recharge test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H. Y.; Shi, X. F.; Zhu, W.; Wang, C. Q.; Ma, H. W.; Zhang, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    The city conducted groundwater artificial recharge test which was taken a typical site as an example, and the purpose is to prevent and control land subsidence, increase the amount of groundwater resources. To protect groundwater environmental quality and safety, the city chose tap water as recharge water, however, the high cost makes it not conducive to the optimal allocation of water resources and not suitable to popularize widely. To solve this, the city selects two major surface water of River A and B as the proposed recharge water, to explore its feasibility. According to a comprehensive analysis of the cost of recharge, the distance of the water transport, the quality of recharge water and others. Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method is used to prefer tap water and water of River A and B. Evaluation results show that water of River B is the optimal recharge water, if used; recharge cost will be from 0.4724/m3 to 0.3696/m3. Using Entropy weight Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method to confirm water of River B as optimal water is scientific and reasonable. The optimal water management decisions can provide technical support for the city to carry out overall groundwater artificial recharge engineering in deep aquifer.

  5. Ceramic solid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodenough, John B. [Center for Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-02-15

    Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems associated with stoichiometric and doped compounds are compared. In the illustration of design principles, emphasis is given to oxide-ion electrolytes for use in solid-oxide fuel cells, oxygen pumps, and oxygen sensors

  6. Human Water and Electrolyte Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, S. J; Cheuvront, S. N; Carter, R; Sawka, M. N

    2006-01-01

    .... Sweat losses, if not replaced, reduce body water volume and electrolyte content. Excessive body water or electrolyte losses can disrupt physiological homeostasis and threaten both health and performance...

  7. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible.

  8. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs

  9. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  10. NORTH CAROLINA GROUNDWATER RECHARGE RATES 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Groundwater Recharge Rates, from Heath, R.C., 1994, Ground-water recharge in North Carolina: North Carolina State University, as prepared for the NC Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources (NC DEHNR) Division of Enviromental Management Groundwater S...

  11. Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: present and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    On October the 3rd 2014, a one-day Workshop on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) experiences in Italy took place at the GEOFLUID fair in Piacenza. It was organized within the framework of the EIP AG 128 - MAR Solutions - Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies and Actions and the EU FPVII MARSOL. The event aimed at showcasing present experiences on MAR in Italy while at the same time starting a network among all the Institutions involved. In this contribution, we discuss the state of MAR application in Italy and summarize the outcomes of that event. In Italy aquifer recharge is traditionally applied unintentionally, by increasing riverbank filtration or because of excess irrigation. A certain interest for artificial recharge of aquifers arose at the end of the '70s and the beginning of the '80s and tests have been carried out in Tuscany, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia. During the last years some projects on aquifer recharge were co-financed by the European Commission mainly through the LIFE program. Nearly all of them use the terminology of artificial recharge instead of MAR. They are: - TRUST (Tool for regional - scale assessment of groundwater storage improvement in adaptation to climate change, LIFE07 ENV/IT/000475; Marsala 2014); - AQUOR (Implementation of a water saving and artificial recharging participated strategy for the quantitative groundwater layer rebalance of the upper Vicenza's plain - LIFE 2010 ENV/IT/380; Mezzalira et al. 2014); - WARBO (Water re-born - artificial recharge: innovative technologies for the sustainable management of water resources, LIFE10 ENV/IT/000394; 2014). While the TRUST project dealt in general with aquifer recharge, AQUOR and WARBO focused essentially on small scale demonstration plants. Within the EU FPVII-ENV-2013 MARSOL project (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought; 2014), a dedicated monitoring and decision support system is under development to manage recharge at a large scale

  12. Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    1996-06-01

    RECHARGEABLE lithium batteries can store more than twice as much energy per unit weight and volume as other rechargeable batteries1,2. They contain lithium ions in an electrolyte, which shuttle back and forth between, and are intercalated by, the electrode materials. The first commercially successful rechargeable lithium battery3, introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1990, consists of a carbon-based negative electrode, layered LiCoO2 as the positive electrode, and a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. The high cost and toxicity of cobalt compounds, however, has prompted a search for alternative materials that intercalate lithium ions. One such is LiMn2O4, which has been much studied as a positive electrode material4-7 the cost of manganese is less than 1% of that of cobalt, and it is less toxic. Here we report the synthesis and electrochemical performance of a new material, layered LiMnO2, which is structurally analogous to LiCoO2. The charge capacity of LiMnO2 (~270mAhg-1) compares well with that of both LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, and preliminary results indicate good stability over repeated charge-discharge cycles.

  13. Real-time mass spectroscopy analysis of Li-ion battery electrolyte degradation under abusive thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulupeau, B.; Delobel, B.; Cahen, S.; Fontana, S.; Hérold, C.

    2017-02-01

    The lithium-ion batteries are widely used in rechargeable electronic devices. The current challenges are to improve the capacity and safety of these systems in view of their development to a larger scale, such as for their application in electric and hybrid vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries use organic solvents because of the wide operating voltage. The corresponding electrolytes are usually based on combinations of linear, cyclic alkyl carbonates and a lithium salt such as LiPF6. It has been reported that in abusive thermal conditions, a catalytic effect of the cathode materials lead to the formation fluoro-organics compounds. In order to understand the degradation phenomenon, the study at 240 °C of the interaction between positive electrode materials (LiCoO2, LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, LiMn2O4 and LiFePO4) and electrolyte in dry and wet conditions has been realized by an original method which consists in analyzing by mass spectrometry in real time the volatile molecules produced. The evolution of specific gases channels coupled to the NMR reveal the formation of rarely discussed species such as 2-fluoroethanol and 1,4-dioxane. Furthermore, it appears that the presence of water or other protic impurities greatly influence their formation.

  14. Ionic liquids as electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinski, Maciej; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Stepniak, Izabela

    2006-01-01

    Salts having a low melting point are liquid at room temperature, or even below, and form a new class of liquids usually called room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL). Information about RTILs can be found in the literature with such key words as: room temperature molten salt, low-temperature molten salt, ambient-temperature molten salt, liquid organic salt or simply ionic liquid. Their physicochemical properties are the same as high temperature ionic liquids, but the practical aspects of their maintenance or handling are different enough to merit a distinction. The class of ionic liquids, based on tetraalkylammonium cation and chloroaluminate anion, has been extensively studied since late 1970s of the XX century, following the works of Osteryoung. Systematic research on the application of chloroaluminate ionic liquids as solvents was performed in 1980s. However, ionic liquids based on aluminium halides are moisture sensitive. During the last decade an increasing number of new ionic liquids have been prepared and used as solvents. The general aim of this paper was to review the physical and chemical properties of RTILs from the point of view of their possible application as electrolytes in electrochemical processes and devices. The following points are discussed: melting and freezing, conductivity, viscosity, temperature dependence of conductivity, transport and transference numbers, electrochemical stability, possible application in aluminium electroplating, lithium batteries and in electrochemical capacitors

  15. Electrolyte for batteries with regenerative solid electrolyte interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Shao, Yuyan; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2017-08-01

    An energy storage device comprising: an anode; and a solute-containing electrolyte composition wherein the solute concentration in the electrolyte composition is sufficiently high to form a regenerative solid electrolyte interface layer on a surface of the anode only during charging of the energy storage device, wherein the regenerative layer comprises at least one solute or solvated solute from the electrolyte composition.

  16. Evaluating the Impacts of Grassland Conversions to Experimental Forest on Groundwater Recharge in the Nebraska Sand Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adane, Zablon A.

    The Nebraska Sand Hills grasslands provide the greatest groundwater recharge rates in the High Plains Aquifer. However, the grasslands and their ecological services have become vulnerable to land use change and degradation. This study used a series of field data to investigate the effects of grassland conversions to forest on recharge rates in a century-old experimental forest in the Sand Hills. The results show that the impact of grassland conversion on recharge was dependent on the species and plantation density. Estimated recharge rates beneath the dense plantations represent reductions of 86-94% relative to the native grassland. Results of 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectral analysis suggested that the surface soil organic carbon beneath pine plantations also contain up to 3 times the ratio of hydrophobic components than the native grasslands and may alter the soil hydraulic properties. This investigation further uncovered a previously overlooked feedback between the effect of soil organic carbon chemical shift generated by the ponderosa pine needle litter decomposition; namely that the alteration may have a link to reduced groundwater recharge rates. Thus, a global optimizer algorithm was used to estimate the effective soil hydraulic parameters from monthly soil moisture contents and recharge rates were then estimated through HYDRUS 1-D numerical modeling for grassland and pine forest soils. The impact of grassland conversion to pine was an overall reduction of groundwater recharge by nearly 100%. These outcomes highlight the significance of the grasslands for recharge, in the Sand Hills and the sustainability of the High Plains Aquifer.

  17. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2014-08-10

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  18. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  19. Nuclear electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnstaple, A.G.; Petrella, A.J.

    1982-05-01

    An extensive study of hydrogen supply has recently been carried out by Ontario Hydro which indicates that electrolytic hydrogen produced from nuclear electricity could offer the lowest cost option for any future large scale hydrogen supply in the Province of Ontario, Canada. This paper provides a synopsis of the Ontario Hydro study, a brief overview of the economic factors supporting the study conclusion and discussion of a number of issues concerning the supply of electrolytic hydrogen by electric power utilities

  20. Materials space of solid-state electrolytes: unraveling chemical composition-structure-ionic conductivity relationships in garnet-type metal oxides using cheminformatics virtual screening approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, Natalia; Pervov, Vladislav S

    2017-08-09

    The organic electrolytes of most current commercial rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs) are flammable, toxic, and have limited electrochemical energy windows. All-solid-state battery technology promises improved safety, cycling performance, electrochemical stability, and possibility of device miniaturization and enables a number of breakthrough technologies towards the development of new high power and energy density microbatteries for electronics with low processing cost, solid oxide fuel cells, electrochromic devices, etc. Currently, rational materials design is attracting significant attention, which has resulted in a strong demand for methodologies that can accelerate the design of materials with tailored properties; cheminformatics can be considered as an efficient tool in this respect. This study was focused on several aspects: (i) identification of the parameters responsible for high Li-ion conductivity in garnet structured oxides; (ii) development of quantitative models to elucidate composition-structure-Li ionic conductivity relationships, taking into account the experimental details of sample preparation; (iii) circumscription of the materials space of solid garnet-type electrolytes, which is attractive for virtual screening. Several candidate compounds have been recommended for synthesis as potential solid state electrolyte materials.

  1. Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cell, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PSI proposes to develop a rechargeable lithium metal cell with energy density >400Wh/kg. This represents a >70% increase as compared to similarly constructed...

  2. NTS groundwater recharge study, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.F.; Mihevc, T.M.

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater recharge from precipitation is thought by many scientists to be extremely low in Southem Nevada; however, no direct measurements of recharge have been made to substantiate this hypothesis. Three geomorphic regions have been identified as potential areas of groundwater recharge at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): mesas, washes, and lowlands. Eight recharge monitoring stations have been installed to monitor each of these regions; four of the stations are on Pahute/Rainier Mesa, two stations are in Fortymile Wash, one station is in a transition area between the mesas and the lowlands (Whiterock Spring), and one station is located in Yucca Flat at the bottom of the U-3fd crater. An additional station is proposed for Frenchman Flat near the Area 5 mixed waste facility; however, the instrumentation of that site has been delayed due to the complex permitting process associated with instrument installation near the mixed waste facility. Digital data were collected from eight sites during FY 1992

  3. Multiple recharge processes to heterogeneous Mediterranean coastal aquifers and implications on recharge rates evolution in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change is nowadays widely considered to have major effects on groundwater resources. Climatic projections suggest a global increase in evaporation and higher frequency of strong rainfall events especially in Mediterranean context. Since evaporation is synonym of low recharge conditions whereas strong rainfall events are more favourable to recharge in heterogeneous subsurface contexts, a lack of knowledge remains then on the real ongoing and future drinking groundwater supply availability at aquifers scale. Due to low recharge potential and high inter-annual climate variability, this issue is strategic for the Mediterranean hydrosystems. This is especially the case for coastal aquifers because they are exposed to seawater intrusion, sea-level rise and overpumping risks. In this context, recharge processes and rates were investigated in a Mediterranean coastal aquifer with subsurface heterogeneity located in Southern Corsica (France). Aquifer recharge rates from combining ten physical and chemical methods were computed. In addition, hydrochemical and isotopic investigations were carried out through a monthly two years monitoring combining major ions and stable isotopes of water in rain, runoff and groundwater. Diffuse, focused, lateral mountain system and irrigation recharge processes were identified and characterized. A predominant focused recharge conditioned by subsurface heterogeneity is evidenced in agreement with variable but highly favourable recharge rates. The fast water transfer from the surface to the aquifer implied by this recharge process suggests less evaporation, which means higher groundwater renewal and availability in such Mediterranean coastal aquifers.

  4. Analysis of the co-deposition of Al2O3 particles with nickel by an electrolytic route: The influence of organic additives presence and Al2O3 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temam, H. B.; Temam, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    Alloy coatings were prepared by co-deposition of Al2O3 particles in Ni matrix on carbon steel substrate from nickel chloride bath in which metallic powders were held in suspension. The influence of metal powder amount in the bath on chemical composition, morphology, thickness, microhardness and corrosion behavior of obtained coatings, has been investigated. It was shown that the presence of Al2O3 particles in deposit greatly improves the hardness and the wear resistance of alloy coatings. Characterization by microanalysis (EDX) of the various deposits elaborated confirms that the rate of particles incorporated increases as the concentration of solid particles increasing. The results showed that the presence of organic additives in Ni-Al2O3 electrolyte deposition led to an increase in the hardness and corrosion resistance of the deposits.

  5. Estimation of alluvial recharge in the semiarid

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Tafnes S.; Montenegro,Suzana M. G. L.; Montenegro,Abelardo A. de A.; Rodrigues,Diogo F. B.

    2014-01-01

    In areas where there is irrigated agriculture, the recuperation of water reserves in alluvial aquifers may occur preferentially due to precipitation. Recharging can be evaluated from variation information of water depth measured in piezometers or observation wells. Thus, the aim of this research is to study the recharge in the alluvial aquifer formed by the Mimoso temporary stream in the semiarid region of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil, using the method of the fluctuation of the water level. This s...

  6. Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Maliva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Managed aquifer recharge (MAR technologies can provide a variety of water resources management benefits by increasing the volume of stored water and improving water quality through natural aquifer treatment processes. Implementation of MAR is often hampered by the absence of a clear economic case for the investment to construct and operate the systems. Economic feasibility can be evaluated using cost benefit analysis (CBA, with the challenge of monetizing benefits. The value of water stored or treated by MAR systems can be evaluated by direct and indirect measures of willingness to pay including market price, alternative cost, value marginal product, damage cost avoided, and contingent value methods. CBAs need to incorporate potential risks and uncertainties, such as failure to meet performance objectives. MAR projects involving high value uses, such as potable supply, tend to be economically feasible provided that local hydrogeologic conditions are favorable. They need to have low construction and operational costs for lesser value uses, such as some irrigation. Such systems should therefore be financed by project beneficiaries, but dichotomies may exist between beneficiaries and payers. Hence, MAR projects in developing countries may be economically viable, but external support is often required because of limited local financial resources.

  7. Voltammetry study of quinoxaline in aqueous electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milshtein, Jarrod D.; Su, Liang; Liou, Catherine; Badel, Andres F.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-01-01

    Organic compounds have recently received considerable attention as active materials in redox flow batteries (RFBs) due to their good electrochemical reversibility, high theoretical energy densities, and promise for low cost production. Until now, organic active material candidates for aqueous RFBs have been limited to the quinone family, a set of aromatic-derived organic molecules, distinguished by an even number of ketone (R−C(=O)−R′) groups. This work aims to elucidate and optimize the electrochemical behavior of quinoxaline, an organic molecule consisting of fused benzene and pyrazine rings, in aqueous electrolytes. More than 30 electrolytes are screened by cyclic voltammetry, and the five most promising electrolytes are investigated further using rotating disk voltammetry. Electrochemical behavior of quinoxaline shows pH dependent thermodynamics and reaction mechanisms, while chloride-containing supporting electrolytes greatly enhance solubility. This study sheds light on the promising characteristics of quinoxaline as a low potential compound for aqueous RFBs; quinoxaline has a redox potential of E° ≈ −0.02 V vs. RHE, is soluble up to ∼4.5 M in water, exhibits a two-electron transfer capability, and possesses a low molecular weight (130.15 g mol"−"1), resulting in a theoretical capacity of 410 mAh g"−"1.

  8. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  9. Solid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H. S.

    Progress in the development of functioning solid electrolyte fuel cells is summarized. The solid electrolyte cells perform at 1000 C, a temperature elevated enough to indicate high efficiencies are available, especially if the cell is combined with a steam generator/turbine system. The system is noted to be sulfur tolerant, so coal containing significant amounts of sulfur is expected to yield satisfactory performances with low parasitic losses for gasification and purification. Solid oxide systems are electrically reversible, and are usable in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Employing zirconium and yttrium in the electrolyte provides component stability with time, a feature not present with other fuel cells. The chemical reactions producing the cell current are reviewed, along with materials choices for the cathodes, anodes, and interconnections.

  10. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  11. Ionic liquid-nanoparticle hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2012-01-01

    We investigate physical and electrochemical properties of a family of organic-inorganic hybrid electrolytes based on the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone) imide covalently tethered to silica nanoparticles (SiO 2-IL-TFSI). The ionic conductivity exhibits a pronounced maximum versus LiTFSI composition, and in mixtures containing 13.4 wt% LiTFSI, the room-temperature ionic conductivity is enhanced by over 3 orders of magnitude relative to either of the mixture components, without compromising lithium transference number. The SiO 2-IL-TFSI/LiTFSI hybrid electrolytes are thermally stable up to 400°C and exhibit tunable mechanical properties and attractive (4.25V) electrochemical stability in the presence of metallic lithium. We explain these observations in terms of ionic coupling between counterion species in the mobile and immobile (particle-tethered) phases of the electrolytes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Process and electrolyte for applying barrier layer anodic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, R.G.; Prevender, T.S.

    1975-01-01

    Various metals may be anodized, and preferably barrier anodized, by anodizing the metal in an electrolyte comprising quaternary ammonium compound having a complex metal anion in a solvent containing water and a polar, water soluble organic material. (U.S.)

  13. Electrolytic decontamination of stainless steel using a basic electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, E.L.; Long, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic plutonium decontamination process or stainless steel was developed for use as the final step in a proposed radioactive waste handling and decontamination facility to be construced at the Rockwell International Rocky Flats plutonium handling facility. This paper discusses test plan, which was executed to compare the basic electrolyte with phosphoric acid and nitric acid electrolytes. 1 ref

  14. Nanostructured Electrolytes for Stable Lithium Electrodeposition in Secondary Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Tu, Zhengyuan

    2015-11-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. ConspectusSecondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum.Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost

  15. Nanostructured electrolytes for stable lithium electrodeposition in secondary batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Nath, Pooja; Lu, Yingying; Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-11-17

    Secondary batteries based on lithium are the most important energy storage technology for contemporary portable devices. The lithium ion battery (LIB) in widespread commercial use today is a compromise technology. It compromises high energy, high power, and design flexibility for long cell operating lifetimes and safety. Materials science, transport phenomena, and electrochemistry in the electrodes and electrolyte that constitute such batteries are areas of active study worldwide because significant improvements in storage capacity and cell lifetime are required to meet new demands, including the electrification of transportation and for powering emerging autonomous aircraft and robotics technologies. By replacing the carbonaceous host material used as the anode in an LIB with metallic lithium, rechargeable lithium metal batteries (LMBs) with higher storage capacity and compatibility with low-cost, high-energy, unlithiated cathodes such as sulfur, manganese dioxide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen become possible. Large-scale, commercial deployment of LMBs are today limited by safety concerns associated with unstable electrodeposition and lithium dendrite formation during cell recharge. LMBs are also limited by low cell operating lifetimes due to parasitic chemical reactions between the electrode and electrolyte. These concerns are greater in rechargeable batteries that utilize other, more earth abundant metals such as sodium and to some extent even aluminum. Inspired by early theoretical works, various strategies have been proposed for alleviating dendrite proliferation in LMBs. A commonly held view among these early studies is that a high modulus, solid-state electrolyte that facilitates fast ion transport, is nonflammable, and presents a strong-enough physical barrier to dendrite growth is a requirement for any commercial LMB. Unfortunately, poor room-temperature ionic conductivity, challenging processing, and the high cost of ceramic electrolytes that meet the

  16. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (PVdF) as a host polymer, lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium triflate ... TG/DTA studies showed the thermal stability of the polymer electrolytes. .... are observed while comparing pure XRD spectra with .... batteries as its operating temperature is normally in the .... chain ion movements and the conductivity of the polymer.

  17. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  18. Recharge Area of Groundwater of Jakarta Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo; Abidin, Zainal; Alip; Djiono

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater inside the earth contained in a porous and permeable layers called aquifers. Depend on the hydrogeological structure, the aquifers may be composed of independent layers separated each other by impermeable boundaries. Such a condition may effect the location of recharge where water is able to infiltrate and goes to the aquifers. The objective of this research is to find out and to locate the recharge area of Jakarta basin by utilizing stable isotopes 2H and 18O . The work was done by collecting shallow and deep groundwater samples throughout Jabotabek area and precipitations from different altitudes. Since the stable isotopes composition of precipitation is subject to the altitude, the recharge area would be able to be identified by assessing the correlation of stable isotopes composition of precipitation and corresponding groundwater population. The data obtained from this study suggested that shallow groundwater is originated from local recharge while deep groundwater is recharged from the area having altitude of 125 -230 meters, it correspond to the area between Depok and Bogor

  19. Modeling Recharge - can it be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, K.; Bond, W. J.; Smith, C. J.; Dunin, F. X.

    2001-12-01

    In sub-humid areas where rainfall is relatively low and sporadic, recharge (defined as water movement beyond the active root zone) is the small difference between the much larger numbers rainfall and evapotranspiration. It is very difficult to measure and often modeling is resorted to instead. But is modeling this small number any less difficult than measurement? In Australia there is considerable debate over the magnitude of recharge under different agricultural systems because of its contribution to rising saline groundwater levels following the clearing of native vegetation in the last 100 years. Hence the adequacy of measured and modeled estimates of recharge is under close scrutiny. Results will be presented for the water balance of an intensively monitored 8 year sequence of crops and pastures. Measurements included meteorological inputs, evapotranspiration measured with a pair of weighing lysimeters, and soil water content was measured with TDR and neutron moisture meter. Recharge was estimated from the percolate removed from the lysimeters as well as, when conditions were suitable, from soil water measurements and combined soil water and evapotranspiration measurements. This data was simulated using a comprehensive soil-plant-atmosphere model (APSIM). Comparison with field measurements shows that the recharge can be simulated with an accuracy similar to that with which it can be measured. However, is either sufficiently accurate for the applications for which they are required?

  20. Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.

  1. Exploring electrolyte preference of vanadium nitride supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Zhaohui; Lu, Gang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Wang, Tianhu [School of Electrical Information and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Ge, Yunwang, E-mail: ywgelit@126.com [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical VN nanostructures were prepared on graphite foam. • Electrolyte preference of VN supercapacitor electrodes was explored. • VN showed better capacitive property in organic and alkaline electrolytes than LiCl. - Abstract: Vanadium nitride hierarchical nanostructures were prepared through an ammonia annealing procedure utilizing vanadium pentoxide nanostructures grown on graphite foam. The electrochemical properties of hierarchical vanadium nitride was tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes. As a result, the vanadium nitride showed better capacitive energy storage property in organic and alkaline electrolytes. This work provides insight into the charge storage process of vanadium nitride and our findings can shed light on other transition metal nitride-based electrochemical energy storage systems.

  2. Radioecological aspects in artificial groundwater recharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthess, G [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Geologisch-Palaeontologisches Inst. und Museum; Neumayr, V [Institut fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-01-01

    In increasing extent surface waters, especially those of rivers and streams, are contaminated by radionuclides. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the possibility of impairment of the quality of artificially recharged groundwater and drinking water by radionuclides. Hazards for man are possible by drinking water, that was affected by waste and during exposition to air, as well as indirectly by irrigation water and the food chain. In a model calculation using realistic conditions the order of magnitude of these hazards for man by incorporation of radioactively contaminated artificially recharged drinking water are to be assessed. Here the parameters are discussed which must be considered in such an assessment. The model includes the use of river water for artificial recharge. All models and assessments assume the most unfavourable preconditions, which may lead to an impact to man.

  3. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

  4. Impacts of vegetation change on groundwater recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. J.; Verburg, K.; Smith, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    Vegetation change is the accepted cause of increasing river salt concentrations and the salinisation of millions of hectares of farm land in Australia. Replacement of perennial native vegetation by annual crops and pastures following European settlement has altered the water balance causing increased groundwater recharge and mobilising the naturally saline groundwater. The Redesigning Agriculture for Australian Landscapes Program, of which the work described here is a part, was established to develop agricultural practices that are more attuned to the delicate water balance described above. Results of field measurements will be presented that contrast the water balance characteristics of native vegetation with those of conventional agricultural plants, and indicate the functional characteristics required of new agricultural practices to reduce recharge. New agricultural practices may comprise different management of current crops and pastures, or may involve introducing totally new species. In either case, long-term testing is required to examine their impact on recharge over a long enough climate record to encompass the natural variability of rainfall that is characteristic of most Australian farming regions. Field experimentation therefore needs to be complemented and extended by computer simulation. This requires a modelling approach that is more robust than conventional crop modelling because (a) it needs to be sensitive enough to predict small changes in the residual recharge term, (b) it needs to be able to simulate a variety of vegetation in different sequences, (c) it needs to be able to simulate continuously for several decades of input data, and (d) it therefore needs to be able to simulate the period between crops, which often has a critical impact on recharge. The APSIM simulation framework will be used to illustrate these issues and to explore the effect of different vegetation combinations on recharge.

  5. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  6. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert A.; Cui, Yi

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi2(PO4)3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO3 and Li2SO4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm-2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm-2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi2(PO4)3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li2SO4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g-1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi2(PO4)3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above.

  7. Recent results on aqueous electrolyte cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wessells, Colin

    2011-03-01

    The improved safety of aqueous electrolytes makes aqueous lithium-ion batteries an attractive alternative to commercial cells utilizing flammable and expensive organic electrolytes. Two important issues relating to their use have been addressed in this work. One is the extension of the usable voltage range by the incorporation of lithium salts, and the other is the investigation of a useful negative electrode reactant, LiTi 2(PO 4) 3. The electrochemical stability of aqueous lithium salt solutions containing two lithium salts, LiNO 3 and Li 2SO 4, has been characterized using a constant current technique. In both cases, concentrated solutions had effective electrolyte stability windows substantially greater than that of pure water under standard conditions. At an electrolyte leakage current of 10 μA cm -2 between two platinum electrodes in 5 M LiNO 3 the cell voltage can reach 2.0 V, whereas with a leakage current of 50 μA cm -2 it can reach 2.3 V. LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 was synthesized using a Pechini method and cycled in pH-neutral Li 2SO 4. At a reaction potential near the lower limit of electrolyte stability, an initial discharge capacity of 118 mAh g -1 was measured at a C/5 rate, while about 90% of this discharge capacity was retained after 100 cycles. This work demonstrates that it is possible to have useful aqueous electrolyte lithium-ion batteries using the LiTi 2(PO 4) 3 anode with cell voltages of 2 V and above. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A bifunctional electrolyte additive for separator wetting and dendrite suppression in lithium metal batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Hao; Xie, Yong; Xiang, Hongfa; Shi, Pengcheng; Liang, Xin; Xu, Wu

    2018-04-01

    Reformulation of electrolyte systems and improvement of separator wettability are vital to electrochemical performances of rechargeable lithium (Li) metal batteries, especially for suppressing Li dendrites. In this work we report a bifunctional electrolyte additive that improves separator wettability and suppresses Li dendrite growth in LMBs. A triblock polyether (Pluronic P123) was introduced as an additive into a commonly used carbonate-based electrolyte. It was found that addition of 0.2~1% (by weight) P123 into the electrolyte could effectively enhance the wettability of polyethylene separator. More importantly, the adsorption of P123 on Li metal surface can act as an artificial solid electrolyte interphase layer and contribute to suppress the growth of Li dendrites. A smooth and dendritic-free morphology can be achieved in the electrolyte with 0.2% P123. The Li||Li symmetric cells with the 0.2% P123 containing electrolyte exhibit a relatively stable cycling stability at high current densities of 1.0 and 3.0 mA cm-2.

  9. VOCl as a Cathode for Rechargeable Chloride Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ping; Reddy, M Anji; Mu, Xiaoke; Diemant, Thomas; Zhang, Le; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Clemens, Oliver; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-03-18

    A novel room temperature rechargeable battery with VOCl cathode, lithium anode, and chloride ion transporting liquid electrolyte is described. The cell is based on the reversible transfer of chloride ions between the two electrodes. The VOCl cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189 mAh g(-1) . A reversible capacity of 113 mAh g(-1) was retained even after 100 cycles when cycled at a high current density of 522 mA g(-1) . Such high cycling stability was achieved in chloride ion batteries for the first time, demonstrating the practicality of the system beyond a proof of concept model. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of the VOCl electrode in the chloride ion cell was investigated in detail by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm reversible deintercalation-intercalation of chloride ions in the VOCl electrode. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudak, Nicholas S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  11. Rechargeable batteries materials, technologies and new trends

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-01-01

    This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write

  12. A review of electrolyte materials and compositions for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Deng, Yida; Hu, Wenbin; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-11-07

    Electrolytes have been identified as some of the most influential components in the performance of electrochemical supercapacitors (ESs), which include: electrical double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors and hybrid supercapacitors. This paper reviews recent progress in the research and development of ES electrolytes. The electrolytes are classified into several categories, including: aqueous, organic, ionic liquids, solid-state or quasi-solid-state, as well as redox-active electrolytes. Effects of electrolyte properties on ES performance are discussed in detail. The principles and methods of designing and optimizing electrolytes for ES performance and application are highlighted through a comprehensive analysis of the literature. Interaction among the electrolytes, electro-active materials and inactive components (current collectors, binders, and separators) is discussed. The challenges in producing high-performing electrolytes are analyzed. Several possible research directions to overcome these challenges are proposed for future efforts, with the main aim of improving ESs' energy density without sacrificing existing advantages (e.g., a high power density and a long cycle-life) (507 references).

  13. Benchmarking of electrolyte mass transport in next generation lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lindberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beyond conductivity and viscosity, little is often known about the mass transport properties of next generation lithium battery electrolytes, thus, making performance estimation uncertain when concentration gradients are present, as conductivity only describes performance in the absence of these gradients. This study experimentally measured the diffusion resistivity, originating from voltage loss due to a concentration gradient, together with the ohmic resistivity, obtained from ionic conductivity measurements, hence, evaluating electrolytes both with and without the presence of concentration gradients. Under galvanostatic conditions, the concentration gradients, of all electrolytes examined, developed quickly and the diffusion resistivity rapidly dominated the ohmic resistivity. The electrolytes investigated consisted of lithium salt in: room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, RTIL mixed organic carbonates, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and a conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. At steady state the RTIL electrolytes displayed a diffusion resistivity ~ 20 times greater than the ohmic resistivity. The DMSO-based electrolyte showed mass transport properties similar to the conventional Li-ion battery electrolyte. In conclusion, the results presented in this study show that the diffusion polarization must be considered in applications where high energy and power density are desired.

  14. 1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Brooks, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate (1), a novel, pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal (POIPC) with a wide plastic crystalline phase, has been explored as a proof-of-principle anhydrous proton conductor for all-solid-state high temperature hydrogen/air fuel cells. Its physicochemical p...

  15. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} as new cathode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xu-Yong; Chien, Po-Hsiu; Rose, Alyssa M.; Zheng, Jin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Hung, Ivan; Gan, Zhehong [Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Hu, Yan-Yan, E-mail: hu@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Centre of Interdisciplinary Magnetic Resonance, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Chromium oxide, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}, was synthesized by pyrolyzing CrO{sub 3} at 350 °C and employed as a new cathode in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Na rechargeable batteries delivered high specific capacities up to 310 mAh/g at a current density of C/16 (or 20 mA/g). High-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na NMR both qualitatively and quantitatively revealed the reversible intercalation of Na ions into the bulk electrode and participation of Na ions in the formation of the solid-electrolyte interphase largely at low potentials. Amorphization of the electrode structure occurred during the first discharge revealed by both NMR and X-ray diffraction data. CrO{sub 3}-catalyzed electrolyte degradation and loss in electronic conductivity led to gradual capacity fading. The specific capacity stabilized at >120 mAh/g after 50 charge-discharge cycles. Further improvement in electrochemical performance is possible via electrode surface modification, polymer binder incorporation, or designs of new morphologies. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical profile of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Na battery cell and high-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectrum of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} electrode discharged to 2 V. - Highlights: • Cr{sub 2}O{sub 5} was synthesized and used as a new cathode in rechargeable Na ion batteries. • A high capacity of 310 mAh/g and an energy density of 564 Wh/kg were achieved. • High-resolution solid-state {sup 23}Na NMR was employed to follow the reaction mechanisms.

  16. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  17. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Conductometry of electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Lyubov P.; Kolker, Arkadii M.

    1992-09-01

    A review is given of the theories of the electrical conductance of electrolyte solutions of different ionic strengths and concentrations, and of the models of ion association. An analysis is made of the methods for mathematical processing of experimental conductometric data. An account is provided of various theories describing the dependence of the limiting value of the ionic electrical conductance on the properties of the solute and solvent. The bibliography includes 115 references.

  19. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  20. Electrochemical polymer electrolyte membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Jianhua; Wilkinson, David P

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Polymer Electrolyte Membranes covers PEMs from fundamentals to applications, describing their structure, properties, characterization, synthesis, and use in electrochemical energy storage and solar energy conversion technologies. Featuring chapters authored by leading experts from academia and industry, this authoritative text: Discusses cutting-edge methodologies in PEM material selection and fabricationPoints out important challenges in developing PEMs and recommends mitigation strategies to improve PEM performanceAnalyzes the cur

  1. Power Conversion Efficiency of Arylamine Organic Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Explicit to Cobalt Electrolyte: Understanding the Structural Attributes Using a Direct QSPR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Supratik Kar; Juganta K. Roy; Danuta Leszczynska; Jerzy Leszczynski

    2016-01-01

    Post silicon solar cell era involves light-absorbing dyes for dye-sensitized solar systems (DSSCs). Therefore, there is great interest in the design of competent organic dyes for DSSCs with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) to bypass some of the disadvantages of silicon-based solar cell technologies, such as high cost, heavy weight, limited silicon resources, and production methods that lead to high environmental pollution. The DSSC has the unique feature of a distance-dependent electron...

  2. Apparatus for reading and recharging condenser ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    A metering circuit for a condenser ionization chamber is disclosed for simultaneously recharging the ionization chamber and reading out the amount of charge required to recharge the chamber. During the recharging process, the amount of charge necessary to recharge the ionization chamber capacitor is placed on an integrating capacitor in the metering apparatus. The resultant voltage across the integrating capacitor is a measure of the radiation to which the ionization chamber was exposed. 9 claims, 1 figure

  3. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  4. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  5. Groundwater Recharge, Evapotranspiration and Surface Runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Using WetSpass Modeling Method in Illala Catchment, Northern Ethiopia ... Recharge is estimated by chloride ion mass balance method, empirical method, ..... environmental conditions of the catchment by applying some soil and water ... meteorological data in Ethiopia: Journal of engineers and architects, Addis Ababa,.

  6. Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hashemi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

  7. The photovoltaic recharges its batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandet, L.; Claverie, A.

    2006-01-01

    Facing the silicon prices increase, many projects appear to solve the supplying problem. This document presents the possible solutions proposed by the research, to control the raw material and to develop new technologies: the solar silicon, the thicker wafers, the energy efficiency, the third generation cells, the organic cell. (A.L.B.)

  8. Metal Hydrides for Rechargeable Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valoeen, Lars Ole

    2000-03-01

    Rechargeable battery systems are paramount in the power supply of modern electronic and electromechanical equipment. For the time being, the most promising secondary battery systems for the future are the lithium-ion and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries. In this thesis, metal hydrides and their properties are described with the aim of characterizing and improving those. The thesis has a special focus on the AB{sub 5} type hydrogen storage alloys, where A is a rare earth metal like lanthanum, or more commonly misch metal, which is a mixture of rare earth metals, mainly lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and praseodymium. B is a transition metal, mainly nickel, commonly with additions of aluminium, cobalt, and manganese. The misch metal composition was found to be very important for the geometry of the unit cell in AB{sub 5} type alloys, and consequently the equilibrium pressure of hydrogen in these types of alloys. The A site substitution of lanthanum by misch metal did not decrease the surface catalytic properties of AB{sub 5} type alloys. B-site substitution of nickel with other transition elements, however, substantially reduced the catalytic activity of the alloy. If the internal pressure within the electrochemical test cell was increased using inert argon gas, a considerable increase in the high rate charge/discharge performance of LaNi{sub 5} was observed. An increased internal pressure would enable the utilisation of alloys with a high hydrogen equivalent pressure in batteries. Such alloys often have favourable kinetics and high hydrogen diffusion rates and thus have a potential for improving the high current discharge rates in metal hydride batteries. The kinetic properties of metal hydride electrodes were found to improve throughout their lifetime. The activation properties were found highly dependent on the charge/discharge current. Fewer charge/discharge cycles were needed to activate the electrodes if a small current was used instead of a higher

  9. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors and observation...

  10. Monitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Ganot, Y.; Ganot, Y.; Holtzman, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Nitzan, I.; Katz, Y.; Kurtzman, D.

    2017-01-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil senso...

  11. An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vázquez-Suñé

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from surface runoff and other water bodies, lateral aquifers inflows, .... The relative contribution of different sources to total recharge can be quantified by means of solute mass balances, but application is hindered by the large number of potential origins. Hence, the need to incorporate data from a large number of conservative species, the uncertainty in sources concentrations and measurement errors. We present a methodology to compute mixing ratios and end-members composition, which consists of (i Identification of potential recharge sources, (ii Selection of tracers, (iii Characterization of the hydrochemical composition of potential recharge sources and mixed water samples, and (iv Computation of mixing ratios and reevaluation of end-members. The analysis performed in a data set from samples of the Barcelona city aquifers suggests that the main contributors to total recharge are the water supply network losses (22%, the sewage network losses (30%, rainfall, concentrated in the non-urbanized areas (17%, from runoff infiltration (20%, and the Besòs River (11%. Regarding species, halogens (chloride, fluoride and bromide, sulfate, total nitrogen, and stable isotopes (18O, 2H, and 34S behaved quite conservatively. Boron, residual alkalinity, EDTA and Zn did not. Yet, including these species in the computations did not affect significantly the proportion estimations.

  12. Cross-Linked Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Li-Ion Battery Integrated with Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhwan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Here, we fabricate poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVDF-co-HFP by electrospinning for a gel polymer electrolyte (GPE for use in flexible Li-ion batteries (LIBs. As a solvent, we use N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP, which helps produce the cross-linked morphology of PVDF-co-HFP separator, owing to its low volatility. The cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an uptake rate higher than that of a commercialized polypropylene (PP separator. Moreover, the PVDF-co-HFP separator shows an ionic conductivity of 2.3 × 10−3 S/cm at room temperature, comparable with previously reported values. An LIB full-cell assembled with the PVDF-co-HFP-based GPE shows capacities higher than its counterpart with the commercialized PP separator, confirming that the cross-linked PVDF-co-HFP separator provides highly efficient ionic conducting pathways. In addition, we integrate a flexible LIB cell using the PVDF-co-HFP GPE with a flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED, demonstrating a fully flexible unit of LIB and OLED.

  13. High conductive, long-term durable, anhydrous proton conductive solid-state electrolyte based on a metal-organic framework impregnated with binary ionic liquids: Synthesis, characteristic and effect of anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Han, Shu-Yan; Liu, Rui-Heng; Chen, Teng-Fei; Bi, Kai-Lun; Liang, Jian-Bo; Deng, Yu-Heng; Wan, Chong-Qing

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating ionic liquids (abbreviated as ILs) into porous metal-organic framework (MOF) to obtain ILs@MOF nanocomposites is documented as a feasible method to achieve new type of anhydrous proton conductor with high performance. We newly synthesized a series of ILs with different acid counter anions (R-SO3-) and their ILs@MOF hybrid materials, i.e. SA-EIMS@MIL-101, MSA-EIMS@MIL-101 and PTSA-EIMS@MIL-101 (SA = sulfate acid, MSA = methanesulfonate acid, PTSA = p-toluenesulfonate acid, EIMS = 1-(1-ethyl-3-imidazolium)propane-3-sulfonate). Such hybrid materials displayed as anhydrous proton conduction with long-term durability even heated at 150 °C open to air. σ value of SA-EIMS@MIL-101 is up to 1.89 × 10-3 S cm-1, being in the range of the most conductive MOF-based materials. MOF support exhibited favorable proton transport and long-term retention for ILs. Anion volumes of R-SO3- displayed significant effects on the proton conductivity of such hybrid ILs@MOF materials. The smaller the van der Waals volume of R-SO3- is, the higher the conductivity of ILs@MOF is. This work suggests that the combination of a variety of the incorporated ILs and a MOF framework would afford high proton transport and gives an idea to explore the safe, anhydrous, solid-state electrolyte for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

  14. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  15. Solid State Polymer Electrolytes for Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Over the past decade,Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been intensively investigated as potential alternatives to conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices due to their low production cost and high energy conversion[1-4]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive energy conversion efficiency of over 10%,whose electrolyte is a voltaic organic liquid solvent containing iodide/triiodide as redox couple.However,the use of a liquid electrolyte brings difficulties in the practi...

  16. Groundwater Recharge Process in the Morondava Sedimentary Basin, Southwestern Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamifarananahary, E.; Rajaobelison, J.; Ramaroson, V.; Rahobisoa, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The groundwater recharge process in the Morondava Sedimentary basin was determined using chemical and isotopic tools. The results showed that the main recharge into shallow aquifer is from infiltration of evaporated water. Into deeper aquifer, it is done either from direct infiltration of rainfall from recharge areas on the top of the hill in the East towards the low-lying discharge areas in the West, or from vertical infiltration of evaporated shallow groundwater. The tritium contents suggest that recharge from shallow aquifers is from recent rainfall with short residence time while recharge into deeper aquifers is from older rainfall with longer residence time.

  17. Microscopic Insights into the Electrochemical Behavior of Non-aqueous Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Wu, Jianzhong [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) are electrical devices that store energy by adsorption of ionic species at the inner surface of porous electrodes. Compared with aqueous electrolytes, ionic liquid and organic electrolytes have the advantage of larger potential windows, making them attractive for the next generation of EDLC with superior energy and power densities. The performance of both ionic liquid and organic electrolyte EDLC hinges on the judicious selection of the electrode pore size and the electrolyte composition that requires a comprehension of the charging behavior from a microscopic view. In this perspective, we discuss predictions from the classical density functional theory (CDFT) on the dependence of the capacitance on the pore size for ionic-liquid and organic-electrolyte EDLC. CDFT is applicable to electrodes with the pore size ranging from that below the ionic dimensionality to mesoscopic scales, thus unique for investigating the electrochemical behavior of the confined electrolytes for EDLC applications.

  18. Solid-state graft copolymer electrolytes for lithium battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qichao; Caputo, Antonio; Sadoway, Donald R

    2013-08-12

    Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (battery costs and can malfunction which can lead to battery malfunction and explosions, thus endangering human life. Increases in petroleum prices lead to a huge demand for safe, electric hybrid vehicles that are more economically viable to operate as oil prices continue to rise. Existing organic based electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries are not applicable to high temperature automotive applications. A safer alternative to organic electrolytes is solid polymer electrolytes. This work will highlight the synthesis for a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE) poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate (POEM) to a block with a lower glass transition temperature (Tg) poly(oxyethylene) acrylate (POEA). The conduction mechanism has been discussed and it has been demonstrated the relationship between polymer segmental motion and ionic conductivity indeed has a Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) dependence. Batteries containing commercially available LP30 organic (LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC):dimethyl carbonate (DMC) at a 1:1 ratio) and GCE were cycled at ambient temperature. It was found that at ambient temperature, the batteries containing GCE showed a greater overpotential when compared to LP30 electrolyte. However at temperatures greater than 60 °C, the GCE cell exhibited much lower overpotential due to fast polymer electrolyte conductivity and nearly the full theoretical specific capacity of 170 mAh/g was accessed.

  19. Application of Composite Polymer Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    ...)PEO-based composite polymer electrolytes, by a series of specifically addressed electrochemical tests which included the determination of the conductivity and of the lithium transference number...

  20. Solid state electrolyte systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    Lanthanum gallates are a new family of solid electrolytes that exhibit high ionic conductivity and are stable to high temperatures. Compositions have been developed that are as much as a factor of two more conductive than yttria-stabilized zirconia at a given temperature, through partial replacement of lanthanum by calcium, strontium, and/or barium and through partial replacement of gallium by magnesium. Oxide powders were prepared using combustion synthesis techniques developed in this laboratory; these were sintered to >95% of theoretical density and consisted of a single crystalline phase. Electrical conductivities, electron and ion transference numbers, thermal expansion, and phase behavior were evaluated as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A key advantage of the use of lanthanum gallate electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells is that the temperature of operation may be lowered to perhaps 800 C, yet provide approximately the same power density as zirconia-based cells operating at 1000 C. Ceramic electrolytes that conduct both oxygen ions and electrons are potentially useful to passively separate pure oxygen from an air source at low cost. In such materials, an oxygen ion flux in one direction is charge-compensated by an opposing electron flux. The authors have examined a wide range of mixed ion and electron conducting perovskite ceramics in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, where M = Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N = Pr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, as well as mixed conducting brownmillerite ceramics, and have characterized oxygen permeation behavior, defect chemistry, structural and phase stability, and performance as cathodes.

  1. Electrochemical behavior of ionically crosslinked polyampholytic gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wanyu; Tang Haitao; Ou Ziwei; Wang Hong; Yang Yajiang

    2007-01-01

    An ionic complex of anionic and cationic monomers was obtained by protonation of (N,N-diethylamino)ethylmethacrylate (DEA) with acrylic acid (AAc). Free radical copolymerization of the ionic complex and acrylamide (AAm), yielded the ionically crosslinked polyampholytic gel electrolytes [poly(AAc-DEA-AAm), designated as PADA] using two types of organic solvents containing a lithium salt. The PADA gel electrolyte exhibited good thermal stability shown by the DSC thermogram. The impedance analysis at temperatures ranging from -30 to 75 deg. C indicated that the ionic conductivities of the PADA gel electrolytes were rather close to those of liquid electrolytes. The temperature dependence of the ionic conductivities was found to be in accord with the Arrhenius equation. Moreover, the ionic conductivities of PADA gel electrolytes increased with an increase of the molar ratios of cationic/anionic monomers. The ionic conductivities of PADA gels prepared in solvent mixtures of propylene carbonate, ethyl methyl ether and dioxolane (3:1:1, v/v) were higher than those of PADA gels prepared in propylene carbonate only. Significantly, the ionic conductivities of two kinds of PADA gel electrolytes were in the range of 10 -3 and 10 -4 S cm -1 even at -30 deg. C. The electrochemical windows of PADA gel electrolytes measured by cyclic voltammetry were in the range from -1 V to 4.5 V

  2. Highly Stable Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by Regulating the Solvation of Lithium Ions in Nonaqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Xiang; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Li, Bo-Quan; Shen, Xin; Yan, Chong; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-05-04

    Safe and rechargeable lithium metal batteries have been difficult to achieve because of the formation of lithium dendrites. Herein an emerging electrolyte based on a simple solvation strategy is proposed for highly stable lithium metal anodes in both coin and pouch cells. Fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) were concurrently introduced into an electrolyte, thus altering the solvation sheath of lithium ions, and forming a uniform solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), with an abundance of LiF and LiN x O y on a working lithium metal anode with dendrite-free lithium deposition. Ultrahigh Coulombic efficiency (99.96 %) and long lifespans (1000 cycles) were achieved when the FEC/LiNO 3 electrolyte was applied in working batteries. The solvation chemistry of electrolyte was further explored by molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations. This work provides insight into understanding the critical role of the solvation of lithium ions in forming the SEI and delivering an effective route to optimize electrolytes for safe lithium metal batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Li-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety and Tolerance to High-Voltage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

    2013-01-01

    Given that lithium-ion (Li-ion) technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted to developing nonflammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of promising electrolytes have been developed incorporating flame-retardant additives, and have been shown to have good performance in a number of systems. However, these electrolyte formulations did not perform well when utilizing carbonaceous anodes with the high-voltage materials. Thus, further development was required to improve the compatibility. A number of Li-ion battery electrolyte formulations containing a flame-retardant additive [i.e., triphenyl phosphate (TPP)] were developed and demonstrated in high-voltage systems. These electrolytes include: (1) formulations that incorporate varying concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (from 5 to 15%), (2) the use of mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent, and (3) the use of LiBOB as an electrolyte additive intended to improve the compatibility with high-voltage systems. Thus, improved safety has been provided without loss of performance in the high-voltage, high-energy system.

  4. Electrochemical insertion of magnesium ions into V2O5 from aprotic electrolytes with varied water content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2004-10-01

    The electrochemical performance of V2O5 has been studied in propylene carbonate (PC)-containing magnesium perchlorate [Mg(ClO4)2] electrolytes in view of their application as positive electrode in the rechargeable magnesium batteries. V2O5 exhibited good properties in hosting magnesium ions and its electrochemical performance depended on the amount of H2O in the electrolytes. The highest first discharge specific capacities of V2O5 electrode was up to 158.6 mAh/g in 1 mol dm(-3) Mg(ClO4)2 + 1.79 mol dm(-3) H2O/PC electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and charging-discharging tests showed that a reasonable amount of H2O in the electrolyte solution facilitated the electrochemical performance of V2O5 electrodes.

  5. Thermally-responsive, nonflammable phosphonium ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium metal batteries: operating at 100 degrees celsius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Kavian, R; Lu, Y; Hu, Q; Shao-Horn, Y; Grinstaff, M W

    2015-11-13

    Rechargeable batteries such as Li ion/Li metal batteries are widely used in the electronics market but the chemical instability of the electrolyte limits their use in more demanding environmental conditions such as in automotive, oil exploration, or mining applications. In this study, a series of alkyl phosphonium ionic liquid electrolyte are described with high thermal stability and solubility for LiTFSI. A lithium metal battery (LMB) containing a tailored phosphonium ionic liquid/LiTFSI electrolyte operates at 100 °C with good specific capacities and cycling stability. Substantial capacity is maintained during 70 cycles or 30 days. Instant on-off battery operation is realized via the significant temperature dependence of the electrolyte material, demonstrating the robustness and potential for use at high temperature.

  6. Progress in electrolytes for rechargeable Li-based batteries and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Li; Juner Chen; Lei Fan; Xueqian Kong; Yingying Lu

    2016-01-01

    Owing to almost unmatched volumetric energy density, Li-based batteries have dominated the portable electronic industry for the past 20 years. Not only will that continue, but they are also now powering plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and zero-emission vehicles. There is impressive progress in the exploration of electrode materials for lithium-based batteries because the electrodes (mainly the cathode) are the limiting factors in terms of overall capacity inside a battery. However, more and ...

  7. Redox Species-Based Electrolytes for Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun; Li, Mengliu; Kumar, Pushpendra; Lu, Ang-Yu; Wahyudi, Wandi; Li, Lain-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Seeking high-capacity cathodes has become an intensive effort in lithium ion battery research; however, the low energy density still remains a major issue for sustainable handheld devices and vehicles. Herein, we present a new strategy

  8. Electrolyte creepage barrier for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Alberta, CA; Farooque, Mohammad [Danbury, CT; Yuh, Chao-Yi [New Milford, CT

    2008-01-22

    A dielectric assembly for electrically insulating a manifold or other component from a liquid electrolyte fuel cell stack wherein the dielectric assembly includes a substantially impermeable dielectric member over which electrolyte is able to flow and a barrier adjacent the dielectric member and having a porosity of less than 50% and greater than 10% so that the barrier is able to measurably absorb and chemically react with the liquid electrolyte flowing on the dielectric member to form solid products which are stable in the liquid electrolyte. In this way, the barrier inhibits flow or creepage of electrolyte from the dielectric member to the manifold or component to be electrically insulated from the fuel cell stack by the dielectric assembly.

  9. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L; Han, X B; Ding, R; Li, G; Lu, Steven C-Y; Hong, Q

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation

  10. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, X B [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ding, R [Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China); Li, G [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, Steven C-Y [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hong, Q [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation.

  11. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  12. Tracer test modeling for characterizing heterogeneity and local scale residence time distribution in an artificial recharge site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valhondo, Cristina; Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Ayora, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers (AR) is a standard technique to replenish and enhance groundwater resources, that have widely been used due to the increasing demand of quality water. AR through infiltration basins consists on infiltrate surface water, that might be affected in more or less degree by treatment plant effluents, runoff and others undesirables water sources, into an aquifer. The water quality enhances during the passage through the soil and organic matter, nutrients, organic contaminants, and bacteria are reduced mainly due to biodegradation and adsorption. Therefore, one of the goals of AR is to ensure a good quality status of the aquifer even if lesser quality water is used for recharge. Understand the behavior and transport of the potential contaminants is essential for an appropriate management of the artificial recharge system. The knowledge of the flux distribution around the recharge system and the relationship between the recharge system and the aquifer (area affected by the recharge, mixing ratios of recharged and native groundwater, travel times) is essential to achieve this goal. Evaluate the flux distribution is not always simple because the complexity and heterogeneity of natural systems. Indeed, it is not so much regulate by hydraulic conductivity of the different geological units as by their continuity and inter-connectivity particularly in the vertical direction. In summary for an appropriate management of an artificial recharge system it is needed to acknowledge the heterogeneity of the media. Aiming at characterizing the residence time distribution (RTDs) of a pilot artificial recharge system and the extent to which heterogeneity affects RTDs, we performed and evaluated a pulse injection tracer test. The artificial recharge system was simulated as a multilayer model which was used to evaluate the measured breakthrough curves at six monitoring points. Flow and transport parameters were calibrated under two hypotheses. The first

  13. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes....... With the thermally resistant polymer, e.g., polybenzimidazole or a mixture of polybenzimidazole and other thermoplastics as binder, the carbon-supported noble metal catalyst is tape-cast onto a hydrophobic supporting substrate. When doped with an acid mixture, electrodes are assembled with an acid doped solid...

  14. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015) of continuous intensive MAR (2.45 × 106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area), groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from ˜ 11 to ˜ 0.4 m d-1). This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface - abundant in many MAR operations - are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity ˜ 0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids ˜ 120 mg L-1) or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016) fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  15. Cycle life performance of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and mathematical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Gang

    Capacity fade of commercial Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. Battery cycled at the highest discharge rate (3 C) shows the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of fresh battery. It's been observed anode carbon loses 10.6% of its capability to intercalate or deintercalate Li+ after it was subjected to 300 cycles at discharge rate of 3 C. This loss dominates capacity fade of full battery. A mechanism considering continuous parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and film thickening has been proposed. First principles based charge-discharge models to simulate cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been developed. In the generalized model, transport in both electrolyte phase and solid phase were simultaneously taken into account. Under mild charge-discharge condition, transport of lithium in the electrolyte phase has been neglected in the simplified model. Both models are based on loss of the active lithium ions due to the electrochemical parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and on rise of the anode film resistance. The effect of parameters such as depth of discharge (DOD), end of charge voltage (EOCV) and overvoltage of the parasitic reaction on the cycle life behavior of a battery has been analyzed. The experimental results obtained at a charge rate of 1 C, discharge rate of 0.5 C, EOCV of 4.0 V and DOD of 0.4 have been used to validate cycle life models. Good agreement between the simulations and the experiments has been achieved up to 1968 cycles with both models. Simulation of cycle life of battery under multiple cycling regimes has also been demonstrated.

  16. In-situ IR reflexion spectroscopy characterization of the passivation layer developed on the surface of lithium electrodes in organic medium; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barusseau, S. [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Perton, F. [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Rakotondrainibe, A.; Lamy, C. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie 1, ``Electrochimie et Interactions``

    1996-12-31

    the development of lithium metal batteries is hindered by the bad reversibility of the Li{sup +}/Li pair, due to dendrites formation which limits the amount of active matter and can generate short-circuits. The chemical and electrochemical phenomena which take place at the electrode/organic electrolyte interface lead to the formation of a complex passivation film which is of prime importance for the functioning of this type of batteries. The in-situ infrared reflection spectroscopy is well adapted to the chemical study of the passivation layer. Two different techniques were used: the substraction normalized interfacial transform infrared spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) and the electro-chemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy. These methods have shown that the passivation layer that develops on the surface of the lithium electrode in contact with organic solutions (propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane) is mainly made of lithium alkyl carbonates (ROCO{sub 2}Li) and lithium carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). (J.S.) 14 refs.

  17. In-situ IR reflexion spectroscopy characterization of the passivation layer developed on the surface of lithium electrodes in organic medium; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barusseau, S [Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, 91 - Marcoussis (France); Perton, F [SAFT, Advanced and Industrial Battery Group, 86 - Poitiers (France); Rakotondrainibe, A; Lamy, C [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie 1, ` ` Electrochimie et Interactions` `

    1997-12-31

    the development of lithium metal batteries is hindered by the bad reversibility of the Li{sup +}/Li pair, due to dendrites formation which limits the amount of active matter and can generate short-circuits. The chemical and electrochemical phenomena which take place at the electrode/organic electrolyte interface lead to the formation of a complex passivation film which is of prime importance for the functioning of this type of batteries. The in-situ infrared reflection spectroscopy is well adapted to the chemical study of the passivation layer. Two different techniques were used: the substraction normalized interfacial transform infrared spectroscopy (SNIFTIRS) and the electro-chemically modulated infrared reflectance spectroscopy. These methods have shown that the passivation layer that develops on the surface of the lithium electrode in contact with organic solutions (propylene carbonate, ethylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane) is mainly made of lithium alkyl carbonates (ROCO{sub 2}Li) and lithium carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). (J.S.) 14 refs.

  18. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  19. Climatic controls on diffuse groundwater recharge across Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Barron

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reviews of field studies of groundwater recharge have attempted to investigate how climate characteristics control recharge, but due to a lack of data have not been able to draw any strong conclusions beyond that rainfall is the major determinant. This study has used numerical modelling for a range of Köppen-Geiger climate types (tropical, arid and temperate to investigate the effect of climate variables on recharge for different soil and vegetation types. For the majority of climate types, the correlation between the modelled recharge and total annual rainfall is weaker than the correlation between recharge and the annual rainfall parameters reflecting rainfall intensity. Under similar soil and vegetation conditions for the same annual rainfall, annual recharge in regions with winter-dominated rainfall is greater than in regions with summer-dominated rainfall. The importance of climate parameters other than rainfall in recharge estimation is highest in the tropical climate type. Mean annual values of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit show a greater importance in recharge estimation than mean annual values of the daily mean temperature. Climate parameters have the lowest relative importance in recharge estimation in the arid climate type (with cold winters and the temperate climate type. For 75% of all soil, vegetation and climate types investigated, recharge elasticity varies between 2 and 4 indicating a 20% to 40% change in recharge for a 10% change in annual rainfall. Understanding how climate controls recharge under the observed historical climate allows more informed choices of analogue sites if they are to be used for climate change impact assessments.

  20. The state-of-the-art and prospects for the development of rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skundin, Aleksandr M; Efimov, Oleg N; Yarmolenko, Ol'ga V

    2002-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of investigations into the development and perfection of the most promising class of chemical power sources, namely, rechargeable lithium batteries, is considered. The main problems of designing the batteries with a metallic lithium electrode are formulated and the use of alternative negative electrodes is substantiated. Special attention is paid to the studies dealing with the principles of the performance of lithium-ion batteries as well as the key directions for the perfection of these devices, which mainly concern the elaboration of new materials for lithium-ion batteries. A separate section is devoted to the consideration of polymeric electrolytes for lithium and lithium-ion batteries. The bibliography includes 390 references.

  1. Electrolytic preconcentration in instrumental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioda, R E; Batley, G E; Lund, W; Wang, J; Leach, S C

    1986-05-01

    The use of electrolytic deposition as a separation and preconcentration step in trace metal analysis is reviewed. Both the principles and applications of the technique are dealt with in some detail. Electrolytic preconcentration can be combined with a variety of instrumental techniques. Special attention is given to stripping voltammetry, potentiometric stripping analysis, different combinations with atomic-absorption spectrometry, and the use of flow-through porous electrodes. It is pointed out that the electrolytic preconcentration technique deserves more extensive use as well as fundamental investigation.

  2. Summary of groundwater-recharge estimates for Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart O. Reese,; Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is typically estimated from measurements of other parameters like streamflow and precipitation. This report provides a general overview of processes affecting recharge in Pennsylvania and presents estimates of recharge rates from studies at various scales.The most common method for estimating recharge in Pennsylvania has been to estimate base flow from measurements of streamflow and assume that base flow (expressed in inches over the basin) approximates recharge. Statewide estimates of mean annual groundwater recharge were developed by relating base flow to basin characteristics of HUC10 watersheds (a fifth-level classification that uses 10 digits to define unique hydrologic units) using a regression equation. The regression analysis indicated that mean annual precipitation, average daily maximum temperature, percent of sand in soil, percent of carbonate rock in the watershed, and average stream-channel slope were significant factors in the explaining the variability of groundwater recharge across the Commonwealth.Several maps are included in this report to illustrate the principal factors affecting recharge and provide additional information about the spatial distribution of recharge in Pennsylvania. The maps portray the patterns of precipitation, temperature, prevailing winds across Pennsylvania’s varied physiography; illustrate the error associated with recharge estimates; and show the spatial variability of recharge as a percent of precipitation. National, statewide, regional, and local values of recharge, based on numerous studies, are compiled to allow comparison of estimates from various sources. Together these plates provide a synopsis of groundwater-recharge estimations and factors in Pennsylvania.Areas that receive the most recharge are typically those that get the most

  3. Startup Report for Ground Water Extraction, Treatment, and Recharge System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The document presents startup procedures, observations and measurements conducted during the startup of the Groundwater Extraction, Treatment and Recharge System, built for the 162nd Fighter Wing, Air...

  4. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  5. Manufacturing and characterization of magnesium alloy foils for use as anode materials in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloffer, Daniel; Bozorgi, Salar; Sherstnev, Pavel; Lenardt, Christian; Gollas, Bernhard

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of thin foils of magnesium for use as anode material in rechargeable magnesium ion batteries is described. In order to improve its workability, the magnesium was alloyed by melting metallurgy with zinc and/or gadolinium, producing saturated solid solutions. The material was extruded to thin foils and rolled to a thickness of approximately 100 μm. The electrochemical behavior of Mg-1.63 wt% Zn, Mg-1.55 wt% Gd and Mg-1.02 wt% Zn-1.01 wt% Gd was studied in (PhMgCl)2-AlCl3/THF electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in symmetrical cells. Analysis of the current-potential curves in the Tafel region and the linear region close to the equilibrium potential show almost no effect of the alloying elements on the exchange current densities (5-45 μA/cm2) and the transfer coefficients. Chemical analyses of the alloy surfaces and the electrolyte demonstrate that the alloying elements not only dissolve with the magnesium during the anodic half-cycles, but also re-deposit during the cathodic half-cycles together with the magnesium and aluminum from the electrolyte. Given the negligible corrosion rate in aprotic electrolytes under such conditions, no adverse effects of alloying elements are expected for the performance of magnesium anodes in secondary batteries.

  6. Brightness coatings of zinc-cobalt alloys by electrolytic way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julve, E.

    1993-01-01

    Zinc-cobalt alloys provide corrosion resistance for the ferrous based metals. An acidic electrolyte for zinc-cobalt electrodeposition is examined in the present work. The effects of variations in electrolyte composition, in electrolyte temperature, pH and agitation on electrodeposit composition have been studied, as well as the current density influence. It was found that the following electrolyte gave the optimum results: 79 g.1''-1 ZnCl 2 , 15.3 g.1''-1 CoCl 2 .6H 2 O, 160 g.1''-1 KCl, 25 g.1''-1 H 3 BO 3 and 5-10 cm''3.1''-1 of an organic additive (caffeine, coumarin and sodium lauryl-sulphonate). The operating conditions were: pH=5,6 temperature: 30 degree centigree, current density: 0,025-0,035 A. cm''2, anode: pure zinc, agitation: slowly with air and filtration: continuous. The throwing power and cathode current efficiency of the electrolyte were also studied. This electrolyte yielded zinc-cobalt alloys white and lustrous and had a cobalt content of 0,5-0,8% (Author) 3 refs. 5 fig

  7. Rechargeable lithium/polymer cathode batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Toshiki; Shiota, Koh; Owens, Boone B.

    1989-06-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PAn) were investigated for cathode materials of rechargeable lithium batteries. PPy films prepared with PF6(-) anion and/or platinum substrate precoated with nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) were excellent cathode materials because of rough and/or highly oriented film structure. PAn films were successfully prepared from non-aqueous propylene carbonate solution containing aniline, CF3COOH and lithium perchlorate. Its acidity strongly affects the anion doping-undoping behavior. The PAn cathode prepared in high acidic solution (e.g., 4:1 ratio of acid:aniline) gives the excellent battery performance.

  8. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    AD-A274 908IIIIlIIIE McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossi ierra, M. Guentert, C. Todino 7 ad r nse TECHNICAL PRODUCTS INCY DTIC ELECTE JAN26 1994...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald , P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...20 minutes. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using a I Starbuck 20-station cycler system which is connected to a computer to monitor

  9. Li-Doped Ionic Liquid Electrolytes: From Bulk Phase to Interfacial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B.; Lawson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquids have been proposed as candidate electrolytes for high-energy density, rechargeable batteries. We present an extensive computational analysis supported by experimental comparisons of the bulk and interfacial properties of a representative set of these electrolytes as a function of Li-salt doping. We begin by investigating the bulk electrolyte using quantum chemistry and ab initio molecular dynamics to elucidate the solvation structure of Li(+). MD simulations using the polarizable force field of Borodin and coworkers were then performed, from which we obtain an array of thermodynamic and transport properties. Excellent agreement is found with experiments for diffusion, ionic conductivity, and viscosity. Combining MD simulations with electronic structure computations, we computed the electrochemical window of the electrolytes across a range of Li(+)-doping levels and comment on the role of the liquid environment. Finally, we performed a suite of simulations of these Li-doped electrolytes at ideal electrified interfaces to evaluate the differential capacitance and the equilibrium Li(+) distribution in the double layer. The magnitude of differential capacitance is in good agreement with our experiments and exhibits the characteristic camel-shaped profile. In addition, the simulations reveal Li(+) to be highly localized to the second molecular layer of the double layer, which is supported by additional computations that find this layer to be a free energy minimum with respect to Li(+) translation.

  10. Electron states at electrolyte/n-GaN and electrolyte/n-InGaN interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudinsky, M. E., E-mail: rudinskym@mail.ru; Gutkin, A. A.; Brunkov, P. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    The differential capacitance and differential active conductance of rectifying contacts of n-GaN and n-In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x Almost-Equal-To 0.15) with an electrolyte (0.2 M aqueous solutions of NaOH, NaCl, or HCl) have been studied. It was found that electron states with energies corresponding to the upper half of the energy gap of a semiconductor exist at the interface between these semiconductors and a NaOH solution. The density and characteristic recharging time of states noticeably contributing to the differential capacitance and differential active conductance at probe-voltage frequencies of 0.3-1 kHz grow with their binding energy and, for states lying at 0.15-0.3 eV below the conduction-band bottom of n-GaN, fall within the ranges 10{sup 12}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1} and 10{sup -4}-10{sup -2} s, respectively. For contacts with NaCl and HCl solutions, there are no states of this kind. It is assumed that the observed states are related to the adsorption of hydroxyl groups.

  11. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  12. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-01-23

    A method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  13. Cosolvent electrolytes for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessells, Colin Deane; Firouzi, Ali; Motallebi, Shahrokh; Strohband, Sven

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for stabilizing electrodes against dissolution and/or hydrolysis including use of cosolvents in liquid electrolyte batteries for three purposes: the extension of the calendar and cycle life time of electrodes that are partially soluble in liquid electrolytes, the purpose of limiting the rate of electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen as a side reaction during battery operation, and for the purpose of cost reduction.

  14. High cation transport polymer electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glen, IL; Klingler, Robert J [Westmont, IL

    2007-06-05

    A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

  15. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dopant incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolyte with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil, R.A.; Theerthagiri, J. [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Madhavan, J., E-mail: jagan.madhavan@gmail.com [Solar Energy Lab, Department of Chemistry, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Murugan, K. [Department of Zoology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Arunachalam, Prabhakarn [Electrochemistry Research Group, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Arof, A.K. [Centre for Ionics University Malaya, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2016-10-15

    This work describes the effect of 2-aminopyrimidine (2-APY) on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) blend polymer electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) and potassium iodide (KI)) and iodine (I{sub 2}) were studied for enhancing the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) consisting of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composite as photoanode. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was synthesized from low cost urea by thermal condensation method. It was used as a precursor to synthesize the various weight percentage ratios (5%, 10% and 15%) of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites by wet-impregnation method. The pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes were arranged by wet chemical process (casting method) using DMF as a solvent. The synthesized g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites and polymer blend electrolytes were studied and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ionic conductivity values of the pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO blend electrolytes were estimated to be 4.53×10{sup −5} and 1.87×10{sup −4} Scm{sup −1} respectively. The UV–vis absorption spectroscopy was carried out for the pure and different wt% of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites coated FTO films after N3 dye-sensitization. The 10 wt% g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composite film showed a maximum absorption compared to the others. The DSSC assembled with 10 wt% g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} as photoanode using the pure polymer blend electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.17% , which was superior than that of DSSC based pure TiO{sub 2} (2.46%). However, the PCE was increased to 4.73% for the DSSC assembled using 10 wt% g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} as photoanode with 2-APY incorporated polymer blend electrolyte. Hence, the present study is a

  16. Enhanced performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on organic dopant incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolyte with g-C3N4/TiO2 photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, R.A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.; Murugan, K.; Arunachalam, Prabhakarn; Arof, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the effect of 2-aminopyrimidine (2-APY) on poly(vinylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) blend polymer electrolyte along with binary iodide salts (tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) and potassium iodide (KI)) and iodine (I 2 ) were studied for enhancing the efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) consisting of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite as photoanode. The g-C 3 N 4 was synthesized from low cost urea by thermal condensation method. It was used as a precursor to synthesize the various weight percentage ratios (5%, 10% and 15%) of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composites by wet-impregnation method. The pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO polymer blend electrolytes were arranged by wet chemical process (casting method) using DMF as a solvent. The synthesized g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composites and polymer blend electrolytes were studied and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ionic conductivity values of the pure and 2-APY incorporated PVDF-HFP/PEO blend electrolytes were estimated to be 4.53×10 −5 and 1.87×10 −4 Scm −1 respectively. The UV–vis absorption spectroscopy was carried out for the pure and different wt% of g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composites coated FTO films after N3 dye-sensitization. The 10 wt% g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 composite film showed a maximum absorption compared to the others. The DSSC assembled with 10 wt% g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 as photoanode using the pure polymer blend electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.17% , which was superior than that of DSSC based pure TiO 2 (2.46%). However, the PCE was increased to 4.73% for the DSSC assembled using 10 wt% g-C 3 N 4 /TiO 2 as photoanode with 2-APY incorporated polymer blend electrolyte. Hence, the present study is a successful attempt to provide a new pathway to enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Graphical abstract: In this study, the g-C 3 N

  17. Introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART) - From laboratory to full-scale application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Julia; Wing, Alexandre D; Kautz, Jessica; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-07-01

    Previous lab-scale studies demonstrated that stimulating the indigenous soil microbial community of groundwater recharge systems by manipulating the availability of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC) and establishing sequential redox conditions in the subsurface resulted in enhanced removal of compounds with redox-dependent removal behavior such as trace organic chemicals. The aim of this study is to advance this concept from laboratory to full-scale application by introducing sequential managed aquifer recharge technology (SMART). To validate the concept of SMART, a full-scale managed aquifer recharge (MAR) facility in Colorado was studied for three years that featured the proposed sequential configuration: A short riverbank filtration passage followed by subsequent re-aeration and artificial recharge and recovery. Our findings demonstrate that sequential subsurface treatment zones characterized by carbon-rich (>3 mg/L BDOC) to carbon-depleted (≤1 mg/L BDOC) and predominant oxic redox conditions can be established at full-scale MAR facilities adopting the SMART concept. The sequential configuration resulted in substantially improved trace organic chemical removal (i.e. higher biodegradation rate coefficients) for moderately biodegradable compounds compared to conventional MAR systems with extended travel times in an anoxic aquifer. Furthermore, sorption batch experiments with clay materials dispersed in the subsurface implied that sorptive processes might also play a role in the attenuation and retardation of chlorinated flame retardants during MAR. Hence, understanding key factors controlling trace organic chemical removal performance during SMART allows for systems to be engineered for optimal efficiency, resulting in improved removal of constituents at shorter subsurface travel times and a potentially reduced physical footprint of MAR installations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  19. Estimation of potential rainfall recharge in the pothwar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Yaseen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is complex phenomenon to understand and describe because it cannot be seen with open eyes. We have to depend some theoretical assumptions to understand this complicated hidden natural underground water movement process. There are many factors affecting and controlling the water movement in soil profile. Groundwater use in district chakwal is of a fundamental importance to meet the rapidly expanding drinking and agricultural water requirements. The man factors contributing to groundwater recharge in chakwal are rainfall, evapotranspiration and geology. due to the semi arid climatic conditions of the area, this resource is almost the only key to economic development. There are a number of dug wells in the area where water is getting stored during rainy season. source and processes of recharge in humid areas are different compared with semi-arid areas. Due to the main resource of available water in the area, the potential groundwater recharge estimation could be good exercise to visulize the amount of rainwater entering the ground. For groundwater recharge estimation there are a number of simple and advanced techniques available. In the present study simple methods were used to estimate potential recharge due to available limited resources. Rainfall runoff, gravimetric and water table fluctuation methods were used to quantify rainfall recharge during the monsoon season. The average potential recharge estimated was 60% of the rainfall of 148 mm. Rainfall runoff and gravimetric methods were found to be comparable for short period potential recharge estimation while water table fluctuation method gives actual recharge and require longer period data. Potential recharge values were higher for area having grassland type vegetation and low for area covering shrubs and tick vegetation. (author)

  20. Development of Managed Aquifer Recharge in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.; Zhou, Y.; Sun, X.; Wang, W.

    2014-10-01

    China has a long history in managed aquifer recharge (MAR). The historic development can be divided into 4 stages based on a summary of typical MAR projects. The first stage is MAR applied to agricultural production, the second is MAR applied to industrial production and alleviation of agricultural problems, the third is MAR applied to ecological protection and the increase in urban water supplies, and the fourth is multi-source MAR. In addition, geothermal reinjection and ground source heat pumps are also effective uses of MAR. Nevertheless, the MAR framework is defective, there is a lack of water quality studies, and the recharge rate of most projects is low. However, China has achieved a great effect on industrial and agricultural production, ecological protection, drinking water supplies and urban reclaimed water reuse, amongst others. But there are still many issues to be improved. A feasible, convenient and economic technique of MAR which fits local hydrogeological conditions needs to be developed and guidelines for both MARs and management regulations to ensure the successful running of MAR projects also need to be established. MAR will make a great difference to improving potable water quality, alleviating geological hazards, long distance water diversion, urban water supplies, agriculture irrigation, etc. (Author)

  1. Spring-recharging in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anil P.

    2009-01-01

    in the settlement of mountain villages in the Himalayas. In fact, in many places, it was the single factor that determined the location of the villages and naturally rainwater has been the source which recharge the catchments of the springs. Forest cover keeps these catchment areas alive for the slow and constant recharging of the springs. In the recent past due to continuous deforestation, the catchment areas have been drastically reduced. Eventually, these denuded lands were unable to conserve water, which has resulted in the drying-up and dying of many mountain springs. Certainly, this became a major threat to both the natural habitats of the springs, as well as to the survival of the communities. In order to meet the water needs of the villages, the government-development agencies devised a distribution system in which water was diverted from regions with an adequate supply to those deprived of water. This approach to remedy the water shortage brought about significant water conflicts, as the rights to water resources were not well defined. This system also did not adequately address water-management and distribution lines for the water resources

  2. Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Containing Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame-Retardant Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Krause, Frederick C.

    2011-01-01

    A number of future NASA missions involving the exploration of the Moon and Mars will be human-rated and thus require high-specific-energy rechargeable batteries that possess enhanced safety characteristics. Given that Li-ion technology is the most viable rechargeable energy storage device for near-term applications, effort has been devoted to improving the safety characteristics of this system. There is also a strong desire to develop Li-ion batteries with improved safety characteristics for terrestrial applications, most notably for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) automotive applications. Therefore, extensive effort has been devoted recently to developing non-flammable electrolytes to reduce the flammability of the cells/battery. A number of electrolyte formulations have been developed, including systems that (1) incorporate greater concentrations of the flame-retardant additive (FRA); (2) use di-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl carbonate (DTFEC) as a co-solvent; (3) use 2,2,2- trifluoroethyl methyl carbonate (TFEMC); (4) use mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) as a co-solvent and/or a replacement for ethylene carbonate in the electrolyte mixture; and (5) utilize vinylene carbonate as a "SEI promoting" electrolyte additive, to build on the favorable results previously obtained. To extend the family of electrolytes developed under previous work, a number of additional electrolyte formulations containing FRAs, most notably triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were investigated and demonstrated in experimental MCMB (mesocarbon micro beads) carbon- LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 cells. The use of higher concentrations of the FRA is known to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte solution, thus, a concentration range was investigated (i.e., 5 to 20 percent by volume). The desired concentration of the FRA is the highest amount tolerable without adversely affecting the performance in terms of reversibility, ability to operate over a wide temperature range, and

  3. A rechargeable solid-state proton battery with an intercalating cathode and an anode containing a hydrogen-storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K.; Lakshmi, N.; Chandra, S. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1998-11-01

    Rechargeable proton batteries have been fabricated with the configuration Zn+ZnSO{sub 4} x 7H{sub 2}O//solid-state proton conductor//C+electrolyte+intercalating PbO{sub 2}+V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The solid-state proton conductor is phosphotungstic acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} x nH{sub 2}O) or a H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} x nH{sub 2}O+Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} x 16H{sub 2}O composite. The maximum cell voltage is {proportional_to}1.8 V at full charge. The cell can run for more than 300 h at low current drain (2.5 {mu}A cm{sup -2}). Further, the cell can withstand 20 to 30 cycles. The addition of a metal hydride in the anode side enhances the rechargeability and the addition of a small amount of Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} x 16H{sub 2}O in the H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} x nH{sub 2}O electrolyte improves the performance of the battery. (orig.)

  4. A rechargeable solid-state proton battery with an intercalating cathode and an anode containing a hydrogen-storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kamlesh; Lakshmi, N.; Chandra, S.

    Rechargeable proton batteries have been fabricated with the configuration Zn+ZnSO 4·7H 2O//solid-state proton conductor//C+electrolyte+intercalating PbO 2+V 2O 5. The solid-state proton conductor is phosphotungstic acid (H 3PW 12O 40· nH 2O) or a H 3PW 12O 40· nH 2O+Al 2(SO 4) 3·16H 2O composite. The maximum cell voltage is ˜1.8 V at full charge. The cell can run for more than 300 h at low current drain (2.5 μA cm -2). Further, the cell can withstand 20 to 30 cycles. The addition of a metal hydride in the anode side enhances the rechargeability and the addition of a small amount of Al 2(SO 4) 3·16H 2O in the H 3PW 12O 40· nH 2O electrolyte improves the performance of the battery.

  5. Modulation of solid electrolyte interphase of lithium-ion batteries by LiDFOB and LiBOB electrolyte additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiqiang; Wang, Shuwei; Hu, Guohong; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Shen, Cai

    2018-05-01

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is an organic-inorganic composite layer that allows Li+ transport across but blocks electron flow across and prevents solvent diffusing to electrode surface. Morphology, thickness, mechanical and chemical properties of SEI are important for safety and cycling performance of lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we employ a combination of in-situ AFM and XPS to investigate the effects of two electrolyte additives namely lithium difluoro(oxalate)borate (LiDFOB) and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) on SEI layer. LiDFOB is found to result in a thin but hard SEI layer containing more inorganic species (LiF and LiCO3); meanwhile LiBOB promotes formation of a thick but soft SEI layer containing more organic species such as ROCO2Li. Findings from present study will help development of electrolyte additives that promote formation of good SEI layer.

  6. Organic electrochemical transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Ró isí n M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.

    2018-01-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume

  7. 30 CFR 57.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 57.4203 Section 57.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4203 - Extinguisher recharging or replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extinguisher recharging or replacement. 56.4203 Section 56.4203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 56.4203 Extinguisher recharging or replacement. Fire...

  9. Nondestructive control of residual stresses during welding and recharge processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.; Fernandez, L.M.; Cruz, C.; Merino, F.; Aragon, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, the stress state of material during welding and recharge processes is controlled with the help of Barkhausen effect. The changes, occurred in the longitudinal and transversal stress profile are show during deposition of welding rings. It is proved that the stress state of the base-material depends on the amount of recharge layers, deposited on it

  10. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    model, also known as the Rorabaugh Method. (Rorabaugh 1960; Daniel 1976; Rutledge 2007b), estimates groundwater recharges for each stream- flow peak using the recession-curve-displacement method. It is based on an analytical model that describes groundwater discharge subsequent to recharge to the water table ...

  11. Comparing groundwater recharge and base flow in the Bukmoongol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater recharge and base flow using different investigated methods are simulated in the 15-ha Bukmoongol small-forested watershed located at the southern part of Korea.The WHAT system, PART,RORA,PULSE,BFI,and RAP software are used to estimate groundwater recharge or base flow and base flow index from ...

  12. Monitoring and modeling infiltration–recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ganot

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015 of continuous intensive MAR (2.45  ×  106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area, groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from  ∼  11 to  ∼  0.4 m d−1. This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface – abundant in many MAR operations – are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity  ∼  0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids  ∼  120 mg L−1 or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016 fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  13. Transport and spectroscopic studies of liquid and polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopege, Dharshani Nimali

    Liquid and polymer electrolytes are interesting and important materials to study as they are used in Li rechargeable batteries and other electrochemical devices. It is essential to investigate the fundamental properties of electrolytes such as ionic conductivity, diffusion, and ionic association to enhance battery performance in different battery markets. This dissertation mainly focuses on the temperature-dependent charge and mass transport processes and ionic association of different electrolyte systems. Impedance spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to measure the ionic conductivity and diffusion coefficients of ketone and acetate based liquid electrolytes. In this study, charge and mass transport in non-aqueous liquid electrolytes have been viewed from an entirely different perspective by introducing the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Here, the conductivity and diffusion coefficient are written as an Arrhenius-like expression with a temperature-dependent static dielectric constant dependence in the exponential prefactor. The compensated Arrhenius formalism reported in this dissertation very accurately describes temperature-dependent conductivity data for acetate and ketone-based electrolytes as well as temperature-dependent diffusion data of pure solvents. We found that calculated average activation energies of ketone-based electrolytes are close to each other for both conductivity and diffusion data (in the range 24-26 kJ/mol). Also, this study shows that average activation energies of acetate-based electrolytes are higher than those for the ketone systems (in the range 33-37 kJ/mol). Further, we observed higher dielectric constants and ionic conductivities for both dilute and concentrated ketone solutions with temperature. Vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared and Raman) was used to probe intermolecular interactions in both polymer and liquid electrolytes, particularly those which contain lithium

  14. Single-Site Active Iron-Based Bifunctional Oxygen Catalyst for a Compressible and Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Longtao; Chen, Shengmei; Pei, Zengxia; Huang, Yan; Liang, Guojin; Mo, Funian; Yang, Qi; Su, Jun; Gao, Yihua; Zapien, Juan Antonio; Zhi, Chunyi

    2018-02-27

    The exploitation of a high-efficient, low-cost, and stable non-noble-metal-based catalyst with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) simultaneously, as air electrode material for a rechargeable zinc-air battery is significantly crucial. Meanwhile, the compressible flexibility of a battery is the prerequisite of wearable or/and portable electronics. Herein, we present a strategy via single-site dispersion of an Fe-N x species on a two-dimensional (2D) highly graphitic porous nitrogen-doped carbon layer to implement superior catalytic activity toward ORR/OER (with a half-wave potential of 0.86 V for ORR and an overpotential of 390 mV at 10 mA·cm -2 for OER) in an alkaline medium. Furthermore, an elastic polyacrylamide hydrogel based electrolyte with the capability to retain great elasticity even under a highly corrosive alkaline environment is utilized to develop a solid-state compressible and rechargeable zinc-air battery. The creatively developed battery has a low charge-discharge voltage gap (0.78 V at 5 mA·cm -2 ) and large power density (118 mW·cm -2 ). It could be compressed up to 54% strain and bent up to 90° without charge/discharge performance and output power degradation. Our results reveal that single-site dispersion of catalytic active sites on a porous support for a bifunctional oxygen catalyst as cathode integrating a specially designed elastic electrolyte is a feasible strategy for fabricating efficient compressible and rechargeable zinc-air batteries, which could enlighten the design and development of other functional electronic devices.

  15. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, K.E.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Gaye, C.B.; Edmunds, W.M.; Simmers, I.

    2006-01-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from ∼140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40–374 000 km2) range from 0·2 to 35 mm year−1, representing 0·1–5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ∼720 m year−1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Niños (1977–1998) relative to periods dominated by La Niñas (1941–1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year−1 during the Sahel drought (1970–1986) to 150 mm year−1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (≥10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in

  16. Impact of recharge through residual oil upon sampling of underlying ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, W.R.; Chang, Chichung; Klopp, R.A.; Bedient, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    At an aviation gasoline spill site in Traverse City, Michigan, historical records indicate a positive correlation between significant rainfall events and increased concentrations of slightly soluble organic compounds in the monitoring wells of the site. To investigate the recharge effect on ground water quality due to infiltrating water percolating past residual oil and into the saturated zone, an in situ infiltration experiment was performed at the site. Sampling cones were set at various depths below a circular test area, 13 feet (4 meters) in diameter. Rainfall was simulated by sprinkling the test area at a rate sufficiently low to prevent runoff. The sampling cones for soil-gas and ground water quality were installed in the unsaturated and saturated zones to observed the effects of the recharge process. Infiltrated water was determined to have transported organic constituents of the residual oil, specifically benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene (BTEX), into the ground water beneath the water table, elevating the aqueous concentrations of these constituents in the saturated zone. Soil-gas concentrations of the organic compounds in the unsaturated zone increased with depth and time after the commencement of infiltration. Reaeration of the unconfined aquifer via the infiltrated water was observed. It is concluded that water quality measurements are directly coupled to recharge events for the sandy type of aquifer with an overlying oil phase, which was studied in this work. Ground water sampling strategies and data analysis need to reflect the effect of recharge from precipitation on shallow, unconfined aquifers where an oil phase may be present

  17. Instantaneous measurement of the internal temperature in lithium-ion rechargeable cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Rengaswamy; Carkhuff, Bliss G.; Butler, Michael H.; Baisden, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate, in three different rechargeable lithium-ion cells, the existence of an intrinsic relationship between a cell's internal temperature and a readily measurable electrical parameter, namely the phase shift between an applied sinusoidal current and the resulting voltage. The temperature range examined spanned from -20 to 66 deg. C. The optimum single frequency for the phase measurement is in the 40-100 Hz range, allowing for a measurement time of much less than a second; the phase shift in this range depends predominantly on temperature, and is almost completely independent of the state-of-charge. Literature reports suggest that the observed dependence of the phase shift on temperature arises from the ionic conduction of the so-called solid-electrolyte-interphase layer between the graphite anode and the electrolyte. A meter measuring the phase shift across this interphase is analogous to a thermometer reporting the temperature, thereby providing feedback for rapid corrections of any operating conditions that might lead to the catastrophic destruction of the cell. This level of monitoring and control is distinctly different from the present safety-enabling mechanisms: typically positive thermal coefficient ceramics/plastics, or 'shutdown' separators based on polyethylene that act to often permanently shut down current flow through the cell.

  18. Emulation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes in shallow groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca C.; Pickett, Trevor; Crosbie, Russell S.; Morgan, Leanne K.; Turnadge, Chris; Davies, Phil J.

    2017-12-01

    In shallow groundwater systems, recharge and evapotranspiration are highly sensitive to changes in the depth to water table. To effectively model these fluxes, complex functions that include soil and vegetation properties are often required. Model emulation (surrogate modelling or meta-modelling) can provide a means of incorporating detailed conceptualisation of recharge and evapotranspiration processes, while maintaining the numerical tractability and computational performance required for regional scale groundwater models and uncertainty analysis. A method for emulating recharge and evapotranspiration processes in groundwater flow models was developed, and applied to the South East region of South Australia and western Victoria, which is characterised by shallow groundwater, wetlands and coastal lakes. The soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model WAVES was used to generate relationships between net recharge (diffuse recharge minus evapotranspiration from groundwater) and depth to water table for different combinations of climate, soil and land cover types. These relationships, which mimicked previously described soil, vegetation and groundwater behaviour, were combined into a net recharge lookup table. The segmented evapotranspiration package in MODFLOW was adapted to select values of net recharge from the lookup table depending on groundwater depth, and the climate, soil and land use characteristics of each cell. The model was found to be numerically robust in steady state testing, had no major increase in run time, and would be more efficient than tightly-coupled modelling approaches. It made reasonable predictions of net recharge and groundwater head compared with remotely sensed estimates of net recharge and a standard MODFLOW comparison model. In particular, the method was better able to predict net recharge and groundwater head in areas with steep hydraulic gradients.

  19. Bacterial community and groundwater quality changes in an anaerobic aquifer during groundwater recharge with aerobic recycled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kaksonen, Anna H; Morris, Christina; Shackelton, Mark; Patterson, Bradley M

    2013-09-01

    Managed aquifer recharge offers the opportunity to manage groundwater resources by storing water in aquifers when in surplus and thus increase the amount of groundwater available for abstraction during high demand. The Water Corporation of Western Australia (WA) is undertaking a Groundwater Replenishment Trial to evaluate the effects of recharging aerobic recycled water (secondary treated wastewater subjected to ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and ultraviolet disinfection) into the anaerobic Leederville aquifer in Perth, WA. Using culture-independent methods, this study showed the presence of Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, Cytophaga, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria, and a decrease in microbial diversity with an increase in depth of aquifer. Assessment of physico-chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater before and after recharge revealed that recharging the aquifer with aerobic recycled water resulted in elevated redox potentials in the aquifer and increased bacterial numbers, but reduced microbial diversity. The increase in bacterial numbers and reduced microbial diversity in groundwater could be a reflection of an increased denitrifier and sulfur-oxidizing populations in the aquifer, as a result of the increased availability of nitrate, oxygen, and residual organic matter. This is consistent with the geochemical data that showed pyrite oxidation and denitrification within the aquifer after recycled water recharge commenced. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge from Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, updated to conditions in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2009, total surface-water diversions of about 154,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed it to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir water-level altitude and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2009, a total of about 13,000 acre-feet of groundwater has been withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, a total of about 14,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir.From 2002 through 2009, about 86,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Water-quality sampling was conducted at various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge moving through the aquifer. Tracers of reservoir recharge include major and minor dissolved inorganic ions, tritium, dissolved organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and noble gases. By 2010, this recharge arrived at monitoring wells within about 1,000 feet of the reservoir.

  1. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, M.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Christenson, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater depends on an adequate supply of electron acceptors to stimulate biodegradation. In an alluvial aquifer contaminated with leachate from an unlined municipal landfill, the mechanism of recharge infiltration was investigated as a source of electron acceptors. Water samples were collected monthly at closely spaced intervals in the top 2 m of the saturated zone from a leachate-contaminated well and an uncontaminated well, and analyzed for ??18O, ??2H, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC), SO42-, NO3- and Cl-. Monthly recharge amounts were quantified using the offset of the ??18O or ??2H from the local meteoric water line as a parameter to distinguish water types, as evaporation and methanogenesis caused isotopic enrichment in waters from different sources. Presence of dissolved SO42- in the top 1 to 2??m of the saturated zone was associated with recharge; SO42- averaged 2.2??mM, with maximum concentrations of 15??mM. Nitrate was observed near the water table at the contaminated site at concentrations up to 4.6??mM. Temporal monitoring of ??2H and SO42- showed that vertical transport of recharge carried SO42- to depths up to 1.75??m below the water table, supplying an additional electron acceptor to the predominantly methanogenic leachate plume. Measurements of ??34S in SO42- indicated both SO42- reduction and sulfide oxidation were occurring in the aquifer. Depth-integrated net SO42- reduction rates, calculated using the natural Cl- gradient as a conservative tracer, ranged from 7.5 ?? 10- 3 to 0.61??mM??d- 1 (over various depth intervals from 0.45 to 1.75??m). Sulfate reduction occurred at both the contaminated and uncontaminated sites; however, median SO42- reduction rates were higher at the contaminated site. Although estimated SO42- reduction rates are relatively high, significant decreases in NVDOC were not observed at the contaminated site. Organic compounds more labile than the leachate NVDOC may be

  2. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Christenson, Scott C

    2006-08-10

    Natural attenuation of contaminants in groundwater depends on an adequate supply of electron acceptors to stimulate biodegradation. In an alluvial aquifer contaminated with leachate from an unlined municipal landfill, the mechanism of recharge infiltration was investigated as a source of electron acceptors. Water samples were collected monthly at closely spaced intervals in the top 2 m of the saturated zone from a leachate-contaminated well and an uncontaminated well, and analyzed for delta(18)O, delta(2)H, non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and Cl(-). Monthly recharge amounts were quantified using the offset of the delta(18)O or delta(2)H from the local meteoric water line as a parameter to distinguish water types, as evaporation and methanogenesis caused isotopic enrichment in waters from different sources. Presence of dissolved SO(4)(2-) in the top 1 to 2 m of the saturated zone was associated with recharge; SO(4)(2-) averaged 2.2 mM, with maximum concentrations of 15 mM. Nitrate was observed near the water table at the contaminated site at concentrations up to 4.6 mM. Temporal monitoring of delta(2)H and SO(4)(2-) showed that vertical transport of recharge carried SO(4)(2-) to depths up to 1.75 m below the water table, supplying an additional electron acceptor to the predominantly methanogenic leachate plume. Measurements of delta(34)S in SO(4)(2-) indicated both SO(4)(2-) reduction and sulfide oxidation were occurring in the aquifer. Depth-integrated net SO(4)(2-) reduction rates, calculated using the natural Cl(-) gradient as a conservative tracer, ranged from 7.5x10(-3) to 0.61 mM.d(-1) (over various depth intervals from 0.45 to 1.75 m). Sulfate reduction occurred at both the contaminated and uncontaminated sites; however, median SO(4)(2-) reduction rates were higher at the contaminated site. Although estimated SO(4)(2-) reduction rates are relatively high, significant decreases in NVDOC were not observed at the contaminated

  3. The Rechargeability of Silicon-Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    an Si-air electrochemical cell a source of water for other applications. Metal-air batteries, silicon-air, electrochemistry , rechargeable batteries UU...be based on constant amount of water in the IL.  The electrochemistry has to be based on more robust reference electrode. Some use of ferrocence...MgO  -569.4  -601.7  3942  6859  Zn  Zn + 1/2O2 ZnO   -320.8  -350.7  1363  9677  Si  Si + O2 SiO2  -856.5  -910.9  8470  21090  7 electrode. RTIL

  4. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  5. Multivalent weak electrolytes - risky background electrolytes for capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2002), s. 1942-1946 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : background electrolytes * capillary zone electrophoresis * multivalent electrolytes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  6. Ionic liquid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, Mikhail; Kloo, Lars

    2008-05-28

    The potential of room-temperature molten salts (ionic liquids) as solvents for electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells has been investigated during the last decade. The non-volatility, good solvent properties and high electrochemical stability of ionic liquids make them attractive solvents in contrast to volatile organic solvents. Despite this, the relatively high viscosity of ionic liquids leads to mass-transport limitations. Here we review recent developments in the application of different ionic liquids as solvents or components of liquid and quasi-solid electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

  7. Novelionic Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Shibi Fang; Yuan Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction In recent years, dye-sensitized solar cells(DSC) based on nanocrystalline porous TiO2 films have attracted much attention because of their relatively higher efficiency and low cost compared with conventional inorganic photovoltaic devices[1]. This type of solar cell has achieved an impressive photo-to-energy conversion efficiency of over 10% where the electrolyte is volatile organic liquid solvents containing I-/I-3- as redox couple. Because of high volatilities, solvent losses occur during long-term operations, resulting in lowered DSC performances.And leakage of liquid electrolyte also limits the durability of DSC.

  8. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghy, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    An article made of a zirconium alloy can be electrolytically plated with a layer of a metal such as copper, nickel or chromium when the article is free of any loosely adhering film formed during an activation step. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution of ammonium bifluoride and sulfuric acid. Next the loosely adhering film formed in the first step is removed by chemical treatment, ultrasonic cleaning, or by swabbing the surface with cotton or an organic material. Finally the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution in the presence of an electrode receiving current

  9. One-Dimensional Hetero-Nanostructures for Rechargeable Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Liqiang; Sheng, Jinzhi; Xu, Lin; Tan, Shuangshuang; Meng, Jiashen

    2018-04-17

    Rechargeable batteries are regarded as one of the most practical electrochemical energy storage devices that are able to convert and store the electrical energy generated from renewable resources, and they function as the key power sources for electric vehicles and portable electronics. The ultimate goals for electrochemical energy storage devices are high power and energy density, long lifetime, and high safety. To achieve the above goals, researchers have tried to apply various morphologies of nanomaterials as the electrodes to enhance the electrochemical performance. Among them, one-dimensional (1D) materials show unique superiorities, such as cross-linked structures for external stress buffering and large draw ratios for internal stress dispersion. However, a homogeneous single-component electrode material can hardly have the characteristics of high electronic/ionic conductivity and high stability in the electrochemical environment simultaneously. Therefore, designing well-defined functional 1D hetero-nanostructures that combine the advantages and overcome the limitations of different electrochemically active materials is of great significance. This Account summarizes fabrication strategies for 1D hetero-nanostructures, including nucleation and growth, deposition, and melt-casting and electrospinning. Besides, the chemical principles for each strategy are discussed. The nucleation and growth strategy is suitable for growing and constructing 1D hetero-nanostructures of partial transition metal compounds, and the experimental conditions for this strategy are relatively accessible. Deposition is a reliable strategy to synthesize 1D hetero-nanostructures by decorating functional layers on 1D substrate materials, on the condition that the preobtained substrate materials must be stable in the following deposition process. The melt-casting strategy, in which 1D hetero-nanostructures are synthesizes via a melting and molding process, is also widely used. Additionally

  10. Physicochemical, spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of magnesium ion-conducting, room temperature, ternary molten electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, N. S. Venkata; Ashok Raj, B. V.; Sampath, S.

    Room temperature, magnesium ion-conducting molten electrolytes are prepared using a combination of acetamide, urea and magnesium triflate or magnesium perchlorate. The molten liquids show high ionic conductivity, of the order of mS cm -1 at 298 K. Vibrational spectroscopic studies based on triflate/perchlorate bands reveal that the free ion concentration is higher than that of ion-pairs and aggregates in the melt. Electrochemical reversibility of magnesium deposition and dissolution is demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry and impedance studies. The transport number of Mg 2+ ion determined by means of a combination of d.c. and a.c. techniques is ∼0.40. Preliminary studies on the battery characteristics reveal good capacity for the magnesium rechargeable cell and open up the possibility of using this unique class of acetamide-based room temperature molten electrolytes in secondary magnesium batteries.

  11. Electrochemical Model for Ionic Liquid Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kisoo; Deshpande, Anirudh; Banerjee, Soumik; Dutta, Prashanta

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Room temperature ionic liquids are considered as potential electrolytes for high performance and safe lithium batteries due to their very low vapor pressure and relatively wide electrochemical and thermal stability windows. Unlike organic electrolytes, ionic liquid electrolytes are molten salts at room temperature with dissociated cations and anions. These dissociated ions interfere with the transport of lithium ions in lithium battery. In this study, a mathematical model is developed for transport of ionic components to study the performance of ionic liquid based lithium batteries. The mathematical model is based on a univalent ternary electrolyte frequently encountered in ionic liquid electrolytes of lithium batteries. Owing to the very high concentration of components in ionic liquid, the transport of lithium ions is described by the mutual diffusion phenomena using Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities, which are obtained from atomistic simulation. The model is employed to study a lithium-ion battery where the electrolyte comprises ionic liquid with mppy + (N-methyl-N-propyl pyrrolidinium) cation and TFSI − (bis trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide) anion. For a moderate value of reaction rate constant, the electric performance results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental data. We also studied the effect of porosity and thickness of separator on the performance of lithium-ion battery using this model. Numerical results indicate that low rate of lithium ion transport causes lithium depleted zone in the porous cathode regions as the porosity decreases or the length of the separator increases. The lithium depleted region is responsible for lower specific capacity in lithium-ion cells. The model presented in this study can be used for design of optimal ionic liquid electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium-air batteries

  12. Proton-conductive nano zeolite-PVA composite film as a new water-absorbing electrolyte for water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nishihara

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, organic-inorganic composite electrolyte membranes are developed for a novel water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. As the materials of the composite electrolyte membrane, 80 wt% of a proton-conducting nano zeolite (H-MFI as an electrolyte and 20 wt% of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as a cross-linkable matrix are used. The nano zeolite is prepared by a milling process. The nano zeolite-PVA composite membrane precursors are prepared by spraying onto a substrate, followed by cross-linking. The resulting nano zeolite-cross-linked PVA composite films are then evaluated for their properties such as proton conductivity as electrolyte membranes for the water-absorbing porous electrolyte water electrolysis cell. It is confirmed that conventional materials such as zeolites and PVA can be used for the water electrolysis as an electrolyte.

  13. The effects of functional ionic liquid on properties of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Cheng Xinqun; Zuo Pengjian; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functional ionic liquid(IL)-polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared. → The ionic conductivity of PEO electrolytes was raised to above 10-4 S.cm-1 at room temperature by functional IL. → The cells using functional IL-PEO electrolyte show higher reversible capacity and long cycle life. - Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid state electrolytes have been thought as promising electrolytes to replace the organic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. But the lower ionic conductivities at room temperature restrict their application. In this paper, functional ionic liquid and polymer mixed electrolytes are prepared from N-methyoxymethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP1.1O1TFSI) and polyethylene oxide. The PP1.1O1TFSI, a kind of room-temperature molten salt, was added to the conventional P(EO) 20 LiTFSI polymer electrolyte and resulted in a significant improvement of the ionic conductivity at room temperature. LiFePO 4 /Li and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /Li cells using this kind of electrolyte show high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance.

  14. Evaluating the performance of water purification in a vegetated groundwater recharge basin maintained by short-term pulsed infiltration events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindl, Birgit; Hofer, Julia; Kellermann, Claudia; Stichler, Willibald; Teichmann, Günter; Psenner, Roland; Danielopol, Dan L; Neudorfer, Wolfgang; Griebler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Infiltration of surface water constitutes an important pillar in artificial groundwater recharge. However, insufficient transformation of organic carbon and nutrients, as well as clogging of sediments often cause major problems. The attenuation efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nutrients and pathogens versus the risk of bioclogging for intermittent recharge were studied in an infiltration basin covered with different kinds of macrovegetation. The quality and concentration of organic carbon, major nutrients, as well as bacterial biomass, activity and diversity in the surface water, the porewater, and the sediment matrix were monitored over one recharge period. Additionally, the numbers of viral particles and Escherichia coli were assessed. Our study showed a fast establishment of high microbial activity. DOC and nutrients have sustainably been reduced within 1.2 m of sediment passage. Numbers of E. coli, which were high in the topmost centimetres of sediment porewater, dropped below the detection limit. Reed cover was found to be advantageous over bushes and trees, since it supported higher microbial activities along with a good infiltration and purification performance. Short-term infiltration periods of several days followed by a break of similar time were found suitable for providing high recharge rates, and good water purification without the risk of bioclogging.

  15. Semiconductor electrolyte photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. W.; Anderson, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    Feasibility and practicality of a solar cell consisting of a semiconductor surface in contact with an electrolyte are evaluated. Basic components and processes are detailed for photovoltaic energy conversion at the surface of an n-type semiconductor in contact with an electrolyte which is oxidizing to conduction band electrons. Characteristics of single crystal CdS, GaAs, CdSe, CdTe and thin film CdS in contact with aqueous and methanol based electrolytes are studied and open circuit voltages are measured from Mott-Schottky plots and open circuit photo voltages. Quantum efficiencies for short circuit photo currents of a CdS crystal and a 20 micrometer film are shown together with electrical and photovoltaic properties. Highest photon irradiances are observed with the GaAs cell.

  16. Delineation of groundwater recharge areas, western Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2000-01-01

    The unconfined sand-and-gravel aquifer in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts, which is the sole source of water supply for the communities in the area, is recharged primarily from precipitation. The rate of recharge from precipitation is estimated to be about 26 inches per year (in/yr), or about 60 percent of the precipitation rate. This recharge rate yields a flow through the aquifer of about 180 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Groundwater flows radially outward from the top of the water-table mound in the north-central part of the flow system toward the coast, as indicated by the water-table contours on the large map on this sheet. Recharge that reaches the water table near the top of the mound travels deeper through the aquifer than recharge that reaches the water table closer to the coast. All recharge to the aquifer ultimately discharges to pumping wells, streams, or coastal areas; however, some of this recharge may flow first through kettle ponds before eventually reaching these discharge points.

  17. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system.

  18. Aquifer recharging in South Carolina: radiocarbon in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, P.A.; Knox, R.L.; Mathews, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon activities of dissolved inorganic carbon (and tritium activities where infiltration rates are rapid and aquifers shallow) provide relatively unambiguous and inexpensive evidence for identification of significant recharge areas. Such evidence is for the actual occurrence of modern recharge in the aquifer and thus is less inferential than stratigraphic or potentiometric evidence. These underutilized isotopic techniques are neither arcane nor complex and have been more-or-less standardized by earlier researchers. In South Carolina, isotopic evidence has been used from both calcareous and siliceous sedimentary aquifers and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. The Tertiary limestone aquifer is shown not to be principally recharged in its subcrop area, unlike conditions assumed for many other sedimentary aquifers in southeastern United States, and instead receives considerable lateral recharge from interfingering updip Tertiary sand aquifers in the middle coastal plain. Induced recharging at Hilton Head Island is mixing ancient relict water and modern recharge water. Recharging to deeper portions of the Cretaceous Middendorf basal sand aquifer occurs at least as far coastward as the middle coastal plain, near sampling sites that stratigraphically appear to be confined. Pronounced mineralization of water in fractured rocks cannot be considered as evidence of ancient or relict ground water that is isolated from modern contaminants, some of these waters contain considerable radiocarbon and hydrogen-bomb tritium

  19. Groundwater recharge: The intersection between humanity and hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Brian D.; Drewes, Jörg E.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential part of subsurface water circulation and the beginning of groundwater flow systems that can vary in duration from days to millennia. Globally, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that many of Earth's aquifers contain 'fossil' groundwater that was recharged more than 12,000 years ago (Jasechko et al., 2017), and a very small portion of groundwater that was recharged within the last 50 years (Gleeson et al., 2015). Together, this information demonstrates the irregular distribution of groundwater circulation within the Earth and the wide variability of recharge conditions that replenish aquifer systems (Befus et al., 2017). Knowledge of groundwater recharge rates and distribution are needed for evaluating and regulating the quantity and quality of water resources, understanding consequences of landscapes use, identifying where managed aquifer recharge can augment supply, and predicting how groundwater systems will respond to a changing climate. In-turn, these topics are of central importance for the health of humans and ecosystems, and security of food and energy. Yet, despite the global importance, quantifying groundwater recharge remains challenging as it cannot be measured directly, and there is uncertainty associated with all currently known estimation methods (Scanlon et al., 2002).

  20. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale

  1. Application of proton conducting polymeric electrolytes to electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masayuki; Qiao, Jin-Li; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Non-aqueous polymeric gel complexes composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-modified polymethacrylate (PEO-PMA) dissolving anhydrous H 3 PO 4 have been examined as solid electrolytes of electrochemical capacitors. High ionic conductivity of ∼10 -3 S cm -1 (at 70 deg. C) was obtained for non-aqueous gel systems based on PEO-PMA with proper amounts of organic plasticizers. The ionic conductivity depended on the composition of the gel, especially on the content of the dopant H 3 PO 4 . A test cell of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was assembled using the present gel electrolyte with activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth electrodes. It gave as high capacity as that obtained for the capacitor using an aqueous liquid electrolyte. High rate capability was obtained for the cell operating at 90 deg. C

  2. Recharge and discharge calculations to characterize the groundwater hydrologic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddle, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Several methods are presented to quantify the ground water component of the hydrologic balance; including (1) hydrograph separation techniques, (2) water budget calculations, (3) spoil discharge techniques, and (4) underground mine inflow studies. Stream hydrograph analysis was used to calculate natural groundwater recharge and discharge rates. Yearly continuous discharge hydrographs were obtained for 16 watersheds in the Cumberland Plateau area of Tennessee. Baseflow was separated from storm runoff using computerized hydrograph analysis techniques developed by the USGS. The programs RECESS, RORA, and PART were used to develop master recession curves, calculate ground water recharge, and ground water discharge respectively. Station records ranged from 1 year of data to 60 years of data with areas of 0.67 to 402 square miles. Calculated recharge ranged from 7 to 28 inches of precipitation while ground water discharge ranged from 6 to 25 inches. Baseflow ranged from 36 to 69% of total flow. For sites with more than 4 years of data the median recharge was 20 inches/year and the 95% confidence interval for the median was 16.4 to 23.8 inches of recharge. Water budget calculations were also developed independently by a mining company in southern Tennessee. Results showed about 19 inches of recharge is available on a yearly basis. A third method used spoil water discharge measurements to calculate average recharge rate to the mine. Results showed 21.5 inches of recharge for this relatively flat area strip mine. In a further analysis it was shown that premining soil recharge rates of 19 inches consisted of about 17 inches of interflow and 2 inches of deep aquifer recharge while postmining recharge to the spoils had almost no interflow component. OSM also evaluated underground mine inflow data from northeast Tennessee and southeast Kentucky. This empirical data showed from 0.38 to 1.26 gallons per minute discharge per unit acreage of underground workings. This is the

  3. How Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Forms in Aqueous Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Liumin; Oh, Dahyun; Lin, Yuxiao; Zhuo, Zengqing; Borodin, Oleg; Gao, Tao; Wang, Fei; Kushima, Akihiro; Wang, Ziqiang; Kim, Ho-Cheol; Qi, Yue; Yang, Wanli; Pan, Feng; Li, Ju; Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-12-27

    Solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the key component that enables all advanced electrochemical devices, the best representative of which is Li-ion battery (LIB). It kinetically stabilizes electrolytes at potentials far beyond their thermodynamic stability limits, so that cell reactions could proceed reversibly. Its ad hoc chemistry and formation mechanism has been a topic under intensive investigation since the first commercialization of LIB 25 years ago. Traditionally SEI can only be formed in nonaqueous electrolytes. However, recent efforts successfully transplanted this concept into aqueous media, leading to significant expansion in the electrochemical stability window of aqueous electrolytes from 1.23 V to beyond 4.0 V. This not only made it possible to construct a series of high voltage/energy density aqueous LIBs with unprecedented safety, but also brought high flexibility and even "open configurations" that have been hitherto unavailable for any LIB chemistries. While this new class of aqueous electrolytes has been successfully demonstrated to support diversified battery chemistries, the chemistry and formation mechanism of the key component, an aqueous SEI, has remained virtually unknown. In this work, combining various spectroscopic, electrochemical and computational techniques, we rigorously examined this new interphase, and comprehensively characterized its chemical composition, microstructure and stability in battery environment. A dynamic picture obtained reveals how a dense and protective interphase forms on anode surface under competitive decompositions of salt anion, dissolved ambient gases and water molecule. By establishing basic laws governing the successful formation of an aqueous SEI, the in-depth understanding presented in this work will assist the efforts in tailor-designing better interphases that enable more energetic chemistries operating farther away from equilibria in aqueous media.

  4. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  5. Epoxy-silica hybrid organic–inorganic electrolytes with a high Li-ion conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vélez, J.F.; Procaccini, R.A.; Aparicio, M.; Mosa, J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid electrolytes were prepared by co-hydrolysis and co-condensation of 3-glycidoxipropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) doped with lithium acetate as self-supported materials and thin-films. The effects of the relative molar content of LiAc on the physicochemical properties of electrolytes, such as morphology, thermal, chemical and electrochemical properties were investigated. Two and four probes test cells were designed for comparative studies of ionic conductivity of hybrid electrolytes using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Similar ionic conductivities were obtained using both measurement methods, reaching a maximum ionic conductivity value of around 10 −6 S/cm at 25 °C. The conductivity mechanism presents Arrehenius behavior with the increase of the temperature from 25 °C to 120 °C. The electrochemical stability window is found to be in the range of 0–5 V, which ensures that hybrid organic–inorganic materials are potential electrolytes for solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  6. Surface Modification of the LiFePO4 Cathode for the Aqueous Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tron, Artur; Jo, Yong Nam; Oh, Si Hyoung; Park, Yeong Don; Mun, Junyoung

    2017-04-12

    The LiFePO 4 surface is coated with AlF 3 via a simple chemical precipitation for aqueous rechargeable lithium ion batteries (ARLBs). During electrochemical cycling, the unfavorable side reactions between LiFePO 4 and the aqueous electrolyte (1 M Li 2 SO 4 in water) leave a highly resistant passivation film, which causes a deterioration in the electrochemical performance. The coated LiFePO 4 by 1 wt % AlF 3 has a high discharge capacity of 132 mAh g -1 and a highly improved cycle life, which shows 93% capacity retention even after 100 cycles, whereas the pristine LiFePO 4 has a specific capacity of 123 mAh g -1 and a poor capacity retention of 82%. The surface analysis results, which include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results, show that the AlF 3 coating material is highly effective for reducing the detrimental surface passivation by relieving the electrochemical side reactions of the fragile aqueous electrolyte. The AlF 3 coating material has good compatibility with the LiFePO 4 cathode material, which mitigates the surface diffusion obstacles, reduces the charge-transfer resistances and improves the electrochemical performance and surface stability of the LiFePO 4 material in aqueous electrolyte solutions.

  7. Estimating the proportion of groundwater recharge from flood events in relation to total annual recharge in a karst aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvory, N. Z.; Ronen, A.; Livshitz, Y.; Adar, E.; Kuznetsov, M.; Yakirevich, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable groundwater production from karstic aquifers is primarily dictated by its recharge rate. Therefore, in order to limit over-exploitation, it is essential to accurately quantify groundwater recharge. Infiltration during erratic floods in karstic basins may contribute substantial amount to aquifer recharge. However, the complicated nature of karst systems, which are characterized in part by multiple springs, sinkholes, and losing/gaining streams, present a large obstacle to accurately assess the actual contribution of flood water to groundwater recharge. In this study, we aim to quantify the proportion of groundwater recharge during flood events in relation to the annual recharge for karst aquifers. The role of karst conduits on flash flood infiltration was examined during four flood and artificial runoff events in the Sorek creek near Jerusalem, Israel. The events were monitored in short time steps (four minutes). This high resolution analysis is essential to accurately estimating surface flow volumes, which are of particular importance in arid and semi-arid climate where ephemeral flows may provide a substantial contribution to the groundwater reservoirs. For the present investigation, we distinguished between direct infiltration, percolation through karst conduits and diffused infiltration, which is most affected by evapotranspiration. A water balance was then calculated for the 2014/15 hydrologic year using the Hydrologic Engineering Center - Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). Simulations show that an additional 8% to 24% of the annual recharge volume is added from runoff losses along the creek that infiltrate through the karst system into the aquifer. The results improve the understanding of recharge processes and support the use of the proposed methodology for quantifying groundwater recharge.

  8. Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Nam Long Doan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This review evaluates the characteristics and advantages of employing polymer electrolytes in lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries. The main highlights of this study constitute detailed information on the advanced developments for solid polymer electrolytes and gel polymer electrolytes, used in the lithium/sulfur battery. This includes an in-depth analysis conducted on the preparation and electrochemical characteristics of the Li/S batteries based on these polymer electrolytes.

  9. The installation and dismantling of electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to construction of aluminium electrolytic cells, their installation and dismantling. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  10. Electrolytes for magnesium electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Sa, Niya; Proffit, Danielle Lee; Lipson, Albert; Liao, Chen; Vaughey, John T.; Ingram, Brian J.

    2017-07-04

    An electrochemical cell includes a high voltage cathode configured to operate at 1.5 volts or greater; an anode including Mg.sup.0; and an electrolyte including an ether solvent and a magnesium salt; wherein: a concentration of the magnesium salt in the ether is 1 M or greater.

  11. Influence of recharge basins on the hydrology of Nassau and Suffolk Counties, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaburn, G.E.; Aronson, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Westbury and the Syosset basins are not expected to change; however, the unit hydrograph for the Deer Park basin is expected to broaden somewhat as a result of additional future house construction within the drainage area. Infiltration rates averaged 0.9 fph (feet per hour) for 63 storms between July 1967 and May 1970 at the Westbury recharge basin, 0.8 fph for 22 storms from July 1969 to September 1970 at the Syosset recharge basin, and 0.2 fph for 24 storms from March to September 1970 at the Deer Park recharge basin. Low infiltration rates at Deer Park resulted mainly from (1) a high percentage of eroded silt, clay, and organic debris washed in from construction sites in the drainage area, which partly filled the interstices of the natural deposits, and (2) a lack of a well-developed plant-root system on the floor of the younger basin, which would have kept the soil zone more permeable. The apparent rate of movement of storm water through the unsaturated zone below each basin averaged 5.5 fph at Westbury, 3.7 fph at Syosset, and 3.1 fph at Deer Park. The rates of movement for storms during the warm months (April through October) were slightly higher than average, probably because the recharging water was warmer than it was during the rest of the year, and therefore, was slightly less viscous. On the average, a 1-inch rainfall resulted in a peak rise of the water table directly below each basin of 0.5 foot; a 2-inch rainfall resulted in a peak rise of about 2 feet. The mound commonly dissipated within 1 to 4 days at Westbury, 7 days to more than 15 days at Syosset, and 1 to 3 days at Deer Park, depending on the magnitude of the peak buildup. Average annual ground-water recharge was estimated to be 6.4 acre-feet at the Westbury recharge basin, 10.3 acre-feet at the Syosset recharge basin, and 29.6 acre-feet at the Deer Park recharge basin. Chemical composition of precipitation at Westbury, Syosset, and Deer Park drainage areas was similar:

  12. Assessment of managed aquifer recharge at Sand Hollow Reservoir, Washington County, Utah, updated to conditions in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.; Heilweil, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand Hollow Reservoir in Washington County, Utah, was completed in March 2002 and is operated primarily for managed aquifer recharge by the Washington County Water Conservancy District. From 2002 through 2011, surface-water diversions of about 199,000 acre-feet to Sand Hollow Reservoir have allowed the reservoir to remain nearly full since 2006. Groundwater levels in monitoring wells near the reservoir rose through 2006 and have fluctuated more recently because of variations in reservoir altitude and nearby pumping from production wells. Between 2004 and 2011, a total of about 19,000 acre-feet of groundwater was withdrawn by these wells for municipal supply. In addition, a total of about 21,000 acre-feet of shallow seepage was captured by French drains adjacent to the North and West Dams and used for municipal supply, irrigation, or returned to the reservoir. From 2002 through 2011, about 106,000 acre-feet of water seeped beneath the reservoir to recharge the underlying Navajo Sandstone aquifer. Water quality was sampled at various monitoring wells in Sand Hollow to evaluate the timing and location of reservoir recharge as it moved through the aquifer. Tracers of reservoir recharge include major and minor dissolved inorganic ions, tritium, dissolved organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and noble gases. By 2012, this recharge arrived at four monitoring wells located within about 1,000 feet of the reservoir. Changing geochemical conditions at five other monitoring wells could indicate other processes, such as changing groundwater levels and mobilization of vadose-zone salts, rather than arrival of reservoir recharge.

  13. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane Vindt, Steffen; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-01-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading...... potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system....

  14. High-performance aqueous rechargeable batteries based on zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and environment-friendly energy storage system. Battery is the most versatile ... safe but limited in energy density.2 Therefore, new aque- ous rechargeable battery ... The working electrodes were prepared by coating slur- ries of active material ...

  15. Web-based global inventory of managed aquifer recharge applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan, Catalin; Ansems, Nienke

    2017-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is being successfully implemented worldwide for various purposes: to increase groundwater storage, improve water quality, restore groundwater levels, prevent salt water intrusion, manage water distribution systems, and enhance ecological benefits. To better understand

  16. Groundwater Modelling For Recharge Estimation Using Satellite Based Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mahmoud; (Tom) Rientjes, T. H. M.; (Christiaan) van der Tol, C.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater movement is influenced by several factors and processes in the hydrological cycle, from which, recharge is of high relevance. Since the amount of aquifer extractable water directly relates to the recharge amount, estimation of recharge is a perquisite of groundwater resources management. Recharge is highly affected by water loss mechanisms the major of which is actual evapotranspiration (ETa). It is, therefore, essential to have detailed assessment of ETa impact on groundwater recharge. The objective of this study was to evaluate how recharge was affected when satellite-based evapotranspiration was used instead of in-situ based ETa in the Salland area, the Netherlands. The Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management (MIPWA) model setup which includes a groundwater model for the northern part of the Netherlands was used for recharge estimation. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) based actual evapotranspiration maps from Waterschap Groot Salland were also used. Comparison of SEBAL based ETa estimates with in-situ abased estimates in the Netherlands showed that these SEBAL estimates were not reliable. As such results could not serve for calibrating root zone parameters in the CAPSIM model. The annual cumulative ETa map produced by the model showed that the maximum amount of evapotranspiration occurs in mixed forest areas in the northeast and a portion of central parts. Estimates ranged from 579 mm to a minimum of 0 mm in the highest elevated areas with woody vegetation in the southeast of the region. Variations in mean seasonal hydraulic head and groundwater level for each layer showed that the hydraulic gradient follows elevation in the Salland area from southeast (maximum) to northwest (minimum) of the region which depicts the groundwater flow direction. The mean seasonal water balance in CAPSIM part was evaluated to represent recharge estimation in the first layer. The highest recharge estimated flux was for autumn

  17. Impact of recharge water temperature on bioclogging during managed aquifer recharge: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Gao, Zongjun; Zheng, Xilai; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of recharge water temperature on bioclogging processes and mechanisms during seasonal managed aquifer recharge (MAR), two groups of laboratory percolation experiments were conducted: a winter test and a summer test. The temperatures were controlled at 5±2 and 15±3 °C, and the tests involved bacterial inoculums acquired from well water during March 2014 and August 2015, for the winter and summer tests, respectively. The results indicated that the sand columns clogged 10 times faster in the summer test due to a 10-fold larger bacterial growth rate. The maximum concentrations of total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the winter test were approximately twice those in the summer test, primarily caused by a 200 μg/g sand increase of both loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS). In the first half of the experimental period, the accumulation of bacteria cells and EPS production induced rapid bioclogging in both the winter and summer tests. Afterward, increasing bacterial growth dominated the bioclogging in the summer test, while the accumulation of LB-EPS led to further bioclogging in the winter test. The biological analysis determined that the dominant bacteria in experiments for both seasons were different and the bacterial community diversity was 50% higher in the winter test than that for summer. The seasonal inoculums could lead to differences in the bacterial community structure and diversity, while recharge water temperature was considered to be a major factor influencing the bacterial growth rate and metabolism behavior during the seasonal bioclogging process.

  18. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Vaughey, John T.; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Lu; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2016-03-29

    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte is selected to have a higher redox potential than the redox reactant of the negative electrolyte.

  19. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  20. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg 2+ -intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO 2 in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO 2 was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g −1 at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO 2 cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  1. Manganese Dioxide As Rechargeable Magnesium Battery Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Chen, E-mail: chen.ling@toyota.com; Zhang, Ruigang [Toyota Research Institute of North America, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Rechargeable magnesium battery (rMB) has received increased attention as a promising alternative to current Li-ion technology. However, the lack of appropriate cathode that provides high-energy density and good sustainability greatly hinders the development of practical rMBs. To date, the successful Mg{sup 2+}-intercalation was only achieved in only a few cathode hosts, one of which is manganese dioxide. This review summarizes the research activity of studying MnO{sub 2} in magnesium cells. In recent years, the cathodic performance of MnO{sub 2} was impressively improved to the capacity of >150–200 mAh g{sup −1} at voltage of 2.6–2.8 V with cyclability to hundreds or more cycles. In addition to reviewing electrochemical performance, we sketch a mechanistic picture to show how the fundamental understanding about MnO{sub 2} cathode has been changed and how it paved the road to the improvement of cathode performance.

  2. Managed aquifer recharge as a barrier for ozone-based advanced oxidation by-products: BrO3- and H2O2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.

    2018-01-01

    Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technology that relies on soil passage - after pond infiltration - for water treatment. MAR is a proven technology for the removal of pathogenic micro-organisms, turbidity and a selection of specific organic micro-pollutions (OMPs). Nevertheless, removal of the

  3. Li-Ion Cells Employing Electrolytes With Methyl Propionate and Ethyl Butyrate Co-Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate at low temperatures to satisfy the requirements of such applications as landers, rovers, and penetrators. A number of terrestrial applications, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) also require energy storage devices that can operate over a wide temperature range (i.e., -40 to +70 C), while still providing high power capability and long life. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-30 to +40 C); however, the rate capability at the lower temperatures is very poor. These limitations at very low temperatures are due to poor electrolyte conductivity, poor lithium intercalation kinetics over the electrode surface layers, and poor ionic diffusion in the electrode bulk. Two wide-operating-temperature-range electrolytes have been developed based on advances involving lithium hexafluorophosphate-based solutions in carbonate and carbonate + ester solvent blends, which have been further optimized in the context of the technology and targeted applications. The approaches employed include further optimization of electrolytes containing methyl propionate (MP) and ethyl butyrate (EB), which are effective co-solvents, to widen the operating temperature range beyond the baseline systems. Attention was focused on further optimizing ester-based electrolyte formulations that have exhibited the best performance at temperatures ranging from -60 to +60 C, with an emphasis upon improving the rate capability at -20 to -40 C. This was accomplished by increasing electrolyte salt concentration to 1.20M and increasing the ester content to 60 percent by volume to increase the ionic conductivity at low temperatures. Two JPL-developed electrolytes 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MP (20:20:60 v/v %) and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+EB (20:20:60 v/v %) operate effectively over a wide

  4. Evaluation of electrolytes for redox flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.; Dryfe, R.A.W.; Roberts, E.P.L.

    2007-01-01

    A number of redox systems have been investigated in this work with the aim of identifying electrolytes suitable for testing redox flow battery cell designs. The criteria for the selection of suitable systems were fast electrochemical kinetics and minimal cross-contamination of active electrolytes. Possible electrolyte systems were initially selected based on cyclic voltammetry data. Selected systems were then compared by charge/discharge experiments using a simple H-type cell. The all-vanadium electrolyte system has been developed as a commercial system and was used as the starting point in this study. The performance of the all-vanadium system was significantly better than an all-chromium system which has recently been reported. Some metal-organic and organic redox systems have been reported as possible systems for redox flow batteries, with cyclic voltammetry data suggesting that they could offer near reversible kinetics. However, Ru(acac) 3 in acetonitrile could only be charged efficiently to 9.5% of theoretical charge, after which irreversible side reactions occurred and [Fe(bpy) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 2 in acetonitrile was found to exhibit poor charge/discharge performance

  5. Recharge signal identification based on groundwater level observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chu, Hone-Jay

    2012-10-01

    This study applied a method of the rotated empirical orthogonal functions to directly decompose the space-time groundwater level variations and determine the potential recharge zones by investigating the correlation between the identified groundwater signals and the observed local rainfall records. The approach is used to analyze the spatiotemporal process of piezometric heads estimated by Bayesian maximum entropy method from monthly observations of 45 wells in 1999-2007 located in the Pingtung Plain of Taiwan. From the results, the primary potential recharge area is located at the proximal fan areas where the recharge process accounts for 88% of the spatiotemporal variations of piezometric heads in the study area. The decomposition of groundwater levels associated with rainfall can provide information on the recharge process since rainfall is an important contributor to groundwater recharge in semi-arid regions. Correlation analysis shows that the identified recharge closely associates with the temporal variation of the local precipitation with a delay of 1-2 months in the study area.

  6. Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

  7. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  8. Social Impact of Recharging Activity in Long-Term HRI and Verbal Strategies to Manage User Expectations During Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Deshmukh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social robots perform tasks to help humans in their daily activities. However, if they fail to fulfill expectations this may affect their acceptance. This work investigates the service degradation caused by recharging, during which the robot is socially inactive. We describe two studies conducted in an ecologically valid office environment. In the first long-term study (3 weeks, we investigated the service degradation caused by the recharging behavior of a social robot. In the second study, we explored the social strategies used to manage users’ expectations during recharge. Our findings suggest that the use of verbal strategies (transparency, apology, and politeness can make robots more acceptable to users during recharge.

  9. Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents with Liquid Range Below -80 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik; Smart, Marshall; West, William

    2010-01-01

    A previous NASA Tech Brief ["Low-Temperature Supercapacitors" (NPO-44386) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No 7 (July 2008), page 32] detailed ongoing efforts to develop non-aqueous supercapacitor electrolytes capable of supporting operation at temperatures below commercially available cells (which are typically limited to charging and discharging at > or equal to -40 C). These electrolyte systems may enable energy storage and power delivery for systems operating in extreme environments, such as those encountered in the Polar regions on Earth or in the exploration of space. Supercapacitors using these electrolytes may also offer improved power delivery performance at moderately low temperatures (e.g. -40 to 0 C) relative to currently available cells, offering improved cold-cranking and cold-weather acceleration capabilities for electrical or hybrid vehicles. Supercapacitors store charge at the electrochemical double-layer, formed at the interface between a high surface area electrode material and a liquid electrolyte. The current approach to extending the low-temperature limit of the electrolyte focuses on using binary solvent systems comprising a high-dielectric-constant component (such as acetonitrile) in conjunction with a low-melting-point co-solvent (such as organic formates, esters, and ethers) to depress the freezing point of the system, while maintaining sufficient solubility of the salt. Recent efforts in this area have led to the identification of an electrolyte solvent formulation with a freezing point of -85.7 C, which is achieved by using a 1:1 by volume ratio of acetonitrile to 1,3-dioxolane

  10. Raman spectral and electrochemical studies of lithium/electrolyte interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odziemkowski, M

    1922-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, corrosion potential-time transients and Normal Raman spectroscopy have been employed to characterize the lithium-lithium salt, organic solvent, interfacial region. An in-situ cutting technique was developed to expose lithium metal. In-situ optical and ex-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to examine the morphology of the lithium electrode surface during exposure at open circuit and after anodic polarization. The main reaction product detected by in-situ Raman spectroscopy in the system/lithium/LiAsF[sub 6], tetrahydrofuran (THF) electrolyte was polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF). The conditions for the polymerization reaction in the presence of lithium metal have been determined. Tetrahydrofuran (THF) decomposition reaction mechanisms are discussed. Decomposition reaction products have been determined as arsenic (II) oxide, As[sub 2]O[sub 3] (arsenolite) and arsenious oxyfluoride AsF[sub 2]-O-AsF[sub 2]. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed a substantial shift of the corrosion potential towards positive values and only a moderate increase of anodic dissolution current for in-situ cut lithium metal. Corrosion potential-time merits have been measured. The following electrolytes have been investigated: LiAsF[sub 6], LiPF[sub 6], LiClO[sub 4], and Li(CF[sub 3]SO[sub 2])[sub 2]N in THF, 2Me-THF, and propylene carbonate (PC). The transients permit the ranking of the reactivity of the electrolytes. These measurements have shed light on understanding the stability of various stability and and solvents in contact with lithium. Compared to purified electrolytes, small amounts of water shift the corrosion potential towards even more positive values. Intensive anodic cycling of a Li electrode in unpurified LiAsF[sub 6]/THF electrolyte leads to the breakdown of a surface film/films. While at the open circuit potential (OCP), water in this same electrolyte leads to crack formation in the bulk lithium electrode.

  11. Carboxymethyl Carrageenan Based Biopolymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobarak, N.N.; Jumaah, F.N.; Ghani, M.A.; Abdullah, M.P.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlights the potential of carboxymethyl carrageenan based on iota and kappa to be utilized as host polymer. • The highest conductivity were achieved up to ∼10 −3 S cm −1 by carboxymethyl carrageenan without the addition of plasticizer. • The electrochemical stability windows of the films were electrochemically stable up to 3.0 V. - Abstract: A series of biodegradable carboxymethyl carrageenan based polymer electrolytes, which are carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan (sulphate per disaccharide) and carboxymethyl iota carrageenan (two sulphates per disaccharide), have been prepared by a solution casting technique with different ratios of lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ) salts. Interestingly, the lithium ions tended to interact with the carbonyl group in the different modes of symmetry, as observed from reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. In the carboxymethyl kappa carrageenan electrolytes, as the concentration of LiNO 3 increased, the asymmetric stretching peak of the carbonyl bond became dominant because it can be observed clearly with the shifting of the peak from 1592 to 1602 cm −1 due to the interaction between the lithium ion and the carbonyl group, while the broad O-H stretching peak became sharp and intense. However, for the carboxymethyl iota carrageenan, the asymmetry stretching mode of the carbonyl group shifted from 1567 to 1599 cm −1 , as the salt concentration increased. The shifting of the C-O-C peak also occurred in the iota-based electrolytes. However, the changes in the peak that represented SO 4 2− symmetric stretching were only detected when the ion pair formation was observed. It was proposed that the peak shifting was due to the presence of the lithium ion pathway, forming a dative bond between the lithium and oxygen in the carbonyl group. Accordingly, as more peak shifting was observed, the number of the ion pathways also increased. This hypothesis was supported by the impedance

  12. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  13. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  14. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  15. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    , as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity.......Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen...

  16. Investigation of the Present Recharge Rate and Recharge Origins in the Disi Sandstone Aquifer in Southern Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilani, S.F.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a thorough investigation of recharge origins of the strategic Disi sandstone aquifer in southern Jordan. This aquifer is of substantial potential and huge extension most of which lies in Saudi Arabia. Disi groundwater infiltrated in the ground thousands of years ago and is not currently being replenished, therefore crucial management for this resource is very important. This aquifer is foreseen to provide 100 MCM/a of high quality drinking water to the Capital Amman in addition to the current use of about 60 MCM/a for agricultural activities in the area and to meet the water demand in the port of Aqaba. Origins and amount of recharge to groundwater is one critical aspect in resource management. A study to estimate recharge rate was conducted in the Quaternary sediments and sandstone's of Al Quwayra in southern Jordan where the average rainfall is less than 70 mm per year. Environmental chloride, deuterium and nitrate in the sand profiles in the vadose zone were the study tools. The study showed that recharge if present is a result of severe infrequent storm events and that the aquifer does not receive significant direct recharge from rain. The pollutant profiles in the unsaturated zone might give chronology of the recharge history

  17. Influence of Electrolyte Modulus on the Local Current Density at a Dendrite Tip on a Lithium Metal Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, KJ; Higa, K; Srinivasan, V; Balsara, NP

    2016-08-10

    Understanding and controlling the electrochemical deposition of lithium is imperative for the safe use of rechargeable batteries with a lithium metal anode. Solid block copolymer electrolyte membranes are known to enhance the stability of lithium metal anodes by mechanically suppressing the formation of lithium protrusions during battery charging. Time-resolved hard X-ray microtomography was used to monitor the internal structure of a symmetric lithium-polymer cell during galvanostatic polarization. The microtomography images were used to determine the local rate of lithium deposition, i.e. local current density, in the vicinity of a lithium globule growing through the electrolyte. Measurements of electrolyte displacement enabled estimation of local stresses in the electrolyte. At early times, the current density was maximized at the globule tip, as expected from simple current distribution arguments. At later times, the current density was maximized at the globule perimeter. We show that this phenomenon is related to the local stress fields that arise as the electrolyte is deformed. The local current density, normalized for the radius of curvature, decreases with increasing compressive stresses at the lithium-polymer interface. To our knowledge, our study provides the first direct measurement showing the influence of local mechanical stresses on the deposition kinetics at lithium metal electrodes.

  18. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  19. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  20. Chemical stability of {gamma}-butyrolactone-based electrolytes for aluminium electrolytic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ue, Makoto [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Masayuki [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yoko [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tsukuba Research Center, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    {gamma}-Butyrolactone-based electrolytes have been used as the operating electrolytes for aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The chemical stability of these electrolytes at elevated temperatures has been examined by monitoring the decrease in their electrolytic conductivities. The deteriorated electrolytes were analyzed by gas and liquid chromatography and the conductivity decrease was directly correlated with the loss of acid components. In quaternary ammonium hydrogen maleate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes, the maleate anion decomposed by decarboxylation resulting in a complex polymer containing polyester and polyacrylate structures. Quaternary ammonium benzoate/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes decomposed by SN2 reactions giving alkyl benzoates and trialkylamines. The deterioration of the carboxylate salt/{gamma}-butyrolactone electrolytes was accelerated by electrolysis. (orig.)

  1. Chemical and microbiological monitoring of a sole-source aquifer intended for artificial recharge, Nassau County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Mallard, Gail E.

    1980-01-01

    In late 1980, approximately 4 million gallons per day of highly treated wastewater will be used to recharge the groundwater reservoir in central Nassau County through a system of 10 recharge basins and 5 shallow injection wells. To evaluate the impact of large-scale recharge with reclaimed water on groundwater quality, the U.S. Geological Survey has collected hydrologic and water-quality data from a 1-square-mile area around the recharge site to provide a basis for future comparison. Extensive chemical and microbiological analyses are being made on samples from 48 wells screened in the upper glacial (water-table) aquifer and the upper part of the underlying Magothy (public-supply) aquifer. Preliminary results indicate that water from the upper glacial aquifer contains significant concentrations of nitrate and low-molecular-weight chlorinated hydrocarbons and detectable concentrations of organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls. At present, no fecal contamination is evident in either aquifer in the area studied. In the few samples containing fecal indicator bacteria, the numbers were low. Nonpoint sources provide significant loads of organic and inorganic compounds; major sources include cesspool and septic-tank effluent, cesspool and septic-tank cleaners and other over-the-counter domestic organic solvents, fertilizers, insecticides for termite and other pest control, and stormwater runoff to recharge basins. The water-table aquifer is composed mainly of stratified, well-sorted sand and gravel and, as a result, is highly permeable. In the 1-square-mile area studied, some contaminants seem to have traveled 200 feet downward to the bottom of the water-table aquifer and into the upper part of the public-supply aquifer. (USGS)

  2. Benefits and Economic Costs of Managed Aquifer Recharge in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Perrone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss2art4Groundwater management is important and challenging, and nowhere is this more evident than in California. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR projects can play an important role in ensuring California manages its groundwater sustainably. Although the benefits and economic costs of surface water storage have been researched extensively, the benefits and economic costs of MAR have been little researched. Historical groundwater data are sparse or proprietary within the state, often impairing groundwater analyses. General obligation bonds from ballot propositions offer a strategic means of mining information about MAR projects, because the information is available publicly. We used bond-funding applications to identify anticipated MAR project benefits and proposed economic costs. We then compared these costs with actual project costs collected from a survey, and identified factors that promote or limit MAR. Our analysis indicates that the median proposed economic cost for MAR projects in California is $410 per acre-foot per year ($0.33 per cubic meter per year. Increasing Water Supply, Conjunctive Use, and Flood Protection are the most common benefits reported. Additionally, the survey indicates that (1 there are many reported reasons for differences between proposed and actual costs ($US 2015 and (2 there is one primary reason for differences between proposed recharge volumes and actual recharge volumes (AFY: availability of source water for recharge. Although there are differences between proposed and actual costs per recharge volume ($US 2015/AFY, the ranges for proposed costs per recharge volume and actual costs per recharge volume for the projects surveyed generally agree. The two most important contributions to the success of a MAR project are financial support and good communication with stakeholders.

  3. SWB Groundwater Recharge Analysis, Catalina Island, California: Assessing Spatial and Temporal Recharge Patterns Within a Mediterranean Climate Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater recharge quantification is a key parameter for sustainable groundwater management. Many recharge quantification techniques have been devised, each with advantages and disadvantages. A free, GIS based recharge quantification tool - the Soil Water Balance (SWB) model - was developed by the USGS to produce fine-tuned recharge constraints in watersheds and illuminate spatial and temporal dynamics of recharge. The subject of this research is to examine SWB within a Mediterranean climate zone, focusing on the Catalina Island, California. This project relied on publicly available online resources with the exception the geospatial processing software, ArcGIS. Daily climate station precipitation and temperature data was obtained from the Desert Research Institute for the years 2008-2014. Precipitation interpolations were performed with ArcGIS using the Natural Neighbor method. The USGS-National Map Viewer (NMV) website provided a 30-meter DEM - to interpolate high and low temperature ASCII grids using the Temperature Lapse Rate (TLR) method, to construct a D-8 flow direction grid for downhill redirection of soil-moisture saturated runoff toward non-saturated cells, and for aesthetic map creation. NMV also provided a modified Anderson land cover classification raster. The US Department of Agriculture-National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) Web Soil Survey website provided shapefiles of soil water capacity and hydrologic soil groups. The Hargreaves and Samani method was implemented to determine evapotranspiration rates. The resulting SWB output data, in the form of ASCII grids are easily added to ArcGIS for quick visualization and data analysis (Figure 1). Calculated average recharge for 2008-2014 was 3537 inches/year, or 0.0174 acre feet/year. Recharge was 10.2% of the islands gross precipitation. The spatial distribution of the most significant recharge is in hotspots which dominate the residential hills above Avalon, followed by grassy/unvegetated areas

  4. Acid-Base and Electrolyte Disorders in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondup, Tsering; Qian, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Kidneys play a pivotal role in the maintenance and regulation of acid-base and electrolyte homeostasis, which is the prerequisite for numerous metabolic processes and organ functions in the human body. Chronic kidney diseases compromise the regulatory functions, resulting in alterations in electrolyte and acid-base balance that can be life-threatening. In this review, we discuss the renal regulations of electrolyte and acid-base balance and several common disorders including metabolic acidosis, alkalosis, dysnatremia, dyskalemia, and dysmagnesemia. Common disorders in chronic kidney disease are also discussed. The most recent and relevant advances on pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and management of these conditions have been incorporated.

  5. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Ate [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, Jean E. [California State Univ. East Bay (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States); Singleton, Michael J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Esser, Bradley K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  6. Chapter 6. Operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to operation of electrolytic cell in standard operating practices. Therefore, the electrolyte temperature, the composition of electrolyte, including the level of metals was considered. The regulation of electrolyte composition by liquidus temperature and electrolyte overheating was studied. Damping of anode effects was studied as well. Maintenance of electrolytic cells was described. Heat and energy balances of aluminium electrolytic cells were considered.

  7. How a gel polymer electrolyte affects performance of lithium/sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sheng S.; Tran, Dat T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Conventional separator is coated with a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite layer. •Composite coating increases tensile strength and electrolyte wettability. •Coated separator offers an alternative approach for making gel polymer Li/S battery. •Li/S battery takes benefits of gel polymer electrolyte at the expense of capacity. -- Abstract: Gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) and composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) have been widely employed to improve the safety and cycling performance of rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. In order to determine whether this approach is applicable to lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery, we examine the effect of CGPE on the cycling and storage performances of Li/S cells by comparing a 50PEO-50SiO 2 (wt.%) composite coated separator (C-separator) with a pristine separator (P-separator). Results show that the composite coating significantly enhances the wettability of liquid electrolyte on the separator and that resulting CGPE can tightly glue the separator and electrode together. In comparison with the P-separator, the C-separator offers Li/S cells similar capacity retention and rate capability; however it greatly affects the specific capacity of sulfur. The analysis on the impedance spectrum of a lithium polysulfide (PS) solution reveal that the reduction of sulfur specific capacity is due to the high viscosity of the CGPE and the strong adsorption of SiO 2 filler to the PS species, which trap PS species in the separator and hence reduce the utilization of sulfur active material. Therefore, the benefits of the GPE and CGPE to the Li/S batteries can be taken only at the expense of sulfur specific capacity

  8. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These

  9. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  10. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  11. Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreddine, Sarah; Dittmar, Jessica; Phipps, Don; Dadakis, Jason; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-07-07

    Mobilization of arsenic and other trace metal contaminants during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) poses a challenge to maintaining local groundwater quality and to ensuring the viability of aquifer storage and recovery techniques. Arsenic release from sediments into solution has occurred during purified recycled water recharge of shallow aquifers within Orange County, CA. Accordingly, we examine the geochemical processes controlling As desorption and mobilization from shallow, aerated sediments underlying MAR infiltration basins. Further, we conducted a series of batch and column experiments to evaluate recharge water chemistries that minimize the propensity of As desorption from the aquifer sediments. Within the shallow Orange County Groundwater Basin sediments, the divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) are critical for limiting arsenic desorption; they promote As (as arsenate) adsorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals of the aquifer. While native groundwater contains adequate concentrations of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), these cations are not present at sufficient concentrations during recharge of highly purified recycled water. Subsequently, the absence of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) displaces As from the sediments into solution. Increasing the dosages of common water treatment amendments including quicklime (Ca(OH)2) and dolomitic lime (CaO·MgO) provides recharge water with higher concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions and subsequently decreases the release of As during infiltration.

  12. An electrolyte CPA equation of state for mixed solvent electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo-Mogensen, Bjørn; Thomsen, Kaj; Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite great efforts over the past decades, thermodynamic modeling of electrolytes in mixed solvents is still a challenge today. The existing modeling frameworks based on activity coefficient models are data-driven and require expert knowledge to be parameterized. It has been suggested...... using a self-consistent model for the static permittivity. A simple scheme for parameterization of salts with a limited number of parameters is proposed and model parameters for a range of salts are determined from experimental data of activity and osmotic coefficients as well as freezing point...

  13. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  14. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  15. Surface passivation: a new way to reduce self-output in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li lithium ion rechargeable batteries; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigala, C.; Blyr, A.; Tarascon, J.M. [Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides; Amatucci, G. [Bellcore, (United States); Alphonse, P. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques

    1996-12-31

    The new generation of performing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (``rocking-chair``-type) are penalized by important self-output phenomena linked with the use of highly oxidizing positive electrodes. In order to limit this problem in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C batteries, two different passivation techniques were used in order to limit the surface contact between the positive electrode and the electrolyte. Thanks to these treatments, a significant reduction of the percentage of irreversible capacity losses is effectively observed. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  16. Surface passivation: a new way to reduce self-output in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li lithium ion rechargeable batteries; Passivation de surface: une nouvelle voie pour reduire l`autodecharge dans les batteries rechargeables a ions lithium LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigala, C; Blyr, A; Tarascon, J M [Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Laboratoire de Reactivite et de Chimie des Solides; Amatucci, G [Bellcore, (United States); Alphonse, P [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques

    1997-12-31

    The new generation of performing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (``rocking-chair``-type) are penalized by important self-output phenomena linked with the use of highly oxidizing positive electrodes. In order to limit this problem in LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/C batteries, two different passivation techniques were used in order to limit the surface contact between the positive electrode and the electrolyte. Thanks to these treatments, a significant reduction of the percentage of irreversible capacity losses is effectively observed. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  17. Ionogel Electrolytes through Sol-Gel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Ariel I.

    Electrical energy needs have intensified due to the ubiquity of personal electronics, the decarbonization of energy services through electrification, and the use of intermittent renewable energy sources. Despite developments in mechanical and thermal methods, electrochemical technologies are the most convenient and effective means of storing electrical energy. These technologies include both electrochemical cells, commonly called batteries, and electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or "supercapacitors", which store energy electrostatically. Both device types require an ion-conducting electrolyte. Current devices use solutions of complex salts in organic solvents, leading to both toxicity and flammability concerns. These drawbacks can be avoided by replacing conventional electrolytes with room-temperature molten salts, known as ionic liquids (ILs). ILs are non-volatile, non-flammable, and offer high conductivity and good electrochemical stability. Device mass can be reduced by combining ILs with a solid scaffold material to form an "ionogel," further improving performance metrics. In this work, sol-gel chemistry is explored as a means of forming ionogel electrolytes. Sol-gel chemistry is a solution-based, industrially-relevant, well-studied technique by which solids such as silica can be formed in situ. Previous works used a simple acid-catalyzed sol-gel reaction to create brittle, glassy ionogels. Here, both the range of products that can be accomplished through sol-gel processing and the understanding of interactions between ILs and the sol-gel reaction network are greatly expanded. This work introduces novel ionogel materials, including soft and compliant silica-supported ionogels and PDMS-supported ionogels. The impacts of the reactive formulation, IL identity, and casting time are detailed. It is demonstrated that variations in formulation can lead to rapid gelation and open pore structures in the silica scaffold or slow gelation and more dense silica

  18. The effects of artificial recharge on groundwater levels and water quality in the west hydrogeologic unit of the Warren subbasin, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Everett, Rhett; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Between the late 1940s and 1994, groundwater levels in the Warren subbasin, California, declined by as much as 300 feet because pumping exceeded sparse natural recharge. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, implemented an artificial-recharge program in early 1995 using imported water from the California State Water Project. Subsequently, the water table rose by as much as 250 feet; however, a study done by the U.S. Geological Survey found that the rising water table entrained high-nitrate septic effluent, which caused nitrate (as nitrogen) concentrations in some wells to increase to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter.. A new artificial-recharge site (site 3) was constructed in 2006 and this study, which started in 2004, was done to address concerns about the possible migration of nitrates in the unsaturated zone. The objectives of this study were to: (1) characterize the hydraulic, chemical, and microbiological properties of the unsaturated zone; (2) monitor changes in water levels and water quality in response to the artificial-recharge program at site 3; (3) determine if nitrates from septic effluent infiltrated through the unsaturated zone to the water table; (4) determine the potential for nitrates within the unsaturated zone to mobilize and contaminate the groundwater as the water table rises in response to artificial recharge; and (5) determine the presence and amount of dissolved organic carbon because of its potential to react with disinfection byproducts during the treatment of water for public use. Two monitoring sites were installed and instrumented with heat-dissipation probes, advanced tensiometers, suction-cup lysimeters, and wells so that the arrival and effects of recharging water from the State Water Project through the 250 to 425 foot-thick unsaturated zone and groundwater system could be closely observed. Monitoring site YVUZ-1 was located between two

  19. Concept and Feasibility Study of Self-Organized Electrochemical Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moorehead, William

    2002-01-01

    .... In this work, using attractive and repulsive London-van der Waals forces, a self-organized, interpenetrating, separator-free rechargeable lithium ion battery called a self-organized battery system (SBS) is proposed...

  20. Solid electrolytes general principles, characterization, materials, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenmuller, Paul

    1978-01-01

    Solid Electrolytes: General Principles, Characterization, Materials, Applications presents specific theories and experimental methods in the field of superionic conductors. It discusses that high ionic conductivity in solids requires specific structural and energetic conditions. It addresses the problems involved in the study and use of solid electrolytes. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to the theory of solid electrolytes; macroscopic evidence for liquid nature; structural models; kinetic models; crystal structures and fast ionic conduction; interstitial motion in